Inedia, by Wikipedia

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Inedia, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Fri Jul 03, 2015 12:02 am

INEDIA
by Wikipedia
January 18, 2015

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Inedia (Latin for "fasting") or breatharianism is the belief that it is possible for a person to live without consuming food. Breatharians claim that food, and in some cases water, are not necessary for survival, and that humans can be sustained solely by prana, the vital life force in Hinduism. According to Ayurveda, sunlight is one of the main sources of prana, and some practitioners believe that it is possible for a person to survive on sunlight alone. The terms breatharianism or inedia may also refer to this philosophy practiced as a lifestyle in place of the usual diet.

Breatharianism is considered a lethal pseudoscience by scientists and medical professionals, and several adherents of these practices have died from starvation and dehydration.[1][2][3]

Scientific assessment

Nutritional science proves that fasting for extended periods leads to starvation, dehydration, and eventual death. In the absence of calorie intake, the body normally burns its own reserves of glycogen, body fat, and muscle. Breatharians claim that their bodies do not consume these reserves while fasting.[4]

Some breatharians have submitted themselves to medical testing, including a hospital's observation of Indian mystic Prahlad Jani appearing to survive without food or water for 15 days,[5][6] and an Israeli breatharian appearing to survive for eight on a television documentary.[7][8][9] In a handful of documented cases, individuals attempting breatharian fasting have died.[1][2][3] Among the claims in support of Inedia investigated by the Indian Rationalist Association, all were found to be fraudulent.[10] In other cases, people have attempted to survive on sunlight alone, only to abandon the effort after losing a large percentage of their body weight.[11]

Practitioners

Rosicrucianism

The 1670 Rosicrucian text Comte de Gabalis attributed the practice to the physician and occultist Paracelsus (1493 – 1541) who was described as having lived "several years by taking only one half scrupule of Solar Quintessence". In this book, it is also stated that, "Paracelsus affirms that He has seen many of the Sages fast twenty years without eating anything whatsoever."[12]

Ram Bahadur Bomjon

Ram Bahadur Bomjon is a young Nepalese Buddhist monk who lives as an ascetic in a remote area of Nepal. Ram Bahadur Bomzan appears to go for periods of time without ingesting either food or water.[13][14] One such period was chronicled in a 2006 Discovery Channel documentary The Boy With Divine Powers, which reported that Bomjon neither moved, ate nor drank anything during 96 hours of filming.[15]

Jasmuheen

Jasmuheen (born Ellen Greve) was a prominent advocate of breatharianism in the 1990s. She claimed, "I can go for months and months without having anything at all other than a cup of tea. My body runs on a different kind of nourishment."[16] Interviewers found her house stocked with food; Jasmuheen claimed the food was for her husband and daughter. In 1999, she volunteered to be monitored closely by the Australian television program 60 Minutes for one week without eating to demonstrate her methods.[17][18] Jasmuheen stated that she found it difficult on the third day of the test because the hotel room in which she was confined was located near a busy road, causing stress and pollution that prevented absorption of required nutrients from the air. "I asked for fresh air. Seventy percent of my nutrients come from fresh air. I couldn’t even breathe," she said. The third day the test was moved to a mountainside retreat where she regained strength. After Jasmuheen had fasted for four days, Dr. Berris Wink, president of the Queensland branch of the Australian Medical Association, urged her to stop the test.

According to Dr. Wink, Jasmuheen’s pupils were dilated, her speech was slow, and she was "quite dehydrated, probably over 10%, getting up to 11%". Towards the end of the test, she said, "Her pulse is about double what it was when she started. The risks if she goes any further are kidney failure. 60 Minutes would be culpable if they encouraged her to continue. She should stop now". The test was stopped. Dr. Wink said, "Unfortunately there are a few people who may believe what she says, and I'm sure it's only a few, but I think it's quite irresponsible for somebody to be trying to encourage others to do something that is so detrimental to their health".[19] Jasmuheen challenged the results of the program, saying, "Look, 6,000 people have done this around the world without any problem."[20] Though she claims thousands of people are tuned to this,[21][22] mostly in Germany,[23] there has been no verification that any have lived for extended periods without food although the documentary In The Beginning There Was Light talks to many who claim to do this.

