Ordo Templi Orientis Spermo-Gnosis: Carl Kellner, Theodor Re

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Re: Ordo Templi Orientis Spermo-Gnosis: Carl Kellner, Theodo

Postby admin » Thu Jan 11, 2018 9:15 pm

Theodor Reuss: The Programme of Construction and the Guiding Principles of the Gnostic Neo-Christians O.T.O., published in 1920
Transcript of the German Original in: P.R. Koenig: "Der Kleine Theodor Reuss Reader". See also Anthony Naylor/P.R. Koenig: O.T.O. Rituals and Sexmagick. Partly identical with the "Parsifal"-text

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Guiding Principles of a new Civilization and Religion.

Mankind, tortured by the World War, needs a new faith, a new Christianity, and a new civilization built upon it.

That the much praised European civilization and the Christian Church were unable to prevent the cruelties of this World War or the greed and hatred of the peace that was meant to end this world war, this alone is sufficient proof, that Christianity as it reigns to-day, and modern civilization it created, are no longer capable of living, and must be replaced by a new Christianity and a new civilization.

But mankind also demands a new faith. Because the old belief in God, which flowed from the Christian teachings as brewed by the Church Fathers, has for the great majority of the members of the Christian Church, long become a fairy-tale, because it was unable to withstand the biting criticism of modern science. And the belief in mankind (belief in brotherliness) was exceptionally thoroughly destroyed by the peace of Versailles, much more than by the events of was themselves. For the makers of the peace of Versailles had decoyed the peoples of America and Europe into the field by the slogan: "For Freedom and Humanity; For Justice and Equality" to fight a crusade against the Imperialism of German barbarity. And in the end the gentlemen Clemenceau and Lloyd George exploited the naivete of the German Michel, who, confiding in the glamour-casting and treacherous promises of the leaders of the Entente that not the German people, but only the imperialism of the Hohenzollern was to be exterminated, finally abandon fighting and resistance, in order to erect the Anglo-French world-imperialism on the deceived and enslaved German People.

For their own undoing however, Clemenceau and Lloyd George also destroyed all faith in humanity and brotherliness in their allies, through the Versailles machinations, so that millions of people, victors and vanquished alike, have lost all faith in God and man.

The Community of the Gnostic Templars or Neo-Christians, abbreviated as O.T.O., which already before the war had numerous adherents in America, Holland, Bohemia, France, Russia, Italy, etc., now steps out from the reserve it cultivated until now, in order to bring to tortured mankind the new Glad Tidings of the Gnostic Christians, and the new civilization springing therefore.

The message of the O.T.O. is: Freedom, Justice, Love.

The Freedom of the O.T.O. is freedom from Original Sin, and the freedom to execute the Will of the God-head. It does say in Liber Legis: "Do what thou wilt". But it is also said: But remember that you will have to render account for all tht deeds! That is the law of Karma.

So that not willfulness and unbridled behaviour, but strict discipline is "true freedom".

Highest self-culture, iron self-discipline, that is O.T.O. freedom. All freedom not controlled by strict self-discipline is licentiousness, willfulness, lawlessness, leading to Chaos.

"Do what thou wilt" is also in no wise identical with "Do what you like", but "Do what is thy Will, but examine, whether what thou wilt be God's will also". Only when your will is in agreement with the "Will of God", can you put it into practice. But then with intense concentration.

Justice is the second principle and refers to the purpose of man's life on earth, and the destiny of mortal man. The purpose of man's existence of earth is: faithful devotion to duty. Everybody must, whether well born or lowly, educated or uneducated, whether day labourer, peasant, artisan, professor, judge, merchant, artist or king etc., - simply everybody must do his duty to his utmost ability wherever fate has put him. That is his purpose, the fulfillment of God's law, of Justice. All is Law in the Universe. Life on earth is also subject unto it. Whoever lets this thought ripen in himself to its utmost possibility, will find the solution of many questions that worry him. The phrase is hard, but truth is always hard and encloses the duty to work of every individual.

Beautiful, of enthusiastic beauty, is only Love, and "Love is the highest law, love under control of the Will!" - Love is the reward of overcoming self, the basis of all brotherhood, the source of strength for devotion to duty; She makes us accept hard truth, leads us to conscious union with God, and enables us to approach God during this life on earth, and really to experience "at-one-ment with God."

The Master Therion says: The act of love consummated with overflowing energy, under control of the Will, is the "Act of God", a "sacramental act", is "In-God-with-God-at-onement". A man to whom it was granted to unite with God, under control of Will, in the godly, sacramental love-act, is a channel for the deity. Yet, says Liber Legis: "Although much is said in the law of highest Love, of enthusiastic, yielding, selfless, flaming, fiery, overflowing, love, there is no word about sentimental love". This also one has to ripen within oneself. Because the results are seen in a 1000 channels of earthly, daily life; they contribute to beautify it; they build a bridge to "Art". Love alone makes life bearable, Life, - otherwise so cold and often cruel.

The above mentioned principles and inferences to be drawn therefrom have been concentrated by the O.T.O. into the following fundamental canon of belief: "God and the world (Visible as well as Invisible) are an all-embracing, limitless realm, the Universe, consisting of the conscious primal energy (or creative potency), the positive force, and the unconscious primal substance (world egg or matrix), the negative force, which create through union (primal creation) new worlds with them, and attract or create creatures of similar principles. The likeness to God of created beings is shown by the fact that the primal creative potency inhabits them as well. The potency is the innate proof to the creature, of descent from God the original creator.

In this sense are to be understood the words of the Bible: and God created man in His image, in God's image he created him.

In order to find the truly complete solution of the world-riddle, one has to disregard the fundamentally erroneous but common distinction between Spirit, Soul, and Matter. The Soul is only to be regarded as a "spiritual" thing (spiritual agent) which has existed from the beginning of time as primal sensation in the primal act of creation. This primal sensation in man is the yearning of the split-off part to re-unite with the mother principle (therefore religere and religion). Because man cannot comprehend God through his intellect, but only feel him through his soul ("In the heart", one says, although the bearer of sensation is the sympathetic nervous system), which after physical death returns to God. Without the primal sensation there would be no creation or creatures.

For the practical execution of the above stated principles, the Order seeks to establish communities founded on co-operative principles of people free from sin (freed from the Christian-ecclesiastical original sin). For the creation of such communities only such people are suitable, who are convinced of the existence of a soul which enables us to approach resemblance to God; who have understood that selfish action is the source of all human ills, and that we prepare our lot after death during our life on earth, according to the law of Karma; who are filled with the truth of this saying of Man: Only he who has understood the holy doctrine concerning the holiness of the God organs, is truly free and liberated from all sin." Liberation from original sin is the "true freedom". We still wish to constitute a community of (sexually) free people, who are without (sexual) sin. We wish to create men who will not have to be ashamed of their creative organs.

Because of the Christian civilization still reigning to-day, this attempt will meet great difficulties, but a beginning has already been made, and been successful with a small circle. On a large scale such an attempt will finally succeed only when the new generation will be brought up from earliest youth according to the principles of the new moral code.

Youth must look upon the sexual organs as something holy right from early childhood. Their functions must be explained to boys and girls as "holy actions", as soon as the mother notices that the sexual forces are beginning to appear. These doctrines must be given out by parents in the most natural manner from earliest childhood. And in school, men and women doctors, instead of the present teachers of religion, will exercise priestly office and teach doctrines with scientific basis as "teachings for this life". On the foundation laid by these physiologists (priestly doctors) the "teachings for the Other life" will be then given by doctors of the soul (spiritual priests).

At the moment it is the other way around. From the earliest childhood children are crammed with otherworldly teachings and religious fables, which collapse completely which the child grows up, because the adult finds that they do not represent facts. This belated discovery produces a struggle in developed people, which brings an immense amount of unhappiness and misfortune for all that were misled in this fashion. People less advanced become liars and hypocrites, which encourages moral catastrophes and has consequences such as we now have to witness at the end of the war. Therefore new morals have become essential. In future the doctor-priest, under the parents' supervision, will teach children from earliest youth that the sex organs are holy, and that they have to be particularly guarded and protected, because in actions which later on be done through these organs, invisible God will make himself manifest to Man. Because this act, accomplished with these organs, is a repetition on earth of God's original act of creation, in which God reveals himself to us, works through us, and through whose execution we always renew our union with God, and constantly create new beings, according to His will and command, "in his image".

A youth brought up according to such principles will not only be steeled and proof against the misuse of the sex organs, but they will also begin very early to comprehend God, and to believe in this God, because they recognize a link between God and Man in the creative act, which they feel binds them to the godhead. Belief reared on this base will be so firm, so marvellous, that it will be able to move mountains.

Plan of a neo-Christian Community.

The basic principles of the construction-programme of the Gnostic Templars and neo-Christians (O.T.O.) have been condensed in the following essay as a practical political programme. Persons of the same language and same race form a closed peoples community (The State.) All toil, all means of production, all natural resources (such as coal, iron etc.) all large-scale exploitation of natural products (such as large-scale farming, vine- growing etc) all public transport (railways, shipping), all public welfare institutions, trade, communication (such as postal services, telegraph, hospitals, orphanages, schools, museums, art institutes), all available capital in paper or bare money, which exceeds a value of, say, 10,000 mark, is common property of every member of the people.

In England one called it "nationalization of property." Private property is abolished on principle, but each responsible member of the community can claim as his or her personal property everything he or she acquired through his or her own labour for personal use. (This comprises clothes, books, household utensils, but excludes objects of luxury, things made of gold, jewels, etc.) Also he may own during his present life a small piece of arable land allotted to him or her for building or planting.

Within the community bare money is not allowed. No member of the community is allowed to own money or securities worth more than 10,000 Mark, and these also return to the community after his death. Nobody is allowed to possess any securities yielding dividends. These, as far as they exist within the community, are common property for the benefit of the state, as for example, for trade with other (strange) people's communities.

Every member of the community - man or woman - over 18 is obliged to labour daily according to his capacities for the wealth of the people's community. A jury of fellow-workers, with two members chosen by the accused, will decide in doubtful cases what "according to his capacities" may mean in cases where a person protests against work allotted to him. People refusing to work will be punished by long, public, forced labour.

Work to be done for the community not to exceed 36 hours per week. Wages due for such work to be credited by the community executive to each worker with the common community account.

In return for the fulfilment of the duty to work, the community guarantees to keep every single member of the community, so that they have free of cost, controlled (rationed) means of living, including free housing, heating, light, clothes rationing, instruction, care of the sick, education of children, entertainment, like theatres, music art etc., and a free funeral.

All persons over 60, as well as the sick and permanent invalids are freed from the duty to work, but recieve the same free advantages as the fit. The right to inherit is abolished in principle. Only moveable objects of personal use, which have less value than 10 Mark, can be willed by parents to their own children.

All large-scale trade, especially with foreign countries, all industry (except for small hand production) is done on account of the community.

All works of Art are property of the community. In order to spur on each single comrade to do the best he can, be it in the field of craft, trade, industry, art, farming, cultivation of animals, household etc., or any other type of work, peoples' prize feasts will be instituted each year, whence those people who had done best during the year, will be publicly praised, crowned with laurels, and rewarded. The value of the prize consists of real and ideal values. All who have won first prize will be named as judges for the following year. Also they will have preferment, with travels for amusement, for example (which are forbidden - outside the country - to all other members of the community, in order to encourage settled habits). Journets of research will constantly be made, paid for by the community, but only prize-winners will be chosen for them.

The people (every man and woman over 20) every year elects an executive council, who has to deal with the community's business. This council is aided by experts of all sorts of work, subordinated to it, which are elected by the people direct every 7 years. Re-election is permissible.
Order in the interior to be preserved by a body (town-watch, community-watch, field-watch) elected by the community. For protection against the exterior, each man and woman has to put his/her person at the disposal of the community. For this purpose they have to undergo a yearly training from 17 onwards, lasting 6 months when 17, 2 months when 18 and then each year a fortnight's refresher training.

All lawsuits are cost free.

Persons who molest the law by unjustified complaints, make false accusations, or swear false oaths, murder, steal etc., will be punished by publicly dishonouring forced labour. The public law will be dealt and pronounced by judges elected by the people.

All relations between a man and a woman will be regarded as a marriage.
Children bear the mother's name. Each child is brought up by the community. If applied for children up to 6 can be brought up the mother at home. Every man, woman, boy and girl over 14 will be regularly examined by the medical delegates of the supreme people's health board. Persons (male or female) who have not been found capable by the supreme medical board of producing healthy children are not allowed to wed. People who produce children despite this decree, will be punished by public forced labour.

Religion will be a private matter. but as the reigning Christian Church, built on the doctrines of the Church Fathers, have abandoned the pure doctrines of original Christianity, and have proved absolutely incapable of diminishing even to a slight extent the low animal cruelty current amongst their own, externally most zealous adherents, the State will support and encourage the cult of the re-vivified original Christianity (Community of Gnostic Neo-Christians).

ATTENTION!

The above construction programme can only be realized through the means of peaceful, social development, and never through violent revolution.

The head of the O.T.O. Community.
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Re: Ordo Templi Orientis Spermo-Gnosis: Carl Kellner, Theodo

Postby admin » Thu Jan 11, 2018 9:30 pm

Ordo Templi Orientis Outer Head of the Order?
by Karl Germer

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Karl Germer to Jane Wolfe, April 14, 1941

As for myself, I was arrested by the Belgians the day the Germans marched into Belgium, i.e., May 10th, 1940. As the latter advanced we were transferred to the French authorities on May 14th and held in French Concentration Camps ever since. I have been in the Camps of Le Vijean and just before the Germans advanced there, sent to the Camp of St. Cyprien on the Mediterranean near the Pyrenees of Spanish ill repute, and from there ultimately transferred to the worst Camp in France: Gurs, in the Pyrenees, where conditions were so primitive, so horrible that even very mild descriptions of the actual conditions in the American press shocked and bewildered people over here. And there are still 15,000 men, women and children held there in that Camp alone.

