War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to Cre

Re: War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to

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PART 1 OF 7

Notes

CHAPTER ONE


1. See Jill Durance and William Shamblin, ed., Appalachian Ways (Washington D.C.: The Appalachian Regional Commission, 1976), pp. 8-9, 18-19, 24, 32, 79-80. Also see Carolyn and Jack Reeder, Shenandoah Heritage: The Story of the People Before the Park (Washington D.C.: The Potomac Appalachian Trail Club, 1978).

2. "Welfare Cause For Sterilization," Richmond Times-Dispatch, 6 April 1980.

3. "Welfare Cause For Sterilization," Richmond Times-Dispatch, 6 April 1980.

4. Charles B. Davenport, Heredity In Relation To Eugenics, p. 257-258; see Bleecker Van Wagenen, chairman, Preliminary Report of the Committee of the Eugenic Section of the American Breeder's Association to Study and to Report on the Best Practical Means for Cutting Off the Defective Germ-Plasm in the Human Population (ABA), p. 4; also see Paul Popenoe and Roswell Hill Johnson, Applied Eugenics, rev. ed. (New York: Macmillan Company, 1935), p. 396-397 as compared to Frederick Osborn, Preface to Eugenics (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1940) p. 14; also see J. David Smith, Minds Made Feeble: The Myth and Legacy of the Kallikaks (Rockville, MD: Aspen Systems Corporation, 1985) p. 21-36, 83-114.

5. The Lynchburg Story, dir. Stephen Trombley, prod. Bruce Eadie, Worldview Pictures, 1993, videocassette. Poe v. Lynchburg Training School and Hospital, 518 F. Supp. 789 (W.D. Va. 1981).

6. "Welfare Cause For Sterilization," Richmond Times-Dispatch, 6 April 1980.

7. "Welfare Cause For Sterilization," Richmond Times-Dispatch, 6 April 1980.

8. "Patient 'Assembly Line' Recalled By Sterilized Man," Richmond Times-Dispatch, 24 February 1980.

9. "Patient 'Assembly Line' Recalled By Sterilized Man," Richmond Times-Dispatch, 24 February 1980.

10. "Patient 'Assembly Line' Recalled By Sterilized Man," Richmond Times-Dispatch, 24 February 1980.

11. "Patient 'Assembly Line' Recalled By Sterilized Man," Richmond Times-Dispatch, 24 February 1980.

12. "Patient 'Assembly Line' Recalled By Sterilized Man," Richmond Times-Dispatch, 24 February 1980.

13. The Lynchburg Story.

14. The Lynchburg Story.

15. The Lynchburg Story.

16. The Lynchburg Story.

17. See Lothrop Stoddard, The Rising Tide of Color (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1926) p. xxix-xxxi, p. 306-308.

18. "Delegates Urge Wider Practice of Sterilization," Richmond Times-Dispatch, 16 January 1934.

19. International Military Tribunal, Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Green Book, Volume V, p. 159. See International Military Tribunal, Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Green Book, Volume IV, p. 609-617, 1121-1127, 1158-1159. See United Nations Resolution 95 (I), "Affirmation of the Principles of International Law Recognized by the Charter of the Nurnberg Tribunal." United Nations Archives. See United Nations Resolution 96 (I), "The Crime of Genocide." United Nations Archives. See Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide," at http://www.unhchr.ch.

CHAPTER TWO

I. Code of Hammurabi, trans. L. W. King, item #48 at http://www.wsu.edu.

2. See Henry Hazlitt, The Conquest of Poverty (New Rochelle, NY: Arlington House, 1973), Chapter 6.

3. Deuteronomy 15: 11 NIV Study Bible.

4. Luke 7: 22; Matthew 10: 6-8, 11: 4. Matthew 5: 5.

5. Catholic Encyclopedia, x.v., "Hospital."

6. Catholic Encyclopedia, 1967, s.v., "Orphan (In the Early Church)." English Heritage, "Hospitals," at http://www.eng-h.gov.uk.

7. E. M. Leonard, The Early History of English Poor Relief (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1900; London: Frank Cass & Co., 1965) pp. 3- 5. Encyclopedia Judaica, s.v., "Black Death."

8. Leonard, pp. 16-17.

9. Catholic Encyclopedia, 1967, s.v., "Henry VIII." Paul Slack, The English Poor Law 1531- 1782, (London: Macmillan Education Ltd., 1990), pp. 16-17.

10. See John Bohstedt, Riots and Community Politics in England and Wales 1790-1810 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1983).

11. Slack, p. 17. Hazlitt, Chapter 7. Leonard, pp. 10-11.

12. Slack, pp. 18, 25. Hazlitt, Chapter 7.

13. Charles L. Brace, "Pauperism," North American Review 120 (1875) as cited by Elof Axel Carlson, The Unfit: A History of a Bad Idea (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2001), p. 76. Carlson, p. 77. Hazlitt, Chapter 7.

14. James Greenwood, The Seven Curses of London (London: S. Rivers and Co., 1869) Chapter XXIII.

15.Thomas R. Malthus, An Essay on the Principle of Population, as selected by Donald Winch (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992) pp. 19, 100-101, 221.

16. Charles Darwin, The Origin of the Species (New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1881), chapter 3. Herbert Spencer, Social Statics, (New York: Robert Schalkenback Foundation, reprint, 1970), pp. 58-60, 289-290, 339-340.

17. Darwin, The Origin of the Species, Chapter 3.

18. See Robert C. Bannister, Social Darwinism: Science and Myth in Anglo-American Social Thought (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1979), p. xii. See Carlson, pp. 124. See Daniel Kevles, In The Name of Eugenics (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985), pp.20-21.

19. Genesis 30: 38-42. Matthew 7: 18-19.

20. Herbert Spencer, The Principles of Biology (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1884) Vol. I, p. 183.

21. V. Kruta and V. Orel, "Johann Gregor Mendel," Dictionary of Scientific Biography, (New York: Scribner's, 1970-1980), Vol. IX, p. 277-283, as cited by Kevles, p. 41. Vitezslav Orel, Gregor Mendel: The First Geneticist (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996) p. 169.

22. Charles Darwin, The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication (London: John Murray, 1868; reprint, New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1883), vol. 2, p. 370.

23. Francis Galton, Memories of my Life, (London: Methuen & Co., 1908), pp. 46-47, 58. Kevles, p.5.

24. Letter, Francis Galton to Samuel Galton, 5 December 1838 and Letter, Francis Galton to Samuel Galton 10 November 1838, as cited by Kevles, p. 303, footnote 10. Copperplate prepared for Biometrika, circa 1888, at http://www.mugu.com.

25. Karl Pearson, The Life, Letters, and Labours of Francis Galton (Cambridge: Cambridge at the University Press, 1930), Vol. I, p. 232. Galton, Memories of my Life, p. 3 15.

26. Pearson, Vol. II, p. 340.

27. Galton, Memories of my Life, pp. 232, 325.

28. Francis Galton, Finger Prints (New York: Da Capo Press, 1965), p. iv.

29. Francis Galton, Hereditary Genius: An Inquiry Into Its Laws And Consequences Second Edition (London: Macmillan & Co., 1892; reprint, London: Watts & Co., 1950), p. 1. "Sir Francis Galton F.R.S. 1822-1911," at http://www.mugu.com.

30. Galton, Hereditary Genius, p. I. Francis Galton, Restrictions in Marriage (American Journal of Sociology, 1906), p. 50.

31. Pearson, Vol. I, p. 32.

32. Pearson, Vol. IIIA, p. 348.

33. Personal scrap of paper: Galton Papers 138/1, UCL. Francis Galton, Inquiries Into Human Faculty And Its Development (London: JM Dent & Co., 1883), p.17.

34. Personal scrap of paper.

35. Francis Galton, Natural Inheritance (London: Macmillan & Co., 1889), pp. 72-79. Francis Galton, "On The Anthropometric Laboratory at the Late International Health Exhibition," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, 1884: pp. 205-206.

36. August Weismann, Essays Upon Heredity and Kindred Biological Problems (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1889), pp. 190-191.

37. Galton, Natural Inheritance (London: Macmillan, 1889), pp. 2, 192-197. Francis Galton, "Regression Towards Mediocrity in Hereditary Stature," Journal of the Anthropological Institute (1885), p. 261. See Francis Galton, "A Diagram of Heredity," Nature (1898).

38. Galton, H, Hereditary Genius, p. xviii.

39. Galton, Hereditary Genius, p. xx.

40. Francis Galton, "Index To Achievements of Near Kinsfolk of Some Of The Fellows Of The Royal Society" (Unrevised proof, 1904 papers), p. 1: UCL.

41. Pearson, vol. IIIA, p. 349.

42. Francis Galton, "Eugenics: Its Definition, Scope, and Aims," The American Journal of Sociology Vol. X, No. 1 (July 1904).

43. "Notes On The Early Days Of The 'Eugenics Education Society, ''' p. 1: Wellcome Library SA/EUG/B11.

CHAPTER THREE

1. Gary B. Nash, Red, White, and Block: The Peoples of Early America (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1974), pp. 168-169, 186. See Library of Congress, Images of African- American Slavery and Freedom, at http://www.loc.gov.

2. Daniel J. Kevles, In The Nome of Eugenics, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985), p. 21. Mark H. Haller, Eugenics: Hereditarian Attitudes in American Thought (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1963), pp. 37-38.

3. Michael W. Perry, ed., The Pivot of Civilization: In Historical Perspective (Seattle, WA: Inkling Books, 2001), p. 31.

4. Israel Zangwill, "The Melting Pot: Drama in Four Acts" (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1909; reprint, 1919), pp. 215-216.

5. U.S. Department of Commerce, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970, (Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1976).

6. See Paula Mitchell Marks, In a Barren Land: American Indian Dispossession and Survival (New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1998). See Carey McWilliams, North From Mexico: The Spanish-Speaking People of the United States, (New York: Greenwood Press, 1968), pp. 51, 112-113. See Dr. David Pilgrim, "Jim Crow: Museum of Racist Memorabilia" at http://www.ferris.edu. See Immigration and Naturalization Service, Chinese Exclusion Act of May 6, 1882 (22 Statutes-at-Large 58) at http://www.ins.usdoj.gov. See Immigration and Naturalization Service, Act of April 29, 1902 (32 Staatutes-at-Large 176) at http://www.ins.usdoj.gov.

7. Edward Alsworth Ross, "The Value Rank of the American People," The Independent, pp. 57, 1063.

8. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Thirty Years of Lynching in the United States, 1889-1918 (New York: NAACP, 1919; reprint, New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969) pp. 7, 30-31, 45, 51, 58, 70.

9. Dr. Cecil E. Greek, Lecture Notes, The Positive School: Biological and Psychological Factors at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu.

10. Author's interview with Robin Walsh, Local History Librarian with SUNY Ulster, 13 November 2002. See Alf Evers, Woodstock: History of an American Town, (Woodstock, New York: The Overlook Press, 1987).

11. Richard L. Dugdale, The Jukes (New York: Putnam, 1910), pp. 1-15. "Bad Seed or Bad Science?" New York Times, 8 February 2003. See Oscar C. McCulloch, "The Tribe of Ishmael: A Study In Social Degradation," Proceedings of the National Conference of Charities and Correction (Boston: George H. Ellis, 1888), p. 154. See Norbert Vogel, "Die Gippe Delta," Ziel und Weg, vol. 7 (1937), No. 4. pp. 85-88. See Dr. Daniel R. Brower, "Medical Aspects of Crime," Journal of the American Medical Association vol. 32 (1899), p. 1283.

12. Dugdale, pp. 62, 65-66, 72. Richard L. Dugdale, "Origin of Crime in Society," The Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 48, Issue 288 (October 1881), p. 462.

13. Edward S. Morse, "Natural Selection and Crime," Popular Science Monthly, Vol. 41 (1892), pp. 433-446, as cited by Elof Alex Carlson, The Unfit (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Press, 2001), p. 171.

14. Diane B. Paul, Controlling Human Heredity (Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press International, Inc., 1995), p. 44. Carlson, p. 172. McCulloch, pp. 154-155. The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th Ed., s.v. "Jackson Whites."

15. McCulloch, pp. 154-155.

16.Vitezslav Orel, Gregor Mendel: The First Geneticist (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996) pp. 2, 256-257.

17. Orel, pp. 99, 102, 104-105, 120-121.

18. Orel, pp. 270-271. Carlson, p. 137.

19. Orel, pp. 283-288, 291. Caleb Saleeby, "The Discussion of Alcoholism at the Eugenics Congress," British Journal of Inebriety, October 1912, p. 6.

20. Letter, Francis Galton to William Bateson, 8 September 1904: Galton Papers, University College London 245/3. Letter, Francis Galton to William Bateson, 12 June, 1904: Galton Papers, University College London 245/3.

21. Karl Pearson and Ethel M. Edlerton, A Second Study of the Influence of Alcoholism on the Physique and Ability of the Offspring (London: Dulau and Co., 1910) pp. 39-40.

22. Galton to Bateson, 8 September 1904. Francis Galton, Index To Achievements of Near Kinsfolk (Unrevised proof, 1904), p. iii: Galton Papers, University College London 245/3.

23. Francis Galton, Restrictions in Marriage (American Journal of Sociology, 1906), p. 3. Francis Galton, Memories of My Life (London: Methuen & Co., 1908), p. 310.

24. Galton, Restrictions in Marriage, pp. 7, 12-13.

25. Galton, Memories, 322. "Eugenics: Its Definition, Scope, and Aims," The American Journal of Sociology Vol. X, No. 1.

26. John Franklin Bobbitt, "Practical Eugenics," The Pedagogical Seminary vol. XVI (1909), p. 388.

27. Bobbitt, p. 385, 387, 391.

28. Bobbitt, p. 388. Madison Grant, The Passing of the Great Race (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1936), p. 167.

29. Lothrop Stoddard, The Rising Tide of Color (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1926), p. 165. Grant, p. 65.

30. Stoddard, pp. 165-166, 167.

31. Grant, pp. 19-20, 188-212.

32. Grant, pp. 29, 60-64.

33. Harry H. Laughlin, secretary, Bulletin No. 10A: The Report of the Committee to Study and to Report on the Best Practical Means of Cutting Off the Defective Germ-Plasm in the American Population (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor, 1914), p. 16.

34. Grant, p. 18.

35. Biography of Andrew Carnegie at http://www.carnegie.org. Eugenics Record Office, "Official Record of the Gift of the Eugenic Record Office" (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor), p. 3.

36. Eugenics Record Office, "Official Record of the Gift of the Eugenic Record Office," pp. 5-6, 12.

37. See Bleecker Van Wagenen, Chairman, Preliminary Report of the Committee of the Eugenic Section of the American Breeder's Association to Study and to Report on the Best Practical Means for Cutting Off the Defective Germ-Plasm in the Human Population, ABA. See Laughlin, Bulletin No. 10A.

38. E. Carlton MacDowell, "Charles Benedict Davenport, 1866-1944: A Study of Conflicting Influences," BIOS vol. XVII No. 1, pp. 4, 8.

39. MacDowell, p. 5.

40. MacDowell, pp. 4-7.

41. MacDowell, pp. 4-5.

42. MacDowell, p. 5.

43. MacDowell, pp. 8, 10.

44. MacDowell, p. 12. Carnegie Institution of Washington Administrative Files, Biography of Charles Davenport, pp. 1-2.

45. MacDowell, pp. 19, 27. See also autographed photograph, c. 1928 in March 1944 Eugenical News.

46. MacDowell, pp. 8, 14, 33. Kevles, p. 52.

47. Letter, George Macon to Charles B. Davenport, 24 June 1899: APS. Letter, C.H. Walters to Charles B. Davenport, 24 May, 1898: APS B-D27. Letter, American Net & Twine Co. to Charles B. Davenport, 27 July 1899: APS B-D27. Letter, American Net & Twine Co. to Charles B. Davenport, 1 August, 1899: APS B-D27. Letter, University of Minnesota to Charles B. Davenport, 1 September, 1898: APS B-D27.

48. Letter, Walter Rankiss to Charles B. Davenport, 6 June 1898: APS B-D27. Letter, Rudolph Hering to Charles B. Davenport, 28 March, 1898: APS B-D27. Letter, Katherine Hobach to Franklin Hooper, 16 April, 1898: APS B-D27. Letter, C.O. Townsend to Charles B. Davenport, 2 April, 1898: APS B-D27. Letter, Dudley Greene to Charles B. Davenport, 11 May, 1898: APS B-D27. Letter, C.O. Townsend to Charles B. Davenport, 14 June, 1898: APS.

49. Letter, Francis Galton to Charles B. Davenport, 6 April, 1897: APS: B-D27 Galton, Sir Francis. Letter, Francis Galton to Charles B. Davenport, 5 May, 1897: APS: B-D27 Galton, Sir Francis.

50. Francis Janet Hassencahl, "Harry H. Laughlin, "Expert Eugenics Agent" for the House Committee on Immigration and Naturalization" (Ph. D. diss., Case Western Reserve University, 1970), p. 53. Letter, Francis Galton to Charles B. Davenport, 20 October, 1899: APS: B-D27 Galton, Sir Francis. Letter, Francis Galton to Charles B. Davenport, 19 November, 1903: APS: B-D27 Galton, Sir Francis.

51. See State Laws Limiting Marriage Selection, Eugenics Record Office (Cold Spring Harbor: Cold Spring Harbor, 1913), pp. 31-36. Also see Charles B. Davenport, Race Crossing in Jamaica, (Washington: Carnegie Institute of Washington, 1929). Charles B. Davenport, "Heredity and Race Eugenics," p. 10: APS: B- 027.

52. Charles B. Davenport, Heredity in Relation to Eugenics (New York: Arno Press & The New York Times, 1972), pp. 213, 214, 218.

53. Stoddard, p. 165.

54. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Professor V. L. Kellogg, 30 October 1912: APS: B-D27- Kellogg, Professor V.L.

55. Margaret Sanger, Margaret Sanger: An Autobiography, (New York: W. W: Norton & Company, 1938; reprinted by Dover Publications, Inc., 1971) p. 374.

56. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Franklin Hooper, 21 April 1902: APS B-D27 Cold Spring Harbor Beginnings Correspondence #3.

57. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to the Trustees of the Carnegie Institution, 5 May 1902: APS B- 027 Cold Spring Harbor Beginnings Correspondence #3.

58. Charles B. Davenport, "A Summary of Progress in Experimental Evolution," p. 5: APS B-D27 Cold Spring Harbor Beginnings Correspondence #2. Letter, Franklin Hooper to Charles B. Davenport, 23 May 1902: APS B- 027 Cold Spring Harbor Beginnings Correspondence #3.

59. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Henry Osborn, 30 May 1902: APS B-D27 Cold Spring Harbor Beginnings Correspondence #3. Letter, Henry Osborn to Charles B. Davenport, 25 July 1902: APS B-D27 Cold Spring Harbor Beginnings Correspondence #3. Letter, Franklin Hooper to Charles Wolcott, 24 July 1902: APS B-D27 Cold Spring Harbor Beginnings Correspondence #3.

60. Davenport to Osborn, 30 May 1902.

61. Osborn to Davenport, 25 July, 1902. Davenport, "A Summary of Progress," pp. 4-5.

62. MacDowell, pp. 19-21. Letter, Francis Galton to Charles B. Davenport, 28 September 1902: APS: B-D27 Galton, Sir Francis. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Trustees of the Carnegie Institution, S March 1903: APS BD27 Cold Spring Harbor Beginnings Correspondence #3.

63. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to John S. Billings, 3 May 1903: APS B-D27 Cold Spring Harbor Beginnings Correspondence #1. Davenport, "A Summary of Progress," pp. 13- 14.

64. Letter, Charles Davenport to Madison Grant, 3 May 1920: APS B-D27 Grant, Madison #3. See Stoddard, pp. xxix-xxxi, 306-308.

65. Davenport to Billings, 3 May 1903.

66. Davenport to Billings, 3 May 1903.

67. Davenport to Billings, 3May 1903. MacDowell, p. 19.

68. W. M. Hays, The American Breeders Association to its Parent, The Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations, Greetings (circa 1910): Truman. American Breeders' Association, "Minutes," First Annual Meeting, 1903, p. 1-2: APS.

69. John H. Noyes, Essay on Scientific Propagation, (Oneida, NY: Oneida Community, 1872), section 2, section 15.

70. Author's interview with National Weather Service, 1 October 2002. American Breeders' Association, "Minutes of First Annual Meeting, St. Louis, Missouri," p. 4: ABA. American Breeders' Association, "Constitution and By-Laws of the American Breeders' Association": ABA. American Breeders' Association, "Committees and Their Specific Duties," Annual Report, American Breeders' Association, vol. II (1906), p. 11.

71. Charles B. Davenport, secretary, "Report of Committee on Eugenics," American Breeders Association (Washington D.C.: American Breeders Association, 1911) vol. VI, pp. 92, 93, 94.

72. Willet M. Hays, "Constructive Eugenics," The American Breeders Magazine, Vol. III, No. 1 (1912).

73. MacDowell, p. 24. Letter, John Billings to Charles Walcott, 23 December 1903: APS BD27 Cold Spring Harbor Beginnings Correspondence #1. Biography of Andrew Sledd, President of the University of Florida at http://www.president.ufl.edu. History of Northwestern University Library at http://www.library.northwestern.edu.

74. Billings to Walcott 23 December, 1903. Letter, Charles Davenport to John Billings, 6 February 1904: APS BD27 Cold Spring Harbor Beginnings Correspondence #2.

75. Billings to Walcott 23 December, 1903. Biography of John Shaw Billings at http://www.arlingtoncemetery. com.

CHAPTER FOUR

1. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to John S. Billings, 6 February 1904: APS: Cold Spring Harbor Beginnings Correspondence # I. E. Carleton MacDowell, "Charles Benedict Davenport, 1866-1944. A Study of Conflicting Influences," BIOS vol. XVII, No. 1, p. 24.

2. MacDowell, p. 24. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Announcement of Station for Experimental Evolution (Washington: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1905), pp. 2-3: CSH: CIW Administrative Files: Dept. of Genetics-Biological Laboratory Plans for Unified Operation.

3. Announcement of Station, p. 4.

4. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Francis Galton, 27 October 1905: APS. Letter, Francis Galton to Charles B. Davenport, 21 November 1905: APS: BD27- Galton, Sir Francis.

5. Charles B. Davenport, "Annual Reports of the Station for Experimental Evolution," Carnegie Institution Year Book, (1908) No. 7, p. 90. MacDowell, p. 26.

6. Charles B. Davenport, secretary, "Report of Committee on Eugenics," American Breeders' Association Annual Report (1911) vol. VI, pp. 92- 94. See also Bleecker Van Wagenen, chairman, Preliminary Report of the Committee of the Eugenic Section of the American Breeder's Association to Study and to Report on the Best Practical Means for Cutting Off the Defective Germ-Plasm in the Human Population: ABA.

7. Letter, Alexander Graham Bell to Charles B. Davenport, 15 April 1909: APS B: D27- Alexander Graham Bell #4. Letter, Alexander Graham Bell to Charles B. Davenport, 14 May 1909 APS B: D27 - Alexander Graham Bell #4. Davenport, "Annual Reports of the Station for Experimental Evolution," p. 87.

8. Charles B. Davenport, Heredity In Relation To Eugenics (New York: Henry Holt & Company, 1911; reprint, New York: Arno Press Inc., 1972), p. 260. Harry Laughlin, secretary, Report of the Committee to Study and to Report on the Best Practical Means of Cutting Off the Defective Germ-Plasm in the American Population (Cold Spring Harbor: Cold Spring Harbor, 1914), p. 16.

9. McDowell, pp. 25-26.

10. Davenport, Heredity in Relation to Eugenics, p. 271. Davenport, "Report of Committee on Eugenics," pp. 91, 92.

11. Davenport, "Report of Committee on Eugenics" (1906), pp. 92-93.

12. McDowell, p. 29.

13. Maury Klein, The Life and Legend of E.H. Harriman, (Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 2000), p. 118, 152, 182- 183, 184, 218-219, 357. Letter, William Loeb to C. Hart Merriam, 28 May 1907: APS.

14. Klein, pp. 6, 440-441.

15. "Death of Mrs. Rumsey," Eugenical News, vol. XIX (1934), p. 106. McDowell, p. 29. Klein, p. 299.

16. Klein, p. 8. McDowell, p. 29.

17. McDowell, p. 29.

18. Eugenics Record Office, Official Record of the Gift of the Eugenics Record Office, Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, New York by Mrs. E.H. Harriman to the Carnegie Institution of Washington and of its Acceptance by the Institution (Cold Spring Harbor, New York: Eugenics Record Office, 1918), pp. 19, 21: CSH.

19. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Mrs. E.H. Harriman, 23 May 1910: APS B: D27 Harriman, Mrs. E #1.

20. Davenport to Harriman, 23 May 1910.

21. See Davenport to Harriman, 23 May 1910.

22. Davenport to Harriman, 23 May 1910. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Mrs. E.H. Harriman, 10 October, 1910: APS B: D27 APS B: D27 Harriman, Mrs. E #1.

23. Davenport to Harriman, 23 May 1910.

24. Davenport to Harriman, 23 May 1910.

25. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Mrs. E.H. Harriman, 20 July, 1920: APS B: D27 APS B: D27 Harriman, Mrs. E #1.

26. See O.M. Means, Kirksville, Missouri: Its Business and its Beauties as seen through the Camera (Journal Print Co, 1900) p. 1-2, 16; see Wallin Directory Company, Kirksville City Directory, (Quincy, Illinois: Hoffman Printing Co., 1899), p. 1.

27. P. O. Selby, History of the First Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) of Kirksville, Missouri (1964): Truman E-1-1:10. P. O. Selby, One Hundred Twenty-Three Biographies of Deceased Faculty Members (Northeast Missouri State Teachers College, 1963), pp. 47-48.

28. Selby, History of the First Christian. Interviews with Mrs. Harold McClure, as cited by Frances Janet Hassencahl, "Harry H. Laughlin, 'Expert Eugenics Agent' for the House Committee on Immigration and Naturalization, 1921 to 1931." (Ph. D. diss., Case Western Reserve University, 1970), pp. 45-46. Mark H. Laughlin, A Reverie: or One Day in a Woman's Life (Honolulu, HI, n.d.), p. 18-19: Truman E- 1-1:10

29. Laughlin, A Reverie: or One Day in a Woman's Life. Charles B. Davenport, "Harry Hamilton Laughlin 1880-1943," Eugenical News Vol. XXVIII (1943), p. 43. Hassencahl, pp. 42-43. Private Papers of Mrs. George Laughlin as cited by Hassencahl, pp. 45. Interview with Mrs. McClure, as cited by Hassencahl, p. 45.

30. Laughlin papers as cited by Hassencahl, pp. 49-50.

31. Interview with Mark Laughlin, cited by Hassencahl, pp. 50-51.

32. Harry H. Laughlin, unpublished manuscript, "World Government: The Structure and Functioning of a Feasible Civil Government of the Earth": Truman B-5-1:10. Harry H. Laughlin, unpublished manuscript, "Chapter II: Text: The Proposed World Constitution": Truman B-5-2B:7. Harry H. Laughlin, unpublished manuscript, " The Principles of Nation- Rating": Truman B-5-1:6. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to H.G. Wells, 19 February 1921: Truman B-5-4B:12.

33. Letter, Hamilton Fish Armstrong to Harry H. Laughlin, 11 June 1941: Truman C-4-5 9. Letter, Embajada De Colombia to Harry H. Laughlin: 4 June 1941, Truman C-4-5:9. Letter, H.R. Waddell to Harry H. Laughlin, 24 June 1941: Truman C-4-5: 9. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Ida J. Dacus, 29 May 1941: Truman C-4-5:9. Letter, William Allan to Harry H. Laughlin, 26 June 1941: Truman C-4-5:9. Letter, Mrs. Anthony Conrad Eiser to Harry H. Laughlin, 30 July 1941: Truman C-4-5:9. Letter, Andres Pastoriza to Harry H. Laughlin, 5 June 1941: Truman C-4-5:9. Letter, Paul Popenoe to Harry H. Laughlin, 9 June 1941: Truman C-4-5:9. Letter, Verna B. Grimm to Harry H. Laughlin, 9 June 1941: Truman C-4- 5: 9. Letter, G. Burke to Harry H. Laughlin, 10 June 1941: Truman C-4-5: 9. Letter, W. E. Rendell to Harry H. Laughlin, 5 June 1941: Truman C-4-5:7. Letter, Francisco Castillo Najera to Harry H. Laughlin, 6 June, 1941: Truman C-4-5:7. Letter, Luis Fernandez to Harry H. Laughlin, 10 June 1941: Truman C- 4- 5:7. Letter, Arturo Lares to Harry H. Laughlin, 4 June 1941: Truman C-4-5: 7. Letter, Secretary to Mr. Fosdick to Harry H. Laughlin, 12 June 1941: Truman C-4-5:9. Letter, S. Shepard Jones to Harry H. Laughlin, 12 June 1941: Truman C-4-5:9. Letter, Henry Allen Moe to Harry H. Laughlin, 20 September 1932: Truman C-2-2:11; see also "Conquest by Immigration (Sent to the following)": Truman C-4-3:1.

34. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Madison Grant, 16 January 1928: Truman C-2-5:11. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Dr. Domingo F. Ramos, 23 September 1927: Truman C-2-5:11. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Madison Grant, 26 January 1928: Truman C-2-5: 11. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Charles B. Davenport, 7 April 1928: Truman C-2-5:11. Letter, G.L.B. to Mr. Carr, 19 January 1928: State Department 59.250.22.33.7 box 6484. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg, 23 March 1928: State Department 59.250.22.11.2 box 5502. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to President Calvin Coolidge, 28 December 1927: State Department 59.250.22.33.7 box 6484. Letter, Husband to Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg, 7 April 1928: State Department 59.250.22.11.2 box 5502. Letter, Carr to Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg, 13 April 1928: State Department 59.250.22.11.2 box 5502. Letter, Carr to Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg, 12 April 1928: State Department 59.250.22.11.2 box 5502. Letter, Carr to Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg, 18 April 1928: State Department 59.250.22.11.2 box 5502. Letter, W.H. Williams to Harry H. Laughlin, 8 June 1921: Truman E-2-5: 5. Letter, Acting Secretary of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace to Harry H. Laughlin, 28 October 1919: Truman E-2-5:18.

35. Laughlin papers, cited by Hassencahl, p. 50.

36. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Charles B. Davenport, 17 May 1907: CSH Laughlin Correspondence. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Charles B. Davenport, 30 May, 1907: CSH Laughlin Correspondence.

37. Hassencahl, p. 54.

38. Davenport to Harriman, 20 July 1910. Davenport to Harriman, 10 October 1910.

39. Davenport to Harriman, 10 October 1910.

40. Harry H. Laughlin, secretary, Bulletin No. 10B: The Report of the Committee to Study and to Report on the Best Practical Means of Cutting Off the Defective Germ-Plasm in the American Population (Cold Spring Harbor: Cold Spring Harbor, 1914), p. 145: CSH. Harry H. Laughlin, secretary, Bulletin No. 10A: The Report of the Committee to Study and to Report on the Best Practical Means of Cutting Off the Defective Germ-Plasm in the American Population (Cold Spring Harbor: Cold Spring Harbor, 1914), pp. 46-47, 58: CSH.

41. Davenport to Harriman, 20 July, 1910. Harry H. Laughlin, "Report On The Organization and the First Eight Months' Work of the Eugenics Record Office," American Breeders Magazine, No. 2, vol. II (1911).

42. Laughlin, "Report On The Organization and the First Eight Months' Work of the Eugenics Record Office."

43. Report on the Organization and the First Eight Months' Work of the ERO, by Laughlin, ABA reprint No. 2 Vol. II, 1911 pp. 1-2.

44. Laughlin, "Report On The Organization and the First Eight Months' Work of the Eugenics Record Office."

45. Laughlin, "Report On The Organization and the First Eight Months' Work of the Eugenics Record Office." Carnegie Institution of Washington, Year Book No. 10 (Washington: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1912), p. 80. See The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed., s.v. "Huntington's disease."

46. Laughlin, "Report On The Organization and the First Eight Months' Work of the Eugenics Record Office." Eugenics Record Office, Report for Six Months Ending March 31, 1911, CSH, p. 1. Historical Overview: Development of Public Responsibility for the Mentally Ill in Massachusetts (article on-line: accessed 19 September 2002); available from http://www.1856.org. See Charles B. Davenport and David Weeks, A First Study of Inheritance in Epilepsy: Eugenics Record Office Bulletin No. 4 (Cold Spring Harbor: Cold Spring Harbor, NY, 1911), p. 5: CSH.

47. Davenport and Weeks, p. 2. Eugenics Records Office, "Method for Studying the Hereditary History of Patients as used at the New Jersey State Village for Epileptics, New Jersey State Village for Epileptics Schedules and Forms," circa 1911, p. 6: APS ERO Series 1.

48. "Method for Studying the Hereditary History of Patients as used at the New Jersey State Village for Epileptics," pp. 2, 8.

49. Davenport, Heredity In Relation To Eugenics, pp. 257-258. See Van Wagenen, p. 4. Also see Paul Popenoe and Roswell Hill Johnson, Applied Eugenics, rev. ed. (New York: Macmillan Company, 1935) pp. 396-397 as compared to Frederick Osborn, Preface to Eugenics (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1940) p. 14. Also see J. David Smith, Minds Made Feeble: The Myth and Legacy of the Kallikaks (Rockville, MD: Aspen Systems Corporation, 1985) pp. 21-36, 83-114.

50. Davenport and Weeks, pp. 2, 19, 29-30. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Mrs. E. H. Harriman, 18 December 1911: APS B: D27 - Harriman, Mrs. E.H. #3.

51. Davenport and Weeks, pp. 9-10.

52. Davenport and Weeks, p. 1.

53. Davenport and Weeks, p. 30.

54. Laughlin, "Report On The Organization and the First Eight Months' Work of the Eugenics Record Office," pp. 109-110.

55. Laughlin, "Report On The Organization and the First Eight Months' Work of the Eugenics Record Office," p. 110. Also see Albert Edward Wiggam and Stephen S. Visher, "Needed: Faculty Family Allowances," Eugenics, Vol. III, No. 12 (December 1930), pp. 445-446. Also see discussion, "The Faculty Birth Rate: Should It Be Increased?," Eugenics, Vol. III, No. 12 (December 1930), pp. 458-460.

56. Official Record of the Gift of the Eugenics Record Office, pp. 3, 21. Letter, David Starr Jordan to Mrs. E.H. Harriman, 22 July, 1910: APS B: D 27 -Harriman, Mrs. E. #1. Origins of Cold Spring Harbor. Letter, Alexander Graham Bell to Charles B. Davenport, 9 March 1915: APS B: D27 Alexander Graham Bell #7. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Dr. William H. Welch, 1 March 1915: APS B: D27 Alexander Graham Bell #7. "A County Survey," Eugenical News Vol. I (1916), p. 24.

57. Van Wagenen, p. 2. Laughlin, Bulletin No. 10A, p.5.

58. Laughlin, Bulletin No. 10A, pp. 5, 6, 12, 17. Dr. Lucien Howe, "Presidential Address of the Eugenics Research Association: The Control of Law of Hereditary Blindness," Eugenical News, July 1928, p. 6. See Letter from Lucien Howe to Dr. Best, 4 October 192 7: APS Series V.

59. Laughlin, Bulletin No. 10A, pp. 7, 8.

60. Laughlin, Bulletin No. 10A, pp. 15-16. Davenport, Heredity In Relation To Eugenics, p. 221.

61. Laughlin, Bulletin No. 10A, p. 15. Van Wagenen, p. 5.

62. Laughlin, Bulletin No. 10A, p. 15. Davenport, Heredity In Relation To Eugenics, pp. 221-222.

63. Laughlin, Bulletin No. 10A, p. 15.

64. Laughlin, Bulletin No. 10A, pp. 8, 9.

65. Laughlin, Bulletin No. 10B, p. 74, 75. Also see Edwin Black, The Transfer Agreement, (Washington, D.C.: Dialog Press, 1999) pp. 4, 26.

66. Laughlin, Bulletin No. 10B, pp. 74, 75.

67. Laughlin, Bulletin No. 10A, pp. 45-47, 53-56. Davenport, Heredity In Relation To Eugenics, p. 259. Van Wagenen, p. 7. Also see The Human Betterment Foundation, Human Sterilization (Pasadena: The Human Betterment Foundation, 1929). Also see Popenoe, pp. 150- 151. Also see E.S. Gosney and Paul Popenoe, Sterilization for Human Betterment (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1929), pp. xv, 21, 31.

68. Laughlin, Bulletin No. 10A, pp. 45-46, 55.

69. Laughlin, Bulletin No. 10A, pp. 6, 13. Van Wagenen, p. 20. Karl Pearson and Ethel Elderton, A Second Study of the Influence of Parental Alcoholism on the Physique and Ability of the Offspring (London: Dulau and Co. Limited, 1910), pp. 39-40.

70. Van Wagenen, p. 13.

71. Laughlin, Bulletin No. 10A, p. 9.

CHAPTER FIVE

1. Martin W. Barr, Mental Defectives (Philadelphia: Blakiston, 1904; reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1973), p. 195-6. Mark H. Haller, Eugenics: Hereditarian Attitudes in American Thought (New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1963), p. 48.

2. "Obituary: Dr. Harry C. Sharp: A Medical Leader," The New York Times, 1 November 1940. ElofAxel Carlson, The Unfit: A History of a Bad Idea (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2001), pp, 207, 208, 224. Dr. A. J. Ochsner, "Surgical Treatment of Habitual Criminals," Journal of the American Medical Association vol. XXXIII (1899), p. 867 -868.

3. Dr. Harry C. Sharp, "The Severing of the Vasa Deferentia and its Relation to the Neuropsychopathic Constitution," New York Medical Journal, 8 March 1902, p. 413; Dr. Daniel R. Brower, "Medical Aspects of Crime," Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. XXXII (1899), pp. 1282-1287.

4. Sharp, p. 413. Carlson, p. 214.

5. Sharp, p. 412.

6. Sharp, pp. 413-414.

7. "An Act for the Relief of the Poor," 30 January 1824: Indiana Historical Society. Also see Oscar C. McCulloch, "The Tribe of Ishmael: A Study In Social Degradation," Proceedings of the National Conference of Charities and Correction (Boston: George H. Ellis, 1888), pp. 154-159.

8. McCulloch, pp. 154, 159.

9. McCulloch, pp. 154, 157-159. Carlson, p. 174.

10. Carlson, pp. 185-186, 188, 190.

11. Thurman B. Rice, "A Chapter In The Early History of Eugenics in Indiana," selected by Paul Popenoe, Eugenical News vol. XXXIII No 1-2 (March-June 1948), pp. 24-25.

12. Carlson, pp. 210-211. Rice, p. 27.

13. Carlson, pp. 218-219. Harry H. Laughlin, Eugenical Sterilization in the United States (Chicago: Psychopathic Laboratory of the Municipal Court of Chicago, 1922), p. 35.

14. Laughlin, p. 36.

15. Carlson, p. 2 11.

16. Laughlin, p. 15.

17. Bleecker Van Wagenen, chairman, Preliminary Report of the Committee of the Eugenic Section of the American Breeder's Association to Study and to Report on the Best Practical Means for Cutting Off the Defective Germ-Plasm in the Human Population, p. 18: ABA.

18. Laughlin, pp. 40-41.

19. Harry H. Laughlin, secretary, Bulletin No. 10A: The Report of the Committee to Study and to Report on the Best Practical Means of Cutting Off the Defective Germ-Plasm in the American Population (Cold Spring Harbor: Cold Spring Harbor, 1914), fold-out on "Sterilization Bills Introduced Into Legislatures, But Which Were Defeated or Have Not Yet Become Laws.": CSH.

20. Laughlin, Eugenical Sterilization in the United States, pp. 6, 8. Laughlin, Bulletin, 10A, fold-out on "Analysis of Existing Sterilization Laws, 1913."

21. Laughlin, Eugenical Sterilization: 1926, p. 10. Laughlin, Bulletin 10A, fold-out on "Analysis of Existing Sterilization Laws, 1913."

22. Laughlin, Eugenical Sterilization in the United States, pp. 8-9, 21. Laughlin, Bulletin 10A, foldout on "Analysis of Existing Sterilization Laws, 1913." Laughlin, Bulletin No. 10A, fold-out on "Sterilization Bills Introduced Into Legislatures, But Which Were Defeated or Have Not Yet Become Laws."

23. Laughlin, Eugenical Sterilization in the United States, pp. 23-24. Laughlin, Bulletin 10A, foldout on "Analysis of Existing Sterilization Laws, 1913." William A. DeGregorio, The Complete Book of U.S. Presidents: Third Edition, (New York: Wing Books, 1991), pp. 416-417, 424- 425. Entry number 64927, The Columbia World of Quotations, 1996 (New York: Bartelby.com, 2001).

24. Laughlin, Eugenical Sterilization in the United States, pp. 25-26. Laughlin, Bulletin 10A, foldout on "Analysis of Existing Sterilization Laws, 1913," fold-out continuation.

25. Laughlin, Bulletin 10A, fold-out on "Analysis of Existing Sterilization Laws, 1913," fold-out continuation. Van Wagenen, p. 15. Carlson, pp. 216, 226.

26. Van Wagenen, p. 18.

27. Van Wagenen, p. 18.

28. Van Wagenen, p. 18.

29. "Notes on the Early Days of the 'Eugenics Education Society'," unpublished manuscript, p. 11, 13: SA/EUG/B11 Wellcome Library.

30. Overview of Galton's life, at http://www.mugu.com. Daniel J. Kevles, In The Name of Eugenics, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985), pp. 63-64. Leonard Darwin citation in Michael W. Perry, ed., Eugenics and Other Evils (Seattle, WA: Inkling Books, 2000), p. 23. C.W. Saleeby citation in Perry, p. 36. See "The International Eugenics Congress, An Event of Great Importance in the History of Evolution, Has Taken Place," Journal of the American Medical Association vol. LIX, No. 7, p. 555. See Dr. Caleb W. Saleeby, "The Discussion of Alcoholism at the Eugenics Congress," British Journal of Inebriety, October 1912, pp. 1, 2-3, 5- 6. See Dr. Caleb W. Saleeby, "The House of Life: The Mental Deficiency Bill," July 23 1912. See Charles B. Davenport, "A Discussion of the Methods and Results of Dr. Heron's Critique," Eugenics Record Office Bulletin No. 11: Reply to the Criticism of Recent American Work by Dr. Heron of the Galton Laboratory (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Eugenics Record Office, 1914), pp. 23-24. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Announcement of Station for Experimental Evolution (Washington: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1905), pp. 4: APS: Davenport Beginnings of Cold Spring Harbor. The Eugenics Education Society, "Programme," Problems in Eugenics Vol. 11: Report of Proceedings of the First International Eugenical Congress (Kingsway, W.C., Eugenics Education Society, 1913), p. 1, 3, 5, 6-13.

31. "Programme," Problems in Eugenics Vol. II, p. 5. Jon Alfred Mjoen, "Harmonic and Disharmonic Racecrossing," Eugenics in Race and State, Vol. II: Scientific Papers of the Second International Congress of Eugenics, (Baltimore: Wilkins and Wilkins, 1923), pp. 58-60.

32. "London Letter," Journal of the American Medical Association vol. LIX (1912), p. 555. "Programme," Problems in Eugenics Vol. II, p. 2. Letter, Winston Churchill to unknown recipient, 27 May 1910: PRO- HO 144/1085/193548/1. Letter, William Borland to the Department of State, 25 March, 1912: NA: 59/250/22/10/3-5459 Doc. No. 540.1E1. Letter, Huntington Wilson, Acting Secretary of State, to William Borland: NA: 59/250/22/10/3-5459 Doc. No. 540.1E1. Letter, Philander Chase Knox to Lord Weardale, 28 February 1911: NA: 59/250/22/14/4-5656 Doc. No. 592.7B1/4.

33. Letter, Philander Chase Knox to Mr. Alfred Mitchell Innes, Charge d'affairs of Great Britain, 3 July 19/2: NA: 59/250/22/10/3-5459 Doc. No. 540.1A1/2. Letter, Henry L. Stimson to Philander Chase Knox, 20 June 1912: NA: 59/250/22/10/3-5459 Doc. No. 540.1A1/1.

34. Letter, Philander Chase Knox to Governor Phillip L. Goldsborough, 20 June 19/2: NA: 59/250/22/10/3-5459 Doc. 0.54O.1A1/1. Letter, Philander Chase Knox to Governor Woodrow Wilson, 20 June 1912: NA: 59/250/22/10/3-5459 Doc. No. 540.1A1/1. Letter, Philander Chase Knox to Governor Walter R. Stubbs, 20 June 1912: A: 59/250/22/10/3-5459 Doc. No. 540.1A1/l. Letter, Philander Chase Knox to Governor James B. McCreary, 20 June 1912: NA: 59/250/22/10/3-5459 Doc. No. 540.1A1/1. Letter, Philander Chase Knox to Dr. L.S. Rowe, President, American Academy of Political and Social Science, 20 June 1912: NA: 59/250/22/10/3-5459 Doc. No. 540.1A1/1. Letter, Philander Chase Knox to Professor H.W. Farnam, President, American Economic Association, 20 June 1912: NA: 59/250/22/10/3-5459 Doc. 0.540.1A1/1. Letter, Philander Chase Knox to Dr. W. W. Keen, President, American Philosophical Society, 20 June 1912: NA: 59/250/22/10/3- 5459 Doc. No. 540.1A1/1. Letter, Philander Chase Knox to Dr. Reuben Peterson, President, American Gynecological Society, 20 June 1912: NA: 59/250/22/10/3-5459 Doc. No. 540.1A1/1. Letter, Philander Chase Knox to Dr. W. N. Bullard, President, American Neurological Association, 20 June 1912: NA: 59/250/22/10/3-5459 Doc. No. 540.1A1/1. Letter, Philander Chase Knox to Dr. W. Leslie Carr, President, American Pediatric Society, 20 June 1912: NA: 59/250/22/10/3-5459 Doc. No. 540.1A1/1. Letter, Philander Chase Knox to Dr. John B. Murphy, President, American Medical Association, 20 June 1912: NA: 59/250/22/10/3-5459 Doc. No. 540.1A1/1. Letter, Philander Chase Knox to Dr. Charles E. Bessey, President, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 20 June 1912: NA: 59/250/22/10/3-5459 Doc. No. 540.1A1/1. Letter, Philander Chase Knox to Dr. John H. Finley, President, American Social Science Association, 20 June 1912: NA: 59/250/22/10/3-5459 Doc. No. 540.1A1/1. Letter, Philander Chase Knox to Professor C. E. Seashore, President, American Psychological Association, 20 June 1912: A: 59/250/22/10/3-5459 Doc. No. 540.1A1/1.

35. Letter, Ira Remsen, President, National Academy of Sciences, to Philander Chase Knox, 24 June 1912: NA: 59/250/22/10/3-5459 Doc. No. 540.1A1/1. Letter, Henry L. Stimson to Philander C. Knox, 8 July 8 1912: NA: 59/250/22/10/3-5459 Doc. No. 540.1A1/1.

36. Joseph Frazier Wall, Andrew Carnegie (New York: Oxford University Press, 1970), pp. 644- 645.

37. "The International Eugenics Congress." Saleeby, "The Discussion of Alcoholism at the Eugenics Congress," p. 6. Also see Saleeby, "The House of Life: The Mental Deficiency Bill."

38. Saleeby, "The House of Life: The Mental Deficiency Bill."

39. Saleeby, "The Discussion of Alcoholism," p. 6.

40. "The International Eugenics Congress."

41. Charles B. Davenport, Heredity In Relation To Eugenics (New York: Henry Holt & Company, 1911; reprint, New York: Arno Press Inc., 1972), p. 241.

42. Davenport, p. 67. "How Heredity Builds Our Lives," Eugenical News, Vol. XXVII (1942), p.53.

43. Davenport, pp. 216, 219.

44. Davenport, p. 222.

45. Davenport, p. 1; also see Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Professor V.L. Kellogg, 30 October 1912: APS B: D27 Kellogg, Vernon #3. Davenport, pp. 80-82.

46. Davenport, pp. 255-259.

47. "College Courses in Genetics and Eugenics," Eugenical News vol. 1 (1916), pp. 26-27.

48. Carnegie Institution of Washington, "ERO Schedule: Inquiry Into the Nature of Instruction Offered By Schools and Colleges in Eugenics (Not Sex-Hygiene) and Human Heredity": APS: ERO documents, Series X. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Professor Irving Fisher, 8 February 1916: APS: BD27- Fisher #1.

49. Hamilton Cravens, The Triumph of Evolution: The Heredity-Environment Controversy, 1900- 1941, (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1988), p. 53.

50. George William Hunter, A Civic Biology: Presented in Problems (New York: American Book Company, 1914), p. 263, as cited in Steven Selden, Inheriting Shame (New York: Teachers College Press, 1999), p. 71. Selden, p. 61-69.

51. See Francis Galton, Inquiries Into Human Faculty And Its Development (London: JM Dent & Co, 1883), pp. 19-20. See Francis Galton, "On the Anthropometric Laboratory at the late International Health Exhibition," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, pp. 205-206, 214-218. James Cattell, "Mental Tests and Measurements," Mind (1890), pp. 378-380.

52. Theta H. Wolf, Alfred Binet (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1973), pp. 21, 29, 71, 141, 162-165, 172, 177, 179-182, 183-185, 191, 201, 202, 207.

53 The Vineland Training School, "The Vineland Training School-History," at http://www.vineland.org. Charles B. Davenport and David F. Weeks, Eugenics Record Office Bulletin No. 4: A First Study of Inheritance in Epilepsy (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Eugenic Record Office), pp. 4-5.

54. Henry H. Goddard, The Kallikak Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feeble-Mindedness (Vineland, New Jersey: 1913, ) pp. vii, 101-110, 116-117.

55. Goddard, pp. 18, 29-30, 103.

56. Goddard, p. 53. Author's interview with James H. Wallace, Jr., director of Photographic Services at the Smithsonian Institution.

57. Goddard, p. 16.

58. Goddard, p. 84.

59. Goddard, p. 109.

60. Goddard, pp. 105-106, 118.

61. Wolf, p. 195. Author's interview with Merriam- Webster Corporation.

62. Letter, Henry H. Goddard to Charles B. Davenport, 25 July 1912, APS B: D27 Davenport - Goddard, Henry H. #4.

63. Henry H. Goddard, "Mental Tests and the Immigrant," The Journal of Delinquency, vol. II, No. 5 (September 1917), pp. 243-244. Goddard, The Kallikaks, p. 79.

64. Goddard, "Mental Tests and the Immigrant," pp. 249, 266-267.

65. "Mental Differences," Eugenical News, vol. 1 (1916), pp. 51-52. "News and Notes," Eugenical News, vol. 1 (1916), p. 52.

66. "Measuring Mentality," Eugenical News, vol. 1 (1916), p. 59. "The Municipal Psychopathic Clinic," Eugenical News, vol. 1 (1916), p. 55.

67. "Negro Efficiency," Eugenical News, vol. 1, (1916), p.79.

68. Arthur H. Estabrook, "National Conference of Charities and Corrections," Eugenical News, vol. 1 (1916), pp. 42-43.

69. "The Binet Test in Court," Eugenical News, vol. 1 (1916), p. 55.

70. "Record Blank for Point Scale," Eugenical News, vol. 1 (1916), p. 56. "Autobiography of Robert Means Yerkes," in Carl Murchison, ed., History of Psychology in Autobiography (Worcester, MA: Clark University Press, 1930), pp. 381-407. "Officers and Committee List of the Eugenics Research Association, January 1927": Truman: ERA Membership Records.

71. Daniel J. Kevles, "Testing the Army's Intelligence: Psychologists and the Military in World War I," The Journal of American History, Vol. 55, Issue 3 (Dec., 1968), p. 567-568, 571, 573. Robert M. Yerkes and Clarence S. Yoakum, Army Mental Tests, (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1926), p. 2.

72. Carl C Brigham, A Study of American Intelligence (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1923), p. xxii. Examination Alpha, Test 8: Information- cited in Brigham, p. 29 and Diane B. Paul, Controlling Human Heredity (Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Humanities Press, 1995), p. 66. See United States Historical Census Data Browser at fisher.lib.virginia.edu/census/; Internet, for details on rural population.

73. Brigham, p. 29 and Paul, p. 66.

74. Brigham, pp. 48, 50.

75. Brigham, p. xxii. Raymond E. Fancher, The Intelligence Men: Makers of the IQ Controversy (New York: W W. Norton & Company, 1985), pp. 139, 140.

76. Robert M. Yerkes, Memoirs of the National Academy of Science, (Washington D.C: National Academy of Science, 1921), p. 790-791. Brigham, p. 152.

77. Fancher, pp. 102-103, 140. Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed., s.v. "Mental Retardation."

78. "News and Notes," Eugenical News, Vol. II (1917), p. 24.

79. Eugenics Research Association, Active Membership Accession List (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Eugenics Research Association, 1922): Truman, ERA Membership Records. Brigham, pp. v-vii, xvii-xviii.

80. Brigham, pp. 174, 178, 180.

81. Brigham, p. 192.

82. Brigham, pp. 182, 210.

83. Nicholas Lemann, The Big Test: The Secret History of the American Meritocracy, (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1999), p. 30-32.

84. See National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Thirty Years of Lynching in the United States, 1889-1918 (New York: NAACP, 1919; reprint, New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969) pp. 45, 70.

85. Kevles, "Testing the Army's Intelligence: Psychologists and the Military in World War I," pp. 576-577, 578.

86. Walter Lippmann, "The Mental Age of Americans," New Republic 32, No. 415 (November 15, 1922). Walter Lippmann, "The Mental Age of Americans," New Republic 32 No. 417 (November 29, 1922). Lewis M. Terman, "The Great Conspiracy or the Impulse Imperious of Intelligence Testers, Psychoanalyzed and Exposed by Mr. Lippmann," New Republic 33 (December 27, 1922). Also see Ezekiel Cheever, School Issues (Baltimore: Warwick & York, Inc., 1924).

87. Henry H. Goddard, "Feeblemindedness: A Question of Definition," Journal of Psycho- Asthenics, vol. 33 (1928), p. 224.

