We Want Freedom: A Life in the Black Panther Party, by Mumia

Re: We Want Freedom: A Life in the Black Panther Party, by M

Postby admin » Thu Jun 12, 2014 7:34 am

PHOTOS AND DOCUMENTS

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Mumia Abu-Jamal speaking at the memorial for Chairman Fred Hampton, December 1969, in the Church of the Advocate, Philadelphia.

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Jon Pinkett, Barbara Easley Cox, and Kentu share a frame.

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Barbara Cox reads to a child during a BPP function.

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BPP member Rene Johnson raps with community in front of the office.

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Black Panther meeting in Philadelphia, summer 1970.

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Photos of the "Pilots for Panthers" demonstration in Philadelphia supporting Eldridge Cleaver's call to exchange imprisoned Panthers for US POWs held in Vietnam by the NLF (see p. 107).

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Rolando "Montae" Hearn and Gladys are married in the BPP office. Captain Reggie Schell in background.

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Montae and Billy O. in the office.

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Captain Reggie Schell speaking at the memorial for Fred Hampton.

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Black Panther Milt McGriff raps to a brother in a record shop.

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Officer of the Day (OD) Jon Pinkett explains something to Sister Madelyn Coleman.

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Two photos of Mumia Abu-Jamal, Lieutenant of Information, working in the BPP office typing up a leaflet for the Philadelphia branch.

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Michael "Cetewayo" Tabor of the New York 21 sitting and watching at the Revolutionary People's Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, September 1970.

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Sam Napier, the late, martyred Distribution Manager of The Black Panther; former Black Panther editor "Big Man" Howard; and Philadelphia Panther Jon Pinkett.

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Black Panther Madelyn Coleman catches up on some reading.

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Philadelphia Black Panther member "Fish" shows bruises on his face after being beaten at the 55th and Pine Street police station.

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Temple University, Urban Archives. Mumia Abu-Jamal on the phone in the Philadelphia Black Panther office. This picture originally ran on the front page of the Philadelphia Inquirer, January 4, 1970. All other photographs taken from contact sheets by Philadelphia Black Panther Party photographer Steve Wilson (1969-70).

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Airtel to SAC, Albany RE: COUNTERINTELLIGENCE PROGRAM BLACK NATIONALIST-HATE GROUPS

nationalist activity, and interested in counterintelligence, to coordinate this program. This Agent will be responsible for the periodic progress letters being requested, but each Agent working this type of case should participate in the formulation of counterintelligence operations.

GOALS

For maximum effectiveness of the Counterintelligence Program, and to prevent wasted effort, long-range goals are being set.

1. Prevent the coalition of militant black nationalist groups. In unity there is strength; a truism that is no less valid for all its triteness. An effective coalition of black nationalist groups might be the first step toward a real "Mau Mau" in America, the beginning of a true black revolution.

2. Prevent the rise of a "messiah" who could unify, and electrify, the militant black nationalist movement. [DELETE] might have been such a "messiah;" he is the martyr of the movement today. [DELETE] and [DELETE] all aspire to this position. [DELETE] [DELETE] is less of a threat because of his age. [DELETE] could be a very real contender for this position should he abandon his supposed "obedience" to "white, liberal doctrines" (nonviolence) and embrace black nationalism. [DELETE] has the necessary charisma to be a real threat in this way.

3. Prevent violence on the part of black nationalist groups. This is of primary importance, and is, of course, a goal of our investigative activity; it should also be a goal of the Counterintelligence Program. Through counterintelligence it should be possible to pinpoint potential troublemakers and neutralize them before they exercise their potential for violence.

4. Prevent militant black nationalist groups and leaders from gaining respectability, by discrediting them to three separate segments of the community. The goal of discrediting black nationalists must be handled tactically in three ways. You must discredit these groups and individuals to, first, the responsible Negro community. Second, they must be discredited to the white community, ...

FBI memo of February 29 and May 4, 1968: The infamous "prevent the rise of a 'messiah'" memorandum.

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Airtel to SAC, Albany RE: COUNTERINTELLIGENCE PROGRAM BLACK NATIONALIST-HATE GROUPS

both the responsible community and to "liberals" who have vestiges of sympathy for militant black nationalist simply because they are Negroes. Third, these groups must be discredited in the eyes of Negro radicals, the followers of the movement. This last area requires entirely different tactics from the first two. Publicity about violence tendencies and radical statements merely enhances black nationalists to the last group; it adds "respectability" in a different way.

5. A final goal should be to prevent the long-range growth of militant black nationalist organizations, especially among youth. Specific tactics to prevent these groups from converting young people must be developed.

Besides these five goals counterintelligence is a valuable part of our regular investigative program as it often produces positive information.

TARGETS

Primary targets of the Counterintelligence Program, Black Nationalist-Hate Groups, should be the most violent and radical groups and their leaders. We should emphasize those leaders and organizations that are nationwide in scope and are most capable of disrupting this country. These targets should include the radical and violence-prone leaders, members, and followers of the:

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UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT Memorandum Director, FBI Date: 2-14-69

TO: SAC, ST. LOUIS

SUBJECT: COUNTER-INTELLIGENCE PROGRAM BLACK NATIONALIST-HATE GROUPS (BLACK LIBERATORS)

Enclosed for the Bureau are two copies and for Springfield one copy of a letter to "SISTER."

The following counter-intelligence activity is being proposed by the St. Louis Division to be directed against [DELETE] He is former [DELETE] of the BLACK LIBERATORS (Bufile 157-10356), [DELETE] [DELETE]. The activity attempts to alienate him from his wife and cause suspicion among the BLACK LIBERATORS that they have a dangerous troublemaker in their midst.

BACKGROUND:

[DELETE] is currently separated from his wife, [DELETE [DELETE] who lives with their two daughters in [DELETE]. He occasionally sends her money and she appears to be a faithful, loving wife, who is apparently convinced that her husband is performing a vital service to the Black world and, therefore, she must endure this separation without bothering him. She is, to all indications, an intelligent, respectable young mother, who is active in the AME Methodist Church in [DELETE].

FBI memo of February 14, 1969: Valentine's Day memo detailing a COINTELPRO against the Black Liberators of St. Lows (see p. 107) and noting anticipated results.

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EXPLANATION OF LETTER:

The enclosed letter was prepared from a penmanship, spelling, and vocabulary style to imitate that of the average Black Liberator member. It contains several accusations which should cause [DELETE] wife great concern. The letter is to be mailed in a cheap, unmarked envelope with no return address and sent from St. Louis to [DELETE. [DELETE]. Since her letters to [DELETE] are usually sent via the Black Liberator Headquarters, any member would have access to getting her address from one of her envelopes. This address is available to the St. Louis Division.

Her response, upon receipt of this letter, is difficult to predict and the counter-intelligence effect will be nullified if she does not discuss it with him. Therefore, to insure that [DELETE] and the Black Liberators are made aware that the letter was sent, the below follow-up action is necessary:

St. Louis will furnish [DELETE] with a machine copy of the actual letter that is sent. Attached to this copy will be a neat typed note saying:

"A mutual friend made this available without [DELETE] knowledge. I understand she recently recieved this letter from St. Louis. I suggest you look into this matter.

God Bless You!"

This note would give the impression that somehow one of [DELETE] close friends, probably a minister, obtained a copy of the letter and made it available to [DELETE]. The above material is to be mailed by the [DELETE] Division at [DELETE] anonymously in a suitable envelope with no return address to: [DELETE]

ANTICIPATED RESULTS:

The following results are anticipated following the execution of the above-counter-intelligence activity:

1. Ill feeling and possibly a lasting distrust will be brought about between [DELETE] and his wife. The concern over what to do about it may detract from his time spent in the plots and plans of [DELETE.] He may even decide to spend more time with his wife and children and less time in Black Nationalist activity.

2. The Black Liberators will waste a great deal of time trying to discover the writer of the letter. It is possible that their not-too subtle investigation will lose present members and alienate potential ones.

3. Inasmuch as Black Liberator strength is ebbing at its lowest level, this action may well be the "death-blow."

RECOMMENDATION:

Bureau authority is requested to initiate the above-described activity.

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Sister

Us Black Liberators are trained to respect Black Women and special are wifes and girls. Brother [DELETE] keeps tellin the Brothers this but he dont treet you that way. I only been in the organisatoin 2 months but [DELETE] been maken it here with Sister Marva Bass & Sister Tony and than he gines as this jine bout their better in bed then your [ILLEGIBLE] how he keeps you off his back by senden you a little dough ever now an then -- He says he gotta send you money the Draft board gonna chuck him in the army somethen. This isn't rite and were sayen that is treeten you wrong --

A Black Liberator

Photocopy of the letter to the head of the Black Liberator's wife prepared in the "penmanship, spelling, and vocabulary style to imitate that of the average Black Liberator member."