I got out finally on February 1st, 1941, after a non-quota immigration visa had been anew procured by Cora as long ago as September last, but the French only gave me permission to go to Marseille to see the Consul four months after he had asked me to call urgently for the visa. It's just their complete incapacity for doing anything, for making progress, for organization, that made it impossible to obtain the permit before, despite all kinds of urgent steps that were undertaken by Cora, others and myself with the various French authorities and the American Ambassador and Consul. We in the Camps have come to understand thoroughly the basic reasons for the rapid break-up of French resistance both militarily and administratively. Most, 95% of the prisoners in the Camps were Jews, all violently hostile to the Nazis, violently friendly to the French, many offering spontaneously to fight on their sides actively, who have now more or less become hostile to the French, due to the unsanitary conditions in the Camps, the dirt, the ridiculously poor food, causing scurvy, various diseases, the unhealthy water, and their incapacity and unwillingness to improve conditions until at long last attacks in the American Press based on reports smuggled out by devious and dangerous means forced the French to pretend to do something. Believe me, I am glad to be out of that hell. Fortunately, my health and general conditions do not seem to have suffered very much, and that is really a miracle which the French did their best to defeat.

If we had been prisoners of war, if we had been enemies of the French, if we had been young and vigorous, if we had been nothing but men, if we had shown the least sign of revolt on occasion -- one could perhaps excuse the French. But most of us were over forty (up to 70), several thousands of women (of whom perhaps 35% over 65 and up to 95 years of age), 10% children and babies. And yet all those atrocities. There is no reasonable excuse or even explanation. No wonder that the death rate was horrible and that the blind sympathy for the French and their cause in those Camps has turned to the complete opposite.

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Protective Prisoner No. 303, Outline by Karl Germer

The record of the author's seven months imprisonment in Nazi Concentration Camps, "COLUMBIA HOUSE," and "ESTERWEGEN" (the latter in the "Moor" at the Dutch frontier.)

Personality of author

51 years old; good education; University studies at Grenoble and Sorbonne. Has lived and traveled for 20 years in most European countries, North America, North Africa. 4 years' war record as adjutant and machine gun officer: Belgium, France, Russia, Serbia. Highest war decorations.

Police Prisoners

After return from England, author was arrested Feb. 2, 1935 in Leipzig while visiting relative without any reason given. Handcuffed and transferred to station. For 10 days in Berlin pol prison in same cell with lowest criminals. Gestapo (Secret State Police) Feb. 11 first hearing. 5 hours' cross questioning, yet no definite charge made.

Reason for arrest given

Feb. 18 at last: for being in touch with high grade Freemasons abroad.

Gestapo methods

Brutalities. Thence taken to: "Columbia House" the Berlin Concentration Camp. Atmosphere of terror. Atrocious treatment.

Methods

Solitary confinement. Life in cell. No reading permit for 4-1/2 months!

S.S. guards and their mentality

Once for six weeks not let out into the open air.

Work in Architect's office

For 6 weeks I had permit to work there; this gave me exceptional freedom and chance to see the run of the prison, get into personal contact with all the prisoners and S.S. guards and officers. Permitted me to get deeper insight. Contact with many prominent people who were imprisoned.

In Strict Solitary Confinement

From April 10 to July 7.

Cruelty of the Treatment

Punishment, because my wife had sent me a cable from New York with reply prepaid, and I had filled out the blank and sent it to Gestapo for censure. (I was forbidden to attempt to communicate with anybody outside Germany.)

Rigorous Arrest

8 days on water and bread on hard boards, because I had dared to complain about S.S. guard. April 30; I am accused of having secret net of agents all over Germany. To have factory for false passports. Etc. etc. Sodomites and Transvestites at Columbia House, arrested wholesale after the Rohm Putsch.

JULY 7th, INTERVENTION OF AMERICAN CONSUL

Thereafter transferred to Esterwegen Camp in the "Moor", the bogs near the Dutch frontier. One of the worst of the worst Camps in Nazi Germany.

Transportation there in prison vans

Hancuffed; three days' journey.

Reception at Esterwagen

Unbelievable terror. 1200 prisoners there. The "Scheiss-Kuhle," work there the worst in the whole Camp. I am detailed to it with a gang of 5 (amongst them Dr. Leber, the Socialist member of the Reichstag, a wealthy "race pollutor", and a "witness of Jehovah." I was included for "obstinately refusing to tell the truth," i.e. for denying that I was a Mason (which I am not!).

Epilogue

I see the American Consul in Berlin.

My Escape from Germany into Belgium

The book has 60-65,000 words and is written in English.

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New York, October 4, 1948, by Karl Germer

I have lived in London, England, from 190(0) to 1904; I was the representative for Albert Herbert Ltd., Coventry, Berlin Branch, from 1912 to 1914, representing them in Eastern Germany and West Russia; during that period I visited England again.

I came to London again in 1929 on my way from New York and travelled to London repeatedly between 1929 and 1932. When the Nazis took over in Germany I went to London and lived there from 1933 to 1934, all the time preparing my departure for the U.S.A. to rejoin my American wife, but I failed to get my U.S. immigration visa in time.

The Home Office refused to extend my temporary visa and I returned to Germany at the end of 1934. (From February 5, 1935 to August 1935 I was in a Nazi Concentration Camp.) I escaped from germany in October 1935, and entered England on a Belgian refugee passport at Harwich (if I remember correctly) at the end of November 1935. I obtained a temporary visa which was extended from 3 to 3 months; until at the end of November 1936 I was asked to leave England. I had not been able to earn any money because regulations did not allow me to do so. I was in a desperate plight. Friends who knew that I spoke English fluently persuaded me not to return to Belgium which was too close to the German frontier and people had been known to have been kidnapped by Nazi agents, and the Nazis had been searching for me because I had written a book against them. They suggested that I go to Ireland which they said was a "Free State" where I could easily begin activities in the machinery line.

I decided to do this and I think I arrived in Dublin on Dec. 1, 1936. I quickly made contact with a leading machinery firm who were eager to put my expert knowledge into their services; I was very successful there, in fact after 4 weeks they financed the purchase of a car which I paid off within a few months.

Around Easter 1936 there was a need for me to make a business trip in the interest of the machines which I handled to Belgium. I decided to use the opportunity to regularise my stay in Ireland and obtain a permanent visa. I went to the French Consul in Dublin and asked for a visa. When he saw my Belgian refugee passport (the only document I had) he said it was impossible to give me a visa; He would have to apply for this in writing to Paris, and this would take three to four weeks. My business did not permit such a delay. When he saw my predicament, he came outside his office and said: I have spoken to you in my official capacity, now let me talk to you as a person. There is a way for you to cross the channel over the Easter holidays by going to London and buy a week-end ticket; this allows you to set foot at Boulogne (or was it Calais?) without any visa.

This sounded simple, and I followed his advice. When I got to London I bought a return ticket to Paris without any formalities. (The point has been raised at the British Passport Office in New York that I had claimed to be a British subject. This is not true. I have never done this, and would not do this. The official in New York then tried to explain the details of how one buys such a ticket in London; that there are several booking offices, one for British subjects, another for aliens. I do not think that I paid any attention to any of this. I remember talking to the man at the window asking him some questions about the validity etc., etc. I cannot remember details; enough, at that time I was proud to be able to speak the language with great fluency. It seems to me that the train on which I arrived came very early in the morning and I was eager to catch the next train; there was not much time to lose.)

On the board I was asked by the French official (the English official, if there was one, never bothered me) to show some paper to identify me. It was then that I showed a calling card of a man who had just died and whose widow had asked me take over the machinery business of her husband as without such help there was no one to continue it. (Her husband whom I knew well enough, had felt his end coming and implored me to assist his family if something should happen to him.) I had a supply of those calling cards with me for the exact purpose of identifying me as being the one who continued in that machinery business. I certainly did not pose as having the name shown on the calling card; I did not say one word; there was much rush and pushing on board because it was Easter.

I attended to my business affairs in Belgium and France and obtained a new Belgian refugee visa. I presented this to the British Passport Office in Brussels which issued a proper visa for Ireland. I went via Harwich where I was stopped and ultimately sent back to Antwerp.

As I had many business obligations in Ireland my return to Dublin was imperative. I asked for a new Belgian passport; I went again to the British Passport Office in Brussels who again issued a visa for a trip to Ireland direct; on arrival in Dublin I presented this passport, and after several weeks was ordered to return to Brussels. The Minister of Justice informed me that if I could obtain from the German Ambassador a letter that he withdrew his objection against my stay in Ireland, he could arrange for a visa. I know this part sounds incredible: it is a fact; I could, if necessary, amplify it with many details which can now be told but which I had to withhold for many years in order not to compromise certain persons. Mr. Smylie, editor in chief of the Irish Times, was fully informed by me at the time; he was amazed and wanted to take steps in the Dail to stop the fifth column influence.

In subsequent years I was able to build up a fairly large machinery export business in Brussels, exporting Belgian machines mostly to England. This should have necessitated visits to England, but with a Belgian refugee passport a special British visa was required. Whenever I applied for one it was refused.

Had I been a good and fanatical Nazi I would never have met with any visa trouble in England. As it turned out it was my being an enemy of the Nazis that led to my victimisation by the British. (The crime, which the Gestapo accused me of, was being in touch with high-grade British Freemasons.)
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Re: Ordo Templi Orientis Spermo-Gnosis: Carl Kellner, Theodo

Postby admin » Fri Jan 12, 2018 1:45 am

Nosferatu's Baby (Much Too Much) Too hot To Handle
by Peter-R. Koenig
parareligion.ch
© Peter-R. Koenig 1994/October 1996/August 1998, translation adapted by Mark Parry-Maddocks in October 2000

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Heinrich Tranker Baphomet Rosycross

The topic of hostility towards women in religion and occultism has scarcely been touched on in studies of these subjects. However, it is a symptom of such attitudes that even the hedonistic prophet of the "New Æon" Aleister Crowley, and his quasi-counterpart the ascetic Arnoldo Krumm-Heller, adhered to certain forms of misogyny in both theory and practice; attitudes which are still present in those who proclaim their ideas of a new humanity. The reader should ideally be familiar with The O.T.O. Phenomenon, or the authors' articles, before reading the following excursus on the practices and psychology of the various O.T.O. groups.

In the disguised O.T.O. lodge that calls itself Fraternitas Saturni (FS), there is a misogynistic agenda, to which the FS's founder Eugen Grosche gave blatant voice. Only a few of many examples need be quoted here:

"The Female Being is the enemy and the opposer of Man from the very Beginning." "Certainly not every cow is a beast of prey, and not every Female Animal a demonic being." The purpose of marriage is "to domesticate man." What can Man do against it? "In marriage the will of Man must be dominant." "The influence on Man of the pure sexual urge for females will be defeated in time through the self-conscious spiritualization of Woman."

Under his pseudonym of Gregor A. Gregorius, Grosche defined his view of women's rôle clearly: "To be a lover who only satisfies all sexual and erotic desires of man." Nonetheless, the FS was - and still is - described as a "unique and recognised magical Lodge" which "nevertheless admits women," though the female members are only qualified "as help-meets for experimental magic, and in the cult of the sexual Mysteries." Hence the men in the FS used "consciously created sexual dependance" to achieve their aims.

Grosche's successors have continued this doctrine: Karl Wedler (or 'Giovanni') and his protegé Guido Wolther ('Daniel') have on the one hand declared that "homosexuals and pederasts must be rejected as sex-magical monstrosities" - yet on the other hand proclaimed that the ruling spirit of the present æon is the "Dæmon of torture and adultery" worshipped with "grains of incense steeped in semen and human blood; he follows the Dæmon of Lies, of Sodomy and Homosexuality, the Dæmon of Lewdness and Orgies." This is indicated by certain magical symbols, which are said to confer "immediate power with respect to sex on both men and women." Wedler gave his "brother and friend" Wolther a manuscript entitled 'The Devil's Elixirs', which contained recipes for poisoning enemies, inflicting deadly ailments, driving people insane, and so on ad nauseam.

Having come upon the dogma propounded by his FS predecessors, Dieter Heikaus ('Set Horus') elected to cathartically reveal their ideas to the outside world - a risky process that he hoped would set these "great magicians" up as magical idols once more. He decided that his Ordo Saturni, and more particularly its internal 'Pentalpha' group, could perform "the sex-magical operations of the old FS".

Nosferatu's Baby

Because of his chauvinistic attitudes towards women, Eugen Grosche was never able to find his soul-mate in the physical world, but using his occult arts and knowledge, assumed the form of 'GOTOS' an égregore or group-spirit. GOTOS was also called 'UTUIT', which was supposed to mean 'OTO-it' (a sort of activated form); it was also the highest rank in the FS (from 'Gradus Ordo Templi Orientis Saturni'), and the égregore was created as an astral body by the joint efforts of all FS members, using a specially created head-and-shoulders statue or bust to help their efforts. By this means, Grosche hoped that after his death, in the form of GOTOS's astral body, he could at last be united with his soul-mate - and thereby reach an androgynous state on a higher plane. This group-spirit was supposed to have some femimine characteristics, but the only feminine aspect of GOTOS was the mediumship used to obtain the design of its statue. Representing an égregore as a bust or head recalls the literary traditions of statues coming to life (see next section); or else the tale of Salomé, who desired John the Baptist's head on a platter - perhaps to gain his powers of prophecy.

So the central concept in FS lodges is that of the lodge égregore, and its powers of re-animation. The classic prototype for such an idea is that of Baphomet, the supposed idol of the Knights Templar, who was (as the Roman Emperor) likewise worshipped in the form of a head. It has been claimed that Baphomet was invoked with the first sura of the Qur'an, and dismissed with the twenty-fourth chapter of the apocryphal Book of Sirach.

O.T.O. groups have all made use of the idea of Baphomet - but in the Saturn lodges it has been given a different emphasis, and far greater value than in the other versions of the O.T.O.