88. Goddard, "Feeblemindedness: A Question of Definition," pp. 223, 224.

89. Carl C. Brigham, "Intelligence Tests of Immigrant Groups," Psychological Review, Vol. 37 (1929), p. 165.
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Re: War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to

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PART 2 OF 7

CHAPTER SIX

1. The Race Betterment Foundation, Proceedings of the First National Conference on Race Betterment (Battle Creek, MI: The Race Betterment Foundation, 1914), p. xi. Kellogg Company, "Kellogg's Company History" at http://www.thekelloggcompany.co.uk. "Race Betterment Foundation and the Eugenics Registry, " Organized Eugenics, (New Haven, CT: American Eugenics Society), 1931, p. 51. Also see "Brief Notes Made at Conference Held in Sacramento at the Request of the State Board of Control to Consider the Problem of Feeblemindedness, Insanity, and Epilepsy in Relation to Crime, Poverty and Inefficiency," unpublished manuscript, p. 5: California State Archives, Berkeley PO 72/227C: Box 5.

2. Proceedings, First National Conference on Race Betterment, pp. 431, 433, 447. Diane B. Paul, Controlling Human Heredity (Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press International, 1995), p. 9.

3. Charles B. Davenport, "The Importance to the State of Eugenic Investigation," Proceedings, First National Conference p. 452.

4. Harry H. Laughlin, "Calculations on the Working Out of a Proposed Program of Sterilization," Proceedings, First National Conference on Race Betterment, p. 478.

5. Laughlin, p. 484, 490.

6. Professor Irving Fisher, "A Reply," Official Proceedings of the Second National Conference on Race Betterment (Battle Creek, MI: The Race Betterment Foundation, 1915), p. 68.

7. Eugenics Record Office, First Meeting of the Board of Scientific Directors, unpublished manuscript, circa December 1912: APS BD27 - Harriman, Mrs. E. H. #1. Johns Hopkins University, Chronology of the Life of William Henry Welch at http://www.medicalarchives.jhmi.edu.

8. First Meeting of the Board of Scientific Directors.

9. Letter, Alexander Graham Bell to Charles B. Davenport, 27 December 1912: Truman C-2- 3: 3.

10. Eugenics Research Association, Officers and Committee List of the Eugenics Research Association - January 1927 (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Eugenics Research Association, 1927): Truman, ERA Membership Records. Eugenics Research Association, Active Membership Accession List (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Eugenics Research Association, 1922): Truman, ERA Membership Records.

11. Active Membership Accession List. Edwin Katzen-Ellenbogen, "The Detection of a Case of Simulation of Insanity By Means of Association Tests," Journal of Abnormal Psychology Vol. VI (1911), p. 19.

12. Madison Grant, The Passing of the Great Race (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1936), pp. 50-51, 86, 89. Eugenics Record Office, Official Record of the Gift of the Eugenics Record Office, Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, New York by Mrs. E.H. Harriman to the Carnegie Institution of Washington and of its Acceptance by the Institution (Cold Spring Harbor, New York: Eugenics Record Office, 1918), p. 33: CSH. Officers and Committee List of the Eugenics Research Association- January 1927.

13. Lothrop Stoddard, The Rising Tide of Color (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1926), pp. 258, 259-260. Active Membership Accession List.

14. Active Membership Accession List.

15. Edwin Katzen-Ellenbogen, "The Mental Efficiency in Epileptics," Epilepsia Vol. 3 (Dec 1912), p. 504. Katzen-Ellenbogen, "The Detection of a Case of Simulation of Insanity By Means of Association Tests." Edwin Katzen-Ellenbogen, "A Critical Essay on Mental Tests in Their Relation to Epilepsy," Epilepsia Vol. 4 (1913), p. 130. American Men of Science (1914): NA: RG496/Box 457.

16. NA: RG496/Box 457. "Record of Marriage": NA: RG496/Box 457. Letter, Edwin Katzen- Ellenbogen to 7708 WCG, circa 13 April 1948: NA: RG496/ box 457. "Extract Copy: Review And Recommendations: NA: RG496/Box 457.

17. See "Photo of Edwin Katzen-Ellenbogen" at http://www.ushmm.org. "A Critical Essay on Mental Tests." Arrest photo of Katzen-Ellenbogen: NA: RG496/Box 457. "Testimony of Karl Hemrick Victor Berthold": NA: RG496/Box 457.

18. "Review of WC Section, Military Affairs Branch." Active Membership Accession List.

19. Letter, Olga Heide-Pilat to General Handy, 7 August 1951: NA: RG496/Box 457. See Testimony of Katzen-Ellenbogen: NA: RG4961290/59/14/1-5/Box434.

20. Sworn statement of Walter Hummelsheim: NA: RG496/290/59/14/1-5/Box 444.

21. Timeline of Rockefeller Foundation History at http://www.rockfound.org.

22. Letter, John D. Rockefeller Jr. to Charles B. Davenport, 27 January 1912: APS: B: D27 Davenport - J.D. Rockefeller. Letter, John D. Rockefeller Jr. to Charles B. Davenport, 27 March 1912: APS: B: D27 Davenport - J.D. Rockefeller. Letter, John D. Rockefeller Jr. to Charles B. Davenport, 2 April 1912: APS: B: D27 Davenport - J.D. Rockefeller. Letter, John D. Rockefeller Jr. to Charles B. Davenport, 8 May 1912: APS: B: D27 Davenport - J.D. Rockefeller. Timeline of Rockefeller Foundation History; see Biography of John D. Rockefeller Jr. at http://www.brown.edu.

23. Biography of John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Rockefeller to Davenport, 27 January 1912. Rockefeller to Davenport, 27 March 1912. Rockefeller to Davenport, 2 April 1912. Rockefeller to Davenport, 8 May 1912.

24. First Meeting of the Board of Scientific Directors.

25. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Dr. William H. Welch, 1 March 1915: APS B: D27- Harriman, Mrs. E.H. #5. Also see Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Alexander Graham Bell, 5 March 5 1915: APS B: D27 - Alexander Graham Bell #7.

26. Davenport to Welch, 1 March 1915.

27. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Alexander Graham Bell, 20 March 1915: APS B: D27 - Alexander Graham Bell #7.

28. See Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Mrs. E.H. Harriman, 13 February 1915: APS B: D27- Harriman, Mrs. E.H. #4. "Conference on the Feebleminded at the Home of Mrs. E.H. Harriman," meeting agenda with notations: APS B: D27 - Harriman, Mrs. E.H. #4.

29. Letter, Robert W. Hebberd to Mrs. E.H. Harriman, 28 October 1913: APS B: D27- Harriman, Mrs. E.H. #3.

30. "A County Survey," Eugenical News, Vol. I (1916) p. 24.

31. Memorandum on Immigration enclosed with letter, Charles B. Davenport to Madison Grant, 6 January 1921: APS B: D27 - Grant, Madison #3.

32. National Committee on Prisons and Prison Labor, The National Committee on Prisons and Prison Labor - Its Origin, Purpose and Present Activities (New York: National Committee on Prisons and Prison Labor, 1915) pp. 2-3, 4, 5: APS B: D27 Davenport - Nat'l Committee on Prisons & Prison Labor. "Field Work in a Police Department," Eugenical News, Vol. II (1917) p. 21. "Field Workers Appointed," Eugenical News, Vol. II (1917), p. 80.

33. "New York State Commission on the Mentally Deficient," Eugenical News, Vol. I (1916) pp. 6- 7. Letter, Davenport to Harriman, 13 February 1915. "Wanted," Eugenical News, Vol. I (1916) p.48.

34. "Hospital Development Commission," Eugenical News Vol. 2 (1917), p. 59.

35. "News and Notes," Eugenical News Vol. II (1917), p. 24. "Field Workers' Returns," Eugenical News Vol. I (1916), p. 3. "Field Workers' Returns," Eugenical News Vol. I (1916), p. 9. "News and Notes," Eugenical News Vol. I (1916), p. 18. "Work of a Field Worker," Eugenical News Vol. II (1917), p. 46.

36. Letter, A.G. Smith to C.L. Goodrich, 14 November 1912: APS B: D27 - ABA Committee on Eugenics #2. Letter, C.L. Goodrich to A.G. Smith, 25 November 1912: APS B: D27 - ABA Committee on Eugenics #2. Letter, D.A. Brodie to Charles B. Davenport, 26 November 1912: APS B: D27 - ABA Committee on Eugenics #2. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to D.A. Brodie, 29 November 1912: APS B: D27 - ABA Committee on Eugenics #2.

37. Brodie to Davenport, 26 November 1912. Davenport to Brodie, 29 November 1912.

38. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to George W. Knorr, 3 January 1913: APS B: D27 - ABA Committee on Eugenics #2. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to George W. Knorr, 8 January 1913: APS B: D27 - ABA Committee on Eugenics #2. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to R. Dee. Ward, 8 January 1913: APS B: D27- ABA Committee on Eugenics #2. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to George W. Knorr, 10 January 1913: APS B: D27 - ABA Committee on Eugenics #2.

39. James Wilson, "Presidential Address: Ninth Annual Meeting," The American Breeders' Magazine: A Journal of Genetics and Eugenics Vol. IV(1913), pp. 53, 55, 57.

40. "Foreword," Eugenical News Vol. I (1916) p. I. Truman Library, "Harry H. Laughlin Biography," at http://www.library.truman.edu. Official Record of the Gift of the Eugenics Record Office, p. 33.

41. "Personals," Eugenical News Vol. II (1917) p. 12. "Accessions to Archives," Eugenical News Vol. II (1917) p. 12. "Voice Inheritance," Eugenical News Vol. II (1917) p. 19. "Our Visitors," Eugenical News Vol. I (1916) pp. 32-33. "The New Immigration Law," Eugenical News Vol. II (1917) p. 22. "Eugenic Legislation," Eugenical News Vol. II (1917) p. 29. "Personals," Eugenical News Vol. II (1917) p. 7I.

42. Letter, Theodore Roosevelt to Charles B. Davenport, 3 January 1913: APS B: D27 Davenport- Roosevelt, Theodore. What I Think About Eugenics (n.p., n.d.), Bancroft Library. Dr. Albert Edward Wiggam, as quoted by Thomas F. Gossett, Race: The History of an Idea in America (Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press, 1963), p. 403 as cited in Christopher Cerf and Victor Navasky, The Experts Speak (New York: Villard Press, 1984), p. 30.

43. Dr. David Heron, "A Criticism of Recent American Work," p. 5, as cited by Charles B. Davenport, "A Discussion of the Methods and Results of Dr. Heron's Critique," Eugenics Record Office Bulletin No. 11: Reply to the Criticism of Recent American Work by Dr. Heron of the Galton Laboratory (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Eugenics Record Office, 1914), p. 3.

44. Heron, pp. 4, 62, as cited by Dr. A. J. Rosanoff, "Mendelism and Neuropathic Heredity: A Reply to Some of Dr. David Heron's Criticisms of Recent American Work," Eugenics Record Office Bulletin No. 1, pp. 27, 28: CSH.

45. Heron, p. 67, as cited by Davenport, Eugenics Record Office Bulletin No. 1. Heron, p. 30, as cited by David F. Weeks, "Extract from Letter to C.B. Davenport From Dr. David F. Weeks, Superintendent of the New Jersey State Village for Epileptics at Skillman," Eugenics Record Office Bulletin No. 11 , p. 25.

46. See Eugenics Record Office Bulletin No. 11.

47. Davenport, Eugenics Record Office Bulletin No. 1, pp. 4-5, 9. Weeks, Eugenics Record Office Bulletin No. 1, p. 25. Rosanoff, Eugenics Record Office Bulletin No. 1, p. 35, 36.

48. Davenport, Eugenics Record Office Bulletin No. 11, p. 24. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to V.L. Kellogg, 30 October 1912: APS- BD27 Kellogg, Vernon #3.

49. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Alexander Graham Bell, 25 September 1915: APS B: D27 Alexander Graham Bell #7. Letter, Alexander Graham Bell to Charles B. Davenport, 30 September 1915: APS B: D27 Alexander Graham Bell #7.

50. "Where To Begin," The San Francisco Daily News, 14 October 1915.

51. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Thomas D. Eliot, 1 November 1915: APS B: D27.

52. Davenport to Eliot, 1 November 1915.

53. Letter, Irving Fisher to Charles B. Davenport, 18 February 1916: APS B: D27 Davenport- Irving Fisher #3.

54. Fisher to Davenport, 18 February 1916.

55. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Irving Fisher, 25 February 1916: APS B: D27 Davenport- Irving Fisher #3.

56. Draft of letter, Charles B. Davenport to Alexander Graham Bell, n.d.: CSH.

57. Record of telephone call, Alexander Graham Bell to Cold Spring Harbor, 8 April 1916: APS B: D27 Davenport - Bell.

58. Letter, Alexander Graham Bell to Charles B. Davenport, 20 April 1916: APS B: D27 Davenport-Bell.

59. Letter, Alexander Graham Bell to Charles B. Davenport, 18 November 1916: APS B: D27 Davenport- Bell. Letter, Alexander Graham Bell to Charles B. Davenport, 5 January 1917: APS B: D27 Davenport - Bell.

60. Official Record of the Gift of the Eugenics Record Office, pp. 21, 24, 25, 28.

61. "Temperament of the Negro," Eugenical News Vol. IV (1919) p. 43.

62. "Thalassophilia," Eugenical News Vol. V (1920) p.26.

63. Charles B. Davenport, Heredity In Relation To Eugenics (New York: Henry Holt & Company, 1911; reprint, New York: Arno Press Inc., 1972), p. 6.

64. Eugenics Record Office, Record of Family Traits No. 40688: MS. COLL. No. 77, ERO, APS Series I. Eugenics Record Office, Record of Family Traits No. A: 0772-I: MS. COLL. No. 0772, ERO, APS Series 1.

65. Record of Family Traits No. 40688.

66. Eugenics Record Office, Family Tree A: 0-3a: MS. COLL. No. 77, ERO, APS Series I, A: 01 #6, 1921-1930.

67. Charles B. Davenport and Harry H. Laughlin, Eugenics Record Office Bulletin No. 13: How To Make A Eugenical Family Study (Cold Spring Harbor, New York: Eugenics Record Office, 1915) p. 25: CSH.

68. Charts and Measurements: MS. COLL. No. 77, ERO, APS Series I, A: 01 #4 Development, 1922-1923. Letter, Brett Ratner to Charles B. Davenport, 15 June 1922: APS Series I, A: 01 #4 Development, 1922-1923.

69. Mrs. Anna Wendt Finlayson, Eugenical Record Office Bulletin No. 15: The Dack Family, A Study in Hereditary Lack of Emotional Control (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Eugenical Record Office, 1916) p. 11. Henry H. Goddard, The Kallikak Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feeble- Mindedness (Vineland, New Jersey: 1913), p. x. Eugenics Survey of Vermont," Farm No. 47, Family Name Irving, Mark, "Jamaica Emigrants Questionnaire Interviews: Vermont PRA-15.

70. Davenport and Laughlin, Eugenics Record Office Bulletin No. 13, pp. 4, 28.

71. US Const, Preamble.

72. J. David Smith and K. Ray Nelson, The Sterilization of Carrie Buck (Far Hills, NJ: New Horizon Press, 1989) pp. 14, 30.

73. Departments of the Central State Hospital for Epileptic and Feeble-Minded at Petersburg, Virginia, "Official Interrogatories and Papers of Commitment": Emma Buck files, Central Virginia Training Center Archives.

74. Smith, pp. 15-16. "Official Interrogatories and Papers of Commitment."

75. Smith, pp. 1-3, 5-6, 18.

76. "They Told Me I Had To Have An Operation," Charlottesville (VA) Daily Progress, 26 February 1980. Author's Interview with former Central Virginia Training Center Superintendent K. Ray Nelson, 14 November 2002.

77. Smith, pp.17-18.

78. Paul A. Lombardo, "Eugenic Sterilization in Virginia: Aubrey Strode and the Case of Buck v. Bell," (Ph. D. diss, University of Virginia, 1982), pp. 177, 179, 180. "Order of Commitment of Carrie E. Buck," Carrie Buck vs. Dr. J.H. Bell, 143 Va. 310 pp. 22, 25: Supreme Court of Virginia as cited by Lombardo.

79. A.S. Priddy, Biennial Report of the State Epileptic Colony (Lynchburg, VA: State Epileptic Colony, 1923), as cited by Smith, p. 32.

80. Priddy as cited by Smith, p. 32.

81. Priddy as cited by Smith, p. 33.

82. Unnamed Patient Hearing transcript, as cited in The Lynchburg Story, Dir. Stephen Trombley, Prod. Bruce Eadie. Videocassette. Worldview Pictures, 1993. Poe v. Lynchburg Training School and Hospital, 518 F. Supp. 789 (W.D. Va. 1981).

83. Lombardo, "Eugenic Sterilization," p. 120. "Writ of Habeas Corpus, filed at the Supreme Court of Appeals of Virginia, November 24, 1917," as cited by Lombardo, "Eugenic Sterilization," p.120.

84. Lombardo, "Eugenic Sterilization " pp. 120- 121. "Writ of Habeas Corpus," as cited by Lombardo, "Eugenic Sterilization," p.120.

85. "Deposition of Willie Mallory, December 11, 1917" as cited by Lombardo, "Eugenic Sterilization," p. 122.

86. Lombardo, "Eugenic Sterilization," pp. 124, 126-127.

87. Author's transcription, Letter, George Mallory to A.S. Priddy, 5 November 1917, Virginia State Archive File Drawer #383, Item #2711; also see Lombardo, "Eugenic Sterilization," pp. 127-128; also see Paul A. Lombardo, "Three Generations, No Imbeciles: New Light on Buck v. Bell," New York University Law Review, Vol. 60 No. 1, pp. 42-43.

88. Letter, A. S. Priddy to George Mallory, 13 November 1917 in "Grounds of Defense, Willie T. Mallory v.. A.S. Priddy," February 16, 1918 (Virginia State Archive File Drawers #383, Item #2711) as cited by Lombardo, "Eugenic Sterilization," pp. 128-129. Lombardo, "Eugenic Sterilization," pp. 124- 125. W.I. Prichard, "History - Lynchburg Training School and Hospital," Mental Health in Virginia, Summer, 1960, as cited in Lombardo, "Eugenic Sterilization," pp. 129-130.

89. Letter, James DeJarnette to John Dickson, 24 October 1947 (Strode Papers, folder 3014A), as cited by Lombardo, "Eugenic Sterilization," p. 132. Celebration of Dr. J. S. DeJarnette's Fiftieth Anniversary of Continuous Service at the western State Hospital, July 21, 1939 (DeJarnette Papers, Western State Hospital, Staunton, Virginia) as cited by Lombardo, "Eugenic Sterilization," p. 132.

90. Harry H. Laughlin, Eugenical Sterilization in the United States (Chicago: Psychopathic Laboratory of the Municipal Court of Chicago, 1922) pp. v, 6-50, 446-461. Also see Harry H. Laughlin, Eugenics Record Office Bulletin No. 10B: II. The Legal, Legislative, And Administrative Aspects of Sterilization (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Eugenics Record Office, 1914) pp.120-131.

91. Letter, A.S. Priddy to Harry H. Laughlin, 14 October 1924: Carrie Buck File, Central Virginia Training Center Archives. Harry H. Laughlin, "Review of the Legal Procedure and Litigation Under the Virginia Sterilization Statute, Which Led to the Decision of the Supreme Court of the United States, Upholding the Statute, "The Legal Status of Eugenical Sterilization (Washington, DC: Eugenic Record Office of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, 1930), p. 10.

92. Letter, A.S. Priddy to Caroline Wilhelm, 14 March 1924: Carrie Buck File, Central Virginia Training Center Archives. The Lynchburg Story. Letter, Caroline Wilhelm to A.S. Priddy, 5 May 1924: Carrie Buck File, Central Virginia Training Center Archives.

93. Buck v. Bell, pp. 10, 12. Lombardo, "Eugenic Sterilization," p. 183.

94. Strode to Don Preston Peters, 19 July 1939 (Strode Papers, box 30) as cited by Lombardo, "Eugenic Sterilization," p. 183.

95. Priddy to Laughlin, 14 October 1924. Lombardo, "Eugenic Sterilization," pp. 80, 184. Smith, p. 82. Lombardo, "Three Generations," pp. 39, 55. North British and Mercantile Insurance Company, "Fire Insurance Inspection Report, Dee-Whitehead Building": Central Virginia Training Center Archives.

96. Letter, Caroline Wilhelm to A.S. Priddy, 15 October 1924: Carrie Buck File, Central Virginia Training Center Archives.

97. Letter, A.S. Priddy to J.S. DeJarnette, 1 November 1924: Carrie Buck File, Central Virginia Training Center Archives.

98. Priddy to DeJarnette, 1 November 1924.

99. Buck v. Bell, p. 67.

100. Buck v. Bell, p. 67.

101. Harry H. Laughlin, "Analysis of the Hereditary Nature of Carrie Buck," The Legal Status of Eugenical Sterilization, pp. 16-17. Priddy to Laughlin, 14 October 1924.

102. Laughlin, "Analysis of the Hereditary Nature of Carrie Buck," pp. 16-17.

103. Laughlin, "Analysis of the Hereditary Nature of Carrie Buck," p. 16.

104. Laughlin, "Analysis of the Hereditary Nature of Carrie Buck," p. 17.

105. Lombardo, "Eugenic Sterilization," pp. 208- 210.

106. Harry H. Laughlin, "Opinion of judge Bennett T. Gordon of the Circuit Court of Amherst County, Virginia," The Legal Status of Eugenical Sterilization, pp. 19-21. Smith, pp. 174-175; Lombardo, "Eugenic Sterilization," pp. 210-212.

107. Harry H. Laughlin, "Opinion of Judge Jesse F. West of the Supreme Court of Appeals of Virginia, at Staunton," The Legal Status of Eugenical Sterilization, pp. 30- 37.

108. State Colony for Epileptics and Feeble-Minded, "Minutes: December 7, 1925,": Central Virginia Training Center Archives.

109. Liva Baker, The Justice From Beacon Hill: The Life and Times of Oliver Wendell Holmes (New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1991), p. 3.

110. Baker, pp. 3, 15. Catherine Drinker Bowen, Yankee From Olympus: Justice Holmes and His Family (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1945), p. 62.

111. David H. Burton, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr: (Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1980), p. 13.

112. Burton, pp. 28-29. "Overview of 'The Harvard Regiment,'" at http://www.harvardregiment.org. "Information on The Battle of Antietam," at http://www.nps.gov. Baker, pp. 97-98.

113. Baker, p.151.

114. Baker, pp. 144, 165-166.

115. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., The Common Law (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1881; reprint, 1923), p. 1.

116. Baker, pp. 253, 264, 267, 330.

117. U.S. Supreme Court, Members of the Supreme Court of the United States. Author's correspondence with Jacques Semmelman, Esq., 14 November 2002 and Lexis-Nexis search by Semmelman, 14 November 2002.

118. Bowen, pp. 372-373, 446. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., "Dissent, Abrams v. US 250 U.S. 616, 624 (1919), The Mind and Faith of Justice Holmes, ed. Max Lerner (Garden City, Halcyon House, 1943), p. 312. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. "Dissent, U.S. v. Schwimmer 279 U.S. 644, 653 (1928), "The Mind and Faith of Justice Holmes, pp. 327-328. Oliver Wendell Holmes," For the Court, Schenck vs. U.S. 249 U.S. 47 (1919), "The Mind and Faith of Justice Holmes, p. 296.

119. Baker, p. 3.

120. Bowen, p. 187. Holmes, Common Law, p. 340.

121. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., "Natural Law," The Mind and Faith of Justice Holmes, p. 395.

122. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., "The Soldier's Faith," The Mind and Faith of Justice Holmes, pp. 18, 20.

123. Letter from Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. to Dean Wigmore, 19 November 1915, as cited by Mark DeWolfe Howe, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes: The Shaping Years 1841-1870 (Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1957), p. 25.

124. Letter, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. to Sir Frederick Pollock, 1 February 1920, Holmes- Pollock Letters: The Correspondence of Mr. Justice Holmes and Sir Frederick Pollock 1874-1932, ed. Mark DeWolfe Howe (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1942), Vol. II, p. 36.

125. Felix Frankfurter, foreword to Holmes-Laski Letters Abridged, ed. by Mark DeWolfe Howe (Clinton, MA: Atheneum, 1963), Vol. I, p. xvi. Letter, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. to Harold J. Laski, 14 June 1922, Holmes-Laski Letters, Vol. I, p. 330.

126. Letter, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. to Harold J. Laski, 5 August 1926, Holmes-Laski Letters, ed. Mark DeWolfe Howe (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1953), Vol. II., p. 862.

127. Holmes to Laski, 21 May 1927, Holmes-Laski Letters, p. 946.

128. Members of the Supreme Court of the United States. "The People's Attorney," at library.brandeis. edu. See William E. Hellerstein, "Review of The Forgotten Memoir of John Knox," at http://www.law.uchicago.edu. See Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed., s.v. "McReynolds, James Clark."

129. Buck v. Bell 274 U.S. 200 (1927).

130. Buck v. Bell 274 U.S. 200 (1927).

131. Buck v. Bell 274 U.S. 200 (1927).

132. Buck v. Bell 274 U.S. 200 (1927).

133. Smith, pp. 16, 179. Lombardo, "Three Generations, No Imbeciles," p. 61.

134. Harry H. Laughlin, Eugenical Sterilization: 1926; Historical, Legal, and Statistical Review of Eugenical Sterilization in the United States (New Haven, CT: The American Eugenics Society, 1926), p. 60.

135. Laughlin, Eugenical Sterilization: 1926, pp. 21- 22, 60. Abraham Myerson et. al., Eugenical Sterilization: A Reorientation of the problem (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1936), p. 10.

136. Human Betterment Foundation, Legal Status of Eugenical Sterilization (ca. 1940), Truman D- 4-2: 11.

137. Legal Statuss of Eugenical Sterilization.

138. E. Carleton MacDowell, "Charles Benedict Davenport, 1866-1944. A Study of Conflicting Influences," BIOS Vol. XVII, No. 1, p. 30.

CHAPTER SEVEN

1. See US Const, Amend XIX. Margaret Sanger: An Autobiography (W.W. Norton & Company, 1938; New York: Dover Publications, 1971), p. 13.

2. Ellen Chesler, Women of Valor (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992), p. 68.

3. Sanger, pp. 86-89, 213-215. Also see Chesler, p. 62. Also see Margaret Sanger, The Pivot of Civilization (New York: Brentano's, 1922), p. 29. See Doris Weatherford, American Women's History, (New York: Prentice Hall General Reference, 1994), pp. 182-183.

4. Sanger, An Autobiography, pp. 90-92. Also see Chesler, p. 63.

5. Sanger, An Autobiography, p. 92.

6. Sanger, An Autobiography, pp. 92-93, 107-108, 190, 192-209, 292-294. Sanger, Pivot of Civilization, pp. 12, 16, 26-27, 272-273. Margaret Sanger, "Address," read at the Thirtieth Annual Meeting luncheon of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America, New York City, 25 October 1950, p. 1: Wellcome Institute, Box 112. David M. Kennedy, Birth Control in America: The Career of Margaret Sanger, (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1970), pp. 256-257.

7. Sanger, Pivot of Civilization, pp. 14, 18-21 190- 192, 194. Sanger, An Autobiography, p. 308. See also Sanger, An Autobiography, pp. 301-304.

8. See Planned Parenthood Foundation of America, "Our Founder: Margaret Sanger" at http://www.plannedparenthood.org.

9. Sanger, Pivot of Civilization, pp. 101-102. See Julian Huxley, "Towards A Higher Civilization," Birth Control Review (December, 1930), p. 344. "Editorial," Birth Control Review (March, 1928), p. 73.

10. Sanger, Pivot of Civilization, p. 101. Huxley, p. 344.

11. Sanger, An Autobiography, pp. 376-377. Margaret Sanger, "A Plan for Peace," Birth Control Review, April 1932, pp. 107-108. Margaret Sanger, excerpt from "Racial Betterment," The Selected Papers of Margaret Sanger: Volume 1: The Woman Rebel, 1900-1928, edited by Esther Katz (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2003), p. 446.

12. Sanger, Pivot of Civilization, pp. 104, 108-109, 113-117, 120-121, 123.

13. Sanger, Pivot of Civilization, pp. 109, 112, 116. Margaret Sanger, "Is Race Suicide Probable?" Collier's, August 15, 1925, p. 25 as selected by Michael W. Perry, ed., The Pivot of Civilization: In Historical Perspective (Seattle, WA: Inkling Books, 2001), p. 176.

14. Katz, pp. 333-334. Chesler, pp, 343-344. Margaret Sanger Papers Project, "Notes on Sources," The National Committee on Federal Legislation for Birth Control 1929-1937 at http://www.nyu.edu. Henry Pratt Fairchild, The Melting-Pot Mistake (Boston: Little, Brown, and Company: 1926), pp. 109-112.

15. See Roswell H. Johnson, "The Eugenic Aspects of Population Theory," Birth Control Review, September 1930, pp. 256-258. See Eleanor Dwight Jones, "Practical Race Betterment," Birth Control Review, July 1928, pp. 203-204. See American Medicine, "Intelligent or Unintelligent Birth Control?" Birth Control Review, May 1919, p. 12. See Sanger, "Address," p. 3. See Perry, p. 176.

16. Victoria C. Woodhull, "The Rapid Multiplication of the Unfit," as selected by Perry, p. 31.

17. Sanger, Pivot of Civilization, p. 8 I.

18. Sanger, An Autobiography, p. 11.

19. Sanger, An Autobiography, p. 29.

20. Sanger, An Autobiography, pp. 107-108.

21. Stephen S. Wise, "The Synagogue and Birth Control," Birth Control Review, October 1926, pp. 301-302. Margaret Sanger Papers Project, "ABCL Staff, Officers, and Board Members for 1921-1928," The American Birth Control League 1921-1939 at http://www.nyu.edu.

22. Sanger, Pivot of Civilization, p. 189.

23. Sanger, Pivot of Civilization, p. 105.

24. Sanger, Pivot of Civilization, p. 108.

25. Sanger, Pivot of Civilization, pp. 116-117.

26. Sanger, Pivot of Civilization, p. 115.

27. Sanger, Pivot of Civilization, p. 123.

28. Sanger, Pivot of Civilization, p. 112.

29. Margaret Sanger, Woman and the New Race (New York: Brentano's, 1920), Chapter 6.

30. H. G. Wells, introduction to Sanger, Pivot of Civilization, p. xvi.

3I. "Intelligent or Unintelligent Birth Control?" Also see Sanger, Woman and the New Race, Chapter 4.

32. Sanger, Pivot of Civilization, p. 104.

33. Sanger, Pivot of Civilization, pp. 101-102.

34. Sanger, Pivot of Civilization, pp. 277, 282. Also see "Principles and Aims of the American Birth Control League," pamphlet: California State Archives.

35. Sanger, Woman and the New Race, Chapter 3.

36. Sanger, Woman and the New Race, Chapter 3.

37. Letter, Isabelle Keating to Margaret Sanger, 4 January 1932: Margaret Sanger Papers Project. Letter, Margaret Sanger to Isabelle Keating, 15 January 1932: Margaret Sanger Papers Project.

38. John C. Duvall, "The Purpose of Eugenics," Birth Control Review, December 1924, p. 344: California State Archives.

39. Sanger, Woman and the New Race, Chapter 7.

40. Sanger, Woman and the New Race, Chapter 5.

41. Perry, p. 176.

42. Lothrop Stoddard, The Rising Tide of Color Against White World Supremacy (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1926), pp. 303-304.

43. Stoddard, pp. 259-260, 306.

44. Margaret Sanger Papers Project, The American Birth Control League 1921-1939. Letter, Margaret Sanger to Henry F. Osborn, 6 October 1921: APS B: D27 Davenport - Sanger, Margaret. See The American Birth Control League 1921-1939. "Tentative Program," program of the Sixth International Neo-Malthusian and Birth Control Conference: Truman E-2-1: 1.

45. Eugenics Research Association, Officers and Committee List of the Eugenics Research Association- January 1927 (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Eugenics Research Association, 1927): Truman, ERA Membership Records. Professor Irving Fisher, "A Reply," Official Proceedings of the Second National Conference on Race Betterment (Battle Creek, MI: The Race Betterment Foundation, 1915).

46. Letter, Sanger to Osborn, 6 October 1921. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Irving Fisher, 26 March 1925: Truman E-1-1: 1.

47. Margaret Sanger Papers Project, "Staff Members, Officers, Board Members, Chairman and Committee Members," The National Committee on Federal Legislation for Birth Control 1929-1937 at http://www.nyu.edu. Margaret Sanger Papers Project, "BCFA Staff, Officers, Board and Committee Members," The Birth Control Federation of America 1939-1942 at http://www.nyu.edu. Margaret Sanger Papers Project, "Organization of Council," The Birth Control Council of America 1937 at http://www.nyu.edu. Margaret Sanger Papers Project, "BCCRB Staff, Officers, Council Members, and Board Members," The Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau 1928-1939 at http://www.nyu.edu. Margaret Sanger Papers Project, faxed list of letters between Margaret Sanger and Henry Pratt Fairchild.

48. Fairchild, pp. 150, 261.

49. The National Committee on Federal Legislation for Birth Control 1929-1937. The Birth Control Federation of America 1939-1942. The Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau 1928-1939. American Birth Control League, "World Population Conference," Eugenical News Vol. XII (1927), p. 133. Faxed list of letters between Margaret Sanger and Henry Pratt Fairchild.

50. "Tentative Program."

5I. Roswell H. Johnson, "Population Control by Immigration," Birth Control Review, February 1932, p. 57. "A Plan for Peace," pp. 107-108. Katz, p. 446.

52. See Sanger, Pivot of Civilization, pp. 101-102.

53. See Sanger, Pivot of Civilization, p. 104. See Margaret Sanger, "An Answer to Mr. Roosevelt," Birth Control Review, December 1917, as reprinted in Perry, pp. 156-157.

54. "Eugenics vs. Birth Control," Eugenical News, Vol. II (1917), p. 73.

55. Letter, Margaret Sanger to Henry F. Osborn, 6 October 1921: APS B: D27 Davenport-Sanger, Margaret. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Margaret Sanger, 21 October 1921: APS B: D27 Davenport - Sanger, Margaret.

56. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Margaret Sanger, 13 February 1925: APS B: D27 Davenport - Sanger, Margaret.

57. Letter, Margaret Sanger to Harry H. Laughlin, 13 March 1925: Truman E-1-1:1. "Tentative Program." Letter, Margaret Sanger to Harry H. Laughlin, 24 March 1925: Truman E-1-1:1. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Margaret Sanger, 26 March 1925: Truman E-1-1:1.

58. Margaret Sanger, "Editorial," The Birth Control Review Vol. IX, No. 6 (June, 1925), p. 163. See Letter, Paul Popenoe to Madison Grant, 14 April 1928: APS B: D27 Grant, Madison #5. Also see "Birth Control and Eugenics," Eugenical News Vol. X (1925), p. 58.

59. "Editorial." "Birth Control and Eugenics." See Paul Popenoe and Roswell Hill Johnson, Applied Eugenics, rev. ed. (New York: The MacMillan Company, 1935). Also see "Birth Control and Eugenics" p. 58.

60. "Editorial," pp. 163-164.

6I. "Tenth Annual Meeting of the Executive Committee of the Eugenics Research Association," Eugenical News Vol. VII (1922), p. 89.

62. Letter, Leon F. Whitney to Charles B. Davenport, 3 April 1928: APS B: D27 Davenport - Leon Whitney #1. "Tentative Program." The Notional Committee on Federal Legislation for Birth Control 1929-1937. The Birth Control Federation of America 1939-1942. The Birth Control Council of America. The Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau 1928-1939. Also see Chesler, p. 217.

63. Reverend Albert P. Van Dusen, "Birth Control as Viewed by a Sociologist," Birth Control Review, May 1924, p. 133.

64. Duvall, p. 345.

65. Duvall, p. 345. Van Dusen, p. 134.

66. Whitney to Davenport, 3 April l928.

67. Popenoe to Grant, 14 April 1928.

68. Popenoe to Grant, 14 April 1928.

69. Letter, Madison Grant to Leon F. Whitney, 15 April 1928: APS B: D27 - Grant, Madison #5. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Madison Grant, 21 April 1928: APS B: D27 - Grant, Madison #5.

70. Davenport to Grant, 21 April 1928. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Leon F. Whitney, 5 April 1928: APS B: D27 Davenport - Leon Whitney #1.

71. Davenport to Whitney, 5 April 1928.

72. Davenport to Whitney, 5 April 1928.

73. Letter, Henry Pratt Fairchild to Dr. Harry F. Perkins, 9 February 1933: VT PRA-21. See State of Vermont Department of Buildings and General Services, "Content and Historical Significance of Records," The Papers of the Eugenics Survey of Vermont at http://www.bgs.state.vt.us.

74. Letter, Henry Pratt Fairchild to Dr. Harry F. Perkins, 8 March 1933: VT PRA-2 I.

75. Fairchild to Perkins, 8 March 1933.

76. Letter, Paul Popenoe to Dr. Harry F. Perkins, 16 May 1933: VT PRA-21.

77. Popenoe to Perkins, 16 May 1933.

78. Letter, George Reid Andrews to Members of the Board of Directors, 22 May 1936: VT PRA- 21. Letter, Willystine Goodsell to Dr. Harry F. Perkins, 7 June 1936: VT PRA-21.

79. Sanger, "Address," p. 1, 3

80. Sanger, "Address," pp. 3, 4-5.

81. Sanger, "Address," p. 5.

82. Sanger, "Address," pp. 5-6.

83. Sanger, "Address," p. 1. Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., Books on Planned Parenthood and Related Subjects, circa 1950: Wellcome Institute, Box 112.

84. Letter, Margaret Sanger to Dr. C.P. Blacker, 5 May 1953: Wellcome Institute Box 112.

CHAPTER EIGHT

1. "Death of Dr. Lucien Howe," Eugenical News, Vol. XIV(1929), p. 16. FrankW. Newell, The American Ophthalmological Society 1864-1989: A Continuation of Wheeler's First Hundred Years (Rochester, Minnesota: American Ophthalmological Society, 1989), pp. 154-155. "The Howe Laboratory of Ophthalmology," Eugenical News, Vol. XI (1926), P 144.

2. "Death of Dr. Lucien Howe." Eugenics Research Association, Officers and Committee List of the Eugenics Research Association- January 1927 (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Eugenics Research Association, 1927): Truman, ERA Membership Records. "Report of the Committee on Selective Immigration of the Eugenics Committee of the United States of America," Eugenical News, vol. XI (1924), p. 21. See "Eugenics Committee of the United States of America," Eugenical News, Vol. X (1923), p. 5.

3. Francis Galton, "Eugenics; Its Definition, Scope and Aims," Nature, Vol. 70 No. 1804 (1904), p. 82. Charles B. Davenport, Eugenics Record Office Bulletin No. 9: State Laws Limiting Marriage Selection Examined in the Light of Eugenics (Cold Spring Harbor, New York: Eugenics Record Office, 1913), pp. 43-66.

4. Robert Reid Rentoul, Race Culture: Or, Race Suicide? (London: The Walter Scott Publishing Co., Ltd., 1906), pp.I33-141.

5. Davenport, p. 1. Dr. W.C. Rucker, "More 'Eugenic Laws '" The Journal of Heredity, Vol. VI, No. 5 (May, 1915), pp. 219, 226.

6. Letter, Edward M. Van Cleve of The New York Institute for the Education of the Blind to Lucien Howe, 18 February 1918: APS 77 ERO Series V. Letter, Dr. Harry Best to Lucien Howe, 26 February 1918: APS 77 ERO Series V. Eugenics Record Office, "Cost for the Blind," memorandum, circa 1920: APS 77 ERO Series V. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Lucien Howe, 13 November 1920: APS 77 ERO Series 1.

7. Lucien Howe, "The Relation of Hereditary Eye Defects to Genetics and Eugenics," The Journal of Heredity, Vol. X, No. 8 (November 1919), p. 318. "Abstracts of Papers," Eugenical News, Vol. XI (1926), p. 114. "The Blind: Follow-Up Census Survey," Eugenical News, Vol. V (1920), p. 43.

8. Letter, The New Era Printing Company to Harry H. Laughlin, 12 December 1918: APS 77 ERP Series V. "The Blind," Eugenical News, Vol. V (1920), p. 42. "Study of Hereditary Blindness," Eugenical News, Vol. V (1920), pp. 42-43. "The Blind: Follow-Up Census Survey," Eugenical News, Vol. V (1920), p. 43. "Science of Hereditary Blindness," Eugenical News, Vol. V (1920), p. 43. "Prevention of Inherited Blindness," Eugenical News, Vol. III (1918), p. 64. Letter, Howard J. Banker to Professor George Arps, 6 January 1921: APS 77 ERO Ser. X, HHL Box#3 - Hereditary Blindness Law Research Materials (1921-1928).

9. Eugenics Record Office, Schedule for Recording First-Hand Pedigree-Data on Hereditary Eye Defect and Blindness, 1921: APS 77 Series V.

10. Schedule for Recording First-Hand Pedigree-Data. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Lucien Howe, 30 March 1920: APS 77 Series I: PDR & Correspondence. Eugenics Record Office, List of School, Etc, For the Blind to Which Questionnaire And Schedule Have Been Sent, circa 1920: APS 77 Series X: Harry H. Laughlin Box #2 - Hereditary Blindness Corresp #2 1918-1927,

11. Schedule for Recording First-Hand Pedigree-Data. Letter, Laughlin to Howe, 30 March 1920. See annotated List of Fellows of the American Medical Association registered in the Section on Ophthalmology, 1919: APS 77 ERO Series X.

12. Letter, Banker to Arps, 6 January 1921.

13. Howe, "Relation of Hereditary Eye Defects to Genetics and Eugenics," p. 381. Author's notes on inquiries to Howe Laboratory, American Ophthalmology Society, the National Society for the Prevention of Blindness, the National Eye Institute of the National Institutes of Health, and the Retinitis Pigmentosa Society. Laughlin to Howe, 13 November 1920.

14, Howe, "Relation of Hereditary Eye Defects to Genetics and Eugenics," p. 381.

15. Howe, "Relation of Hereditary Eye Defects to Genetics and Eugenics," pp. 381, 382.

16. Letter, Banker to Arps, 6 January 1921.

17. Letter, Banker to Arps, 6 January 192!.

18. Eugenics Record Office, "Copy - List of Geneticists," circa 1921: APS 77 Series V.

19. Letter, Raymond Pearl to Howard J. Banker, 11 January 1921: APS 77 Series I.

20. Eugenics Record Office, "List of Fellows of the American Medical Association Registered in the Section on Ophthalmology, 1919," circa 1921: APS 77 Series V.

21. To Amend the Domestic Relations Law, In Relation to Prevention of Hereditary Blindness, New York (1921), Bill 1597: APS 77 Series X, HHL Box #3, Hereditary Blindness Research Materials (1921-1928).

22. American Medical Association, "Hereditary Eye Defects and Blindness Central Committee," (n.p., circa March 1921): APS 77 ERO Series X.

23. Letter, O.E. Koegel to Dr. Lucien Howe, 7 September 1921: APS 77 Series X. Letter, Leonard W. H. Gibbs to Dr. Lucien Howe, 15 September 1921: APS 77 Series X, Letter, Dr. Hermann M. Biggs to Dr. Lucien Howe, 16 September 1921: APS 77 Series X. Letter, H.S. Birkett to Dr. Lucien Howe, 16 September 1921: APS 77 Series X. Letter, Frank H. Lattin to Dr, Lucien Howe, circa September 1921: APS 77 Series X. Also see Letter, Dr. Lucien Howe to Dr. Harry H. Laughlin, 12 July 1921: APS 77 Series X.

24. Letter, Koegel to Howe, 7 September 1921. Letter, Gibbs to Howe, 15 September 1921. Letter, Biggs to Howe, 16 September 1921. Letter, Birkett to Howe, 16 September 1921. Letter, Lattin to Howe, circa September 1921. Author's notes on APS ERO files.

25. Letter, Lucien Howe to Harry H. Laughlin, 12 January 1922: APS 77 Series 1.

26. Howe to Laughlin, 12 January 1922.

27. Letter, Lucien Howe to Harry H. Laughlin, 22 July 1922: APS 77 Series 1.

28. Howe to Laughlin, 22 July 1922.

29. Howe to Laughlin, 22 July 1922.

30. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Lucien Howe, 7 August 1922: APS 77 Series 1.Letter, Lucien Howe to Harry H. Laughlin, 28 August 1922: APS 77 Series 1.

3I. Letter, Howe to Laughlin, 28 August 1922,

32. Letter, Lucien Howe to Charles B. Davenport and Harry H. Laughlin, 10 February 1923: APS 77 Series 1. "Memorandum on the Institutional Cost of the Blind and the Economic Cost of the Blind in the Population at Large", enclosure to Howe to Davenport and Laughlin, 10 February 1923: APS 77 Series 1.

33. Howe to Davenport and Laughlin, 10 February 1923.

34. J. P. Chamberlain, "Current Legislation: Eugenics and Limitations of Marriage," American Bar Association Journal, 1923, pp. 429- 430.

35. To Amend the Domestic Relations Law, In Relation to Prevention of Hereditary Blindness, New York (1926), Bill 605: APS 77 Series X, Harry H. Laughlin Box #3, Hereditary Blindness Research Materials (1921-1928). Letter, Lucien Howe to Dr. Best, 4 October 1927: APS 77 Series V. Also see Letter, Edward G. Seibert to Lucien Howe, 15 July 1927: APS 77 Series V.

36. Bill 605. "Abstracts of Papers," p. 114. Consumer Price Index Calculator at http://www.jsc.nasa.gov. "Memorandum on the General Principle of Bonding Applicants for Marriage License Against the Production of Offspring Who Would Become Public Charges", memo, ca. 1928: Truman E-1-2: 8.

37. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Lucien Howe, 30 March 1921: APS 77 Series 1. "Memorandum," p 3.

38. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Lucien Howe, 4 May 1922: APS 77 Series I. Letter, Lucien Howe to Harry H. Laughlin, 14 April 1922: APS ERO Series X: Hereditary Blindness Corresp.

39. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Lucien Howe, 30 December 1922: APS 77 Series I: PDR & Correspondence.

40. Bill 605. "Abstracts of Papers," p. 114.

41. "Memorandum," pp 2, 4.

42. Laughlin to Howe, 30 March 1921.

43. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Lucien Howe, 5 December 1922: APS 77 Series: I. Laughlin to Howe, 30 December 1922.

44. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Lucien Howe, 9 March 1925: APS 77 Series I: PDR & Correspondence.

45. "Eugenical Responsibility," Eugenical News, Vol. XVI (1931), pp. 45, 46.

46. "Eugenical Responsibility," p. 46.

47. "Eugenical Responsibility," pp. 46-47.

48. "Eugenical Responsibility," p. 47.

49. "Death of Dr. Lucien Howe." Newell, p. 155.
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PART 3 OF 7

CHAPTER NINE

1. Harry H. Laughlin, "Population Schedule for the Census of 1920," Journal of Heredity, Vol. X, No. 5 (May 1919), p. 208.

2. U.S. Department of Commerce, Statistical Directory of Stare Institutions for the Defective, Dependent, and Delinquent Classes (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1919), p. 5.

3. See U.S. Department of Commerce, "Report on the Defective, Dependent, and Delinquent Classes," as referenced by University of Wisconsin, "Study Report," DPLS Catalog of Holdings at http://www.wisc.edu. See Documents Service Center, "Decennial Census Information: 1880 Census - Detailed Holdings," at http://www.columbia.edu. Harry H. Laughlin, "The Socially Inadequate: How Shall We Designate and Sort Them'" The American Journal of Sociology Vol. XXVII No. 1 (July 1921) reprinted in Harry Laughlin Reprints (Washington, DC: Carnegie Institute of Washington, n.d.), pp. 54, 55-56, 68.

4. Laughlin, "Socially Inadequate," p.68. Letter, Joseph A. Hill to Harry H. Laughlin, 2 January 1918: Truman 0-4-5: 5.

5. Laughlin, "Socially Inadequate," pp. 57, 62, 67- 68. Hill to Laughlin, 2 January 1918.

6. Hill to Laughlin, 2 January 1918. See Harry H. Laughlin, Statistical Directory of State Institutions for the Defective, Dependent, and Delinquent Classes (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1919). Laughlin, "Socially Inadequate," pp. 54, 57-67, 68.

7. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Samuel L. Rogers, 20 December 1918: Truman C-4-2: 6. Letter, Samuel L. Rogers to Harry H. Laughlin, 23 December 1918: Truman C-4-2: 6. See letter, Harry H. Laughlin to William M. Steuart, 22 May 1929: Truman E-2-2: 8. Also see letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Irving Fisher, 23 February 1928: Truman D-2-3: 22.

8. Laughlin, "Population Schedule," pp. 208-209. Eugenic Research Association, "Meeting of the Executive Committee of the Eugenics Research Association Tuesday, Feb. 18, 1919," Truman ERA Minutes Vol. 2 (n.p., 1919), p. 2. See IPUMS-USA, "1910 Sampling Procedures," at http://www.iputTIs.umn.edu.

9. Laughlin, "Population Schedule," p. 209. Hill to Laughlin, 2 January 1918.

10. See letter, Julia C. Lathrop to Elizabeth B. Muncey, 17 February 1916: APS Series I A:015- T. See "The Federal Census Schedule," Eugenical News Vol. V (1920), pp. 36-37. See "Eugenical Significance of Individual Records," Eugenical News Vol. XIII (1928), pp. 8-9. See "A Needed Amendment of the Census Bill: 1929," Eugenical News Vol. XIV (1929), pp. 53-55. See letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Lewis W. Douglas, 11 April 1929: Truman C-4-6: 17. See letter, Harry H. Laughlin to William M. Steuart, 12 April 1929: Truman E-2-2: 8. See letter, Harry H. Laughlin to William M. Steuart, 22 May 1929: Truman E-2-2: 8. See "Present Status of the Proposed 'Race-Descent' Item in the Census Population Schedule," Eugenical News Vol. XIV (1929), pp. 138-139.

11. Harry H. Laughlin, Classification Standards to be Followed in Preparing Data for the Schedule "Racial and Diagnostic Records of Inmates of State Institutions," (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1922), p. 4: Truman C-4-6: 16. J. David Smith, The Eugenic Assault on America: Scenes in Red, White, and Black (Fairfax, VA: George Mason University Press, 1993), p. 60.

12. Letter, Walter A. Plecker to Editor, Survey Graphic, 13 March 1925: UVA Library 7284A Powell Papers, Box 56, Folder 1925.7284A.

13. Loyd Thompson and Winfield Scott Downs, ed., Who's Who in American Medicine 1925 (New York: Who's Who Publications, Inc., 1925), s.v. "Plecker, Walter Ashby." Smith, p. 60. See Joan Charles, Elizabeth City County, Virginia 1800-1859, (Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, Inc., n.d.). See Blanche Adams Chapman, Wills and Administration of Elizabeth City County, Virginia 1688-1800 (1980, n.p.). See author's notes on established sources of Elizabeth City County genealogical records.

14. Smith, p. 60. Walter A. Plecker, "The 1930 U.S. Census," n.p., n.d.: Truman D-4-3:12. Letter, Walter A. Plecker to Harry H. Laughlin, 24 November 1928: Truman D-4- 3:12.

15. Smith, pp. 60-61. Richard B. Sherman, "'The Last Stand': The Fight for Racial Integrity in Virginia in the 1920's," The Journal of Southern History, Vol. 54 Issue 1 (February, 1988), p. 78.

16. Bureau of Vital Statistics, Eugenics in Relation to the New Family and the Law on Racial Integrity, (Richmond: Supt. Public Printing, 1924), p. 26.

17. Letter, Walter A. Plecker to Madison Grant, 13 January 1928: Truman D-4-3:12. Letter, Walter A. Plecker to Harry H. Laughlin, 17 November 1930: Truman D-4-3:12.

18. Letter, Walter A. Plecker to Harry H. Laughlin, 25 February 1928: Truman D-4-3:12.

19. Letter, Walter A. Plecker to Undertakers of Virginia, July 1921: Library of Virginia - Richmond. See Letter, Walter A. Plecker to Harry Davis, 4 October 1924: UVA Library 7284A Powell Papers, Box 56, Folder 1924 #2.

20. Plecker to Grant, 13 January 1928.

21. Plecker to Grant, 13 January 1928.

22. Charles B. Davenport, Eugenics Record Office Bulletin No. 9: State Laws Limiting Marriage Selection Examined in the Light of Eugenics (Cold Spring Harbor, New York: Eugenics Record Office, 1913), pp. 43-66. Walter A. Plecker, Virginia's Vanished Race, (n.p.: July 1947): UVA Library Broadside 1947, Virginia's Vanished Race W.A. Plecker. Arthur Estabrook and Ivan E. McDougle, Mongrel Virginians: The Win Tribe, (Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins Company, 1926), p. 145

23. "Racial Integrity," Richmond Times-Dispatch, 18 February 1924. Sherman, p. 81. Philip Reilly, "The Virginia Racial Integrity Act Revisited: The Plecker-Laughlin Correspondence: 1928- 1930," American Journal of Medical Genetics Vol. 16 (1983), p. 486. Letter, Walter A. Plecker to Harry H. Laughlin, 19 March 1930: Truman D-4-3:12.

24. Smith, pp. 16-17. Sherman, pp. 73-74.

25. The Marcus Garvey and UNIA Papers Project, UCLA "American Series Introduction: Volume VI: September 1924-December 1927) at http://www.isop.ucla.edu. "Nuclei," Eugenical News Vol. IX (1924), p. 8. "White America," Eugenical News Vol. IX (1924), p. 3.

26. John Powell, A Breach in the Dike: An Analysis of the Sorrells Case Showing the Danger to Racial Integrity from Intermarriage of Whites with So- Called Indians (Richmond, n.d.), p. 3 as cited by Sherman, p. 81. Sherman, p. 79.

27. Smith, p. 59. Sherman, p. 77. Virginia Department of Health, "The New Virginia Law to Preserve Racial Integrity," Virginia Health Bulletin, Vol. XVI Extra No. 2 (March 1924), p. 4.

28. John Powell and E.S. Cox, "Is White America to Become a Negroid Nation?" Richmond Times-Dispatch, 22 July 1923. "Editorial: Racial Integrity," Richmond Times-Dispatch, 22 July 1923-

29. "Powell Asks Law Guarding Racial Purity," Richmond Times-Dispatch, 13 February 1924.

30. "Racial Integrity," Richmond Times-Dispatch, 18 February 1924.

31. Sherman, pp. 77-78. Letter, Walter A. Plecker to Reverend Wendell White, 10 May 1924: UVA Library 7284A Powell Papers, Box 56, Folder 1924 #1. Plecker to Davis, 4 October 1924.

32. "Against Miscegenation," Eugenical News, Vol. IX (1924), p. 48. Virginia Department of Health, "The New Virginia Law to Preserve Racial Integrity." Smith, p. 20.