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UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT Memorandum

TO: ACTING DIRECTOR, FBI

FROM: SAC, PHILADELPHIA (P)

SUBJECT: WESLEY COOK, aka EM-BPP (Bufile 157-15510) (PHfile 157-3937)

BLACK LIBERATION ARMY EM-URBAN GUERRILLA WARFARE (Bufile 157-10555) (PHfile 157-6362)

DATE: 12/14/72

Re Bureau letter to New York dated 10/16/72, New York airtel to Bureau dated 11/15/72, both communications captioned, "Black Liberation Army, EM-UGW", Philadelphia airtel and LHM to Bureau dated 6/30/72 and Philadelphia letter to New York dated 7/31/72, both communications captioned, "WESLEY COOK, aka".

Telephone number 215-627-0378 from Document Source R-14 was furnished by referenced New York airtel dated 11/15/72. The telephone number was obtained by New York in a search of apartment occupied by [DELETE] and other BPP-CF and Black Liberation Army Associates.

[DELETE] This information is confidential and should not be made public without the issuance of a subpoena duces tecum directed to [DELETE], Philadelphia, Pa.

Philadelphia Division opened a case under, "Unsub, Subscriber to Telephone Number 215-627-0378, PH file 157-7240".

3-Bureau (157-15510) (AM) 1-157-10555 (BLA) 2-New York (RM) [ILLEGIBLE]-Philadelphia 1-157-3937 (COOK) 1-157-6362 (BLA) 1-157-5420 (BULF) 1-157-6296 (BPP-CF) 1-157-7420 [delete] B7C [delete]

Two pages of FBI memo of December 14, 1972, apparently linking Mumia Abu-Jamal to the Black Liberation Army (BLA) as a result of his home phone number being found in a search of an apartment occupied by BPP and BLA "associates."

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PH 157-3927 157-6362

EDITH L. COOK, 718 Wallace Street, Philadelphia, is the mother of WESLEY COOK, aka. COOK is an ADEX subject from Philadelphia, who has been associated with the BPP and in the past has written articles for the BPP-CF newspaper, "Babylon". 718 Wallace Street has been the address utilized by the subject in the past.

On 11/24/72, [DELETE] Civil Disobedience Unit, Philadelphia Police Department, advised that on 10/13/72 during the trial of RUSSELL SHOATZ, COOK was arrested while in the possession of a six inch bladed Exacto knife. SHOATZ was on trial on charges of homicide of Philadelphia Police park guard Sergeant FRANK VON COLLN. COOK attempted to attend the above trial and prior to entering the court room he was found to be in possession of the Exacto knife. COOK insisted that his address was 1928 West Columbia Avenue, the headquarters address of the BULF. BULF, an organization with aims similar to those of the BPP, is headed by RICHARD REGINALD SCHELL, former Defense Captain of the BPP in Philadelphia. COOK was arrested by the Philadelphia Police Department and charged with Carrying a Concealed Deadly Weapon.

[DELETE] a source who is familiar with BPP activities in Philadelphia, has continually advised that COOK is unknown, and he has never been known to associate with the BPP in Philadelphia. The source has also been unable to link COOK with the BULF, BPP-CF or the BLA.

In January 1971 COOK refused to be interviewed by Bureau agents and further attempts have not been made to interview him since that time.

Philadelphia has a pending case on the subject and further efforts will be made to determine subject's associates and extent of alliance with BULF, BPP-CF and BLA. Results of investigation will be reported under individual caption.

ARMED AND DANGEROUS.

Page two of the memo notes his arrest while trying to attend the trial of Russell Shoatz. A third page (not reproduced here) referring to his arrest at the trial is almost entirely blacked out.
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Re: We Want Freedom: A Life in the Black Panther Party, by M

Postby admin » Thu Jun 12, 2014 7:35 am

ENDNOTES

CHAPTER ONE


1. Seale, Seize the Time, 13-14.

2. Seale, Seize the Time, 14.

3. Seale, Seize the Time, 25.

4. Fanon, Wretched of the Earth, 96.

5. Newton, Revolutionary Suicide, 113.

6. Newton, Revolutionary Suicide, 71.

7. Newton, Revolutionary Suicide, 71.

8. Newton, Revolutionary Suicide, 113.

9. Seale, Seize the Time, 4; Marine, The Black Panthers, 12; Hilliard, This Side of Glory, 26.

10. Hilliard, This Side of Glory, 20.

11. Segal, The Black Diaspora, 142.

12. Moses, Classic Black Nationalism, 114.

13. Foner, E., Reconstruction, 285.

14. Foner, E., Reconstruction, 285.

15. Moses, Classic Black Nationalism, 9.

16. Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia (1781-32). Quoted in Moses, Classic Black Nationalism, 46.

17. Moses, Classic Black Nationalism, 210 (emphasis added).

18. Moses, Classic Black Nationalism, 212.

19. Moses, Classic Black Nationalism, 209.

20. Foner, E., Reconstruction, 45.

21. Foner, E., Reconstruction, 598-99.

22. A briefly attempted appellation of the post-Nation of Islam formation, the World Community of Islam in the West, led by the son of Elijah Muhammad, known as Warith Deen Muhammad.

23. Equiano, Life of Olaudah Equiano, 31.

24. Katz, Breaking the Chains, 11-12.

25. Linebaugh and Rediker, Many-Headed Hydra, 194.

26. Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts, 180-92. Quoted in Linebaugh and Rediker, Many-Headed Hydra, 194.

27. Frass, Matthew: "The First Rhode Island Regiment," http://www.nps.gov/colo/ Ythanout/firstri.html; Wiencek, Imperfect God, as discussed on Booknotes, CSPAN 11 November 2003.

28. Lee, Butch. Jailbreak Out of History, 21-22.

29. Kelley and Lewis, To Make Our World Anew,120.

30. Wright, Creeks and Seminoles, 86-87.

31. The term buckra was common in Black speech in the US South and in Jamaica to denote whites. Although its derivation is unclear, some suggest it arose during slavery days to reflect how brutal treatments, and whippings made one's "back raw." Harriet Tubman is quoted in McPherson's The Negro's Civil War as using the term to describe the Southern secessionists during the Civil War: "Den I heard 'twas the Yankee ship [the Wabasbh] firin, out de big eggs, and dey had come to set us free. Den I praised the Lord. He come an, put he little finger in de work, an, dey Sesh Buckra all go ... " (58-59).

32. Fresia, Toward an American Revolution, 25.

33. Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts, 22.

34. Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts, 213.

35. Judges 15:14-15, 20 (AV).

36. Wilmore, Black Religion and Black Radicalism,77-78.

37. Segal, The Black Diaspora, 144.

38. Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts, 222. Quoted in Segal, The Black Diaspora, 144.

39. McReynolds, The Seminoles, 75 (emphasis added).

40. McReynolds, The Seminoles, 75.

41. Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts, 259.

42. Kelley and Lewis, To Make Our World Anew, 197.

43. McReynolds, The Seminoles, 89.

44. McReynolds, The Seminoles, 40.

45. Wright, Creeks and Seminoles, 5-6.

46. Wright, Creeks and Seminoles, 218.

47. DuBois, John Brown, 131.

48. DuBois, John Browm, 131.

49. Anderson, Voice from Harper's Ferry, 98.

50. Anderson, Voice from Harper's Ferry, 98-99.

51. Faulkner, Requiem for a Nun (Act 1, Scene 3).

52. Matthews, Honoring the Ancestors, vii-viii (emphasis added).

53. Matthews, Honoring the Ancestors, viii.

CHAPTER TWO

1. Forbes, E., We have No Country, 121.

2. Cone, Martin and Malcolm, 222.

3. Cone, Martin and Malcolm, 223.

4. Newton, Revolutionary Suicide, 48.

5. I have used the term mass violence rather than the elite's preferred, and more projected, term, riot, because this term is usually given a somewhat pejorative connotation, attempting to mask the political objections and objectives of the agents involved in such acts.

6. Feagin, Racist America, 63.

7. http:/ /www.pbs.org/wnet/aaworld/ reference/articles/ red_summer.html

8. Forbes, E., We Have No Country, 9.

9. Forbes, E., We Have No Country,134.

10. Forbes, E., We Have No Country, 304.

11. Forbes, E., We Have No Country, 305.

12. Forbes, E., We Have No Country, 51-52.

13. Forbes, E., We Have No Country, 142.

14. Moses, Classical Black Nationalism, 108-9.

15. Forbes, E., We Have No Country, 114-15.

16. Forbes, E., We Have No Country, 51-52.

17. Forbes, E., We Have No Country,150 (emphasis added).

18. Quoted in Forbes, E., We Have No Country, 114.

19. Forbes, E., We Have No Country, 114.

20. Zinn, People's History, 449.

21. Zinn, People's History, 450.

22. Zinn, People's History, 451.

23. Seale, Seize the Times, 80.

24. Seale, Seize the Times, 139.

25. Seale, Seize the Times, 139.

26. Seale, Seize the Times, 136.

27. Seale, Seize the Times, 139.

28. Smith, William Gardner, Return to Black America, 173. Quoted in Singh, "'Undeveloped Country' of the Left," 63.

29. Newton, To Die For the People, 8.

30. This passage was written from memory. Years later it was learned that Frankhouser was, in fact, an informant for the ATF (Alcohol, Tobacco & Firearms Division of the Treasury Department) and, as such, had snitched on the Klan, the Minutemen, and various other right-wing groups with which he was affiliated (Donner, Age of Surveillance, 346).