Jasmuheen was awarded the Bent Spoon Award by Australian Skeptics in 2000 ("presented to the perpetrator of the most preposterous piece of paranormal or pseudoscientific piffle").[24] She also won the 2000 Ig Nobel Prize for Literature for Living on Light. Jasmuheen claims that their beliefs are based on the writings and "more recent channelled material" from St. Germain.[25] She stated that some people's DNA has expanded from 2 to 12 strands, to "absorb more hydrogen". When offered $30,000 to prove her claim with a blood test, she said that she didn't understand the relevance as she was not referring to herself.[26]

In the documentary No Way to Heaven the Swiss chemist Michael Werner claims to have followed the directions appearing on Jasmuheen's books, living for several years without food. The documentary also describes two attempts at scientific verification of his claims. As of 2012, four deaths had been directly linked to breatharianism as a result of Jasmuheen's publications.[27][28] Jasmuheen has denied any responsibility for the deaths.

Wiley Brooks

Wiley Brooks is the founder of the Breatharian Institute of America. He was first introduced to the public in 1980 when appearing on the TV show That's Incredible!.[29] Brooks stopped teaching recently to "devote 100% of his time on solving the problem as to why he needed to eat some type of food to keep his physical body alive and allow his light body to manifest completely."[30] Brooks claims to have found "four major deterrents" which prevented him from living without food: "people pollution", "food pollution", "air pollution" and "electro pollution".[30]

In 1983 he was reportedly observed leaving a Santa Cruz 7-Eleven with a Slurpee, hot dog and Twinkies.[31] He told Colors magazine in 2003 that he periodically breaks his fasting with a cheeseburger and a cola, explaining that when he's surrounded by junk culture and junk food, consuming them adds balance.[32]

On his website, Brooks states that his potential followers must first prepare by combining the junk food diet with the meditative incantation of five magic "fifth-dimensional" words which appear on his website, some of which are words from Kundalini yoga.[33][34] In the "5D Q&A" section of his website Brooks claims that cows are fifth-dimensional (or higher) beings that help mankind achieve fifth-dimensional status by converting three-dimensional food to five-dimensional food (beef).[35] In the "Question and Answer" section of his website, Brooks explains that the "Double Quarter-Pounder with Cheese" meal from McDonald's possesses a special "base frequency" and that he thus recommends it as occasional food for beginning breatharians.[36] He then goes on to reveal that Diet Coke is "liquid light".[36] Prospective disciples are asked after some time following the junk food/magic word preparation to revisit his website in order to test if they can feel the magic.[34]

Brooks states that he may be contacted on his fifth-dimensional phone in order to get the correct pronunciation of the five magic words.[34] In case the line is busy, prospective recruits are asked to meditate on the five magic words for a few minutes, and then try calling again.[34]

Brooks's institute has charged varying fees to prospective clients who wished to learn how to live without food, which have ranged from US$100,000 with an initial deposit of $10,000[37] to one billion dollars, to be paid via bank wire transfer with a preliminary deposit of $100,000, for a session called "Immortality workshop".[38] A payment plan was also offered.[39] These charges have typically been presented as limited time offers exclusively for billionaires.[40][41]

Prahlad Jani ("Mataji")

Prahlad Jani is an Indian sadhu who has claimed to have lived without food and water for more than 70 years. His claims were investigated by doctors at Sterling Hospital, Ahmedabad, Gujarat in 2003 and 2010.[42] The research team reported that he did not consume any food or water during the testing periods, although they could not comment on his claim of having been able to survive in this way for decades.[43] The study concluded that Prahlad Jani was able to survive under observation for two weeks without either food or water, and had passed no urine or stool,[44] with no need for dialysis.[45] Interviews with the researchers speak of strict observation and relate that round-the-clock observation was ensured by multiple CCTV cameras. Jani was reportedly subjected to multiple medical tests.[43] Jani's only contact with any form of fluid was during gargling and bathing, and the doctors said they measured the fluid that Jani spat out.[10]

