We Want Freedom: A Life in the Black Panther Party, by Mumia

Re: We Want Freedom: A Life in the Black Panther Party, by M

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INDEX

A

Abdy, Edward, 52-53
Abron, JaNina, 241
Adams, Frankye Malika, 159, 164
Adams, Henry, 11
Adams, John Quincy, 22
African People's Socialist Party (APSP),
234
Africanisms, 104-5
Al Fatah, 107-8
Algiers, Algeria: Cleaver's self-imposed
exile in, 114, 213, 215-18, 228-30;
international BPP headquarters, 106,
109, 112, 180, 250
Ali, Muhammad (Cassius Clay), 4, 62
Alston, Ashanti, 236
Ambulance Services, 70
La Amistad mutiny, 19
Anarchist Panther, 236
Anarchist People of Color, 236
Anderson, Osbourne, 26
Anthony, Earl, xv, 102, 138-39, 151, 222
anti-Semitism, 115, 235
Aptheker, Herbert, 18, 22
Arafat, Yasser, 107
Arizona State University, 127
armed resistance: Christiana, 34-39, 56;
at Harper's Ferry, 24-26; Negro Fort,
17, 21-24; police-monitoring patrols,
43-45, 67-69, 78, 99, 209; Seminole
Wars, 22-24; Watts Rebellion, 5-6,
31-34, 40-41, 63, 65-66, 102, 105, Su
also rebellions; riots
Ash, Joel, 136

B

Babylon! Revolutionary People's Communication
Network, 229
back-to-Africa movements, 6-11, 20
Baker, Ella, 159
Baldwin, James, 5
Baraka, Amiri, 102
Barenblat v, U.S., 117
"Baron's Revolt," 17-18
Barth, Karl, 27
Bassem, Abu, 108
Bay, Big Bob, 110-11
Bennett, Fred, 226
Bernice, Sister, 181
Bethune, Mary McLeod, 159, 249
Biddle, Francis, 133
"Big Man" (Elbert Howard), 6, 212, 215,
219
bin Wahad, Dhoruba, 207, 217-18
Bird, Joan, 182
BJ (Baby Jesus), 176-77
Black, Hugo, 117
Black Classics Press, 237
Black Congress, 103
Black Economic Development Conference
(BEDC), 179
Black House, 101-2
Black Liberation Army (BLA), 162, 168,
171, 225, 230, 236
Black Liberators, 81, 129-30, 263-5
Black Muslim movements, 199, 233. See
also Nation of Islam (NOI)
Black nationalism, 8-11, 20, 67, 81, 83,
131, 208
Black Panther Collective (BPC), 235
Black Panther Militia, 234
The Black Panther newspaper: arrests for
selling, 89-90, 170; closely read, 101,
107, 111-13, 228-29, 238-39, 247;
editors of, 6, 44, 107, 182, 201, 241;
sales, 61, 112, 185, 189, 195, 207; San
Francisco offices, 201-3
Black Panther Party (BPP): California State
Assembly demonstration, 45, 209;
centralization in Oakland, 224-26, 232;
chapters, 6, 46, 71, 119-20, I50, 179,
188, 219-21; coalitions, 77, 80, 82-88,
113-14, 122, 124, 128; community
service programs, 67-71, 169-70, 185,
207, 224, 241; expulsion of members,
180, 214, 217-18; as "Huey's
party, " 110-11, l15, 221; international
headquarters, 106, 109, 112, 180, 250;
internationalism, 80-88, 105-9,
114-15, 175; King, contrasted with,
7, 28, 32, 39-41; legacies of, 236-45;
Malcolm X's influence, 60-61, 66-67,
80-81, 101, 208, 250; membership
categories, 187-88; original name (BPPFSD),
5-6, 42, 44-45, 80, 101-2, 231;
police-monitoring patrols by, 43-45,
67-69, 78, 99, 209; political education
(PE) classes, 97-101, 108, 161, 165,
187; red orientation, 101, 108, 118,
177, 179, 198, 208; on revolution vs.
reform, 66; sexism in, 160, 164-74,
177-78; the split, 150, 211-12, 215-19,
219-25, 228-29; Ten-Point Program,
62, 97-101, 187, 210, 235-36;unde~
ground military force and, 214. See also
Breakfast for Children Program; Structure
of Black Panther Party; women in
Black Panther Party
Black United Liberation Front (BULF), 233
Blackstone Rangers, 121, 148
Boston Gazelle, 18
Boston, 46, 58, 71, 173
Breakfast for Children Program: adoption
of, by other groups, 233-34; BPP
program, 69, 185-87, 189, 197, 224,
240-41; police disruption of, 169-70,
207, 241
Brent, Bill, 106
Brown, Elaine, 95-96, 120, 167-68, 172,
184-86, 232, 237
Brown, John, 24-26
Brownlow, William G., 11
brownmail: Cleaver/Newton split and,
211-12, 215-25; historical uses of,
11, 16, 18; Hoover-authorized, 106-7,
121-22, 130-31, 148-49, 206-8,
211-19; ordinary citizens targeted,
126-31, 148, 157
Bukhari, Safiya A., 162-63, 168-74, 229
Bullins, Ed, 102
Burgess, J. W, 79
Burke, Edmund, 17
Burns, William J., 125