CHAPTER THREE

1. McPherson, The Negro's Civil War, 259.

2. Zinn, People's History, 248.

3. Zinn, People's History, 49-50.

4. Zinn, People's History, 213.

5. Forbes, E., We Have No Country, 191.

6. Abdy, Edward. Journal of Residence and Tour in the United States. Quoted in Forbes, E., But We Have No Country, 191.

7. Ignatiev, How the Irish, 124.

8. Ignatiev, How the Irish, 125-26.

9. Ignatiev, How the Irish, 155.

10. Ignatiev, How the Irish, 134.

11. Ignatiev, How the Irish, 134.

12. Ignatiev, How the Irish, 144.

13. Forbes, E., We Have No Country, 150-51.

14. Irons, People's History of the Supreme Court, 152 (emphasis added).

15. Prigg v. PA, 41 US 536, 625-26 (1842).

16. Newton, Revolutionary Suicide, 90-91.

17. The Black Panther, April 6, 1970, 17.

CHAPTER FOUR

1. Newton, Revolutionary Suicide, 110.

2. Cleaver, Soul On Ice, 27.

3. Hilliard, Huey Newton Reader, 51-52.

4. Newton, Revolutionary Suicide 120-21.

5. Seale, A Lonely Rage, 153, 154.

6. Seale, A Lonely Rage, 154.

7. Hilliard, Huey Newton Reader, 67.

8. Neal, "Church and Survival Programs," 11.

9. Newton, To Die For the People, 89.

10. Newton, To Die For the People, 89.

11. Abron, "Serving the People," 184.

12. Washington, Other Sheep, 128.

13. Washington, Other Sheep, 134.

14. Latino/Latina. The @ sign is used in multi-gender circumstances to represent the o and a endings.

15. Freed, Agony in New Haven, 113-14.

16. Newton, Revolutionary Suicide, 296.

17. Cluster, Should Have Served, 61.

18. Singh, "Black Panther Party," 32.

19. Singh, "Black Panther Party," 84-85.

20. Fresia, Toward an American Revolution, 28.

21. Fresia, Toward an American Revolution, 50.

22. "The People and the People Alone Were the Motive Power in the Making of the History of the People's Revolutionary Constitutional Convention Plenery Session!" The Black Panther, September 12, 1970, 3.

23. Newton, To Die For the People, 90-91.

24. Newton, To Die For the People, 31.

25. Newton, To Die For the People, 31 (emphasis added).

26. Hilliard, Huey Newton Reader, 253.

27. Fredrickson, White Supremacy, xi.

28. Fredrickson, White Supremacy, 4-5.

29. Hilliard, Huey Newton Reader, 206.

30. Hilliard, Huey Newton Reader, 260-61.

31. Hilliard, Huey Newton Reader, 259.

32. Hilliard, Huey Newton Reader, 259.

33. This passage written from memory.

CHAPTER FIVE

1. Newton, The Black Panther, July 20, 1967, 5.

2. Brown, Taste of Power, 252. Soul Breaker was the prisoner's name for the solitary confinement cell in Alameda County Jail, California.

3. Brown, Taste of Power, 252.

4. Brown, Taste of Power, 252.

5. Brown, Taste of Power, 253.

6. Seale, Seize the Times, 59 (emphasis added).

7. Mao, Quotations, 58.

8. Hayes, "All Power to the People," 168.

9. Anthony, Picking Up the Gun, 21.

10. Hayes, "All Power to the People," 167.

11. Swearingen, FBI Secrets, 83.

12. Newton, To Die For the People, 92.

13. Singh, "Black Panther Parry," 56.

14. Eldridge Cleaver, "Letter to My Black Brother in Vietnam," The Black Panther, May 2, 1970. This long article was reprinted as a pamphlet and sent to Black veterans and soldiers fighting in Vietnam. (Cleaver, K "Back to Africa," 233.)

15. The Black Panther, November 1, 1969, 12-13.

16. The Black Panther, January 19, 1971, 10-11. That said, there were Black Panthers in Vietnam. They organized branches by themselves and wore Panther buttons on their US uniforms. They didn't care whether they were "officially" recognized by California, they just did what they thought was right.

17. The Black Panther, August 23, 1969.

18. Washington Post December 28, 1969, A-18.

19. Washington Post, February 1, 1970, A-13.

20. Cleaver, K., "Back to Africa," 214.

21. Cleaver, K., "Back to Africa," 214.

22. Zinn, People's History, 593.

23. Donner, Age of Surveillance, 178.

24. This passage was written from memory.

25. Cleaver, K., "Back to Africa," 235.

26. US. Dept. of Justice, FBI report to Attorney General, July 15, 1969:4

27. Donner, Age of Surveillance, 83.

CHAPTER SIX

1. Barenblatt v. US. 360 US. 109; dissent, 150 (1959). In light of the revelation that Black was a member of the Ku Klux Klan in his younger manhood, one might wonder at the extent of his knowledge of "groups which advocate extremely unpopular social or government innovations." Despite his KKK membership, Black's nomination was opposed for being too "radical," that is, too much in favor of the causes of the poor. The Chicago Tribune would denounce Roosevelt for the nomination, calling it "the worst he could find." Irons, People's History of the Supreme Court, 326.

2. Newsweek, February, 1969.

3. US Dept. of Justice, FBI Report to Attorney General, July 15, 1969:4.

4. Hoover, House Subcom. Testimony; April 17, 1969:68-70, 99.

5. Brown, Taste of Power, 200.

6. Grady-Willis, "Black Panther Party," 372. Interestingly, another US Senate document, published in 1976, displays exhibits which feature other misspellings, at least in the proposed letter sent to FBL HQ on January 12, 1969. The document, of several pages, includes the following interesting language:

"Consequently, Chicago now recommends the following letter be sent [Blank] handwritten, on plain paper: 'Brother. ... I think you ought to know what I'd do if I was you. You might hear from me again.'" We need not be psychic to intuit the intentions of the FBI. The document itself makes these clear. "It is believed the above may intensify the degree of animosity between the two groups and occasion [Blank] to take retalitory[sic] action which could disrupt the BPP or lead to reprisals against its leadership."

The FBI, then, under the claimed objective of "preventing black militant violence," wrote to the Rangers, telling them the Panthers were trying to "hit" them, in a very bald attempt to spark "retaliatory action" against the BPP, or, at the very least, "reprisals" from disgruntled BPP members against their own leadership. (Sen. Sel. Com. Hearing, vol. 6, 433).

7. Churchill, Agents of Repression, 58.(emphasis added).

8. Zinn, People's History, 455.

9. Swearingen, FBI Secrets, 29.

10. Swearingen, FBI Secrets, 29 (emphasis added).

11. Sen. Sel. Com. Hearings, vol. 6, 9 (emphasis added).

12. Each of the following case studies appears in documents that the author has studed, either a true and correct copy of a government file, testimony before a Senate subcommittee, or a published artifact that survives from the period.

13. Churchill, Agents of Repression, 25.

14. Perkus, COINTELPRO, 161-62.

15. Perkus, COINTELPRO, 162.

16. Perkus, COINTELPRO, 163.

17. Perkus, COINTELPRO, 154.

18. Perkus, COINTELPRO, 164.

19. Perkus, COINTELPRO, 165.

20. Perkus, COINTELPRO, 165.

21. Perkus, COINTELPRO, 70.

22. Perkus, COINTELPRO, 77-78.

23. Sen. Sel. Com. Hearing, vol. 6, 617-21 (emphasis added).

24. Sen. Sel. Com. Hearing, vol. 6, 617-19.

25. Sen. Sel. Com. Hearing, vol. 6, 621.

26. The full name of the Church Committee is the Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities: Frank Church, Idaho, Chairman.

27. Sen. Sel. Com. Hearing, vol. 6, 23.

28. Sen. Sel. Com. Hearings, vol. 6, 24.

29. Sen. Sel. Com. Hearing, vol. 6, 24.

30. Sen. Sel. Com. Hearing, vol. 6, 49-50 (emphasis added).

31. Sen. Sel. Com. Hearing, vol. 6, 411-12.

32. Perkus, COINTELPRO, 28.

33. Perkus, COINTELPRO, 23.

34. Sen. Sel. Com. Hearing, vol. 6, 25.

35. Swearingen, FBI Secrets, 82-83. In Swearingen's text, the names of fellow agents are aliases, which he italicized.

36. Swearingen, FBI Secrets, 82-83.

37. Anthony, Spitting in the Wind, 37.

38. Anthony, Spitting in the Wind, 37.

39. Anthony, Spitting in the Wind, 38.

40. Anthony, Spitting in the Wind, 38 (emphasis added).

41. "8 Panthers Held in Murder Plot," New Haven Register, May 22, 1969.