People out of stone

In India, it is a tradition amongst certain Tantric sects to anoint their phallic lingam images with oil, milk, and sometimes semen. A similar tradition involving living statues and plaster busts exists in Western culture - at least on a literary level. E.T.A. Hoffman, Edgar Allen Poe, Ambrose Bierce, and Jules Verne amongst others, have reinterpreted the original myth of Pygmalion from Ovid; it can even be seen in the musical 'My Fair Lady'. This tradition fulfills an ancient human dream, that of bringing the dead back to life, either artificially or with the help of the gods of magic. Even today there are hints of it in cybernetics and genetic engineering. Inspired by the attempts of Charles Darwin's grandfather Erasmus Darwin to re-animate dead worms, the nineteen-year-old Mary Shelley wrote the novel 'Frankenstein: or the new Prometheus' which was published in 1818. More on the theme has been written more recently by authors such as Philip K. Dick (as in 'Blade Runner'), Alfred Bester, Stanislaw Lem and Pierre Klossowsky. In Switzerland in 1972, a drama based on the classical myth of Galatea appeared, expressing the eternal dream of a man for a woman who is wholly dedicated to him. In the play, which was a reworking of an 'Alpensaga' (Swiss mountain fairy tale), some farmers create a 'Sennentuntschi', an artificial woman grown in a bottle from a mixture of dung and cheese. Needless to say, Sennentuntschi soon frees herself from their attentions.

In Jewish mysticism, there is the legend of the Golem, which is ultimately based on Psalm 139 verse 16; the story is best known from the mediæval golem created by Rabbi Löw of Prague, as described in Gustav Meyrink's impressive novel The Golem (1915). Golems are reproductions of Adam, formed from the dust of the earth, and they go even further back in Jewish culture, as may be discovered in a commentary on the ancient Cabalistic text the Sefer Yetzirah, as expounded by the eminent scholar Gershom Scholem. The German author of occult and erotic potboilers H.H. Ewers added a sexual twist to the legend with his novel Alraune in 1911. Also in Germany, Paul Wegener directed a film of The Golem in 1915, the first in a series of German films such as Nosferatu, Das Kabinett des Doktor Caligari and Dr. Mabuse which evoked a fascination for evil. Neo-Gnostics and secret societies in Germany and elsewhere got a lot of inspiration from fictional sources such as these - enough for them to devise their own 'Order Secrets'. The concept of the Homunculus, an alchemical mannikin produced in a bottle, was not foreign to Theodor Reuss, the O.T.O.'s founder. The prescribed reading-list for O.T.O. members included G. Herman's work called Genesis - das Gesetz der Zeugung (Genesis - the Law of Procreation) which describes the production of a being "who is realized through the odic power of materialization, and which as odic mist streams from the vulvae, and under the traditional uterine influence easily forms child-souls." The alchemist Paracelsus described his formula for creating a Homunculus using blood and semen, and this has been compared to the consecrated hosts of the Spermo-Gnostics. In 1914 Aleister Crowley wrote his Xth degree instruction De Homunculo Epistola in which he described the homunculus, even though he was less than enthusiastic about it. It is quite possible that he had been inspired by Somerset Maugham, who had published a novel called The Magician in 1907, whose villain Oliver Haddo is based on Crowley; in the novel Haddo manufactures a mad homunculus by devilish arts. Similarly, Crowley himself wrote a novel in 1917 (not published until 1929) called Moonchild, in which sex-magicians create a speaking homunculus with astrological enchantments.

"You are my Creator, but I am your Master — Obey!" [Mary Shelley, Frankenstein]

In the Saturn Lodges a definite connection was made between the subject of 'artificial astral beings' and Vampire mythology. The égregore and its incarnate 'tenant', the possessor of the highest degree in the FS, were fuelled by the vital sexual powers of all the lodge members. Both the FS and its successor the Ordo Saturni deliberately tried to create a form of astral vampire, which they hoped eventually to incarnate as a being of flesh and blood. It was a reversal of the Christian Eucharist, where the congregation consumes the supposed flesh and blood of God, in the form of bread and wine. If one believes that Gods are the creation of Man, then it follows that an order-egregore is also a God. To successfully create a Golem might therefore mean that with the Golem even a God could be vicariously destroyed; a dream of omnipotence realised. In the FS the office of Gotos permits a personality to be united with GOTOS UTUIT itself; the Outer Head of the Order (OHO) becomes the Inner Head of the Order (IHO). Deus est Homo - Homo est Deus, as was stated similarly (but unconnectedly) in Reuss and Crowley's Liber Agapé.

In the FS's magical system, the libido during sexual intercourse was transferred from the sexual partner to the astral égregore. In concrete terms, this meant all that heterosexual and homosexual activity was conducted with the use of wordshells/euphemisms (Holy, Logos, Saturn, etc.) to feed the égregore's vitality. These efforts to identify the Saturn Order with an (at least) astral Golem, a Homunculus, an image or statue brought to life, or else some other form of android to build up power, is quite different from the practises of other O.T.O. groups, who are effectively engaged in a quest for the 'Elixir of Life' in the form of psychosexual secretions to gain self-empowerment, or to contact spirits. Nonetheless, this has not prevented some membrs of the so-called 'Caliphate' O.T.O. from joining the Ordo Saturni; in the Saturn lodges this 'elixir' was mostly used for anointing the statue of the GOTOS.

Baphomet and the O.T.O.

The égregore has never been an important issue to other O.T.O. groups. As Marcelo Ramos Motta wrote: "the Egregora does exist in the so-called 'astral plane' and it is a demon, that is to say, an illusory entity. It is not a true Microcosm, but a gestalt of vitalized shells, a focus for everything that is negative, defeatist, maudlin, bigoted, introverted in human nature - a morass completely hostile to progress and to the spiritual evolution of mankind."

The publication of an earlier version of the foregoing sections in this essay caused some interest among members of the 'Typhonian' O.T.O. following the FS example, they duly devised what they called an 'Égregore Map' from various more or less Thelemic entities: Lam, Olun, Aiwass, Maat, Babalon, and the Beast. "It can be defined as the group spirit (super-consciousness) of all the members of a particular Order... It is analogous to the running of magical computer programs across a network of adepts or members, in order to access necessary gnosis and guidance from the Secret Chiefs. This can be done using these égregore maps because they express the laws of Creation and the Fall through their symbolism. They allow people to free themselves from the lust of result by the externalisation of the Holy Guardian Angel into the égregore."

The égregore is by definition a created soul (psychogon); according to Aleister Crowley it serves mostly to realise of wishes, and is consequently a 'helpmeet-spirit' who obeys the Holy Guardian Angel as in the Abramelin system. The 'Book of the Sacred Magic of Abramelin the Mage' (see illustrations 1 & 2 ) describes one method of attaining communication with one's guardian angel; every human being has an individual spiritual power, a divine mirror image called the Holy Guardian Angel, who restores a link to the divine for human beings engulfed in matter. Once contact with the Guardian Angel has been established - after six lunar months of asceticism and constant devotional prayer - the magician may then (if he dares) invoke armies of demons and servile spirits to do his will.

From the other side, it could reasonably be claimed that the guardian angel gets something in return. In the ecstasy of a human orgasm, the Angel attains a vision of the Universe as a continuous, unblemished phenomenon, where it is separated from the pure union of human with the divine; and thus the Angel finds wholeness in the human to whom it ministers.

Many FS techniques, like absorbing the libido from sexual partners may also be found in O.T.O. lodges. But in the OTO, the method is to transfer the libido's energy to one's own ego and its adjuncts. The Order becomes a substitute for the archetypal Mother, while its charismatic leader is transformed into a substitute for the corresponding Father-figure. This practice started with Carl Kellner, whose female followers wore a locket containing a photograph of him, and the lamen, or magical shield of the Memphis-Misraim Rite: a sphinx within a pyramid under a blazing sun. Kellner viewed his self-created office as Baphomet as descending from the Babylonian priesthood. However, in Richard Payne Knight's interpretation, Baphomet was an androgynous figure who united active and passive polarities. Kellner apparently did not accept Éliphas Lévi's diabolic interpretation of Baphomet, which Crowley was later to use in the 'Devil' card of his Thoth Tarot designs. Indeed, Crowley always described himself as Baphomet in connection with the O.T.O., and considered this to unite the offices of both Inner and Outer Head of the Order in himself - they were linked in the concept of the homosexual eleventh degree of the O.T.O. [This might explain the 'Caliph' William Breeze's assumption of the XIth degree]. It is not known whether he ever tried to bring an image to life (except the skeleton he fed with blood at his Chancery Lane 'Black Temple'), or to use Baphomet as an égregore in the FS sense. Certainly, when his follower Jack Parsons tried to create a homunculus with the aid of sex-magic (and the founder of Scientology, Lafayette Ronald Hubbard), Crowley reacted angrily, calling the affair "nonsense".

Crowley, alias Baphomet XI°, assumed the rôle of an idealised father-figure in his rescension of the O.T.O. By idolising Crowley/Baphomet in this way, his followers nurtured precociously regressive sadistic and anal attitudes, which tended to be acted out in the form of oral aggression, as a consequence of a significant upset of the balance between fantasy and reality. As the central idol of the Crowleyan O.T.O. there stood a golden phallus, with which the sex-magician was meant to identify himself in the form of an ejaculating penis. In O.T.O. groups of this school there is little possibility of using such phallocentric and narcissistic behaviour as a way of obtaining solitary communion with an égregore. Energies liberated in this way would generate 'disorder' in 'practicing' individuals (at least in the higher degrees). The imitation of Crowley's biography stimulates dramatic relationships and drug-addiction. There is no Gnosis here. No, not even here, where a Gnostic sense of an intolerable existence is reflected in several different O.T.O. Orders all at war with each other; these merely show that there is a yawning void between the 'rotten places' and the Pleroma.

With these O.T.O.'s, the light at the end of the tunnel for seekers is the corpse-light glimmer from carefully contrived schemes and inducements towards sensuality and self-indulgence; it shines on a mouthful of semen, and illuminates no more than ready-made images, images which are endlessly imitated, regurgitated and thoroughly manufactured.

Knights of the Neurosy-Cross

The Saturn lodges have never succeded in achieving the union of the human holder of the Gotos office, with the GOTOS égregore. This is apparently why the O.T.O. fell into schism during Crowley's time; the Saturn lodges have not been able ("so far" that is) to invoke the spirits of Pluto necessary to the union, and this has meant the Gotos-Golem (the O.T.O. Saturni Golem) has fragmented into narcissistic offshoots of Grosche and his allies.

If this human Gotos is not a Charismatic individual, then the efforts of his followers can only be devoted to the service of the égregore-GOTOS, charging it up like a battery; but if the human Gotos does not remain in the background, then the magical energies can flow back, and not drain away. But this latter possibility only works if the human Gotos avoids the trap of narcissistic folly through excessive dependance on the GOTOS (human or égregore), as also so long as the human Gotos separates himself from the lodge members having an influence on psychological transmission. This practice has only been tried in the 'Caliphate' O.T.O. (in contrast to H.J. Metzger's group) where the chief of the Order, the 'Caliph' remains effectively incomminicado, except for 'ex-cathedra' pronouncements; paradoxically, the 'Caliph' is seen as magically powerless. A repressed identification with a homosexual All-Father figure in the form of Crowley has proved to be a deficiency in the personal development of many 'Caliphate' followers. The result has been a fanatical, supposedly socially involved 'coming out' of the 'Caliphate' as a publicly recognised religious community, and led to their concealment of all their magical and sexual doctrines. Recently this group has told its membership to separate the "problematic" figure of Aleister Crowley from the doctrine of Thelema, even though Thelema is still to be considered as he Highest Truth of this Æon. This has effectively replaced critical thought, and replaced it with all the trappings of 'belief' in a cult, with an emphasis on the importance of ritual for its own sake, and new myths. Information which might promote dissent is suppressed, and measures to censure those who step out of line is now included in the group's statutes.

Unsubstantiated legal threats frighten bogeymen. So the 'Caliphate' (which now represents itself as the one and only O.T.O.) proclaims that it is incapable of error, and uses the courts to fight every criticism from the moral 'majority', the press or the police. A strategy of positive news-management has been introduced, and where necessary truth is the first casualty.

Fraternitas Rosicruciana Antiqua

Although Baphomet also occurs in the initiation rituals of the F.R.A., it seems that Arnoldo Krumm-Heller was never involved in the aforementioned shenanigans. He saw himself in a messianic role, adhering strongly to the idea of Christian Gnostic objects of veneration, and Jesus as saviour. Salvation was obtained from Him alone, and it meant that people would only ever meet good deeds along the way. True, salvation could be achieved through spermo-gnosis as well, but only by avoiding ejaculation. These homoeopathic Gnostics served a higher divine order, but their concomitant will to bring order to humanity was very far from self-deification. In spite of his apparent adherence to Thelema, and the use of LAM as a mantra, Krumm-Heller was more involved with social concerns and joining organisations, rather than any magical or mystical self-development. Homoeopathy requires a lot of human sensitivity from both doctor and patient.

There is no evidence that Krumm-Heller believed in any particular Intelligence, like those found in Crowley's spiritual cosmogeny. Krumm-Heller focussed more on human reality and not on gaining contact with transcendental realms, even when those were formulated as Beings. To this day, "the teachings of the Ancient Rose-Cross Brotherhood" have had no real rôle for their astral (actually Theosophical) Master Racoczy, nor of the égregore, nor of an Inner Head of the Order. Contact with the "angel on the other side" takes place only in "helping and healing".

Apart from thinking that avoiding ejaculation helped healing and human evolution, Krumm-Heller thought it a "good deed for redemption". Maybe redemption was necessary in revolutionary Mexico, when the material world must really have looked like a Gnostic "Rotten Place". It is not known, however, whether he used semen either homoeopathically or isopathically as a universal medicine.