33. Virginia Department of Health, "Instructions to Local Registrars and Other Agents In Administration of the Law," Virginia Health Bulletin, Vol. XVI Extra No. 1 (March 1924), pp. 1, 2, attached sample record card.

34. "The New Virginia Law to Preserve Racial Integrity," pp. 1, 2, 4.

35. Plecker to Davis, 4 October 1924.

36. Letter, Walter A. Plecker to Mrs. Robert H. Cheatham and Mrs. Mary Gildon, 30 April 1924: UVA Library 7284A Powell Papers, Box 56, Folder 1924#1.

37. Plecker to Cheatham and Gildon, 30 April 1924.

38. Plecker to Cheatham and Gildon, 30 April 1924.

39. Letter, Walter A. Plecker to W. H. Clark, 29 July 1924: UVA Library 7284A Powell Papers, Box 56, Folder 1924 #1.

40. Plecker to Clark, 29 July 1924.

41. Letter, Walter A. Plecker to Pal S. Beverly, 12 October 1929: Truman D-4-3:12.

42. Plecker to Beverly, 12 October 1929.

43. Plecker to Beverly, 12 October 1929.

44. Letter, Walter A. Plecker to Mascott Hamilton, 10 October 1930: Truman D-4-3:12.

45. Plecker to Hamilton, 10 October 1930.

46. Plecker to Hamilton, 10 October 1930.

47. Letter, Walter A. Plecker to Mrs. Frank C. Clark, 1 May 1930: Truman D-4-3:12.

48. Plecker to Mrs. Frank C. Clark, 1 May 1930.

49. Letter, Walter A. Plecker to Harry H. Laughlin, 24 May 1929: Truman D-4-3:12.

50. Smith, pp. 66-67.

51. Plecker to Laughlin, 24 November 1928.

52. Letter, Walter A. Plecker to Dr. H. V. Fitzgerald, County School Board, 11 July 1940: UVA Library 7284A Powell Papers, Box 56, Folder 1940 #4. Plecker to Laughlin, 17 November 1930. Smith, p. 67.

53. Plecker to Fitzgerald, 11 July 1940.

54. Smith, pp. 93-94.

55. Bureau of Vital Statistics, State Board of Health, The New Family and Race Improvement, (Richmond, VA: Bureau of Vital Statistics, 1925), p. 3. "Report of the Bureau of Vital Statistics State Board of Health to the Governor of Virginia," Virginia Health Bulletin Vol. XIX, No. 1, (January 1927), pp. 9-10.

56. Eugenics in Relation to the New Family, pp. 6-7.

57. Walter A. Plecker, "Virginia's Effort to Preserve Racial Integrity," A Decade of Progress in Eugenics: Scientific Papers of the Third International Congress of Eugenics (Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins Company, 1934), p. 105. "The Twenty Second Annual Meeting of the Eugenics Research Association: Virginia's Methods of Research in Racial Integrity," Eugenical News, Vol. XX (1935), p. 25. Letter, Walter A. Plecker to Harry H. Laughlin, 12 December 1928: Truman D-4-3:12. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Walter A. Plecker, 18 May 1929: Truman D-4-3:12. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Walter A. Plecker, 17 March 1930: Truman D-4-3:12. Plecker to Laughlin, 19 March 1930. Walter A. Plecker, "Race Mixture and the Next Census," Eugenics Vol. II No. 3 (March 1929), p. 1.

58. Walter A. PIecker, "Virginia's Attempt to Adjust the Color Problem," Journal of American Public Health (1925), pp. 111, 114.

59. Plecker, "The 1930 U.S. Census."

60. Letter, John Powell to George H. Roberts, 28 February 1925: UVA Library 7284A Powell Papers, Box 56, Folder 1925. Plecker to White, 10 May 1924.

61. Powell to Roberts, 28 February 1925.

62. Plecker to Davis, 4 October 1924. Plecker to Laughlin, 12 December 1928. Plecker to White, 10 May 1924.

63. Plecker to Laughlin, 24 May 1929. See letter, Walter A. Plecker to Harry H. Laughlin, 26 June 1928: Truman D-4-3:12. See Wisconsin (1929), Bill 409 S: Truman D-4-3:12. See chart attached to letter, Walter A. Plecker to Madison Grant, 18 June 1931: Truman D-4-3:12 as compared to Davenport pp. 43-66. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Walter A. Plecker, 22 November 1928: Truman D-4-3:12. Laughlin to Plecker, 18 May 1929.

64. Letter, Walter A. Plecker to A. H. Crismond, 21 August 1940: UVA Library 7284A Powell Papers, Box 56, Folder 1940 #4.

65. Letter, Walter A. Plecker to Luke M. Smith, 3 September 1940: UVA Library 7284A Powell Papers, Box 56, Folder 1940 #4. Letter, Walter A. Plecker to Samuel L. Adams, 11 December 1924: UVA Library 7284A Powell Papers, Box 56, Folder 1924 #2. Eugenics in Relation to the New Family, p. 22.

66. Stuart E. Brown, Jr., Lorraine F. Myers and Eileen M. Chappel, Pocahontas' Descendants (Baltimore, MD: The Pocahontas Foundation, 1985), pp. iii, 347, 409, 410, 421, 426, 442.

67. See University of Wisconsin, "Help Files- Genealogical Research Using U.S. Census Data," at http://www.uwm.edu. See U.S. Department of Commerce, "1860 Census: Instructions to the Marshals" at http://www.ipums.umn.edu as compared to U.S. Department of Commerce, "1870 Census: Instructions to the Marshals" at http://www.ipums.umn.edu as compared to U.S. Department of Commerce, "1880 Census: Instructions to the Marshals" at http://www.ipums.umn.edu as compared to U.S. Department of Commerce, "1890 Census: Instructions to the Marshals" at http://www.ipums.umn.edu as compared to U.S. Department of Commerce, "1900 Census: Instructions to the Marshals" at http://www.ipums.umn.edu as compared to U.S. Department of Commerce, "1910 Census: Instructions to the Marshals" at http://www.ipums.umn.edu. See "The Most Prolific People in the United States," Eugenical News Vol. XXIII (1938), pp. 29-31. See "American Indians Made Citizens," Eugenical News Vol. IX (1924), p. 73. See Library of Congress, "Today in History," at memory.loc.gov.

68. Plecker to Davis, 4 October 1924. Department of Commerce, "U.S. Census Estimate of Indians in Virginia, Vol. III, 1920 Population," n.d.: UVA Library 7284A Powell Papers, Box 56, Folder 1921. See Plecker to Adams, 11 December 1924.

69. Plecker to Davis, 4 October 1924.

70. Reclaiming our Heritage, prod. Sharon Bryant, Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, 1997, videocassette. Estabrook and McDougle, p. 145.

71. Plecker to Davis, 4 October 1924. "Abstracts of Papers at 1934 ERA Meeting," Eugenical News, Vol. XX (1935), p. 25.

72. Plecker to W. H. Clark, 29 July 1924.

73. Letter, Walter A. Plecker to A. P. Bohannon, 3 May 1938: UVA Library 7284A Powell Papers, Box 56, Folder 1938 #4.

74. Letter, Walter A. Plecker to R. S. Major, 28 August 1942: UVA Library 7284A Powell Papers, Box 56, Folder 1942 #4.

75. Letter, Walter A. Plecker to William E. Bradby, 2 February 1942: UVA Library 7284A Powell Papers, Box 56, Folder 1942 #4.

76. Estabrook and McDougle, p. 15. See Plecker to Davis, 4 October 1924.

77. "Mongrel Virginians," Eugenical News Vol. XI (1926), p. 70. The Wilkins & Wilkins Company, "Mongrel Virginians," (Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins Company, circa 1926): Truman E-2-2. Estabrook and McDougle, pp. 3, 8. See Estabrook and McDougle, pp. 13, 177.

78. Estabrook and McDougle, pp. 13, 14.

79. Estabrook and McDougle, pp. 199-200.

80. Estabrook and McDougle, p. 201.

81. Estabrook and McDougle, p. 202.

82. Smith, pp. 86, 87. "Mongrel Virginians," Eugenical News, p. 70.

83. Smith, pp. 95, 96. "Petition For Mandamus," Sorrell sv. A. T. Shields, Clerk (1924): UVA Library 7284A Powell Papers, Box 56, Folder 1924 #2.

84. Smith, p. 98.

85. "Petition For Mandamus." Letter, Leon H. Bazile to John Powell, 26 November 1924: UVA Library 7284A Powell Papers, Box 56, Folder 1924#2.

86. Letter, Bazile to Powell, 26 November 1924. Smith, p. 75. Sherman, pp. 81, 85.

87. Letter, Walter A. Plecker to the Virginia Department of Health, 27 May 1946: UVA Library 7284A Powell Papers, Box 56, Folder 1944-46. Letter, Walter A. Plecker to Dr. I.C. Riggin, 27 May 1946: UVA Library 7284A Powell Papers, Box 56, Folder 1944-46. See Plecker, Virginia's Vanished Race.

CHAPTER TEN

1. Letter, John e. Merriam to Charles B. Davenport, 20 June 1923: CIW Genetics: Eugenics Record Office Misc. Correspondence 2 of 2. See Fourth Report of the Committee on Selective Immigration of the American Eugenics Society, memorandum, circa July 1929: Truman C-4-4:6.

2. US Department of Commerce, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970, (Washington DC: US Department of Commerce, 1976).

3. US Department of Commerce.

4. The National Park Service, "Statue of Liberty: Museum Exhibits," at http://www.nps.gov. Emma Lazarus, "The New Colossus."

5. Margo J. Anderson, The American Census (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1988), pp. 132, 133. Paul Burnett, "The Red Scare," at http://www.law.umkc.edu.

6. Anderson, pp. 134, 139.

7. Anti-Defamation League, "Extremism in America: Ku Klux Klan," at http://www.adl.org. Burnett. John Higham, Strangers in the Land (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1955), pp 264-265. William M. Tuttle, Jr., Race Riot: Chicago in the Red Summer of 1919 (New York, NY: Atheneum, 1970), pp 16-20, 22-23. Anderson, p. 133.

8. Robert DeC. Ward, "Our Immigration Laws From the Viewpoint of National Eugenics," National Geographic, January 1912: Truman C- 4-2:7. Letter, Irving Fisher to Charles B. Davenport, 2 March 1912: APS BD27 Fisher #7. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Irving Fisher, 4 March 1912: APS BD27 Fisher #7.

9. Biographical Directory of the U. S. Congress, s. v. Albert Johnson at bioguide.congress.gov. City of Hiawatha Home Page at http://www.cityofhiawatha. org. City of Atchison Visitor Information at http://www.atchisonkansas.ner.

10. "Course Outline of Eugenics," 1933, p. 14: Truman E-2-2:17. Harry H. Laughlin, "A Bill," n.p., circa 1917: Truman C-2-4: 5. Letter, Prescott F. Hall to Charles B. Davenport, 1 October 1920: APS B: D 27.

11. Prescott F. Hall, "Immigration Restrictions and World Eugenics," Journal of Heredity Vol. X, No. 3 (March, 1919), p. 126.

12. Letters, Albert Johnson to Madison Grant, 19 March 1924 and Madison Grant to Albert Johnson, 12 December 1923 as cited by Hassencahl, p. 209. Letter, Madison Grant to Charles B. Davenport, 24 January 1921: APS B: D 27 - Grant, Madison #4. Letter, Madison Grant to John C. Merriam, 26 November 1924: APS B: D 27 - Grant, Madison #4. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Madison Grant, 17 March 1921: APS B: D 27 - Grant, Madison #4. Letter, Madison Grant to Charles B. Davenport, 29 January 1921: APS B: D 27 - Grant, Madison #4. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Madison Grant, n November 1920: APS B: D 27 - Grant, Madison #4. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Madison Grant, 6 January 1921: APS B: D 27 - Grant, Madison #4. Martha Ragsdale, "The National Origins Plan of Immigration Restriction," (Nashville: Vanderbilt University) unpublished manuscript, p. 140: PRA#18.

13. See Harry H. Laughlin, Biological Aspects of Immigration: CSHL: Harry H. Laughlin Reprints.

14. Laughlin, pp. 4-5, 6, 13, 18.

15. Laughlin, pp. 3, 4, 21.

16. Laughlin, pp. 4, 5.

17. Laughlin, pp. 23-26.

18. Memorandum, Harry H. Laughlin to John C. Merriam, 17 October 1922: Truman C-4-5:6. "Sample of Schedule used in the Melting Pot Survey," attachment to Harry H. Laughlin, "Definite Proposal for a New and More Thorough Study of Crime Among Aliens and the Descendants of Recent Immigrants in American Criminalistic Institutions," circa 1921: CA-5:10. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Albert Johnson, 30 December 1924: Truman C- 2-4:5.

19. "Immigration Limits for the Year Ending July 1, 1922," Eugenical News Vol. VI (1921). Robert DeCourcey Ward, "Immigration and the Three Per Cent Restrictive Law," Journal of Heredity Vol. XII No. 7 (August-September 1921), pp. 319-325. "First Report of the Committee on Selective Immigration of the Eugenics Committee of the United States of America," memorandum, circa 1924: Truman C-4-4:3. Harry H. Laughlin, "Scientific Investigations by the Committee on Immigration and Naturalization of the House of Representatives: Abstract of Studies Made for the Committee," memorandum, circa May 1922: Truman C-2-4:5.

20. Harry H. Laughlin, Classification Standards to be Followed in Preparing Data for the Schedule "Racial and Diagnostic Records of Inmates of State Institutions," (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1922), pp. 4, 7: Truman C-4-6:16. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Albert Johnson, circa 1922: Truman C-2-4:5.

21. "Report of Harry H. Laughlin for the Ten Months September 1, 1923-June 30, 1924," memorandum, circa 1924, p. 3: C-2-3:3. "Report of Harry H. Laughlin for the Year Ending September 1st, 1923," Memorandum circa 1923: Truman C-2-5:15. House Committee on Immigration and Naturalization, Statement of Dr. Harry H. Laughlin, 67th Cong., #3d sess., 21 November 1922, p. 734.

22. House Committee, Statement of Dr. Harry H. Laughlin, 21 November 1922, pp. 756, 760.

23. House Committee, Statement of Dr. Harry H. Laughlin, 21 November 1922, pp. 725, 752, 759.

24. "Biological Research in Immigration," memorandum, circa 1920: Truman C-2-4:5. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Frank Babbott, 18 February 1922: Truman C-4-3:5. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Frank Babbott, 9 July 1925: Truman C-4-3:5. Davenport to Grant, 17 March 1921. Harry H. Laughlin, Immigration and Conquest: A Report of The Special Committee on Immigration and Naturalization of the Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York (n.p., 1939), p. 8.

25. "First Report of the Committee on Selective Immigration of the Eugenics Committee of the United States of America," draft copy, circa 1924: Truman C-4-4: 3. "Eugenics Committee of the United States of America," memorandum, circa 1924: APS 576.06 AM3 AES-Eugenics Committee of USA Documents.

26. "First Report of the Committee on Selective Immigration," p. 2.

27. "First Report of the Committee on Selective Immigration," pp. 2, 3, 4.

28. "Annual Meeting of the Eugenics Research Association," Eugenical News Vol. VIII (1923), p. 53. Eugenics Research Association, Active Membership Accession List (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Eugenics Research Association, 1922): Truman, ERA Membership Records. US Department of Labor, "Portraits: James J. Davis," at http://www.dol.gov.Merriam to Davenport, 20 June 1923.

29. Merriam to Davenport, 20 June 1923.

30. Merriam to Davenport, 20 June 1923. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Charles B. Davenport, 26 November 1923: Truman C-2-6:17.

31. Merriam to Davenport, 20 June 1923.

32. Memorandum, Charles B. Davenport to Harry H. Laughlin, 26 June 1923: Truman C-4-3:9.

33. Certificate of appointment: Mark Laughlin Collection as cited by Hassencahl, p. 191. See Harry H. Laughlin, "Report of Harry H. Laughlin for the Year Ending September 1st, 1923."

34. Laughlin to Johnson, circa 1922, p. 9.

35. "Personals," Eugenical News Vol. VIII (1923), p. 94. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Dr. Albert Govaerts, 17 March 1923: Truman C-4-6: 19. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Charles B. Davenport, 1 October 1923: Truman D-2-6:17.

36. Laughlin to Davenport, 1 October 1923. Letter, Harry. H. Laughlin to Charles B. Davenport, 22 November 1923: Truman C-2-6:17. "Report of Harry H. Laughlin for the Ten Months September 1, 1923-June 30, 1924." Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Judge Harry Olson, 12 October 1923: Truman D-2-3:6.

37. Laughlin to Olson, 12 October 1923.

38. "Report of Harry H. Laughlin for the Ten Months September 1, 1923-June 30, 1924," p. 2. "Dr. Albert Govaerts of Belgium," Eugenical News Vol. VII (1922), p. 64. Laughlin to Davenport, 22 November 1923. Laughlin to Davenport, 26 November 1923.

39. "Report of Harry H. Laughlin for the Ten Months September 1, 1923-June 30, 1924," p. 3. Laughlin to Davenport, 22 November 1923.

40. "Report of Harry H. Laughlin for the Ten Months September 1, 1923-June 30, 1924," p. 2. Laughlin to Davenport, 22 November 1923. Laughlin to Davenport, 26 November 1923.

41. "Report of Harry H. Laughlin for the Ten Months September 1, 1923-June 30, 1924," pp. 2, 3. Laughlin to Davenport, 22 November 1923. Laughlin to Davenport, 26 November 1923. Laughlin to Davenport, 1 October 1923.

42. Laughlin to Davenport, 26 November 1923.

43. Laughlin to Davenport, 26 November 1923. Harry H. Laughlin, "Interdepartmental Authority," memorandum circa December 1923: Truman D-4-3:13.

44. Laughlin, "Interdepartmental Authority."

45. "Report of Harry H. Laughlin for the Ten Months September 1, 1923-June 30, 1924," pp. 1, 6. Laughlin to Davenport, 1 October 1923.

46. "Report of Harry H. Laughlin for the Year Ending September 1st, 1923." Laughlin to Davenport, 22 November 1923.

47. Laughlin to Davenport, 22 November 1923. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Harry H. Laughlin, 21 December 1923: Truman C-2- 6:17.

48. Laughlin to Davenport, 26 November 1923.

49. Laughlin to Davenport, 22 November 1923.

50. Davenport to Laughlin, 21 December 1923.

51. "Report of Harry H. Laughlin for the Ten Months September 1, 1923-June 30, 1924," p. 1. "Report of the Committee on Selective Immigration of the Eugenics Committee of the United States of America," Eugenical News Vol. IX (1924), pp. 21-24.

52. "Secretary Davis on Immigration," Eugenical News Vol. IX (1924), p. 37.

53. House Committee on Immigration and Naturalization, Statement of Dr. Harry H. Laughlin, 68th Cong., 1st sess., 8 March 1924, pp. 1279, 1281, 1283, 1294, 1295.

54. House Committee, Statement of Dr. Harry H. Laughlin, 8 March 1924, pp. 1311, 1322, 1323, 1340.

55. House Committee, Statement of Dr. Harry H. Laughlin, 8 March 1924, p. 1300.

56. "Memorandum and Outline of Tentative Working Agreement Between the Carnegie Institution of Washington and the State Department of the Federal Government in Reference to Collaboration in the Collection of First-Hand Data on Immigration at its Sources," memorandum, circa June 1924: Truman C-4-3:9. Letter, W. M. Gilbert to Harry H. Laughlin, 11 September 1924: Truman C-4-3:9.

57. "Memorandum and Outline of Tentative Working Agreement Between the Carnegie Institution of Washington and the State Department." "Report of Harry H. Laughlin for the Ten Months September 1, 1923-June 30, 1924," p. 4. "The Several Filterings of the Immigrant Stream Directed Toward the United States," attachment to Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Albert Johnson, 30 December 1924: Truman C-2-4:5.

58. "Memorandum and Outline of Tentative Working Agreement Between the Carnegie Institution of Washington and the State Department" p. 3. See Ezekiel Cheever, School Issues (Baltimore: Warwick & York, Inc., 1924): CIW Genetics: Eugenics Record Office Misc. Correspondence 2 of 2.

59. See Cheever.

60. Cheever, pp 28-29.

61. Cheever, p 38.

62. Cheever, pp 41, 42-43.

63. Cheever, p 44.

64. Cheever, p 19.

65. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Lewellys F. Barker, 18 April 1924: CIW Genetics: Eugenics Record Office Misc. Correspondence 2 of 2. Letter, Robert Dee. Ward to Harry H. Laughlin, 20 March 1924: Truman C-4-1: 8. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Robert Dee. Ward, 1 April 1924: Truman C-4-1:8

66. Davenport to Barker, 18 April 1924.

67. US Department of Justice, "Immigration Act of May 26, 1924 (43 Statutes-at-Large 153)," at http://www.ins.usdoj.gov. Ragsdale, p. 17. Anderson, p.146.

68. Anderson, pp. 147, 149. Ragsdale, p. 42.

69. Alfred P. Schultz, Race or Mongrel (Boston: L.C. Page and Company, 1908) as cited by Ragsdale, p. 11.

70. Ragsdale, p. 35.

71. See Ragsdale, p. 41. Ragsdale, pp. 41-42.

72. Ragsdale, p. 42.

73. Ragsdale, p. 43.

74. Ragsdale, pp. 41, 45, 46, 48, 49. Fourth Report of Committee on Selective Immigration, p. 6.

75. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Frank L. Babbott, 31 January 1927: Truman C-4-3: 5.

76. Anderson, p. 149. "Immigration Act of May 26, 1924," pp. 422-423. See Fourth Report of Committee on Selective Immigration.

77. Robert Dee. Ward, "Higher Mental and Physical Standards for Immigrants", reprinted from The Scientific Monthly, Vol. IX (1924) p 539: Truman C-4-1:8. See Fourth Report of Committee on Selective Immigration, pp. 20, 28-30. Draft copy, "Immigration Service," (n.d), p. 2: Truman C-2-4:5.

78. US Department of Justice, "Immigration and Nationality Act of June 27, 1952 (INA) (66 Statutes-at-Large 163)," at http://www.ins.usdoj.gov. US Department of Justice, "Immigration and Nationality Act" at http://www.ins.usdoj.gov.

CHAPTER ELEVEN

1. See Robert Reid Rentoul, Race Culture; Or Race Suicide? (London: The Walter Scott Publishing Co., Ltd., 1906), pp. 4-5, 19-22. See Richard A. Soloway, Demography and Degeneration: Eugenics and the Declining Birthrate in Twentieth-Century Britain, (Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1990), pp. 2-4.

2. Pauline M.H. Mazumdar, Eugenics, Human Genetics and Human Failings (London: Routledge, 1992), pp. 72-80, 89, 125, 143. Arthur H. Estabrook and Charles B. Davenport, The Nam Family: A Study in Cacogenics (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Press, 1912), p. 1. "The Eugenics Record Office," Eugenical News, Vol. I (1916), p. 2. Charles B. Davenport, "First Report of Station for Experimental Evolution Under Department of Experimental Biology," Carnegie Institution of Washington Year Book No. 3 1904 (Washington, DC: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1905), pp. 22, 23, 33-34. American Breeders' Association, "Minutes of First Annual Meeting: St. Louis, Missouri: December 29th and 30th, 1903" memorandum circa 1904, pp. 1-3. Francis Galton, Memories of my Life, (London: Methuen & Co., 1908), pp. 310, 320-321. See Francis Galton, "Eugenics; Its Definitions, Scope and Aims": University College London, Galton Papers, 138/9.

3. Rentoul, pp. 164, 165. Author's interview with Indiana State Library, 9 December 2002. Rentoul, p. i, xiv.

4. Francis Galton, "Eugenics: Its Definition, Scope and Aims," (paper read at a Meeting of the Sociological Society, 16 May 1904): UCL Galton Papers 138/9. Rentoul, p.I64. Also see "An Easy Way of Sterilizing Degenerates," The British Medical Journal, 13 August 1904, pp. 346-347.

5. Rentoul, pp. i, 17-22, 24-25, 109-110, 133-142.

6. Rentoul, pp. 10, 44, 101, 155.

7. Rentoul, p. 133.

8. Rentoul, pp. 31-32.

9. Lady Georgina Chambers, "Notes on the Early Days of the 'Eugenics Education Society,''' pp 2, 3: Wellcome SA/EUG/B-11. Mazumdar, pp. 24, 25, 27, 29, 30. Letter, Leonard Darwin to David Starr Jordan, 1 January 1914: Hoover Institution Archives, Horder, Box 60, Folder 52. Also see Phyllis Grosskurth, Havelock Ellis, A Biography (London: Allen Lane, 1980), p. 412n.

10. Rentoul, p. 169. Letter, C.S. Tromp to R. Chalmers, 14 September 1906: PRO HO 45/10341/139871. "The Isle of Lundy," at http://www.lundy.org.uk.

11. Francis Galton, Restrictions in Marriage (American Journal of Sociology, 1906), p. 3. Francis Galton, Memories of My Life (London: Methuen & Co., 1908), p. 310. Major Leonard Darwin, "First Steps Towards Eugenic Reform," Eugenics Review, Vol. 4 (ca. April 1912), pp 34-35 as selected in G. K. Chesterton, Eugenics and Other Evils, edited by and including additional articles selected by Michael W. Perry (Seattle, WA: Inkling Press, 2000), pp 144-145.

12. "Eugenical Sterilization in England," Eugenical News Vol. X (1925), pp. 134-135. Letter, Hugh MacEwen to Sir George Newman, 12 August 1930: PRO MH791291. Letter, A. Neville to A.S. Moshinsky, 20 February 1937: PRO MH791291.

13. Soloway, pp. 74-75.

14. "Notes on the Early Days," p. 33.

15. "Notes on the Early Days," pp. 3, 6-7. "A Large Family" and "A Decadent Family", Admissions forms for Sandlebridge Boarding Special School: UCL, Galton Papers, 138/8. "Notes on the Early Days of the 'Eugenics Education Society,''' pp. 4, 9. Dr. Caleb W. Saleeby, "The House of Life: The Mental Deficiency Bill," July 23 1912.

16. Letter, Sybil Gotto to Francis Galton, 11 December 1909: UCL, Galton Papers, 24017. "Eugenics: Prof. Karl Pearson on its Methods," The Standard, 3 January 1910. See "Notes on the Early Days," p. 32.

17. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Announcement of Station for Experimental Evolution (Washington: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1905), p. 4: APS: Davenport Beginnings of Cold Spring Harbor. The Eugenics Education Society, "Programme," Problems in Eugenics Vol. II: Report of Proceedings of the First International Eugenical Congress (Kingsway, W.C.: Eugenics Education Society, 1913), pp. 3, 5, 6-13.

18. "Programme," Problems in Eugenics Vol. II, p. 2.

19. Saleeby, "The House of Life: The Mental Deficiency Bill."

20. Saleeby, "The Discussion of Alcoholism," p. 6. Richard Allen Soloway, Birth Control and the Population Question in England, 1877-1930 (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1982), p. 17. Rentoul, p. i. "Notes on the Early Days," pp. 4, 9.

2I. "The International Eugenics Congress." Saleeby, "The Discussion of Alcoholism at the Eugenics Congress," p. 6. Saleeby, "The House of Life: The Mental Deficiency Bill."

22. Grotto to Galton, 11 December 1909.

23. Michael Warren, A Chronology of State Medicine, Public Health, Welfare and Related Services in Britain: 1066-1999.

24. Mazumdar, pp. 22-23. Daniel J. Kevles, In The Name of Eugenics, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985), p. 98.

25. Lord Riddell, "Sterilization of the Unfit: A Paper for the Medico-Legal Society," memorandum, circa February 1929, p. 17: PRO MH 58/103.

26. Mazumdar, pp. 23-24. Kevles, p. 98.

27. "Editorial Notes", Eugenics Review Vol. 2 (October 1910), pp. 163-164. Letter, Winston Churchill to unknown recipient, 27 May 1910: PRO HO 144/1085/193548/1.

28. Darwin, "First Steps Towards Eugenic Reform."

29. Darwin, "First Steps Towards Eugenic Reform." Riddell, p. 17.

30. Caleb Saleeby, The Progress of Eugenics (London: Cassell, 1914), p. 181, as selected by Perry, p. 133.

31. Darwin, "First Steps Towards Eugenic Reform." "The Mental Deficiency Act, 1913," Eugenics Review Vol. 5 (Apr. 1913-Jan. 1914), p. 290, as selected by Perry, p. 148.

32. Saleeby, "The House of Life."

33. Darwin, "First Steps Towards Eugenic Reform."

34. Saleeby, "The House of Life."

35. Saleeby, "The House of Life."

36. "Mental Deficiency Bill," Eugenics Review Vol. 4 (circa January 1913), p. 420, as selected by Perry, p. 146. R. Langdon-Down, "The Mental Deficiency Bill," Eugenics Review Vol. 5 (circa April 1913-January 1914), pp. 166-167, as selected by Perry, p. 147.

37. "The Mental Deficiency Act, 1913," p. 148. Eugenics Society, "The Sterilization of Mental Defectives," draft of leaflet, circa 1929: PRO MH 58/104A.

38. Saleeby, The Progress of Eugenics, pp. 188-189, as selected by Perry, p. 134.

39. "The Mental Deficiency Act, 1913," p. 290, as selected by Perry, p. 148. "The Mental Deficiency Act," Eugenics Review Vol. 9 (April 1917-January 1918), p. 263 as cited by Perry, pp. 148-149.

40. See Harry H. Laughlin, Eugenical Sterilization in the United States (Chicago: Psychopathic Laboratory of the Municipal Court of Chicago, 1922).

41. Galton, Memories of my Life, pp. 293-294, 320- 321. "Galton Laboratory for National Eugenics and the Biometric Laboratory, "Organized Eugenics, (New Haven, CT: American Eugenics Society), 1931, p. 37. Soloway, Demography and Degeneration, p. 163. C. P. Blacker, Eugenics: Galton and After (Westport, CT: Hyperion Press, Inc.), p. 237. Mazumdar, pp. 82, 85.

42. Letter, Francis Benedict to Karl Pearson, 20 November 1920: UCL, Pearson Papers, 653/2. Letter, Francis Benedict to Karl Pearson, 13 December 1920: UCL, Pearson Papers, 653/2.

43. Mazumdar, pp. 77, 85-87, 289, 328.

44. Mazumdar, p. 72. Report of the Committee appointed to consider the Eugenic Aspect of Poor Law Reform, "Section I: The Eugenic Principle in Poor Law Administration," Eugenic Review Vol. 2 (1910-1911) pp. 167-177 as cited by Mazumdar, p. 72. Eugenics Education Society, Third Annual Report (1911), p. 18 as cited by Mazumdar, pp. 71-72.

45. Mazumdar, pp. 71-72, 133-135, 205-207. MacNicol, p 429.

46. Mazumdar, pp. 72, 73. "Metropolitan Relieving Officers' Association: Eugenics and the Poor Law," The Poor-Law Officer's Journal 26 September 1913 p. 1217. "Life and Scenes in London # 1: 'Bethnal Green,'" The Nineteenth Century (June 1924) as cited by Casebook: Jack The Ripper at http://www.casebook.org.

47. "Metropolitan Relieving Officers' Association: Eugenics and the Poor Law."

48. Mazumdar, pp. 109-121, 124, 125. See "Rothamsted," at nolimits.nmw.ac.uk.

49. Mazumdar, pp. 125, 126, 137, 142, 294.

50. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Harry Olson, 12 October 1923: Truman D-2-3: 6. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Charles B. Davenport, 22 November 1923: Truman C-2-6:17.

51. Laughlin to Olson, 12 October 1923.

52. Generally see David Starr Jordan, War and the Breed: The Relation of War to the Downfall of Nations (1915).

53. Jordan.

54. Jordan. Eugenics Review, Vol. 6, No. 3 (October 1914), pp. 197-198 as cited by Soloway, p. 141.

55. Letter, Cora Hodson to Elton Mayo, 27 June 1927: Eugenics Society Paper C210, as cited by Mazumdar, pp. 127-128.

56. Mazumdar, p. 133.

57. Mazumdar, p. 137. Letter, Cora Hodson to Sir Walter Moley Fletcher, 15 September 1927: PRO FDI/1734.

58. "Population studies in Edinburgh," Eugenics Review Vol. 18 (1926-27), pp. 227-230 as cited by Mazumdar p. 137.

59. Letter, Cora Hodson to Sir Walter Moley Fletcher, 15 September 1927. Letter, Cora Hodson to Miss C.H. Paterson, 8 February 1926: Wellcome Box 112. Mazumdar, pp. 133- 137, 142. See Daniel Kevles, In The Name of Eugenics (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985), pp. 100-101. See John MacNicol, "The Voluntary Sterilization Campaign in Britain, 1918- 39," The Journal of the History of Sexuality, Vol. 2., No. 3 (1992), p. 429.

60. Caleb Saleeby, "Two Decades of Eugenics," The Sociological Review 16 (July 1924), pp. 251-253 as cited by Perry, p. 135. "History and Survey of the Eugenics Movement, Committee on the," Organized Eugenics, p. 17.

61. Letter, Cora Hodson to Irving Fisher, 17 June 1925: Truman C-2-5:6. Letter, Field Secretary to Cora Hodson, 29 June 1925: Truman C-2-5:6.

62. Letter, Cora Hodson to S. Wayne Evans, 9 June 1931: Wellcome SAEUG/E-l.

63. Letter, Paul M. Kinsie to Harry H. Laughlin, 28 March 1928: Truman C-2-5: 6.

64. Eugenics Education Society, "Minutes of Proceedings at A Meeting held at The Rooms of the Royal Society, Burlington House, London, W. on Tuesday, January 29th, 1924": Truman D_5-2:13. Harry H. Laughlin, "Eugenics in America," Eugenics Review April 1925.

65. Laughlin, "Eugenics in America."

66. Cora Hodson, "Draft of Letter to 'The Times.'"

67. "Segregation versus Sterilization," Eugenical News vol. X (1925), pp. 2-3.

68. C. P. Blacker, Eugenics: Galton and After (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press 1952 reprinted by Westport, CT: Hyperion Press, Inc., 1987), p. 203. "The Sterilization of Mental Defectives."

69. Mazumdar, pp. 197, 198. MacNicol pp 428, 429.

70. Ministry of Health, "Existing Position in U.K.": PRO MH 58/104A.

71. Letter, Ellen Askwith to Neville Chamberlain, 16 February 1929: PRO MH 58/103. Letter, Sir Bernard Mallet to Neville Chamberlain, 18 February 1929: PRO MH 58/10398826.

72. Letter, Frederick. J. Willis to Leonard Darwin, 8 July 1927: PRO MH 51/547. Frederick J. Willis, "Sterilization Bill," draft attached to letter, 8 July 1927: PRO MH 51/547. Bernard Mallet, "Draft of Sterilization Bill," circa 1929: PRO MH 51/547.

73. Letter, Lord Riddell to Neville Chamberlain, 27 April 1929: PRO MH 58/103. Riddell, pp. 1, 9, 17, 20.

74. Riddell, p. 21.

75. Mazumdar, p. 204. "Committee for Legalizing Eugenic Sterilization," circa 1929, pp. 16, 28- 29: PRO MH 58/103 98826.

76. The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed., s.v. "Great Britain." Riddell, pp. 9, 10, 11.

77. Soloway, Demography and Degeneration, pp. 163, 381 footnote 3. C.P. Blacker, "Eugenics In Prospect and Retrospect," The Galton Lecture, 1945 (Hamish Hamilton Medical Books, n.d.), p.18.

78. Letter, Cora Hodson to Ernst Rudin, 24 July 1930: Eugenic Society Papers C300 as cited by Mazumdar, p. 205. Ernst Rudin, "Psychiatrische Indikation zur Sterilisierung," Das kommende Geschlecht 5 (1929), pp. 1-19: Eugenics Society Papers C300 as cited by Mazumdar p. 206. Mazumdar pp 205, 309 footnote 21.

79. Letter, Cora Hodson to S. Wayne Evans, 11 June 1930: Wellcome SA/EUG/E-1.

80. Letter, Cora Hodson to Charles B. Davenport, 15 February 1930: APS B: D 27 - IFEO 1930 #1. See Letter, Cora Hodson to Charles B. Davenport, 25 March 1930: APS B: D 27 - IFEO 1930 #1. See Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Cora Hodson, 31 March 1930: APS B: D 27 - IFEO 1930 #1. See Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Cora Hodson, 13 May 1930: APS B: D 27 - IFEO 1930 #1. See Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Cora Hodson, 13 June 1930: APS B: D 27 - IFEO 1930 #1.

81. Hodson to Davenport, 25 March 1930. Davenport to Hodson, 31 March 1930. Letter, Cora Hodson to Sir Walter Moley Fletcher, 10 April 1930: APS B: D 27 - IFEO 1930 #1.

82. Davenport to Hodson, 13 May 1930.

83. Davenport to Hodson, 13 June 1930. "1930 Meeting of International Federation of Eugenic Organization: Programme and Time Table": Truman C-2-4:3.

84. Eric Donaldson, "Operations on Mentally Deficient Patients in the Poor Law Hospital," pp. 1, 4: PRO MH 79/291.

85. Donaldson, p. 2.

86. Donaldson, p. 3.

87. Donaldson, pp. 2-3.

88. Donaldson, pp. 2, 3, 4. Letter, Eric Donaldson to Hugh MacEwen, 9 August 1930: PRO MH 79/291. MacEwen to Newman, 12 August 1930.

89. Donaldson, p. 1. Letter, Laurence Brock to R. H. H. Keenlyside, 1 August 1930: PRO MH 79/291.

90. Letter, Lionel L. Westrope to the Ministry of Health, 14 October 1930: PRO MH 79/291. "Ambulance Notes," L.N.E.R. Magazine Vol. 29 No. 5 (May, 1939).

91. MacNicol, pp. 431, 432. Mazumdar, pp. 211, 212. See Casti Connubii: Encyclical of Pope Pius Xl on Christian Marriages.

92. Casti Connubii, section 68.

93. Casti Connubii, section 70.

94. Casti Connubii, sections 63, 64. Exodus 20: 13 NIV Study Bible.

95. Eugenics Society, Sterilization of Mental Defectives, n.p., n.d.: Wellcome SA/EUG/N-32. "Should the Unfit be Sterilized?" newspaper clipping, n.p., n.d.: Wellcome SA/EUG/N-33. Committee for Legalizing Sterilization, p. 16.

96. MacNicol, pp. 429, 435. Eugenics Society, Annual Report 1931-32, n.p., circa 1932, p. 6: Wellcome SA/EUG/A-24.

97. MacNicol, p 429. Mazumdar pp. 211, 212.

98. Letter, Eugenics Society to Michael Pease, 17 August 1931: Wellcome Box 112. "Committee for Legalising Sterilization", pp. 15-17. Mazumdar, p. 206.

99. Letter, British Embassy to Sir John Simon, 17 November 1938: Wellcome Box 112. Brock Committee,"Summary of Principal Recommendation," p. 1: PRO MH 51/210. Mazumdar, p. 203. Brock Committee, "Section 86: The Problem of the Carrier": PRO MH 51/210.

100. Mazumdar, pp. 210-211.

101. Blacker, pp 303-304. "Population and Its Control," Eugenical News, Vol. XX (1935), p. 100. "Publication of the State Law: Part I: Given out in Berlin - 25th July 1933, No. 86" circa 1933: Wellcome Library Box 112.
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Re: War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to

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PART 4 OF 7

CHAPTER TWELVE

1. Harry Laughlin, secretary, Bulletin #10A: Report of the Committee to Study and to Report on the Best Practical Means of Cutting Off the Defective Germ-Plasm in the American Population: I. The Scope of the Committee's Work (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor, 1914), pp. 1, 9.

2. See Problems in Eugenics Vol. II: Report of Proceedings of the First International Eugenical Congress (Kingsway, W.C.: Eugenics Education Society, 1913). Caleb W. Saleeby, "The House of Life: The Mental Deficiency Bill," 22 July 1912. See Laughlin, Bulletin #10A. See Harry H. Laughlin, secretary, Bulletin #10B: Report of the Committee to Study and to Report on the Best Practical Means of Cutting Off the Defective Germ-Plasm in the American Population: II. The Legal, Legislative and Administrative Aspects of Sterilization (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor, 1914).

3. The Eugenics Education Society, "Programme," Problems in Eugenics Vol. II: Report of Proceedings of the First International Eugenical Congress (Kingsway, W.C.: Eugenics Education Society, 1913), p. 3. "History of the International Organisation of Eugenics," memorandum circa November 1923, pp. 1-12: Truman C-2-1:2.

4. "History of the International Organisation of Eugenics," p. 3.

5. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Madison Grant, 10 October 1919: APS B:D27 - Grant, Madison # 1. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Madison Grant, 2 April 1920: APS B:D27 - Grant, Madison #3. Letter, Madison Grant to Charles B. Davenport, 7 April 1920: APS B:D27 - Grant, Madison #3. Letter, Madison Grant to Charles B. Davenport, 13 April 1920: APS B:D27 - Grant, Madison #3. Letter, Alvey A. Adee to Charles B. Davenport, 5 February 1921: NA 59/250/22/10/3/2620. Letter, C.C. Kimble to Envoy Extraordinary & Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States of America, 17 March 1921: NA 59/250/22/10/3/5459. Letter, Charles S. Hartman to Sr. Dr. Dn. N. Clemente Ponce, 7 June 1921: NA 59/250/22/10/3/5459.

6. Grant to Davenport, 13 April 1920. Davenport to Grant, 2 April 1920. Lothrop Stoddard, The Rising Tide of Color (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1926), p. i. "Second Eugenics Congress," Eugenical News Vol. VI (1921) p. 65. American Museum of Natural History, "Timeline" at http://www.amnh.org. Second International Congress of Eugenics, Eugenics, Genetics and the Family: Volume I: Scientific Papers (Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins Company, 1923), p. i. Harry H. Laughlin, The Second International Exhibition of Eugenics (Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins Co., 1923), p. 13.

7. Eugenics, Genetics and the Family: Volume I: Scientific Papers, p. ii. "Second Eugenics Congress," p. 64. Laughlin, The Second International Exhibition of Eugenics, p. 16. Herny Fairfield Osborn, "Address of Welcome," Eugenics, Genetics and the Family: Volume I: Scientific Papers, pp. 1, 3.

8. Osborn, p. 2.

9. Eugenics, Genetics and the Family: Volume I: Scientific Papers, pp. iii-v.

10. Letter, Hermann Lundborg to Charles B. Davenport, 29 August 1921: APS B:D27. Also See Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Hermann Lundborg, 24 October 1921: APS B:D27. Also See Letter, Hermann Lundborg to Charles B. Davenport, 28 November 1921: APS B:D27.

11. Charles B. Davenport, "Research in Eugenics, " Eugenics, Genetics and the Family: Volume I: Scientific Papers, p. 20.

12. Laughlin, The Second International Exhibition of Eugenics, pp. 13, 33, 36, 152-153. "II. International Congress of Eugenics," Eugenical News, Vol. VI (1921), p. 28. Princeton University, "Dodge-Osborn Hall," at etc.princeton.edu.

13. Arthur H. Estabrook, "The Second International Eugenics Congress," speech given to the Indiana Academy of Science, 2 December 1921: Truman E-2-4:9.

14. "Resolution Passed by the Executive Session of the Second International Congress, September 27, 1921," memorandum, n.d.: Wellcome SA/EUG/E11. "The International Eugenics Commission," Eugenical News Vol. VI (1921), p. 67. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Dr. Erwin Baur, 30 March 1923: APS B:D27 Davenport & Erwin Baur. See "Meeting of International Commission at Lund - 1923" article, n.p., n.d.: Truman C-4-6:19.

15. "International Commission of Eugenics," Eugenical News Vol. VII (1922) p. 117. "History of the International Organisation of Eugenics, " pp. 5-6, 7.

16. "Personals," Eugenical News Vol. VIII (1923), p. 94. Letter, John C. Merriam to Charles B. Davenport, 20 June 1923: CIW Genetics: Eugenics Record Office Misc. 2 of 2. "Minutes of the Meetings of the International Commission of Eugenics Held in the Rooms of the Medical Faculty of the University of Lund: Saturday, September 1st and Monday, September 3rd, 1923," memorandum: Truman C-2-1:2.

17. "History of the International Organisation of Eugenics, " pp. 9, 12. "Report of Sub- Committee on Ultimate Program to be Developed by the Eugenics Society of the United States of America," Eugenical News, Vol. VIII (1923), p. 73. "Eugenics in India," Eugenical News Vol. VII (1922), p. 2. "Eugenics in Japan," Eugenical News Vol. VII (1922), p. 104.

18. "Meeting of International Commission at Lund - 1923, " n.p. n.d. article: Truman C-4-6:19. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Dr. Erwin Baur, 30 March 1923: APS B:D27 - Davenport & Erwin Baur. Letter, Leonard Darwin to Herman Lundborg, 21 November 1925: APS B:D27. Dr. Timothy Holian, "The German Hyperinflation of 192 3: A Seventy-Fifth Anniversary Retrospective, " at http://www.mwsc.edu. "Resolution Passed by the Executive Session of the Second International Eugenics Congress," p.3.

19. "The International Commission of Eugenics, " minutes of 14 July 1925 meeting: Truman C-2- 5:6. See "Eugenics in the University of Padua," Eugenical News Vol. X (1925), p. 164. See "Eugenical Sterilization in Denmark," Eugenical News Vol. X (1925), p. 178. See "The International Federation of Eugenic Organizations," Eugenical News Vol. XI (1926), p. 100. See "Immigration to Norway," Eugenical News Vol. XI (1926), p. 139.

20. "The International Commission of Eugenics."

21. "Memorandum of the Objects of the International Federation of the Eugenics Organizations," circa September 1928: APS B:D27 - IFEO 1928 #2.

22. "Seventh Meeting of the International Commission of Eugenics," Eugenical News Vol. X (1925), p. 117. "International Federation of Eugenic Organizations," Eugenical News Vol. XII (1927), p. 153. "Memorandum of the Objects of the International Federation of the Eugenics Organizations."

23. Bent Sigurd Hansen, "Something Rotten in the State of Denmark: Eugenics and the Ascent of the Welfare State," in Eugenics and the Welfare State, edited by Gunnar Broberg and Nils Roll- Hansen (East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1996), pp. 44, 51. See Nils Roll-Hansen, "Conclusion: Scandinavian Eugenics in the International Context," in Broberg and Roll-Hansen, p. 268. See William H. Schneider, "The Eugenics Movement in France, 1890-1940," in The Wellborn Science, edited by Mark B. Adams (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990), pp. 80-83. "Pan's Plans," Eugenical News, Vol. IX (1924), p. 80.

24. "Belgium Society of Eugenics," Eugenical News Vol. V (1920), p. 63. "Revue D'Eugenique," Eugenical News Vol. VI (1921), p. 43. "Societe Beige D'Eugenique," Eugenical News Vol. V (1920), p. 54.

25. "Revue D'Eugenique," p. 43. "Societe Belge D'Eugenique, " p. 54. "Belgium Society of Eugenics," p. 63. "Foreign Notes," Eugenical News Vol. VI (1921), p. 72.

26. "Belgian Eugenics Society," Eugenical News, Vol. VII (1922), p. 14. "Dr. Albert Govaerts of Belgium, " Eugenical News, Vol. VII (1922), p. 64. "The New Belgian Eugenics Office," Eugenical News, Vol. VII (1922), p. 92. "National Office of Eugenics in Belgium," Eugenical News, Vol. VII (1922), p. 120. "The Hereditary Factor in the Etiology of Tuberculosis," Eugenical News, Vol. VIII (1923), p. 32.

27. "Prenuptial Examinations in Belgium, Luxemburg and Germany," Eugenical News, Vol. XII (1927), p. 114. "The New Belgian Eugenics Office," p. 92. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Dr. Albert Govaerts, 18 July 1923: Truman C-4-6: 19. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Charles B. Davenport, 22 November 1923: Truman C-2-6:14. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Charles B. Davenport, 26 November 1923: Truman C-2-6:17.

28. Angus McLaren, Our Own Master Race: Eugenics in Canada, 1885-1945 (Toronto, Ontario: McClelland & Stewart, Inc.), pp. 43, 47, 107, 181 f74. National Council of Women, 13th Report (Toronto, Ontario: Johnstone, 1907), pp. 56, 58 as cited by McLaren, p. 38. R. W. Bruce Smith, "Mental Sanitation," Canada Lancet, Vol. 41 (1907-1908), p. 976 as cited by McLaren, p. 42. F. McKevley Bell, "Social Maladies," Queen's Quarterly Vol. 16 (1908-09), p. 52 as cited by McLaren, p. 52.

29. McLaren, pp. 42, 125, 159-160. See Brian L. Ross, "An Unusual Defeat: The Manitoba Controversy over Eugenical Sterilization in 1933," unpublished paper, Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology, University of Toronto, 1981, as cited by McLaren, p. 196 f8. "Eugenical Sterilization in Canada," Eugenical News, Vol. XIII (1928), p. 47. Timothy J. Christian, "The Mentally Ill and Human Rights in Alberta," unpublished University of Alberta paper, n.d., pp. 13-20, 25-29 as cited by McLaren p. 100.

30. Terry L. Chapman, "The Early Eugenics Movement in Western Canada," Alberta History Vol. 25 (1977), pp. 9-17 as cited by McLaren, pp. 90-91. Statutes of the Province of British Columbia, 1933, "An Act Respecting Sexual Sterilization," ch. 59, 7 April 1933 as cited by McLaren, p. 91. M. Stewart, "Some Aspects of Eugenical Sterilization in British Columbia with Special Reference to Patients Sterilized from Essondale Provincial Hospital since 1935," Provincial Archives of British Columbia, Provincial Secretary, Mental Health Services, GR 542, box 14, "Sterilization" as cited by McLaren, p. 160.

31. See "Dr. A. Forel's Views," Eugenical News, Vol. XI (1926). Veronique Monier, "Narratives of National Identity: Sexuality, Race, and the Swiss 'Dream of Order,''' paper presented at the European Consortium for Political Research Annual Joint Sessions, Workshop: The Political Uses of Narrative, at Mannheim 26-31 March 1999, pp. 11, 13. "The Julius Klaus Fund," Eugenical News, Vol. VIII (1923), p. 36.

32. Mottier, p. 11. "The Julius Klaus Fund," p. 36. "Accessions to Archives of the Eugenics Record Office, January, 1924," Eugenical News, Vol. IX (1924), p. 19. "Julius Klaus-Stifrung," Eugenical News, Vol. X (1925), pp. 139-140. "Meeting of International Commission," Eugenical News, Vol. VIII (1923), p. 116.

33. Mottier, pp. 14, 15, 16. "Dr. A. Forel's Views," p. 134. "Sterilization in Switzerland," Eugenical News, Vol. XI (1926), p. 91. "New Sterilization Statutes," Eugenical News, Vol. XIV (1929), p. 63. Robert N. Proctor, Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988), p. 97.

34. "Eugenics in Denmark," Eugenical News, Vol. VIII (1923), pp. 6. Hansen, pp. 9, 19. "Eugenics in Denmark," Eugenical News, Vol. X (1925), p. 81, "Danish-Sterilization Law," Eugenical News, Vol. XIV (1929), pp, 122-124. "Eugenical Registration in Denmark," Eugenical News, Vol. XV (1930), p. 100. Hilda von Hellmer Wullen, "Eugenics in Other Lands " Journal of Heredity Vol. XXVIII No. 8 (August 1937), p. 274. Letter, Cora Hodson to Soren Hansen, 28 June 1928: APS B:D27.

35. "Eugenical Sterilization in Denmark," Eugenical News Vol. XXII (1927), p. 178. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Harry Olson, 15 November 1927: Truman D-2-2:16. "Danish-Sterilization Law, " p. 122.

36. Rockefeller Foundation, "University of Copenhagen - Institute of Human Genetics," June 1939 Appraisal, pp. 3, 5: RF RG 1.2 Ser 713 Box 2 Folder 15. Letter, Tage Kemp to the Rockefeller Foundation, 17 November 1932: RF RG 1.2 Ser 713 Box 2 Folder 15.

37. "University of Copenhagen - Institute of Human Genetics," p. 1.

38. "Race Hygiene in Scandinavia," Eugenical News, Vol. IV (1919), p. 88. Osborn, p. 1. See "Photograph of Jon Alfred Mjoen in Library," at http://www.amphilsoc.org. "Part 1: The American Eugenics Society, Inc.: B. Early History and Development," Organized Eugenics, January 1931, p. 3.

39. "Race Hygiene in Scandinavia," Eugenical News, Vol. IV (1919), p. 88. "Der Nordske Race," Eugenical News, Vol. V (1920), p. 2. "Personal Notes," Eugenical News, Vol. VII (1922), p. 113. "Notes and News," Eugenical News, Vol. VIII (1923), p. 88. "Eugenical Activities in the Different Countries: V: Eugenics in Norway," Eugenical News, Vol. X (1925), pp. 55-57. "Immigration to Norway," Eugenical News, Vol. XI (1926), p. 139. "American Lecture Tour of Dr. Mjoen." Eugenical News, Vol. XII (1927), p, 24, "Galton Society," Eugenical News, Vol. XII (1927), p. 54. "Dr. Mjoen's Lectures," Eugenical News, Vol. XII (1927), pp. 139-140. See "Photograph of Jon Alfred Mjoen and Leon Whitney," at http://www.amphilsoc.org. Klaus Hansen, "The Norwegian Sterilization Law of 1934 and its Practical Results," Eugenical News, Vol. XXI (1936), p. 129. Nils Roll-Hansen, "Norwegian Eugenics: Sterilization as Social Reform," in Broberg and Roll-Hansen, pp. 176, 178,

40. "Race-Biology in Sweden," Eugenical News, Vol. VII (1922), p. 121. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Herman Lundborg, 2 June 1923: APS B:D27. Letter, Herman Lundborg to Charles B. Davenport, 9 February 1926: APS B:D27. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Herman Lundborg, 1 March 1926: APS B:D27. Letter, Herman Lundborg to Charles B. Davenport, 24 April 1926:APS B:D27. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Herman Lundborg, 1 October 1928:APS B:D27. Gunnar Broberg and Mattias Tyden, "Eugenics in Sweden: Efficient Care," in Broberg and Roll-Hansen, pp. 102-103, 109-110. Kungl. Maj:t, Lag om sterilisering av vissa sinnessjuka, sinnessloa eller andra som lida av rubbad sjasverksamhet, Svensk forfattningssamling no. 1934/171 [Sterilization Act of 1934] (Stockholm: PA Norstedt & Sonners forlag, 1934) as cited by Broberg and Tyden, p, 103. Kungl. Maj:t, Lag om sterilisering, Svensk forfattningssamling no. 1941/282 [Sterilization Act of 1941] (Stockholm: PA. Norstedt & Sonners forlag, 1941), as cited by Broberg and Tyden, p. 108. Sveriges Offentliga Statistik: Allman halso- och sjukvard [Annual Reports on Health Published by the Swedish Central Bureau of Statistics] (Stockholm: Statistiska centralbyran, 1935-1976) as cited by Broberg and Tyden, pp. 108-109.