42. Freed, Agony in New Haven, 25.

43. Freed, Agony in New Haven, 251-53.

44. Among the names Sams claimed was Dingiswayo, the name of the eighteenth-century Chief of the Mthethwa Confederacy in Southern Africa (where a young Shaka learned the arts of war leading to the rise of the Zulus).

45. Freed, Agony in New Haven, 255.

46. Freed, Agony in New Haven, 253.

47. Freed, Agony in New Haven, 25.

48. Tackwood, Glass House Tapes, 30.

49. Tackwood, Glass House Tapes, 30 (emphasis added).

50. Tackwood, Glass House Tapes, 46-48.

51. Tackwood, Glass House Tapes, 48.

52. Churchill, Agents of Repression, 65.

53. Churchill, Agents of Repression, 66.

54. Churchill, Agents of Repression, 66.

55. Churchill, Agents of Repression, 68.

56. Churchill, Agents of Repression, 403.

57. Churchill, Agents of Repression, 58.

58. Shakur, Assata, 222.

59. Zinn, People's History, 455.

60 The Harris Survey Yearbook of Public Opinion, 1970.

61. James, Shadow Boxing,112.

62. James, Shadow Boxing, 112.

63. This figure is provided by long-time Party member Forbes, F., "Why I Joined the Black Panther Party," 237. Forbes counts from 1966-1970.

64. Lule, Eternal Stories, 65-66. See notes 13 and 15 in Lule's text for extensive sources.

65. Reed, "Another Day at the Front," 193.

66. Churchill, COINTELPRO Papers, 215.

67. Citizen's Commission to Investigate the FBI, "Complete Collection," 8-9.

68. Churchill, Agents of Repression, 60.

69. Churchill, Agents of Repression, 60.

70. Sen. Sel. Com. Hear., vol. 6,61-2 (emphasis added).

CHAPTER SEVEN

1. Eugene, "Moral Values," 317.

2. Pearson, Shadow of the Panther, 179.

3. Pearson, Shadow of the Panther, 344.

4. Henderson, "Lumpenproletariat as Vanguard," 188.

5. Jones, Black Panther Party Reconsidered, 4.

6. Jones, Black Panther Party Reconsidered, 11.

7. Cleaver, K., "Women, Power, and Revolution," 125-26.

8. Cleaver, E., "Message to Sister Erica Huggins," The Black Panther, July 5, 1969. In the article Cleaver spells Ericka's name without the k.

9. Cleaver, E., "Message to Sister Erica Huggins."

10. Foner, P., Black Panthers Speak, 6.

11. Cleaver, K., "Women, Power, and Revolution," 126.

12. Balagoon, Look For Me, 293.

13. Bukhari, "Reflections, Musings," 84.

14. Bukhari, "Reflections, Musings," 84.

15. Balagoon, Look For Me, 293.

16. Matthews, "No One Ever Asks," 289.

17. Balagoon, Look For Me, 287.

18. Balagoon, Look For Me, 292 (emphasis added).

19. Matthews, "No One Ever Asks," 291.

20. Pearson, Shadow of the Panther, 179.

21. LeBlanc-Ernest, "The Most Qualified Person," 307-78.

22. Seale, A Lonely Rage; Quoted in LeBlanc- Ernest, 'The Most Qualified Person," 309.

23. Jennings, "Why I Joined the Party," 262-63.

24. Jennings, "Why I Joined the Party," 255.

25. Jennings, "Why I Joined the Party," 260.

26. Jennings, "Why I Joined the Party," 263.

27. Brown, Taste of Power, 368-70.

28. Brown, Taste of Power, 371.

29. Bukhari, "Reflections, Musings."44-5. Bukhari's account is drawn from an unpublished manuscript of her "Reflections, Musings, and Political Opinions," ca. 1997.

30. Bukhari, "Reflections, Musings," 5, 6.

31. Bukhari, "Reflections, Musings," 6.

32. Bukhari, "Reflections, Musings," 6.

33. Bukhari, "Reflections, Musings," 7.

34. Bukhari, "Reflections, Musings," 9.

35. Bukhari, "Reflections, Musings," 36-52.

36. Bukhari, "Reflections, Musings," 37, 42.

37. Bukhari, "Reflections, Musings," 43.

38. Bukhari's original footnote text reads:

"The Black Panthers split in 1971. From that time until 1976 there existed an East Coast and West Coast Black Panther Party. For purposes of this writing, the Black Panther Party was destroyed in 1971."

39. Bukhari, "Reflections, Musings," 44, 45.

40. Bukhari, "Reflections, Musings," 47, 48.

41. Singh, "Black Panther Party," 87.

42. Barbara Easley Cox, personal communication with the author, 2003.

43. Barbara Easley Cox, personal communication with the author, 2003.

44. Cleaver, E., "Message to Sister Erica Huggins."

45. Naima Major, personal communication with the author, 2003.

46. Rosemari Mealy, from four page letter to the author, December 28, 2003.

47. This section is drawn from memory.

48. Brown, Taste of Power, 260.

49. Cleaver, E., Soul On Ice, 282; Cleaver, E., "Message to Sister Erica Huggins."

50. Cleaver, E., "Message to Sister Erica Huggins."

CHAPTER EIGHT

1. Newton, Revolutionary Suicide, 51.

2. Jennings, "Why I Joined the Party," 240.

3. Forbes, F, "Point No.7," 231.

4. Forbes, F, "Point No.7," 232-33.

5. Forbes, F, "Point No.7," 233.

6. Forbes, F, "Point No.7," 224-25.

7. Forbes, F, "Point No.7," 226-27.

8. Cluster, Should Have Served That Cup, 65.

9. Washington, Other Sheep I Have, 126-27.

10. Freed, Agony in New Haven, 34-35.

11. This passage was written from memory.

CHAPTER NINE

1. Thomas Paine, Common Sense, 3 (emphasis in original).

2. Hilliard, Huey Newton Reader, 346-47.

3. Grady-Willis, "The Black Panther Party," 366; Fletcher et al., Still Black, S till Strong, 18.

4. Exhibit 5 in Black Panther Parry, Pt.1: Investigation of Kansas City Chapter; National Organization Data, Hearings Before Committee on Internal Security, Mar. 4-5, 10, 1970 (Wash., DC: US Gov't Print Off., 1970), p. 2805) emphasis added.

5. Papke, Heretics in the Temple, 120.

6. Shakur, Assata, 232.

7. Kleffner, ''Interview with Geronimo."

8. Lapham, "Notebook: Power Points."

9. From FBI Memo from HQ to San Francisco field office, February 24, 1971. Quoted in Newton, War Against the Panthers, 68-69.

10. Newton, Revolutionary Suicide, 296.

11. Hilliard, Huey Newton Reader, 355.

12. Cleaver, K., "Back to Africa," 237.

13. On the Purge of Geronimo from the Black Panther Party," The Black Panther, January 23, 1971, 7.

14. Hilliard, Huey Newton Reader, 355 (emphasis added).

15. Hilliard, Huey Newton Reader, 356.

16. Hilliard, Huey Newton Reader, 356.

17. FBI Memo from HQs to Philadelphia field office; August 19, 1970. Quoted in Newton, War Against the Panthers, 58.

18. Hilliard, Huey Newton Reader, 356.

19. Shakur, Assata, 231.

20. Shakur, Assata, 231-32.

21. Hilliard, Huey Newton Reader, 358-59.

22. Brown, Taste of Power, 252.

23. Hilliard, This Side of Glory, 180.

24. Hilliard, This Side of Glory, 120-22.

25. Johnson, "Explaining the Demise," 404.

26. Johnson, "Explaining the Demise," 404.

CHAPTER TEN

1. Carmichael, Black Power, 58-59.

2. Hilliard, Huey Newton Reader, 277.

3. Hilliard, Huey Newton Reader, 358.

4. Bukhari, "Reflections, Musings," 86-88 (emphasis added).

5. Hilliard, Huey Newton Reader, 222-23.

6. Hilliard, Huey Newton Reader, 169.

7. Hilliard, Huey Newton Reader, 222-23.

8. Schell, 67; I left the Black Panther Party in late 1971-early 1972 and participated in this collective-MAJ.

9. LeBlanc-Ernest, "The Most Qualified Person," 326. Njeri's son, Fred Hampton, Jr., did time as a political prisoner. An outstanding speaker like his father, "Young Chairman Fred" is known to many as a hip-hop activist and through the Dead Prez song "Behind Enemy Lines."