After Krumm-Hellers death, there was conflict within his Rosicrucian organization, rather like those in the O.T.O. groups. But today his F.R.A. is relatively small, its membership regarding themselves as isolated groups, and not ruled by an overall leader. Krumm-Heller offered little room for his followers psychological projections, and his F.R.A. was, and still is, too exclusive to attract really deep devotion. Had it not been for H.J. Metzger's claims to be the leader of the F.R.A., nobody would have heard anything about Krumm-Heller or the F.R.A. in the German or English-speaking worlds after World War Two. It has only been by plagiarising the present author's books that the 'Caliphate' have been able to mix Krumm-Heller into their historical fantasies.

Gnosis in Appenzell - A catalogue

At Stein in Appenzell, where Metzger's Swiss O.T.O. has its headquarters it was claimed that "Beauty and Ecstasy take the place of the previous taboos of society" and "through a period of monogamy in marriage (devotion to only one other person), which is a deviation from natural law, there may be rediscovered that substance which will regain the Divinty's blessing," which was apparently so because "Europeans lack the blessed institution of polygamy". "Every wedding dissolves matter, and creates less matter". The duty of women: "Eroticism and sin - these are the Gates to the Upper World. The Feminine has the key... women will become the Guardians of Good, Loyalty, and Morality." This group also taught techniques for tightening the vaginal muscles, and enjoined washing one's genitals in cold water to prevent sexually-transmitted diseases. "Homosexuality is spreading worryingly through the masses", while "Masturbation is a scourge" - and the only remedy was "to cut it off".

The group was against Yoga; instead autogenic training was "the sweetest fruit of the struggle for self-knowledge". "Humanity finds a place on the astral plane after death. An interaction occurs with the chain-reactions from atom-bomb tests, whereby the fusion of nuclear hydrogen in the Sun facilitates the manifestation of divine power". "From the clouds, radioactivity gives life to stones." They apparently promote a sort of homeopathic "electronic healing", which "will solve the riddle of illness, especially of epidemics", because "it is not impossible that metals and precious stones can have a localised effect on the orbit of electrons". Accidents like broken legs are a result of wrong thinking according to Metzger's O.T.O., which also claimed that vaccination and vegetarianism are bad for health.

Love is the Law - Love under Will

In the end all sex-magical systems fail, when psychological order (not to mention the body's metabolism) is upset by its techniques; any gaps (such as the Void in the image of the Self) are filled with synthetic replacements (the Phallus, the égregore, Crowley, etc.). Despite a rigid regulation of daily life, interpersonal relationships outside the artificial reality of the O.T.O. or FS shrink to the level of projecting one's own failures onto others. This produces dependency, fears of persecution, and a reliance on curses, rituals for destruction, and invoking the help of demons. For instance, at Easter 1992 the mother of what was claimed to be the future reincarnation of Eugen Grosche (and Gotos) Gertrude Zellhuber (aka 'Lara') felt magically threatened by the former Grand Master of the FS, Walter Jantschik. Although GOTOS and the necessary spirits of Pluto were evoked, Jantschik noticed nothing, which seems to have left these hostile intentions free to wreak havoc among other supposed enemies of Lara & co., such as the Temple of Set.

A slowing-down in self-development can be a direct inducement to magical thinking, while overemphasis on instinctive and impulsive energy may cause weakening of control over sexual and aggressive behaviour. This particular polarised state is characterised by an exaggerated emphasis on autoerotic and autonomous activities - in other words, Do what thou Wilt. It can alter a person's self-esteem, their identity, and their sexual and societal rôles. Deliberately distorting the libido can become a serious sport in sex-magic.

Crowley clearly identified himself with Thelema "I am the Beast... I am Thelema" (Diary, 22 October 1920); has Thelema turned out to be a a defect in the oedipal phase of the New Aeon, fostering tendencies towards neurosis and psychosis?
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Re: Ordo Templi Orientis Spermo-Gnosis: Carl Kellner, Theodo

Postby admin » Tue Aug 14, 2018 11:28 pm

Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica
by Wikipedia
8/14/18

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Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica (E.G.C.), or the Gnostic Catholic Church, is a Gnostic church organization. It is the ecclesiastical arm of the Ordo Templi Orientis (O.T.O.), an international fraternal initiatory organization devoted to promulgating the Law of Thelema.

Thelema is a philosophical, mystical and religious system elaborated by Aleister Crowley, and based on The Book of the Law. The word Catholic denotes the universality of doctrine and not a Christian or Roman Catholic belief set.

The chief function of Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica is the public and private performance of the Gnostic Mass (Liber XV), a eucharistic ritual written by Crowley in 1913. According to William Bernard Crow, Crowley wrote the Gnostic Mass "under the influence of the Liturgy of St. Basil of the Russian Church".[1] Its structure is also influenced by the initiatory rituals of the Ordo Templi Orientis.[2] Its most notable separation from similar rites of other churches is a Priestess officiating with a Priest, Deacon, and two Children. In addition to the Eucharist, baptism, confirmation, marriage, and last rites are offered by E.G.C. Marriage is not limited to couples of opposite gender.[3]

About the Gnostic Mass, Crowley wrote in The Confessions of Aleister Crowley, "... the Ritual of the Gnostic Catholic Church ... I prepared for the use of the O.T.O., the central ceremony of its public and private celebration, corresponding to the Mass of the Roman Catholic Church."[4] It is the single most commonly performed ritual at O.T.O. bodies, with many locations celebrating the Mass monthly or more frequently. Most O.T.O. bodies make some or all of these celebrations open to interested members of the public, so the Mass is often an individual's first experience of the O.T.O.

Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica has a hierarchical structure of clergy, assisting officers, and laity which parallels the degree structure of the O.T.O. initiatory system. Before 1997, the two systems were more loosely correlated, but since then there have been strict rules concerning minimum O.T.O. degrees required to serve in particular E.G.C. roles.[5]

Membership

Membership in Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica is similar to the Roman Catholic Church, with some important differences. As currently constituted, E.G.C. includes both clergy and laity. Clergy must be initiate members of O.T.O., while laity may affiliate to E.G.C. through baptism and confirmation without undertaking any of the degree initiations of the Order.

Novice clergy are initiate members who participate in the administration of E.G.C. sacraments, although they have not yet taken orders (i.e., been through a ceremony of ordination).

The first ordination in E.G.C. is that of the diaconate. Second Degree initiates of O.T.O. who have been confirmed in E.G.C. can be ordained as Deacons, whose principal duties are to assist the Priesthood.

The sacerdotal ordination admits members to the priesthood. Sacerdotal ordinands must hold at least the K.E.W. degree of O.T.O., a degree only available by invitation. The Priesthood is responsible for administering the sacraments through the Gnostic Mass and other ceremonies as authorized by their supervising Bishops.

The Priesthood is supervised and instructed by the Episcopate, or Bishops. Full initiation to the Seventh Degree of O.T.O. includes episcopal consecration in E.G.C. The Tenth Degree Supreme and Holy King serves as the Primate or chief Bishop for any country in which O.T.O. has organized a Grand Lodge. The Frater (or Soror) Superior of O.T.O. is also the Patriarch (Matriarch) of the Church, with ultimate authority over the clergy.

Rituals

The principal ritual of Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica is the Gnostic Mass, a Eucharistic ceremony written by Aleister Crowley in 1913. Theodor Reuss produced and authorized a German translation in 1918.

The text of the Gnostic Mass makes reference to ceremonies of baptism, confirmation, and marriage. Crowley left some notes towards a baptism ritual, and his "Liber CVI" was written for use in a last rites circumstance. The Bishops of the contemporary Church have developed rituals for all of these purposes, as well as infant benedictions, consecration of holy oil, funerals, and home administration of the Eucharist to the sick.[6]

Although some Gnostic Masses are held privately for initiates only, there is nothing 'secret' about E.G.C. rituals as such, and they are commonly open to the public.

Saints of Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica

The Gnostic Saints of Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica are a series of historical and mythological figures revered in the religion of Thelema. They are found in the fifth Collect of Liber XV, titled "The Saints".

Two Gnostic Saints have been officially added to the original list. William Blake was so recognized based on a discovered writing by Aleister Crowley which described him as such.[7] Giordano Bruno was more recently added to the list.[8]

History

The Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica descended from a line of French Gnostic revival churches that developed in the 19th century. At that time, these Gnostic churches were essentially Christian in nature. In 1907, Gerard Encausse, Jean Bricaud and Louis-Sophrone Fugairon founded their own, simply called the Gnostic Catholic Church. In 1908, they gave O.T.O. Grand Master Theodor Reuss episcopal consecration and primatial authority in their GCC. Later that year, Reuss incorporated the Gnostic Catholic Church into O.T.O. after the original founders renamed their own church to the Universal Gnostic Church.

The name "Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica" was not applied to the church until Crowley wrote the Gnostic Mass in 1913, which Reuss proclaimed to be the church's official rite. This marked the first time an established church was to accept the Law of Thelema as its central doctrine. Reuss then announced a new title for himself: the "Sovereign Patriarch and Primate of the Gnostic Catholic Church".[citation needed]

In 1979, Hymenaeus Alpha X° (Grady McMurtry) separated Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica from Ordo Templi Orientis, and made it into an independent organization, with himself at the head of both. During this period of separation Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica published its own quarterly magazine.[9] However, in 1986, his successor, Hymenaeus Beta, dissolved the separate Gnostic Catholic Church corporation and folded the church back into O.T.O. Since then the Church has expanded greatly, and in recent years several books and articles dealing with the E.G.C. and the Gnostic Mass have been published by its Clergy, notably by Tau Apiryon & Tau Helena,[10] James Wasserman & Nancy Wasserman,[11] Rodney Orpheus & Cathryn Orchard,[12] and T Polyphilus.[13]

The Gnostic Creed

A creed is a statement of belief—usually religious belief—or faith. The word derives from the Latin credo for "I believe". The creed of Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica—also known as the Gnostic Creed—is recited in the Gnostic Mass, during the Ceremony of the Introit.

The text of the Creed is as follows:

I believe in one secret and ineffable LORD; and in one Star in the Company of Stars of whose fire we are created, and to which we shall return; and in one Father of Life, Mystery of Mystery, in His name CHAOS, the sole vicegerent of the Sun upon the Earth; and in one Air the nourisher of all that breathes.
And I believe in one Earth, the Mother of us all, and in one Womb wherein all men are begotten, and wherein they shall rest, Mystery of Mystery, in Her name BABALON.
And I believe in the Serpent and the Lion, Mystery of Mystery, in His name BAPHOMET.
And I believe in one Gnostic and Catholic Church of Light, Life, Love and Liberty, the Word of whose Law is THELEMA.
And I believe in the communion of Saints.
And, forasmuch as meat and drink are transmuted in us daily into spiritual substance, I believe in the Miracle of the Mass.
And I confess one Baptism of Wisdom whereby we accomplish the Miracle of Incarnation.
And I confess my life one, individual, and eternal that was, and is, and is to come.
AUMGN. AUMGN. AUMGN.


Explication of the Creed

The first six articles profess several beliefs by the congregants. The remaining two are confessions. The Creed ends with the Thelemic form of the Pranava, equivalent to the sacred Vedic syllable "Aum" or to the "Amen" of the Judaeo-Christian tradition. On the basic form of the Creed, Tau Apiryon and Helena (1998) write:

The first 4 clauses are attributed to the four letters of Tetragrammaton YHVH: the Father (Chaos); the Mother (Babalon); the Union of Father and Mother in the Son (Baphomet); and the Daughter, the Bride of the Son (the Church). The two following clauses describe the essential products of the Mass from the perspective of the congregation. The final two clauses are in the form of confession rather than belief and describe parallels between the occurrences in the Mass and the life of the individual.


See also

• Gnosticism
• Gnosticism in modern times

Notes

1. W. B. Crow quoted in T. Apiryon, Introduction to the Gnostic Mass.
2. King, Francis (1973). Secret Rituals of the O.T.O. New York: Samuel Weiser. ISBN 0-87728-144-0
3. "sabazius_x: Same-Sex Marriage". Archived from the original on 2009-12-26. Retrieved 2009-11-01.
4. Crowley, Aleister (1929). The Spirit of Solitude: an autohagiography: subsequently re-Antichristened The Confessions of Aleister Crowley. London: Mandrake Press.
5. U.S. Grand Lodge: Membership in E.G.C.
6. Sabazuis. "Rituals". The Invisible Basilica. Retrieved 2011-07-19.
7. Helena and Tau Apiryon The Gnostic Mass: Annotations and Commentary (footnote). Ordo Templi Orientis, 2004.
8. Sabazius. "From the Grand Master" in Agape, V. 9, No. 1, p. 3. Ordo Templi Orientis, May 1, 2007.
9. "Ecclesia Gnostica: a bibliographical note". Retrieved 2009-11-25.
10. T Apiryon; Helena (2001). Mystery of Mystery: A Primer of Thelemic Ecclesiastical Gnosticism. Red Flame (2nd ed.). Red Flame. ISBN 0-9712376-1-1.
11. Wasserman, James; Nancy Wasserman; Aleister Crowley (2010-03-31). To Perfect This Feast: The Gnostic Mass: Revised Second Edition (2nd Revised ed.). Sekmet Books. ISBN 0-9718870-3-9.
12. Huggens, Kim; Sorita d'Este; Emily Carding; Rodney Orpheus; Cathryn Orchard (2009-12-02). From a Drop of Water - A Collection of Magickal Reflections on The Nature, Creatures, Uses and Symbolism of Water. Avalonia. ISBN 978-1-905297-34-4.
13. T Polyphilus. "Vigorous Food & Divine Madness". Retrieved 2011-07-19.

References

• Crowley, Aleister. Liber XV, The Gnostic Mass.
• Ordo Templi Orientis, U.S. Grand Lodge (2004). Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica. Retrieved January 3, 2005.
• Helena and Tau Apiryon. (1998). The Creed of the Gnostic Catholic Church: an Examination. Retrieved Sept. 20, 2004.
• Fr. HydraLVX. The Gnostic Catholic Creed: Seeds of Self Knowledge, appearing in Lion & Serpent: The Official Journal of Sekhet-Maat Lodge Volume 6, Number 2.
• Thelemapedia (2005). Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica. Retrieved June 9, 2005.