41. "Sterilization Law in Finland," Eugenical News, Vol. XXIII (1938), p. 47. "Race-Hygiene in Roumania," Eugenical News, Vol. XI (1926), p. 136. "The Italian Society of Genetics and Eugenics," Eugenical News, Vol. X (1925), p. 13. "Eugenical Activities in the Different Countries," Eugenical News, Vol. X (1925), pp. 49-51. "Eugenical Efforts in Hungary," Eugenical News, Vol. XVI (1931), pp. 172-173. "Vienna Society of Eugenics," Eugenical News, Vol. X (1925), p. 152. van Hellmer Wullen, p. 271. "International Congress of Genetics" Rockefeller Foundation memorandum, 4 June 1931: RF RG 1.1 Ser 100 Box 40 Folder 365. "University of Copenhagen - Prof. Thomsen" Rockefeller Foundation memorandum, 28 September 1934: RF RG 1.1 Ser 713 Box 2 Folder 15. Radiogram to Gregg, 13 Mat 1932: RF RG 1.1 Ser 717 Box 10 Folder 63. Paul Weindling, Health, Race and German Politics Between National Unification and Nazism 1870- 1945 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), p. 468.

42. A Decade of Progress in Eugenics: Scientific Papers of the Third International Congress of Eugenics (Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins Company, 1934), p. i. See Paul Popenoe and Roswell Hill Johnson, Applied Eugenics, rev. ed. (New York: The MacMillan Company, 1935). See Charles B. Davenport, Heredity in Relation to Eugenics (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1911: Reprint, New York: Arno Press & The New York Times, 1972). See E.S. Gosney and Paul Popenoe, Sterilization for Human Betterment (New York: The MacMillan Company, 1929). See Harry H. Laughlin, Eugenical Sterilization: 1926: Historical, Legal, and Statistical Review of Eugenical Sterilization in the United States (Lancaster, PA: Lancaster Press, 1926). See Harry H. Laughlin, Immigration and Conquest (New York: The Special Committee on Immigration and Naturalization of the Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York, 1939). See "Forward," Eugenical News, Vol. I (1916), p. 1. "College Courses in Genetics and Eugenics," Eugenical News vol. 1 (1916), pp. 26-27.

43. D. V. Glass, "Population Policies and Their Objectives," Eugenical News, Vol. XXVII (1942), p. 8. Schneider, pp. 78, 79. "Actual Aspect of the Problem of Eugenical Sterilization in France," Eugenical News, Vol. XXI (1936), p. 105. Historical Sample of the Netherlands, "Sources- Population Registers, " at http://www.iisg.nl. Nancy Leys Stepan, "The Hour of Eugenics": Race, Gender, and Nation in Latin America (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1991), p. 126. von Hellmer Wullen, p. 274. "Sterilization Law in Finland," p. 47.

CHAPTER THIRTEEN

1. Bleecker Van Wagenen, Chairman, Preliminary Report of the Committee of the Eugenic Section of the American Breeder's Association to Study and to Report on the Best Practical Means for Cutting Off the Defective Germ-Plasm in the Human Population, p. 5: ABA.

2. "The Richardson Lethal Chamber (patented) for the Painless Extinction of Lower Animal Life," undated pamphlet: UCD Special Collections.

3. Robert W. Chambers, The King in Yellow (F. Tennyson Neely, 1895), p. 9. Arnold White, Efficiency and Empire (London: Methuen and Co., 1901), pp.116-117 as cited by Dan Stone, Breeding Superman: Nietzsche, Race and Eugenics in Edwardian and Interwar Britain (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2002), p. 125.

4. H.G. Wells, A Modern Utopia New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1905), p. 129 as cited by Michael W. Perry, editor, The Pivot of Civilization: In Historical Perspective (Seattle: Inkling Books, 2001), p. 36. Eden Paul, "Eugenics, Birth-Control, and Socialism" in Population and Birth Control, edited by Eden and Cedar Paul (New York: Critic and Guide, 1917), pp. 144-146 as cited by Perry, p. 108.

5. Robert Reid Rentoul, Race Culture; or, Race Suicide? (London: The Walter Scott Publishing Company, Ltd., 1906), pp. 178, 179.

6. Article, Daily Express, 4 March 1910 as cited by Stone, p. 127. Stone, p. 128.

7. C.W Wilson as quoted in article, Birmingham Post, 4 February 1910, as cited by Stone, p. 127. Arnold White, The Views of 'Vanoc': An Englishman's Outlook (London: Kegan, Paul, Trench, Trubner, and Co., 1910), pp. 282-283 as cited by Stone, p. 126.

8. A.F. Tredgold, "Eugenics and the Future Progress of Man," Eugenics Review Vol. III (1911), p. 100 as cited by Stone, p. 126. Caleb Saleeby, The Methods of Race Regeneration (London: Cassell & Co., 1911), pp. 46-47, as cited by Stone, p. 126. Proceedings of the First National Conference on Race Betterment, (Race Betterment Foundation, 1914), p. 477.

9. Martin A. Elks, "The 'Lethal Chamber': Further Evidence for the Euthanasia Option," Mental Retardation, Vol. 31 No. 4 (August 1993), p. 203. A. F. Tredgold, A Textbook of Mental Deficiency (Amentia), 2d ed. (New York: William Wood, 1915), p. 455 as cited by Elks, p. 203. A. F. Tredgold, A Textbook of Mental Deficiency (Amentia), 6th ed. (New York: William Wood, 1937), pp. 517-518 as cited by Elks, p. 203. A. F. Tredgold, A Textbook of Mental Deficiency (Amentia), 7th ed. (New York: William Wood, 1977), p. 491 as cited by Elks, pp. 203-204.

10. W. Duncan McKim, Heredity and Human Progress (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1900), pp. 120, 168 as cited by Mark H. Haller, Eugenics: Hereditarian Attitudes in American Thought (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1963), p. 42. McKim, pp. 192-193, as cited by Russell Hollander, "Euthanasia and Mental Retardation: Suggesting the Unthinkable," Mental Retardation Vol. 27 No. 2 (April 1989), p. 58.

11. A. Johnson, "Report of Committee on Colonies for Segregation of Defectives," Proceedings of the National Conference on Charities and Corrections 1903 (Fred J. Heer, 1903), p. 249 as cited by Hollander, pp. 58-59. E.R. Johnstone, "President's Address," Journal of Psycho-Asthenics, Vol. 8 (1904), pp. 65-70 as cited by Hollander, pp. 55, 58. Haller, p. 207 f. 5.

12. Milroy, "Discussion and Minutes," Journal of Psycho-Asthenics, Vol. 10 (1906), p. 224 as cited by Hollander, p. 58. Rentoul, p. 178.

13. E.B. Sherlock, The Feeble-minded: A Guide to Study and Practice (New York: Macmillan, 1911), p. 267 as cited by Elks, p. 202.

14. Henry H. Goddard, The Kallikak Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feebie-Mindedness (Vineland, New Jersey: 1913), pp. 101, 105, 106-108.

15. Harry H. Laughlin, secretary, Bulletin No. 10A: The Report of the Committee to Study and to Report on the Best Practical Means of Cutting Off the Defective Germ-Plasm in the American Population (Cold Spring Harbor: Cold Spring Harbor, 1914), pp. 46, 55: CSH.

16. William J. Robinson, Eugenics, Marriage, and Birth Control (New York: The Critic and Guide Company, 1917), p. 74. Margaret Sanger, The Pivot of Civilization (New York: Brentano's, 1922), pp. 100-101.

17. Proceedings of the First National Conference on Race Betterment, (Race Betterment Foundation, 1914), pp. 502, 503.

18. Paul Popenoe and Roswell Hill Johnson, Applied Eugenics (New York: Macmillan, 1918), p. 184.

19. Eugenics Record Office, Official Record of the Gift of the Eugenics Record Office, Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, New York by Mrs. E.H. Harriman to the Carnegie Institution of Washington and of its Acceptance by the Institution (Cold Spring Harbor, New York: Eugenics Record Office, 1918), p. 33: CSH. "American Eugenical Society, Inc.: B. Early History and Development," Organized Eugenics, January 1931, pp. 3-4, 7. Madison Grant, The Passing of the Great Race (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1936), p. 49.

20. Martin S. Pernick, The Black Stork: Eugenics and the Death of "Defective" Babies in American Medicine and Motion Pictures Since 1915 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), pp. 3-4. "Jury Clears, Yet Condemns Dr. Haiselden," The Chicago Daily Tribune, 20 November 1915.

21. "Jury Clears, Yet Condemns Dr. Haiselden."

22. "Jury Clears, Yet Condemns Dr. Haiselden."

23. Pernick, pp. 9, 10. "Jury Clears, Yet Condemns Dr. Haiselden." Chicago Tribune, 20 December 1915, p. 7 as cited by Pernick, p. 41. Chicago American, 3 December 1915, p. 6 as cited by Pernick, p. 41.

24. "Jury Clears, Yet Condemns Dr. Haiselden."

25. Pernick, p. 5. "Jury Clears, Yet Condemns Dr. Haiselden. "

26. "Jury Clears, Yet Condemns Dr. Haiselden."

27. "Jury Clears, Yet Condemns Dr. Haiselden." New York Times, 18 November 1915 as cited by Pernick, pp. 7-8. New York Times, 24 December 1915 as cited by Pernick, pp. 7-8. Chicago Herald, 23 December 1915, as cited by Pernick, pp.7-8.

28. "Baby Dies; Physician Upheld," Chicago Daily Tribune, 18 November 1915 as cited by Pernick, figure 3. "Was the Doctor Right? Some Independent Opinions," The Independent, 3 January 1916.

29. Chicago Tribune, 20 December 1915, p. 7 as cited by Pernick, p. 41. Chicago American, 3 December 1915, p. 6 as cited by Pernick, p. 41.

30. Pernick, pp. 4, 5, 87. Chicago Herald, 24 July 1917, p. 14 as cited by Pernick, p. 87. New York Times, 13 November 1917, p. 12 as cited by Pernick, p. 87.

3I. "Was the Doctor Right?"

32. Chicago American, 23 November, 1915 through 30 December, 1915, as cited by Pernick, p. 4. Chicago Herald, 27 July, 1916 as cited by Pemick, p. 10. Harry J. Haiselden, "Regarding the Meter Baby of Chicago," Medical Review of Reviews, 23 (Oct 1917), p. 697 as quoted in author's interview with Martin Pernick, 22 December 2002.

33. See Neal Black, Animal Health: A Century of Progress, Chapter 4. See BBC, "Cattle TB Threatens Farmers," 27 June 2002.

34. State of Illinois Board of Administration, Volume II: Biennial Reports of the State Charitable Institutions: October 1, 1914 to September 30, 1916 (State of Illinois, 1917), p. 695. "Superintendent Leonard's Report to Board of Administration, " Institution Quarterly Vol. 7 (1916), pp.117-118.

35. Elks, p. 201. "Regarding the Meter Baby of Chicago," and Chicago Examiner, 25 July 1917, p. 6 as quoted in author's interview with Martin Pernick, 22 December 2002.

36. "The Report of Judge Scully's Committee of Three Woman," Institution Quarterly, Vol. 7 (1916), p. 113. "Superintendent Leonard's Report to Board of Administration," p. 117.

37. Biennial Reports of the State Charitable Institutions: October 1, 1914 to September 30, 1916, pp. 678, 682, 686. Patrick Almond Curtis, "Eugenic Reformers, Cultural Perceptions of Dependent Populations, and the Care of the Feebleminded in Illinois: 1909-1920," (Ph. D. diss., University of Illinois at Chicago, 1983), p. 89. See Paul Popenoe and Roswell Hill Johnson, Applied Eugenics rev. ed. (New York: Macmillan, 1935), pp. 90, 92-93, 94. Eugenics, Genetics and the Family: Volume I: Scientific Papers of the Second International Congress, (Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins Co., 1923), pp. 178-181. "Dr. Albert Govaerts of Belgium," Eugenical News, Vol. VII (1922), p. 64.

38. Charles B. Davenport, Heredity in Relation To Eugenics (New York: Henry Holt & Company, 1911; reprint, New York: Arno Press Inc., 1972), pp. 164-165. Popenoe and Johnson, 1918 as cited by Elks, p. 205.

39. Charles Henderson, "The Relation of Philanthropy to Social Order and Progress," National Conference of Charities and Corrections: Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Annual Session (Cincinnati: May, 1899), p. 4 as cited by Curtis, pp. 53, 55. "Propagation of the Unfit," Institution Quarterly, 1 (May 1910), p. 35 as cited by Curtis, pp. 68-69.

40. Charles B. Davenport, "Presidential Address," A Decade of Progress in Eugenics: Scientific Papers of the Third International Congress of Eugenics (Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins Company, 1934), p. 21.

41. Chicago American, 24 November 1915, p. 2 as cited by Pernick, p. 84.

42. Illinois Department of Human Services, A Brief History of the Lincoln Developmental Center, p. 1. Biennial Reports of the State Charitable Institutions: October 1, 1914 to September 30, 1916, pp. 679, 681, 686. Also see K. Charlie Lakin, "Demographic Studies of Residential Facilities for the Mentally Retarded: A Historical Review of Methodologies & Findings," University of Minnesota Department of Psychoeducational Studies.

43. Harrison L. Harley, "Observations on the Operation of the Illinois Commitment Law for the Feeble-Minded," Institution Quarterly Vol. 8 (1917), p. 97.

44. Biennial Reports of the State Charitable 1nstitutions: October 1, 1914 to September 30, 1916, pp. 682, 686, 687. See Harley, p. 97.

45. Biennial Reports of the State Charitable Institutions: October, 1914 to September 30, 1916, pp. 677, 678, 679, 683. Martin W. Barr, Mental Defectives: Their History, Treatment and Training (Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 1904 reprint New York: Arno Press, 1973), pp. 195-196. "The Municipal Psychopathic Clinic," Eugenical News, Vol. I (1916), p. 55. Harry H. Laughlin, Eugenical Sterilization in the United States (Chicago: Psychopathic Laboratory of the Municipal Court of Chicago, 1922), p. i. "Tenth Annual Business Meeting of the Eugenics Research Association, Cold Spring Harbor, June 10, 1922," Eugenical News, Vol. VII (1922), p. 91. Tredgold, 2d ed., p. 455 as cited by Elks, p. 203.

46. Curtis, pp. 78, 80-81, 148.

47. Testimony of Dr. David Braddock, Boudreau v. Ryan, Northern District of Illinois 00 C 5392 (2001). See K. Charlie Lakin, "Demographic Studies of Residential Facilities for the Mentally Retarded," Developmental Disabilities Project on Residential Services and Community Adjustment Project Report No. 3 (University of Minnesota Department of Psycho educational Studies), circa 1979, pp. 88, 89.

48. Pernick, pp. 144, 151. The Black Stork, dir. Leopold and Theodore Wharton, 1917 as cited by Pernick, Figures 11, 16, 17, 22.

49. Advertisement, "The Black Stork," Chicago Herald, 1 April 1917, p. 7 as cited by Pernick, Figure 7. Advertisement, "The Black Stork," Motography, 14 April 1917, p. 2 as cited by Pernick, Figure 5. Exhibitor's Trade Review, 14 February 1917, p. 850 as cited by Pernick, p. 88.

50. Pernick, pp. 157-158.

51. War Department, "General Orders, No. 62." Nevada State Library and Archives, "An Outline of Capital Punishment in Nevada," at dmla.clan.lib.nv.us. Florida Corrections Commission, "Execution Methods Used by States: Executions in the U.S. - A Brief History," at http://www.fcc.state.fl.us. Popenoe and Johnson 1918, p. 184. Popenoe and Johnson, rev. ed., p. 135. Davenport, p. 63.

52. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Announcement of Station for Experimental Evolution (Washington: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1905), pp. 2-3: CSH: CIW Administrative Files: Dept. of Genetics- Biological Laboratory Plans for Unified Operation. RAC 1.1/717/10/64 as cited by Paul J. Weindling, "From Philanthropy to International Science Policy: Rockefeller Funding of Biomedical Sciences in Germany 1920-1940," in Nicolass A. Rupke, ed., Science, Politics and the Public Good: Essays in Honor of Margaret Gowing (New York: Macmillan Press, 1988), p. 132. RAC 1.1/717/20/187 as cited by Weindling, p. 132.

53. "A Biological Court: Treating the Cause," Eugenical News Vol. IX (1924), p. 92.

54. See William L. Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1960), pp. 29-31. See Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, trans. Ralph Manheim, (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1943), pp. 394-397, 400-405. Paul J. Weindling, Health, Race and German Politics Between National Unification and Nazism, 1870- 1945 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), pp. 308-310.

55. Elof Axel Carlson, The Unfit: A History of a Bad idea (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2001), p. 323. Benno Muller-Hill, Murderous Science, G R. Fraser, trans. (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press: 1998), p. 121. Erwin Baur, Eugen Fischer, Fritz Lenz, Human Heredity, trans. Eden and Cedar Paul (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1931), pp. 442, 590, 593, 594.

56. Autobiography of Leon F Whitney, unpublished manuscript circa 1973, p. 205: APS Manuscript Collection.

57. Grant, p. 49.

58. Whitney, p. 204, 205.

59. Whitney, p. 205.

CHAPTER FOURTEEN

1. Gustav Boeters, "Die Unfruchtbarmachung der geistig Minderwertigen," Zwickauer Tageblatt Sonderabdruck (Special Edition), n.d.: Bundesarchiv Berlin, R86, Akte 2374, Blatt 5. Gustav Boeters, "Die Unfruchtbarmachung der geistig Minderwertigen," Wissenschaftliche Beilage der Leipziger Lehrerzeitung, Nr. 28 (August 1924): Bundesarchiv Berlin, R86, Akte 2374, Blatt. 214. Robert N. Proctor, Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988), pp. 98, 360. Paul J. Weindling, Health, Race and German Politics Between National Unification and Nazism, 1870-1945 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), pp. 389-393, 450, 471, 526.

2. Weindling, p. 69.

3. Weindling, pp. 75, 76. Fritz Lenz, "Eugenics in Germany," Paul Popenoe, trans., Journal of Heredity Vol. XV No. 5 (May, 1924), pp. 223, 224.

4. "The Richardson Lethal Chamber (patented) for the Painless Extinction of Lower Animal Life," undated pamphlet: UCD Special Collections. Weindling, pp. 69, 77, 123. Lenz, p. 223. Proctor, p. 15.

5. Proctor, pp. 14-16. Letter, Alfred Ploetz to G. Hauptmann, 2 April 1897 as cited by Weindling, p. 127. Letter, Alfred Ploetz to G. Hauptmann, 11 May 1901 as cited by Weindling, p. 128. Letter, Alfred Ploetz to Ernst Rudin as cited by Weindling, p. 128. Weindling, p. 129.

6. Proctor, pp. 17, 20-21. Weindling, pp. 141- 142, Lenz, p. 225. "Eugenicists in Germany in 1946," Eugenical News Vol. XXXI (1946), p. 21.

7. Weindling, p. 394. Elof Axel Carlson, The Unfit: A History of a Bad Idea (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2001), pp. 323-324. Robert Jay Lifton, The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide (New York: Basic Books, 1986), p. 46.

8. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Announcement of Station for Experimental Evolution (Washington: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1905), p. 4: CSH: CIW Administrative Files: Dept. of Genetics- Biological Laboratory Plans for Unified Operation. Letter, Dr. H. Iltis to Charles B. Davenport, 11 October, 1907:APS B:D27. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Eugen Fischer, 15 August 1908:APS B:D27 Fischer. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Eugen Fischer, 9 November 1908: APS B:D27. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Eugen Fischer, 12 January 1909: APS B:D27 Fischer. Letter, Eugen Fischer to Charles B. Davenport, 22 December 1908: APS B:D27.

9. Announcement of Station for Experimental Evolution, p. 4. Davenport to Fischer, 15 August 1908. Weindling, pp. 143, 237. Benno Muller- Hill, Murderous Science, G. R. Fraser, trans. (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press: 1998), pp. 123, 228 f. 167. See Charles B. Davenport, Race Crossing In Jamaica, (Washington: Carnegie Institute of Washington, 1929). See State Laws Limiting Marriage Selection, Eugenics Record Office (Cold Spring Harbor: Cold Spring Harbor, 1913), pp. 31-36. See Charles B. Davenport, "Heredity and Race Eugenics," p. 10:APS: B-D27.

10. Lady Georgina Chambers, "Notes on the Early Days of the 'Eugenics Education Society,'" p. 11: Wellcome SA/EUG/B-11.

11. Weindling, pp. 141-147.

12. Weindling, pp.145, 151.

13. Lenz, pp. 225-226. Weindling, pp. 152-153.

14.The Eugenics Education Society, "Programme," Problems in Eugenics Vol. II: Report of Proceedings of the First International Eugenical Congress (Kingsway, W.C.: Eugenics Education Society, 1913), pp. 2, 3. "History of the International Organisation of Eugenics," memorandum circa November 1923, pp. 1-12: Truman C-2-1:2. Weindling, pp. 152-153.

15. See Geza von Hoffmann, Die Rassenhygiene in den Vereinigten Staaten von Nordamerika (Munich: J.F. Lehmanns Verlag, 1913).

16. Von Hoffmann, p. 14. Lenz, p. 226.

17. Letter, Geza von Hoffmann to Harry H. Laughlin, 27 December 1913: Truman D-5-4:7. Letter, Geza von Hoffmann to Harry H. Laughlin: 26 May 1914: Truman D-5-4:7

18. Letter, Hoffmann to Laughlin, 27 December 1913. Letter, Hoffmann to Laughlin, 26 May 1914.

19. "German Progress in Genetics," Journal of Heredity Vol. V No. 6 (June 1914), p. 243. Dr. von Stradonitz, "Bismarck's Heredity," Journal of Heredity Vol. V No. 6 (June 1914), p. 254. Alfred Ploetz, "The First and Last Child," Journal of Heredity Vol. V No. 6 (June 1914), p. 268. "International Genetics Conference," Journal of Heredity Vol. V No. 7 (July 1914), p. 300. C. Fruwirth, "New Publications: Handbuch der landwirtschaftlichen Pflanzenzuchtung," Journal of Heredity Vol. V No. 7 (July 1914), p. 304. Eugen Fischer, "Racial Hybridization," Journal of Heredity Vol. V No. 10 (October 1914), pp. 465-467.

20. KCET/Los Angeles, The British Broadcasting Corporation, and The Imperial War Museum of London, "Interactive Timeline," The Great War and the Shaping of the 20th Century at http://www.pbs.org. Lenz, p. 226. Weindling, p. 314. See Madison Grant, The Passing of the Great Race (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1936). See letter, Erwin Baur to Charles B. Davenport, 24 November 1920: APS B:D27 - Davenport & Baur. See Deborah E. Lipstadt, Beyond Belief (New York: The Free Press, 1986), pp. 8-9.

21. "Babies- More, Fewer or None," Eugenical News, Vol. II (19l 7), p. 3I.

22. "Interactive Timeline," The Great War and the Shaping of the 20th Century. William L. Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1960), pp. 52-57.

23. Harry H. Laughlin, "National Eugenics in Germany," Eugenics Review, January 1921, reprinted in Harry Laughlin Reprints (Washington, DC: Carnegie Institute of Washington, n.d.). "Eugenical Research Association," Eugenical News, Vol. V (1920), p. 44. "Eugenics Research Association - Eighth Annual Meeting," Eugenical News, Vol. V (1920), p. 52. "National Eugenics in Germany," Eugenical News, Vol. V (1920), pp. 55-56.

24. Letter, Baur to Davenport, 24 November 1920. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Erwin Baur, 16 December 1920: APS B:D27 - Baur, Erwin. "Notes and News," Eugenical News, Vol. VI (1921), p. 8. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Eugen Fischer, 20 May 1921: APS B:D27 - Fischer. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Agnes Bluhm, 30 August 1921:APS B:D27 - Bluhm, Agnes.

25. Shirer, p. 51. U.S. Holocaust Museum, "Blacks During the Holocaust," at http://www.ushmm.org. Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, trans. Ralph Manheim, (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1943), Volume I, Chapter XI, p. 325.

26. Baur to Davenport, 24 November 1920. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Erwin Baur, 30 March 1923: APS B:D27 - Baur, Erwin. "Hygiene Congress Abandoned," Eugenical News Vol. VI (1921), p. 32.

27. Baur to Davenport, 24 November 1920. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Herman Lundborg, 24 October 1921: APS B:D27. "Minutes of the Meetings of the International Commission of Eugenics," memorandum circa 1923: Truman C-2-1:2. Davenport to Bluhm, 30 August 1921. See letter, Agnes Bluhm to Charles B. Davenport, 17 October 1921: APS RD27 - Bluhm, Agnes. See letter, Agnes Bluhm to Charles B. Davenport, 24 November 1921: APS B:D27 - Bluhm, Agnes. See letter, Richard Crane to Charles Evans Hughes, 7 September 1921: A 59/250/22/10/3/5459. See letter, Alvey A. Adee to C. C. Little, 21 September 1921: NA 59/250/22/10/3/5459. See letter, American Minister in Nicaragua to Charles Evans Hughes, 13 June 1921: NA 59/250/22/10/3/5459. See letter, Benjamin Jefferson to Don Mariano Zelaya B., 12 April 1921: NA 59/250/22/10/3/5459. See letter, Mariano Zalaya B. to Benjamin Jefferson, 15 April 1921:NA 59/250/22/10/3/5459. See letter, C.C. Little to the Envoy Extraordinary & Minister Plenipotentiary of the United State of America, 17 March 1921:NA 59/250/22/10/3/5459. Letter, Charles Hartman to Sr. Dr. Dn. N. Clemente Ponce, 7 June 1921: NA 59/250/22/10/3/5459. Letter, Walker Smith to Charles Evans Hughes, 29 June 1921: NA 59/250/22/10/3/5459.

28. Shirer, p. 61. French Diplomatic Archives, "Chronology: 1918-1939: Inter-War Period," at http://www.france.diplomatie.fr. Missouri Western College, "The German Hyperinflation of 1923: A Seventy-Fifth Anniversary Retrospective," at http://www.mwsc.edu.

29. Davenport to Baur, 30 March 1923. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Cora Hodson, 17 December 1925: APS B:D27 - Davenport: International Federation of Eugenic Orgs. See letter, Cora Hodson to Charles B. Davenport, 26 November 1925: APS B:D27 - Davenport: international Federation of Eugenic Orgs. See letter, Cora Hodson to Charles B. Davenport, 30 December 1925: APS B:D27 - Davenport: International Federation of Eugenic Orgs. See letter, Charles B. Davenport to Herman Lundborg, 21 November 1925: APS B:D27 - Davenport: International Federation of Eugenic Orgs. See letter, Herman Lundborg to Leonard Darwin, 8 December 1925:APS B:D27 - Davenport: International Federation of Eugenic Orgs. See letter, Charles B. Davenport to Cora Hodson, 22 January 1926: APS B:D27 - Davenport: International Federation of Eugenic Orgs. See letter, Charles B. Davenport to Herman Lundborg, 21 November 1925: APS B:D27 - Davenport: International Federation of Eugenic Orgs.

30. Davenport to Baur, 30 March 1923.

31. Letter, Fritz Lenz to Charles Davenport, 8 August 1923: APS B:D27 - Lenz, F.

32. Adam Smith [George J.W. Goodman] Paper Money (New York: Summit Books, 1981), pp. 57-62. Robert L. Hetzel, "German Monetary History in the First Half of the Twentieth Century," Economic Quarterly Vol. 88/1 (Winter 2002).

33. Shirer, pp. 68-79. Ian Kershaw, Hitler: 1889- 1936: Hubris (New York: W W. Norton & Company, 1998), p. 240. Muller-Hill, p. 121.

34. Shirer, p. 84. Hitler, Volume I, Chapter XI, pp. 302-327. Hitler, Volume II, Chapter XIV, pp. 654-655.

35. Lifton, p. 31. See Annette Horn, review of Aenne Baeumer-Schleinkofer, Nazi Biology and Schools, at web.uct.ac.za. See University of California, Berkeley Campus, "Biography of Ernst Haeckel (1934-1919)," at http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu.

36. Kershaw, pp. 240, 241-242. Elof Axel Carlson, The Unfit: A History of a Bad Idea (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2001), p. 323. Muller-Hill, pp. 8, 120. Weindling, pp. 330, 397.

37. Letter, Erwin Baur to Charles B. Davenport, 24 November 1920: APS B:D27 - Davenport & Baur.

38. Baur to Davenport, 24 November 1920.

39. Baur to Davenport, 24 November 1920.

40. Baur to Davenport, 24 November 1920. See Harvard University, "Blakeslee, Albert Francis, 1874-1954. Papers of Albert F. Blakeslee, 1912- 1960: A Guide" at oasis.Harvard.edu.

41. Davenport to Baur, 30 March 1923.

42. Lifton, p. 23. Lenz to Davenport, 8 August 1923.

43. Lenz to Davenport, 8 August 1923.

44. Fritz Lenz, Menschichle Auslese und Rassenhygiene, vol. II of Erwin Baur, Eugen Fischer, and Fritz Lenz, Grundriss der menschlichen Erblichkeitslehre und Rassenhygiene (Munich: J.F. Lehmanns Verlag, 1923), p. 147 as cited by Lifton, p. 23.

45. See APS B:D27 - Fisher # 1. See APS B:D27 - Fisher #2. See APS B:D27 - Fisher #3. See APS B:D27 - Fisher #4. See APS B:D27 - Fisher #5. See APS B:D27 - Fisher #6.

46. Erwin Baur, Eugen Fischer, and Fritz Lenz, Menschliche Erblichkeitslehre, vol I. of Baur, Fischer, and Lenz, pp. 299-305. Lenz, Menschliche Auslese und Rassenhygiene, pp. 233-237.

47. Erwin Baur, Eugen Fischer and Fritz Lenz, Human Heredity, 3rd Ed., trans. Eden & Cedar Paul (New York: The MacMillan Company, 1931), pp. 202, 204-206, 208, 311, 390 f. 2, 429 f. 2, 429 f. 3, 628-629, 638, 666-671, 680-681. Lenz, Menschliche Auslese und Rassenhygiene, p. 126.

48. Davenport to Baur, 30 March 1923. "Human Genetics and Eugenics," Eugenical News, Vol. VIII (1923), p. 47. "Human Selection," Eugenical News, Vol. VIII (1923), pp. 96-97. "Heredity and Eugenics: A Review," The Journal of Heredity, Vol. XIV; No. 7 (October 1923), p. 336. "Human Genetics and Eugenics, " Eugenical News, Vol. VIII (1923), p. 47. "Human Selection," Eugenical News, Vol. VIII (1923), pp. 96-97. "A Compendium of Eugenics," Eugenical News, Vol. VII (1922), p. 97.

49. Proctor, pp. 26-27, 203, 344 f. 57, 344 f3 59. Weindling, p. 314. See Madison Grant, Der Untergang der grossen Rasse: Die Rossen als Grundlage der Geschichte Europas (Berlin: J. F. Lehmanns Verlag, 1925). See Von Hoffmann.

50. Weindling, p. 311. Carlson, pp. 323. Muller- Hill, p. 121. Gary D. Stark, Entrepreneurs of Ideology (Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1981), pp. 170, 279.

51. Hitler, Volume I, Chapter X., p. 255.

52. Hitler, Volume II, Chapter II, pp. 403-404.

53. Hitler, Volume II, Chapter II, p. 402. Hitler, Volume II, Chapter II, pp. 404-405.

54. Hitler, Volume I, Chapter XI, p. 285.

55. Grant, p. 16.

56. Hitler, Volume II, Chapter II, pp. 388-389, 390.

57. Grant, p. 17.

58. Hitler, Volume I, Chapter XI, p. 286.

59. Hitler, Volume II, Chapter III, pp. 439-440.

60. Hitler, Volume I, Chapter II, p. 29. Hitler, Volume II, Chapter III, pp. 439-440. Hitler, Volume I, Chapter XI, p. 286.

61. Otto Wagener, Hitler: Memoirs of a Confidant, trans. Henry Ashby Turner (Yale University Press, 1987), pp. 145-146.

62. Richard Breiting, Secret Conversations with Hitler; edit. Edouard Calic, trans. Richard Barry, (New York: The John Day Company, 1968), p. 81.

63. Norman Cameron and R.H. Stevens, trans. Hitler's Table Talk: 1941-1944: His Private Conversations, (New York City: Enigma Books, 2000), pp. 670, 675.

64. Lifton, pp. 46-48. Hitler, Volume II Chapter xv, p. 679.

65. Shirer, pp. 3-5, 170-184. "Delegates Urge Wider Practice of Sterilization," Richmond Times-Dispatch, 16 January 1934.

66. Autobiography of Leon F. Whitney, unpublished manuscript circa 1973, p. 205: APS Manuscript Collection.

67. See APS B:D27 - Davenport - Ernst Rudin. See APS B:D27 - Davenport - Baur, Erwin. See APS B:D27 - Fisher # 1. See APS B:D27 - Fisher #2. See APS B:D27 - Fisher #3. See APS B:D27 - Fisher #4. See APS B:D27 - Fisher #5. See APS B:D27 - Fisher #6. See Universitatsarchiv Munster- Nachlass Verschuer, Nr. 4.

68. Zentralarchiv der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, Potsdam: Reichsinnenministerium l0160, Film 23063 as cited by Muller-Hill, p. 34. See Proctor, p. 106. Stephen Trombley, The Right to Reproduce: A History of Coercive Sterilization (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1988), p. 117.

69. Human Betterment Foundation, "Report to the Board of Directors of the Human Betterment Foundation for the Year Ending February 12, 1936.": Bailey/Howe Library: Perkins Papers.
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Re: War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to

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PART 5 OF 7

CHAPTER FIFTEEN

1. See Notes on the Second Conference," n.p., 27 September 1929: APS B:D27 - Davenport- Gini, Corrado #2. See "The Meeting of the International Federation of Eugenic Organizations," Eugenical News, Vol. XIV (1929), pp. 153-157.

2. "Notes on the Second Conference."

3. "Notes on the Second Conference." "The Meeting of the International Federation of Eugenic Organizations," pp. 154, 156.

4. "Notes on the Second Conference." "The Meeting of the International Federation of Eugenic Organizations," p. 156.

5. "The Meeting of the International Federation of Eugenic Organizations," p. 155.

6. "Notes on the Second Conference." "The Meeting of the International Federation of Eugenic Organizations," pp. 156, 157.

7. See Eugenical News, Vol. VIII (1923).

8. "Eugenical Notes," Eugenical News Vol. VIII (1923), p. 22. "Archiv Fur Rassen Und Gesellschafts-Biologie," Eugenical News Vol. IX (1924), p. 51. "Notes and News," Eugenical News Vol. IX (1924), p. 64. "Archiv Fuer Rassen- U. Gesellschafts-Biologie," Eugenical News Vol. X (1925), p. 31. "Archiv Fuer Rassen- U. Gesellschafts-Biologie," Eugenical News Vol. X (1925), p. 88. "Archiv Fuer Rassen- Und Gesellschafts- Biologie," Eugenical News Vol. X (1925), p. 152. "Archiv Fuer Rassen- U. Gesellschafts-Biologie," Eugenical News Vol. XI (1926), p. 9. "Archiv Fuer Rassen- U. Gesellschafts-Biologie," Eugenical News Vol. XI (1926), p. 41. "Archiv Fuer Rassen- U. Gesellschafts-Biologie," Eugenical News Vol. XI (1926), p. 92. "Archiv Fuer Rassen- U. Gesellschafts-Biologie," Eugenical News Vol. XI (1926), p. 134. "Archiv Fuer Rassen- V. Gesellschafts-Biologie," Eugenical News Vol. XII (1927), p. 31. "Current Periodicals," Eugenical News Vol. XII (1927), p. 64. "Archiv Fuer Rassen- U. Gesellschafts-Biologie," Eugenical News Vol. XII (1927), p. 91. "Archiv Fuer Rassen- U. Gesellschafts-Biologie," Eugenical News Vol. XII (1927), p. 180. "Archiv Fuer Rassen- U. Gesellschafts-Biologie," Eugenical News Vol. XIII (1928), p. 32. "Current Periodicals," Eugenical News Vol. XIII (1928), p. 72. "Current Periodicals," Eugenical News Vol. XIII (1928), p. 104. "Current Periodicals," Eugenical News Vol. XIII (1928), p. 162. "Current Periodicals," Eugenical News Vol. XIV (1929), p. 32. "Current Periodicals," Eugenical News Vol. XIV (1929), p. 48. "Archiv Fuer Rassen- Und Gesellschafts-Biologie," Eugenical News Vol. XIV (1929), p. 88. "Archiv Fuer Rassen- Und Gesellschafts-Biologie," Eugenical News Vol. XIV (1929), p. 126. "Archiv Fur Rassen- Und Gesellschafts-Biologie," Eugenical NtrdJSVol.XV (1930), p. 16. "Archiv Fur Rassen- Und Gesellschafts-Biologie," Eugenical News Vol. XV (1930), p. 88. "Archiv Fur Rassen-u. Gesellschafts-Biologie," Eugenical News Vol.XV (1930), p. 132. "Archiv Fur Rassen- Und Gesellschafts-Biologie," Eugenical News Vol. XVI (1931), p. 184. "Archiv Fur Rassen- Und Gesellschafts-Biologie," Eugenical News Vol. XVII (1932), p. 30.

9. Fritz Lenz, "Eugenics in Germany," trans. Paul Popenoe, Journal of Heredity Vol. XV No.5 (May, 1924), pp. 223-231. "Race Hygiene," Eugenical News, Vol. IX (1924), p. 86.

10. "Berlin (From Our Regular Correspondent)," Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 82, No. 21 (May 1924), pp. 1709, 1710.

11. "Are the Gifted Families in America Maintaining Themselves?" Eugenical News Vol. XI (1926), pp. 2-4.

12. "Anthropology Iconography," Eugenical News Vol. XI (1926), p. 144. Paul). Weindling, Health, Race and German Politics Between National Unification and Nazism, 1870-1945 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), pp. 310-311.

13. "Current Periodicals," Eugenical News Vol. XII (1927), p. 64.

14. "Races of Central Europe," Eugenical News Vol. IX (1924), p. 34. "Archiv Fuer Rassen- Und Gesellschafts-Biologie," Eugenical News Vol. X (1925), p. 152. "Archiv F. Rassen-v. Gesellschafts-Biologie," Eugenical News Vol. XII (1927), p. 180. "Noses and Ears," Eugenical News Vol. XIV (1929), p. 55.

15. Nobel Museum, "The Foundation of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medical Research," at http://www.nobel.se. Nobel Museum, "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1918" at http://www.nobel.se. Nobel Museum, "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1936" at http://www.nobel.se. Nobel Museum, "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1918" at http://www.nobel.se. Nobel Museum, "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921" at http://www.nobel.se. Memorandum, Charles B. Davenport to Cora Hodson, 27 October 1928: APS B:D27 - IFEO 1928 #2.

16. Matthias M. Weber, "Psychiatric Research and Science Policy in Germany. The History of the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Psychiatrie (German Institute for Psychiatric Research) in Munich from 1917 to 1945," History of Psychiatry xi (2000), p. 239. See Paul J. Weindling, "From Philanthropy to International Science Policy: Rockefeller Funding of Biomedical Sciences in Germany 1920-1940," in Nicolaas A. Rupke, ed., Science, Politics and the Public Good: Essays in Honor of Margaret Gowing (New York: Macmillan Press, 1988), p. 131.

17. Angus Rae, "Osler Vindicated: The Ghost of Flexner Laid to Rest," Canadian Medical Association Journal 164 (13) 26 Hune 2001, p. 1860. Weindling, "From Philanthropy to International Science Policy: Rockefeller Funding of Biomedical Sciences in Germany 1920-1940," p. 121. See Flexner, Abraham Medical Education in Europe: A Report o the Carnegie Foundation (1912). See Nancy Rockefeller, "The Flexner Report in Context," at http://www.library.ucsf.edu.

18. See Abraham Flexner, Prostitution in Europe (New York: The Century Company, 1914). Weindling, "From Philanthropy to International Science Policy: Rockefeller Funding of Biomedical Sciences in Germany 1920-1940," pp. 121, 123. Kristie Macrakis, Surviving the Swastika: Scientific Research in Nazi Germany (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), pp. 18-22. Paul J. Weindling, Health, Race and German Politics Between National Unification and Nazism, 1870-1945 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), pp. 324-325.

19. Weindling, "From Philanthropy to International Science Policy," pp. 123, 124-125, 127, 128. Weindling, Health, Race and German Politics Between National Unification and Nazism, 1870-1945, p. 335.

20. Rockefeller Archives, "History," Vol. 15, p. 3794 as cited by Weindling, "From Philanthropy to International Science Policy," pp. 124-125, 127.

21. Weindling, "From Philanthropy to International Science Policy," pp. 126-127. Letter, Fritz Haber to Friedrich Schmidt-Ott, 6 March 1923: BAB R 73, Akte 217 (Notgemeinschaft der deutschen Wissenschaft - now: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft). Letter from E. Uhlenbruch to Friedrich Schmidt-Ott, 22 March 1923: BAB R 73, Akte 217 (Notgemeinschaft der deutschen Wissenschaft-now: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft).

22. "VII. Bericht uber die Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Psychiatrie (Kaiser- Wilhelm-Institut) in Munchen zur Stiftungsratssitzung am 5. Februar 1927," Zeitschrift fur die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, p. 344: BAB R 1501, Akte 126 789, Blatt 148-150. Author's communication with Paul Weindling, 23 January 2003.

23. Weindling, Health, Race and German Politics Between National Unification and Nazism, 1870- 1945, p. 336. Weber, pp. 250, 251. Robert N. Proctor, Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988), p. 112.

24. Matthais M. Weber, Ernst Rudin: Eine Kritische Biographie (Berlin: J. Springer-Verlag, 1993). Proctor, p. 17. Also see Weindling, Health, Race and German Politics Between National Unification and Nazism, 1870-1945, pp. 72, 150, 185-186.

25. Weindling, Health, Race and German Politics Between National Unification and Nazism, 1870- 1945, pp. 384, 385.

26. "The German Genetic Association," Journal of Heredity, Vol. XIII No. 5 (May 1922), p. 200. "Notes and News," Eugenical News Vol. IX (1924), p. 56. "Heredity of Insanity," Eugenical News Vol. IX (1924), p. 83. "The Genealogical Section of the Psychiatric Institute of Munich, " Eugenical News Vol. X (1925), p. 118. "Berlin (From Our Regular Correspondent) " Journal of the American Medical Association Vol. 94 No. 3 (Dec. 1929), p. 201.

27. "Meeting of International Federation of Eugenic Organizations," Eugenical News Vol. XIII (1928), pp. 129, 131. "Membership and Organization of the International Federation of Eugenic Organizations," Eugenical News Vol. XV (1930), p. 168. "The International Federation of Eugenics Organizations," Eugenical News Vol. XVIII (1933), p. 16.

28. "Fifth International Congress of Genetics," Eugenical News Vol. XII (1927), p. 152.

29. "Fifth International Congress of Genetics," p. 152. Weindling, Health, Race and German Politics Between National Unification and Nazism, 1870- 1945, p. 435.

30. "Fifth International Congress of Genetics," p. 150, 152. Fifth International Congress, "Program," p. 4: APS B:D27 - International Congress of Genetics 5th and 6th William E. Seildeman, "Science and Inhumanity: The Kaiser-Wilhelm/Max Planck Society," if Not Now an e-journal Vol. 2 (Winter 2000), at http://www.soec.at. Invitation to Charles B. Davenport from Fifth International Congress of Genetics: APS B:D27 - International Congress of Genetics 5th and 6th. Weindling, Health, Race and German Politics Between National Unification and Nazism, 1870-1945, p. 436.

31. Fifth International Congress of Genetics," pp. 150, 152. Fifth International Congress, "Program," pp. 9-11, 22-23.

32. "Fifth International Congress of Genetics," pp. 150, 152. "Program," pp. 12-19. Fifth International Congress of Genetics, "List of the Papers Announced at the Congress," n.p., n.d., pp. 7-13: APS B:D27 - International Congress of Genetics 5th and 6th Invitation to Charles B. Davenport from Fifth International Congress of Genetics.

33. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Eugen Fischer, 5 October 1926:APS B:D27 - Fischer. "Fifth International Congress of Genetics," p. 152. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Hermann Muckermann, 6 October 1928: APS B:D27 - Davenport - Muckermann, Dr. H. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Eugen Fischer, 3 October, 1928 and attached letter, Charles B. Davenport to Eugen Fischer: APS B:D27 - IFEO 1928 #2. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Eugen Fischer, 4 December 1928: APS B:D27 - Fischer.

34. Hans-Walter Schmuhl, Hirnforschung und Krankenmord, Das Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut fur Hirnforschung 1937-1945, (Berlin: 2000). "Cecile and Oskar Vogt: On the Occasion of her 75th and his 80th Birthday," Neurology Vol. No. 3 (May-June 1951), pp. 183, 184. Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, "History" at http://www.mdc-berlin.de. Tage Kemp, "To The Rockefeller Foundation: Report of visits to various Institutes, Laboratories etc. for Human Genetics in Europe." (July-October 1934), pp. 59-60: RF 1.2/713/2/16. Letter, Norma S. Thompson to Adolf von Harnack, 24 May 1929: RF 1.1 717 10 64. Letter, George H. Beal to Adolf von Harnack, 4 June 1929: RF 1.1 717 10 64. Review of recommendation on the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain Research, 22 May 1929: RF 1.1 717 10 64. Review of appropriations to the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain Research, 9 May 1932: RF 1.1 717 10 64.

35. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Wickliffe Draper, 23 February 1926: APS B:D27 - Davenport - W P. Draper # 1. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Wickliffe Draper, 15 March 1926: APS B:D 27 - WP. Draper #1.

36. Davenport to Draper, 23 February 1926. Davenport to Draper, 15 March 1926. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Cora Hodson, 18 March 1926: APS B:D27 - Davenport: Int'l Fed of Eugenic Orgs.

37. Charles B. Davenport and Morris Steggerda, Race Crossing in Jamaica (Washington: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1929), pp. 3, 4, 9.

38. See Edwin Black, IBM and the Holocaust (New York: Crown Publishers, 2001), Chapter II.

39. Generally see Black, especially Chapters II, III, IV and V.

40. Hermann Kruger, "Das Hollerith-Lochkarten- Verfahren im Fursorgewesen," Hollerith Nachrichten 47 (March 1935), pp. 615, 618. "Secret Report: PW Intelligence Bulletin No. 2/57," April 25, 1945, p. 1: CSDIC. Davenport and Steggerda, p. 4. See Black, Chapter II. See "Report of the Advisory Committee on the Eugenics Record Office," circa 1935: Truman C-2-2:2.

41. "List of data for Columns of Hollerith Cards, " memorandum circa 1926: APS B:D27 - Davenport - Draper Fund for Race Crossing #2. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Morris Steggerda, 8 April 1927: APS B:D27 - April #3 Davenport - Steggerda.

42. Generally see Black, especially Chapters IV, V, VII and VIII.

43. See Davenport and Steggerda. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Eugen Fischer, 17 February 1927: APS B:D27 - Fischer. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Cora Hodson, 23 February 1927: APS B:D27 -Davenport: Int'l Federation of Eugenic Orgs. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Hermann Lundborg, 17 May 1928: APS B:D27.

44. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Henry L. Bolley, 14 November 1928: APS B:D27 - Committee on Race Crossing. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Bennet Allen, 14 November 1928: APS B:D27 - Committee on Race Crossing. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Trevor Kincaid, 14November 1928: APS B:D27 - IFEO Committee on Race Crossing #3. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to W.E. Bryan, 14 November 1928: APS B:D27 - Committee on Race Crossing. Letter, J.P. Anderson to Charles B. Davenport, 20 March 1929: APS B:D27 - Committee on Race Crossing. Letter, Raymond Bellamy to Charles B. Davenport, 17 January 1928: APS B:D27 - Committee on Race Crossing.

45. Letter, Bellamy to Davenport, 17 January 1928. Letter, W.E. Bryan to Charles B. Davenport, 10 January 1929:APS B:D27 - Committee on Race Crossing. Letter, J.5. Blitch to Charles B. Davenport, 10 January 1929: APS B:D27 - Committee on Race Crossing. Letter, B.M. Allen to Charles B. Davenport, 5 December 1929: APS B:D27 - Committee on Race Crossing. Letter, Henry Bolley to Charles B. Davenport, 21 November 1928: APS B:D27 - Committee on Race Crossing.

46. "Form Letter" circa February 1929: APS B:D27 - IFEO Committee on Race Crossing #3. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to E.A. Arce, 28 February 1929: APS B:D27 - IFEO Committee on Race Crossing #3.

47. Letter, Halfdan Bryn to Charles B. Davenport, 4 April 1929: APS B:D27 - IFEO Committee on Race Crossing #3. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Halfdan Bryn, 19 April 1929: APS B:D27 - IFEO Committee on Race Crossing #3. Letter, V. Bunak to Charles B. Davenport, 20 March 1929: APS B:D27 - IFEO Committee on Race Crossing #3. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to V. Bunak, 18 April 1929: APS B:D27 - IFEO Committee on Race Crossing #3. Letter, G. Arnold to Charles B. Davenport, 4 April 1929:APS B:D27 - IFEO Committee on Race Crossing #3. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to G. Arnold, 10 May 1929:APS RD27 - IFEO Committee on Race Crossing #3. Letter, A. de Assis to Charles B. Davenport, 28 March 1929: APS B:D27 - IFEO Committee on Race Crossing #3. Letter, Davidson Black to Charles B. Davenport, 1 April 1927: APS B:D27 - IFEO Committee on Race Crossing #3. Letter, H.J. V. Bijlmer to Charles B. Davenport, 24 April 1929: APS B:D27 - IFEO Committee on Race Crossing #3. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to H.J. V. Bijlmer, 27 June 1929: APS B:D27 - IFEO Committee on Race Crossing #3. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to F. W. Caine, 8 July 1929: APS B:D27 - IFEO Committee on Race Crossing #3. Letter, E. Lucas Bridges to Charles B. Davenport, 15 May 1929: APS B:D27 - IFEO Committee on Race Crossing #3. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to E. Lucas Bridges, 9 July 1929: APS B:D27 - IFEO Committee on Race Crossing #3. Letter, H. Beroot to Charles B. Davenport, 9 March 1929: APS B:D27 - IFEO Committee on Race Crossing #3.

48. Letter, Prescott Childs to Charles B. Davenport, 30 April 1929: APS B:D27 -IFEO Committee on Race Crossing #3. Letter, C.C. Hanson to Charles B. Davenport, 8 May 1929: APS B:D27 - IFEO Committee on Race Crossing #3. Letter, Charles H. Albrecht, 14 May 1929: APS RD27 - IFEO Committee on Race Crossing #3. Letter, Harry E. Carlson to Charles B. Davenport, 29 May 1929: APS B:D27 - IFEO Committee on Race Crossing #3. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to the American Consul in Magallanes, Chile: APS B:D27 - IFEO Committee on Race Crossing #3. Letter, Lewis V. Boyle to Charles B. Davenport, 2 May 1929: APS B:D27 - IFEO Committee on Race Crossing #3.

49. Letter, Eugen Fischer to Charles B. Davenport, 19 July 1929: APS B:D27 - Fischer. "The Meeting of the International Federation of Eugenic Organizations," p. 156.

50. "The Meeting of the International Federation of Eugenic Organizations," p. 154.

51. "The Meeting of the International Federation of Eugenic Organizations," pp. 155, 157.

52. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Eugen Fischer, 2 December 1929: APS B:D27. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Alfred Ploetz, 1 October 1932: APS B:D27 - Ploetz, Alfred.

53. Letter, Eugen Fischer to Charles B. Davenport, 22 December 1929: APS B:D27. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Eugen Fischer, 3 February 1930. Charles B. Davenport and Eugen Fischer, "Studies on Human Race Crossings," memorandum circa 1930: APS B:D27.

54. Letter, F. Schmidt-Ott to Edmund E. Day, 20 September 1929: RF 1.1 717 20 187.

55. Schmidt-Ott to Day, 20 September 1929.

56. "Progress Report: Grant to Notgemeinschaft for Anthropological Studies of the Population of Germany," 10 June 1933: RF 1.1 717 20 187. "Action RF 29137- Anthropological Investigation of the German People," memorandum of 2 October 1933: RF 1.1 717 20 187. Letter, Norma S. Thompson to Dr. F. Schmidt- Ott, 14 November 1929: RF 1.1 717 20 187. Letter, Edmund E. Day to Dr. F. Schmidt-Ott, 27 November 1929: RF 1.1 717 20 187. Letter, George J. Beal to R. Letort, 6 December 1929: RF 1.1 717 20 187. Letter, R. Letort to George J. Beal, 6 January 1930: RF 1.1 717 20 187. Letter, Dr. F. Schmidt-Ott to Edmund E. Day, 5 September 1929: RF 1.1 717 20 187.

57. "Archiv Fur Rassen-u. Gesellschafts Biologie," Eugenical News, Vol. XV (1930), p. 152. "Jews in West Africa," Eugenical News, Vol. XV (1930), pp. 142-143. "Books on Human Heredity," Eugenical News, Vol. XV (1930), p. 143. Gary D. Stark, Entrepreneurs of Ideology (Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1981), p. 223. "Ninth Meeting of the International Federation of Eugenic Organizations," Eugenical News, Vol. XV (1930), p.162.

58. Ernst Rudin, "Hereditary Transmission of Mental Diseases," Eugeuical News Vol. XV (1930), pp. 171-174.

59. "Hereditary Transmission of Mental Diseases," pp. 172, 174.

60. Memorandum from D.P. O'Brien to Alan Gregg, 10 November 1933: RF 1.1 717 946.

61. "Memo for Officer's Action: Forschungsanstalt fur Psychiatric," memorandum circa December 1933: RF 1.1 717 9 56. Letter, Thomas B. Appleget to Benson Y. Landis, 23 February 1934: RF 1.1 717 9 56. Memorandum, D.P. O'Brien to Alan Gregg, 27 November 1934: RF 1.1 717 9 56. "University of Copenhagen - Institute of Human Genetics," memorandum, June 1939: RF 1.1 Ser 713A Box 2 Folder 15. Letter, Tage Kemp to The Rockefeller Foundation, 17 November 1932: RF 1.2 Ser 713 Box 2 Folder 15.