10. Jones, Blauk Panther Party Reconsidered, 6.

11. http://www.adl.org/learn/Ext_US/Black_ Panther. asp; http://www.newblackpantherparty.com

12. http://www.adl.org/learn/Ext_US/Black_ Panther. asp; http://www.newblackpantherparty.com

13. Jones, Black Panther Party Reconsidered, 6.

14. The Black Panther Collective The Black Panther International News Service, 1:5 (1998), 12.

15. Heike Kleffner, "Interview with Geronimo," Race and Class [35:1] 1993.

16. Carr, Bad, 233. Citation is to an unsigned afterword completed in 1993.

17. CRIP informant (Br. Amir) to author, December 2003.

18. Shakur, S., Monster, 304.

19. Balagoon, Look For Me, 285-86.

20. Cross, "Stages of Black Identity," 324.

21. Balagoon, Look For Me, 286.

22. Williams, J., "The Black Panthers of Oakland."

23. LeBlanc-Ernest, "The Most Qualified Person," 325-26.

24. Jones, "Don't Believe the Hype," 37.

25. Balagoon, Look For Me, 360-61.

AFTERWORD

1. Roberston, Wordsworth Dictionary of Quotations, 167.

2. Frank A. Guridy, "From Solidarity to Cross-Fertilization: Afro-Cuban/ African American Interaction during the 1930s and 1940s," Radical History Review (Fall 2003), 20.
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Re: We Want Freedom: A Life in the Black Panther Party, by M

Postby admin » Thu Jun 12, 2014 7:36 am

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Re: We Want Freedom: A Life in the Black Panther Party, by M

Postby admin » Thu Jun 12, 2014 7:37 am

INDEX

A

Abdy, Edward, 52-53
Abron, JaNina, 241
Adams, Frankye Malika, 159, 164
Adams, Henry, 11
Adams, John Quincy, 22
African People's Socialist Party (APSP),
234
Africanisms, 104-5
Al Fatah, 107-8
Algiers, Algeria: Cleaver's self-imposed
exile in, 114, 213, 215-18, 228-30;
international BPP headquarters, 106,
109, 112, 180, 250
Ali, Muhammad (Cassius Clay), 4, 62
Alston, Ashanti, 236
Ambulance Services, 70
La Amistad mutiny, 19
Anarchist Panther, 236
Anarchist People of Color, 236
Anderson, Osbourne, 26
Anthony, Earl, xv, 102, 138-39, 151, 222
anti-Semitism, 115, 235
Aptheker, Herbert, 18, 22
Arafat, Yasser, 107
Arizona State University, 127
armed resistance: Christiana, 34-39, 56;
at Harper's Ferry, 24-26; Negro Fort,
17, 21-24; police-monitoring patrols,
43-45, 67-69, 78, 99, 209; Seminole
Wars, 22-24; Watts Rebellion, 5-6,
31-34, 40-41, 63, 65-66, 102, 105, Su
also rebellions; riots
Ash, Joel, 136

B

Babylon! Revolutionary People's Communication
Network, 229
back-to-Africa movements, 6-11, 20
Baker, Ella, 159
Baldwin, James, 5
Baraka, Amiri, 102
Barenblat v, U.S., 117
"Baron's Revolt," 17-18
Barth, Karl, 27
Bassem, Abu, 108
Bay, Big Bob, 110-11
Bennett, Fred, 226
Bernice, Sister, 181
Bethune, Mary McLeod, 159, 249
Biddle, Francis, 133
"Big Man" (Elbert Howard), 6, 212, 215,
219
bin Wahad, Dhoruba, 207, 217-18
Bird, Joan, 182
BJ (Baby Jesus), 176-77
Black, Hugo, 117
Black Classics Press, 237
Black Congress, 103
Black Economic Development Conference
(BEDC), 179
Black House, 101-2
Black Liberation Army (BLA), 162, 168,
171, 225, 230, 236
Black Liberators, 81, 129-30, 263-5
Black Muslim movements, 199, 233. See
also Nation of Islam (NOI)
Black nationalism, 8-11, 20, 67, 81, 83,
131, 208
Black Panther Collective (BPC), 235
Black Panther Militia, 234
The Black Panther newspaper: arrests for
selling, 89-90, 170; closely read, 101,
107, 111-13, 228-29, 238-39, 247;
editors of, 6, 44, 107, 182, 201, 241;
sales, 61, 112, 185, 189, 195, 207; San
Francisco offices, 201-3
Black Panther Party (BPP): California State
Assembly demonstration, 45, 209;
centralization in Oakland, 224-26, 232;
chapters, 6, 46, 71, 119-20, I50, 179,
188, 219-21; coalitions, 77, 80, 82-88,
113-14, 122, 124, 128; community
service programs, 67-71, 169-70, 185,
207, 224, 241; expulsion of members,
180, 214, 217-18; as "Huey's
party, " 110-11, l15, 221; international
headquarters, 106, 109, 112, 180, 250;
internationalism, 80-88, 105-9,
114-15, 175; King, contrasted with,
7, 28, 32, 39-41; legacies of, 236-45;
Malcolm X's influence, 60-61, 66-67,
80-81, 101, 208, 250; membership
categories, 187-88; original name (BPPFSD),
5-6, 42, 44-45, 80, 101-2, 231;
police-monitoring patrols by, 43-45,
67-69, 78, 99, 209; political education
(PE) classes, 97-101, 108, 161, 165,
187; red orientation, 101, 108, 118,
177, 179, 198, 208; on revolution vs.
reform, 66; sexism in, 160, 164-74,
177-78; the split, 150, 211-12, 215-19,
219-25, 228-29; Ten-Point Program,
62, 97-101, 187, 210, 235-36;unde~
ground military force and, 214. See also
Breakfast for Children Program; Structure
of Black Panther Party; women in
Black Panther Party
Black United Liberation Front (BULF), 233
Blackstone Rangers, 121, 148
Boston Gazelle, 18
Boston, 46, 58, 71, 173
Breakfast for Children Program: adoption
of, by other groups, 233-34; BPP
program, 69, 185-87, 189, 197, 224,
240-41; police disruption of, 169-70,
207, 241
Brent, Bill, 106
Brown, Elaine, 95-96, 120, 167-68, 172,
184-86, 232, 237
Brown, John, 24-26
Brownlow, William G., 11
brownmail: Cleaver/Newton split and,
211-12, 215-25; historical uses of,
11, 16, 18; Hoover-authorized, 106-7,
121-22, 130-31, 148-49, 206-8,
211-19; ordinary citizens targeted,
126-31, 148, 157
Bukhari, Safiya A., 162-63, 168-74, 229
Bullins, Ed, 102
Burgess, J. W, 79
Burke, Edmund, 17
Burns, William J., 125

C

California State Assembly "invasion",
45, 209
Carmichael, Stokely, 160
Carter, Alprentice "Bunchy, " 103, 136
CCS (Criminal Conspiracy Section),
143-47
Chatham convention, 24-25, 76-77
Chicago, Illinois, 46, 71, 119-20, 150,
179, 219-20
Chicago Freedom festival, 32
Christiana Resistance, 34-39, 56
(Frank) Church Committee, 131-32, 153,
157-58
cimarron, 23
Cinque (Singbeh Pi'eh), 19, 27
Citizen's Committee to Investigate the
FBI, 156
Civil War, 10, 26-27, 34, 39, 86
Clark, Mark, 150, 189
Clay, Cassius (Muhammad Ali), 4, 62
Cleaver, Eldridge: Black House cofounder,
101-2; brownmail, 208-11,
212-19; editor, Black Panther; 44; exile
in Algiers, 114, 213, 215-18, 228-30;
and Newton split, 211-12, 215-19,
219-25; personality flaws, 219-20,
223; POW exchange offer, 106-7;
Presidential candidacy, 82; on women
in BPP, 161, 175, 184; "Letter to My
Black Brothers in Vietnam, " 106-7;
Soul On Ice, 63; Soul on Wax, 82
Cleaver, Kathleen Neal: introduction by,
i-xvi; on Fanon's influence, 109; on
international scope of BPP, 114-15;
talents as a speaker, 212-13; on
women in BPP, 160-62, 173
Clothing Program, 70
coalitions, 77, 80, 82-88, 113-14, 122,
124, 128.
COINTELPRO (COunter INTELligence
PROgram): actions against
Black groups, 122-23, 129-31; ordinary
citizens targeted, 121~35, 155,
211; purposes of, 121, 123-24, 131,
133-35; uncovered, 155-58, 205-11,
213. See also brown mail; FBI; Hoover,
J. Edgar
colonialism, 3-5, 108, 221
Communism, 118, 137-38, 151. See also
socialism
Community Medical Clinic, 70-71, 185
community service programs, 67-71,
169-70, 185, 207, 224, 234-36, 241
concubinage, 27
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), 160
constitutions: FBI violations of U.S., 115,
123, 132-35, 156, 170, 189, 209-11;
John Brown's rewritten, 24-25; Pennsylvania
state's, 56-57; RPCCs, 72-80,
99, 195, 210, 213; U.S., 25, 56-57, 66,
78-80, 99, 101, 210
Cox, Barbara Easley, 175-76
Cox, Don, 106
Crawford, Bill, 45-46
CRIC (Citizens Research and Investigation
Committee), 144-47, 156
Cyril, Janet, 163