External links

• Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica homepage
• A Collection of Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica and Gnostic Mass Materials
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Knights Hospitaller
Fraternitas Hospitalaria
Knights of Saint John (of Jerusalem)
Knights of Rhodes, Knights of Malta
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Flag of the Order

The Order of Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem (Latin: Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval Catholic military order. It was headquartered in the Kingdom of Jerusalem, on the island of Rhodes, in Malta and St Petersburg.

The Hospitallers arose in the early 11th century, at the time of the great monastic reformation, as a group of individuals associated with an Amalfitan hospital in the Muristan district of Jerusalem, dedicated to John the Baptist and founded around 1023 by Gerard Thom to provide care for sick, poor or injured pilgrims coming to the Holy Land. Some scholars, however, consider that the Amalfitan order and hospital were different from Gerard Thom's order and its hospital.

After the conquest of Jerusalem in 1099 during the First Crusade, the organisation became a religious and military order under its own Papal charter, charged with the care and defence of the Holy Land. Following the conquest of the Holy Land by Islamic forces, the knights operated from Rhodes, over which they were sovereign, and later from Malta, where they administered a vassal state under the Spanish viceroy of Sicily. The Hospitallers were the smallest group to colonise parts of the Americas; at one point in the mid-17th century, they acquired four Caribbean islands, which they turned over to the French in the 1660s.

The knights were weakened in the Protestant Reformation, when rich commanderies of the order in northern Germany and the Netherlands became Protestant and largely separated from the Roman Catholic main stem, remaining separate to this day, although ecumenical relations between the descendant chivalric orders are amicable. The order was disestablished in England, Denmark, Sweden and elsewhere in northern Europe, and it was further damaged by Napoleon's capture of Malta in 1798, following which it became dispersed throughout Europe and Russia.

History

Foundation and early history


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Grand Master and senior Knights Hospitaller in the 14th century

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"Piae Postulatio Voluntatis". Bull issued by Pope Paschal II in 1113 in favour of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, which was to transform what was a community of pious men into an institution within the Church. By virtue of this document, the pope officially recognized the existence of the new organisation as an operative and militant part of the Roman Catholic Church, granting it papal protection and confirming its properties in Europe and Asia.

In 603, Pope Gregory I commissioned the Ravennate Abbot Probus, who was previously Gregory's emissary at the Lombard court, to build a hospital in Jerusalem to treat and care for Christian pilgrims to the Holy Land.[1] In 800, Emperor Charlemagne enlarged Probus' hospital and added a library to it. About 200 years later, in 1005, Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah destroyed the hospital and three thousand other buildings in Jerusalem. In 1023, merchants from Amalfi and Salerno in Italy were given permission by the Caliph Ali az-Zahir of Egypt to rebuild the hospital in Jerusalem. The hospital, which was built on the site of the monastery of Saint John the Baptist, took in Christian pilgrims travelling to visit the Christian holy sites. It was served by the Order of Saint Benedict.

The monastic hospitaller order was founded following the First Crusade by Gerard Thom, whose role as founder was confirmed by the papal bull Pie Postulatio Voluntatis issued by Pope Paschal II in 1113.[2] Gerard acquired territory and revenues for his order throughout the Kingdom of Jerusalem and beyond. Under his successor, Raymond du Puy, the original hospice was expanded to an infirmary[3] near the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. Initially the group cared for pilgrims in Jerusalem, but the order soon extended to providing pilgrims with an armed escort, which soon grew into a substantial force. Thus the Order of St. John imperceptibly became military without losing its charitable character.[3]

Raymond du Puy, who succeeded Gerard as Master of the Hospital in 1118, organised a militia from the order's members, dividing the order into three ranks: knights, men at arms, and chaplains. Raymond offered the service of his armed troops to Baldwin II of Jerusalem, and the order from this time participated in the crusades as a military order, in particular distinguishing itself in the Siege of Ascalon of 1153. In 1130, Pope Innocent II gave the order its coat of arms, a silver cross in a field of red (gueulles).[dubious – discuss][4]

The Hospitallers and the Knights Templar became the most formidable military orders in the Holy Land. Frederick Barbarossa, the Holy Roman Emperor, pledged his protection to the Knights of St. John in a charter of privileges granted in 1185.

The statutes of Roger de Moulins (1187) deal only with the service of the sick; the first mention of military service is in the statutes of the ninth grand master, Fernando Afonso of Portugal (about 1200). In the latter a marked distinction is made between secular knights, externs to the order, who served only for a time, and the professed knights, attached to the order by a perpetual vow, and who alone enjoyed the same spiritual privileges as the other religious. The order numbered three distinct classes of membership: the military brothers, the brothers infirmarians, and the brothers chaplains, to whom was entrusted the divine service.[3]

In 1248 Pope Innocent IV (1243–1254) approved a standard military dress for the Hospitallers to be worn during battle. Instead of a closed cape over their armour (which restricted their movements), they wore a red surcoat with a white cross emblazoned on it.[5]

Many of the more substantial Christian fortifications in the Holy Land were built by the Templars and the Hospitallers. At the height of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Hospitallers held seven great forts and 140 other estates in the area. The two largest of these, their bases of power in the Kingdom and in the Principality of Antioch, were the Krak des Chevaliers and Margat in Syria.[2] The property of the Order was divided into priories, subdivided into bailiwicks, which in turn were divided into commanderies.

As early as the late 12th century the order had begun to achieve recognition in the Kingdom of England and Duchy of Normandy. As a result, buildings such as St John's Jerusalem and the Knights Gate, Quenington in England were built on land donated to the order by local nobility.[6] An Irish house was established at Kilmainham, near Dublin, and the Irish Prior was usually a key figure in Irish public life.

The Knights also received the "Land of Severin" (Terra de Zeurino), along with the nearby mountains, from Béla IV of Hungary, as shown by a charter of grant issued on 2 June 1247. The Banate of Severin was a march, or border province, of the Kingdom of Hungary between the Lower Danube and the Olt River, today part of Romania, and back then bordered across the Danube by a powerful Bulgarian Empire. However, the Hospitaller hold on the Banate was only brief.[7]

Knights of Cyprus and Rhodes

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Street of Knights in Rhodes

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The Knights' castle at Rhodes

After the fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem in 1291 (the city of Jerusalem had fallen in 1187), the Knights were confined to the County of Tripoli and, when Acre was captured in 1291, the order sought refuge in the Kingdom of Cyprus. Finding themselves becoming enmeshed in Cypriot politics, their Master, Guillaume de Villaret, created a plan of acquiring their own temporal domain, selecting Rhodes to be their new home, part of the Byzantine empire. His successor, Foulques de Villaret, executed the plan, and on 15 August 1310, after over four years of campaigning, the city of Rhodes surrendered to the knights. They also gained control of a number of neighbouring islands and the Anatolian port of Halicarnassus and the island of Kastellorizo.

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Rhodes and other possessions of the Knights Hospitallers of St. John.

Pope Clement V dissolved the Hospitallers' rival order, the Knights Templar, in 1312 with a series of papal bulls, including the Ad providam bull that turned over much of their property to the Hospitallers.

The holdings were organised into eight "Tongues" or Langues, one each in Crown of Aragon, Auvergne, Crown of Castile, Kingdom of England, France, Holy Roman Empire, Italy and Provence. Each was administered by a Prior or, if there was more than one priory in the langue, by a Grand Prior.

At Rhodes, and later Malta, the resident knights of each langue were headed by a baili. The English Grand Prior at the time was Philip De Thame, who acquired the estates allocated to the English langue from 1330 to 1358. In 1334, the Knights of Rhodes defeated Andronicus and his Turkish auxiliaries. In the 14th century, there were several other battles in which they fought.[8]

In 1374, the Knights took over the defence of Smyrna, conquered by a crusade in 1344.[9] They held it until it was besieged and taken by Timur in 1402.[9]

On Rhodes the Hospitallers,[10] by then also referred to as the Knights of Rhodes,[11] were forced to become a more militarised force, fighting especially with the Barbary pirates. They withstood two invasions in the 15th century, one by the Sultan of Egypt in 1444 and another by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror in 1480 who, after capturing Constantinople and defeating the Byzantine Empire in 1453, made the Knights a priority target.

In 1494 they created a stronghold on the peninsula of Halicarnassus (presently Bodrum). They used pieces of the partially destroyed Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, to strengthen their rampart, the Petronium.[12]

In 1522, an entirely new sort of force arrived: 400 ships under the command of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent delivered 100,000 men to the island[13] (200,000 in other sources[14]). Against this force the Knights, under Grand Master Philippe Villiers de L'Isle-Adam, had about 7,000 men-at-arms and their fortifications. The siege lasted six months, at the end of which the surviving defeated Hospitallers were allowed to withdraw to Sicily. Despite the defeat, both Christians and Muslims seem to have regarded the conduct of Phillipe Villiers de L'Isle-Adam as extremely valiant, and the Grand Master was proclaimed a Defender of the Faith by Pope Adrian VI.

Knights of Malta

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Deed of Donation of the islands of Malta, Gozo and Tripoli to the Order of St John by Emperor Charles V in 1530.

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Grand culverin of the Knights Hospitallers, 1500–1510, Rhodes

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Arms of the Knights Hospitallers, quartered with those of Pierre d'Aubusson, on a bombard

After seven years of moving from place to place in Europe, the knights gained fixed quarters in 1530 when Charles I of Spain, as King of Sicily, gave them Malta,[15] Gozo and the North African port of Tripoli in perpetual fiefdom in exchange for an annual fee of a single Maltese falcon (the Tribute of the Maltese Falcon), which they were to send on All Souls' Day to the King's representative, the Viceroy of Sicily.[16][17]

The Hospitallers continued their actions against the Muslims and especially the Barbary pirates. Although they had only a few ships they quickly drew the ire of the Ottomans, who were unhappy to see the order resettled. In 1565 Suleiman sent an invasion force of about 40,000 men to besiege the 700 knights and 8,000 soldiers and expel them from Malta and gain a new base from which to possibly launch another assault on Europe.[15] This is known as the Great Siege of Malta.

At first the battle went as badly for the Hospitallers as Rhodes had: most of the cities were destroyed and about half the knights killed. On 18 August the position of the besieged was becoming desperate: dwindling daily in numbers, they were becoming too feeble to hold the long line of fortifications. But when his council suggested the abandonment of Birgu and Senglea and withdrawal to Fort St. Angelo, Grand Master Jean Parisot de Valette refused.

The Viceroy of Sicily had not sent help; possibly the Viceroy's orders from Philip II of Spain were so obscurely worded as to put on his own shoulders the burden of the decision whether to help the Order at the expense of his own defences.[citation needed] A wrong decision could mean defeat and exposing Sicily and Naples to the Ottomans. He had left his own son with La Valette, so he could hardly be indifferent to the fate of the fortress. Whatever may have been the cause of his delay, the Viceroy hesitated until the battle had almost been decided by the unaided efforts of the knights, before being forced to move by the indignation of his own officers.

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Re-enactment of 16th-century military drills conducted by the Knights. Fort Saint Elmo, Valletta, Malta, 8 May 2005.

On 23 August came yet another grand assault, the last serious effort, as it proved, of the besiegers. It was thrown back with the greatest difficulty, even the wounded taking part in the defence. The plight of the Turkish forces, however, was now desperate. With the exception of Fort Saint Elmo, the fortifications were still intact.[18] Working night and day the garrison had repaired the breaches, and the capture of Malta seemed more and more impossible. Many of the Ottoman troops in crowded quarters had fallen ill over the terrible summer months. Ammunition and food were beginning to run short, and the Ottoman troops were becoming increasingly dispirited by the failure of their attacks and their losses. The death on 23 June of skilled commander Dragut, a corsair and admiral of the Ottoman fleet, was a serious blow.[19] The Turkish commanders, Piali Pasha and Lala Mustafa Pasha, were careless. They had a huge fleet which they used with effect on only one occasion. They neglected their communications with the African coast and made no attempt to watch and intercept Sicilian reinforcements.