The case has attracted criticism, both after the 2003 tests and the recent 2010 tests. Sanal Edamaruku, president of the Indian Rationalist Association, criticized the 2010 experiment for allowing Jani to move out of a certain CCTV camera's field of view, meet devotees and leave the sealed test room to sunbathe. Edamaruku stated that the regular gargling and bathing activities were not sufficiently monitored,[46] and accused Jani of having had some "influential protectors" who denied Edamaruku permission to inspect the project during its operation.[46]

Ray Maor

In a television documentary produced by the Israeli television investigative show The Real Face (פנים אמיתיות) hosted by Amnon Levy, Israeli practitioner of Inedia, Ray Maor (ריי מאור), appeared to survive without food or water for eight days and eight nights. According to the documentary, he was restricted to a small villa and placed under constant video surveillance, with medical supervision that included daily blood testing. The documentary claimed Maor was in good spirits throughout the experiment, lost 17 lb after eight days, blood tests showed no change before, during or after the experiment, and Cardiologist Ilan Kitsis from Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center was "baffled."[7][8][9]

Religious traditions

Hinduism


Hindu religious texts contain account of saints and hermits practicing what would be called inedia, breatharianism or Sustenance through Light in modern terms. In Valmiki's Ramayana, Book III, Canto VI, an account of anchorites and holy men is given, who flocked around Rama when he came to Śarabhanga's hermitage. These included, among others, the "...saints who live on rays which moon and daystar give" and "those ... whose food the wave of air supplies". In Canto XI of the same book a hermit named Māṇḍakarṇi is mentioned: "For he, great votarist, intent – On strictest rule his stern life spent – ... – Ten thousand years on air he fed..." (English quotations are from Ralph T. H. Griffith's translation).

Paramahansa Yogananda's Autobiography of a Yogi details two alleged historical examples of breatharianism, Giri Bala and Therese Neumann.

There are claims that Devraha Baba lived without food.