D

Davis, Angela, 144, 182
DeBerry, Cliff, 128-29
Declaration of Independence, new,
24-25, 210
Delany Martin, 9, 37
Deslondes, Charles, 19, 27
Discipline, Three Main Rules of, 187
Diving Bell Riot, 54-55
Double V campaign, 250
Douglas, Emory, 44
Douglass, Frederick, 31, 38-39, 51-52
Douglass, Judi, 93, 182, 201
Dowell, Denzil, 43-44
Draft Riots, 33034
Dred Scott" Sanford, 25, 57
Du Bois, W.E.B., 5, 33
Dunmore, Lord, 16-17
Dymally, Mervyn, 176

E

Echelon Project, 248
Einstein, Albert, 211
enemies lists, 155-58
Equiano, Olaudah, 12-13

F

fake letters. See brownmail
Fanon, Frantz, 3-5, 105, 108-9, 221, 248
Farrakhan, Louis, 154
Al Fatah, 107-8
Faulkner, William, 26
FBI: conspiracies to discredit citizens,
121-24, 125-35, 148, 155, 157, 211;
disruptions by, 102, 123, 169-70, 207,
241; enemies lists, 155-58; Gregory
targeted, 157; Hoover-authorized
brownmail, 121-22, 130-31, 148-49,
206-8, 211-19; informants, 102-4,
136, 138-39, 140-47, 148-51, 207,
222; King targeted, 122, 132-33;
mission of, 121, 123-24, 131, 134-35;
murder instigated by, 104, 136-37,
206-7; nature of, revealed, 125,
141-46, 155-58. See also brown mail;
COINTELPRO; Hoover, J. Edgar
Feagin, Joe R., 33
Fletcher v. Peck, 22-23
Flying Horse Riot, 53-55
Flynn, J.W., 123
Fonda, Jane, 110
Foner, Eric, 11
Foner, Philip, 39
Food Programs, 70
Forbes, Ella, 34
Forbes, Flores, 189
Fort, Jeff, 121, 148
Fort Mosa, Florida, 17, 21-24
Fredrickson, George, 85-86
freed, Donald, 140
Fresia, Jerry, 78
Freud, Sigmund, 250
fugitive slave laws, 23, 37-39
Fuller, Algonquin J., 215

G

Galt, Nick, 136
Gandhi, Mahatma, 249
gangs. See street gangs
Gardner-Smith, William, 44
Garry, Charles, 140-42
Garvey, Marcus, 9
Gary, Romaine, 155
Genet, Jean, 202-4
the ghetto, defined, 32, 58
GIU (Gang Intelligence Unit), 149
Gorsuch, Dickinson, 35-39
Gorsuch, Edward, 34
Great Migration, 6, 28, 58
Gregory, Dick, 157
Guevara, Che, 59, 105, 178
Guillen, Nicholas, 249

H

Hage, M.K., Jr., 126
Haig, Alexander, 110
Hall, Prince, 9-10
Hampton, Fred, 119-22, 148, 153, 179,
189, 234
Harper's Ferry raid, 24-26
Harris opinion poll, 152-53
Henderson, Errol A., 160
Herrenvolk democracy, 8, 77, 85-86
Hilliard, David: background, 6-7, 142,
221-22; Chief of Staff, 120, 150,
202-3, 214, 216, 219; on NBPP, 235;
on RPCC, 76
Hilliard, Roosevelt "June," 6, 183
Home Maintenance Program, 70
Hoover, J. Edgar: brown mail, 121-22,
130-31, 148-49, 206-8, 211-19;
compulsions, 133-34; objectives, 136,
149, 207; racism of, 115-17; tactics of,
121-23. See also COINTELPRO; FBI
Hottelet, Richard C., 108
Housing Cooperative Program, 70
How the Irish Became White (Ignatiev),
53-54
Howard, Elbert "Big Man", 6, 212, 215,
219
The Huey P. Newton Reader, 237
"Huey's party, " 110-11, 115, 221. See also
Black Panther Party (BPP)
Huggins, Ericka, 63, 140-42, 175, 180,
182, 212, 241
Huggins, Jon, 103, 136, 140
Hughes, Langston, 248-49
Hutton, Bobby, 71, 106, 114
Hyson, Brenda, 173

I

Ignatiev, Noel, 53-54
"In Defense of Self-Defense" (Newton),
60-61
informants: Anthony, 102, 138-39, 151,
222; O'Neal, 148-50; Perry, 103-4;
Sams, 140-43, 149, 151; Smith, 144-
45, 147; snitch-jacketing, 207; Stiner
brothers, 103-4, 136; Tackwood,
143-47; US organization, 104, 136
integration, 64-66, 119. See also segregation
Intercommunal News Service, 70
Intercommunal Youth Institutes, 70, 232
intercommunalism, 70, 72, 80, 82-88,
113-15, 232.
internationalism, 80-88, 105-9, 114-15,
175, 250
Irish, 33-34, 52-54
Islam. See Nation of Islam

J

Jackson, Andrew, 21-22, 24
James, Joy, 153
Jefferson, Thomas, 10
Jennings, Regina, 166-67
Jesup, Thomas, 22
Jews, 98, 115, 223, 235, 242
ji-Jaga, Geronimo, 6, 145, 173, 186, 192,
210-14, 237, 240
Johnson, Deborah, 149, 234
Johnson, Marlin, 149
Johnson, Rene, 150
Jones, Andrea, 173, 224
Jones, Pirkle, 177
Joseph, Jamal, 163
Juchi (self-reliance), 113
Junta of Militant Organizations (JOMO),
160

K

Karenga, Maulana "Ron, " 102-3
Keel, Lieutenant, 144
Keep Ya' Head Up Foundation, 178
Kennedy, John F, 39
Kenyatta, Muhamad, 179
Kim II-sung, 113
King, Martin Luther, Jr.: assassinated,
61; FB1 tactics against, 122, 132-33;
forbearance doctrine, 7; integrationist,
64-65; on internal colonialism, 32;
Malcolm X, contrasted, 28, 39-41;
Watts' influence on, 32, 65
King, Martin Luther, Sr., 122
Kizenski, Ron, 138-39
Kline, Henry, 35-39
Ku Klux Klan (KKK), 33

L

Lenin, V.I., 5
Leninism, S, 66, 108, 118, 177
letters, fake. See brownmail
Lewis, Tarika, 165
Liberation Schools, 70, 171, 174
Liberator, 38
Liberia, 8-9
Lincoln, Abraham, 10-11
Lippard, George, 53
Los Angeles: chapter, 46, 71, 220; informants,
102-4, 136, 138-39, 140-47,
148-51, 207, 222; since BPP, 235; US
organization in, 102-4, 136; volatile
police in, 189. See afro police
Los Angeles Times, 145, 155
Love, Sister, 181
Lule, Jack, 153-54
lump en proletariat, 143, 173, 220, 223,
238

M

Maceo, Antonio, 249
Mack, Larry, 106
Major, Naima, 176-78
Major, Reginald, 160
Malcolm X: on colonialism, S; and
DeBerry, 129; and Harris, 199; "house
slave/ field slave" dichotomy, 4, 8; influence
on BPP, 60-61, 66-67, 80-81,
101, 208, 250; and King, contrasted,
28, 39-41; in The Militant, 66; and
Newton, 4-5, 60-61, 66; post-Hajj
name, 199
Mao Tse-Tung, 42, 105, 108, 187
Maoism, 42, 66, 105, 108, 118, 177, 187,
208
Maroons/maroonage, 17, 21, 23
Marxism, 66, 108, 112-13, 118, 177, 179,
198, 208
Matthews, Connie, 106, 214
Matthews, Donald H., 27-28
McCarter, Terry, 47
McGee, Michael, 234
McIntosh, General, 24
Mealy, Rosemari, 150, 178-80
Media, Pennsylvania, break-in, 155-58
media role, 151-58
Merritt College, 2, 172
Michaels, Aaron, 234
The Militant, 66
Mitchell, Beth, 217
Mitchell, Henry, 49
Mitchell, John, 117
Mitchell, Roy, 148-49
Mondale, Walter, 132, 157
Monroe, James, 20
Moorish Science Temple, 233
Morgan, Margaret, 56-57
Morris, Gouverneur, 79
Muhammad, Elijah, 112, 123
Muhammad, Khallid Abdul, 234
Muhammad Speaks, 66, 97, 112-13
Mulford legislation, 45
Mumia, Abu-Jamal: about, i-xvi; on BPP
newspaper, 111-13; discovery of BPP,
247; jaywalking arrest, 89-93; on loyalty,
182-84; in Philadelphia, 46-49
murder: among and within Black groups,
103-4, 207, 225-26, 229; charges
against Newton, 60, 106; charges
against Seale, 63, 140-42, 180; of
Clark, 150, 189; of Hampton, 149-50,
189; of Hutton, 71, 106; law enforcement
and, 43, 104, 136-37, 143-45,
153, 174, 177, 180, 206-7; mass
violence, provoked by whites, 22, 33,
41-42, 51, 59
Muslim Mosque, Inc., 129
Muslims, 199, 233