On 1 September they made their last effort, but the morale of the Ottoman troops had deteriorated seriously and the attack was feeble, to the great encouragement of the besieged, who now began to see hopes of deliverance. The perplexed and indecisive Ottomans heard of the arrival of Sicilian reinforcements in Mellieħa Bay. Unaware that the force was very small, they broke off the siege and left on 8 September. The Great Siege of Malta may have been the last action in which a force of knights won a decisive victory.[20]

When the Ottomans departed, the Hospitallers had but 600 men able to bear arms. The most reliable estimate puts the number of the Ottoman army at its height at some 40,000 men, of whom 15,000 eventually returned to Constantinople. The siege is portrayed vividly in the frescoes of Matteo Pérez in the Hall of St. Michael and St. George, also known as the Throne Room, in the Grandmaster's Palace in Valletta; four of the original modellos, painted in oils by Perez d'Aleccio between 1576 and 1581, can be found in the Cube Room of the Queen's House at Greenwich, London. After the siege a new city had to be built: the present capital city of Malta, named Valletta in memory of the Grand Master who had withstood the siege.[citation needed]

In 1607, the Grand Master of the Hospitallers was granted the status of Reichsfürst (Prince of the Holy Roman Empire), even though the Order's territory was always south of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1630, he was awarded ecclesiastic equality with cardinals, and the unique hybrid style His Most Eminent Highness, reflecting both qualities qualifying him as a true Prince of the Church.[citation needed]

The Knights in the 16th and 17th centuries: Reconquista of the Sea

Following the knights' relocation on Malta, they had found themselves devoid of their initial reason for existence: assisting and joining the crusades in the Holy Land was now impossible, for reasons of military and financial strength along with geographical position. With dwindling revenues from European sponsors no longer willing to support a costly and meaningless organization, the knights turned to policing the Mediterranean from the increased threat of piracy, most notably from the threat of the Ottoman-endorsed Barbary pirates operating from the North African coastline. Boosted towards the end of the 16th century by an air of invincibility following the successful defence of their island in 1565 and compounded by the Christian victory over the Ottoman fleet in the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, the knights set about protecting Christian merchant shipping to and from the Levant and freeing the captured Christian slaves who formed the basis of the Barbary corsairs' piratical trading and navies. This became known as the "corso".[21]

Yet the Order soon struggled on a now reduced income. By policing the Mediterranean they augmented the assumed responsibility of the traditional protectors of the Mediterranean, the naval city states of Venice, Genoa, and Pisa. Further compounding their financial woes; over the course of this period the exchange rate of the local currencies against the 'scudo' that were established in the late 16th century gradually became outdated, meaning the knights were gradually receiving less at merchant factories.[22] Economically hindered by the barren island they now inhabited, many knights went beyond their call of duty by raiding Muslim ships.[23] More and more ships were plundered, from the profits of which many knights lived idly and luxuriously, taking local women to be their wives and enrolling in the navies of France and Spain in search of adventure, experience, and yet more money.[24]

The Knights' changing attitudes were coupled with the effects of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation and the lack of stability from the Roman Catholic Church. All this affected the knights strongly as the 16th and 17th centuries saw a gradual decline in the religious attitudes of many of the Christian peoples of Europe (and, concomitantly, the importance of a religious army), and thus in the Knights' regular tributes from European nations.[25] That the knights, a chiefly Roman Catholic military order, pursued the readmittance of England as one of its member states – the Order there had been suppressed, along with monasteries, under king Henry VIII of England – upon the succession of the Protestant queen Elizabeth I of England aptly demonstrates the new religious tolerance within the Order.[26] For a time, the Order even possessed a German langue which was part Protestant or Evangelical and part Roman Catholic.[citation needed]

The perceived moral decline that the knights underwent over the course of this period is best highlighted by the decision of many knights to serve in foreign navies and become "the mercenary sea-dogs of the 14th to 17th centuries", with the French Navy proving the most popular destination.[27] This decision went against the knights' cardinal reason for existence, in that by serving a European power directly they faced the very real possibility that they would be fighting against another Roman Catholic force, as in the few Franco-Spanish naval skirmishes that occurred in this period.[28] The biggest paradox is the fact that for many years the Kingdom of France remained on amicable terms with the Ottoman Empire, the Knights' greatest and bitterest foe and purported sole purpose for existence. Paris signed many trade agreements with the Ottomans and agreed to an informal (and ultimately ineffective) cease-fire between the two states during this period.[29] That the Knights associated themselves with the allies of their sworn enemies shows their moral ambivalence and the new commercial-minded nature of the Mediterranean in the 17th century. Serving in a foreign navy, in particular that of the French, gave the Knights the chance to serve the Church and for many, their King, to increase their chances of promotion in either their adopted navy or in Malta, to receive far better pay, to stave off their boredom with frequent cruises, to embark on the highly preferable short cruises of the French Navy over the long caravans favoured by the Maltese, and if the Knight desired, to indulge in some of the pleasures of a traditional debauched seaport.[30] In return, the French gained and quickly assembled an experienced navy to stave off the threat of the Spanish and their Habsburg masters. The shift in attitudes of the Knights over this period is ably outlined by Paul Lacroix who states:

Inflated with wealth, laden with privileges which gave them almost sovereign powers ... the order at last became so demoralised by luxury and idleness that it forgot the aim for which it was founded, and gave itself up for the love of gain and thirst for pleasure. Its covetousness and pride soon became boundless. The Knights pretended that they were above the reach of crowned heads: they seized and pillaged without concern of the property of both infidels and Christians."[31]


With the knights' exploits growing in fame and wealth, the European states became more complacent about the Order, and more unwilling to grant money to an institution that was perceived to be earning a healthy sum on the high seas. Thus a vicious cycle occurred, increasing the raids and reducing the grants received from the nation-states of Christendom to such an extent that the balance of payments on the island had become dependent on conquest.[24] The European powers lost interest in the knights as they focused their intentions largely on one another during the Thirty Years' War. In February 1641 a letter was sent from an unknown dignitary in the Maltese capital of Valletta to the knights' most trustworthy ally and benefactor, Louis XIV of France, stating the Order's troubles:

Italy provides us with nothing much; Bohemia and Germany hardly anything, and England and the Netherlands for a long time now nothing at all. We only have something to keep us going, Sire, in your own Kingdom and in Spain.[32]


It is important to note that the Maltese authorities would neglect to mention the fact that they were making a substantial profit policing the seas and seizing "infidel" ships and cargoes. The authorities on Malta immediately recognised the importance of corsairing to their economy and set about encouraging it, as despite their vows of poverty, the Knights were granted the ability to keep a portion of the spoglio, which was the prize money and cargo gained from a captured ship, along with the ability to fit out their own galleys with their new wealth.[33]

The great controversy that surrounded the knights' corso was their insistence on their policy of 'vista'. This enabled the Order to stop and board all shipping suspected of carrying Turkish goods and confiscate the cargo to be re-sold at Valletta, along with the ship's crew, who were by far the most valuable commodity on the ship. Naturally many nations claimed to be victims of the knights' over-eagerness to stop and confiscate any goods remotely connected to the Turks.[23] In an effort to regulate the growing problem, the authorities in Malta established a judicial court, the Consiglio del Mer, where captains who felt wronged could plead their case, often successfully. The practice of issuing privateering licenses and thus state endorsement, which had been in existence for a number of years, was tightly regulated as the island's government attempted to haul in the unscrupulous knights and appease the European powers and limited benefactors. Yet these efforts were not altogether successful, as the Consiglio del Mer received numerous complaints around the year 1700 of Maltese piracy in the region. Ultimately, the rampant over-indulgence in privateering in the Mediterranean was to be the knights' downfall in this particular period of their existence as they transformed from serving as the military outpost of a united Christendom to becoming another nation-state in a commercially oriented continent soon to be overtaken by the trading nations of the North Sea.[34]

Life in Malta

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Auberge de Castille in Valletta, an example of 18th century Baroque architecture built by the Order.

Having gained Malta, the knights stayed for 268 years, transforming what they called "merely a rock of soft sandstone" into a flourishing island with mighty defences and a capital city (Valletta) known as Superbissima, "Most Proud", amongst the great powers of Europe. However, "the indigenous islanders had not particularly enjoyed the rule of the Knights of St John". Most Knights were French and excluded the native islanders from important positions. They were especially loathed for the way they took advantage of the native women.[35]

In 1301, the Order was organized in seven langues; by order of precedence, Provence, Auvergne, France, Aragon, Italy, England, and Germany. In 1462, the Langue of Aragon was divided into Castile-Portugal and Aragon-Navarre. The English Langue went into abeyance after the order's properties were taken over by Henry VIII in 1540. In 1782, it was revived as the Anglo-Bavarian Langue, containing Bavarian and Polish priories. The structure of langues was replaced in the late 19th century by a system of national associations.

When the Knights first arrived, the natives were apprehensive about their presence and viewed them as arrogant intruders. The Maltese were excluded from serving in the order. The Knights were even generally dismissive of the Maltese nobility. However, the two groups coexisted peacefully, since the Knights boosted the economy, were charitable, and protected against Muslim attacks.[36]

Not surprisingly, hospitals were among the first projects to be undertaken on Malta, where French soon supplanted Italian as the official language (though the native inhabitants continued to speak Maltese among themselves).[37] The knights also constructed fortresses, watch towers, and naturally, churches. Its acquisition of Malta signalled the beginning of the Order's renewed naval activity.

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View of the fortifications of Valletta

The building and fortification of Valletta, named for Grand Master la Valette, was begun in 1566, soon becoming the home port of one of the Mediterranean's most powerful navies. Valletta was designed by Francesco Laparelli, a military engineer, and his work was then taken up by Girolamo Cassar. The city was completed in 1571. The island's hospitals were expanded as well. The Sacra Infermeria could accommodate 500 patients and was famous as one of the finest in the world. In the vanguard of medicine, the Hospital of Malta included Schools of Anatomy, Surgery and Pharmacy. Valletta itself was renowned as a centre of art and culture. The Conventual Church of St. John, completed in 1577, contains works by Caravaggio and others.

In Europe, most of the Order's hospitals and chapels survived the Reformation, though not in Protestant or Evangelical countries. In Malta, meanwhile, the Public Library was established in 1761. The University was founded seven years later, followed, in 1786, by a School of Mathematics and Nautical Sciences. Despite these developments, some of the Maltese grew to resent the Order, which they viewed as a privileged class. This even included some of the local nobility, who were not admitted to the Order.

In Rhodes, the knights had been housed in auberges (inns) segregated by Langues. This structure was maintained in Birgu (1530–1571) and then Valletta (from 1571). The auberges in Birgu remain, mostly undistinguished 16th-century buildings. Valletta still has the auberges of Castille (1574; renovated 1741 by Grand Master de Vilhena, now the Prime Minister's offices), Italy (renovated 1683 by Grand Master Carafa, now the Malta Tourism Authority), Aragon (1571, now Ministry for EU Affairs), Bavaria (former Palazzo Carnerio, purchased in 1784 for the newly formed Langue, now used as the Government Property Department) and Provence (now National Museum of Archaeology). In the Second World War, the auberge d'Auvergne was damaged (and later replaced by Law Courts) and the auberge de France was destroyed.

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A 1742 Tarì coin of the Knights Hospitaller, depicting the head of John the Baptist on a platter.

In 1604, each Langue was given a chapel in the conventual church of Saint John and the arms of the Langue appear in the decoration on the walls and ceiling:

• Provence: Michael the archangel, Jerusalem
• Auvergne: Saint Sebastian, Azure a dolphin or
• France: conversion of Paul the Apostle, France
• Castile and León: James, brother of Jesus, Quarterly Castile and Leon
• Aragon: Saint George [the church of the Langue is consecrated to Our Lady of the Pillar Per pale Aragon and Navarre]
• Italy: St Catherine, Azure the word ITALIA in bend or
• England: Flagellation of Christ, [no arms visible; in Rhodes the Langue used the arms of England, quarterly France and England]
• Germany: Epiphany, Austria born by a double-headed eagle displayed sable

Turmoil in Europe

Even as it survived on Malta, the Order lost many of its European holdings during the Protestant Reformation. The property of the English branch was confiscated in 1540.[38] The German Bailiwick of Brandenburg became Lutheran in 1577, then more broadly Evangelical, but continued to pay its financial contribution to the Order until 1812, when the Protector of the Order in Prussia, King Frederick William III, turned it into an order of merit;[38] in 1852, his son and successor as Protector, King Frederick William IV of Prussia, restored the Johanniterorden to its continuing place as the chief non-Roman Catholic branch of the Knights Hospitaller.

The Knights of Malta had a strong presence within the Imperial Russian Navy and the pre-revolutionary French Navy. When Phillippe de Longvilliers de Poincy was appointed governor of the French colony on Saint Kitts in 1639, he was a prominent Knight of St. John and dressed his retinue with the emblems of the Order. In 1651, the knights bought from the Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique the islands of Sainte-Christophe, Saint Martin, and Saint Barthélemy.[39] The Order's presence in the Caribbean was eclipsed with De Poincy's death in 1660. He had also bought the island of Saint Croix as his personal estate and deeded it to the Knights of St. John. In 1665, the order sold their Caribbean possessions to the French West India Company, ending the Order's presence in that region.

The decree of the French National Assembly in 1789 abolishing feudalism in France also abolished the Order in France:

V. Tithes of every description, as well as the dues which have been substituted for them, under whatever denomination they are known or collected (even when compounded for), possessed by secular or regular congregations, by holders of benefices, members of corporations (including the Order of Malta and other religious and military orders), as well as those devoted to the maintenance of churches, those impropriated to lay persons and those substituted for the portion congrue, are abolished ...[40]


The French Revolutionary Government seized the assets and properties of the Order in France in 1792.

Loss of Malta

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Emperor Paul wearing the Crown of the Grand Master of the Order of Malta (1799).

Their Mediterranean stronghold of Malta was captured by Napoleon in 1798 during his expedition to Egypt.[18] Napoleon demanded from Grand Master Ferdinand von Hompesch zu Bolheim that his ships be allowed to enter the port and to take on water and supplies. The Grand Master replied that only two foreign ships could be allowed to enter the port at a time. Bonaparte, aware that such a procedure would take a very long time and would leave his forces vulnerable to Admiral Nelson, immediately ordered a cannon fusillade against Malta.[41] The French soldiers disembarked in Malta at seven points on the morning of 11 June and attacked. After several hours of fierce fighting, the Maltese in the west were forced to surrender.[42]

Napoleon opened negotiations with the fortress capital of Valletta. Faced with vastly superior French forces and the loss of western Malta, the Grand Master negotiated a surrender to the invasion.[43] Hompesch left Malta for Trieste on 18 June.[44] He resigned as Grand Master on 6 July 1799.

The knights were dispersed, though the order continued to exist in a diminished form and negotiated with European governments for a return to power. The Russian Emperor, Paul I, gave the largest number of knights shelter in Saint Petersburg, an action which gave rise to the Russian tradition of the Knights Hospitaller and the Order's recognition among the Russian Imperial Orders.[45] The refugee knights in Saint Petersburg proceeded to elect Tsar Paul as their Grand Master – a rival to Grand Master von Hompesch until the latter's abdication left Paul as the sole Grand Master. Grand Master Paul I created, in addition to the Roman Catholic Grand Priory, a "Russian Grand Priory" of no fewer than 118 Commanderies, dwarfing the rest of the Order and open to all Christians. Paul's election as Grand Master was, however, never ratified under Roman Catholic canon law, and he was the de facto rather than de jure Grand Master of the Order.

By the early 19th century, the order had been severely weakened by the loss of its priories throughout Europe. Only 10% of the order's income came from traditional sources in Europe, with the remaining 90% being generated by the Russian Grand Priory until 1810. This was partly reflected in the government of the Order being under Lieutenants, rather than Grand Masters, in the period 1805 to 1879, when Pope Leo XIII restored a Grand Master to the order. This signaled the renewal of the order's fortunes as a humanitarian and religious organization.