References

1. "UK: Scotland Woman 'starved herself to death'". BBC. 21 September 1999. Retrieved 10 March 2008.
2. Tom Walker, Judith O'Reilly (26 September 1999). "Three deaths linked to 'living on air' cult". Sunday Times (London).
3. "Swiss woman dies after attempting to live on sunlight; Woman gave up food and water on spiritual journey". Associated Press. 25 April 2012. Archived from the original on 2013-01-30.
4. Lambert, Katie. "Can humans survive on air alone?". HowStuffWorks, Inc. Archived from the original on 2012-07-13. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
5. "Rationalists doubt claims made for 'Mataji' Prahalad Jani". DNA India (Diligent Media Corporation Ltd.). 2010-05-16. Archived from the original on 2013-01-21. Retrieved 2012-09-19.
6. "Hermit Claims 70 Years Survival Without Food". WUSA 9. 2010-04-29. Archived from the original on 2012-12-16.
7. ^"הפנים האמיתיות של משחקי הרעב – חלק א' [The true face of The Hunger Games – Part I" (Flash required). Real Faces – Full Episodes (in Hebrew) (Nana10 Ltd.). 2013-10-11.
8. "הפנים האמיתיות של משחקי הרעב – חלק א' [The true face of The Hunger Games – Part II" (Flash required). Real Faces – Full Episodes (in Hebrew) (Nana10 Ltd.). 2013-10-11.
9. ^"האדם שלא אכל ולא שתה במשך 8 ימים [Man did not eat or drink for 8 days]". IDF Radio (in Hebrew) (Israel Defense Forces). 2013-10-20.
10. Rawstorne, Tom (2010-05-08). "The man who says he hasn't eaten or drunk for 70 years: Why are eminent doctors taking him seriously?". Daily Mail. Archived from the original on 2012-07-28. Retrieved 2010-10-14.
11. Lacitis, Erik (2013-06-17). "Fasting woman to end attempt to 'live on light'". Seattle Times.
12. abbé de Nicolas-Pierre-Henri, Villars. Comte de Gabalis (1914 ed.). The Brothers. pp. 63–64.
13. "Nepalese Buddha Boy 'reappears'". BBC News. 20 March 2006.
14. "paldendorje.com". Archived from the original on 2012-07-12.
15. "The Boy With Divine Powers".
16. Keith, L. (2009). The Vegetarian Myth: Food, Justice, and Sustainability,. PM Press. ISBN 9781604861822.
17. "Living on air: Breatharian put to the test". Archived from the original on 2 November 2005.
18. "Jasmuheen". Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 7 June 2008.
19. "Fresh-air dietician fails TV show's challenge". Yahoo News. 25 October 1999.
20. Bergman, Gregory (2006). Isms: From Autoeroticism to Zoroastrianism – an Irreverent Reference. Adams Media. p. 32. ISBN 1-4405-1788-6.
21. Harris, Gillian (6 April 2000). "Starvation guru given hostile reception". The Times.
22. "Mysticism". Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 7 June 2008.
23. Steiner, Susie (21 September 1999). "Face behind food-free teaching". The Times.
24. "Bent Spoon 2000 – Winner (Jasmuheen)". Archived from the original on 2005-06-16. Retrieved 7 June 2008.
25. "All they need is the air". BBC News. 22 September 1999. Archived from the original on 2012-07-11. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
26. "Correx Archives – Jasmuheen". Corex. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 1997. Archived from the original on 2012-05-24. Retrieved 7 June 2008.
27. Walker, Tom; Judith O'Reilly (26 September 1999). "Three deaths linked to 'living on air' cult". The Sunday Times ((London)).
28. "Swiss woman starves to death on daylight diet". Herald Sun. 26 April 2012. Retrieved 26 April 2012. "This was the fourth known death linked to breatharianism and Jasmuheen's books since the practice emerged in the early 90s."
29. Broom, Jack (5 October 1993). "Living On Light, Air – 'Breatharian' Says Food Is Poison But Pops An Occasional Twinkie". Seattle Times. Archived from the original on 2013-01-04. Retrieved 12 February 2009.
30. "Wiley Brooks website through Internet Archive". Web.archive.org. 11 February 2006. Archived from the original on 11 February 2006. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
31. John Yewell (ed.). "A Year of Nüz". MetroActive News & Issues. Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 7 June 2008.
32. "sonoma papers". Metroactive.com. Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
33. Five magic words download (MS Word document)
34. "Wiley Brooks website: Five magic words". Breatharian.com. Archived from the original on 2013-05-06. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
35. Q and A five magic words
"Holy cows section". Archived from the original on 2012-09-12.
36. "5 magic words Q&A". Breatharian.com. Archived from the original on 2013-05-06. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
37. "Wiley Brooks website: Initiation workshops". Breatharian.com. Archived from the original on 2013-05-06. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
38. "Immortality workshop". Archived from the original on 2013-05-06. Retrieved 21 November 2010
39. "Initiation workshops from the Internet Archive". Web.archive.org. 13 February 2008. Archived from the original on 13 February 2008. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
40. "Fees via Internet archive". Web.archive.org. Archived from the original on 18 February 2006. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
41. "Initiation workshops through Internet Archive". Archived from the original on 2013-02-25.. Retrieved January 2008.
42. Manas Dasgupta (9 May 2010). "The Hindu – DIPAS concludes observational study on ‘Mataji'". Archived from the original on 2013-02-03. Retrieved 15 June 2010.
43. "Experts baffled as Mataji's medical reports are normal". Archived from the original on 2012-07-24.
44. Rajeev Khanna (25 November 2003). "Fasting fakir flummoxes physicians". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. Retrieved 7 June 2008.
45. "Scientists Baffled by Prahlad Jani, Man Who Doesn't Eat or Drink". Archived from the original on 2012-07-13.
46. Edamaruku, Sanal (18 May 2010). "Prahlad Jani and his powerful protectors". Rationalistinternational.net. Archived from the original on 2012-05-24. Retrieved 14 June 2010.
47. 無名比丘尼隨訪錄(救世師父)
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Re: Inedia, by Wikipedia