N

NAACP (National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People), 2,
66, 119
Napier, Sam, 226, 229
Nation of Islam (NOl): anti-Semitism
from, 234-35; on Black nationalism,
4, 11, 85, 233; Malcolm X and, 81,
228, 239; Muhammad Speaks, 66, 97;
police raids and, 122-23; sexism in,
178
National Advisory Committee on Urban
Disorders, 41
National Liberation Front of South
Vietnam, 107
nationalism, 110. See also Black nationalism;
white nationalism
nativism, 54-55
Negro Port (Fort Mosa), 17, 21-24
negro governments, 9-10, 17, 21
Negro-Indians, 22-24
Negroes With Guns (Williams), 5
Neil, Father Earl, 69
New African American Vanguard Movement
(NAAVM), 235
New Black Panther Party (NBPP),
234-35
New Haven, Connecticut, 63, 140, 142,
180, 203, 241-42
New Orleans Rebellion, 15
New Panther Vanguard Movement
(NPVM), 235
New World Liberation Front, 223
New York: the Bronx, 46, 88, 110, 112,
I81, 198-99, 225, 229; Brooklyn, 46,
71, 128, 163-64, 173, 199, 240; Draft
Riots, 33-34; Harlem, 46, 71, 128-29,
162-63, 168, 171, 199, 225, 229
New York Times, 172
New York 21, 180, See also Panther 21
Newark, New Jersey, 42, 61, 105, 199
Newsweek, 145
Newton, Huey P: biographical highlights,
4-5, 42-43, 81, 95-96; "black panther"
symbol, S; brownmail, 208-11,
212-19; civil action from prison, 176;
and Cleaver split, 211-12, 215-25; at
the Constitutional Convention, 74-76;
intercommunalism, 80, 82-84, 113-
14; Mealy expelled by, 180; murder
charges, 60, 106; as a poor speaker,
2, 75-76, 212; racism as the enemy,
81-82; Seale and, 96-97; Watts'
influence on, 32-33, 63; weaknesses,
81-82, 95-96, 135, 208-10, 219-26;
In Defense of Self-Defense, 60-61; Revolutionary Suicide, 32, 43, 185
Newton, Walter, 96, 218
Nguyen, Thi Dinh, 107
Nietzsche, Friedrich, S, 81
Nixon, Richard, 105, 117
Njeri, Akua (Deborah Johnson), 149,
234
Nkrumah, Kwame, 60, 105, 248
NOI. See Nation of Islam
Non-Partisan League, 124
North Korea, 113-14, 175
The North Star, 39
Nyasha, Kiilu, 241

O

Oakland, California, 4, 43, 60, 68-69, 71,
88-89, 220
O'Connor, Robert, 138-39
Odinga, Sekou, 106, 163
"On the Question of Sexism Within the
Black Panther Party" (Bukhari), 172
O'Neal, William, 148-50
Organization of Afro-American Unity,
129

P

Palestinians, 107, 113, 235
Pan African Cultural ['estiva1, 114
the Panther 13, 145
the Panther 21, 91, 106, 164, 180, 199,
214, 217-18, 230, 244
Papke, David R., 210
Parker, William and Eliza, 35-39
PATR10T Act, 131
Peace and Freedom Party (P&F), 82
"Peaches," 173
Pearson, Hugh, 160, 164-65
People's Free Medical Research Health
Clinic, 70-71, 185
Perry, Darthard, 103-4
Petition Drive for Community Control
of Cops, 70
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 46-49, 51-62,
71
Philadelphia Bulletin, 39, 56
Picking Up the Gun (Anthony), 151
Pi'eh, Singbeh "Cinque," 19, 27
Pilots for Panthers, 107
Pleasonton, August James, 55
police: BPP police-alert patrols, 43-45,
67-69, 78, 99, 209; CCS, 143-47;
draconian sentences, 89-92, 170-71,
176-77; GIU, 149; Project Echelon,
248; tactics, 59, 70, 124-26, 169-71,
206-7, 241; white violence provoked
by, 33, 41-42, 49, 53-55, 59, 65. See
also COINTELPRO; FBI
political education (PE) classes, 108,
165, 187
Politique Internationale, 110
Pottinger, J. Stanley, 135
POW exchange, 107
Powell, Curtis, 199
Pratt, Geronimo, 6, 145, 173, 186, 192,
210-14, 237, 240
Presley, Elvis, 211
Prigg, Edward, 57
Prison Busing Program, 70
Project Echelon, 248
Prosser, Gabriel, 19-21, 27

Q

The Quaker City (Lippard), 53
Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-Tung
(Red Book), 42, 108, 187

R

racism, 47-49, 81-82, 115, 235
Rackley, Alex, 140, 143
rebellions: Christiana, 34-39, 56; Fort
Mosa, 17, 21-24; New Orleans
Revolt, 15; Richmond Revolt, 20-21;
slave conspiracies, 15-24, 34-39; on
slave ships, 14, 19; Stono, 15; Watts,
5-6, 31-34, 40-41, 63, 65-66, 102,
105. See also armed resistance; riots
Red Book (Mao Tse-Tung quotations),
42, 108, 187
Reed, Ishmael, 154
Republic of New Africa, 160
Republican National Committee, 124
resistance. See armed resistance
Revolutionary Action Movement (RAM),
160
Revolutionary Active Communities Uprising
in Numbers (RACUN), 236
Revolutionary People's Constitutional
Convention (RPCC), 72-80, 99, 195,
210, 213
Revolutionary Suicide (Newton), 32, 43, 185
Richmond demonstration, California,
43-44, 46, 220
Richmond Revolt, 20-21
Right On! Black Community News Service,
229
riots: Diving Bell, 54-55; Draft, 33-34;
Flying Horse, 53-55; white fomenting
of, 33-34, 41-42, 49, 53-55, 65.
See also armed resistance; murder;
rebellions
Rivera, Sister, 173
Rizzo, Frank, 73-74, 194-96
Robeson, Paul, 248
Roosevelt, Franklin D, 133
Rush, Bobby, 119, 149, 219, 240
Rustin, Bayard, 227-28

S

Sacramento demonstration, California,
45-46, 209
Sams, George "Madman," 140-43, 149,
151
Schell, Reggie "Captain Reg," 49, 60-61,
76, 150, 179
Schwarz, Frederick A.O., Jr., 132-33
Seale, Bobby: biographical highlights,
2-3; Malcolm X influence on, 66;
mayoral campaign, 224-25, 232;
murder charges, 63, 140-42, 180; and
Newton, 96-97; on Red Book use, 42;
soapbox speech of, 163; on women in
BPP, 165; Seize the Time, 237
Seale, john, 211
Seattle, Washington, 46, 58, 69, 71
Seberg, Jean, 155
segregation, 32, 54-55, 58. See afro
integration
Seize the Time (Seale), 237
self-defense: historical resistance in,
8, 21-29, 35; Newton on, 60-61;
opposition to weapons of, 101-2;
original name of BPP, 5-6, 42, 44-45,
80, 101-2, 231; original purpose of
BPP, 7, 42, 45, 231; police-monitoring
patrols as, 43-45, 67-69, 78, 99, 209;
Watts Rebellion, 32, 34, 41, 65-66
Sell, Evelyn Rose, 125-27
Seminole Wars, 22-24
Seniors Against Fearfu1 Environment
(SAFE), 70
Seven Stories Press, 236-37
Shabazz, Al Hajji Malik El-, 199. See also
Malcolm X
Shabazz, Malik Zulu, 234-35
Shakespeare, William, 227
Shakur, Afeni, 162-63, 175, 182, 217,
244-45
Shakur, Assata, 152, 163, 210
Shakur, Lumumba, 163, 217
Shakur, Tupac, 162, 244
Shakur, Zayd Malik, 217-18
Sharpton, Al, 154
Sheila (BPP member), 182-84
Sheila (young newspaper seller), 89-90
Shoes Program, 70
Shorter, George, 9
Sickle Cell Anemia Research Foundation,
70, 185
Simba Wachuka, 102
Simpson, O.J., 62
Singh, Dr. Nikhil Pal, 77-78, 174
Slausons street gang, 103
slaves: British use of, 16-17; fugitive slave
laws, 23, 37-39; "house slave/field
slave" dichotomy, 4, 8; identity continued
as, 172-73; rebellions of, 14-16,
17-24, 34-39; trade, 4, 8, 12-14, 19,
249
Small, Dr. Tolbert, 71
Smith, Melvin "Cotton, " 144-45, 147
snitches. See informants
socialism: capitalism coexisting with, 87;
intercommunalism, 72, 115; organizations
promoting, 125-28, 234. See also
Communism
Socialist Workers Party (SWP), 125, 128
Soul on Ice (Cleaver), 63
Soul On Wax (Cleaver), 82
South Vietnam People's Liberation Army,
107
split, BPP, 150, 206-7, 211-12, 215-25,
228-29
Starsky, Morris J., 127-28
Stiner, George, 103-4, 136
Stiner, Larry, 103-4, 136
Stono Rebellion, 15
Story, Joseph, 57
Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 53
street gangs: Blackstone Rangers, 121,
148; BPP work with, 62, 119, 121,
148, 240; CRIPs and BLOODs, 238;
ethnic, 55; Hugo Black on, 117; Irish,
54; police use of, 59; Slauson, 103; urban,
since BPP, 237-38; Young Lords,
119-20, 199, 242
structure of Black Panther Party:
branches, 46-47, 49, 241; centralization,
220-21, 224-25; day-to-day,
61-62, 186, 241; intercommunalism,
82-87; membership categories,
187-88; offices, 59-60, 182, 190;
titles and discipline, 47, 188-89, 241;
uniforms, 60. See also women in Black
Panther Party
Student Mobilization Committee
(MOBE), 127
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
(SNCC), 159
Students for a Democratic Society (SDS),
127
suicide, 122, 150, 155, 185
Sullivan, William, 131-32
Sunni Muslims, 199
survival programs, 69-71, 169-70, 185,
207, 224, 234-36, 241
Swearingen, M. Wesley, 103, 122, 136,
155