On 19 September 1806, the Swedish government offered the sovereignty of the island of Gotland to the Order. The offer was rejected since it would have meant the Order renouncing their claim to Malta.[46]

Remnants

Image
View from Valletta, Malta, showing Fort Saint Angelo, belonging to the Sovereign Military Order of Malta.

In August 2013, the Israel Antiquities Authority announced that the 150,000 square feet (14,000 m2) Hospitaller hospital, built between 1099 and 1291, with permission from the Muslim authorities, had been rediscovered in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem. It had been able to accommodate up to 2,000 patients, who came from all religious groups, and Jewish patients received kosher food. It also served as an orphanage, with these children often becoming Hospitallers when adult. The remaining vaulted area was discovered during excavations for a restaurant, and the preserved building will be incorporated in the project.[47]

Claims over the Knights Hospitaller

Several organizations claim with their own sources to have evolved from the Knights Hospitaller but all are subject to international dispute and lack recognition. The Russian Tradition was recognized by the Pope with Tsar Paul I becoming Grand Master. The British resented this decision as it could have given Russia access to the Mediterranean through a claim over Malta. Britain said that the decision of the Pope was not official. The Holy See later retracted its decision stating a number of conflicts with Tsar Paul I, since he did not follow the precepts binding the Grand Master: he was married and not celibate ; he had never been to Malta and declined to live there; and he was not a Roman Catholic. In the 20th century a British leaning order called the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM) was formed claiming descent from the early 19th century. Its recognition was promoted by Britain and accepted by the Roman Catholic Church on several conditions, but most countries do not recognize it, while other countries do so according to different criteria ranging from a sovereign entity to a charitable organization. The British leaning SMOM order, ironically, has also formed a protestant branch of the order. Several other orders have made claims over the Order of St John since the 19th century. Each order, including the Russian Tradition and the SMOM generally use their interpretation of sources to present and claim a particular history of events. No independent sources support any superseding order of the Knights Hospitaller, all of which use either non-primary or self-published, non-peer-reviewed sources in support of their claims of legitimacy. The Order came to an end either sometimes after the expulsion of the knights from Malta or soon after the Russian revolution, both in the early 19th century.[48]

Sovereign Military Order of Malta

In 1834, the order settled in Rome.[49] Hospital work, the original work of the order, became once again its main concern. The Order's hospital and welfare activities, undertaken on a considerable scale in World War I, were greatly intensified and expanded in World War II under the Grand Master Fra' Ludovico Chigi Albani della Rovere (Grand Master 1931–1951).

Image
Coat of arms of the Order of Malta

The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta, better known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM), is a Roman Catholic lay religious order and the world's oldest surviving order of chivalry.[50] Its sovereign status is recognised by membership in numerous international bodies and observer status at the United Nations and others.[51]

The Order maintains diplomatic relations with 107 countries, official relations with 6 others and with the European Union, permanent observer missions to the United Nations and its specialised agencies, and delegations or representations to many other international organizations.[52][53] It issues its own passports, currency, stamps and even vehicle registration plates[citation needed]. The Sovereign Military Order of Malta has a permanent presence in 120 countries, with 12 Grand Priories and Sub-Priories and 47 national Associations, as well as numerous hospitals, medical centres, day care centres, first aid corps, and specialist foundations, which operate in 120 countries. Its 13,500 members and 80,000 volunteers and over 42,000 medical personnel – doctors, nurses and paramedics – are dedicated to the care of the poor, the sick, the elderly, the disabled, the homeless, terminal patients, lepers, and all those who suffer. The Order is especially involved in helping victims of armed conflicts and natural disasters by providing medical assistance, caring for refugees, and distributing medicines and basic equipment for survival.

The Sovereign Military Order of Malta established a mission in Malta, after signing an agreement with the Maltese Government which granted the Order the exclusive use of Fort St. Angelo for a term of 99 years.[54] Today, after restoration, the Fort hosts historical and cultural activities related to the Order of Malta.[55]

Alliance of the Orders of Saint John of Jerusalem

During the Reformation, German commanderies of the Bailiwick of Brandenburg (located chiefly in the Margraviate of Brandenburg) declared their continued adherence to the Order of Saint John even as their knights converted to evangelical Christianity. Continuing to the present day as the Order of Saint John of the Bailiwick of Brandenburg, this forms an order of chivalry under the protection of the Federal Republic and with its Herrenmeister ("Lord of the Knights") almost always a scion of the House of Hohenzollern (currently, Prince Oscar of Prussia). From Germany, this Protestant branch has spread by membership into other countries in Europe (including Belgium, Hungary, Poland, Finland, Denmark, Switzerland, France, Austria, the United Kingdom, and Italy), North America (the United States, Canada, and Mexico), South America (Colombia, Venezuela, Chile), Africa (Namibia, South Africa), Asia, and Australia.[56]

The commanderies of the Bailiwick of Brandenburg in the Netherlands (which originated in the Middle Ages) and Sweden became independent of the Bailiwick after the Second World War and now are independent orders under the protection of their respective monarchs; the Dutch monarch is an Honorary Commander of the Order of Saint John in the Netherlands, and the Order of St John in Sweden is protected by King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden.

All three Protestant orders, the German, Dutch, and Swedish, are in formalised co-operation as members of the Alliance of the Orders of Saint John of Jerusalem, founded in 1961 by the Order of Saint John of the Bailiwick of Brandenburg. (As well as originating with the mediaeval Knights Hospitaller, these three orders meet the traditional conditions for dynastic orders of chivalry under the legitimate fount of honour of each nation, and thus enjoy recognition by the privately operated and funded International Commission on Orders of Chivalry as of 2016.) The Protestant orders remain independent of though co-operative with the Roman Catholic Sovereign Military Order of Malta.

In England, almost all the property of the Knights Hospitaller was confiscated by King Henry VIII through the Dissolution of the Monasteries during the Reformation. Though not formally suppressed, this effectively caused the activities of the English Langue of the order to come to an end.

In 1831, however, a British order was recreated by European aristocrats claiming (possibly without authority) to be acting on behalf of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta.[57] This order in time became known as the Most Venerable Order of Saint John, receiving a royal charter from Queen Victoria in 1888, before expanding throughout the United Kingdom, the British Commonwealth, and the United States. Today, the best-known activities of this order are the St. John Ambulance Brigade in Britain and the Commonwealth and the Saint John Eye Hospital in Jerusalem.[58] The Most Venerable Order of Saint John has maintained a presence in Malta since the late 19th century. In contrast with the orders originating with the mediaeval Knights Hospitaller, the British organisation no longer limits its membership to Christians.

Other orders

Following the end of World War II, and taking advantage of the lack of State Orders in the Italian Republic, an Italian called himself a Polish Prince and did a brisk trade in Maltese crosses as the Grand Prior of the fictitious "Grand Priory of Podolia" until successfully prosecuted for fraud. Another fraud claimed to be the Grand Prior of the Holy Trinity of Villeneuve, but gave up after a police visit, although the organisation resurfaced in Malta in 1975, and then by 1978 in the USA, where it still continues.[59]

The large passage fees collected by the American Association of SMOM in the early 1950s may well have tempted a man named Charles Pichel to create his own "Sovereign Order of St. John of Jerusalem, Knights Hospitaller" in 1956.[5] Pichel avoided the problems of being an imitation of SMOM by giving his organization a mythical history, claiming that the American organization he led had been founded within the Russian tradition of the Knights Hospitaller in 1908—a spurious claim, but which nevertheless misled many including some academics. In truth, the foundation of his organisation had no connection to the Russian tradition of the Knights Hospitaller. Once created, the attraction of Russian Nobles into membership of Pichel's 'Order' lent some plausibility to his claims.

These organizations have led to scores of other self-styled orders.[5] Another self-styled Order, based in California, gained a substantial following under leadership of the late Robert Formhals, who for some years, and with the support of historical organisations such as The Augustan Society, claimed to be a Polish prince of the House of Sanguszko.[5]

Princes and Grand Masters

See also

• Palace of the Grand Master of the Knights of Rhodes
• List of the priors of Saint John of Jerusalem in England
• Teutonic Order
• Knights Templar
• Torphichen Preceptory
• Pierre Jean Louis Ovide Doublet, a leadership member of the French Secretariat of the Knights Fortifications
• Fortifications of Rhodes
• Fortifications of Malta
• Kolossi Castle
• Mailberg

References

1. Adrian J. Boas, Jerusalem in the Time of the Crusades: Society, Landscape and Art in the Holy City under Frankish Rule, (Routledge, 2001), 26.
2. "Knights of Malta – unofficial website".
3. "Moeller, Charles. "Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 7. New York: Robert Appleton Company". Newadvent.org. 1910-06-01. Retrieved 2014-03-02.
4. Louis Moreri, The Great Historical Dictionary(1759):[page needed]
5. Cartulaire general de l'ordre des hospitaliers de St Jean de Jerusalem (1100–1310), ed. Joseph Delaville le Roulx (Paris, 1894–1906), no. 78, no. 2479.
6. L. Greaves, Houses of the National Trust: Outstanding Buildings of Britain (London, 2008) p. 325
7. M. Rady, Nobility, Land and Service in Medieval Hungary[1]
8. Graham, J. J. (1858). Elementary History of the Progress of the Art of War. R. Bentley., page 299
9. Helen J. Nicholson, The Knights Hospitaller, (Boydell Press, 2001), 54
10. Artemi, E. DIASPORIC COMMUNITIES IN RHODES 1350 -1450. The Knights of Rhodes – the hospitallers
11. "Catholic Encyclopedia: Knights of Malta". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 2008-10-12.
12. "Bodrum.com".
13. Balfour, Baron Kinross, Patrick (1979). The Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire. p. 176.
14. (G. Veinstein). "Süleymān: Encyclopaedia of Islam: Brill Online". Brillonline.nl. Retrieved 2008-10-12.
15. "Malta History". Jimdiamondmd.com. Retrieved 2008-10-12.
16. "Malta History 1000 AD–present". Carnaval.com. Retrieved 2008-10-12.
17. This historical fact was used as the plot hook in Dashiell Hammett's famous novel The Maltese Falcon.
18. "Knights of Malta". Knightshospitallers.org. Archived from the original on 5 July 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-12.
19. Balbi, Francesco (1965). The Siege of Malta, 1565. Boydell Press. ISBN 9781843831402.
20. Ottoman Siege of Malta, 1565, World History at KMLA. Accessed 14 September 2007
21. Peter Earle, Corsairs of Malta and Barbary, (London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1970); p. 107
22. Hoppen, 'The Finances of the Order of St John of Jerusalem' p. 106
23. Peter Earle, Corsairs of Malta and Barbary, (London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1970); p. 109
24. Peter Earle, Corsairs of Malta and Barbary, (London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1970); p. 97
25. Herny Kamen, Early Modern European Society, (London: Routledge, 2000); p. 17
26. D F Allen, "Charles II, Louis XIV and the Order of Malta", The Historical Journal, 33(4), 1990, p. 326
27. Paul Walden Bamford, 'The Knights of Malta and the King of France 1665–1700', French Historical Studies, 3, 1964; p. 432
28. Paul Walden Bamford, "The Knights of Malta and the King of France 1665–1700", French Historical Studies, 3, 1964; p. 434
29. D. F. Allen, "Charles II, Louis XIV and the Order of Malta", The Historical Journal, 33(4), 1990, p. 324
30. Paul Walden Bamford, "The Knights of Malta and the King of France 1665–1700", French Historical Studies, 3, 1964; pp. 423–433
31. Paul Lacroix, Military and Religious Life in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, (New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing, 1964); p. 188
32. D. F. Allen, "Charles II, Louis XIV and the Order of Malta", The Historical Journal, 33(4), 1990, p. 338
33. Desmond Seward, The Monks of War (London: Penguin, 1972); p. 274
34. Molly Greene, "Beyond the Northern Invasion: The Mediterranean in the 17th Century", Past and Present, 2002 (174), p. 46
35. John Sugden (3 Feb 2014). Nelson: The Sword of Albion(illustrated ed.). Random House. p. 122. ISBN 9781847922762.
36. Nicholas C. Prata (1 Apr 2004). Angels in Iron (illustrated, reprint ed.). Arx Publishing, LLC. pp. 10–11. ISBN 9781889758565.
37. Cassar, Mario. "L-Istorja tal-Ilsien Malti". L-Akkademja tal-Malti. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
38. "History – Order of Malta in the UK". Orderofmalta.org.uk. Archived from the original on 24 July 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-12.
39. Louis Jean Pierre Marie Bonnassieux, Les grandes compagnies de commerce: étude pour servir à l'histoire de la colonisation. Originally published Paris, 1892. Reprinted in 1969 by Ayer Publishing.
40. Robinson, J.H., ed. (1906). "The Decree Abolishing the Feudal System". Readings in European History 2 vols. Boston: Ginn. 2: 404–409.
41. Cole, Juan (2007). Napoleon's Egypt: Invading the Middle East. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 8–9.
42. Cole, Juan (2007). Napoleon's Egypt: Invading the Middle East. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 9.
43. Cole, Juan (2007). Napoleon's Egypt: Invading the Middle East. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 10.
44. Whitworth Porter, A History of the Knights of Malta (London: Longman, Brown, Green, 1858). p. 457.
45. "Focus on Malta – History". Focusmm.com. Retrieved 2008-10-12.
46. Stair Sainty, Guy (2000). "From the loss of Malta to the modern era". ChivalricOrders.org. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012.
47. Mairav, Zonszein (August 5, 2013). "Mideast's Largest Crusader-Era Hospital Unveiled". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 24 December 2017.
48. Dijkhof, Hans J. Hoegen; Dijkhof, Hendrik Johannes Hoegen (2006). The Legitimacy of Orders of St. John: A Historical and Legal Analysis and Case Study of a Para-religious Phenomenon. Hoegen Dijkhof Advocaten. ISBN 9789065509543.
49. "Sovereign Order of Malta – official site". Orderofmalta.int. Retrieved 2016-09-12.
50. World Orders of Knighthood and Merit edited by Guy Stair Sainty, Burke's, Aug 2006
51. "Organisations granted Observer Status in the General Assembly". Archived from the original on 1 December 2012.{}
52. Bilateral relations. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
53. Multilateral Relations. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
54. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 November 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
55. Sovereign Order of Malta – official sitepublisher=Orderofmalta.int|date=|accessdate=2017-09-12
56. "St John International". Retrieved 2016-06-17.
57. Desmond Seward, The Monks of War: The Military Orders(London 2000), 270–85.
58. "St John Eye Hospital". Stjohneyehospital.org. Retrieved 2008-10-12.
59. "Self-Styled "Orders of Saint John" II". Chivalricorders.org. Archived from the original on 19 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-12.
This article incorporates text from Knights of Malta 1523–1798 by Reuben Cohen, a publication now in the public domain.