62. "From HAS' diary: June 4, 1931," inter-office correspondence: RF 1.1 Ser 100 Box 40 Folder 365.

63. Erwin Baur, Eugen Fischer and Fritz Lenz, Human Heredity, 3rd Ed., trans. Eden & Cedar Paul (New York: The MacMillan Company, 1931), pp. 677, 680, 681.

64. "Heredity and Eugenics," Eugenical News Vol. XVI (1931), pp. 220-221.

65. See Kershaw, pp. 336-337.

66. "Hitler and Race Pride," Eugenical News Vol. XVII (1932), pp. 60-61.

67. Radiogram to Alan Gregg, 13 May 1932: RF 1.1 Ser 7171 Box 10 Folder 63. Gerald Jonas, The Circuit Riders (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1989), p. 111.

68. "Eugenics in the service of public welfare: Report of the proceedings of a committee convened by the Prussian State Health Council on 2 July 1932," Veroffentlichungen aus dem Gebiete der Medizinalverwaltung Vol. XXXVIII, part 5, p. 98 as cited by Muller-Hill, p. 30. R.B. Goldschmidt, Im Wandel das Bleibeude: Mein Lebensweg (Hamburg and Berlin, 1963), p. 264 as cited by Muller-Hill, p. 30.

69. A Decade of Progress in Eugenics: Scientific Papers of the Third International Congress of Eugenics (Baltimore: The Williams and Wilkins Company, 1934), pp. i, xi, 17. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Eugen Fischer, 28 January 1932: APS B:D27.

70. K. Holler, "The Nordic Movement in Germany," Eugenical News Vol. XVII (1932), pp. 117, 119,

71. Edwin Black, The Transfer Agreement (Washington: Dialog Press, 1999), p. 3. William L. Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1960), p. 173. See Shirer, pp. 159, 172.

72. Black, The Transfer Agreement, p. 3. Shirer, pp. 4-5,

73. The Newseum, "Holocaust: The Untold Story," at http://www.newseum.org. Generally see Deborah E. Lipstadt, Beyond Belief (New York: The Free Press, 1986). Generally see Black, The Transfer Agreement.

74. Shirer, pp. 196, 430.

75. Black, The Transfer Agreement, pp. 177-185. See "German Sterilization Progress," Eugenical News, Vol. XIX (1934), p. 38. See "Sterilization in Germany," Eugenical News, Vol. XX (1935), p. 13. See "Applied Eugenics in Germany," Eugenical News, Vol. XX (1935), p. 100.

76. Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews (New York: Harper Colophon Books, 1961), p. 45. Shirer, pp. 201-202, 221-224. "Jewish Refugees from Germany," Eugenical News Vol. XIX (1934), p. 44. Yad Vashem: The Holocaust Martyr's and Heroes' Remembrance Authority, "March 22: Dachau camp established," Chronology of the Holocaust 1933-1936 at http://www.yad-vashem.org.il. Also see Black, The Transfer Agreement, pp. 177-179.

77. "Eugenical Sterilization In Germany," Eugenical News Vol. XVIII (1933), pp. 91-93. Weber, p. 251.

78. "Eugenical Sterilization In Germany," p. 91. "Human Sterilization in Germany and the United States," Journal of the American Medical Association Vol. 102 No. 18, p. 1501.

79. "Berlin: From Our Regular Correspondent," Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 103 No. 13 (August 1935), p. 1051. Proctor, p. 103.

80. C.P. Blacker, "Eugenics in Germany," 8 August 1933, pp. 4, 5: Wellcome Box 112.

81. "The New Format," Eugenical News Vol. XVII (1932), p. 16. "Eugenical Sterilization In Germany," pp. 89, 91-93.

82. "Eugenical Sterilization In Germany," p. 90.

83. "Eugenical Sterilization In Germany," p. 90.

84. Ernst Rudin, "Eugenic Sterilization: An Urgent Need," Birth Control Review April 1933, pp. 102, 103-104.

85. "Berlin: From Our Regular Correspondent," Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 101 No. 11 (Sept. 9, 1933), pp. 866-867.

86. "Berlin: From Our Regular Correspondent," Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 100 No. 23 (June 10, 1933), p. 1877.

87. "Race-Culture in Germany," Eugenical News Vol. XVIII (1933), p. 111.

88. Haushaltsplan der Kaiser Wilhelm Instituts fur Anthropologie, (1933): R 36, Akte 1366 Deutscher Gemeindetag. Weindling, Health, Race and German Politics Between National Unification and Nazism, 1870-1945, p. 3 15. Proctor, p. 40

89. Letter, H. J. Muller to Robert A. Lambert, 7 June 1933: RF RG 1.1 Ser 717 Box 10 Folder 64.

90. Muller to Lambert, 7 June 1933.

91. Muller to Lambert, 7 June 1933.

92. Weindling, "From Philanthropy to International Science Policy," p. 132.

93. W.W. Peter, "Germany's Sterilization Program," American Journal of Public Health, No. 3 Vol. 24 (March 1934)

94. "German Children Face Sterilization," New York Times, 5 January 1934: Truman C-2-7:3. "Berlin: From our Regular Correspondent," Journal of the American Medical Association Vol. 103 No. 13 (Sept 1935), p. 1051. Proctor p. 106.

95. "The Eleventh Federation Meeting," Eugenical News Vol. XIX (1934), p. 107. Lipstadt, pp. 13- 15.

96. "Nazis Insist Reich Be 'Race-Minded,''' New York Times, 7 January 1934: Truman C-2-7:3. "Question of Admitting German Refugees Under Bond Studied by Labor Department," New York Times, 20 January 1934:Truman C-2- 7:3. "Catholics Exempt on Sterilization," New York Times, 31 December 1933: Truman C-2- 7:2. "German Children Face Sterilization." "Jewish Immigrants Aided," undated article: Truman C-2-7:3. "11,060 Loans Made to Jews on Farms," New York Times, undated: Truman C-2-7:3.

97. "Nazis Insist Reich Be 'Race-Minded.''' Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Madison Grant, 13 January 1934: Truman D-2-5:5.

98. Wilhelm Frick, "German Population and Race Politics," Eugenical News Vol. XIX (1934), pp. 33-38. "A French View," Eugenical News Vol. XIX (1934), p. 39. "Eugenics in Germany," Eugenical News Vol. XIX (1934), pp. 40-41. "Jewish Refugees from Germany," p. 44.

99. "Notes," Eugenical News, Vol. XIX (1934), p. 60.

100. Carl Hammesfahr, "The Mother of Nations," in "Eugenical Propaganda in Germany," Eugenical News, Vol. XIX (1934), p. 45.

101. Masthead, Eugenical News, Vol. XVIII (1933), p. 14. Masthead, Eugenical News, Vol. XIX (1934), p. 16. Masthead, Eugenical News, Vol. XX (1935), p. 98.

102. "A Letter from Dr. Ploetz," Eugenical News, Vol. XIX (1934), p. 129. "Jewish Physicians in Berlin," Eugenical News, Vol. XIX (1934), p. 126.

103. Letter, Thomas B. Appleget to George K. Strode, 23 February 1938: R 1.1 717 9 56. Letter, Bruce Bliven to the Rockefeller Foundation, 20 December 1933: RF 1.1 717 9 56. Letter, Benson Y. Landis to the Rockefeller Foundation, 20 February 1934: RF 1.1 717 9 56. Letter, Walther Spielmeyer to D.P. O'Brien, 4 November 1933: RF 1,1 717 9 46.

104. Letter, Thomas B. Appleget to Bruce Bliven, 10 January 1934: RF 1.1. 717 9 56. Letter, Thomas B. Appleget to Bruce Bliven, 31 January 1934: RF 1.1 717 9 56.

105. Landis to the Rockefeller Foundation, 20 February 1934.

106. Landis to the Rockefeller Foundation, 20 February 1934. Letter, Thomas B. Appleget to Raymond Fosdick, 7 February 1934: RF 1.1 717 9 56.

107. Appleget to Strode, 23 February 1934. Memorandum, 13 March 1934: RF 1.1 717 9 56. Letter, George K. Strode to Thomas B. Appleget, 6 March 1934: RF 1.1 717 9 56.

108. Memorandum from D.P. O'Brien to Alan Gregg, 12 December 1934: RF 1.1 717 9 56. Memorandum from D.P. O'Brien to Alan Gregg, 27 November 1934: RF 1.1 717 9 56. Letter, Walther Spielmeyer to Alan Gregg, 22 October 1934: RF 1.1 717 9 56.

109. Memorandum, 28 August 1934: RF 1.l 717 13 123. Weindling, ''From Philanthropy to International Science Policy," p. 133.

110. "Archiv Fuer Rassen- Und Gesellschatfs- Biologie," Eugenical News, Vol. XXI (1926), p. 184. Kristie Macrakis, Surviving the Swastika, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 114.

111. J. W. Schotte, "To L.H. La Motte: Confidential Report on Our Dealings with War Ministries of Europe," circa spring 1940, p. 1: NA RG 60. Also see Black, IBM and the Holocaust, Chapter VIII.

112. Memorandum, W.D. Jones to Thomas J. Watson, 10 January 1934: IBM Files. Also see Black, IBM and the Holocaust, pp. 81-84.

113. Denkschrift zur Einweihung der neuen Arbeitsstatte der Deutschen Hollerith Maschinen Gesellschaft m.b.H in Berlin-Lichterfelde, January 8 1934, pp. 39-40: USHMM Library. Also see Black, IBM and the Holocaust, p. 82.

114. Denkschrift zur Einweihung der neuen Arbeitsstatte der Deutschen Hollerith Maschinen Gesellschaft m.b.H in Berlin-Lichterfelde, January 8 1934, pp. 39-40. Also see Black, IBM and the Holocaust, p. 82.

115. Memorandum, Jones to Watson, 10 January 1934. Letter, Thomas J. Watson to Willy Heidinger, 26 February 1934: IBM Files. Also see Black, IBM and the Holocaust, pp. 85-86.

116. Edgar Schultze, "Die verfeinerte Auswertung statistischer Zusammenhange mit Hilfe des Hollerith-Lochkartenverfahrens," Hollerith Nachrichten 40 (August 1934), pp. 505-517. Also see Black, IBM and the Holocaust, p. 92.

117. Hermann Kruger, "Das Hollerith-Lochkarten- Verfahren im Fuhrsorgewesen," Hollerith Nachrichten 47 (March 1935), pp. 615, 618. Also see Black, IBM and the Holocaust, pp. 94-95. Hollerith Nachrichten 45 (January 1935), p. 588. Also see Black, IBM and the Holocaust, p. 95.

118. Friedrich Zahn, "Fortbildung der deutschen Bevolkerungsstatistik durch erbbiologische Bestandsaufnahmen," Allgemeines Statistisches Archiv 27 (1937/38), pp. 194-195. Also see Black, IBM and the Holocaust, p. 96.

119. Hilberg, pp. 46-47.

120. Black, IBM and the Holocaust, pp. 109-111.

121. Hilberg, pp. 46, 48.

122. Generally see Black, IBM and the Holocaust.

123. "Reich Adopts Swastika As Nation's Flag; Hitler's Reply To 'Insult ''' New York Times 16 September 1935.

124. Harry H. Laughlin, "Jewish Studies: Outline of a Plan for the Determination of Jewish Racial Quota-Fulfillments Among Both Institutional and College Jews in the United States," memorandum circa 1924: Truman C-2-4:5.

125. Stefan Kuhl, Die Internationale der Rassisten: Aufstieg und Niedergang der internationalen Bewegung fur Eugenik und Raffenhygiene im zwanzigsten Jahrhundert (Frankfurt/Main: Campus, 1997), p. 138. Letter, Dr. E. Rodenwaldt to Carl Schneider, 11 December 1935: B-1523/5 UH.

126. Letter, Carl Schneider to Dr. Gampp, 10 June 1936: B-1523/6 Universitatarchiv Heidelberg. Letter, Carl Schneider to Harry H. Laughlin, 16 May 1936: Truman E-1-3:8. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Carl Schneider, 11 August 1936: Truman E-1-3:8.

127. Proctor, pp. 188-191. Lifton, pp. 64-66, 71- 75.

128. Shirer, pp. 322-357, 428-455. Eugen Kogon, Theory and Practice of Hell (New York: Berkley Books, 1980), pp. 48-49. Lipstadt, pp. 121-125, 143.

129. Letter, Waldemar Kaempffert to Eugenical News, 15 October 1935: Truman D-2-3:5. Letter, J. H. Landman to Harry H. Laughlin, 13 September 1935: Truman D-2-3:5. Letter, Walter Landauer to Charles B. Davenport, 29 February 1935.

130. See "Berlin: From Our Regular Correspondent," Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 106 (Nov 1936), p. 1582. See "Berlin: From Our Regular Correspondent," Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 113 No. 24 (Nov 1939), p. 2163. See "Berlin: From Our Regular Correspondent," Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 112 No. 19 (April 1939), p. 1981.

131. Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library, "The Raymond Blaine Fosdick Papers," at libweb.princeton.edu. Weindling, "From Philanthropy to International Science Policy," pp. 133, 134, 135. Macrakis, p. 114. Letter, Hans Bauer to Kaiser Wilhelm-Institut Fur Biologie, 18 August 1935: BOA I. Abt., Rep 1A, Nr. 1052/6 (Foreign and International Affairs). Letter, Fritz von Wettstein to the Generalverwaltung der Kaiser Wilhelm- Gesellschaftzur Forderung der Wissenschaften, 10 June 1936: BDA I. Abt., Rep 1A, Nr. 1054/2 (Foreign and International Affairs). Letter, G. Gottschewski to Herr Reichs-und Preussischen Minister fur Wissenschaft, Erziehung und Volksbildung: BDA I. Abt., Rep 1A, Nr. 1054/2 (Foreign and International Affairs). Fritz von Wettstein, "An das Reichsministerium fur Wissenschaft, Erziehung und Volksbildung," 27 July 1938: BDA I.Abt., Rep 1A, Nr. 1061/3 (Foreign and International Affairs).

132. Letter, Raymond Fosdick to Selskar M. Gunn, 6 June 1939: RF 1.1 717 16 150.

133. "U.S. Eugenist Hails Nazi Racial Policy" New York Times, 29 August 1935: Truman D-2-3:5. See Letter, Kaempffert to Eugenical News, 15 October 1935. See Letter, Landman to Laughlin, 13 September 1935.

134. "U.S. Eugenist Hails Nazi Racial Policy." "The German Racial Policy," Eugenical News Vol. XXI (1936), p. 25.

135. C.M. Goethe, "Patriotism and Racial Standards," Eugenical News Vol. XXI (1936), pp. 65-66.

136. Marie E. Kopp, "Sterilization" in American Eugenics: Being the Proceedings at the Annual Meeting and Round Table Conferences of the American Eugenics Society (New York) 7 May 1936, pp. 56, 57, 61, 64. Kopp, "The German Program of Marriage Promotion through State Loan," Eugenical News Vol. XXI (1936), pp. 121-129.

137. Kopp, "Sterilization," p. 65.

138. Harry H. Laughlin, "Eugenics In Germany: Motion Picture Showing How Germany is Presenting and Attacking Her Problems in Applied Eugenics," Eugenical News, Vol. XXII- (1937), pp. 65-66. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Wickliffe Draper, 9 December 1938: Truman D-2-3:14. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Wickliffe Draper, 15 March 1937:Truman D- 2-3: 14. Zeil und Weg Vol. 7 (1937), No. 14, p. 361. See Martin S. Pernick, The Black Stork: Eugenics and the Death of "Defective" Babies in American Medicine and Motion Pictures Since 1915 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), pp. 164-166.

139. Laughlin, p. 66. Pernick, p. 165. 140. Shirer, pp. 430-434. Martin Gilbert, The Holocaust (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1985), pp. 69-70. Weindling, Health, Race and German Politics Between National Unification and Nazism, 1870-1945, pp. 502- 503. Generally see Proctor. Generally see Lifton.

141. Weindling, Health, Race and German Politics Between National Unification and Nazism, 1870- 1945, p. 515. Proctor, pp. 112-114. Zentralarchiv der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, Potsdam: Reichsinnenministerium 10160, Film 23063 as cited by Muller-Hill, p. 34.

142. Muller-Hill, pp. 137-139, 164. Tage U.H. Ellinger, "On the Breeding of Aryans," Journal of Heredity Vol. XXXIII (April 1942), p. 141. Mary Mills, "Propaganda and Children during the Hitler Years," at http://www.nizkor.org. Pernick, p. 165. Proctor, pp. 196-197.

143. Muller-Hill, p. 13.

144. Henry Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide (Chapel Hill, NC: The University of Carolina Press, 1995) pp. 21-22, 81.

145. Stephen Trombley, The Right to Reproduce: A History of Coercive Sterilization (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1988), p. 116. Nancy L. Gallagher, Breeding Better Vermonters (Hanover, NH: University of New England Press, 1999), p. 140.

146. Lifton, pp. 62-79. Proctor, pp. 188-194. Muller-Hill, p. 15.

147. Lothrop Stoddard, Into the Darkness (Newport Beach, CA: Noontide Press, 2000), p. 187.

148. Stoddard, pp. 187-188.

149. Stoddard, p. 189.

150. Stoddard, p. 201, 205.

151. Stoddard, p. xi, 192, 196.

152. Lifton, p. 31.

CHAPTER SIXTEEN

1. Brig. Gen. Eric F. Wood, "Inspection of German Concentration Camp for Political Prisoners Located at Buchenwald on the North Edge of Weimar," report of 16 April 1945: PRO FP 371 151185. Direct examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, U.S. v. Josias Prince Zu Waldeck et. al., Case No. 000-50-9, p. 4220: NA RG 496/451. Direct examination of Rous, U.S. v. Josias Prince Zu Waldeck et. al., p. 1626.

2. Direct examination of Horn, U.S. v. Josias Prince Zu Waldeck et. al., pp. 896-897, 1624- 1626, 1627, 1639, 1640, 1642. Cross-examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, U.S. v. Josias Prince Zu Waldeck et. al., p. 4366. Testimony of Karl Hemrick Victor Berthold, 17 January 1947, p. 16:NA RG 496/290/59/14/1-5 Box #444. Physical measurements of defendants: NA RG 496/290/59/14/1-5 Box #442. Wood, p. 2. Direct examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4216-4217.

3. Eugen Kogon, The Theory and Practice of Hell (New York: Berkley Books, 1980), p. 210. Direct examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4224-4225, 4243-4245, 4261-4262, 4291. Cross-examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4344, 4383. Testimony of Berthold, pp. 16-17. Statement of Walter Hummelsheim, p. 2: NA RG 496/290/59/14/1-5 Box #444

4. Direct examination of Rous, pp. 1625-1627. Cross-examination of Rous, U.S. v. Josias Prince Zu Waldeck et. al., pp. 1640-1643. See Wood, p. 2.

5. Direct examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4241, 4295, 4300. Re-direct examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, U.S. v. Josias Prince Zu Waldeck et. al., p. 4386. Wood, p. 2. Cross-examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, p. 4366. See photograph of Edwin Katzen-Ellenbogen: NA RG 496/290/59114/1-5 Box #434. Direct examination of Siebeneichler, U.S. v. Josias Prince Zu Waldeck et. al., pp. 2320-2321. Direct examination of Challe, U.S. v. Josias Prince Zu Waldeck et. al., pp. 438-439. Statement of Edwin Katzen-Ellenbogen, U.S. v. Josias Prince Zu Waldeck et. al., p. 440 1. Memorandum, Leon Alexander to A.H. Rosenfeld, Jr., 28January 1947: NA RG 496/290/59114/1-5 Box #444. Statement, Edwin Katzen-Ellenbogen to the 7708 War Crime Group, 13 April 1948: NA RG 496/457. "Buchenwald Doctor Lists Atrocities," Stan and Stripes, 15 May 1947: NA RG 496/290/59114/1-5 Box 445.

6. Ben A. Smith, "Review of the War Crimes Section, Military Affairs Branch, Judge Advocate Division, Headquarters, European Command, ATO 403, U.S. Army," Report of 31 July 1950, pp. 1, 2, 6: NA RG 496/290/59/14/5- 7 Box #457. "The Guilty," Life Magazine, 25 August 1947. Sentences, Us. v. Josias Prince Zu Waldeck et. al., p. 5713. Letter, "Owner of a copy of Bourgemeister Madonna" to Edwin Katzen-Ellenbogen, 31 August 1947:NA RG 496/457. Letter, Evelyn Kranz to "Edwin Katzen-Ellenbogen," 15 August 1947: NA RG 496/457. Letter, Olga Pilar to the High Military Court at Dachau, 20 September 1947: NA RG 496/457. Letter, Mieczyslaw Lurczynski to Board of Review, 20 April 1948: NA RG 496/457. Signed testimonial of A. Simonart, 15 March 1950:NA RG 496/457. Letter, W. R. Graham to Board of Review, 5 April 1950: NA RG 496/457.

7. Eugenics Research Association, Active Membership Accession List (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Eugenics Research Association, 1922): Truman, ERA Membership Records. Direct examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4198- 4199.

8. American Men of Science. (New York: Bowker, 1910 edition), s.v. "KatzenEllenbogen." Letter, Graham to Board of Review, 5 April 1950. Commonwealth of Massachusetts, "Record of Marriage," 30 March 1939: NA RG 496/457. Direct testimony of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4193-4194. The Jewish Encyclopedia, s.v. "Katzenellenbogen."

9. H. Hoefle, "Medical Report on Katzenellenbogen, Edwin," 30 January 1950, p. 2: NA RG 496/457. American Men of Science. Direct examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4194-4197. "Record of Marriage." Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts, "Edward Peter Pierce: A Memorial," at http://www.massreports.com. Sworn deposition of "Dr. Edwin Marie Katzen- Ellenbogen": NA RG 496/290/59114/1-5 Box #435.

10. Direct testimony of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4197-4199. Edwin Katzen-Ellenbogen, "The Detection of a Case of Simulation of Insanity By Means of Association Tests," Journal of Abnormal Psychology Vol. VI (1911), p. 19. See Massachusetts Department of Correction, "People Executed by Electrocution in Massachusetts," at http://www.state.ma.us.

11. Direct testimony of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4198-4199. "A Critical Essay on Mental Tests in Their Relation to Epilepsy," Epilepsia Vol. 4 (1913), pp. 130, 140. Edwin Katzen- Ellenbogen, "The Mental Efficiency in Epileptics," Epilepsia Vol. 3 (Dec 1912), p. 504.

12. Direct examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4198-4199.

13. Direct examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4199, 4200. Edwin Katzen-Ellenbogen, "A Critical Essay on Mental Tests in Their Relation to Epilepsy," p. 130. Active Membership Accession List.

14. Direct examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, p. 4200. Letter, Pilat to the High American Military Court, 20 September 1947. Letter, Olga Heide-Pilat to General Handy, 7 August 1951: NA RG 496/457. Letter, "Edwin Katzen Ellenbogen" to the Prison Director of Landsberg, 7 January 1950: NA RG 496/457. Letter, "Owner of the Bourgemeister Madonna" to Katzen-Ellenbogen, 31 August 1947: NA RG 496/457.

15. Letter, "Owner of a copy of Bourgemeister Madonna" to Katzen-Ellenbogen, 31 August 1947. Letter, Krantz to "Katzenellenbogen, " 15 August 1947.

16. Letter, Pilat to "The High American Military Court," 20 September 1947. Deposition of Edwin Katzen-Ellenbogen, 13 April 1948, p. 3. Letter, Olga Pilat to the Chief Commander of EUCOM, 5 June 1951:NA RG 496/457. Affadavit, Axel and Jan Helge Heide, 20 February 1950:NA RG 496/457.

17. Direct examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, p. 4200.

18. Direct examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4200, 4201-4202.

19. Direct examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4203-4205.

20. Direct examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4204, 4205.

21. David A. Hackett, ed. and trans., The Buchenwald Report (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995), pp. 112-115.

22. Kogon, pp. 155, 157, 172. Opening statement of the prosecution, United States of America v. Karl Brandt et al. at http://www.ess.uwe.ac.uk. Testimony of M. Dubost, "The Trial of German Major War Criminals, Forty-Fifth Day: Tuesday 29th January 1946," at http://www.nizkor.org. The Buchenwald Report, p. 79. Buchenwald Camp: The Report of a Parliamentary Delegation, April 1945, p. 6: NA RG 496/290/59/14/1-5 Box #440. Kogon, p. 172.

23. "Statement by a Jewish-Christian Prisoner, " p. 5: PRO FO 371/21757. Buchenwald Camp: The Report of a Parliamentary Delegation, p. 6. "Buchenwald Atrocities," at http://www.scrapbookpages. com. The Buchenwald Report, pp. 238-239. See Johannes Tuchel, Die Inspektion der Konzentrations-Lager: Das System des Terrors: 1938-1945, p. 100.

24. The Buchenwald Report, p. 113. Wood, pp. 2, 3, 4. Buchenwald Camp: The Report of a Parliamentary Delegation, p. 6. "George Vanier: Canadian diplomat reports his experience," 27 April 1945 at http://www.nizkor.org. "The Trial of German Major War Criminals, Forty-Fifth Day: Tuesday 29th January 1946." Cross-examination of Biermann, U.S. v. Josias Prince Zu Waldeck et. al., p. 549. Cross-examination of Wilhelm, U.S. v. Josias Prince Zu Waldeck et. al., p. 4447. Memorandum to Commanding General, Third U.S. Army, 25 May 1945 at http://www.nizkor.org. Direct examination of Sitte, U.S. v. Josias Prince Zu Waldeck et. al., pp. 365- 366.

25. Nuremberg Military Tribunal Volume V; p. 973.

26. Buchenwald Camp: The Report of a Parliamentary Delegation, p. 7.

27. PW Intelligence Bulletin No. 2/20 December 1944 at http://www.lib.uconn.edu/DoddCenter. Deposition of Isaak Egon Oschshorn, 5 September 1945 at http://www.lib.uconn.edu/DoddCenter. Direct examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, p. 4206. Deposition of Erich Kather, 9 May 1947: A RG 496/290/59/14/1-5 Box #435. Direct examination of Horn, pp. 905-906. Direct examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, p. 4284, 4294-4296. Direct examination of Siebeneichler, pp. 2318-2319. Cross-examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, p. 4371. Photograph of Katzen-Ellenbogen.

28. Direct examination of Horn, pp. 898-899. Direct examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4207-4210, 4214, 423 7-4238, 4244. Affidavit of August Bender, 3 April 1948: NA RG 496/457. Affidavit of August Bender, 20 February 1950: NA RG 496/290/59/14/5-7 Box # 457.

29. Direct examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4209, 4214, 4241, 4244, 4245. Cross-examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4371, 4386. Direct examination of Siebenichler, p. 2320. Statement of Hummelsheim, p. 2. Direct examination of Horn, p. 912. Testimony of Berthold, p.17.

30. Direct examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4238-4239.

31. Direct examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4238-4239.

32. Direct examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4240-4241. The Buchenwald Report, p. 42.

33. Direct examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, p. 4239.

34. Direct examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4225, 4226, 4273-4275. Statement of Hummelsheim, p. 2. Direct examination of Horn, pp. 897 -898, 907-911. Cross-examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, p. 4355. Smith, p. 2. Recross examination of Kogon, US. v. Josias Prince Zu Waldeck et. al., p. 946.

35. Cross-examination of Kogon, U.S. v. Josias Prince Zu Waldeck et. al., p. 939. Redirect examination of Horn, U.S. v. Josias Prince Zu Waldeck et. al., p. 915.

36. Direct examination of Edwin Katzen- Ellenbogen, p. 4223.

37. Direct examination of Challe, p. 438. Cross- examination of Challe, U.S. v. Josias Prince Zu Waldeck et. al., p. 439.

38. Smith, p. 3.

39. Cross-examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4361-4632.

40. Jens-Christian Wagner, Das KZ Mittelbau-Dora (Wallstein Verlag, 2001) p. 53. United States Holocaust Museum, "Dora-Mittelbau," at http://www.ushmm.org. The Buchenwald Report, pp. 219-220.

41. Cross-examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4340-4341, 4342-4343.

42. Cross-examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, p. 4343.

43. Statement of Hummelsheim, p. 2. Direct examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4278-4281.

44. Kogon, pp. ix, x. Opening statement of the prosecution, United States of America v. Karl Brandt et al. Re-direct examination of Kogon, U.S. v. Josias Prince Zu Waldeck et. al., p. 948. Generally see Eugen Kogon et. al., Terror undd Gewaltkriminalitat: Herausforderung fur den Rechtsstaat: Diskussionsprotokoll Reihe Hessen-forum. Generally see Eugen Kogon, Die Stunde der Ingenieure: technolog. Intelligenz u. Politik.

45. Direct testimony of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4232, 4300. Kogon, The Theory and Practice of Hell, pp. 229-230. "Extracts from the Affidavit of Waldemar Hoven 24 October 1946, Concerning the Killing of Inmates by Phenol and Other Means," at http://www.mazal.org. Cross-examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4344-4345, 4352. Re-direct of Katzen-Ellebogen, p. 4387. Statement of Katzen-Ellenbogen, p. 4397.

46. Direct examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, p. 4245. Cross-examination of Katzen- Ellenbogen, pp. 4344-4345, 4352. The Buchenwald, pp. 225, 319-320.

47. Cross-examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, p. 4352.

48. Cross-examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4352-4353.

49. Robert Jay Lifton, The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide (New York: Basic Books, 1986), p. 362. Author's communication with Dr. Harry Stein.

50. Direct examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4228, 4243-4244. Author's interview with Dr. Harry Stein, 20 January 2003.

51. Letter, Andre Simonart to Edwin Katzen- Ellenbogen, 2 May 1948: NA RG 496/457. Letter, Andre Simonart to Edwin Katzen- Ellenbogen, 18 May 1947: NA RG 496/290/59/14/1-5 Box #434. Affidavit of August Bender, 20 February 1950. Direct examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, p. 4214. Direct examination of Siebeneichler, pp. 2323-2324. Statement of Edwin Katzen-Ellenbogen, p. 4401. List of exhibits for Katzen-Ellenbogen trial: NA RG 496/290/59/14/1-5 Box #439. Direct examination of Horn, p. 900.

52. Direct examination of Sitte, p. 363. Author's interview with Dr. Harry Stein. "RuSHA Case: Introduction," at http://www.mazal.org. Direction examination of Horn, p. 897. See "A. Forced Germanization of Enemy Nationals," at http://www.mazal.org.

53. Direct examination of Horn, p. 897.

54. Direct examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, p. 4271.

55. Cross-examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, p. 4328.

56. Direct examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, p. 4302.

57. Redirect of Kogon, p. 943.

58. Cross-examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, p. 4349.

59. Cross-examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, p. 4373.

60. Cross-examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4373-4374.

61. Cross-examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4393-4394.

62. Cross-examination of Katzen-Ellenbogen, p. 4400.

63. Statement of Katzen-Ellenbogen, pp. 4400- 4401.

64. Smith, p. 1. "The Guilty."

65. Opening statement of the prosecution, U.S. v. Josias Prince Zu Waldeck et. al., p. 43. "Review and Recommendations of the Deputy Judge Advocate for War Crimes," p. 60: NA RG 496/290/59/14/1-5 Box #433.

66. Smith, pp. 1-2.

67. "Appraisal of Petition for Clemency," 25 March 1953: NA RG 496/457. Smith, pp. 2, 3. Statement, Katzen-Ellenbogen to the 7708 War Crime Group. Letter, "Edwin K. Ellenbogen" to the Two Representatives of the Inspector General's Office, 1 November 1949: NA RG 496/457. Letter, "Edwin K. Ellenbogen" to General Thomas T. Handy, 18 February 1950: NA RG 496/457. Letter, "E. K. Ellenbogen" to General Thomas T. Handy, 2 April 1950: NA RG 496/290/59/H/5-7 Box #457. Letter, "Edwin Katzen Ellenbogen" to the Prison Director, 7 January 1950: NA RG 496/457. Letter, "Edwin Katzen Ellenbogen," to Commander-in-Chief, United States Army, Europe, 10 March 1953: NA RG 495/457. Internal Route Slip, Subject Edwin Katzen- Ellenbogen, 25 March 1953: TARG 496/457.
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Re: War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to

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PART 6 OF 7

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN

1. Lucette Matalon Lagnado and Sheila Cohn Dekel, Children of the Flames (New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1991), p. 47. Miklos Nyiszli, Auschwitz: A Doctor's Eyewitness Account (New York: Arcade Publishing, 1993), pp. 17-19.

2. Nyiszli, p. 19. Robert Jay Lifton, The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide (New York: Basic Books, 1986), p. 164.

3. Nyiszli, pp. 19, 52-54. Lifton, p. 166. Rudolf Hoess, Commandant of Auschwitz (New York: Popular Library, 1959), pp. 176-177.

4. Lifton, p. 165 Edwin Black, IBM and the Holocaust (New York: Crown Publishers, 2001), pp.352-353.

5. Generally see Yisrael Gutman and Michael Berenbaum, ed., Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp (Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, (994). See Gerald Reitlinger, The Final Solution (New York: A.S. Barnes & Company, Inc., 1961), pp. 113-117. Also see Hoess, p. 183.

6. Lifton, pp. 169, 269-271, 360-363. Nyiszli, pp. 102, 103, 134-137.

7. Benno Muller-Hill, Murderous Science, G. R. Fraser, trans. (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press: 1998), p. 127. Benno Muller-Hill, "The Blood from Auschwitz and the Silence of the Scholars," History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences Vol. 21 (1999), p. 332.

8. Henry Friedlander, The Origins of Nazi Genocide (Chapel Hill, NC: The University of Carolina Press, 1995), p. 14. Muller-Hill, Murderous Science pp. 216-217. "Notes and News," Eugenical News vol. X (1925), p. 24. Paul J. Weindling, Healtb, Race and German Politics Between National Unification and Nazism, 1870- 1945 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), p. 436.

9. Robert N. Proctor, Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988), pp. 42-43, 81, 188. Black, IBM and the Holocaust (New York: Crown Publishers, 2001), p. 109. "Reich Health Leader," Who's Who in Nazi Germany (London: Wiederfield and Nicols, 1982).

10. Proctor, pp. 104-105.

11. Black, pp. 93-95. "Verschuer's Institute," Eugenical News Vol. XX (1935), pp. 59-60. Posner and Ware, pp. 11-12. Arthur L. Caplan, ed., When Medicine Went Mad (Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 1992), p. 28. Lifton, p. 27. Weindling, pp. 526-530, 553. "Berlin: From Our Regular Correspondent," Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 102 No. 8 (24 February 1934), p. 631. "Berlin: From Our Regular Correspondent," Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 104 No. 22 (1 June 1933), p. 2011. "Berlin: From Our Regular Correspondent," Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 104 No. 23 (8 June 1935), p. 2110. "Berlin: From Our Regular Correspondent," Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 103 No. 13 (30 September 1936), p. 1052.

12. Muller-Hill, Murderous Science, p. 12. Proctor, p. 81. Posner and Ware, p. 11.

13. Proctor, p. 259. Muller-Hill, "The Blood from Auschwitz," pp. 333, 334.

14. "Notes and News," p. 24. "Archiv Fuer Rassen- Und Gesellschafts-Biologie," Eugenical News Vol. XI (1926), p. 9. "Archiv f. Rassen-U. Gesellschafts-Biologie," Eugenical News Vol. XII (1927), p. 180. "Meeting of International Federation of Eugenic Organizations," Eugenical News Vol. XIII (1928), p. 129. See "Archiv Fur Rassen-Und Gesellschafts- Biologie," Eugenical News Vol. XIII (1928), p. 32. See "Current Periodicals," Eugenical News Vol. XIII (1928), p. 162.

15. "Berlin: From our Regular Correspondent," Journal of the American Medical Association Vol. 102 No. 1 (6 January 1934), p. 57. "The Inheritance of Tuberculosis," Journal of Heredity (January 1934), p. 26. "Marriage Consultation Centers in Central Europe," Eugenical News Vol. XIX (1934), p. 78. "Berlin: From our Regular Correspondent," Journal of the American Medical Association Vol. 103 No. 6 (1 September 1934), p. 767. "New German Etymology for Eugenics," Eugeuical News Vol. XIX (1934), p. 125. "German Eugenics, 1934," Eugenical News Vol. XIX (1934), pp. 141-142.

16. "Verschuer's Institute," pp. 59-60.

17. Letter, C.H. Danforth to Otmar von Verschuer, 15 April 1936: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer Nr. 4. Letter, Henry H. Goddard to Otmar von Verschuer, 7 July 1936: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer Nr. 4, Letter, Paul Popenoe to Otmar von Verschuer, 16 July 1936: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer Nr. 4. Letter, E.S. Gosney to Otmar von Verschuer, 24 May 1937: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer Nr. 4. Letter, E.S. Gosney to Otmar von Verschuer, 15 June 1937: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer Nr. 4. Letter, E.S. Gosney to Otmar von Verschuer, 26 June 1937: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer Nr. 4.

18. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Otmar von Verschuer, 16 June 1936: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer Nr. 4. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to Otmar von Verschuer, 23 July 1936: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer Nr. 4.

19. Letter, Otmar von Verschuer to Harry H. Laughlin, 2 September 1936: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer Nr. 4.

20. "Verschuer's Institute of Genetics and Race Hygiene," Eugenical News Vol. XX (1935), p. 104. "Berlin: From Our Regular Correspondent," Journal of the American Medical Association Vol. 103 No. 13 (30 September 1935), pp. 1052-1053. "Berlin: From Our Regular Correspondent," Journal of the American Medical Association Vol. 106 No. 4 (23 January, 1935), p. 308.

21. Proctor, pp. 196-197. "The Hereditary Aspect of Pathology," Eugenical News Vol. XXI (1936), pp. 21-22.

22. Letter, C.M. Goethe to Otmar von Verschuer, 15 April 1937: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer Nr. 4. See letter, CM. Goethe to Otmar von Verschuer, 23 December 1937: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer Nr. 4. See letter, CM. Goethe to Otmar von Verschuer, 26 February 1938: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer Nr. 4. See letter, C.M. Goethe to Otmar von Verschuer, 22 November 1938: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer Nr. 4.

23. Goethe to von Verschuer, 23 December 1937.

24. Goethe to von Verschuer, 26 February 1938. Goethe to von Verschuer, 22 November 1938. Martin Gilbert, The Holocaust (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1985), pp. 64-65.

25. Letter, CH. Danforth to Otmar von Verschuer, 28 February 1939: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer Nr. 4.

26. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Otmar von Verschuer, 15 December 1937: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer Nr. 4. Letter, Otmar von Verschuer to Charles B. Davenport, 5 January 1938: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer Nr. 4.

27. Weindling, pp. 559, 561. Gerald L. Posner and John Ware, Mengele: The Complete Story (New York: Cooper Square Press, 1986), pp. 9, 10-11. Lifton, p. 339.

28. Posner and Ware, pp. 12-13. Muller-Hill, Murderous Science, pp. 38, 128. Also see RG242, RuSHA roll #D5462, beginning Fr. 2892.

29. Posner and Ware, pp. 12-13. Muller-Hill, Murderous Science, pp. 38, 128. Muller-Hill, "The Blood from Auschwitz," pp. 336-337.

30. Muller-Hill, Murderous Science, pp. 128, 163.

31. RuSHA roll #05462. Posner and Ware, p. 14. Lifton, p. 340. Universitats-Institut Erbbiologie und Rassenhygiene, memorandum of 30 September 1938: BAK: R 73 Alete 15342.

32. Letter, rector of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe- Universitat to the Reichsminister fur Wissenschaft, Erziehung und Volksbildung, 17 December 1938: BAK: R 4901 Akte 3016 Blatt 2-6. Letter, Otmar von Verschuer to Reichsminister fur Wissenschaft, Erziehung und Volksbildung, 29 November 1938:BAK R 4901 Akte 3016 Blatt 2-6. Letter, Dr. H. Schade to Reichsminister fur Wissenschaft, Erziehung und Volksbildung, 17 December 1938: BAK: R 4901 Akte 3016 Blatt 2-6. Letter, rector of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitat to the Reichsminister fur Wissenschaft, Erziehung und Volksbildung, 16 December 1938: BAK:R 4901 Akte 3016 Blatt 2-6. Letter, Otmar von Verschuer to the rector of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitat, 8 December 1938: BAK: R 4901 Akte 3016 Blatt 2-6. Report, Reichsminister fur Wissenschaft, Erziehung und Volksbildung, 25 July 1939, pp. 184-187: BAK: R 4901 Akte 3016 Blatt 2-6.

33. Posner and Ware, p. 16. "Universitats-Institut fur Erbbiologie und Rassenhygiene Frankfurt a.M. Gartenstr.140 (Deutschland)," memorandum circa January 1939: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer Nr. 4. "Geburtstagsliste," circa 1940: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer, Nr. 4.

34. Posner and Ware, pp. 14-15, 328 f. 19, 328 f. 20.

35. Posner and Ware, pp. 16-17. Muller-Hill, Murderous Science, p. 226 f. 144.

36. Weindling, pp. 557-558. Gilbert, pp. 154, 176.

37. Muller-Hill, pp. 17, 48-49, 53-54.

38. Weindling, pp. 557-558.

39. Proctor, pp. 43-44. Otmar von Verschuer, Leitfaden der Rassenhygiene (Leipzig, 1941), p. 127 as cited by Proctor, p. 211. Muller-Hill, Murderous Science, p. 226 f 144. "Geburtstagsliste."

40. Muller-Hill, Murderous Science, p. 226 f. 144.

41. "Wanted, Photographs of Twins," Journal of Heredity (Oct. 1918), p. 262. Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed., s.v. "multiple birth."

42. Francis Galton, "The History of Twins, as a Criterion of the Relative Powers of Nature and Nurture," Journal of the Anthropological Institute, (1875), pp. 391, 392-393.

43. '''Probably Mendelian' and 'Clearly Hereditary' traits," lantern slide circa 1921: Truman Lantern Slides, Brown Box 835. Charles B. Davenport, Heredity In Relation To Eugenics (New York: Henry Holt & Company, 1911; reprint, New York: Arno Press Inc., 1972), p. 180. Erwin Baur, Eugen Fischer and Fritz Lenz, Human Heredity, 3rd Ed., trans. Eden & Cedar Paul (New York: The MacMillan Company, 1931), pp. 554-555.

44. "Index," Eugenical News Vol. I (1916), p. 93. "Notes on Genetics," Eugenical News Vol. I (1916), p. 67. "Sex of Twins," Eugenical News Vol. II (1917), p. 5. "Special Data Wanted," Eugenical News Vol. II (1917), p. 54.

45. "Wanted, Photographs of Twins " p. 262. "Six Hundred Twins Already Discovered," Journal of Heredity (May 1919), p. 210.

46. Eugenics Record Office, "Schedule No. 10: Schedule for the Study of Twins," circa 1918: APS Series I: PDR and Correspondence. "A Strain Producing Multiple Births," Journal of Heredity (Nov. 1919), p. 382. "Notes and News," Eugenical News, Vol. VI (1921), p. 32.

47. "The Pendleton Twins," Eugenical News Vol. In (1918), p. 77. "Twins in Russia," Eugenical News Vol. IV (1919), p. 52.

48. "II-2-a Racial differences in twin frequency," undated lecture notes: APS B:D27 Davenport- Twins #4. "Twins in the Census," Eugenical News Vol. IV (1920), p. 16. Charles B. Davenport and Morris Steggerda, Race Crossing in Jamaica (Washington: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1929), pp. 445-452.

49. "Diagnosing Twin Pregnancy With Stethoscope," Eugenical News Vol. VII (1922), p. 48. "Similar Tumors in Twins," Eugenical News Vol. VII (1922), p. 71.

50. "How to Tell Identical Twins," Eugenical News Vol. Xl (1926), p. 41. H.J. Muller, "The Determination of Twin Identity," Journal of Heredity Vol. XVII No. 6 (June 1926), p. 195. Paul Popenoe, "Twins Reared Apart," Journal of Heredity Vol. XIII No. 3 (March 1922), p. 142. See "A New Study of Twins (A Review)," Journal of Heredity Vol. XV No. 4 (April 1924), p. 165. See "Causes of Twinning," Journal of Heredity Vol. XlV No. 8 (November 1923), p. 370. See "Eugenic Studies in Scandinavia," Eugenical News Vol. VIII (1923), p. 52. See "Fact and Fiction," Eugenical News Vol. VIII (1923), p. 71. See "A Father of Twins," Eugenical News Vol. IX (1924), p. 3. See "Parallel Behavior," Eugenical News Vol. X (1925), p. 46.

51. Paul Popenoe and Roswell Hill Johnson, Applied Eugenics rev. ed. (New York: Macmillan, 1935), p. 6. Baur, Fischer, and Lenz, pp. 554- 555, 557, 590-591.

52. R.A. Fisher, "New Data on the Genesis of Twins," in Eugenics, Genetics and the Family: Volume I: Scientific Papers of the Second International Congress of Eugenics (Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins Co., 1923), p. 195. "Booth 2-Physical Anthropometry," Eugenical News Vol. XVII (1932), p. 142.

53. Alfred Gordon, "The Problems of Heredity and Eugenics," Eugenical News Vol. XX (1935), pp. 50, 52-53. "Identical Twins," Eugenical News Vol. XIX (1934), p. 134.

54. Letter, John William Draper to Charles B. Davenport, 30 December 1924: APS B:D27: Davenport - John William Draper #3. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to John William Draper, 9 January 1925: APS B:D27: Davenport - John William Draper #3.

55. "Notes and News, " Eugenical News Vol. XII (1927), p. 164. "Twins With Tuberculosis (Rev. of Diehl and Verschuer, Zwillingstuberkulose)," Journal of Heredity Vol. XXVIII No. 3 (March 1937), pp. 91-96. "On the Inheritance of Darwin's Tubercle," Eugenical News Vol. XX (1935), pp. 3-4. See "Eugenics in Germany," Eugenical News Vol. XIX (1934), p. 42.

56. "Berlin: From Our Regular Correspondent," Journal of the American Medical Association Vol. 106 No. 4 (23 January 1936), p. 308.

57. Weindling, p. 555. "The Hereditary Aspect of Pathology," Eugenical News Vol. XXI (1936), pp. 21-22. "Verschuer's Institute," Eugenical News Vol. XXI (1936), pp. 59-60.

58. Paul Popenoe, "Twins and Criminals," Journal of Heredity Vol. XXVII No. 10 (October 1936), pp. 388-390.

59. "Universitats-Institut fur Erbbiologie und Rassenhygiene Frankfurt a.M. Gartenstr. 140 (Deutschland)."

60. "Bericht uber die im Jahre 1938 bisher durchgefuhrten und fur die nachste Zeit geplanten Forschungen," 30 September 1938: BAK: R 73 Akte 15342.

61. Ziel und Weg Vol. 14, No. 9 (1939), p. 449.

62. Tage U.H. Ellinger, "On the Breeding of Aryans," Journal of Heredity Vol. XXXIII No. 4 (April 1942), p. 141.

63. Ellinger, pp. 141-142.

64. Ziel und Weg Vol. 14, No. 9 (1939), p. 449. "Wehrmachtsauftragsnummer: S 4891-5378," undated report: BAK: R 73 Akte 15342, Blatt 64.

65. Muller-Hill, Murderous Science, p. 76. "Bericht uber die Fortfuhrung der erbpsychologischen Forschung," 14 March 1944: BAK: R 73 Akte 15342, Blatt 66.

66. "Wehrmachtsauftragsnummer: S 4891-5378." Posner and Ware, p.

67. Lagnado and Dekel, p. 47.

68. Lagnado and Dekel, p. 51.

69. Lagnado and Dekel, p. 45.

70. Lagnado and Dekel, p. 47.

71. Lagnado and Dekel, p. 55.

72. Lagnado and Dekel, p. 31.

73. Lagnado and Dekel, p. 36.

74. Posner and Ware, pp. 36, 43. Lagnado and Dekel, p. 42. Nyiszli, p. 60.

75. Nyiszli, pp. 19, 23, 56-58.

76. Nyiszli, pp. 39-40.

77. Nyiszli, pp. 31-32, 58.

78. Posner and Ware, p. 27. Lifton, pp. 164-165, 342-343. Nyiszli, pp. 132-133.

79. Lifton, p. 342. Nyiszli, p. 57. Posner and Ware, pp. 48, 49. Testimony of Vera Alexander at the Jerusalem tribunal of Josef Mengele, February 1985 as cited by Helena Kubica, "The Crimes of Josef Mengele," in Gutman and Berenbaum, p. 324. Lagnado and Dekel, pp. 58-59, 64, 67.

80. Lifton, p. 343. Posner and Ware, p. 45. Gisella Perl, I Was a Doctor in Auschwitz (New York: International Universities Press, 1948), pp. 110-111 as cited by Posner and Ware, pp. 46- 47.

81. Nyiszli, p. 58. Lagnado and Dekel, pp. 66, 70- 71. Posner and Ware, pp. 36-37, 40. Testimony of unnamed survivor at the Jerusalem tribunal of Josef Mengele, February 1985 as cited by Posner and Ware, pp. 37-38.

82. Testimony of Vera Alexander as cited in Gutman and Berenbaum, p. 324.

83. Lifton, p. 351.

84. Nyiszli, pp. 59, 61, 132.

85. Lifton, p. 355. Lagnado and Dekel, p. 61. Gilbert, p. 687.

86. Lifton, p. 360. Nyiszli, pp. 56, 57, 102-103. Hermann Langbein, Menschen in Auschwitz (Vienna: Europaverlag, 1972) as cited by Lifton, p. 362. Lagnado and Dekel, p. 65.

87. Lagnado and Dekel, pp. 59-60.

88. Nyiszli, p. 61.

89. Nyiszli, p. 11. Gilbert, p. 756.

90. "Bericht uber die Fortfuhrung der erbpsychologischen Forschung."

91. Nyiszli, p. 63.

92. Nyiszli, pp. 175-181.

93. Nyiszli, p. 65.

94. "Hereditary Eye Defects," Eugenical News Vol. XVIII (1933), pp. 43-44. See "Twins: Like and Unlike," Eugenical News Vol. XXII (1937), pp. 119-120. See "11. Myopia in Identical Twins," Eugenical News Vol. XXII (1937), p. 64.

95. "Supplement to Schedule for the Study of Twins," attachment to letter, Harry F. Perkins to Harry H. Laughlin, 29 May 1936: Truman D-2-4:2.

96. Weindling, p. 560.

97. Testimony of Jancu Vexler before Judge Horst von Glasenapp, 13 March 1973 as cited by Kubica in Gutman and Berenbaum, p. 326. "Israel Visions of Hell: Pursuing the 'Angel of Death'" Time Magazine, 18 February 1985.

98. Lifton, p. 362.

99. Karin Magnussen, "Bericht uber die Durchrihrung der Arbeiten zur Erforsonung der Erbbedingtheit der Entwicklung der Augenfarbe als Grundlage fur Rassen-und Abstammungsuntersuchungen," 15 March 1944: BAK: R 73 Akte 15342 Blatt 68.

100. Muller-Hill, Murderous Science, pp. 171-172.

101. "Vernehmung: Vorgeladen erscheint Frau Dr. Karin Magnussen, geb. 9.2.08 in Bremen, wohnhaft Bremen, Hagenanerstrasse 7," 25 May 1949: Max Planck Archive Abt. I, Rep. 3, Nr. 26.

102. Also see Major Leonard Darwin, "First Steps Towards Eugenic Reform," Eugenics Review, Vol. 4 (ca, April 1912), pp 34-35 as selected in G. K. Chesterton, Eugenics and Other Evils, edited by and including additional articles selected by Michael W. Perry (Seattle, WA: Inkling Press, 2000), pp 144-145. Also see "Berlin: From Our Regular Correspondent," Journal of the American Medical Association Vol. 104 No. 23 (8 June 1935), p. 2110.

103. Charles B. Davenport, "Research in Eugenics," in Eugenics, Genetics and the Family, p. 25,

104. "Fifth International Congress of Genetics," Eugenical News Vol. XII (1927), p. 152. "Radiogram to Gregg, 13 May 1932: RF 1.1 Ser 7171 Box 10 Folder 63,

105. Tracy B. Kittredge, "Progress Report: Grant to Notgemeinschaft for Anthropological Studies of the Population of Germany," 10 June 1933: RF 1.1 717 20 187. Letter, Norma S. Thompson to Schmidt-Ott, 14 November 1929: RF 1.1 717 20 187.

106. "Genetics: Blood Groups of Twins," Eugenical News Vol. XX (1935), p. 41.

107. Paul J. Weindling, "From Philanthropy to International Science Policy: Rockefeller Funding of Biomedical Sciences in Germany 1920-1940," in Nicolaas A. Rupke, ed., Science, Politics and the Public Good: Essays in Honor of Margaret Gowing (New York: Macmillan Press, 1988), pp. 129, 133, 135. Letter, Raymond B. Fosdick to Selskar M. Gunn, 6 June 1939: RF 1.1 717 16 150.

108. Weindling, Health, Race and German Politics Between National Unification and Nazism, 1870- 1945, pp. 560-561.

109. Muller-Hill, Murderous Science, p. 76, "Wehrmachtsauftragsnummer: S 4891-5378."

110. Unidentified survivor as cited by Posner and Ware, p. 37, Lagnado and Dekel, pp. 62, 66.

111. Lagnado and Dekel, p. 37. Muller-Hill, Murderous Science, p, 128,

112. Posner and Ware, p. 52.

113. Muller-Hill, Murderous Science, p. 169.

114. Muller-Hill, Murderous Science, pp. 169-170,

115. David A. Hackett, ed. and trans., The Buchenwald Report (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995), pp. 72, 369-370.

116. See Joachim C. Fest, The Face of the Third Reich: Portraits of the Nazi Leadership (New York: Pantheon Books, 1970), p. 379 f. 44. See Heinz Hohne, The Order of the Death's Head: The Story of Hitler's SS (New York: Coward-McCann, 1970), p. 157. See author's communication with Harry W. Mazal, 10 February 2003.

117. H. Nachtsheim, "Bericht uber die im Halbjahr 1943/44 im Auftrage des Reichsforschungsrates durchgefuhrten Untersuchungen zur vergleichenden und experimentellen Erbpathologie," 15 March 1944: BAK: R 73, Akte 15342, Blatt 61-63.

118, Nachtsheim, "Bericht."

119. "Wehrmachtsauftragsnummer: SS 4891- 5377," undated report: BAK: R 73, Akte 15342, Blatt 65.