C

California State Assembly "invasion",
45, 209
Carmichael, Stokely, 160
Carter, Alprentice "Bunchy, " 103, 136
CCS (Criminal Conspiracy Section),
143-47
Chatham convention, 24-25, 76-77
Chicago, Illinois, 46, 71, 119-20, 150,
179, 219-20
Chicago Freedom festival, 32
Christiana Resistance, 34-39, 56
(Frank) Church Committee, 131-32, 153,
157-58
cimarron, 23
Cinque (Singbeh Pi'eh), 19, 27
Citizen's Committee to Investigate the
FBI, 156
Civil War, 10, 26-27, 34, 39, 86
Clark, Mark, 150, 189
Clay, Cassius (Muhammad Ali), 4, 62
Cleaver, Eldridge: Black House cofounder,
101-2; brownmail, 208-11,
212-19; editor, Black Panther; 44; exile
in Algiers, 114, 213, 215-18, 228-30;
and Newton split, 211-12, 215-19,
219-25; personality flaws, 219-20,
223; POW exchange offer, 106-7;
Presidential candidacy, 82; on women
in BPP, 161, 175, 184; "Letter to My
Black Brothers in Vietnam, " 106-7;
Soul On Ice, 63; Soul on Wax, 82
Cleaver, Kathleen Neal: introduction by,
i-xvi; on Fanon's influence, 109; on
international scope of BPP, 114-15;
talents as a speaker, 212-13; on
women in BPP, 160-62, 173
Clothing Program, 70
coalitions, 77, 80, 82-88, 113-14, 122,
124, 128.
COINTELPRO (COunter INTELligence
PROgram): actions against
Black groups, 122-23, 129-31; ordinary
citizens targeted, 121~35, 155,
211; purposes of, 121, 123-24, 131,
133-35; uncovered, 155-58, 205-11,
213. See also brown mail; FBI; Hoover,
J. Edgar
colonialism, 3-5, 108, 221
Communism, 118, 137-38, 151. See also
socialism
Community Medical Clinic, 70-71, 185
community service programs, 67-71,
169-70, 185, 207, 224, 234-36, 241
concubinage, 27
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), 160
constitutions: FBI violations of U.S., 115,
123, 132-35, 156, 170, 189, 209-11;
John Brown's rewritten, 24-25; Pennsylvania
state's, 56-57; RPCCs, 72-80,
99, 195, 210, 213; U.S., 25, 56-57, 66,
78-80, 99, 101, 210
Cox, Barbara Easley, 175-76
Cox, Don, 106
Crawford, Bill, 45-46
CRIC (Citizens Research and Investigation
Committee), 144-47, 156
Cyril, Janet, 163

D

Davis, Angela, 144, 182
DeBerry, Cliff, 128-29
Declaration of Independence, new,
24-25, 210
Delany Martin, 9, 37
Deslondes, Charles, 19, 27
Discipline, Three Main Rules of, 187
Diving Bell Riot, 54-55
Double V campaign, 250
Douglas, Emory, 44
Douglass, Frederick, 31, 38-39, 51-52
Douglass, Judi, 93, 182, 201
Dowell, Denzil, 43-44
Draft Riots, 33034
Dred Scott" Sanford, 25, 57
Du Bois, W.E.B., 5, 33
Dunmore, Lord, 16-17
Dymally, Mervyn, 176

E

Echelon Project, 248
Einstein, Albert, 211
enemies lists, 155-58
Equiano, Olaudah, 12-13