Further reading

• Ball, David (2004). Ironfire. Bantam Dell. ISBN 0-385-33601-2.
• Cohen, R. (15 April 2004) [1920]. Julie Barkley, Bill Hershey and PG Distributed Proofreaders, ed. Knights of Malta, 1523–1798. Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 2006-05-29.
• Crowley, Roger (2008). Empires of the Sea: The Siege of Malta, the Battle of Lepanto, and the Contest for the Center of the World. Random House. ISBN 978-1400066247.
• Fenech, Marthese (2011). Eight Pointed Cross. BDL. ISBN 978-99957-33-08-7.
• Gauci, Liam (2016). In the Name of the Prince: Maltese Corsairs 1760-1798. Malta: Heritage Malta Publishing. ISBN 9789993257370.
• Hoegen Dijkhof, Hans J. (2006). The Legitimacy of Orders of St. John: a historical and legal analysis and case study of a para-religious phenomenon. Doctoral thesis. Leiden: University of Leiden. ISBN 9065509542.
• Levaye, Patrick (2007). Géopolitique du Catholicisme. Éditions Ellipses. ISBN 2-7298-3523-7.
• Lindgren, Carl Edwin (September–October 1999). "Some Notes About the Sovereign Military Order of Malta in the U.S.A". Nobilita (Rivista di Araldica, Genealogia, Ordini Cavallereschi). Istituto Araldico Genealogico Italiano. 7 (32).
• Nicholson, Helen J. (2001). The Knights Hospitaller. ISBN 1-84383-038-8.;
• Noonan, James-Charles, Jr. (1996). The Church Visible: The Ceremonial Life and Protocol of the Roman Catholic Church. Viking. p. 196. ISBN 0-670-86745-4.
• Peyrefitte, Roger (1960). Knights of Malta. London: Secker & Warburg. Translated from the French by Edward Hyams.
• Read, Piers Paul (1999). The Templars. Imago. p. 118. ISBN 85-312-0735-5.
• Riley-Smith, Jonathan (1999). Hospitallers: The History of the Order of St John. Hambledon. ISBN 1-85285-197-X.
• Tyerman, Christopher (2006). God's War: A New History of the Crusades. Allen Lane. p. 253. ISBN 0-7139-9220-4.
• White, Joshua M. (2017). Piracy and Law in the Ottoman Mediterranean. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-1-503-60252-6.
1. ^ As the Sovereign Military Order of Malta

External links

• Sovereign Military Order of Malta official website
• Rare Histoire des Chevaliers de L’Ordre de S. Jean de Hierusalem Rare Book on Knights of St. John
• The Acquisition of Sovereignty by Quasi-States: The case of the Order of Malta by Dr Noel Cox
• WorldStatesmen article
• Houses of Knights Hospitallers, British History Online
• Knights Hospitaller of the Order of St John of Jerusalem in Scotland
• History of the Order of St John in Scotland
• "Vatican celebrates Knights of Malta's 900 years" by Nicole Winfield, Associated Press, Feb 9, 2013
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Re: Ordo Templi Orientis Spermo-Gnosis: Carl Kellner, Theodo

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13th Degree: Royal Arch of Enoch (or Knights of the Ninth Arch)
The Book of the Ancient & Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry
by Charles T. McClenechan
(1884)

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

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THIRTEENTH DEGREE.

Royal Arch of Enoch.

ARGUMENT.


This degree, in fact, forms the climax of Ineffable Masonry; it is the keystone of the arch, and discovers that which is revealed in the succeeding degree of Perfection. It is a most important and interesting grade, and so intimately connected with its successor as to appear like a section of that degree.

The shaded beauties of the sacred words that have so gradually been inculcated, in this degree receive a climax, and culminate in the development of the great mystery of Ineffable Masonry.

"The dark clouds and mists that have hitherto veiled the sacred mysteries now begin to be dispelled: the glorious dawn illumines the E Image with its bright effulgence, and its rays penetrate into dark and hidden places."

Image

ROYAL ARCH OF ENOCH;

OR

KNIGHTS OF THE NINTH ARCH.

THE THIRTEENTH GRADE OF THE ANCIENT AND ACCEPTED SCOTTISH RITE, AND THE TENTH DEGREE OF THE INEFFABLE SERIES.

Image

Image

DECORATIONS.

This Chapter of Royal Arch of Solomon represents the audience-chamber of King Solomon. The hangings are alternately red and white.

Lights -- Three in the East, three in the West, and three in the South.

OFFICERS.

King Solomon is seated in the East.

Hirma, King of Tyre, is also in the East, on the left of K Image S Image

Senior Warden represents Gibulum, and is seated in the West.

Junior Warden represents Stolkin, and is seated in the South.

Treasurer (who represents Joabert), Secretary, Master of Ceremonies, Captain of the Guard, and other officers, stationed as in a Lodge of Perfection.

All Officers and Companion, except the Kings, clothed in black, with apron, collar, and jewel of this degree or of their particular office.

King Solomon wears a yellow robe, purple chasuble, lined with blue, sleeves reaching to the elbows, and rich purple sash, with jewel.

King Hiram of Tyre wears a purple robe, yellow chasuble, and rich purple sash, with jewel.

Apron -- Purple silk or velvet, bordered with white; in the centre of the area, the Enochian delta, with rays.

Image

Collar -- Purple silk or velvet, and suspended to it the

Jewel -- A Gold triangle, on which is engraved the delta of Enoch, with rays. On the obverse side of the jewel is a representation of the first three recipients of this degree, two of them lowering the third into the subterranean vault. Around this device, the initials of the words "Regnante Sapientissimo Salamone, Gibulum, Joabert, et Stolkin invenerunt pretiosissimum Artificum thesaurum subter ruinas Enoch, Anno Mundi 2995."

Age - 7 times 9=63.

Battery - Image

There should be a separate apartment, without apparent door or window; opening overhead, covered with a trap-door, representing a flat stone with an iron ring to it.

Image

OPENING.

T. Image P Image The Lord is great in Zion. Let all the earth praise him for his great and terrible name, for it is holy.

S. Image W Image Exalt the Lord our God, and worship on his holy hill.

J Image W Image He spake from the cloudy pillar and from the fire; and from the depth cometh forth the riches of secret places.

T Image P Image Exalt the Lord our God, for he is holy; and his name, for it is from everlasting to everlasting.

S Image W Image What is man, that he should magnify him, or that he should set his heart upon him?

J Image W Image We are but of yesterday, and know nothing. Our days are but a shadow: they flee, and we know not.

T Image P Image Canst thou, by searching, find out God? Canst thou find out the Almighty to perfection? He is as high as heaven. What canst thou do? He is deeper than hell. What canst thou know?

S Image W Image His eyes are upon the ways of man, and he seeth all his doings.

J Image W Image O God, let thy work appear unto thy servants, and thy glory unto the children of men!

T Image P Image Let the beauty of the Lord be upon us, and establish thou the work of our hands: O Jehovah, establish thou it!

S Image W Image I will sing unto the Lord as long as I live; I will sing praises unto my God while I have my being.

J Image W Image My meditations of him shall be sweet; I will be glad in the Lord.

T Image P Image Mark the perfect man, and behold the upright: for the end of that man is peace. "Mine eyes shall be on the perfect man," saith the Lord.

"The perfect of the land shall dwell with me: they shall walk in my name, and serve me forever." Companions, let us give thanks unto the Lord, who hath given us the treasures of darkness and the hidden riches of secret places.

PRAYER

O thou great and eternal Lord God, source of light and of love -- thou Sovereign Inspector and Mighty Architect of the wonders of Creation -- who from thy throne in the highest heaven in mercy looketh down upon all the dwellers of the earth -- lend, we beseech thee, thine ears to the prayers and petitions of thy unworthy servants now assembled in thy presence, to teach the mysteries of that Sublime Edifice which is erected and dedicated to thy Most Holy and Glorious Name. pour upon us, and all the members of the Mystic Craft throughout the two hemispheres, the rich blessings of thy Providence. Give us strength to overcome temptations, to subdue our passions, and to practise virtue. Fill our hearts with fear without desolation; with confidence without presumption; with piety without illusion; and with joy without licentiousness. Fill our hearts with tender affections for thy divine goodness, and love for our neighbors: make us faithful to our friends and charitable to our enemies. Dispose our hearts, O thou God Eternal! to receive the splendid impressions of Religion and Humanity; our minds, the great lights of Science; and direct our footsteps in the bright paths of virtue.

Let all our actions prove to an admiring world that our lives are sincerely dedicated to Thee, our God, and to the relief of our fellow-creatures. And finally, when we yield up our breath to Thee, the Source of Life, may we, bearing the rich harvest of good actions, be admitted into that Sublime and Eternal Lodge where happiness reigns without alloy, and where, around the throne of the Great Jehovah, we shall sing hallelujahs to his name.

Now unto the King Eternal, Immortal, Invisible, the only Wise God, be the kingdom, power, and glory, forever and ever. Amen!

Omnes. God grant it so may be!

Image

RECEPTION.

I shall now invest you with the apron, collar, and jewel of a Knight of the Ninth or Royal Arch.

The color of your apron and collar is purple, and denotes the royal origin of the degree and the dignity of your station.

The jewel alludes to the delta or golden plate found in the subterranean arch, a more full description of which will be obtained by attending to the history and lecture of the degree.

HISTORY.

G Image O Image Companions: this is the history and legend of this degree. Enoch, the son of Jared, was the sixth in descent from Adam. Filled with the love and fear of God, he strove to lead men in the way of honor and duty. In a vision the deity appeared to him in visible shape, and said to him, "Enoch, thou hast longed to know my true name: arise and follow me, and thou shall know it."

***

Enoch, accepting his vision as an inspiration, journeyed in search of the mountain he had seen in his dream, until, weary of the search, he stopped in the land of Canaan, then already populous with the descendants of Adam, and there employed workmen; and with the help of his son Methuselah, he excavated nine apartments, one above the other, and each roofed with an arch, as he had seen in his dream, the lowest being hewn out of the solid rock. In the crown of each arch he left a narrow aperture, closed with a square stone, and over the upper one he built a modest temple, roofless and of huge unhewn stones, to the Grand Architect of the Universe.

Upon a triangular plate of gold, inlaid with many precious gems, he engraved the ineffable name of God, and sank the plate into one face of a cube of agate.

****

None knew of the deposit of the precious treasure; and, that it might remain undiscovered, and survive the Flood, which it was known to Enoch would soon overwhelm the world in one vast sea of mire, he covered the aperture, and the stone that closed it and the great ring of iron used to raise the stone, with the granite pavement of his primitive temple.

Then, fearing that all knowledge of the arts and sciences would be lost in the universal flood, he built two great columns upon a high hill -- one of brass, to resist water, and one of granite, to resist fire. On the granite column was written in hieroglyphics a description of the subterranean apartments: on the one of brass, the rudiments of the arts and sciences.

The granite column was overturned and swept away, and worn to a shapeless man by the Deluge, but that of brass stood firm, and was found by Noah. Thenceforward the true name of God remained unknown until he said unto Moses in Egypt, when he ordered him to go to Pharaoh, and cause him to send forth the children of Israel out of Egypt: "I am that which I was and shall be: I am the God of thy fathers; the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob. Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel He who is hath sent me unto you. I am the Lord, that appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob by my name AL-SHEDI, but my name -- I did not show them."

Moses engraved the ineffable name upon a plate of gold, and deposited it in the ark of the covenant. Moses made the name known to Aaron and Joshua, and afterwards it was made known to the chief priests. The word being composed of consonants only, its true pronunciation was soon lost, but the word still remained in the ark; and in the time of Othniel, in a battle against the King of Syria, those who bore the ark were slain, and the ark fell to the ground. After the battle, the men of Israel, searching for it, were led to it by the roaring of a lion, which, crouching by it, had guarded it, holding the golden key in its mouth. Upon the approach of the High-Priest and Levites, he laid down the key, and withdrew. Hence, upon the golden key worn by the treasurer, you see the initials of these words: "In arc leonis verbum inveni" -- "In the lion's mouth I found the word." This plate of gold was melted down, and made into an image of Dagon by the Philistines, who took it in battle.

David intended to build a temple to God, but bequeathed the enterprise to Solomon, his son, and Solomon selected a place near Jerusalem; but finding overthrown columns of Enoch's temple, and supposing them to be the ruins of a heathen temple, and not wishing to select a desecrated spot, selected Mount Moriah for the site of his Temple to the true God. Under this temple he built a secret vault, the approach to which was through eight other vaults, all under ground, and to which a long and narrow passage led under the king's palace. In the ninth apartment was placed a twisted column of white marble, on which it was intended to place the ark, and in this apartment he held his private conferences with King Hiram of tyre and H Image A Image, they only knowing the way by which it was approached. Solomon proposed to erect a Temple of Justice, and selected as a site the spot where Enoch's temple had stood, and to that end directed that the fallen columns and rubbish should be removed. Gibulum, Joabert, and Stolkin were selected to survey the ground and lay off the foundations.
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