120. Michael Shevell, "Racial Hygiene, Active Euthanasia, and Julius Hallervorden," Neurology 42 (November 1992), pp. 2214, 2216, Michael Shevell, "Reply from the Author," Neurology 43 (July 1993), p. 1453. Peter S. Harper, "Naming of Syndromes and Unethical Activities: The Case of Hallervorden and Spatz," Lancet 348 (1996), p. 1224, Muller-Hill, Murderous Science, p. 244. Jurgen Peiffer, "Neuropathology in the Third Reich," Brain Pathology 1 (1991), p. 127.

12I. Shevell, pp. 2216-2217.

122. Letter, Thomas B. Appleget to Frederick Strauss, 14 Apri11936: RF 1.1 717 9 58. Weindling, "From Philanthropy to International Science Policy," p. 133. Letter, Dr. Telschow to Dr. Hoffmann, 27 July 1938: Max Planck Archive I.Abt., Rep 1A, Nr. 1061/2. Kristie Macrakis, Surviving the Swastika: Scientific Research in Nazi Germany (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), pp. 85-86.

123. "Natural Sciences-Program and Policy: Past Program and Proposed Future Program," pp. 79-80: RF RG 3.1 915 16. Diane B. Paul, "The Rockefeller Foundation and the Origins of Behavior Genetics," in Keith R. Benson, Jane Maienschein and Ronald Rainger, eds., The Expansion of American Biology (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1991), p. 266.

124. "Natural Sciences," p, 80.

125. Lagnado and Dekel, pp. 89, 92.

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN

1. Gerald L. Posner and John Ware, Mengele: The Complete Story (New York: Cooper Square Press, 2000), pp. 57-64, 91, 93, 94. Office of Special Investigations, "United Nations War Crimes List, Number 8" as cited by Posner and Ware, p. 63. "Universitats-Institut fur Erbbiologie und Rassenhygiene Frankfurt a.M, Gartenstr.140 (Deutschland)," memorandum circa January 1939: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer Nr. 4.

2. Otmar von Verschuer, "Bevolkerungs- und Rassenfrage in Europa," Europaischer Wissenschaftsdienst, 1 (1944), pp. 11-14 as cited by Benno Muller-Hill, "The Blood from Auschwitz and the Silence of the Scholars," History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences Vol. 21 (1999), p. 335, Muller-Hill, p. 348.

3. Max Planck Archiv: Nachlass Nachtsheim as cited by Muller-Hill, p. 348.

4. Generally see James P. O'Donnell, The Bunker: The History of the Reich Chancellory Group (New York: Bantam Books, 1978).

5. "Vertriebene Wissenschaft: Deutsche Gelehrte, die ins Ausland gingen," Die Neue Zeitung 15 April 1946. "Kunst und Kultur in Kurze," Die Neue Zeitung 3 May 1946. Muller-Hill, p. 350. Letter, Otmar von Verschuer to Paul Popenoe, 28 August, 1946: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer, Nr.4.

6. "Personalien v. Verschuer": Max Planck Archiv: II Abt. Rep. 0001A as cited by Muller- Hill pp. 350-351.

7. "Personalien v. Verschuer." as cited by Muller- Hill pp. 350-351.

8. "Personalien v. Verschuer." as cited by Muller- Hill p. 351.

9. "Personalien v. Verschuer." as cited by Muller- Hill p. 351. Muller-Hill, p. 351.

10. Letter, Paul Popenoe to Otmar von Verschuer, 25 July 1946: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer, Nr. 4. Letter, Otmar von Verschuer to Paul Popenoe, (sic) 31 September 1946: Universitatsarcruv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer, Nr. 4.

11. Verschuer to Popenoe, 28 August, 1946.

12. Von Verschuer to Popenoe, (sic) 31 September 1946.

13. Letter, Paul Popenoe to Otmar von Verschuer, 7 November 1946: Universiratsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer, Nr. 4. Letter, Fritz Lenz to Otmar von Verschuer, 14 September 1946: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer, Nr. 4.

14. Letter, Paul Popenoe to Otmar von Verschuer, 8 February 1947: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer, Nr. 4. Letter, Otmar von Verschuer to Paul Popenoe, 26 February 1947: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer, Nr. 4. Letter, Paul Popenoe to Otmar von Verschuer, 12 May 1947: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer, Nr. 4. See letter, Otmar von Verschuer to Paul Popenoe, 20 December 1946: Universiratsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer, Nr. 4.

15. Letter, Paul Popenoe to Otmar von Verschuer, 29 October 1947: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer, Nr. 4. Letter, CM. Goethe to Otmar von Verschuer, 16 April 1948: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer, Nr. 4. See letter, Otmar von Verschuer to Lee R. Dice, 18 September 1947: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer, Nr. 4. See letter, Otmar von Verschuer to Lee R. Dice, 12 January 1948: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer, Nr. 4. See letter, Lee R. Dice to Otmar von Verschuer, 27 February 1948: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer, Nr. 4. See letter, Otmar von Verschuer to Lee R. Dice, 21 April 1948: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer, Nr. 4. See letter, Otmar von Verschuer to the "Charles Fremont Dight Institute for the Study of Human Genetics," 12 August 1948: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer, Nr. 4.

16. Muller-Hill, pp. 351-352. Letter, von Lewinski to Heubner 23 December 1946 as cited by Muller-Hill, pp. 351-352. "Abschrift. Denkschrift betreffend Herrn Prof. Dr. med. Otmar Frhr. v. Verschuer, " as cited by Muller- Hill, pp. 352-353.

17. Muller-Hill, p. 355. American Society of Human Genetics,"ASHG Past Presidents, 1948-2004, " at http://www.faseb.org.

18. Muller-Hill, pp. 354-355. Generally see Otmar von Verschuer and E. Kober, Die Frage der erblichen Disposition zum Krebs (Mainz: Verlag der Akademie der Wissenschaft und der Literatur, 1956).

19. Author's interview with Dr. Kurt Hirschhorn, 12 February 2003.

20. "Personalien v. Verschuer." as cited by Muller- Hill p. 351. Muller-Hill, pp. 351, 354, 355.

21. "Universitats-Institut fur Erbbiologie und Rassenhygiene Frankfurt a.M. Gartenstr.140 (Deutschland)," memorandum circa January 1939: Universitatsarchiv Munster: Nachlass Verschuer Nr. 4. Nachlass von Verschuer as cited by Muller-Hill, p. 348. Karin Magnussen, "Bericht uber die Durchrihrung der Arbeiten zur Erforsonung der Erbbedingtheit der Entwicklung der Augenfarbe als Grundlage fur Rassen-und Abstammungsuntersuchungen," 15 March 1944: BAK: R 73 Akte 15342 Blatt 68.

22. "Medical Experiments of the Holocaust and Nazi Medicine," at http://www.remember.org. Peter Tyson, "The Experiments," at http://www.pbs.org.

23. Leo Alexander as quoted by Barry Siegel, "Can Evil Beget Good? Nazi Data: A Dilemma for Science," Los Angeles Times, 30 October 1988.

24. Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Green Book, Volume I, p. 421. Anti-Defamation League, "Library Won't Be Named for Nazi Scientist, Air Force Assures ADL," press release of 14 February 2003.

25. "Library Won't Be Named for Nazi Scientist, Air Force Assures ADL." "Objections lead OSU to remove picture of Nazi," Daily Illini 29 October 1993. Cable News Network, "U.S. News Briefs," 24 September 1995.

26. New Mexico Museum of Space History, "International Space Hall of Fame: Hubertus Strughold," at http://www.spacefame.org. Author's interview with New Mexico Museum of Space History, 13 February 2003.

27. Michael Shevell, "Racial Hygiene, Active Euthanasia, and Julius Hallervorden," Neurology 42 (November 1992), pp. 2214. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, "The First Scientific Workshop of Hallervorden-Spatz Syndrome," at http://www.ninds.nih.gov.

28. Rubin I. Kuzniecky and Bradley K. Evans, "Julius Hallervorden: To the Editor," Neurology 43 (July 1993), p. 1452. Peter S. Harper, "Naming of Syndromes and Unethical Activities: The Case of Hallervorden and Spatz," Lancet 348 (1996), pp. 1224, 1225.

29. NBIA Disorders Association, "Welcome to the NBIA Disorders Association Homepage," at http://www.hssa.org. Author's interview with Patricia Wood, 12 February 2003. NBIA Disorders Association, "NBIA Frequently Asked Questions," at http://www.hssa.org.

30. "The First Scientific Workshop of Hallervorden-Spatz Syndrome." National Institute of Health, "NINDS Hallervorden- Spatz Disease Information Page," at http://www.ninds.nih.gov.

31. "Brain sections to be buried?" Nature Vol. 339 (15 June 1989), p. 498. Wolfgang Neugebauer and Georg Stacher, "Nazi Child 'Euthanasia' in Vienna and the Scientific Exploitation of Its Victims before and after 1945," Digestive Diseases 17 (1999), pp. 282, 283. Dr. William E. Seidelman, "Medicine and Murder in the Third Reich," Dimensions: A Journal of Holocaust Studies Vol. 13 No. 1 (1999).

32. Jurgen Peiffer, "Neuropathology in the Third Reich: Memorial to those Victims of National- Socialist Atrocities in Germany who were Used by Medical Science," Brain Pathology 1 (1991), pp. 125-126.

33. Peiffer, p. 129.

CHAPTER NINETEEN

1. E. Carleton MacDowell, "Charles Benedict Davenport, 1866-1944. A Study of Conflicting Influences," BIOS vol. XVII, no. 1, pp. 4, 8, 33, 34, 36.

2. MacDowell, no. 1, p. 36.

3. Charles B. Davenport, Heredity In Relation To Eugenics (New York: Henry Holt & Company, 1911; reprint, New York: Arno Press Inc., 1972), pp. 253-254.

4. "Personals," Eugenical News Vol. I (1916), p. 65. MacDowell, p. 36. See McGill University, "Symptoms [of Polio]: at sprojects.mmi .mcgill.ca.

5. MacDowell, p. 34. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to W.M. Gilbert, 29 June 1934: CSH: CIW Charles Davenport Corresp. 1933-34. Letter, A.F. Blakeslee to Charles B. Davenport, 5 July 1934: CSH: CIW Charles Davenport Corresp. 1933-34. Letter, Charles B. Daven- port to John C. Merriam, 29 June 1934: CSH: CIW Charles Davenport Corresp. 1933-34.

6. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to A.F. Blakeslee, 19 July 1934: CSH: CIW Charles Davenport Corresp. 1933-34. MacDowell, p. 34. See Charles B. Davenport, "Harry Hamilton Laughlin: 1880-1943," Eugenical News Vol. XXVIII (1943), p. 43.

7. MacDowell, p. 37. See The Whaling Museum Society, Inc., "Second Annual Report," 29 July 1944.

8. MacDowell, p. 37.

9. See C.B. Davenport and A.J. Rosanoff, "Reply to the Criticism of Recent American Work by Dr. Heron of the Galton Laboratory," Eugenics Record Office Bulletin No. 11 (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Eugenics Record Office, 1914). See Ezekiel Cheever, School Issues (Baltimore: Warwick & York, Inc., 1924): CIW Genetics: Eugenics Record Office Misc. Correspondence 2 of 2.

10. Letter, Charles B. Davenport to Harry H. Laughlin, 16 April 1928 as cited by Frances Janet Hassencahl, "Harry H. Laughlin, 'Expert Eugenics Agent' for the House Committee on Immigration and Naturalization, 1921 to 1931." (Ph. D. diss., Case Western Reserve University, 1970), p. 329.

11. Davenport to Laughlin, 16 April 1928, as cited by Hassencahl, p. 329.

12. Hassencahl, pp. 330-331. A.V. Kidder, "Memorandum for Dr. Merriam re Meeting of advisory committee on Eugenics Record Office," circa February 1929: Truman C-2-3:3.

13. Kidder.

14. Contract regarding Eugenical News, 20 November 1938: Truman C-2-3:3. Harry H. Laughlin, "Memoranda on Origin of the Eugenical News and the Relation of the Eugenics Record Office and the Eugenics Research Association in its Publication," 11 September 1934: Truman C-2-2:2.

15. Laughlin, "Memoranda on Origin of the Eugenical News."

16. Laughlin, "Memoranda on Origin of the Eugenical News."

17. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to A.V. Kidder, 30 October 1934: Truman C-2-2:2. Letter, Harry H. Laughlin to A.V. Kidder, 5 November 1934: Truman C-2-2:2.

18. Letter, A.V. Kidder to Harry H. Laughlin, 1 November 1934: Truman C-2-2:2. Letter, A.V. Kidder to Harry H. Laughlin, 3November 1934:Truman C-2-2:2.

19. "Report of the advisory committee on the Eugenics Record Office," circa June 1935, pp. 1, 6-7: Truman C-2-2:2.

20. "Report of the advisory committee," pp. 2, 3.

21. "Report of the advisory committee," pp. 2, 3.

22. "Report of the advisory committee," pp. 3-5, 6.

23. "Report of the advisory committee," p. 6.

24. "Report of the advisory committee," p. 1. Letter, L.C. Dunn to John C. Merriam, 3 July 1935: Truman C-2-2:2.

25. Dunn to Merriam, 3 July 1935.

26. Dunn to Merriam, 3 July 1935.

27. Generally see David S. Wyman, Paper Walls (Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1968). Also see letter, Vannevar Bush to Harry H. Laughlin, 22 March 1939: Truman C- 4-3:1.

28. Harry H. Laughlin, "Eugenics in Germany," Eugenical News Vol. XXII (1937), pp. 65-66. "A New German Eugenical Quarterly," Eugenical News Vol. XXII (1937), p. 88. "The Twenty- Fifth Annual Meeting of the Eugenics Research Association," Eugenical News Vol. XXII (1937), pp. 66-67. "Who Knows the Answer?" Eugenical News Vol. XXII (1937), pp. 48-49. See Martin S. Pernick, The Black Stork: Eugenics and the Death of "Defective" Babies in American Medicine and Motion Pictures Since 1915 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), pp. 164- 166.

29, Martin Gilbert, The Holocaust (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1985), pp. 64-65. Rudolph M. Binder, "Germany's Population Policy," Eugenical News Vol. XXIII (1938), pp. 113-116. Lucy Dawidowicz, The War Against The Jews, 1933-1945 (New York: Bantam Books, 1975), pp. 128-129.

30. Letter, Vannevar Bush to Harry H. Laughlin, 4 January 1939: Truman D-2-3:13. Bush to Laughlin, 22 March 1939.

31. Postcard, William A. Elam to Harry H. Laughlin, 9 July 1939: Truman C-4-3:1.

32. Harry H. Laughlin, Immigration and Conquest: A Report of The Special Committee on Immigration and Naturalization of the Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York (New York: The Special Committee on Immigration and Naturalization of the Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York, 1939), pp. i, 8, 9.

33. Laughlin, Immigration and Conquest, p. 20. "Conquest by Immigration (Sent to the following)," circa 1939: Truman C-4-3:1.

34. Contract regarding Eugenical News, 20, November 1938. Letter, Vannevar Bush to Harry H, Laughlin, 4 May 1939 as cited by Kevles, p. 199. See Eugenical News Vol. XXIII (1938) as compared to Eugenical Nnvs Vol. XXIV (1939). See Carnegie Institution of Washington, "Memorandum Regarding Mail Addressed to the Genetics Record Office (formerly Eugenics Record Office," circa 1940: CSH GRO Correspondence 1940. See letter, Harry H. Laughlin to John B. Trevor, 18 November 1939: Truman C-2-4:10. See "Independence of the Eugenics Record Office," memorandum circa 1940: Truman C-2-4:10, See "Tentative Plan for a Laboratory of National Eugenics at Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island," memorandum circa 1940: Truman C-2-4: 10. See "Private Notes for Senator Walcott on the Eugenics Record Office," memorandum circa 1940: Truman C- 2-4:10.

35. Davenport, "Harry Hamilton Laughlin: 1880- 1943," pp. 42, 43. Hassencahl, p. 356. Truman Library, "Harry H. Laughlin biography," at library, truman.edu.

36. Hassencahl, pp. 65-66. See Daniel J. Kevles, In The Name of Eugenics, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985), p. 199.

37. See Harry H. Laughlin, secretary, Bulletin No. 10A: The Report of the Committee to Study and to Report on the Best Practical Means of Cutting Off the Defective Germ-Plasm in the American Population (Cold Spring Harbor: Cold Spring Harbor, 1914), pp. 12, 13, 16, 17, 18, 25, 45-47.

38. "Memorandum Regarding Mail Addressed to the Genetics Record Office (formerly Eugenics Record Office)."

39. "Memorandum Regarding Mail Addressed to the Genetics Record Office (formerly Eugenics Record Office)." Letter, Elizabeth M. Howe to Charles B. Davenport, 19 February 1940: CSH GRO Correspondence 1940. Letter, Albert F. Blakeslee to Elizabeth M. Howe, 23 February 1940: CSH GRO Correspondence 1940,

40. Letter, Albert F. Blakeslee to H. C. Coryell, 12 March 1940: CSH GRO Correspondence 1940. See letter, Albert F. Blakeslee to Owen Hannant, 2 March 1940: CSH GRO Correspondence 1940. See letter, Albert F. Blakeslee to Mrs. W: D. Dobson, 2 March 1940: CSH GRO Correspondence 1940. See letter, Albert F. Blakeslee to H. Earl Trobaugh, 6 April 1940: CSH GRO Correspondence 1940. See letter, "Secretary to the Director" to Hiram H. Maxim, 30 March 1953: CSH GRO Correspondence 1947-54. See Laughlin to Trevor, 18 November 1939. See "Independence of the Eugenics Record Office."

41. Letter, Jane Arnold Betts to the Eugenics Record Office, 29 February 1944: CSH GRO Correspondence 1942-45. Letter, M. Demerec to Jane Arnold Betts, 7 March 1944: CSH GRO Correspondence 1942-45. See letter, Blakeslee to Hannant, 2 March 1940, See letter, Blakeslee to Dobson, 2 March 1940. See letter, Blakeslee to Trobaugh, 6 April 1940. See letter, M. Demerec to Abraham Sohulman, 29 April 1946: CSH GRO Correspondence 1942-45. See letter, M. Demerec to Mrs. James A. Bruun, 5 May 1953: CSH GRO Correspondence 1947- 54. See letter, "Secretary to the Director" to Mrs. Fred Gillum, 26 January 1954: CSH GRO Correspondence 1947-54. See letter, Agnes C. Fisher to Minnie J. Williams, 24 April 1959: CSH GRO Correspondence 1955-62. See letter, "Secretary to Director" to Donald Clough McCaffree, 4 January 1963: CSH GRO Correspondence 1963-65. See letter, Agnes C. Fisher to Frank Merrick Semans, 6 January 1966:CSH GRO Correspondence 1966-69. See letter, "Secretary to the Director" to Elsie Van Guilder, 12 January 1966: CSH GRO Correspondence 1966-69. See letter, "Secretary to the Director" to Mrs. Merle Roberts, 12 January 1967: CSH GRO Correspondence 1966-69. See letter, "Secretary to the Director" to Mrs. Eugene W. Coling, 28 March 1967: CSH GRO Correspondence 1966-69. See letter, Agnes C. Fisher to Mrs. Harold F. Zink, 3 March 1969: CSH GRO Correspondence 1966-69. See letter, Agnes C. Fisher to Mrs. L. C. Strong, Jr., 3 June 1969: CSH GRO Correspondence 1966-69. See letter, A.D. Hershey to William Hartley, 20 October 1970: CSH GRO Correspondence 1970-77. See letter, Agnes Fisher to E. Taylor Campbell, 14 September 1976: CSH GRO Correspondence 1970-77. See letter, Agnes C. Fisher to Noel C. Stevenson, 2 February 1977: CSH GRO Correspondence 1970-77. See letter, Agnes Fisher to Dr. Sheldon C. Reed, 30 March 1977: CSH GRO Correspondence 1970-77.

42. Letter, L.R. Dice to M. Demerec, 8 May 1947: GRO CSH GRO Correspondence 1947-54. See letter, M. Demerec to Sheldon Reed, 29 September 1947: CSH GRO Correspondence 1947-54. Letter, M. Demerec to Dewey G. Steele, 15July 1955:CSH GRO Correspondence 1955-62.

43. Letter, Demerec to Reed, 29 September 1947.

44. Letter, Sheldon Reed to M. Demerec, 8 October 1947: CSH GRO Correspondence 1947-54. Letter, Sheldon Reed to M. Demerec, 5 December 1947: CSH GRO Correspondence 1947-54.

45. Letter, Sheldon C. Reed to M. Demerec, 19 April 1948:CSH GRO Correspondence 1947- 54. Letter, Sheldon C. Reed to M. Demerec, 22 January 1948: CSH GRO Correspondence 1947-54. Letter, Claude F. Rogers to Russell F. Barnes, 25 June 1948: CSH GRO Correspondence 1947-54. "Secretary to the Director" to Maxim, 30 March 1953. Letter, M. Demerec to John Fall, 11 August 1948: CSH GRO Correspondence 1947-54. Letter, M. Demerec to Dewey G. Steele, 15 July 1955: CSH GRO Correspondence 1955-62.

46. Letter, Mrs. James A. Bruun to the Eugenics Record Office, circa May 1953: CSH GRO Correspondence 1947-54. Letter, Clifford Frazier to the Eugenics Record Office, 19 February 1952: CSH GRO Correspondence 1947-54. Letter, Minnie J. Williams to Eugenics Record Office, 24 March 1959: CSH GRO Correspondence 1955-62. Letter, Elsie Van Guilder to American Breeders' Association Eugenics Section, 9 January 1966: CSH GRO Correspondence 1966-69. Letter, E. Taylor Campbell to Eugenics Record Office, 11 September 1976: CSH GRO Correspondence 1970-77.

47. Also see CSH GRO Correspondence Files.

48. Jonas Robitscher, ed. Eugenic Sterilization (Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1973), p. 123.

49. Letter, Joseph Juhan to Charles Davenport, circa December 1976: CSH GRO Correspondence 1970-77.

50. Letter, Agnes C. Fisher to Joseph Juhan, 13 December 1976: CSH GRO Correspondence 1970-77.

51. "ACLU Says Legal Action Certain," Richmond Times-Dispatch, 6 April 1980. Memorandum, Carol Donovan to Suzanne Lynn and Janet Benshoof, 16 June 1980: American Civil Liberties Union Foundation. "Important Notice to All Persons Who Were Residents of Lynchburg Training School and Hospital," circa 1981: ACLU - Sterilization Settlement. American Civil Liberties Union, "Virginia Apologizes for Forced Sterilizations," at archive.adu.arg. Mark R.Warner, "Statement of Governor Mark R. Warner: On the 75th Anniversary of the Buck v. Bell Decision," at http://www.governor.state.va.us. "Virginia Governor Apologizes for Eugenics Law," USA Today 2 May 2002. "Oregon Apologizes for Sterilizations," Associated Press 2 December 2002. Tim Smith, "Hodges Apologizes for Sterilizations," The Greenville News 8 January 2003. "South Carolina Governor Apologizes for Forced Sterilizations," The Wall Street Journal 9 January 2003. "State Issues Apology for Policy of Sterilization," Los Angeles Times 12 March 2003.

52. North Carolina General Assembly, "Statute Chapter 35: Sterilization Procedures" at http://www.ncga.state.nc.us. See D. Anthony D'Esposo, "Recent Developments in Post- Partum Sterilization," Eugenical News Vol. XXXVI (1951), pp. 59-61. See "Notes and News Relating to Eugenics: Overpopulation in Puerto Rico," Eugenical News Vol. XXVIII (1943), pp. 29-30. See "Notes and News Relating to Eugenics: Puerto Rico's Population Problem," Eugenical News Vol. XXX (1945), pp. 61-62. See "Sterilization Outside the United States," Eugenical News Vol. XXXI (1946), p. 11. Generally see United States General Accounting Office, "Report B-164031 (5)," 27 February 1978.

53. United States General Accounting Office, "Report B-164031 (5): Enclosure I," 27 February 1978.

54. Loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. 1(1967).

55. Loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. I (1967).

56. Loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. I (1967).

57. "Alabama Repeals Century-Old Ban on Interracial Marriages," Cable News Network 8 November 2000.

58. See "Memorandum for Dr. Merriam re Meeting of advisory committee on Eugenics Record Office."

59. Buck v. Bell, 274 U.S. 200 (1927).

60. "Nazi Retribution Widened by Eden," New York Times 18 December 1942. "Allies Describe Outrages on Jews " New York Times 20 December 1942.

61. Hebrew Union College, "An Inventory to the Raphael Lemkin Papers: Biographical Sketch," at http://www.huc.edu. Raphael Lemkin, Axis Rule in Occupied Europe: Analysis, Proposals for Redress (Washington DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1944), pp. xi, xiv, xv.

62. "The Moscow Conference; October 1943," at http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon. "Nuremberg Trials Final Report Appendix D: Control Council Law No. 10," at http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon.

63. Lemkin, Axis Rule in Occupied Europe, pp. xv, 79-95. Raphael Lemkin, "Genocide - A Modern Crime," Free World Vol. 4 (April 1945), pp. 39-43.

64. Rauschning, as cited by Lemkin, Axis Rule in Occupied Europe, Chapter IX, Section II, f. 29.

65. Lemkin, "Genocide - A Modern Crime." "An Inventory to the Raphael Lemkin Papers."

66. "Nuremberg Trial Proceedings Vol. I: London Agreement of August 8th 1945," at http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon. "Trial of German Major War Criminals Nuremberg: First Day: Tuesday, 20th November, 1945 (part 1 of 10)," at http://www.nizkor.org.Jewish Virtual Library, "Hans Frank," at http://www.us-israel.org.Jewish Virtual Library, "Julius Streicher," at http://www.us-israel. org.Jewish Virtual Library, "Hans Fritzche," at http://www.us-israel.org. Mazal Library, "Trials of War Criminals before the Nurnberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. 10," at http://www.mazal.org.

67. United Nations Resolution 95 (I), "Affirmation of the Principles of International Law Recognized by the Charter of the Nurnberg Tribunal.": United Nations Archives. United Nations Resolution 96 (I), "The Crime of Genocide.": United Nations Archives.

68. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide," at http://www.unhchr.ch.

69. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. See Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Green Book, Volume IV, p. 626.

70. Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Green Book, Volume IV, pp. 609-614, 617.

71. Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Green Book, Volume IV, p. 610.

72. Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Green Book, Volume V, pp. 3-4.

73. Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Green Book, Volume IV, pp. 611-612.

74. Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Green Book, Volume IV, pp. 613, 1121-1127.

75. Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Green Book, Volume IV, pp. 675, 680, 681-682, 1101.

76. Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Green Book, Volume IV, p. 682. Memorial Lidice, "History," at http://www.lidice-memorial.cz.

77. Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Green Book, Volume IV, pp. 613, 614.

78. Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Green Book, Volume IV, pp. 614, 616.

79. Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Green Book, Volume IV, p. 617.

80. "Protocol of the Wannsee Conference," 20 January 1942 at http://www.ghwk.de.

81. Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Green Book, Volume IV, p. 1180.

82. Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Green Book, Volume IV, pp. 1158, 1159.

83. Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Green Book, Volume IV, p. 1159.

84. Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Green Book, Volume IV, p. 1159.

85. Nuremberg Military Tribunal, Green Book, Volume V, p. 166.
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Re: War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to

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PART 7 OF 7

CHAPTER TWENTY

1. American Breeders' Association, "Minutes," First Annual Meeting, 1903, pp. 1-2: APS. American Breeders' Association, "Committees and Their Specific Duties," Annual Report, American Breeders' Association, vol. II (1906), p. 11. E. Carlton MacDowell, "Charles Benedict Davenport, 1866-1944: A Study of Conflicting Influences," BIOS vol. XVII no. 1, pp. 23-24. American Genetic Association, "Overview," at lsvl.la.asu.edu/aga.

2. Robert C. Olby, "Horticulture: The Font for the Baptism of Genetics," Nature Reviews Vol. I (October 2000), pp. 65, 68. See letter, William Bateson to Adam Sedgewick, 4 May 1905.

3. University of Cambridge Department of Genetics, "A Brief History of the Department," at www.gen.cam.ac.uk.

4. American Genetic Association, "Overview." Eugenics Research Association, Active Membership Accession List (Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Eugenics Research Association, 1922): Truman ERA Membership Records. "College Courses in Genetics and Eugenics," Eugenical News vol. 1 (1916), pp. 26-27. See Eugenical News Vol. XV (1930) as compared to Eugenical News Vol. XIV (1929).

5. Edmund W. Sinnott and L.C. Dunn, Principles of Genetics: An Elementary Text, with Problems (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1925), p. 406.

6. Letter, L.C. Dunn to John C. Merriam, 3 July 1935:Truman C-2-2:2.

7. "Report of the Committee on Human Heredity," memorandum attached to letter, Laurence H. Snyder to Harry H. Laughlin, 27 September 1937: Truman D-2-3:21. Laurence H. Synder, "Presidential Address: Present Trends in the Study of Human Inheritance," Eugenical News Vol. XXIII (1938), p. 61.

8. "Report of the Committee on Human Heredity."

9. "Report of the Committee on Human Heredity."

10. Synder, p. 61.

11. Snyder, p. 61.

12. Tage U.H. Ellinger, "On the Breeding of Aryans," Journal of Heredity Vol. XXXIII (April 1942), pp. 141-142.

13. Ellinger, pp. 141-142.

14. Ellinger, pp. 141-142.

15. Ellinger, p. 141.

16. Ellinger, p. 142.

17. Ellinger, p. 142.

18. Ellinger, p. 142.

19. Ellinger, pp. 142-143.

20. Ellinger, p. 143.

21. "Eugenics After the War," Eugenical News Vol. XXVIII (1943), p. 11.

22. "Eugenics After the War," p. 11.

23. "Eugenics in 1952," Eugenical News Vol. XXVIII (1943), p. 12.

24. "Eugenics in 1952 " p. 13.

25. "Maternity, the Family and the Future," Eugenical News Vol. XXVIII (1943), p. 22.

26. "Notes and News Relating to Eugenics " Eugenical News Vol. XXIX (1944), p. 33. "Discussion: Eugenics After the War," Eugenical News Vol. XXX (1945), p. 23.

27. "Eugenics in England," Eugenical News Vol. XXX (1945), pp. 34, 36.

28. "Eugenics and Modern Life: Retrospect and Prospect," Eugenical News Vol. XXXI (1946), p. 33.

29. "Eugenics and Modern Life: Retrospect and Prospect " pp. 33, 34-35.

30. Report, Tage Kemp to the Rockefeller Foundation, 17 November 1932: RF RG 1.2 Ser 713 Box 2 Folder 15.

31. Letter, Daniel P. O'Brien to Tage Kemp, 29 June 1934: RF RG 1.2 Ser 713 Box 2 Folder 15.

32. O'Brien to Kemp, 29 June 1934. Tage Kemp, "To the Rockefeller Foundation: Report of Visits to Various Institutes, Laboratories etc. for Human Genetics in Europe," circa December 1934, pp. 54-55.: RF RG 1.2 Ser 713 Box 2 Folder 16.

33. Kemp, pp. 59-61, 62-63.

34. Kemp, p. 57.

35. See "University of Copenhagen - Institute of Human Genetics," memorandum circa June 1939: RF RG 1.2 Ser 713 Box 2 Folder 15.

36. "To The Rockefeller Foundation," memorandum circa 1935: RF RG 1.2 Ser 713A Box 2 Folder 17. See "To the Ministry for Public Education," memorandum circa February 1935: RF RG 1.2 Ser 713A Box 2 Folder 17.

37. "University of Copenhagen - Institute of Human Genetics." "To The Rockefeller Foundation." "News and Notes Relating to Eugenics," Eugenical News Vol. XXXII (1947), p. 30.

38. Frederick Osborn, "History of the American Eugenics Society," unpublished draft of 20 January 1971, p. 15: APS: AES Records- Osborn Papers #2 - History of the AES. Wake Forest University, "Centennial: Wake Forest 'Firsts' in Medicine," at www.wfubmc.edu. "The Twenty-Sixth Annual Meeting of the Eugenics Research Association, June 2 1938," Eugenical News Vol. XXIII (1938), p. 72. Manson Meads, The Miracle on Hawthorne Hill (Winston-Salem, NC: Wake Forest University, 1988), p. 32. William Allan, "The Relationship of Eugenics to Public Health," Eugenical News Vol. XXI (1936), p. 74. See William Allan, "The Inheritance of the Shaking Palsy," Eugenical News Vol. XX (1935), p. 72.

39. "Forsyth in the Forefront," Winston-Salem Journal. "Lifting the Curtain on a Shameful Era," Winston-Salem Journal.

40. C. Nash Herndon, "Human Resources From the Viewpoint of Medical Genetics," Eugenical News Vol. XXXV (1950), pp. 6-8. "Lifting the Curtain On a Shameful Era." See "Against Their Will: North Carolina's Sterilization Program."

41. Osborn, "History of the American Eugenics Society," pp. 16-17.

42. Osborn, "History of the American Eugenics Society," pp. 4, 17. American Philosophical Society, "Frederick Henry Osborn Papers," at www.amphilsoc.org. "The Twenty-Sixth Annual Meeting of the Eugenics Research Association, June 2 1938." "B. Early History and Development," Organized Eugenics, (New Haven, CT: American Eugenics Society), 1931, p. 3.

43. Osborn, "History of the American Eugenics Society," p. 17.

44. Frederick Osborn, "Population and The Progress of Civilization", presented at Hunter College, 22 December 1959: APS: AES Records: Osborn Papers #9.

45. Letter, Frank Lorimer to Frederick Osborn. October 1959: APS: AES Records - Osborn Papers #2 - Letters on Eugenics.

46. Frederick Osborn, "Draft Prepared for the Directors' Meeting, April 23rd: Eugenics: Retrospect and Prospect," draft of 26 March 1959: APS: AES Records - Osborn Papers.

47. Letter, Bruce Wallace to Frederick Osborn, 11 April 1961: APS: AES Records - Osborn Papers #2 - Letters on Eugenics.

48. Letter, Sheldon C. Reed to Harry L. Shapiro, 15 May 1961: APS: AES Records.

49. Letter, Frederick Osborn to P.S. Barrows, 25 August 1965: APS: AES Records - Osborn Papers #2 - Letters on Eugenics. Letter, Frederick Osborn to Frank Lorimer, 17 September 1959: APS. Letter, Gordon Allen to Frederick Osborn, 23 May 1961: APS: AES Records. Frederick Osborn, "A Program of Eugenics," undated paper circa May 1961: APS.

50. Osborn to P.S. Barrows, 25 August 1965.

51. Letter, Frederick Osborn to Paul Popenoe, 25 March 1965: APS: AES Records - Osborn Papers #2 - Letters on Eugenics. Letter, Frederick Osborn to Sheldon E. Hermanson, 12 April 1965: APS: AES Records - Osborn Papers #2 - Letters on Eugenics. See Osborn, "History of the American Eugenics Society," p. 20.

52. Letter, Frederick Osborn to Alexander Robertson, 11 October 1967: APS: AES Records - Osborn Papers #2 - Letters on Eugenics. Letter, Dick Hoefnagel to Carnegie Institute of Washington, 5 February 1968: CSH GRO Correspondence 1966-69.

53. "#4519: Human Betterment League of North Carolina Records: Inventory," at www.lib.unc.edu. AlM25, "Penrose, Correspondence," at www.aim25.ac.uk. University College of London, "UCL & Galton," at collection.ucl.ac.uk. "The Annals of Human Genetics Homepage, "at www.gene.ucl.ac.uk. "The Galton Institute: Annual Report, 1989.": Wellcome SA/EUG/A 95.

54. Osborn, "History of the American Eugenics Society, " p. 9. Author's interview with Jay Olshansky, 10 February 2003. "American Eugenics Society," at www.amphilsoc.org.

55. See letter, B.C. Lake to Sewall Wright, 2 June 1954: APS: AES Records. See "American Genetic Association," at lsvl.la.asu.edu/aga.

56. See Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., "About Us," at www.plannedparenthood. org. See John R. Weeks, "Vignettes of PAA History: Milbank, Princeton and the War," at www.pop.psu.edu. See "American Eugenics Society." See "Population Council- Fiftieth Anniversary - Officers," at www.popcouncil.org.

57. James D. Watson, "President of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory," at www.cshl.org. See "Celebrating 50 years of DNA," at www.dna50.org.

CHAPTER TWENTY-ONE

1. "Test-tube Baby Pioneer Backs Human Cloning," News.Telegraph.Co.UK, 6 September 2002. "Scientists: Cloned Sheep Dolly has 'Old' DNA," Cable News Network, 27 May 1999. "World: Asia-Pacific Giant Pandas Follow Dolly," British Broaccasting Corporation, 20 July 1998. "Scientists Await Birth of First Cloned Endangered Species," Cable News Network, 5 January 2001. "Researchers Clone Pigs," Cable News Network, 16 August 2000. "Carbon Copy Cat Cloned," Nature, 14 February 2002. Texas A&M, "Texas A&M Clones First Cat," press release of 14 February 2002. "OWU Professor Clones Mastodon Genes From Intestinal DNA," Ohio Wesleyan University On-Line.

2. "Clones in the Real World," AP Wire Service, 4 March 2001. "Clonaid: Baby 'Clone' Returns Home," Cable News Network 1 January 2003. World Future Society, "Futurist Update," January 2000 at www.wfs.org. "Doctor Refuses to Identify Mother, Give Evidence of Provocative Claim," SiliconValley.com 27 November 2002. "Revealed: Couple Try to Have First Human Clone Baby," Sunday Herald, 21 July 2002.

3. Dorothy Wertz, "DNA Forensics: Professional and Patient Attitudes Internationally," at hgm2002.hgu.mrc.ac.uk. Federal Bureau of Investigation, "Mission Statement and Background," at www.fbi.gov. Federal Bureau of Investigation, "FBI Laboratory: Forensic Systems," at www.fbi.gov. Attorney General Transcript, "News Conference- DNA Initiatives," 4 March 2002 as cited by Electronic Privacy Information Center and Privacy International, "Privacy and Human Rights 2002," circa 2002, p. 30.

4. "DNA Database 'Should Include Every Citizen,''' NewScientist.com 2 September 2002. 2nd International DNA users' Conference for Investigative Officers, "Minutes: Forensic DNA Analysis in China," at www.Interpol.int. "The National DNA Data Bank of Canada," brochure circa 2002. 1st International DNA users' Conference for Investigative Officers, "Austrian National DNA Database," circa November 1999 at www.Interpol.int. 1st International DNA users' Conference for Investigative Officers, "The DNA Database in The Netherlands," circa November 1999 at www.Interpol.int. "Bundestag Establishes Legal Footing for Genetic Database," DE News 24 June 1998. "Privacy and Human Rights 2002," p. 109. "In Louisiana, Debate Over a DNA Dragnet," The Christian Science Monitor, 21 February 2003.

5. "Fingerprint Fear," NewScientist.com, 2 May 2001. R. Chen, P.S. Rabinovitch, D.A. Crispin, M.J. Edmond, K.M. Koprowicz, M.P. Bronner and T.A. Brentnall, "DNA Fingerprinting Abnormalities can Distinguish Ulcerative Colitis Patients with Dysplasia and Cancer from Those Who Are Dysplasia/Cancer-Free," American Journal of Pathology, 162 (2) (February 2003), pp. 665-672.

6. See 1st International DNA Users' Conference for Investigative Officers, "Minutes," circa 1999 at www.Interpol.int. See 2nd International DNA Users' Conference for Investigative Officers, "Minutes," circa 2001 at www.Interpol.int.

7. Armed Forces Department of Pathology, "The Department of Defense DNA Registry," at www.afip.org. Douglas J. Gillert, "Who Are You? DNA Registry Knows," at www.defenselink.mil.

8. Connecticut Department of Social Services, "DSS's Biometric ID Project," at www.dss.state.ct.us. Also see Gregory H. Smith. "Securing our Personal Genome," (master's thesis, Indiana University, 2003).

9. See National Cancer Institute, "Understanding Gene Testing," at press2.nci.nih.gov.

10. Generally see Francis Galton, Finger Prints (New York: Da Capo Press, 1965).

11. MIB Group, Inc., "About Us" at www.mib.com. Author's interviews with MIB Group, Inc. officials, 28 February 2003. Author's investigation of MIB Group, Inc., February-March 2003.

12. Author's investigation of MIB Group, Inc., 28 February 2003. Also see author's interviews with MIB Group, Inc. officials, 28 February 2003.

13. See American Academy of Actuaries, "Genetic Information and Medical Expense Insurance," monograph of June 2000, pp. 2, 3.

14. American Academy of Actuaries, p. 2.

15. American Academy of Actuaries, pp. 2-3, 27-30.

16. American Academy of Actuaries, "Issue Brief: The Use of Genetic Information in Disability Income and Long-Term Care Insurance," briefing paper of 2002, p. 7.

17. "Health Insurance Companies Accused of Genetic Bias," British Broadcasting Corporation, 11 December 1998. Ann Deering, "Risk Reporter: Genetic Discrimination," Risk Management Magazine.

18. "Genetic Data 'Insurance Fear,'" British Broadcasting Corporation, 27 November 2000. "The Price of Having the Wrong Genes," British Broadcasting Corporation, 22 January 2001. "Britain Moves to Ban Insurance Genetic Tests," Washington Post, 30 April 2001.

19. Association of British Insurers, "Genetic Testing: Background," at www.abi.org.uk. "Insurance Firm Admits Using Genetic Screening," The London Times, 8 February 2001. "The Price of Having the Wrong Genes." "Insurance Companies Announce Genetic Testing Halt," The Scientist, 30 October 2001. Author's interview with Norwich Union, 28 February 2003 and 5 March 2003.

20. "Moratorium on Genetic Data Use," British Broadcasting Corporation, 23 October 2001. Author's interview with Norwich Union, 28 February 2003 and 5 March 2003.

21. Trudo Lemmens, "Selective Justice, Genetic Discrimination, and Insurance: Should We Single Out Genes in Our Laws?" McGill Law Journal 45 347 (2000), pp. 353-354. Author's interview with Industrial Alliance, 3 March 2003.

22. Author's interview with Industrial Alliance, 3 March 2003.

23. "UK Forum for Genetics and Insurance," at www.ukfgi.org.uk. International Actuarial Association, "3. Astin News / Nouvelles D'Astin," IAA Bulletin AAI No. 36 (2002). MIB Group, Inc., "Special Section: Genetics," at www.knowledgedigest.com.

24. Office of Technology Assessment, "Genetic Monitoring and Screening in the Workplace 44-45 (1990); "Are Your Genes Right for Your Job?" 3 Cal Law 25, 27 (May 1983) as cited in Privacy International, "Privacy and Human Rights 2002, and International Survey of Privacy Laws and Developments," (2000), pp. 82-83. Office of Technology Assessment, "The Role of Genetic Testing in the Prevention of Occupational Disease," (April 1983), p. 35. American Management Association as cited by The National Workrights Institute, "Genetic Discrimination in the Workplace Fact Sheet," at www.workrights.org.

25. "A Bloody Mess At One Federal Lab," U.S. News & World Report 23 June 1997. Author's interview with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 3 March 2003.

26. "Court Declares Right to Genetic Privacy," U.S. News & World Report 16 February 1998. "Privacy and Human Rights 2002," p. 83. Author's interview with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 3 March 2003.

27. Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad, "BNSF and EEOC Settle Genetic Testing Case Under Americans with Disabilities Act," press release of 8 May 2002. Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad, "BNSF Ends DNA Testing For Carpal Tunnel Syndrome," press release of 12 February 2001. Author's interview with Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad, 27 February 2003.

28. Author's interview with Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railroad, 27 February 2003. Author's interview with Athena Diagnostics, 28 February 2003.

29. "China is Thwarted by Jobs Ruling," The Guardian, 1 October 2000.

30. "DNA Database 'Should Include Every Citizen.''' "Privacy and Human Rights 2002," p. 30. "DNA Tests for All Will Cut Crime, Says Pioneer," News.Telegraph.Co.UK 19 February 2001.

31. "Agreement Between the Minister of Health and Social Security and Islensk refdagreining ehf. in Connection With the Issuing of a License to Create and Operate a Health Sector Database (HSD)," at www.mannvernd.is. "Profiling an Entire Nation," Associated Press 18 February 1999. Mannvernd, "Opts Out From Icelandic Health Sector Database," at www.mannvernd.is. Mannvernd, "Status of Lawsuits Against the Health Sector Database Act and Related Matters, " at www.mannvernd.is. International Business Machines and deCODE Genetics, "deCODE and IBM Form Strategic Alliance to Deliver Technology Solution for Applying Genetics to Drug Discovery," press release of 23 January 2003.

32.Jean Pierre Sorensen, "IBM Life Sciences- Nordic: Pulling Together The Pieces," Powerpoint Presentation circa 2003.

33. Mark D. Uehling, "Decoding Estonia," Bio IT World 10 February 2003 as cited by www.genomics.ee/index.php?lang=eng&nid=14 0; Internet.

34. "Banking on Genes," The Scientist, 4 December 2000. Autogen Limited, "ASX Announcement," press release of 17 November 2000.

35. Author's communication with Autogen Limited, 3 March 2003. Autogen Limited, "ASX Announcement, " press release of 2 March 1999.

36. The Wellcome Trust, "UK Biobank: A Study of Genes, Environment and Health," at www.wellcome. ac.uk. "Phones Download DNA," Nature, 26 February 2003. "Report of the Bioethics Advisory Committee the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities," at stwww.weizmann.ac.il.

37. Author's communication with Congresswoman Louise M. Slaughter (D-NY), March 2003.

38. Bionet, "Who Owns Your Genes?" at www.bionetonline.org. School of Health and Related Research, "Genetic Testing in the Workplace," at www.shef.ac.uk.

39. Author's communication with Congresswoman Louise M. Slaughter (D-NY), March 2003.

40. "Perfect Features: Science May Pave Way For Designer Babies," ABCNews.com, 26 December 2002. "A Way to Choose a Baby's Gender," Los Angeles Times, 3 March 2003.

41. "Couple 'Choose' To Have Deaf Baby," British Broadcasting Corporation, 8 April 2002. "Babies, Deaf by Design," The Australian, 16 April 2002.

42. "Stupidity Should Be Cured, Says DNA Discoverer, " New Scientist. com, 28 February 2003.

43. "Stupidity Should Be Cured, Says DNA Discoverer."

44. Lee M. Silver, Remaking Eden (New York: Avon Books, 1997), pp. 4-8.

45. "Details of Hybrid Clone Revealed," British Broadcasting Corporation, 18 June 1999. "Franken fish Wiping Out Wild Salmon, " Associated Newspapers Ltd., 19 September 1999. "Genetically Modified Monkey Could Be Key to Curing Some Diseases," Cable News Network, 18 January 2001. "Scientists Want A Life," AP Wire Services, 21 November 2002. "Scientists Planning to Make New Form of Life," Washington Post 21 November 2002. Author's communication with The Center for the Advancement of Genomics, March 2003.
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Re: War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to

Postby admin » Mon Aug 11, 2014 7:09 am

Major Sources

ARCHIVAL REPOSITORIES


Original papers and documents were accessed at several dozen archival repositories, record collections and unprocessed files in storage. The challenging range of repositories spanned the gamut from governmental and organizational archives to corporate and private files. Many key records are held by the special collections and manuscript departments of libraries, such as the Laughlin Papers in the Special Collections of Pickler Memorial Library at Truman University. I estimate there are some five hundred key and niche repositories of eugenic information in the United States and just as many overseas. Most of them are listed below, but space precludes a complete roster.

UNITED STATES

American Breeders Association Files (ABA): Maryland
American Civil Liberties Union Files: Richmond
American Genetics Association Files: Maryland
American Heritage Center: Laramie, WY
American Philosophical Society (APS): Philadelphia

Charles B. Davenport Papers
American Eugenics Society Records
Leon F. Whitney Collection
Eugenics Record Office Records

California Institute of Technology Archives: Pasadena, CA

Ezra Gosney / Human Betterment Foundation Papers

California State Archive: Sacramento
Carnegie Institute of Washington (CIW): Washington, DC
Central Virginia Training Center Files: Lynchburg, VA
Chicago Tribune Newspaper Morgue: Chicago
Cold Spring Harbor Archive (CSH): Cold Spring Harbor
Cook County Circuit Court Archives: Chicago
Hoover Institute Archives: Stanford, CA
Indiana Historical Society: Indianapolis
Indiana State Archives: Indianapolis
Indiana State Library: Indianapolis
Margaret Sanger Papers Project at NYU: New York
Monacan National Tribal Archives Files: Madison Heights, VA
National Archives (NA): College Park, MD

RG 29 Bureau of the Census
RG 40 Commerce
RG 43 Conference Commissions and Expositions
RG 59 State Department
RG 60 Department of justice
RG 242 Captured German Records
RG 238 War Crimes Records
RG 330 Department of Defense

Pickler Memorial Library, Truman State University (Truman): Kirksville, MO

Harry H. Laughlin Papers.

Planned Parenthood Foundation: New York
Records of the Montgomery County Courthouse: Christiansburg, VA
Richmond Times-Dispatch Newspaper Morgue: Richmond
Rockefeller Foundation Archives (RAC): Sleepy Hollow, NY

RG 1.1 Projects
RG 1.2 Projects
RG 3.1 Administration, Program and Policy
RG 6.1 Field Officers
RG 10 Fellowship Recorder Cards

Smith College: North Hampton, MA

Sophia Smith Collection

Tamiment-Wagner Labor Archives Archive: New York
University of California at Berkeley Archive: Berkeley, CA

71/3C William E. Ritter Papers
72/227C Berkeley PO
C-B 403 August Vollmer Papers
C-B 927 Robert H. Lowie Papers
CU-23 UCB Department of Anthropology

University of California at Davis: Davis, CA
Vermont Public Records (VT-PRA): Middlesex, VT

Eugenics Survey of Vermont and the Vermont Commission on County Life

UNITED KINGDOM

House of Lords Records Office: London
Public Records Office (PRO): London

Colonial Office
Department of Education
Department of Technical Co-Operation, Ministry of Overseas Development
Dominions Office
Foreign Office
General Register Office
Home Office
Medical Research Council
Ministry of Health

University College of London (UCL): London

Galton Papers
Pearson Papers
Penrose Papers

Wellcome Library: London

SA-EUG Eugenics Society
PP-MCS Marie Stopes Papers
GC-088 Rockefeller Papers

GERMANY

Buchenwald Archiv: Weimar
Bundesarchiv Berlin (BAB): Berlin

NS 2 Rasse- und Siedlungshauptamt
NS 5 Deutsche Arbeitsfront
R 2 Reichsfinanzministerium
R 3 Reichsministerium fur Rustung und Kriegsproduction
R 7 Reichswirtschaftsministerium
R 36 Deutscher Gemeindetag
R 86 Reichsgesundheitsamt
R 150I Reichsministerium des Inneren
R 1509 Reichssippenamt
R 4901 Reichsministerium fur Wissenschaft, Erziehung und Volksbildung

Bundesarchiv Koblenz (BAK): Koblenz

R 73 Norgemeinschaft der deutschen Wissenschaft

Max Planck Archiv: Berlin

I. Abt., Rep. 1A, Nr. 762-781 Presse
I. Abt., Rep. 1A, Nr. 1050-1065 Auslands- und internationale Angelegenheiten
I. Abt., Rep. 1A, Nr. 1076-1086 Besuche durch auslandische Gelehrte
I. Abt., Rep. 1A, Nr. 1094 Rockefeller Foundation
I. Abt., Rep. 1A, Nr. 2443-2451 Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut fur Psychiatrie
I. Abt., Rep. 3, Nr. 4 Jahresberichte des Kaiser-Wilhelm-Instituts fur Anthropologie, menschliche Erblehre und Eugenik
I. Abt., Rep. 3, Nr. 23 International Federation of Eugenic Organisations
I. Abt., Rep. 3, Jr. 26 Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut fur Anthropologie, menschlich Erblehre und Eugenik
V. a Abt., Rep. 16 Verschuer
Max-Planck-Institut fur Psychiatrie, Munchen (Deutsche Munich Forschungsanstalt fur Psychiatry) Historisches Archiv der Klinik
GDA (ehemalige Genealogisch-Demographische Abteilung)

Universitatsarchiv Heidelberg: Heidelberg

B-1523/3-7 Ehrepromotionen
H-III-869/2 Akten der medizinischen Fakultat

Universitatsarchiv Munster: Munster

Nachlass Verschuer, Nr. 4

LIBRARIES

Libraries are crucial to research on eugenics because so much information resides in period secondary sources. In addition, each library maintains its own unique and often precious collection of obscure literature and local materials. Sometimes the most valuable materials are found in small community libraries. I estimate there are hundreds of libraries in the United States, and just as many overseas, containing important secondary materials. Most of the libraries we accessed are listed below, but space precludes a complete roster.