F

fake letters. See brownmail
Fanon, Frantz, 3-5, 105, 108-9, 221, 248
Farrakhan, Louis, 154
Al Fatah, 107-8
Faulkner, William, 26
FBI: conspiracies to discredit citizens,
121-24, 125-35, 148, 155, 157, 211;
disruptions by, 102, 123, 169-70, 207,
241; enemies lists, 155-58; Gregory
targeted, 157; Hoover-authorized
brownmail, 121-22, 130-31, 148-49,
206-8, 211-19; informants, 102-4,
136, 138-39, 140-47, 148-51, 207,
222; King targeted, 122, 132-33;
mission of, 121, 123-24, 131, 134-35;
murder instigated by, 104, 136-37,
206-7; nature of, revealed, 125,
141-46, 155-58. See also brown mail;
COINTELPRO; Hoover, J. Edgar
Feagin, Joe R., 33
Fletcher v. Peck, 22-23
Flying Horse Riot, 53-55
Flynn, J.W., 123
Fonda, Jane, 110
Foner, Eric, 11
Foner, Philip, 39
Food Programs, 70
Forbes, Ella, 34
Forbes, Flores, 189
Fort, Jeff, 121, 148
Fort Mosa, Florida, 17, 21-24
Fredrickson, George, 85-86
freed, Donald, 140
Fresia, Jerry, 78
Freud, Sigmund, 250
fugitive slave laws, 23, 37-39
Fuller, Algonquin J., 215

G

Galt, Nick, 136
Gandhi, Mahatma, 249
gangs. See street gangs
Gardner-Smith, William, 44
Garry, Charles, 140-42
Garvey, Marcus, 9
Gary, Romaine, 155
Genet, Jean, 202-4
the ghetto, defined, 32, 58
GIU (Gang Intelligence Unit), 149
Gorsuch, Dickinson, 35-39
Gorsuch, Edward, 34
Great Migration, 6, 28, 58
Gregory, Dick, 157
Guevara, Che, 59, 105, 178
Guillen, Nicholas, 249

H

Hage, M.K., Jr., 126
Haig, Alexander, 110
Hall, Prince, 9-10
Hampton, Fred, 119-22, 148, 153, 179,
189, 234
Harper's Ferry raid, 24-26
Harris opinion poll, 152-53
Henderson, Errol A., 160
Herrenvolk democracy, 8, 77, 85-86
Hilliard, David: background, 6-7, 142,
221-22; Chief of Staff, 120, 150,
202-3, 214, 216, 219; on NBPP, 235;
on RPCC, 76
Hilliard, Roosevelt "June," 6, 183
Home Maintenance Program, 70
Hoover, J. Edgar: brown mail, 121-22,
130-31, 148-49, 206-8, 211-19;
compulsions, 133-34; objectives, 136,
149, 207; racism of, 115-17; tactics of,
121-23. See also COINTELPRO; FBI
Hottelet, Richard C., 108
Housing Cooperative Program, 70
How the Irish Became White (Ignatiev),
53-54
Howard, Elbert "Big Man", 6, 212, 215,
219
The Huey P. Newton Reader, 237
"Huey's party, " 110-11, 115, 221. See also
Black Panther Party (BPP)
Huggins, Ericka, 63, 140-42, 175, 180,
182, 212, 241
Huggins, Jon, 103, 136, 140
Hughes, Langston, 248-49
Hutton, Bobby, 71, 106, 114
Hyson, Brenda, 173

I

Ignatiev, Noel, 53-54
"In Defense of Self-Defense" (Newton),
60-61
informants: Anthony, 102, 138-39, 151,
222; O'Neal, 148-50; Perry, 103-4;
Sams, 140-43, 149, 151; Smith, 144-
45, 147; snitch-jacketing, 207; Stiner
brothers, 103-4, 136; Tackwood,
143-47; US organization, 104, 136
integration, 64-66, 119. See also segregation
Intercommunal News Service, 70
Intercommunal Youth Institutes, 70, 232
intercommunalism, 70, 72, 80, 82-88,
113-15, 232.
internationalism, 80-88, 105-9, 114-15,
175, 250
Irish, 33-34, 52-54
Islam. See Nation of Islam