Postby admin » Fri Jul 03, 2015 12:04 am

Therese Neumann
by Wikipedia

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Therese Neumann

Therese Neumann (8 or 9 April 1898 – 18 September 1962) was a German Catholic mystic and stigmatic.

She was born in the village of Konnersreuth in Bavaria, Germany, where she lived all her life. She was born into a large family with little income. She was a member of the Third Order of St. Francis.

Ailments

On 10 March 1918, Therese Neumann was partially paralyzed after falling off a stool while attending to a fire in her uncle's barn.[1] She sustained more falls and injuries during this period. After one particular fall she claimed to have lost much of her eyesight. In 1919, she was blinded completely. Bedridden, she reportedly developed horrible bed sores that sometimes exposed bone.[2]

Therese reported that her eyesight was restored on 29 April 1923—the day Therese of Lisieux was beatified in Rome. Therese Neumann had been praying novenas in advance of this day.[3] On 17 May 1925 Therese of Lisieux was fully canonized as a saint in the Catholic Church. Therese Neumann said the saint called to her and then cured her of her paralysis and bed sores.[4]

On 7 November 1925 Neumann took to her bed again, and on 13 November was diagnosed with appendicitis. While prepared for surgery, she convulsed violently and stared at the ceiling finally saying, "Yes." She asked her family to take her to the church to pray immediately. She then announced that she had been cured of all traces of appendicitis.[5]

Stigmata

Therese would later apparently develop the stigmata. She said that on 5 March 1926, the first Friday of Lent, a wound had appeared slightly above her heart, but that she had kept this secret. However, she did report a vision of Jesus at Mount Olivet with three Apostles.[6]

On 12 March, she said she had another vision of Christ at Mt. Olivet, along with the crowning of thorns. She also claimed that the wound above her heart reappeared on this day, and she spoke to her sister about it. She claimed the wound also reappeared on Friday of the following week. By 26 March, she was claiming the same wound accompanied by a vision of Christ bearing the cross and a similar wound on her left hand. Blood was observed on her clothing, and she no longer attempted to keep the information to herself.

On Good Friday, Neumann according to her own testimony witnessed the entire Passion of Christ in her visions. She displayed wounds on her hands and feet accompanied by blood apparently coming from her eyes. Blood poured from the wounds, however -- according to Neumann-critic Josef Hanauer's book The Swindle of Konnersreuth -- onlookers did not actually see the bleeding in action, only the blood itself.[7] However, according to author Albert Paul Schimberg, many persons observed her wounds bleeding and these witnesses were by no means limited to her immediate family and Fr. Josef Naber.[8] By 3 p.m. that day, her parish priest Fr. Josef Naber was summoned to give Neumann the Last Rites. By 4 o'clock, her condition improved. The wounds on her feet and hands were observed when she was bathed.

On Easter Sunday, she claimed a vision of the resurrection of Christ. For several consecutive Fridays after that, she stated she was experiencing the Passion of Christ, apparently suffering in her own body along with all his historic agonies. She especially suffered the Passion on Good Friday each year.

By 5 November 1926, she displayed nine wounds on her head as well as wounds on her back and shoulders. According to several sources these wounds never healed or became infected and were found on her body at death.