UNITED STATES

Alderman Library, University of Virginia: Charlottesville, VA
Bailey/Howe Library, University of Vermont: Burlington, VT
Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley: Berkeley, CA
Bobst Library, New York University: New York
Boston Public Library: Boston
California Institute of Technology Library: Pasadena
Carnegie Library, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory: Cold Spring Harbor
Charles C. Sherrod Library, East Tennessee State University: Johnson City, TN
Chicago Historical Society Research Center: Chicago
Chicago Public Library: Chicago
Clapp Library, Occidental College: Los Angeles
Dag Hammarskjold Library, United Nations: New York
Dahlgren Memorial Library, Georgetown University: Washington, DC
Enoch Pratt Free Library: Baltimore
Fairfax County Public Library: Fairfax, VA
Fenwick Library, George Mason University: Fairfax, VA
Gelan Library, George Washington University: Washington, DC
History Office and Library, Immigration and Naturalization: Washington, DC
Hodges Library, University of Tennessee at Knoxville: Knoxville
Howard-Tilton Memorial Library, Tulane University: New Orleans
Illinois State Historical Library: Springfield, IL
Indiana State Library: Indianapolis
John Crerar Library, University of Chicago: Chicago
Kellogg-Hubbard Library: Montpelier, VT
Kuhn Library, University of Maryland, Baltimore County: Baltimore
Lane Medical Library, Stanford University Medical School: Stanford, CA
Lauinger Memorial Library, Georgetown University: Washington, DC
Lehman Social Sciences Library, Columbia University: New York
Library of Congress: Washington, DC
Library of the American Philosophical Society: Philadelphia
Library of the American University: Washington, DC
Library of the University of the District of Columbia: Washington, DC
Library of Virginia: Richmond
Library, U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum: Washington, DC
Library, YTVO Institute for Jewish Research: New York
Macdonald DeWitt Library, Ulster County Community College: Stone Ridge, NY
McCormick Library, Planned Parenthood Foundation: New York
McKeldin Library, University of Maryland College Park: College Park, MD
Memorial Library, University of Wisconsin-Madison: Madison, WI
Merriam Library, California State University: Chico, CA
Montgomery College Library: Rockville, MD
Montgomery County Public Libraries: Rockville, MD
Mullen Library, Catholic University of America: Washington, DC
National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health: Bethesda, MD
New York Academy of Medicine Library: New York
New York Public Library: New York
Newman Library, Virginia Polytechnic Institute: Blacksburg, VA
Orange Public Library: Orange, NJ
Pickler Memorial Library, Truman State University: Kirksville, MO
Princeton University Library: Princeton, NJ
Schlesinger Library, Harvard University: Cambridge, MA
Science, Industry & Business Library, New York Public Library: New York
Sheridan Libraries, Johns Hopkins University: Baltimore
Smith Memorial Library, Indiana Historical Society: Indianapolis
Washington College of Law Library, American University: Washington, DC
Washington Research Library Consortium: Upper Marlboro, MD

CANADA

Osler History of Medicine Library, McGill University: Montreal, QC
McLennan-Redpath Library, McGill University: Montreal, QC

FRANCE

Bibliotheque Nationale de France: Paris

GERMANY

Bibliothek des Archivs zur Geschichte der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft: Berlin
Bibliothek fur Geschichte der Medizin, Freie Universitat Berlin: Berlin
Bibliothek des Otto-Suhr-Institutes fur Politikwissenschaft, Freie Universitat: Berlin
Bibliothek des Zentrums fur Antisemitismusforschung, Technische Universitat: Berlin
Staatsbibliothek Berlin: Berlin

UNITED KINGDOM

Bodleian Library, Oxford University: London
British Library: London
Library of the Public Record Office: London
Library of the University College of London: London
Wellcome Library: London

JOURNAL, NEWSPAPERS AND MEDIA

Scores of publications and media outlets were consulted, both as sources of period materials and for topical information. These covered a spectrum, from obscure professional and medical journals, to Nazi-era scientific and political media, to the eugenics media, to contemporary publications and news organizations. In some cases, every issue of a publication was surveyed for as many as forty years; Eugenical News is an example. In other instances, we studied select editions. Many of the publications and media outlets we surveyed are listed below, but space precludes a complete roster.

JOURNALS

American Bar Association Journal
American Journal of Medical Genetics
American Journal of Pathology
American Journal of Public Health
American Journal of Sociology
Bio IT World
BIOS
Birth Control Review
Brain Pathology
British Journal of Inebriety
The British Medical Journal
Canadian Medical Association Journal
Digestive Diseases
Dimensions
Epilepsia
History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
History of Psychiatry
IAA Bulletin AAI
Institutional Quarterly
Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Journal of American History
Journal of American Public Health
Journal of Contemporary Health Law and Policy
Journal of Delinquency
Journal of Psycho-Asthenics
Journal of Southern History
Journal of the American Medical Association
Journal of the Anthropological Institute
Journal of the History of Sexuality
Journal of the History of Biology
Lancet
McGill Law Journal
Mental Retardation
National Geographic
Nature
Nature Reviews
Neurology
New York Medical Journal
New York University Law Review
Osiris
Psychological Review
The Standard

EUGENIC MEDIA

American Breeders' Magazine
Eugenical News
Eugenics
Eugenics Quarterly
Eugenics Review
Journal of Heredity

GERMAN MEDIA

Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Sexualforschung
Allgemeines Statistisches Archiv Bevolkerungsfragen
Archiv fur Rassen- und Gesellschaftsbiologie
Der Erbarzt
Deutsches Artzeblatt
Die Neue Zeitung
Fortschritte der Erbpathologie, Rassenhygiene und ihrer Grenzgebiete
Hollerith Nachrichten
Neues Volk
Rassenpolitische Auslands-Korrespondenz
Schleswig-Holsteinische Hochschullblatter
Sexual-Probleme, Zeitschrift fur Sexualwissenschaft und Sexualpolik
Volkischer Beobachter
Volk und Rasse
Zeitschrift fur Morphologie und Anthropologie Festschrift
Zeitschrift fur Rassenkunde
Zeitschrift fur Sexualwissenschaft
Ziel und Weg

NEWSPAPERS, MAGAZINES, WIRE SERVICES AND OTHER MEDIA

Associated Press
Atlantic Monthly
The Australian
British Broadcasting Corporation
Cable News Network
Chicago Tribune
Christian Science Monitor
Economic Quarterly
Free World
The Guardian
The Independent
London Times
Los Angeles Times
Mind
New Republic
New York Times
The Pedagogical Seminary
The Poor-Law Officers' Journal Reuters,
Richmond Times-Dispatch
Risk Management Magazine
San Francisco Daily News
Scientist
Time Magazine
U.S. News & World Report
Washington Post
Winston-Salem Journal

UNPUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS

Numerous university dissertations, theses and other unpublished manuscripts and monographs were consulted. Some of the salient ones are listed below.

American Academy of Actuaries. "Genetic Information and Medical Expense Insurance." June 2000.

Curtis, Patrick Almond. "Eugenic Reformers, Cultural Perceptions of Dependent Populations, and the Care of the Feebleminded in Illinois: 1909-1920." Ph. D. diss., University of Illinois at Chicago, 1983.

Hassencahl, Francis Janet. "Harry H. Laughlin, 'Expert Eugenics Agent' for the House Committee on Immigration and Naturalization." Ph. D. diss., Case Western Reserve University, 1970.

Lombardo, Paul A. "Eugenic Sterilization in Virginia: Aubrey Strode and the Case of Buck v. Bell." Ph. D. diss, University of Virginia, 1982.

Mehler, Barry. "A History of the American Eugenics Society, 1921-1940." Ph. D. diss., University of Illinois, 1988.

Mottier, Veronique. "Narratives of National Identity: Sexuality, Race, and the Swiss 'Dream of Order.''' Paper presented at the European Consortium for Political Research Annual Joint Sessions, Workshop; The Political Uses of Narrative, at Mannheim 26- 31 March 1999.

Smith, Gregory H. "Securing our Personal Genome." Forthcoming Master's thesis, Indiana University, 2003.

DOCUMENTARIES

Film documentaries, including independently produced videos, provide an excellent source of eyewitness testimony and visual insight. Some of the salient videos utilized are listed below.

Baron, Saskia and Paul Sen, director and Dunja Noack, producer. Science and the Swastika. Videocassette. The History Channel, 200l.

Bryant, Sharon, producer. Reclaiming our Heritage. Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, 1997, videocassette.

Trombley, Stephen, director and Brucie Eadier, producer. The Lynchburg Story. Videocassette. Worldview Pictures, 1993.

Blumenstein, Rob, producer-director. History's Mysteries: Hitler's Perfect Children. The History Channel, 2000.

MAJOR JOURNAL ARTICLES

I consulted numerous scholarly articles of great value. Some of the salient articles are listed below.

"Cecile and Oskar Vogr: On the Occasion of her 75th and his 80th Birthday." Neurology Vol. 1 No. 3 (May-June 1951).

Elks, Martin A. "The 'Lethal Chamber': Further Evidence for the Euthanasia Option." Mental Retardation, Vol. 31 No. 4 (August 1993).

Kevles, Daniel J. "Testing the Army's Intelligence: Psychologists and the Military in World War I." The Journal of American History, Vol. 55, Issue 3 (Dec., 1968).

Lakin, K. Charlie. "Demographic Studies of Residential Facilities for the Mentally Retarded." Developmental Disabilities Project on Residential Services and Community Adjustment Project Report No. 3. University of Minnesota Department of Psychoeducational Studies, circa 1979.

Lemkin, RaphaeI. "Genocide- A Modern Crime." Free World Vol. 4 (April 1945).

Lemmens, Trudo. "Selective Justice, Genetic Discrimination, and Insurance: Should We Single Out Genes in Our Laws?" McGill Law Journal 45 347 (2000).

Lombardo, Paul A. "Medicine, Eugenics, and the Supreme Court: From Coercive Sterilization to Reproductive Freedom." The Journal of Contemporary Health Law and Policy Volume 13 (1996).

Lombardo, Paul A. "Three Generations, No Imbeciles: New Light on Buck v. Bell." New York University Law Review, Vol. 60 no. 1.

MacDowell, E. Carlton. "Charles Benedict Davenport, 1866-1944: A Study of Conflicting Influences." BIOS vol. XVII no. 1.

MacNicol, John. "The Voluntary Sterilization Campaign in Britain, 1918-39." The Journal of the History of Sexuality, Vol. 2., No. 3 (1992).

Muller-Hill, Benno. "The Blood from Auschwitz and the Silence of the Scholars." History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences Vol. 21 (1999).

Neugebauer, Wolfgang and Georg Stacher. "Nazi Child 'Euthanasia' in Vienna and the Scientific Exploitation of Its Victims before and after 1945." Digestive Diseases 17 (1999).

Peiffer, Jurgen. "Neuropathology in the Third Reich: Memorial to those Victims of National-Socialist Atrocities in Germany who were Used by Medical Science." Brain Pathology 1 (1991).

Reilly, Philip. "The Virginia Racial Integrity Act Revisited: The Plecker-Laughlin Correspondence; 1928-1930." American Journal of Medical Genetics Vol. 16 (1983).

Sherman, Richard B. "'The Last Stand': The Fight for Racial Integrity in Virginia in the 1920's." The Journal of Southern History, Vol. 54 Issue 1 (February, 1988).

Shevell, Michael. "Racial Hygiene, Active Euthanasia, and Julius Hallervorden." Neurology 42 (November 1992) and "Reply from the Author." Neurology 43 (July 1993).

Seidelman, William E. "Medicine and Murder in the Third Reich." Dimensions: A Journal of Holocaust Studies Vol. 13 No. 1 (1999).

Weber, Matthias M. "Psychiatric Research and Science Policy in Germany. The History of the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Psychiatrie (German Institute for Psychiatric Research) in Munich from 1917 to 1945." History of Psychiatry xi (2000).

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Literally hundreds of books were consulted, from period eugenic literature to scholarly works on a range of topics. It would be impossible to list them all. However, a few hundred of the salient volumes are listed below. Listing books here by no means suggests they are reliable; many of these books were consulted because of their period insights rather than their accuracy. This list, then, includes both the most credible and the least credible.

Adams, Mark B. The Wellborn Science. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Aly, Gotz, Peter Chroust, and Christian Pross. Cleansing the Fatherland: Nazi Medicine and Racial Hygiene. Trans. Belinda Cooper. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994.

Anderson, Margo J. The American Census. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1988.

Astor, Gerald. The "Last" Nazi: The Life and Times of Dr, Joseph Mengele. New York: Donald I. Fine, Inc., 1985.

Baker, Liva. The Justice From Beacon Hill: The Life and Times of Oliver Wendell Holmes. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1991.

Bannister, Robert C. Social Darwinism: Science and Myth in Anglo-American Social Thought. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1979.

Barr, Martin W. Mental Defectives: Their History, Treatment and Training. Philadelphia: P. Blakiston's Son & Co., 1904; New York: Arno Press, 1973.

Baur, Erwin, Eugen Fischer and Fritz Lenz. Human Heredity. 3rd Ed. Trans. Eden & Cedar Paul. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1931.

Baur, Erwin, Eugen Fischer, and Fritz Lenz. Grundriss der menschlichen Erblichkeitslehre und Rassenhygiene, Munich: J. F. Lehmanns Verlag, 1921.

Baur, Erwin, Eugen Fischer, and Fritz Lenz. Grundriss der menschlichen Erblichkeitslehre und Rassenhygiene, 2nd ed. Munich: J. F. Lehmanns Verlag, 1923.

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SEARCH ENGINES

Modern research cannot be efficiently undertaken without the use of Internet search engines. I have listed here some of the engines we employed to search across the worldwide web as well as institutional databases.

American Book Exchange
Google
Lexis-Nexis
Proquest
Worldcat http://www.abe.com
http://www.google.com
http://www.lexis-nexis.com
http://www.proquest.com
http://www.oclc.org/worldcat

INTERNET SOURCES

While Internet research is essential to contemporary historical investigation, I discovered that virtually nothing on the web dedicated to eugenics was reliable, including some websites operated by respected academic entities. At the same time, I found certain noneugenic sites extremely valuable for their background and contextual information, especially when the site was an official organizational or governmental site. Hence while I consulted and searched through hundreds, perhaps thousands of websites, only a precious few of the most reliable are listed below.

American Philosophical Society
Anti-Defamation League
Avalon Project
BioMed Central / PubMed
British Broadcasting Corporation
Dodd Research Center
Galton.org
Jewish Virtual Library
Mazal Library
National Library of Medicine, NIH
Nizkor Project
PreventGenocide.org
Public Broadcasting Service
Remember.org
ScrapbookPages.com
The Scientist
U.S. Department of Justice
U.S. House of Representatives
U.S. Senate
Wellcome Library
YadVashem
http://www.amphilsoc.org
http://www.adl.org
http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon
http://www.biomedcentral.com
http://www.bbc.co.uk
http://www.lib.uconn.edu/DoddCenter
http://www.galton.org
http://www.us-israel.org
http://www.mazal.org
http://www.nlm.nih.gov
http://www.nizkor.org
http://www.preventgenocide.org/lemkin
http://www.pbs.org
http://www.remember.org
http://www.scrapbookpages.com
http://www.thescientist.com
http://www.doj.gov
http://www.house.gov
http://www.senate.gov
http://www.wellcome.ac.uk
http://www.yad-vashem.org.il
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Re: War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to

Postby admin » Mon Aug 11, 2014 7:12 am

PART 1 OF 2

Index

ABA. See American Breeders Association
Abel, Wolfgang, 316
abortion opponents, 127
ACLU. See American Civil Liberties Union
Adkins, Reable, 179
Africa
Jews in, 295
mixed race individuals, 263, 265-66
African-Americans
amount of white blood, 79, 83, 165, 166
death rates, 163
definitions of, 165, 166
"Free Issue" Negroes, 170, 171
intelligence test scores, 79, 81, 83-84
lynchings, 23, 84
multiple birth frequency, 350
music of, 105, 165, 180
segregation, 22, 171, 172-73
six-fingered boys, 97
slaves, 21
soldiers in World War I, 186
stereotypes of, 38, 210
sterilizations, 5, 421
See also race
AGA. See American Genetic Association
Agriculture, Department of, 47, 97-98, 208
Air Force, U.S., 382
Alabama, ban on interracial marriages, 401
Alberta, Canada, sterilization law, 242
Albrecht, Charles, 293
alcoholism, 27, 58, 285, 299
Algonquin Indians, 176
Allan, William, 421
Allen, Bennet, 292
Allport, Frank, 151
Alma College, 75
AMA. See American Medical Association
American Academy of Actuaries, 432-33
American Bar Association Journal, 154
American Birth Control League, 132, 133,
138-40
See also birth control movement
American Breeders Association (ABA), 291
Agriculture Department and, 97-98
establishment, 38-39
Eugenics Committee, 39, 44, 411
Eugenics Section
committee on elimination of defective
germ plasm, 57-61, 69-70, 73, 235
English eugenics and, 210, 224
Eugenics Record Office and, 47-48, 98
formation, 44
meetings, 97
support for euthanasia, 247, 250-5\
meetings, 44, 45, 51, 97
See also American Genetic Association
American Breeders Magazine, 40, 412
See also Journal of Heredity
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), 399,
400
American Committee on Sterilization, 217
American eugenics
comparison to English movement, 208,
219
evolution of
decline of, 385, 411, 413-14, 425
defections from, 412-13
development of field, 21-25, 65
postwar changes, 417-18
global ambitions, 61, 185, 235
goals, 7, 21, 29, 88, 107
influence
on American thinkers, 99
American Committee on Sterilization, influence
(continued)
dominance of international meetings,
213, 235, 237, 239, 264
in England, 207, 208-10, 212, 224-26
in Europe, 213, 243, 244, 245
in foreign countries, 240
in Germany, 258-59, 261, 264-65, 277,
312, 408-9
on Hitler, 259, 274-76, 277, 298
on social reform movements, 125
lack of scientific foundation, 99-100,
106-7, 414, 423
organizations, 87, 140, 219
reactions to
criticism of, 99-104
press coverage of plans, 10 1-4
public opposition to proposals, 87
ridicule of, 387
relations with birth control movement,
137-42
relations with German eugenics movement,
270-72, 277
American influence, 258-59, 261,
264-65, 277, 312, 408-9
American support for Nazi eugenics, 7,
27, 297, 300-301, 304-5, 313,
314-16, 317-18, 340-44, 388, 392-93,
414-17
common belief in Nordic supremacy,
266, 297
German dominance, 286, 294, 299
influence of Germans in United States,
281
joint projects, 288, 303-4
opposition to Nazi eugenics, 313, 417,
418
partnership, 280-83, 342
postwar communications, 377-79
reactions to Nazi atrocities, 411, 423-24
during Weimar Republic, 266
research bodies, 89-90, 219
See also Carnegie Institution, Station for
Experimental Evolution (Cold Spring
Harbor); Davenport, Charles;
Laughlin, Harry Hamilton
American Eugenics Society (AES)
finances, 142
founding, 137, 244
goals, 424
leaders, 137-38
members, 163, 377
name change, 425
postwar changes, 417-18, 422-25
presidents, 259, 418, 422-24
proposed alliance with birth control movement, 138-40
publications, 138-40, 174, 394, 424
relations with British organizations,
229-30
relations with Carnegie Institution, 421
relations with German eugenics movement,
313, 377, 378
Ultimate Program, 239
during World War II, 422
American Genetic Association (AGA), 219, 349,
412, 425
See also American Breeders Association
American Hebrew, 306-7
American Indians
bans on interracial marriages, 146
census statistics, 176-77
citizenship, 177
in colonial Virginia, 168, 176
interracial marriages, 146, 165, 168, 176,
177-79
music of, 180
reservations, 156
seen as unfit, 179-80
sterilizations, 5, 400
Virginia racial laws and, 176-81
American Jewish Congress, 129
American Journal of Public Health, 304
American Management Association, 437
American Medical Association (AMA), 72
Section on Ophthalmology, 147-48,
149-51, 153
American Medical Society, 63
American Museum of Natural History, 236,
245, 298
American Ophthalmological Society, 146, 158
American Philosophical Society, 397
American Public Health Association, 174
American Review of Tuberculosis, 241
American Social Hygiene Association (ASHA),
225
American Society of Human Genetics, 379
Amish, 53
Andrews, George Reid, 142
Anglo-Saxon Clubs, 166
Anthropometric Laboratory, 16-17
Anti-Defamation League, 382
anti-Semitism
in Germany, 297, 302
of Hitler, 269-70, 311
of Ploetz, 262
Appalachia, forced sterilizations in, 3-4
Appleget, Thomas, 306, 307
Archiv fur Rassen- und Gesellschaftsbiologie
(Archives of Race Science and Social
Biology), 262, 263, 265, 272, 273, 281,
295, 308, 341
Argentina, eugenicists in, 238
Armed Forces Repository of Specimen Samples,
430
Army, U.S.
African-American soldiers in World War I,
186
intelligence tests, 80-82, 83, 84, 132, 201,
279
Nazi war crimes trials, 404
number of blue-eyed recruits, 273
Arps, George, 148
Aryan superiority
Germanization of Polish children, 331-32,
347, 405
Hitler's belief in, 270, 307
master race as Nazi goal, 299, 370
Nazi breeding program, 405, 406
as point of agreement between American
and German eugenicists, 266, 297
See also Nazi eugenics; super race
ASHA. See American Social Hygiene
Association
Asian Americans, bans on interracial marriages,
146, 175-76
Association of Agricultural Colleges and
Experimental Stations, 38
Association of Medical Officers of American
Institutions for Idiotic and
Feebleminded Persons, 250
Athena Diagnostics, 438
Atwood, Edith, 96
Auschwitz
blood samples taken from prisoners,
363-66, 376
deaths in, 338
gassing, 337
liberation of, 371
medical experiments, 331, 338, 358-59,
361, 362-63, 376, 379
selection of arriving Jews, 337-38
survivors, 355-56, 359
twins camp, 354-61, 362-63, 365-66
See also Mengele, Josef
Austin, O. P., 57
Australia
DNA databanks, 429, 440
eugenicists, 238
Austria
DNA databanks, 429
genetic discrimination legislation, 440
Nazi annexation, 313
Autogen, 439-40
aviation medicine, 367, 381-82
Azores, 292-93

Bach, James, I 50
Baltimore Sun, 200, 202
Banker, Howard, 148
Barker, Lewellys E, 281
Barker, Olin, 150
Bates College, 75
Bateson, William, 26, 27, 28, 411-12
Baur, Erwin, 270-73
articles in American journals, 281
eugenic views, 281-82
Foundation of Human Heredity and Race
Hygiene, 270, 272-73, 296-97, 351
at international meetings, 287
Belgian Eugenics Society (Societe Beige
d'Eugenique), 240-41
Belgium
eugenicists, 195, 235, 238, 240-41, 255
eugenic screening of potential U.S. immigrants,
195, 198, 205
Nazi occupation, 407
occupation of German lands after World
War I, 267, 269, 271
Bell, Alexander Graham
discomfort with eugenics goals, 89-90
distancing from eugenics movement, 104-5
Eugenics Record Office and, 89-90, 94,
101, 159
at international meetings, 71, 213, 237
rejection of charity, 210
work with Davenport, 44
Bell, J. H., 116
Bellamy, Raymond, 291
Beringer, Kurt, 369
Bethnal Green (London), 221, 222
Betts, Jane, 396
Beverly, Pal S., 170-71
Bible, 9-10, 13
Bibliography of Hereditary Eye Defects, 147
Bigelow, Maurice, 422
Biggs, Hermann M., 153
Billings, John, 31, 40-41
Binet, Alfred, 76, 82
Binet-Simon test, 76, 78
bioethics, 44 3
See also genetic discrimination
Biometric Laboratory, 220
biometrics, 72, 345, 430
Birkenau concentration camp, 367
Birkett, H. S., 151
birth control
for all women, 135
compulsory, 60
opponents, 127
See also birth control movement
Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau, 134
Birth Control Federation of America, 134
birth control movement, 125
American Birth Control League, 132, 133,
138-40
conferences, 134, 136-37
current activities, 426
distinction from eugenics, 136
eugenic beliefs, 127, 128-33, 135-37, 138
eugenicists involved in, 133-35, 136-39
name, 128
organizations, 140
origins, 126-27, 128
Planned Parenthood, 127, 144, 426
proposed alliances with eugenics groups,
137-42
support of lethal chambers, 251
See also Sanger, Margaret
Birth Control Review, 132, 138-40, 301
Bismarck, Otto von, 266
Blacker, C. P., 300
Blacks. See African-Americans
The Black Stork, 257-58
Blake, John R., 175
Blakeslee, Albert F., 389
Blakeslee, Alfred, 271
blind individuals
costs of maintaining in institutions, 147,
153
data collected from, 148, 152-54
defective family members, 152-53
eugenic legislation, 149-52, 153, 154, 155
family pedigrees, 148
institutions, 148, 153
Jews, 301
marriage restrictions, 145, 146, 149-52,
154, 155, 157
number in United States, 147, 149, 160
preventing reproduction, 58
segregation of, 145, 146, 149, 153
sterilizations, 145, 146, 148, 149, 299
blindness
hereditary, 145, 147, 149, 301, 341
prevention of hereditary, 145, 147-54, 237
as test case for eugenic legislation, 152, 157
Blitch, J. S., 291
Bliven, Bruce, 306
blood groups of twins, 364, 365
Bluhm, Agnes, 268
Bobbitt, John Franklin, 29
Boeters, Gustav, 261
Bolley, Henry, 292
Bollinger, Allan, 252-54
Bollinger, Anna, 252-54
Bolton, Kate, S
Bradby, William, 179
brains
Hallervorden-Spatz Syndrome, 369,
382-83
Nazi research on, 382-83
remains of Holocaust victims, 383-84
See also Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain
Research
Brandeis, Louis, 120
Brandenburg State Hospital, 369
Brazil
eugenicists, 23 8
marriage restrictions, 245
Breeders Associations (Britain), 224
breeding
of animals, 36, 44
feminist view of, 127-28
history of, 13
of humans, 21-22, 28, 367
of plants, 13, 26
See also super race
Brigham, Carl, 82-83, 84, 85, 90
Britain. See England
British Columbia, Canada, sterilization law, 242
British Medical Association, 226, 434
British Medical Journal, 434
Brock, Sir Lawrence, 231, 23 3
Brock Commission, 233-34, 249
Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 132
Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, 34, 36
Brooks Air Force Base, 382
Brower, Daniel R., 63
Brown, Louise, 427
Brunn, James, 398
Brush Mountain, Virginia, 3-4
Bryan, WE., 291
Bryn, Halfdan, 292
Buchenwald concentration camp
ancestral research barrack, 331
cruelty in, 326-27, 329
deaths in, 324, 329
doctors, 325-26
functions, 324
Katzen-Ellenbogen at, 319-21, 325-31,
332-35
Little Camp, 319-21, 326, 327-28, 333
medical experiments, 324, 329-30, 331,
367
work details, 329
Buck, Carrie, 108, 109-10, 112, 113-17,
120-22, 167, 400, 401-2
Buck, Emma, 108-10, 115, 116, 122
Buck, Vivian, 113, 114-15, 122
Buck v. Bell, 113-17, 119, 120-22, 123, 315,
401-2, 409
Buffalo Eye and Ear Infirmary, 145
Bumke, Oswald, 369
Burbank, Luther, 133
Bureau of Vita! Statistics, Virginia, 161, 163,
164-65, 166, 168-69, 173-74, 175, 177,
181
Burlington Santa Fe, 437-38
Bush, Vannevar, 393-94
Butler, Pierce, 120

California
ban on interracial marriages, 146
eugenicists, 277
governor's apology for sterilizations, 400
sterilization law, 68, 122
sterilizations performed, 7, 69, 122, 123,
228, 233, 277, 315, 342, 398
California School for the Deaf and Blind, 147
Cambridge University Eugenics Society, 215
Campbell, Clarence, 314-15
Campbell, E. Taylor, 398
Canada
DNA databank, 429
eugenicists, 238, 241-42
genetic testing issues, 435
immigrants, 241
insurance industry, 435
sterilization laws, 242
cancer, genetic markers, 430, 431
Cannon, W. B., 57
capital punishment, 250, 258
Carnegie, Andrew, 31, 37, 56, 72, 140
Carnegie Endowment, 296
Carnegie Institution
concerns about Laughlin, 191-92, 193-94,
198
criticism of, 101-2, 201, 202
Department of Genetics, 388, 412
endowments, 31, 56
establishment, 31
eugenics research funding, 7, 32, 296, 387
in Europe, 245, 298
in Germany, 258
global goals, 235
international conferences, 238
lessening interest in, 385, 391, 401
genetics research funding, 421
medical education survey, 283
purpose, 31
relations with Pearson, 220
Carnegie Institution, Station for Experimental
Evolution (Cold Spring Harbor)
buildings, 40
corresponding scientists, 43-44, 263, 272
criticism of, 392
Davenport at, 40, 105
Davenport's retirement, 386, 388
early years, 43
establishment, 40, 43
foreign scholars at, 240, 241, 244, 314, 419,
420
merger with Eugenics Record Office, 105
postwar changes, 426
proposal, 36-38
relations with German eugenics movement,
262-63, 268-69, 270-72, 273,
392-93
reviews of activities, 389-90
staff, 43
summer biology courses, 46, 51
Carnegie Steel Company, 72
carpal runnel syndrome, 437-38
Carr, Wilbur, 200
Carrel, Alexis, 57
Castellino, Vittorio, 96
Castle, W. E., 412
Catholic Church
charity, 10
opposition to eugenics, 232-33, 293
opposition to sterilization, 70, 232, 233
Cattell, James, 76
cemeteries, white, 172-73
census, German, 309, 311
Census, U.S.
of 1880, 41
of 1890, 202-3, 204, 205
of 1910, 190
of 1920, 159, 186, 205
information requested by eugenics
researchers, 159, 160-61
use of Hollerith machines, 289
Census Bureau, 159, 203
census of state institution inhabitants,
159-60
data on Indians, 176-77
defective, dependent, and delinquent population,
159, 160
number of blind people, 147
relations with eugenics researchers, 159-61
Chamberlain, George, 67
Chamberlain, J. P., 154, 155
Chamberlain, Neville, 227, 228, 233
Chambers, Robert, 247
charity
dysgenic effects, 251
in England, 10-11, 214, 218
historical background, 9- I0
Hitler's rejection of, 27 5
negative views of, 12, 127, 129-30, 138,
210, 222-23
seen as perpetuating poverty, 12, 29
Cheatham, Mrs. Robert H., 169
Cheever, Ezekiel, 200-202
chemical weapons, 258, 276
Chicago
defective baby killed in, 252-54
Municipal Court, 113, 256
Chicago Ame1'ican, 254
Chicago House of Corrections, 79
Chicago Tribune, 253
Childs, Prescott, 293
China, DNA databanks, 429
Chinese Exclusion Act, 22
Chloupek, Joseph, 106
Chloupek, Mary Sullivan, 106
Church, A. G., 233
Churchill, Winston, 71, 215, 403
Civil War, 117-18, 161, 273
Clark, Frank C, 172
Clark, Mrs. Frank C, 171-72
Clark, W. H., 169-70
Clement VII, Pope, 10
Cleveland
multiple births, 350
public schools, 147
clones, 427, 443
CODIS. See Combined National DNA Index
System
Cold Spring Harbor
Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences
biological station, 34
See also Carnegie Institution, Station for
Experimental Evolution; Eugenics
Record Office
Cole, Leon J., 251
College Board, 83
Collier's, 13 3
Colombia, eugenicists in, 238
colonies, 156, 215, 218
Colony for Epileptics and the Feebleminded
(Lynchburg, Virginia), 4, 5-6, 109-10,
113-14, 122, 400
Columbia, Missouri, twins in, 350
Columbia University, 152, 154, 155
Combined National DNA Index System
(CODIS), 429
Commission for Relief in Belgium Educational
Foundation, 241
Commission on Feeblemindedness (Virginia),
108-9, 111
Committee for Legalising Sterilization
(Britain), 228
Committee on Selective Immigration, 192,
198-99
Committee to Prevent Hereditary Blindness,
151, 153, 157
Communism, 186
Comstock, Ada, 99
concentration camps, 313
international awareness of, 343
medical experiments, 331, 365, 380-81
Ravensbruck, 406
twin studies in, 354-61
See also Auschwitz; Buchenwald; Dachau
conferences
First International Congress on Eugenics,
70-73, 207, 213, 217, 235, 263, 264
Second International Congress on
Eugenics, 236-38, 241, 244, 268, 351,
364, 422
Third International Congress of Eugenics
(New York), 245, 298, 419
Congress
House Committee on Immigration and
Naturalization, 187-88, 192-93, 199,
311-12
Laughlin as "Expert Eugenics Agent,"
188-92, 194
racial origins of senators, 204
Senate Immigration Committee, 393-94
congresses, international. See conferences
Connecticut
Biometric ID project, 430
Department of Social Services, 430
institutions, 67-68, 69
sterilization law, 67-68
sterilizations performed, 69
Constitution, U.S., 107-8
Constitutional Convention, 204
constructive eugenics, 135
See also positive eugenics
consuls. See State Department, U.S.
Conti, Leonardo, 339
contraception. See birth control
Coolidge, Calvin, 202, 203-4
Cox, Earnest S., 165-67
Crick, Francis, 426
criminality
environmental conditions and, 24
hereditary, 23-25, 96
criminals
DNA databanks, 429, 439
executions, 250, 258
family histories, 96
names collected in Virginia, 165
in Nazi concentration camps, 367
preventing reproduction, 58
sterilizations, 59, 63-64, 65-67, 68, 69,
122, 211
See also prisons
Crismond, A. H., 175
Cuba, eugenicists in, 238
Czechoslovakia
Aryan children kidnapped by Germans,
406-7
eugenicists, 23 8
eugenic screening of potential U.S. immigrants,
205
Nazi invasion, 313, 323
persecution of Jews, 323

Dachau concentration camp
medical experiments, 367, 381-82
opening of, 299
war crimes trials held at, 320, 328, 329-30,
332, 333-35
Dallas, John T., 99
Danforth, C. R, 342, 344
Danielson, Florence, 54
Danvers State Hospital (Massachusetts), 321,
327
Dartmouth Medical School, 425
Darwin, Charles, 12, 13, 15, 26, 45, 71, 74, 251
Darwin, Leonard, 71, 213, 215, 216-17
data processing. See Hollerith data processing
machines
Davenport, Amzi Benedict, 32, 33
Davenport, Charles
audience with Mussolini, 293
books, 33, 35, 73-75, 255, 272, 349, 386
career, 33
Cold Spring Harbor laboratory, 36-38, 40,
43, 105
criticism of, 99-101, 102-4
data collected, 44-45, 54, 88
death, 387
English eugenicists and, 212, 230
Eugenical News and, 305
Eugenics Record Office and, 89, 105, 106,
412
eugenic views, 36, 37, 75, 416-17
on carriers of defects, 58
on euthanasia, 254
on germ plasm, 364, 386
on heredity, 105-6
identification of unfit, 78
on immigration restrictions, 187
on marriage restrictions, 147, 216
on segregation of unfit, 39, 60, 75
on skin color, 164
on twins, 349, 350
family, 32-33, 385-86
files, 397
Fisher and, 134
Galton and, 34-35, 37, 43-44
in Germany, 287-88
influence on Hitler, 259
Laughlin and, 51, 193-94, 196, 197, 202,
388, 395
Davenport, Charles (continued)
leadership of American eugenics, 32,
34-38, 48, 385
organizational activities
American Breeders Association, 97
American Eugenics Society, 137
Eugenics Research Association, 90, 91
international cooperation, 240, 243, 244
international meetings, 71, 73, 213, 217,
230, 236, 237-38, 279-80, 287
Permanent International Commission
on Eugenics, 238, 239-40
personality, 32, 34, 385
physical appearance, 34
relations with German eugenics movement,
258, 262-63, 267, 268-69,
270-72, 273, 286, 291, 298, 313, 344,
385
research, 55, 56, 88, 255, 263, 386-87
retirement, 386-87, 388
Rockefeller Foundation and, 93
Sanger and, 136, 139, 140
survey of mixed race individuals, 288-89,
290, 350
tribute to Ploetz, 295
whaling museum, 387
Davenport, Charlie, 385-86
Davenport, Gertrude Crotty, 34
Davenport, Jane, 33
Davis, James J., 193, 194, 195, 199, 200, 203,
239
Davis, J. S., 108, 175
deaf individuals
institutions, 147
marriages, 210
number in United States, 160
preventing reproduction, 58
sterilizations in Germany, 299
Deavin, Sadie, 54-55
deCODE Genetics, 439
DeJarnette, Joseph, 7, 112, 114-15, 277
Delaware, marriage restrictions, 146
Delia (Plecker family servant), 162
Denmark
eugenicists, 235, 238, 243-44, 418-20
eugenic screening of potential U.S. immigrants,
195, 205
genetic discrimination legislation, 440
Institute for Human Genetics, 418, 420-21
marriage restrictions, 243
Nazi occupation, 407
sterilization law, 243
sterilization proposals, 420
Dennis, David, 150-51
Denson, William, 334
designer babies, 442
detention, forcible. See segregation of unfit
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. See German
Research Society
Dickens, Charles, 11
Dight Institute, University of Minnesota, 397
Dina (Auschwitz inmate), 357
Ding-Schuler, Erwin, 329-30
diplomats. See State Department, U.S.
disabilities, people with
preventing reproduction, 58
See also blind individuals; deaf individuals;
unfit
DNA
analysis in criminal investigations, 429-30,
439
databanks, 429-30, 439-40
double helix, 426
fingerprints of soldiers, 430
uses of information, 429-32, 439
See also genetics
Dobbs, J. T., 109, 113, 122
Dodge, Cleveland H., 31, 238
Dodge Foundation, 422
Dolly (cloned sheep), 427
Donald, Mary, 6
Dora works, 329
Dow Chemical, 437
Drange-Graebe, Mary, 53
Draper, John, 351-52
Draper, Wickliffe, 288-89
Draper Fund, 422
Dugdale, Richard, 24, 25, 64, 272
Dumbock (SS lieutenant), 326-27
Dunn, L. c., 391-92, 412, 412-13
Duvall, John c., 138

East, Edward, 138, 228
Eaton, Amey, 53
Eberhard-Karls University, Tubingen, 383-84
Eliot, Thomas D., 102-3
Elizabeth City County, Virginia, 162-63
Ellinger, Tage U.H., 354, 414-16
Ellis Island, 23, 78
Emergency Fund for German Science
(Notgemeinchaft der Deutschen
Wissenschaften), 295, 307, 364, 365
See also German Research Society
employers, genetic testing by, 437-38, 440
Energy, Department of, 437
England
charitable institutions for poor, 10-11, 218
costs of maintaining unfit, 226
DNA analysis, 430
DNA databanks, 429, 440
eugenic screening of potential U.S. immigrants,
196, 198, 205, 222
genetic testing and discrimination, 433-35
geographic distribution of pretty women,
442
illegal sterilizations, 211, 230-32
immigrants, 22, 207
insurance industry, 433-35, 436
intelligence testing, 76, 226
Jews in, 196
laws
Defective and Epileptic Children Act,
214
Idiots Act, 2 14
inheritance, 212
Lunacy Act, 214
Mental Deficiency Act, 214, 215,
216-18, 227
poor laws, 10-11, 214, 220-21, 222
lethal chambers in, 247-49
Ministry of Health, 211, 227, 228, 230,
231, 232, 233
National DNA Database, 429
number of feebleminded, 132
number of unfit, 226-27
primogeniture, 212
social problems, 207, 209
England, eugenics in
American influence, 207, 208-10, 212,
224-26
comparison to American movement, 208,
219
debate on murder of unfit, 248-49
family investigations, 211-12, 216, 220,
221
international cooperation, 238
lack of public support, 211-12, 226, 234
lack of scientific foundation, 28-29
marriage restriction proposals, 211, 216,
217, 218
postwar changes, 425
preventing reproduction of unfit, 210-11
research, 212-13, 219-22
segregation proposals, 210, 211, 214,
215-18, 226
sterilization proposals, 210, 214-15,
233-34
debates on, 226
illegality, 211, 230
lack of public support, 232, 300
lobbying for law, 227-29
opposition to, 211, 226, 227, 232, 233,
234
successors of Galton, 207, 209
view of American eugenics, 99-100
See also Eugenics Education Society;
Eugenics Society; Galton, Francis].
epilepsy
causes, 55
definitions, 56
hereditary, 55, 322
Katzen-Ellenbogen's research, 91, 321-22
link to feeblemindedness, 55
Nazi research, 367-68
epileptics
data collected on, 54-56
deaths in institutions, 256
efforts to identify and prevent reproduction,
56
institutions, 4, 54-55, 91, 98, 108, 256,
322, 327
Laughlin as, 395
marriage restrictions, 146
names collected in Virginia, 165
preventing reproduction, 58
seen as feebleminded, 55, 108
sterilizations, 5, 231, 299, 322
equality, 237, 238
ERA. See Eugenics Research Association
Der Erbarzt (The Genetic Doctor), 339, 346, 347,
362
Erbkrank (The Hereditarily Diseased), 315-16,
393
ERO. See Eugenics Record Office
Estabrook, A. H., 53, 238
Estonia Genome Project, 439
ethnic groups
conflicts, 22, 186-87
eugenic ratings, 282
immigration quotas, 202-5
melting pot concept, 22, 134
ethnic groups (continued)
seen as inferior, 29-30, 35, 44-45, 134
stereotypes of, 35
See also race
Eugenical News
advisory committee, 344
articles, 105, 180, 256-57, 267
book reviews, 166
on eyes, 361
by German eugenicists, 282
German sterilization law, 300
on hereditary blindness, 147
on Hitler, 298
on interstate deportation, 157
on marriage restriction laws, 155
on Nazi eugenics, 304-6, 314-15,
341-42, 352-53, 388, 389, 392-93
news from Germany, 281, 282-83, 286,
295, 297, 304-6, 364
news from other countries, 240-41, 243,
244, 266
on racial integrity laws, 174, 175, 178
reviews of German books, 273, 282, 297,
302, 343
on sterilization, 211
on twin research, 349, 350-51, 365
criticism of Nazis, 418
distancing of Carnegie Institution, 391,
394
editorial committee, 305
editorial on Sanger, 135
focus on race science, 280-81
foreign readership, 305-6
on future of eugenics, 416-17
Howe obituary, 158
Laughlin as editor, 98, 280-81, 305, 389
Laughlin's obituary, 395
launching of, 98
name change, 425
postwar changes, 417-18
publication by American Eugenics Society,
394, 424
racial references to Jews, 282-83
subtitles, 280-81, 300, 412
topics covered, 98-99
during World War II, 422
eugenics
definitions, 18
distinction from genetics, 391-92
Galton's contributions, 15-17
goals, 7
historical background, 9-13
international cooperation, 70, 23 5-40
lack of scientific foundation, 27, 99-100,
296, 391, 414, 423
term, 16
transition to genetics, 411-14, 417-18,
422-26
See also American eugenics; England,
eugenics in; Nazi eugenics; negative
eugenics
Eugenics (journal), 138-40, 174
eugenics curriculum, 75-76
Eugenics Education Society (EES)
activities, 212, 214-18, 219, 220-22, 226
debate on murder of unfit, 248-49
focus on negative eugenics, 70
founding, 210
invitations to international congresses, 71
lack of funds, 212, 223-24
Laughlin's visit, 196
leaders, 213
lobbying by, 214-15, 226, 227-29
mission, 212
publications, 223
relations with American organizations,
224-25
research, 223-24
warning on illegality of sterilizations, 211
See also England, eugenics in; Eugenics
Society
Eugenics Laboratory, 27, 60
Eugenics Quarterly, 425
Eugenics Record Office (ERO)
Board of Scientific Directors, 89-90,
93-94, 104-5
buildings, 51, 396
Carnegie Institution and, 47-48
closing of, 395-96, 413
criticism of, 99-101, 388, 390-91
data collected, 76, 388, 390-91, 396-97,
425
data collection process, 52-55, 56, 106-7,
165, 289, 291
Davenport's office, 386
draft laws on people with vision problems,
149-50
establishment, 45
estimated number of unfit, 216
family pedigrees
of blind people, 148
collection of, 105, 106, 290, 396-97, 398
family folders, 106
family trait booklets, 106
forms, 44, 239-40, 398
field investigators, 52-55, 80, 96-97,
179-80
foreign scholars at, 419, 420
funding, 46-47
global goals, 61
Harriman funding, 47, 48, 51, 56-57,
94-95, 96, 105, 238
hereditary tuberculosis data, 255
identification of unfit Americans, 52-55, 56
influence abroad, 213
Laughlin as superintendent, 51, 52, 390
letters received after closing, 396, 397-98
marriage restriction laws, 147, 156
political advocacy activities, 46
purpose, 45, 48
reforms, 388
relationship to Carnegie Institution, 105,
388-97, 412, 413
relations with German eugenics movement,
265, 267, 272, 313, 315-16, 342
review of activities, 390-91
songs, 123
study of sterilization in foreign countries,
235
twin studies, 350, 361-Q2
unscientific methods, 106-7
See also Laughlin, Harry Hamilton
Eugenics Research Association (ERA)
birth control movement and, 137-38
census data requested, 160
charter members, 90, 91, 322
establishment, 90
Eugenics Record Office and, 388
meetings, 266-67
members, 412
political advocacy activities, 90
presidents, 146, 158, 193, 257, 314-15,
343, 413-14
publications, 389
relations with German eugenics movement,
313, 342
survey of mixed race individuals, 289
Eugenics Review, 216-18, 22 5, 267
Eugenics Society
activities, 226, 233-34
endowments, 229
lobbying by, 226, 227-29
mission, 212
name change, 22 5
postwar changes, 425
relations with American organizations,
225, 229-30
sterilization proposals, 233, 300
See also England, eugenics in; Eugenics
Education Society
eugenics textbooks, 53, 255
by Davenport, 73-75
by Dunn, 412
German, 270, 272-73, 296-97, 351
in high schools, 75-76
by Johnson and Popenoe, 137, 255, 258,
351
read by Hitler, 259, 272-73
twin information, 349, 351
in universities, 75
euthanasia
debates on, 248-52
in Nazi Germany, 317
by neglect and abuse, 255-56
support for, 60, 247, 248
See also murders of unfit
Evian Conference, 343, 393
evolution, 12, 13
executions, 250, 258
See also murders of unfit
Extermination by Labor, 329
eyes
colors, 273, 359
hereditary defects, 361
medical experiments in concentration
camps, 331, 359, 376
of twins, 361-63
vision problems, 149-52
See also blindness

Fairchild, Henry Pratt, 134, 137, 141
families
carriers of defects, 58, 296, 308, 363-66
segregation of, 215-18
superior, 46, 135, 137, 139, 301
of unfit, 24-25, 58, 59, J 52-53, 215-18
See also heredity
family investigations
by Plecker, 169-72, 177-79, 180-81
of poor, 220, 221
of potential U.S. immigrants, 187, 188,
189, 192, 193, 194-99, 205
Family Life, 379
family pedigrees
of blind people, 148
collected by Eugenics Record Office, 105,
106, 290, 396-97, 398
collected by Nazis, 331, 342-43, 405
of criminals, 96
eugenic registries, 88, 165
Eugenics Record Office forms, 44, 239-40,
398
genetic profiles, 431, 432
of German Jews, 311, 316, 407-9
of immigrants, 189
medical histories, 431-32, 435-36, 438
of superior families, 46
in Tasmania, 440
use of genetic information, 432-37
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 429
Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in
America, 307
feebleminded individuals
British policies, 214
in concentration camps, 367
conferences on, 80
costs of maintaining, 39, 153, 226, 228-29
executing, 250, 251
identification, 78, 196, 201
institutions, 4, 11, 254-55, 256, 257
life expectancies, 257
marriage restrictions, 146
morons, 78, 79, 85, 189
names collected in Virginia, 165
Nazi gassing of (T-4 project), 312-13, 317,
339, 369, 382-83
number in England, 226-27
number in United States, 132
preventing reproduction, 58
segregation of, 214, 215
See also sterilizations, of feebleminded
feeblemindedness
definitions, 77, 78-79, 94, 96, 257
hereditary, 77
link to epilepsy, 55, 108
feminists
Sanger as, 142-43
support of eugenics, 22, 127-28
Field, James, 57
Fifth International Congress on Genetics
(Berlin), 287
Filipinos, 175-76
films
The Black Stork, 257-58
Erbkrank (The Hereditarily Diseased),
315-16, 393
fingerprints, 15, 431
Finland
eugenicists, 245
genetic discrimination legislation, 440
sterilizations, 245
First American Birth Control Conference, 134,
136
First International Congress on Eugenics
(London), 70-73, 207, 213, 217, 235,
263, 264
First National Conference on Race Betterment,
88-89, 249, 251
Fischer, Eugen, 263, 265-66, 272
articles in American journals, 281
audience with Mussolini, 293
Davenport and, 287, 291, 294, 298
Eugenical News advisory committee, 344
Foundation of Human Heredity and Race
Hygiene, 270, 272-73, 296-97, 351
at international meetings, 279, 280
involvement in Nazi eugenics, 300,
316-17, 339, 347, 354
at Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for
Anthropology, Human Heredity, and
Eugenics, 286, 288
national anthropological survey, 294-95
postwar attacks on, 378
retirement, 347
at Society for Racial Hygiene, 302
support for sterilizations, 297
Fisher, Agnes, 399
Fisher, Irving, 57, 89, 103-4, 134, 136-37, 224
Fisher, Ronald A., 221-22, 223, 351
Fletcher, Robert, 25
Flexner, Abraham, 283-84, 285
Florida State Reformatory, 291
Ford, Henry, 50-51
Forel, Auguste, 242, 243, 257
Fosdick, Raymond, 313, 314, 365
France
African soldiers in army, 267, 271, 275, 305
eugenicists, 235, 238, 239
eugenic screening of potential U.S. immigrants,
196-97
genetic discrimination legislation, 440
Nazi occupation, 323, 407
occupation of German lands after World
War I, 267, 269, 271, 305
Frank, Hans, 404
Frankenfish, 443
Frankfurt University, 340
Frazer, Robert, 197
Frazier, Charles, 398
"Free Issue" Negroes, 170, 171
Free World, 403-4
French Canadians, 241, 242
Frick, Wilhelm, 304, 305, 314, 353, 354, 394,
404
Fritzche, Hans, 404

Gailor, Thomas F., 99
Galton, Francis J., 73, 207
Bateson and, 27, 28
books, 15, 16, 18, 28
counting by, 14-15
data collected, 16-17
Davenport and, 34-35, 37, 43-44
death, 19, 70
distribution of pretty women in England,
442
education, 14
Eugenics Education Society and, 212
eugenics work, 15-17, 18, 28, 70, 72, 209,
219-20, 411, 418
fingerprints, 15, 431
German eugenicists and, 264
Hereditary Genius, 15, 18
on House of Lords, 212
on human breeding, 28
influence, 35
intelligence testing, 76
marginalization, 208, 209, 213
on marriage restrictions, 18-19, 28, 211
physical appearance, 14
research, 15
twin studies, 348-49, 351
Galton Institute, 425
Galton Laboratory, 99, 212-13, 220, 425
Gaupp, Robert, 369
genealogies. See family pedigrees
genelining, 436, 442
General Accounting Office, 400
genes
defective, 296
early study of, 412
See also DNA; genetics; heredity
Genetic Anti-Discrimination Bill, 440
genetic counseling, 411, 421, 423, 431
genetic discrimination, 433-35, 436-38,
440-41, 443-44
genetic identity, 429-32, 439-40
genetics
designer babies, 442
distinction from eugenics, 391-92
eugenics transformed into, 411-14,
417-18, 422-26
future of, 428-29, 431, 441-44
history of field, 26, 411-12
medical, 421-22, 423, 424, 425
See also DNA
Genetics Record Office, 396
See also Eugenics Record Office
genetics research
cloning, 427, 443
corporate involvement, 428
current, 426, 427-28
funding, 424-25
Human Genome Project, 437, 441
Rockefeller funding, 370
transgenic creatures, 443
genetic testing
access to results, 434
discrimination based on, 433-35, 436-37,
440-41
by employers, 437-38, 440
privacy of information, 437
of twins in Nazi Germany, 353-54
genetic therapies, 441
genocide
definition, 404-5
international treaty, 404-5
Nazi eugenics as, 405-9, 411
techniques, 403-4
term coined by Lemkin, 402
German-American Hospital, Chicago, 252-54
German eugenics
American financial support, 7
definitions of Jews, 310-12
international cooperation, 235
isolation after World War I, 267-68
leadership of international movement, 230
national anthropological survey, 294-95
negative eugenics, 261-62
negative view of Jews, 282-83, 294, 295,
296-97, 338-39
Nordic superiority, 70, 239
organizations, 262, 263-64
publisher, 273
race biological index, 282
race biology, 259
racial hygiene, 262
German eugenics (continued)
refusal to cooperate with French and
Belgians after World War 1, 238, 239,
258, 267-69
relations with Nazis, 297-98
research, 224, 229, 283, 419
Rockefeller funding, 7, 297, 298, 302, 313,
364-65
sterilization proposals, 261, 265, 339
textbooks, 270, 272-73, 296-97, 351
twin studies, 297, 350, 352-54
See also American eugenics, relations with
German eugenics movement; Nazi
eugenics
German Medical Association, 339
German Psychiatry Institute, 285, 286
German Research Society (Deutsche
Forschungsgemeinschaft), 346, 353, 354,
355, 360, 362, 364, 365, 367, 369
See also Emergency Fund for German
Science
Germans, stereotypes of, 35
Germany
allied occupation, 376, 377-78
anti-Semitism in, 297, 302
DNA databanks, 429
eugenic screening of potential U.S. immigrants,
205
medical education in, 283, 340
Ministry of the Interior, 285, 287, 304, 311
mixed race individuals, 267
nationalists, 266, 267, 338
Treaty of Versailles, 238, 267, 269, 271
war reparations, 267, 268, 271
Weimar Republic, 266-67, 268, 269
See also German eugenics; Jews, in
Germany; Nazis
germ plasm, 17, 18, 25, 73
carriers of defects, 58, 363-66
defective, 58, 386
Gesellschaft fur Rassenhygiene. See Society for
Racial Hygiene
Gestapo, 316, 323
Gildon, Mary, 169
Giuliani, Rudolph, 439
Goddard, Henry, 76-79
classification of feeblemindedness, 77,
78-79, 94, 257
estimated number of feebleminded, 132
Eugenics Record Office and, 94, 150
intelligence testing, 78-79, 80, 90, 226, 243
The Kallikak Family, 76-77, 107, 243, 250,
272
on morons, 78, 85
relations with German eugenics movement,
342
at Vineland, 76, 91, 243
Goebbels, Joseph, 299, 318
Goethe, C. M., 277, 315, 343, 344, 379
Goldsborough, Phillip L., 71
Goodman, Aileen, 178
Goodrich, C. L., 97
Gordon, Alfred, 351
Gosney, E. S., 277, 342
Govaerts, Albert, 195, 241, 255
Grant, Madison, 30, 31, 83, 167
Committee on Selective Immigration, 192
Eugenics Research Association and, 90-91
influence in Germany, 259, 273, 274-75,
298
international eugenics congresses, 236
Laughlin and, 305
on Nordic race, 29
The Passing of the Great Race, 82, 90,
251-52, 259, 266, 273, 274-75
reaction to alliance with American Birth
Control League, 139-40
support of immigration restrictions, 188
Great Britain. See England
greenlining, 436
Gregg, Alan, 308
Greunuss, Werner, 33 1
Gypsies
in concentration camps, 358, 359, 363, 366,
367
eye colors, 363
medical experiments, 366
Nazi persecution of, 316
twins, 358, 359