J

Jackson, Andrew, 21-22, 24
James, Joy, 153
Jefferson, Thomas, 10
Jennings, Regina, 166-67
Jesup, Thomas, 22
Jews, 98, 115, 223, 235, 242
ji-Jaga, Geronimo, 6, 145, 173, 186, 192,
210-14, 237, 240
Johnson, Deborah, 149, 234
Johnson, Marlin, 149
Johnson, Rene, 150
Jones, Andrea, 173, 224
Jones, Pirkle, 177
Joseph, Jamal, 163
Juchi (self-reliance), 113
Junta of Militant Organizations (JOMO),
160

K

Karenga, Maulana "Ron, " 102-3
Keel, Lieutenant, 144
Keep Ya' Head Up Foundation, 178
Kennedy, John F, 39
Kenyatta, Muhamad, 179
Kim II-sung, 113
King, Martin Luther, Jr.: assassinated,
61; FB1 tactics against, 122, 132-33;
forbearance doctrine, 7; integrationist,
64-65; on internal colonialism, 32;
Malcolm X, contrasted, 28, 39-41;
Watts' influence on, 32, 65
King, Martin Luther, Sr., 122
Kizenski, Ron, 138-39
Kline, Henry, 35-39
Ku Klux Klan (KKK), 33

L

Lenin, V.I., 5
Leninism, S, 66, 108, 118, 177
letters, fake. See brownmail
Lewis, Tarika, 165
Liberation Schools, 70, 171, 174
Liberator, 38
Liberia, 8-9
Lincoln, Abraham, 10-11
Lippard, George, 53
Los Angeles: chapter, 46, 71, 220; informants,
102-4, 136, 138-39, 140-47,
148-51, 207, 222; since BPP, 235; US
organization in, 102-4, 136; volatile
police in, 189. See afro police
Los Angeles Times, 145, 155
Love, Sister, 181
Lule, Jack, 153-54
lump en proletariat, 143, 173, 220, 223,
238

M

Maceo, Antonio, 249
Mack, Larry, 106
Major, Naima, 176-78
Major, Reginald, 160
Malcolm X: on colonialism, S; and
DeBerry, 129; and Harris, 199; "house
slave/ field slave" dichotomy, 4, 8; influence
on BPP, 60-61, 66-67, 80-81,
101, 208, 250; and King, contrasted,
28, 39-41; in The Militant, 66; and
Newton, 4-5, 60-61, 66; post-Hajj
name, 199
Mao Tse-Tung, 42, 105, 108, 187
Maoism, 42, 66, 105, 108, 118, 177, 187,
208
Maroons/maroonage, 17, 21, 23
Marxism, 66, 108, 112-13, 118, 177, 179,
198, 208
Matthews, Connie, 106, 214
Matthews, Donald H., 27-28
McCarter, Terry, 47
McGee, Michael, 234
McIntosh, General, 24
Mealy, Rosemari, 150, 178-80
Media, Pennsylvania, break-in, 155-58
media role, 151-58
Merritt College, 2, 172
Michaels, Aaron, 234
The Militant, 66
Mitchell, Beth, 217
Mitchell, Henry, 49
Mitchell, John, 117
Mitchell, Roy, 148-49
Mondale, Walter, 132, 157
Monroe, James, 20
Moorish Science Temple, 233
Morgan, Margaret, 56-57
Morris, Gouverneur, 79
Muhammad, Elijah, 112, 123
Muhammad, Khallid Abdul, 234
Muhammad Speaks, 66, 97, 112-13
Mulford legislation, 45
Mumia, Abu-Jamal: about, i-xvi; on BPP
newspaper, 111-13; discovery of BPP,
247; jaywalking arrest, 89-93; on loyalty,
182-84; in Philadelphia, 46-49
murder: among and within Black groups,
103-4, 207, 225-26, 229; charges
against Newton, 60, 106; charges
against Seale, 63, 140-42, 180; of
Clark, 150, 189; of Hampton, 149-50,
189; of Hutton, 71, 106; law enforcement
and, 43, 104, 136-37, 143-45,
153, 174, 177, 180, 206-7; mass
violence, provoked by whites, 22, 33,
41-42, 51, 59
Muslim Mosque, Inc., 129
Muslims, 199, 233