Inedia

From the years of 1923 until her death in 1962, Therese Neumann apparently consumed no food other than The Holy Eucharist, and claimed to have drunk no water from 1926 until her death.[9]

In July 1927 a medical doctor and four Franciscan nurses kept a watch on her 24 hours a day for a two-week period. They confirmed that she had consumed nothing except for one consecrated sacred Host a day, and had suffered no ill effects, loss of weight, or dehydration. Montague Summers in the "Physical Phenomenon of Mysticism"[10] speaks of her supernatural ability to survive for long periods without food or water. He supported this claim by citing an article about Therese Neumann in the 5 January 1940 "The Universe", which said the peasant woman refused German ration cards saying she had no need of food and drink.

During some of her Friday trances, she would utter phrases identified by witnesses (including priests) as ancient Aramaic. She was also said to have been able to understand Hebrew, Greek, and Latin.[11]

Miscellaneous

During the Third Reich, Therese Neumann was the target of ridicule and defamation, as the Nazis knew about her dissenting views and feared her growing popularity. She was observed by the Gestapo.[12] She was never physically harmed, though her family home, parish church and priest's house all received direct attacks. She encouraged Fritz Gerlich to continue his opposition to Hitler and his national-socialist party. Gerlich was subsequently killed for his opposition.

Paramahansa Yogananda visited her and wrote about her case in his book Autobiography of a Yogi, published in 1946. He wrote an entire chapter, Therese Neumann, The Catholic Stigmatist of Bavaria, which reverently gives a vivid first-hand description of one of her Friday Passion trances.

Reinhard Lorenz from Meißen (R.L.M.), a medium from the New Salems Society, received a message about Neumann in 1929, allegedly coming from God the Father. It was published in "Das Wort", the periodical of the movement. It is said that the startling phenomenon of Konnersreuth is approved by God to be an impact that can't be argued away. Science will not be able to make out how the wonder happened and persist. Everyone should look into his heart for understanding and this will create various useful thoughts to understand the signs of the times. Because they consider it ungodly and amiss, some want to dictate to God what to do, but God does what he wants and will achieve his goal at last. Blessed is he, who not gets annoyed at God.[13]

On 18 September 1962, Therese Neumann died from cardiac arrest, after having suffered from Angina pectoris for some time.

The Roman Catholic Church has neither confirmed nor denied the inedia (from which she suffered according to her critics), nor her stigmata.

The "Resl", as she is colloquially known, nonetheless attained a place in popular piety — a petition asking for her beatification was signed by 40,000 people. In 2005, Gerhard Ludwig Müller, Bishop of Regensburg, formally opened the Vatican proceedings for her beatification.

Her task in life

According to Paramahansa Yogananda, Therese Neumann said during his visit: "One of the reasons I am here on earth today is to prove that man can live by God's invisible light, and not by food only." His judgement was: "I realized at once that her strange life is intended by God to reassure all Christians of the historical authenticity of Jesus' life and crucifixion as recorded in the New Testament, and to dramatically display the ever-living bond between the Galilean Master and his devotees." When Paramahansa Yogananda questions the notion that Therese Neumann had lived eating only a daily eucharistic wafer for the past 12 years, she states that she lives by God's light. The renowned yogi then suggests, "I see you realize that energy flows to your body from the ether, sun, and air." Therese then smiles and expresses her happiness that he understands the way she lives.[14]

Notes

1. Life and Death of Therese Neumann, Mystic and Stigmatist, by Albert Vogl, ISBN 0-533-03379-9 (Vogl), p. 2
2. Vogl, 3
3. Vogl, p. 4
4. Vogl, p. 4,5
5. Vogl, pp. 5, 6
6. Vogl, p. 7
7. Hanauer, Josef, The Swindle of Konnersreuth, A Never-Ending Scandal. Online text, webpage found 2007-10-23.
8. Gish, Lillian. The Movies, Mr. Griffith, and Me, p.302, Gish recounts her visit with Neumann
9. Vogl, p. 17
10. [1]
11. Vogl, pp. 48,49
12. Vogel, ibid., pp. 77.
13. New Salems Society, Das Wort, 1929, page 172
14. see Chapter 39 of Autobiography of a Yogi by Paramahansa Yogananda
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