Haase, Irmgard, 366
Haber, Fritz, 285
Hahn, Otto, 376
Haiselden, Harry, 252-54, 255, 256, 257
Hale, Howard, 4
Hall, Gertrude, 96
Hallervorden, Julius, 369, 382-83
Hallervorden-Spatz Syndrome, 369, 382-83
Hallervorden-Spatz Syndrome Association,
382-83
Hamilton, Mascott, 171
Hanley, J. Frank, 66-67
Hansen, C.C., 293
Hansen, Soren, 243
Harding, Warren G., 193
Harrell, D. L., Jr., 5
Harriman, E. H., 46
Harriman, Mary, 46, 47
Harriman, Mary (Mrs. E. H.)
criticism of, 101-2
Davenport and, 46-47, 48, 49, 140
funding of Eugenics Record Office, 47, 48,
51, 56-57, 94-95, 96, 105, 238
international eugenics congresses, 236
Harris, J. Arthur, 191
Harvard University, 33, 117, 119
eugenics courses, 75
Howe Laboratory for Ophthalmology, 146
Havemann, Robert, 376, 379
Hays, Willet M., 39-40, 47
Healy, William, 53
Hearst newspapers, 101-4, 254
Hebberd, Robert, 95
Heidelberg, University of, 312, 342, 383
Heidinger, Willi, 309-10
Henry VIII, King of England, 10
hereditary disorders
carpal tunnel syndrome, 437-38
classification, 58
epilepsy, 55, 322
feeblemindedness, 77
genetic counseling, 431
insanity, 295-96
insurance industry records of, 431-32
tuberculosis, 241, 255
vision problems, 361
See also blindness; genetic discrimination
heredity
carriers of defects, 58, 296, 308, 363-66
of character traits, 17, 74, 105-6
of criminality, 23-25, 96
dominant and recessive traits, 26
environmental factors and, 27, 339, 348-49
Galton's views, 15
Mendelian theories, 13, 25-26, 36, 39, 101,
208, 411
of physical traits, 17, 27
role of germ plasm, 17, 18, 25
study of, 13
theories, 17-18
See also genetics
Herndon, C. Nash, 421
Heron, David, 99-100
Hess, Rudolf, 270, 318
HGC. See Human Genetics Commission
High Teams institution (London), 230-32
Hill, Joseph, 159
Himmler, Heinrich, 354, 355, 366
Hindenburg, Paul von, 299
Hindus, 176
Hirschhorn, Kurt, 379-80
Hitler, Adolf
American admirers, 297, 298
anti-Semitism, 269-70, 311
Beer Hall Putsch, 269, 273-74
eugenics texts read by, 259
eugenic views, 259-60, 269-70, 274-77,
280, 297, 307, 318, 367, 403
imprisonment, 259-60, 269
influence of American eugenicists, 259,
274-76, 277, 298
meeting with Stoddard, 318
Mein Kampf, 270, 274, 276, 318, 354, 394
as national Physician, 309
rise to power, 277, 297, 298-99
suicide, 375
in World War 1, 276
See also Nazis
Hitlerschnitte (Hitler's cut), 304
Hodson, Cora, 223, 224-25, 226, 229-30
Hofmann, Otto, 405, 407-9
Holland
DNA databanks, 429
eugenicists, 238, 240, 245, 279
eugenic screening of potential U.S. immigrants,
205
Nazi occupation, 407
Hollerith data processing machines,
289-90
proposed eugenics use, 293-94, 310
use in Jamaica survey, 290, 291
use in Nazi Germany, 309, 311
See also IBM
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 209
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr., 117-22, 315,
401-2, 409
Holmes, Samuel]., 224
Holocaust. See concentration camps; Jews, in
Germany; Nazi eugenics
Holt, Henry, 181
homeland security, 430-31
homosexuals, in concentration camps, 324, 367
Hong Kong, genetic discrimination, 438
Hoover, Herbert, 203, 205
Hoover, J. Edgar, 187
Hottentots, 263, 265-66
House Committee on Immigration and
Naturalization, 187-88, 192-93, 199,
311-12
Howe, Lucien, 145-46
Committee on Selective Immigration and,
192
death, 158
eugenics work, 146, 158
interstate deportation of unfit, 156-57
laboratory, 344
prevention of hereditary blindness, 147-49,
151, 152-55, 237
support of immigration restrictions, 187
widow, 396
Hughes, Charles Evans, 200
Human Betterment Foundation, 277, 281, 342
Human Betterment League of North Carolina,
425
Human Genetics Commission (HGC), 434
Human Genetics League of North Carolina,
425
Human Genome Project, 437, 441
Hungary, eugenicists in, 245
Hunter, George William, 75-76
Huntington's chorea, 54, 299, 431
Hurty, J.N., 65-66
hygiene and sanitary movement, 262

IBM
German subsidiary, 309-10
Iceland DNA databank project, 439
systems designed for Nazi Germany,
290-91, 308-10, 311, 339
See also Hollerith data processing machines
Icarian Colony, 261
Iceland, national DNA databank, 439
IFEO. See International Federation of Eugenic
Organizations
Illinois Institution for the Feebleminded
(Lincoln, IL), 254-55, 256, 257
Illinois sterilization law, 67
immigrants
to England, 22, 207
eugenic selection of, 239
to United States
ethnic groups seen as inferior, 29-30
eugenic screening in home countries,
187, 188, 189, 192, 193, 194-99, 205
family pedigree investigations, 189,
194-98, 199
feebleminded children, 132
intelligence testing, 78, 83, 196
Irish, 30, 35, 78, 95
Italian, 83, 9~ 187, 202
Jews, 74, 78, 83, 95, 191, 273
melting pot concept, 22, 35
Nordic race preferred, 188, 192, 203
number of blue-eyed recruits, 186
opposition to immigration restrictions,
191-92, 203
southern and eastern European, 29-30,
74, 78, 190, 192, 202
undesirable, 185
Immigration Act of 1924, 202-5, 275
Immigration Restriction League, 188
immigration restrictions
in foreign countries, 185
in United States
Chinese Exclusion Act, 22
debates on, 185-86
easing in 1952, 205
eugenic principles in, 185
on Jews, 311-12, 393, 394
Laughlin's support of, 88, 187, 188-89,
311-12, 387-88, 393, 394
opposition to, 191-92, 203, 204
quotas, 189, 190, 192-93, 202-5, 275,
311-12, 394
reactive, 188
support for, 22-23, 45, 134, 187
The Independent, 254
Indiana
Committee on Mental Defectives, 96-97
legislature, 96-97
poor and homeless, 25, 53, 64-65
State Board of Health, 65
sterilizations, 63-64, 209, 211
Tribe of Ishmael, 25, 53, 65, 237
Indiana Reformatory, 63-64, 65-67, 148
Indian Citizenship Act, 177
Indian Health Service, 400
Indians. See American Indians
Industrial Alliance, 435
iNeurology, 382
inherited diseases. See hereditary disorders
inmates. See prisons
Innes, Alfred Mitchell, 71
insane
census statistics, 159
costs of maintaining, 39
executing, 250
institutions, 52
marriage restrictions, 146
names collected in Virginia, 165
preventing reproduction, 58
insanity
conferences on, 80
epilepsy and, 55
hereditary, 295-96
preventing, 80
Institute for Hereditary Biology and Racial
Hygiene (Frankfurt), 341-43, 344, 345,
346, 352-53
Institute for Heredity Research (Potsdam), 267
Institute for Human Genetics (Copenhagen),
418, 420-21
Institute for Racial Hygiene (Munich), 316
Institution for Race Biology (Switzerland),
242-43
Institution Quarterly, 255
institutions
for blind, 148, 153
census of inhabitants, 159-60
conditions in, 254-55, 256
costs, 39, 130, 147, 153
data gathered in, 52, 161
deinstitutionalization, 227
in England, 227
for epileptics, 4, 54-55, 91, 98, 108, 256,
322, 327
mortality rates, 255, 256, 257
national origins of residents, 190-91
surveys of, 201
See also segregation of unfit
insurance industry
access to genetic information, 434, 435,
436
asymmetrical information, 432-33
Medical Information Bureau, 431-32,
435-36
use of genetic information, 432-37, 440
intelligence tests
Army tests, 80-82, 83, 84, 132, 201, 279
Binet-Simon test, 76, 78
criticism of, 80, 84-85
development of, 76
in England, 226
of Goddard, 78-79, 80, 90, 226, 243
identifying feebleminded, 196, 201
immigrant screening, 78, 83, 196
improving scores, 76
IQ, 82, 83, 84
racial differences, 79, 81, 82-84, 85
social use of, 83-84
spread of, 79
Stanford-Binet test, 81, 82, 84
Yerkes-Bridge Point Scale, 80
International Actuarial Association, 436
International Commission on Eugenics, 134
International Congress Against Alcoholism, 285
International Congress of Genetics
(Edinburgh), 346
International Congress of Hygiene, 267
international cooperation, 70, 23 5-40
See also conferences; International
Eugenics Commission; International
Federation of Eugenic Organizations
International DNA Users Conference, 430
International Eugenic Committee, 235-36, 238
International Eugenic Congress, Committee on
Immigration, 146
International Eugenics Commission, 238-40,
243, 264, 268-69, 272
International Federation of Eugenic
Organizations (IFEO), 240, 244, 258,
264
Committee on Race Crossing, 279, 291,
292, 293, 294
Committee on Racial Psychiatry, 295
Germans included in, 279, 286, 288, 302,
341
Munich meeting, 286
Rome meeting, 279-80, 293
Zurich meeting, 304
International Health Exhibition (London),
16-17
International Hygiene Exhibition, 264
International Planned Parenthood Federation,
144
International Society for Race Hygiene, 264
International Space Hall of Fame, 382
Interpol, 430
interracial marriages
of American Indians, 146, 168, 176, 177-79
preventing, 163
restrictions on, 146, 165, 174-76, 400-401
See also mixed race individuals
interstate deportation, 156-57
in vitro fertilization, 427
Iowa
Icarian Colony, 261
Iowa (continued)
legislature, 250
sterilization law, 68
IQ tests, 82, 83, 84
See also intelligence tests
Ireland
eugenic screening of potential U.S. immigrants,
205
immigrants from, 30, 35, 78, 95
Ishmael, Tribe of, 25, 53, 65, 23 7
Italy
eugenicists, 235, 238, 245
eugenic screening of potential U.S. immigrants,
195-96, 198, 205
immigrants from, 83, 96, 187, 202
Mussolini's rule, 293
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Re: War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to

Postby admin » Mon Aug 11, 2014 7:12 am

PART 2 OF 2

Jacob, 13
Jacobson, Bertha, 290
JAMA. See Journal of the American Medical
Association
Jamaica, survey of mixed race individuals,
288-89, 290, 291, 350
Java, mixed race individuals, 279
Jeffreys, Sir Alec, 439
Jehovah's Witnesses, 367
Jesus Christ, 10, 13
Jeter, Mildred, 400-401
Jewish question, 297, 340
Jews
in Africa, 295
blindness, 301
in England, 196
German eugenicists' views of, 282-83, 294,
295, 296-97, 338-39
in Germany
Christian converts, 323
definition of, 310-12, 315
from eastern Europe, 27 5
elimination as Nazi goal, 318, 347, 415
family pedigrees, 311, 316, 407-9
Final Solution, 407-8
Hitler's view of, 270
IBM system to collect data, 290-91,
308-10, 311, 340
international criticism of Nazi persecution,
304
international reaction to persecution,
311
Kristallnacht, 316, 344, 393
Mischling (mixed breeds), 311
Nazi persecution of, 277, 299, 304, 306,
308-9, 311, 316-17, 318, 343, 407-9
Nuremberg Laws, 311, 312, 323, 339,
345, 392-93
physicians, 306, 307, 308
Ploetz's view of, 262
refugees, 299, 304, 305, 306, 393
registration of, 340
sterilizations, 407-8
twins at Auschwitz, 355-61
hereditary disorders, 343
marriages
consanguineous, 282
to non-Jews, 280
Mengele's identification of, 345
physical characteristics, 415-16
in Poland, 395
positive views of, 262
racial stereotypes of, 316
in United States
immigrants, 74, 78, 83, 95, 191, 273
immigration restrictions, 311-12, 393,
394
intelligence testing, 83
See also anti-Semitism; concentration
camps
Johnson, Albert, 187-90, 191, 192-93, 194, 199,
201, 202, 203, 311-12
Johnson, Roswell, 137, 139
Applied Eugenics, 137, 255, 258, 351
Johnstone, E. R., 250
Jordan, David Starr, 65, 70, 71, 210, 213, 222,
223
Jost, Alfred, 262
Journal of Delinquency, 78
Journal of Heredity
articles, 161, 265-66
on blindness, 147, 149
on German eugenics, 281, 414-16
on immigration restrictions, 188
news from Germany, 286
reviews of German books, 273, 341, 352
on twin research, 350, 351, 352, 353, 354
current mission, 425-26
topics covered, 412
Journal of Sociology, 160
Journal of the American Medical Association
(JAMA), 63, 73, 211, 281-82
criticism of Nazis, 313
Nazi propaganda published in, 301-2
news from Germany, 286, 341, 342-43,
352
Juhan, Joseph, 398-99
Jukes family, 24, 25, 64, 281
Julius Klaus Foundation for Heredity Research,
Social Anthropology and Racial
Hygiene, 242-43
Juvenile Psychopathic Institute (Chicago), 53

Kahler, Hans, 375
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology,
Human Heredity, and Eugenics
cover-up of wartime activities, 375
Ellinger's visit, 414-16
establishment, 286
exhibits at international conferences, 298
Fischer as director, 286, 288
funding, 283, 286-87
involvement in mass sterilization, 300
Jewish doctor at, 308
medical research, 367-68
Nazi control, 316
Rockefeller funding, 297, 302
twin studies, 297, 302, 354, 359, 360-61,
364, 414, 415, 420
Verschuer at, 339-40, 341, 347-48, 420
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology, 297-98,
369
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain Research,
283, 288, 302-3, 368-69, 379, 382,
419-20
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical
Chemistry and Electrochemistry, 369-70
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics, 283
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Psychiatry, 283,
285, 286, 296, 306-7, 308, 369
Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes
American funding, 283, 288
development of, 283, 284
Nazi control, 302-3, 306-7, 316
Rockefeller funding, 285, 296, 306-7, 313,
369-70, 419-20
Kaiser Wilhelm Society, 283, 284
Kallikak family, 76-77, 107
Kansas, sterilizations in, 63, 122, 209
Kansas Home for the Feebleminded, 63
Katzen-Ellenbogen, Edwin, 91-93, 319-24
at Buchenwald, 319-21, 325-31, 332-35
education, 321
expertise in fake symptoms, 321, 332
as hypnotist, 331
Jewish ancestry, 92, 321
murders by injection, 330
as prisoner, 323-24
as psychologist, 92, 326-27
son, 92
study of epilepsy, 91, 321-22
testimony against other doctors, 332-33
trial, 328, 329-30, 332, 333-35
Katzen-Ellenbogen, Marie Pierce, 91-92, 321
Keeler, Clyde, 344
Kellogg, Frank, 203
Kellogg, John Harvey, 88, 238
Kellogg, V. L., 75
Kellogg, Will, 88
Kellogg Company, 88
Kemp, Tage, 243-44, 418-20
Kennedy, Helena, 434
Kenya, 293
Kidder, A. v., 389-90
Kiep, Otto, 300
Kirksville, Missouri, 49, 50, 395
Klaus, Julius, 242
Klein, Zvi, 355-56
Knorr, George W., 97
Knox, P. c., 71, 72
Kogon, Eugen, 329-30, 333
Kommando 22a, 331
Kopp, Marie, 315
Kranz, Heinrich, 353
Kriegel, Vera, 362
Kristallnacht, 316, 344, 393
Kuhn, Alfred, 308
Ku Klux Klan, 186
Kupas, Eva, 357

Labor, Department of, 193, 194, 197, 198, 199
labor camps, Nazi, 324, 329, 347
See also concentration camps
Lait, Jack, 257
Lambert, Robert, 302-3
Lancashire Asylums Board, 210
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 53
Lancet, 382
Lang, Theodore, 307
Laski, Harold J., 120
Laughlin, Deborah, 49
Laughlin, George, 49
Laughlin, Harry Hamilton
campaign to prevent blindness, 152-53,
157
career, 49-50
Laughlin, Harry Hamilton (continued)
census and, 160, 161
concerns about speeches and beliefs, 185,
191-92, 193-94, 198, 200-202,
387-88
congressional testimony, 189, 191, 199,
202, 393-94
as consultant to Municipal Court of
Chicago, 256
data collected, 53, 106, 361-62
Davenport and, 51, 193-94, 196, 197, 202,
388, 395
death, 395
deposition in Buck case, 115-16
epilepsy bulletin, 55
epilepsy of, 395
as Eugenical News editor, 98, 280-81, 305,
389
at Eugenics Record Office, 51, 52
eugenic views, 88-89, 193
on carriers of defects, 58
on immigration restrictions, 88, 187,
188-89, 311-12, 387-88, 393, 394
on marriage restrictions, 155, 156
on Nazi eugenics, 304-5
racial classifications, 161-62, 190
social inadequacy concept, 159-60, 189,
225
on sterilization, 88
European tour, 194-98, 199, 222, 238-39,
241
as "Expert Eugenics Agent" for Congress,
188-92, 194
family, 49
Fisher and, 134
Harriman and, 94-95
influence in Germany, 312, 342
model sterilization law, 113, 121
organizational activities
ABA Eugenic Section, 57, 250-51
American Eugenics Society, 137
Committee on Selective Immigration,
192, 198-99
Eugenics Research Association, 90, 160,
266-67, 389
international cooperation, 238-39, 240,
241
International Federation of Eugenic
Organizations, 286
at international meetings, 236
Plecker and, 174, 175
racial origins of senators investigated, 204
racism, 191-92, 201, 387-88, 394
rejection of charity, 222-23
relations with German eugenics movement,
265, 266-67, 315-16, 342, 388,
392, 394
removal of, 388-92
residence, 51, 52, 390
retirement, 395
ridicule of, 200-202, 387-88
Sanger and, 136-37
self-promotion, 50-51
speeches in England, 22 5
state sterilization laws compilation, 113,
243
study of hereditary blindness, 147, 148
survey of state institutions, 159-60, 20 I
writings, 50-51
See also Eugenics Record Office
Laughlin, Pansy, 50, 52, 195, 390
law enforcement, DNA analysis and databanks,
429-30, 439
Lawton, Henry, 231
League of Nations, 68-69
Lebensborn, 405
Lehmann, Julius, 273-74, 295
Lehmanns Verlag, 273, 282, 292, 302
Leipzig University, 345
Lemkin, Raphael, 402-4
Lenz, Fritz, 272
articles in American journals, 281, 282
Foundation of Human Heredity and Race
Hygiene, 270, 272-73, 296-97, 351
involvement in Nazi eugenics, 316, 317,
347
relations with American eugenicists, 394
research, 308
lethal chambers
animals euthanized in, 247
criminal executions, 258
in England, 247-49
support in birth control movement, 251
use on unfit, 276
Libby, G. F., 151
Lidbetter, Ernest J., 221, 222, 223, 224, 229
Lidice, Czechoslovakia, 406-7
Lincoln. See Illinois Institution for the
Feebleminded
Lincoln, Abraham, 118
Lippmann, Walter, 84
Lithuania, marriage restrictions, 245
Little, Clarence C., 137
Loeb, Clarence, 151, 285
London
Battersea Dogs Home, 247
First International Congress on Eugenics,
70-73, 207, 213, 217, 235, 263, 264
High Teams institution, 230-32
poverty in, 221, 222
London Sociological Society, 209
Lorimer, Frank, 423
Lorinczi, Lea, 355
Los Angeles, ethnic groups, 292
Loving, Mildred Jeter, 400-401
Loving, Richard, 400-401
Loving v. Virginia, 40 I
Luftwaffe Institute for Aviation Medicine, 381
Lundborg, Hermann, 237, 244
lynchings, 23, 84

Magdalen Home for the Feebleminded, 80
Magnussen, Karin, 362-63
Maine
sterilizations, 122
Workshop for the Blind, 147
Mainz Academy of Sciences and Literature, 379
Mallory, George, 110-12
Mallory, Jessie, 111-12, 114
Mallory, Nannie, 111-12
Mallory, Willie, 110-12, 114
Malthus, Thomas, 11-12, 15, 120, 128
Manchuria, 293
marriage
among Amish, 53
Catholic Church views, 232-33
consanguineous
among elite, 74
effects, 53, 54, 282
of Jews, 282
government screening, 175-76, 421
of Jews and non-Jews, 280
polygamy, 60
registration in Virginia, 164
regulations proposed by Galton, 18-19, 28
selection of spouses, 15, 60, 74
See also interracial marriages
marriage restrictions
for blind, 145, 146, 149-52, 154, 155, 157
bonding proposal, 154-56, 157
Catholic opposition, 232
current, 409
Davenport's support of, 75
English proposals, 211, 216, 217, 218
found unconstitutional, 401
history of, 146
interracial marriages prohibited, 146, 165,
174-76, 400-401
model legislation, 156
in Nazi Germany, 341, 407
in other countries, 243, 245
state laws, 146-47, 165-72, 174-76, 208,
400-401
for unfit, 60, 146
Virginia Racial Integrity law, 165-72,
174-76, 177, 181, 400-401
Marshall, Louis, 57, 59-60
Maryland, ban on interracial marriages, 146
Massachusetts
institutions, 54, 321, 327
sterilizations performed, 209
master race, 270
Max Planck Institute for Brain Research, 383
McCarran-Walter Immigration and
Naturalization Act, 205
McCreary, James, 71
McCulloch, Oscar, 25, 64-65
McKim, W. Duncan, 248
McReynolds, James Clark, 120
medical education
genetics, 421-22, 423
in Germany, 283, 340
medical experiments, Nazi, 367
at Auschwitz, 338, 358-59, 361, 362-63,
376, 379
aviation medicine, 367, 381
at Buchenwald, 324, 329-30, 367
in concentration camps, 331, 365, 380-81
at Dachau, 367, 381-82
funding, 365
on Gypsies, 366
by Mengele, 338, 359, 361, 376, 379
postwar coverup, 375, 376-80
real medical advances, 380-83
retention of victims' remains, 383-84
See also twin studies
Medical Information Bureau (MIB), 431-32,
435-36
medical profession. See physicians
Medico-Legal Society, 227-28
Mein Kampf (Hitler), 270, 274, 276, 318, 354,
394
Melchers, George, 363
Mencken, H.L., 200-202
Mendel, Gregor
at Auschwitz, 355-61
Howe and, 152
influence on Davenport, 36, 101
memorial to, 263
pea breeding, 26
publication of research, 13, 15
rediscovery of theories, 25-26, 27, 31, 36,
39, 208, 411
Mengele, Josef
at Auschwitz, 337, 348, 363, 370, 376
assistants, 356-57
data collected, 359-61, 375
escape, 371, 375
medical experiments, 338, 359, 361, 376,
379
prisoners murdered by, 358-59
twin studies, 353, 357, 358, 362, 365-66
career, 344-47
character, 357-58
eugenic views, 344, 356
Jewish ancestry, 345
Mental Deficiency Act, 214, 215, 216-18, 227
Mental Deficiency Committee (Britain), 226-27
mental illness. See insanity
mental retardation. See feebleminded individuals
mental tests. See intelligence tests
Merriam, C. Hart, 46
Merriam, John C., 31, 185, 191, 193-94, 198,
200, 387-88, 392
meteorology, 15
Metropolitan Relieving Officer's Association,
221
Mexicans, 176, 387
Mexico, eugenicists in, 238
Meyer, Adolf, 90, 138, 150
MIE. See Medical Information Bureau
Michigan
legislature, 66
sterilizations, 123
Miles, Walter, 220
military
DNA fingerprints of soldiers, 430
See also Army, U.S.
Milledgeville State Hospital (Georgia), 399
Minnesota
marriage restriction law, 208
sterilizations, 122-23
Minnesota Historical Society, 397
miscegenation. See mixed race individuals
mixed race individuals
in Africa, 263, 265-66
attempts to prevent passing as white, 164
in Canada, 242
children of African soldiers in Rhineland,
267, 271, 275, 305, 316
consuls' reports on, 292-93
efforts to eliminate, 163-82, 279, 288
in Germany, 305, 340
global survey of, 288-89, 291-94
Indians, 177-80
Jamaica survey, 288-89, 290, 291, 350
negative views of, 30, 31
research on, 179-80
sterilizations, 305, 316
study of, 89
survey in United States, 291
twins, 350
in Virginia, 163, 164, 165, 169-70, 177-80
Win Tribe, 179-80
Mjoen, Jon Alfred, 71, 244, 279
Mollison, Theodor, 344-45, 420
Monacan Indians, 177, 178
mongrelization. See mixed race individuals
Mongrel Virginians, 179-80
Monson State Hospital for Epileptics
(Massachusetts), 54
Montana, ban on interracial marriages, 146
Montgomery County, Virginia, 3-4, 5
Moore, Elizabeth, 99
Moral Education League, 210
Morgan, ]. P., 31
Morgan, William, 151
morons, 78, 79, 85, 189
See also feebleminded individuals
moths, 308
Mozes, Eva, 355
Muller, Hermann, 351
Muller, Hermann Joseph, 302-3, 351, 379
Muller-Hill, Benno, 380
Municipal Court of Chicago, 113, 256
murders of unfit
capital punishment, 258
defective babies, 252-54, 257-58
denial of treatment, 252-54, 327-29
in Nazi Germany, 3 I 7
Nazi T-4 project, 312-13, 339, 369,
382-83
opposition to, 250-52
right of state, 262
Sanger's views, 133, 251
support for, 247, 248-49, 250-52
See also euthanasia; lethal chambers
Mussolini, Benito, 279, 293

Nachtsheim, Hans, 367-68, 375
Nassau County, New York, 95
National Academy of Sciences, 236
National Association for the Study of Epilepsy,
91, 322
National Committee for Federal Legislation on
Birth Control, 134
National Committee for the Prevention of
Blindness, 146
National Committee on Prison and Prison
Labor, 96
National Conference on Charities and
Correction, 248-49, 255
National Institutes of Health, 383, 425
National Origins Act, 202-5, 275
National Prison Association, 250
National Research Council, 236
National Socialism. See Nazis
National Socialist Doctors' Association, 307
Native Americans. See American Indians
natural selection, 12, 251
Nature, 198
Nazi doctors, 277
at Auschwitz, 33 7
at Buchenwald, 325-26, 329-31, 332
political takeover of medicine, 313, 316
war crimes trials, 320, 332-33, 381
See also Katzen-Ellenbogen, Edwin; medical
experiments; Mengele, Josef
Nazi eugenics, 316-17
American admiration of, 7, 280, 313
cover-up of wartime activities, 375, 379,
380
criticism of, 312
depopulation strategy, 403
elimination of Jews, 318, 347, 415
Eugenic Courts, 318, 345
eugenic laws, 277
family pedigrees, 331, 342-43, 405
films, 315-16, 393
as genocide, 405-9, 411
Germanization of Polish children, 331-32,
347, 405
increased birth rate among Germans, 403
influence on medicine, 380-83
international conferences, 346
racial examinations, 406, 415- J 6
research bodies, 339-40
revulsion of other eugenicists, 3 I 3
sterilization law, 299-301, 339
sterilizations performed, 277, 304, 315,
316, 317, 324, 342, 406, 407-8
T-4 project (gassing of feebleminded),
312-13, 317, 339, 369, 382-83
techniques, 403-5
twin camps, 352, 354-61, 362-63
See also American eugenics, relations with
German eugenics movement; Aryan
superiority; Jews, in Germany; medical
experiments
Nazi Heredity Courts, 315
Nazis
American sympathizers, 313
Beer Hall Putsch, 269, 273-74
census, 309, 311
defeat, 375
international knowledge of atrocities,
299, 303, 311, 343, 402-4
labor camps, 324, 329, 347
Luftwaffe, 367, 381
marriage restrictions, 341
persecution of Gypsies, 316
propaganda, 299, 315-16, 393
registration of citizens, 310, 339
scientists brought to United States,
381-83
seizure of power, 298-99
use of IBM technology, 290-91, 308-10,
311, 339
See also concentration camps; Hitler,
Adolf; Nazi eugenics
NBIA Disorders Association, 382-83
Nebraska, sterilizations in, 122
negative eugenics, 19
Carnegie Institution funding, 32
criticism of, 417
in England, 209
in Germany, 261-62
Sanger's views, 131, 135
term replaced by medical genetics, 424
Netherlands. See Holland
Die Neue Zeitung, 405
Nevada
ban on interracial marriages, 146
sterilization law, 68
newgenics, 428-29
New Jersey
State Village for Epileptics (Skillman),
54-55, 91, 98, 322, 327
sterilization law, 68, 322
Vineland Training School for
Feebleminded Girls and Boys, 76, 80,
91, 213, 243, 322, 327
New York American, 103-4
New York City
health conditions, 126
Second International Congress on
Eugenics, 236-38, 241, 244, 268, 351,
364, 422
Third International Congress of Eugenics
(New York), 245, 298, 419
New York City Police Department, 96, 98
New York Public Library, 54, 397
New York (state)
county surveys of unfit, 95-96
criminal families, 23-24
eugenics agency, 95-96
institutions, 52, 53, 130
legislature, 93, 151-52, 154, 155
marriage restrictions for blind, 151-52,
154, 155
Senate Commission to Investigate
Provision for the Mentally Deficient,
96
sterilization law, 69
sterilizations performed, 123
New York State Asylum (Matteawan), 52, 53
New York State Board of Charities, Bureau of
Analysis and Investigation, 95, 96
New York State Board of Health, 152, 153
New York State Bureau of Industries and
Immigration, 95-96
New York State Chamber of Commerce,
Special Committee on Immigration and
Naturalization, 394
New York State Department of Labor, 96
New York Times, 199, 297, 304, 311, 314
New York University
College of Dentistry, 351
eugenics courses, 75
New Zealand, eugenicists in, 238
Nordic race
histories of, 30
intelligence test scores, 82
Nazi breeding program, 405
preferences for immigrants of, 188, 192,
203
superiority seen, 29-31, 195, 213, 239, 244,
266, 315
See also Aryan superiority; super race
North Carolina
eugenics program, 421-22
marriage screening proposal, 421
sterilization law, 400
sterilizations performed, 123, 400, 421, 422
North Dakota
ban on interracial marriages, 146
ethnic groups, 292
Northwestern University, 75
Norway
eugenicists, 71, 235, 238, 240, 244
eugenic screening of potential U, S. immigrants,
205
International Society for Race Hygiene
branch, 264
mixed race individuals, 279, 292
Nazi occupation, 407
sterilization law, 244
sterilizations performed, 244
Norwich Hospital (Connecticut), 67-68, 69
Norwich Union Insurance, 434
Notgemeinschaft der Deutschen Wissenschaften. See
Emergency Fund for German Science
number names, 40
Nuremberg Laws, 311, 312, 323, 339, 345,
392-93
Nuremberg war crimes trials, 325, 332-33, 381,
404, 405-9
Nyiszli, Miklos, 356-57, 358, 359, 360-61

O'Brien, Daniel, 419
O'Brien, Stephen, 425-26
Ochsner, Albert John, 63
Offer, Moshe, 356
Ohio legislature, 250
Ohio State University, 382
Oliv (prisoner), 319-20
Olshansky, S. Jay, 425
Olson, Harry, 79, 96, 113, 195, 222, 243,
256-57
Oneida Community, 21
Operation Paperclip, 381-83
ophthalmology, 145, 150-51
See also eyes
Oregon
sterilization law, 67
sterilizations performed, 122, 400
The Origin of the Species (Darwin), 12
Osborn, Frederick, 418, 422-24
Osborn, Henry Fairfield, 37, 136, 236, 237,
238, 244, 422
Ossining, New York, Sing Sing prison, 52, 96
Owen, Teresa, 95
Owens-Adair, Bethenia, 67

Parliament, British, 211, 214-15, 217
delegation to Nazi concentration camps,
325
genetic testing issue, 434
House of Lords, 212
opposition to sterilization, 233
pathologists, at Auschwitz, 356-57, 360
Paton, Stewart, 57
Paul, Eden, 248
pauperism. See poverty
Pearl, Raymond, 150, 412
Pearson, Karl
criticism of, 60-{51, 72
on House of Lords, 212
relations with Carnegie Institution, 220
research, 27, 35, 93, 212-13, 219-20
Pegram, Richard, 231
Peiffer, Jurgen, 383-84
Pennsylvania sterilization law, 66
Pennsylvania Training School for the
Feebleminded, 66
Pennypacker, Samuel, 66
Perkins, Harry, 141, 142
Permanent International Commission on
Eugenics. See International Eugenics
Commission
Peter, W. W., 304
Peyton, David C., 148
physicians
concentration camp inmates, 356-57, 362
interest in eugenics, 73
Jewish, in Germany, 306, 307, 308
See also medical education; Nazi doctors
Pilcher, F. Hoyt, 63, 66
Pitt-Rivers, George, 279
Pius XI, Pope, 232
Plague, 10
Planck, Max, 303
Planned Parenthood, 127, 144, 426
See also birth control movement
Plecker, Walter Ashby, 161-{55
data collection, 164-Q5
goals, 165
investigations of racial backgrounds,
169-72, 177-79, 180-81
Laughlin and, 163-64
marriages prohibited by, 175-76, 400
racism, 162, 166, 173-74, 175, 181
registration of Virginians by race, 167,
168-72, 177-79, 180-82
Ploetz, Alfred
anti-Semitism of, 262
Archiv fur Rassen- und Gesellschaftsbiologie,
262, 273
Davenport and, 294, 295
definition of racial hygiene, 341
Eugenical News and, 306
in international eugenics organizations, 71,
164
relations with American eugenicists, 264,
394
Rudin and, 285
Society for Racial Hygiene, 262, 263-{54,
302, 339
tribute to, 295
in United States, 261-62
during World War I, 266
Pocahontas, 168, 176, 177, 181
Poland
eugenic screening of potential U.S. immigrants,
205
German invasion, 317
Germanization of children, 331-32, 347,
405
marriage restrictions under German occupation,
403
Nazi labor camps, 347
persecution of Jews, 395
See also Auschwitz
Poll, Heinrich, 284-85, 349
Pond, Clara, 96, 98
poor
pauper class, 11, 12
preventing reproduction, 58
See also poverty
Popenoe, Paul, 424
Applied Eugenics, 137, 255, 258, 351
influence on Hitler, 259
reaction to alliance with American Birth
Control League, 139, 142
relations with German eugenics movement,
272, 281, 342, 377-79
reviews of German books, 273
support for euthanasia, 251
tribute to Ploetz, 295
Popenoe, Paul (continued)
twin studies, 351, 353
population control, 11-l2, 142-43
Population Council, 422, 426
Population Reference Bureau, 426
positive eugenics, 18-19, 131, 135, 209
See also super race, building of
poverty
in England, 11, 207, 211, 218, 221, 222
history, 10
pauper class, II, 12
seen as genetic defect, 5, 25, 65, 74, 130,
211, 220
Powell, John, 165, 166, 167, 169, 175, 181
Powhatan, 176
Priddy, Albert, 110, 111-12, 113, 114-15, 116
prisons
costs per inmate, 39, 153
data gathered in, 52
family histories of criminals collected, 96
inmates counted in censuses, 159
sterilizations in, 63-64, 65-67, 211
See also criminals
prostitution, 284, 419
psychiatry. See Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for
Psychiatry
psychologists. See Katzen-Ellenbogen, Edwin
Public Health Service, U.S., 196
punch cards. See Hollerith data processing
machines
Puzyna, Martina, 356, 375

Quebec, genetic testing issues, 435
Quota Board, 203-4
quotas. See immigration restrictions

race
classifications, 161-62, 168, 190
concepts, 65
conflicts related to, 186-87
eugenic ratings, 282
intelligence test scores, 79, 81, 82-84, 85
racism, 22, 269-70
registration of citizens by, 163, 165, 166,
167, 168-73, 177-79
segregation, 21, 171, 172-73
See also African-Americans; interracial marriages;
mixed race individuals; whites
Race Betterment Foundation, 87-89, 238
race cards, 282
Race Policy Office of the Nazi Parry, 3 15
race science, 31
race suicide, 22-23, 31, 209
racial hygiene (Rassenhygiene), 262, 280-81, 341
Racial Integrity Act (Virginia), 165-72, 174-76,
177, 181, 400-401
Rascher, Sigmund, 381
Rassenhygiene. See racial hygiene
Ratner, Brett, 106-7
Ravensbruck concentration camp, 406
Reconstruction, 162
redlining, 436
Red Scare, 186
Reed, Horace, 67
Reed, Sheldon, 397, 423-24
Reeves, Helen, 54
"Rehoboth bastards, " 263, 265-66
Reichenberg boys, 358
Reich Research Fund, 365
Reich Statistics Bureau, 353-54
Rentoul, Robert, 208-10, 241-42, 250
Race Culture; Or, Race Suicide?, 146-47, 209,
248
reproduction. See birth control; breeding; sterilizations
Richardson, Benjamin Ward, 247, 262
Richmond Times-Dispatch, 166, 167, 277
Riddell, Lord George Allardice, 215-16,
227-29
Ripley, William, 82
Risk Management, 434
Riverview Cemetery, 172-73
Robertson, John Dill, 252-53
Robinson, William, 251
Rockbridge County, Virginia, 177, 178
Rockefeller, John D., 57, 93
Rockefeller, John D., Jr., 93, 284
Rockefeller Foundation
establishment, 93
eugenics research funding
avoidance of, 296, 313-14, 365, 370
criticism of, 101-2
Eugenics Record Office, 93, 94, 95
in Europe, 243-44, 245, 418-21
in Germany, 7, 258, 294-95, 297, 298, 302,
313, 364-65
move to genetics from, 244
twin studies, 349, 364
German research funding
criticism of, 306-7
eugenics research, 7, 258, 294-95, 297,
298, 302, 313, 364-65
Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes, 283, 285, 296,
306-7, 419-20
protection of German scientists, 302-3
scientific research, 283-85, 288, 295,
296, 306-8, 313, 365, 369-70
goals, 364-65
Paris office, 302-3, 419
political neutrality, 302, 364
Population Council funding, 422
Rodenwaldt, Ernst, 312
Rogers, Samuel, 160-61
Rolfe, John, 176
Roman Empire, 10
Romania, eugenicists in, 245
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 403
Roosevelt, Theodore, 46, 99, 118, 209
Root, Elihu, 31
Rosanoff, A.J., 100
Ross, E. A., 23, 209
Royal Commission on the Care and Control of
the Feebleminded, 214, 217, 226
Royal Commission on the Poor Law, 220-21
Royal Horticultural Society, 39, 411
Royal Statistical Society, 60
Rucker, W.C., 147
Rudin, Ernst
Eugenical News advisory committee, 344
eugenic views, 285
family profiles collected by, 285, 286
at German Psychiatry Institute, 285
International Federation of Eugenic
Organizations and, 286, 295, 302
involvement in Nazi eugenics, 316, 364
at Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Psychiatry,
307, 369
Nazis and, 306-7
relations with American eugenicists, 286,
394
research, 286, 295-96, 307, 308, 419
Rockefeller funding, 307
sterilization law, 299
sterilization proposals, 295-96, 301
RuSHA. See SS Race and Settlement Office
Ruttke, Falk, 344

Sachs, Jake and Saide, 126
Saleeby, Caleb, 213, 216, 217, 218, 224, 248-49
San Francisco Daily News, 101-3
Sanger, Margaret, 125-27
ancestors, 128
conferences, 134
eugenicists and, 315
eugenic views, 127, 128-33, 135-37, 139,
143-44, 156
feminism of, 142-43
on large families, 132-33, 139, 301
legacy of, 426
opposition to charity, 127, 129-30
organizations, 140, 142
Pivot of Civilization, 129-30, 131, 251
rejection of euthanasia, 251
support for sterilizations and segregation,
131-32
Woman and the New Race, 132-33
See also birth control movement
SAT. See Scholastic Aptitude Test
Saure, Philip N., 175-76
Scandinavia, eugenics in, 70, 224, 240
See also Denmark; Finland; Iceland;
Norway; Sweden
Schiedlausky, Gerhard, 326, 330-31
Schlaginhaufen, Otto, 242, 243
Schneider, Carl, 312
Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), 83
schools, racially segregated, 171, 173
Schultz, A. E, 203
Schultz, Bruno, 419
Science Magazine, 202
Second International Congress on Eugenics
(New York), 236-38, 241, 244, 268, 351,
364, 422
Second Race Betterment Conference, 89, 134
segregation, racial, 22, 171, 172-73
segregation of unfit
of alcoholics, 285
of blind, 145, 146, 149, 153
colonies, 156, 215, 218
English proposals, 210, 211, 214, 215-18,
226
of feebleminded, 214, 215
including extended families, 215-18
interstate deportation, 156-57
support for, 52, 60, 78, 280, 285
by Davenport, 39, 60, 75
by Laughlin, 88-89
by Sanger, 131-32
See also institutions
Senate, U.S.
Immigration Committee, 393-94
racial origins of senators, 204
sexology, 243
Sexual Sterilization Act (Alberta), 242
Shackleford, C. D., 108-10
Sharp, Harry Clay, 63-64, 65-67, 69, 148, 211,
273
Shaw, George Bernard, 28, 248
sheep, clones of, 427
Shelton, Robert, 113, 114
Sherlock, E. B., 250
shiftlessness, 74, 108, 189
ship captains, 105
Siemens, H. W, 281
Simon, Theodor, 76
Sing Sing prison, 52, 96
Sixth International Neo-Malthusian and Birth
Control Conference, 134, 136-37
Skinner, Robert, 197
Slaughter, Louise, 440, 441
slaves, breeding of, 21
Smith, Buck, 5-6
Smith, D. E, 248
Smith, John, 176
Snyder, Laurence, 413-14
Social Biology, 425
social Darwinism, 12-13, 119, 129, 262, 275
social inadequacy, 159-60, 189, 225
socialists, 367
social reform movements, 125, 262
See also birth control movement
Societe Belge d'Eugenique (Belgian Eugenics
Society), 240-41
Society for Racial Hygiene (Gesellschaft fur
Rassenhygiene), 262, 263-64, 274, 285,
302, 316, 339, 341
Society for the Prevention of Blindness, 315-16
Society for the Study of Social Biology, 425
Solvay Institute, 195, 241
Southard, E.E., 89
South Carolina, sterilizations in, 400
South Dakota, sterilizations in, 122
Soviet Union
liberation of Auschwitz, 371
mixed race individuals, 292
Sparta, 251
Spatz, Hugo, 369, 382-83
Spencer, Herbert, 12, 13, 15, 26, 119, 129, 262
Spiegel, Magda, 355
Spielmeyer, Walther, 306, 308
SS, 316, 326-27, 329, 337
SS Race and Settlement Office (RuSHA)
Genealogical Section, 347
Hollerith data processing machines,
290-91
Mengele at, 347, 348
persecution of Jews, 407-9
Polish children kidnapped by, 331-32, 405
racial examinations, 406
Stalin, Josef, 403
Stanford, Leland, 65
Stanford-Binet test, 81, 82, 84
Stanford University, 65, 75
State Department, U.S.
consul in Jamaica, 289
consuls involved in immigrant screening,
195, 196, 197, 199, 205
consuls involved in survey of mixed race
individuals, 292-93
invitations to eugenics meetings sent by,
71-72, 236, 268
Jewish refugees refused visas by, 393
reluctance to cooperate with other departments,
196-97, 199-200
Steggerda, Morris, 305
sterilization laws
amending to include blind, 149
British, 227-29
Canadian, 242
constitutionality, 59-60, 64, 113
Danish, 243
due process safeguards, 113
model, 113, 121
Nazi, 299-301, 339
remaining on books, 400
of states, 66-69, 89, 112-13, 122, 208, 209,
300, 408
Swiss, 243
sterilizations
of alcoholics, 285
of American Indians, 5, 400
of blind, 145, 146, 148, 149, 299
in Canada, 242
of criminals, 59, 63-64, 65-67, 68, 69, 122
criticism of, 63
Davenport's support of, 75
of deaf, 299
in Denmark, 420
of epileptics, 5, 231, 299, 322
of family members of unfit, 225, 295-96
of feebleminded
Buck case, 108-10, 113-17, 119, 120-22,
167, 315, 401-2
in California, 68, 122
in Canada, 242
debates, 63, 66
in England, 227-29
in New York, 96
supporters, 77-78
in Virginia, 3-7
in foreign countries, 23 5
in Germany
by Nazis, 277, 299-301, 304, 315, 316,
317, 324, 342, 406, 407-8
proposals, 261, 265, 297, 339
governors' apologies for, 400
grounds for, 4, 123
Hitler on, 276
illegal, 63-64, 65-67, 110-12, 211, 230-32
increasing number, 122-23
lack of public support, 66, 69-70
Laughlin's support of, 88
lawsuits by victims, 398-400
lobbying for legislation, 64, 66-67
Mallory case, 110-12
of mixed race individuals, 305, 316
model law, 113, 300
number in United States, 7, 234, 301, 398
opposition to, 70, 87, 101-4
press coverage of plans, 10 1-4
recent, 400, 409
Sanger's support of, 131-32, 143
therapeutic, 110
of unfit, 3-7, 39, 52
voluntary, 60, 228
See also England, eugenics in
Stern, Hedvah, 356, 366
Stern, Leah, 356, 366
Stern, William, 82
Stimson, Henry, 72
Stoddard, Lothrop
Into the Darkness, 317-18
Eugenics Research Association and, 90, 91
Hitler and, 298, 318
on immigration, 29-30, 35
involvement in birth control movement,
133-34, 167
support of Virginia Racial Integrity Act,
167
Streicher, Julius, 404
Stribling, Francis T., 4
Strode, Aubrey, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117
Strughold, Hubertus, 381-82
Stubbs, Walter, 71
Stypanovitz, Eva, 95
Sullivan, Mary, 106
super race, building of
breeding Aryan babies, 367
Davenport's goals, 36, 37, 416-17
eliminating lower levels of population, 59
encouraging reproduction in superior families,
46, 135, 137, 139, 301
Galton on, 15
as goal of American eugenics, 7, 88
Grant on, 90
Hitler on, 270, 276, 367
Mengele's goals, 356
Nazi goals, 370
potential in future, 441-44
role of twin studies, 351, 354
See also Aryan superiority; Nordic race
Supreme Court, U.S.
Buck v. Bell, 117, 119, 120-22, 123, 315,
401-2, 409
Holmes as justice, 118-19
Loving v. Virginia, 401
survival of fittest, 12, 29
Sweden
emigration discouraged, 195
eugenicists, 237, 238, 244
eugenic screening of potential U.S. immigrants,
195, 198, 205
genetic discrimination legislation, 440
International Eugenics Commission meeting,
238-39, 268-69
International Society for Race Hygiene
branch, 264
State Institute of Race-Biology, 195, 244
sterilization law, 244-45
Swift, Walter, 98
Switzerland
eugenicists, 242-43
sterilization law, 243
syphilis, 146

T-4 project (gassing of feebleminded by Nazis),
312-13, 317, 339, 369, 382-83
Taft, William Howard, 120
Tasmania, DNA databank, 440
Terman, Lewis, 80, 81, 82, 84, 90, 150, 226
terrorism, 430-31
test-tube babies, 427
Thackera, A. M., 196-97
thalassophilia, 105
Thayer, Ethel, 97
Third International Conference on Genetics,
412
Third International Congress of Eugenics (New
York), 245, 298, 419
Third Reich. See Nazis
Thomas, Elsie M., 175-76
Timofeeff-Ressovsky, Nikolai, 288
Tisdale, Walter, 308
Tonga, national D A databank, 439-40
Town, Clara, 257
Trades Union Congress, 234
transgenic creatures, 44 3
Treaty Against Genocide, 404-5
Treaty of Versailles, 238, 267, 269, 271
Tredgold, Arthur F., 249, 256
Tribe of Ishmael, 25, 53, 65, 237
Trinkle, E. Lee, 175
Trowbridge, Augustus, 297
tuberculosis
in cattle, 254-55
hereditary, 241, 255
mortality from, 255, 256
Nazi research, 368
relationship to racial mixing, 279
research on, 241
twins and, 352, 358
in Virginia, 280
Tucker, J. R., 181
twins
blood groups, 364, 365
eyes, 361-63
mixed race, 350
in Nazi Germany, 352, 353-54
twin studies
anatomical, 351-52
in concentration camps, 354-61, 362-63
criminal behavior, 353
deaths in, 354, 359
difficulty of, 349
by Galton, 348-49
in Germany, 350, 352-54, 362-63, 364,
365-66, 414, 415
journals, 353
at Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for
Anthropology, Human Heredity, and
Eugenics, 297, 302, 354, 359, 360-61,
364, 414, 415, 420
by Mengele, 353, 357, 358, 362, 365-66
racial differences in twin frequency, 350
Rockefeller funding, 349, 364
in United States, 361-62
value to eugenicists, 348
Twitchen, Henry, 229

UK Biobank, 440
UK Forum for Genetics and Insurance, 436
Ulster County, New York, criminals, 23-24
unfit
borderline, 58-59
categories, 58
costs of maintaining, 39, 130, 147, 153
county surveys in New York, 95-96
elimination of, 12, 29, 39-40, 56, 61
in England, 214, 227
extended families of, 24-25, 58, 59,
152-53, 215-18
financial responsibility for, 156
global cataloging of, 279, 280
identification, 52-55, 56, 95, 96-97, 107
interstate deportation, 156-57
lack of standards to identify, 76
number in United States, 58-59, 216
preventing reproduction, 18, 21, 46, 57-61,
210-11, 403
seen as subhuman, 21
See also epileptics; feebleminded individuals;
insane; marriage restrictions; murders
of unfit; segregation of unfit;
sterilizations
United Kingdom. See England
United Nations, 403-4
United States
knowledge of Nazi atrocities, 299
See also American eugenics
universities
entrance exams, 83
eugenics classes, 75, 103-4, 412
University of California, Berkeley, 75
Lawrence Berkeley Lab, 437
University of Chicago, 33, 75
University of Copenhagen, 243, 420-21
University of Heidelberg, 312, 342, 383
University of Indiana, 65
University of London, 425
University of Minnesota, Dight Institute, 397
University of Munster, Institute of Human
Genetics, 379-80
urbanization, 186
U.S. News & World Report, 437
Utah
investigation of feebleminded, 97
sterilizations, 122
utopian societies, 261

vagrancy, 10-11
Van Guilder, Elsie, 398
van Wagenen, Bleeker, 213
vasectomies. See sterilizations
Vatican, 232, 293
See also Catholic Church
Vaud, Switzerland, sterilization law, 243
Vaughan, Victor, 151
Vekler, Jancu, 362
Venezuela, eugenicists in, 238
Venter, J. Craig, 443
Vermont, survey of unfit, 107
Verschuer, Otmar Freiherr von, 338-44
bibliographies, 380-81
blood research, 363-66, 376
books, 343, 352
death, 380
Institute for Hereditary Biology and Racial
Hygiene, 341-43, 344, 345, 346,
352-53
investigation of, 380
involvement in Nazi eugenics, 375, 380
at Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for
Anthropology, Human Heredity, and
Eugenics, 339-40, 341, 347-48, 420
Mengele and, 345, 346, 347, 348, 366, 376,
380
postwar rehabilitation efforts, 376-80
relations with American eugenicists, 394
research, 339-40, 368
twin studies, 352-53, 354, 355, 359,
360-61, 362-63, 364, 365-66, 420
Vineland Training School for Feebleminded
Girls and Boys (New Jersey), 76, 80, 91,
213, 243, 322, 327
Virginia
Buck sterilization case, 108-10, 113-17,
119, 120-22, 167, 315, 401-2
Bureau of Vital Statistics, 161, 163,
164-65, 166, 168-69, 173-74, 175,
177, 181
colonial settlers, 162, 168
descendants of Pocahontas, 168, 176, 181
eugenic registry, 165
governor's apology for sterilizations, 400
institutions, 108
legislature, 112, 167
marriage restriction laws, 165-72, 400-401
mixed race individuals in, 163, 165,
169-70, 177-80
Racial Integrity Act, 167-68, 174-76, 177,
181, 400-401
registration of citizens by race, 163, 165,
166, 167, 168-73, 177-79
sterilization law, 68, 113, 114-17, 121, 167
sterilizations performed, 3-7, 108-12,
113-17, 122, 123
tuberculosis in, 280
Virginia Department of Health, 168
Virginia State Health Bureau, 163
vision problems
eugenic legislation, 149-50
marriage restrictions, 149-52
See also blindness
Vogt, Oskar, 288, 302-3
von Hofmann, Geza, 264-65, 266, 273

Wagner, Werner, 369
Wake Forest Medical School, Department of
Medical Genetics, 421-22
Walker, Francis, 22-23
Walsh, Catherine, 252
Wannsee Protocol, 407-8
war crimes trials
at Dachau, 320, 328, 329-30, 332, 333-35
of Katzen-Ellenbogen, 320, 328, 329-30,
332, 333-35
of Nazi doctors, 320, 332-33, 381
Nuremberg, 325, 332-33, 381, 404, 405-9
preparations, 404
threats of, 402, 403
Ward, Robert DeCourcy, 57, 187, 192, 202
Warren, Earl, 401
wars, eugenic effects, 222-23
Washington (state)
sterilization law, 67
sterilizations performed, 69
Watson, James, 426, 442-43
Watson, Thomas]., 290, 309-10
wealthy benefactors of eugenics movement,
56-57, 87, 93-95, 140, 237-38
See also Harriman, Mary (Mrs. E. H.);
Rockefeller Foundation
Weaver, Warren, 370
Wehrmacht, 323-24
Weimar Republic, 266-67, 268, 269
Weismann, August, 17
Welch, William, 89, 93-94, 138
Wells, H. G., 130, 209, 248
Western State Hospital (Virginia), 4, 7
Westrope, Lionel L., 230-32
White, Arnold, 248
White, Wendell, 175
White America Society, 165
Whitehead, Irving, 114, 116, 117
whites
cemeteries, 172-73
death rates, 163
definitions of, 166, 168
intelligence test scores, 79, 81
multiple birth frequency, 350
racial purity, 162, 165-66
See also Aryan superiority; Nordic race;
race
white supremacists, 166
Whitney, Leon, 138-40, 142, 244, 259, 317
Wiggam, Albert, 99
Wigmore, John, 120
Wilhelm II, Kaiser, 284
Wilks, Michael, 434
Williams, Minnie, 398
Willis, Sir Frederick, 227
Wilson, James, 47, 98
Wilson, William George, 231
Wilson, Woodrow, 68-69, 99, 258, 320, 322
Wimmer, August, 243
Winston-Salem Journal, 422
Win Tribe, 179-80
Wisconsin
sterilization law, 67
sterilizations performed, 122
Wise, Stephen, 129
women
promiscuous, 110
See also birth control; feminists; sterilizations
Wood, Sir Arthur, 226-27
Wood, Patricia, 383
Woodhull, Victoria, 22, 128
workers, genetic testing of, 437-38, 440
World Population Congress, 314
World War I
African-American soldiers, 186
effects on eugenics movements, 221, 222-
23, 236, 238, 266
intelligence testing of American soldiers,
80-82
poison gas, 27 6
World War II
beginning of, 317, 346
See also concentration camps; Nazis

Yagudah, Judith, 355
Yerkes, Robert, 80, 81, 82, 90, 99, 150, 226
Yerkes-Bridge Point Scale for Intelligence, 80

Zahn, Friedrich, 310
Zangwill, Israel, 22
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