N

NAACP (National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People), 2,
66, 119
Napier, Sam, 226, 229
Nation of Islam (NOl): anti-Semitism
from, 234-35; on Black nationalism,
4, 11, 85, 233; Malcolm X and, 81,
228, 239; Muhammad Speaks, 66, 97;
police raids and, 122-23; sexism in,
178
National Advisory Committee on Urban
Disorders, 41
National Liberation Front of South
Vietnam, 107
nationalism, 110. See also Black nationalism;
white nationalism
nativism, 54-55
Negro Port (Fort Mosa), 17, 21-24
negro governments, 9-10, 17, 21
Negro-Indians, 22-24
Negroes With Guns (Williams), 5
Neil, Father Earl, 69
New African American Vanguard Movement
(NAAVM), 235
New Black Panther Party (NBPP),
234-35
New Haven, Connecticut, 63, 140, 142,
180, 203, 241-42
New Orleans Rebellion, 15
New Panther Vanguard Movement
(NPVM), 235
New World Liberation Front, 223
New York: the Bronx, 46, 88, 110, 112,
I81, 198-99, 225, 229; Brooklyn, 46,
71, 128, 163-64, 173, 199, 240; Draft
Riots, 33-34; Harlem, 46, 71, 128-29,
162-63, 168, 171, 199, 225, 229
New York Times, 172
New York 21, 180, See also Panther 21
Newark, New Jersey, 42, 61, 105, 199
Newsweek, 145
Newton, Huey P: biographical highlights,
4-5, 42-43, 81, 95-96; "black panther"
symbol, S; brownmail, 208-11,
212-19; civil action from prison, 176;
and Cleaver split, 211-12, 215-25; at
the Constitutional Convention, 74-76;
intercommunalism, 80, 82-84, 113-
14; Mealy expelled by, 180; murder
charges, 60, 106; as a poor speaker,
2, 75-76, 212; racism as the enemy,
81-82; Seale and, 96-97; Watts'
influence on, 32-33, 63; weaknesses,
81-82, 95-96, 135, 208-10, 219-26;
In Defense of Self-Defense, 60-61; Revolutionary Suicide, 32, 43, 185
Newton, Walter, 96, 218
Nguyen, Thi Dinh, 107
Nietzsche, Friedrich, S, 81
Nixon, Richard, 105, 117
Njeri, Akua (Deborah Johnson), 149,
234
Nkrumah, Kwame, 60, 105, 248
NOI. See Nation of Islam
Non-Partisan League, 124
North Korea, 113-14, 175
The North Star, 39
Nyasha, Kiilu, 241

O

Oakland, California, 4, 43, 60, 68-69, 71,
88-89, 220
O'Connor, Robert, 138-39
Odinga, Sekou, 106, 163
"On the Question of Sexism Within the
Black Panther Party" (Bukhari), 172
O'Neal, William, 148-50
Organization of Afro-American Unity,
129

P

Palestinians, 107, 113, 235
Pan African Cultural ['estiva1, 114
the Panther 13, 145
the Panther 21, 91, 106, 164, 180, 199,
214, 217-18, 230, 244
Papke, David R., 210
Parker, William and Eliza, 35-39
PATR10T Act, 131
Peace and Freedom Party (P&F), 82
"Peaches," 173
Pearson, Hugh, 160, 164-65
People's Free Medical Research Health
Clinic, 70-71, 185
Perry, Darthard, 103-4
Petition Drive for Community Control
of Cops, 70
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 46-49, 51-62,
71
Philadelphia Bulletin, 39, 56
Picking Up the Gun (Anthony), 151
Pi'eh, Singbeh "Cinque," 19, 27
Pilots for Panthers, 107
Pleasonton, August James, 55
police: BPP police-alert patrols, 43-45,
67-69, 78, 99, 209; CCS, 143-47;
draconian sentences, 89-92, 170-71,
176-77; GIU, 149; Project Echelon,
248; tactics, 59, 70, 124-26, 169-71,
206-7, 241; white violence provoked
by, 33, 41-42, 49, 53-55, 59, 65. See
also COINTELPRO; FBI
political education (PE) classes, 108,
165, 187
Politique Internationale, 110
Pottinger, J. Stanley, 135
POW exchange, 107
Powell, Curtis, 199
Pratt, Geronimo, 6, 145, 173, 186, 192,
210-14, 237, 240
Presley, Elvis, 211
Prigg, Edward, 57
Prison Busing Program, 70
Project Echelon, 248
Prosser, Gabriel, 19-21, 27

Q

The Quaker City (Lippard), 53
Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-Tung
(Red Book), 42, 108, 187