T

Tabor, Michael "Cetewayo, " 106, 217-18,
230
Tackwood, Louis, 143-47
Ten-Point Program, 62, 97-100, 187, 210,
235-36
Thompson, Samuel, 38
Three Main Rules of Discipline, 187
Tillich, Paul j., 27
Toward an American Revolution (Fresia),
78-79
Treaty of Colerain (1796), 23
Truth, Sojourner, 27
Tubman, Harriet, 1, 27, 38
Ture, Kwame (Stokely Carmichael), 160
Turner, Nat, 19, 27
Twain, Mark, 55

U

U.S.-Seminole Wars, 22-24
US organization (United Slaves), 102-4,
136, 139, 160, 232

V

Van Peebles, Mario, 236
Van Peebles, Melvin, 236
Vaslavek, Dr., 71
Vesey, Denmark, 19, 27
Vietnam War: Anthony on, 138; Cleaver
on, 106-7; escalation of, 45, 61;
Newton on, 88, 107, 110; opposition
to, 63, 77, 106-7, 110, 138; POW
exchange, 107; vets, 190, 192, 213

W

Walker, Alice, 172
wars: American Revolution, 16-18;
anticolonial movements, 5; Christiana
Resistance, 34-39, 56; Civil War, 10,
26-27, 34, 39, 86; Draft Riots, 33-34;
Red Summer, 33; Seminole Wars,
22-24; World War II, 250. See also
Vietnam War
Washington, George, 16, 73-74
Washington, Rev. Paul, 73
Washington Post, 145
Watts Rebellion, 5-6, 31-34, 40-41, 63,
65-66, 102, 105. See also rebellions;
riots
weapons: "jawbone of an ass, " 20; legality
of, 43, 68, 144-45, 152; opposition
to, 101-2, 149, 232; philosophy of,
67-68, 191-92
Webb, Robert, 225-26, 229
Wheeler, Burton K., 124-25
white nationalism, 8, 77, 85-86, 154
white riots against Blacks, 33-34, 41-42,
49, 53-55, 59, 65. See also riots
Williams, Robert, 5
WIN magazine, 156
women in Black Panther Party: Adams,
159, 164; Brown, 95-96, 120, 167-68,
172, 184-86, 232, 237;Bukhari,
162-63, 168-74; Cleaver, Eldridge,
on, 161, 175, 184; Cleaver, Kathleen,
i-xvi, 109, 114-15, 160-62, 173,
212-13; Cox, 175-76; Douglas, 93,
182, 201; Huggins, 63, 140-42, 175,
180, 182, 212, 241; Lewis, 165; Major,
176-78; Mealy, 150, 178-80; Pearson
on sexism, 160, 164-65; Seale on, 165;
sexism and, 160, 164-74, 177-78;
Shakur, Afeni, 162-63, 175, 182, 244;
Singh on, 174-75; others, 89-90, 173,
182-84, 217, 241
World War 11, 132, 250
The Wretched of the Earth (Fanon), 3-4,
108-9, 221
Wright, J. Leitch, Jr., 23
Wright, Richard, 248

Y

Young Lords, 119-20, 199, 242
Young Socialist Alliance, 127
Youth Against War and Fascism, 215

Z

Zinn, Howard, 152
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Re: We Want Freedom: A Life in the Black Panther Party, by M

Postby admin » Thu Jun 12, 2014 7:37 am

Mumia Abu-Jamal

Image

Mumia Abu-Jamal was born April 24, 1954, in Philadelphia. At the time of his arrest there on December 9, 1981, on charges of the murder of a police officer, he was a leading broadcast journalist and president of the Philadelphia chapter of the Association of Black Journalists. Widely acclaimed for his award-winning work with NPR, Mutual Black Network, National Black Network, WUHY (now WHYY), and other stations, he was known as Philadelphia's "voice for the voiceless."

At the age of fourteen, Mumia was beaten and arrested for protesting at a presidential rally for George Wallace. In the fall of 1968, he became a founding member and Lieutenant Minister of Information of the Philadelphia chapter of the Black Panther Party. During the summer of 1970, he worked for the Party newspaper in Oakland, California, returning to Philadelphia shortly before the Revolutionary People's Constitutional Convention and the city police raid of all three local offices of the Panther Party.

Throughout the following decade, Mumia's hard-hitting criticism of the Philadelphia Police Department and the Rizzo administration marked him as a journalist "to watch." His unyielding rejection of Mayor Rizzo's version of the city's 1978 siege of the MOVE organization (in the Powelton Village neighborhood of West Philadelphia) particularly incensed the establishment, and eventually cost him his broadcast job. In order to support his growing family, Mumia began to work night shifts as a cabdriver.

In the early morning hours of December 9, 1981, Mumia was critically shot and beaten by police and charged with the murder of officer Daniel Faulkner. Put on trial before Philadelphia's notorious "hanging judge," Albert Sabo, he was convicted and sentenced to death on July 3, 1982.

After years of challenges and international protests, on December 18, 2001, the US District Court overturned the death sentence, but upheld the conviction. Judge Yohn's District Court decision is being appealed to the Court of Appeals from both sides, with the prosecution objecting to the overturn of the capital sentence and Murcia's attorneys rejecting the upheld conviction. As of October 2002, Murcia's appeal is stayed (on hold) pending the Pennsylvania Supreme Court's ruling on the state appeal.

Starting with the Black Panther Party's national newspaper, Mumia has reported on the racism and inequity in our society. He added radio to his portfolio, eventually recording a series of reports from death row for NPR's All Things Considered. However, NPR, caving in to political pressure, refused to air the programs. Mumia Abu-Jamal is still fighting for his own freedom from prison, and through his powerful voice, for the freedom of all people.

Mumia Abu-Jamal is the author of Live from Death Row, All Things Censored, Death Blossoms: Reflections from a Prisoner of Conscience, and Faith of Our Fathers. His audio recordings include 175 Progress Drive and All Things Censored. His commentaries appear in periodicals throughout the world and can be heard on http://www.prisonradio.org.

KATHLEEN CLEAVER, an activist scholar, currently teaches at Emory University School of Law and Yale University's African American Studies Department. She quit college in 1966 to join the Civil Rights movement, then served as the Black Panther Party's Communications Secretary from 1967-1971. Cleaver co-edited the essay collection Liberation, Imagination and the Black Panther Party, and is at work on a forthcoming memoir Memories of Love and War.

Supporter Information

International Concerned Friends and Family of
Mumia Abu-Jamal
PO Box 19709, Philadelphia, PA 19143 (215) 476-8812
http://www.mumla.org

The Mobilization to Free Mumia Abu-Jamal
298 Valencia Street, San Francisco, CA 94103 (415) 255-1085
http://www.freemumia.org

Committee to Save Mumia Abu-Jamal
163 Amsterdam Avenue, Suite 115, New York, NY 10023
(212) 580-1022

Free Mumia Abu-Jamal coalition
PO Box 650, New York, NY 10009
(212) 330-8029

Refuse and Resist!
350 Madison Avenue, Suite 1166
New York, NY 10165 (212) 713-5657
www:refuseandresist.org/mumia

Critical Resistance: Beyond the Prison-Industrial Complex
National Office: 1904 Franklin Street, Suite 504
Oakland, CA 94612 (510) 444-0484
www:criticalresistance.org

www:millions4mumia.org

http://www.prisonradio.org

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