R

racism, 47-49, 81-82, 115, 235
Rackley, Alex, 140, 143
rebellions: Christiana, 34-39, 56; Fort
Mosa, 17, 21-24; New Orleans
Revolt, 15; Richmond Revolt, 20-21;
slave conspiracies, 15-24, 34-39; on
slave ships, 14, 19; Stono, 15; Watts,
5-6, 31-34, 40-41, 63, 65-66, 102,
105. See also armed resistance; riots
Red Book (Mao Tse-Tung quotations),
42, 108, 187
Reed, Ishmael, 154
Republic of New Africa, 160
Republican National Committee, 124
resistance. See armed resistance
Revolutionary Action Movement (RAM),
160
Revolutionary Active Communities Uprising
in Numbers (RACUN), 236
Revolutionary People's Constitutional
Convention (RPCC), 72-80, 99, 195,
210, 213
Revolutionary Suicide (Newton), 32, 43, 185
Richmond demonstration, California,
43-44, 46, 220
Richmond Revolt, 20-21
Right On! Black Community News Service,
229
riots: Diving Bell, 54-55; Draft, 33-34;
Flying Horse, 53-55; white fomenting
of, 33-34, 41-42, 49, 53-55, 65.
See also armed resistance; murder;
rebellions
Rivera, Sister, 173
Rizzo, Frank, 73-74, 194-96
Robeson, Paul, 248
Roosevelt, Franklin D, 133
Rush, Bobby, 119, 149, 219, 240
Rustin, Bayard, 227-28

S

Sacramento demonstration, California,
45-46, 209
Sams, George "Madman," 140-43, 149,
151
Schell, Reggie "Captain Reg," 49, 60-61,
76, 150, 179
Schwarz, Frederick A.O., Jr., 132-33
Seale, Bobby: biographical highlights,
2-3; Malcolm X influence on, 66;
mayoral campaign, 224-25, 232;
murder charges, 63, 140-42, 180; and
Newton, 96-97; on Red Book use, 42;
soapbox speech of, 163; on women in
BPP, 165; Seize the Time, 237
Seale, john, 211
Seattle, Washington, 46, 58, 69, 71
Seberg, Jean, 155
segregation, 32, 54-55, 58. See afro
integration
Seize the Time (Seale), 237
self-defense: historical resistance in,
8, 21-29, 35; Newton on, 60-61;
opposition to weapons of, 101-2;
original name of BPP, 5-6, 42, 44-45,
80, 101-2, 231; original purpose of
BPP, 7, 42, 45, 231; police-monitoring
patrols as, 43-45, 67-69, 78, 99, 209;
Watts Rebellion, 32, 34, 41, 65-66
Sell, Evelyn Rose, 125-27
Seminole Wars, 22-24
Seniors Against Fearfu1 Environment
(SAFE), 70
Seven Stories Press, 236-37
Shabazz, Al Hajji Malik El-, 199. See also
Malcolm X
Shabazz, Malik Zulu, 234-35
Shakespeare, William, 227
Shakur, Afeni, 162-63, 175, 182, 217,
244-45
Shakur, Assata, 152, 163, 210
Shakur, Lumumba, 163, 217
Shakur, Tupac, 162, 244
Shakur, Zayd Malik, 217-18
Sharpton, Al, 154
Sheila (BPP member), 182-84
Sheila (young newspaper seller), 89-90
Shoes Program, 70
Shorter, George, 9
Sickle Cell Anemia Research Foundation,
70, 185
Simba Wachuka, 102
Simpson, O.J., 62
Singh, Dr. Nikhil Pal, 77-78, 174
Slausons street gang, 103
slaves: British use of, 16-17; fugitive slave
laws, 23, 37-39; "house slave/field
slave" dichotomy, 4, 8; identity continued
as, 172-73; rebellions of, 14-16,
17-24, 34-39; trade, 4, 8, 12-14, 19,
249
Small, Dr. Tolbert, 71
Smith, Melvin "Cotton, " 144-45, 147
snitches. See informants
socialism: capitalism coexisting with, 87;
intercommunalism, 72, 115; organizations
promoting, 125-28, 234. See also
Communism
Socialist Workers Party (SWP), 125, 128
Soul on Ice (Cleaver), 63
Soul On Wax (Cleaver), 82
South Vietnam People's Liberation Army,
107
split, BPP, 150, 206-7, 211-12, 215-25,
228-29
Starsky, Morris J., 127-28
Stiner, George, 103-4, 136
Stiner, Larry, 103-4, 136
Stono Rebellion, 15
Story, Joseph, 57
Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 53
street gangs: Blackstone Rangers, 121,
148; BPP work with, 62, 119, 121,
148, 240; CRIPs and BLOODs, 238;
ethnic, 55; Hugo Black on, 117; Irish,
54; police use of, 59; Slauson, 103; urban,
since BPP, 237-38; Young Lords,
119-20, 199, 242
structure of Black Panther Party:
branches, 46-47, 49, 241; centralization,
220-21, 224-25; day-to-day,
61-62, 186, 241; intercommunalism,
82-87; membership categories,
187-88; offices, 59-60, 182, 190;
titles and discipline, 47, 188-89, 241;
uniforms, 60. See also women in Black
Panther Party
Student Mobilization Committee
(MOBE), 127
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
(SNCC), 159
Students for a Democratic Society (SDS),
127
suicide, 122, 150, 155, 185
Sullivan, William, 131-32
Sunni Muslims, 199
survival programs, 69-71, 169-70, 185,
207, 224, 234-36, 241
Swearingen, M. Wesley, 103, 122, 136,
155

T

Tabor, Michael "Cetewayo, " 106, 217-18,
230
Tackwood, Louis, 143-47
Ten-Point Program, 62, 97-100, 187, 210,
235-36
Thompson, Samuel, 38
Three Main Rules of Discipline, 187
Tillich, Paul j., 27
Toward an American Revolution (Fresia),
78-79
Treaty of Colerain (1796), 23
Truth, Sojourner, 27
Tubman, Harriet, 1, 27, 38
Ture, Kwame (Stokely Carmichael), 160
Turner, Nat, 19, 27
Twain, Mark, 55

U

U.S.-Seminole Wars, 22-24
US organization (United Slaves), 102-4,
136, 139, 160, 232

V

Van Peebles, Mario, 236
Van Peebles, Melvin, 236
Vaslavek, Dr., 71
Vesey, Denmark, 19, 27
Vietnam War: Anthony on, 138; Cleaver
on, 106-7; escalation of, 45, 61;
Newton on, 88, 107, 110; opposition
to, 63, 77, 106-7, 110, 138; POW
exchange, 107; vets, 190, 192, 213

W

Walker, Alice, 172
wars: American Revolution, 16-18;
anticolonial movements, 5; Christiana
Resistance, 34-39, 56; Civil War, 10,
26-27, 34, 39, 86; Draft Riots, 33-34;
Red Summer, 33; Seminole Wars,
22-24; World War II, 250. See also
Vietnam War
Washington, George, 16, 73-74
Washington, Rev. Paul, 73
Washington Post, 145
Watts Rebellion, 5-6, 31-34, 40-41, 63,
65-66, 102, 105. See also rebellions;
riots
weapons: "jawbone of an ass, " 20; legality
of, 43, 68, 144-45, 152; opposition
to, 101-2, 149, 232; philosophy of,
67-68, 191-92
Webb, Robert, 225-26, 229
Wheeler, Burton K., 124-25
white nationalism, 8, 77, 85-86, 154
white riots against Blacks, 33-34, 41-42,
49, 53-55, 59, 65. See also riots
Williams, Robert, 5
WIN magazine, 156
women in Black Panther Party: Adams,
159, 164; Brown, 95-96, 120, 167-68,
172, 184-86, 232, 237;Bukhari,
162-63, 168-74; Cleaver, Eldridge,
on, 161, 175, 184; Cleaver, Kathleen,
i-xvi, 109, 114-15, 160-62, 173,
212-13; Cox, 175-76; Douglas, 93,
182, 201; Huggins, 63, 140-42, 175,
180, 182, 212, 241; Lewis, 165; Major,
176-78; Mealy, 150, 178-80; Pearson
on sexism, 160, 164-65; Seale on, 165;
sexism and, 160, 164-74, 177-78;
Shakur, Afeni, 162-63, 175, 182, 244;
Singh on, 174-75; others, 89-90, 173,
182-84, 217, 241
World War 11, 132, 250
The Wretched of the Earth (Fanon), 3-4,
108-9, 221
Wright, J. Leitch, Jr., 23
Wright, Richard, 248

Y

Young Lords, 119-20, 199, 242
Young Socialist Alliance, 127
Youth Against War and Fascism, 215

Z

Zinn, Howard, 152
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Re: We Want Freedom: A Life in the Black Panther Party, by M

Postby admin » Thu Jun 12, 2014 7:37 am

Mumia Abu-Jamal

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Mumia Abu-Jamal was born April 24, 1954, in Philadelphia. At the time of his arrest there on December 9, 1981, on charges of the murder of a police officer, he was a leading broadcast journalist and president of the Philadelphia chapter of the Association of Black Journalists. Widely acclaimed for his award-winning work with NPR, Mutual Black Network, National Black Network, WUHY (now WHYY), and other stations, he was known as Philadelphia's "voice for the voiceless."

At the age of fourteen, Mumia was beaten and arrested for protesting at a presidential rally for George Wallace. In the fall of 1968, he became a founding member and Lieutenant Minister of Information of the Philadelphia chapter of the Black Panther Party. During the summer of 1970, he worked for the Party newspaper in Oakland, California, returning to Philadelphia shortly before the Revolutionary People's Constitutional Convention and the city police raid of all three local offices of the Panther Party.

Throughout the following decade, Mumia's hard-hitting criticism of the Philadelphia Police Department and the Rizzo administration marked him as a journalist "to watch." His unyielding rejection of Mayor Rizzo's version of the city's 1978 siege of the MOVE organization (in the Powelton Village neighborhood of West Philadelphia) particularly incensed the establishment, and eventually cost him his broadcast job. In order to support his growing family, Mumia began to work night shifts as a cabdriver.

In the early morning hours of December 9, 1981, Mumia was critically shot and beaten by police and charged with the murder of officer Daniel Faulkner. Put on trial before Philadelphia's notorious "hanging judge," Albert Sabo, he was convicted and sentenced to death on July 3, 1982.

After years of challenges and international protests, on December 18, 2001, the US District Court overturned the death sentence, but upheld the conviction. Judge Yohn's District Court decision is being appealed to the Court of Appeals from both sides, with the prosecution objecting to the overturn of the capital sentence and Murcia's attorneys rejecting the upheld conviction. As of October 2002, Murcia's appeal is stayed (on hold) pending the Pennsylvania Supreme Court's ruling on the state appeal.

Starting with the Black Panther Party's national newspaper, Mumia has reported on the racism and inequity in our society. He added radio to his portfolio, eventually recording a series of reports from death row for NPR's All Things Considered. However, NPR, caving in to political pressure, refused to air the programs. Mumia Abu-Jamal is still fighting for his own freedom from prison, and through his powerful voice, for the freedom of all people.

Mumia Abu-Jamal is the author of Live from Death Row, All Things Censored, Death Blossoms: Reflections from a Prisoner of Conscience, and Faith of Our Fathers. His audio recordings include 175 Progress Drive and All Things Censored. His commentaries appear in periodicals throughout the world and can be heard on http://www.prisonradio.org.

KATHLEEN CLEAVER, an activist scholar, currently teaches at Emory University School of Law and Yale University's African American Studies Department. She quit college in 1966 to join the Civil Rights movement, then served as the Black Panther Party's Communications Secretary from 1967-1971. Cleaver co-edited the essay collection Liberation, Imagination and the Black Panther Party, and is at work on a forthcoming memoir Memories of Love and War.

Supporter Information

International Concerned Friends and Family of
Mumia Abu-Jamal
PO Box 19709, Philadelphia, PA 19143 (215) 476-8812
http://www.mumla.org

The Mobilization to Free Mumia Abu-Jamal
298 Valencia Street, San Francisco, CA 94103 (415) 255-1085
http://www.freemumia.org

Committee to Save Mumia Abu-Jamal
163 Amsterdam Avenue, Suite 115, New York, NY 10023
(212) 580-1022

Free Mumia Abu-Jamal coalition
PO Box 650, New York, NY 10009
(212) 330-8029

Refuse and Resist!
350 Madison Avenue, Suite 1166
New York, NY 10165 (212) 713-5657
www:refuseandresist.org/mumia

Critical Resistance: Beyond the Prison-Industrial Complex
National Office: 1904 Franklin Street, Suite 504
Oakland, CA 94612 (510) 444-0484
www:criticalresistance.org

www:millions4mumia.org

http://www.prisonradio.org

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