War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to Cre

Re: War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to

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PART 1 OF 2

Index

ABA. See American Breeders Association
Abel, Wolfgang, 316
abortion opponents, 127
ACLU. See American Civil Liberties Union
Adkins, Reable, 179
Africa
Jews in, 295
mixed race individuals, 263, 265-66
African-Americans
amount of white blood, 79, 83, 165, 166
death rates, 163
definitions of, 165, 166
"Free Issue" Negroes, 170, 171
intelligence test scores, 79, 81, 83-84
lynchings, 23, 84
multiple birth frequency, 350
music of, 105, 165, 180
segregation, 22, 171, 172-73
six-fingered boys, 97
slaves, 21
soldiers in World War I, 186
stereotypes of, 38, 210
sterilizations, 5, 421
See also race
AGA. See American Genetic Association
Agriculture, Department of, 47, 97-98, 208
Air Force, U.S., 382
Alabama, ban on interracial marriages, 401
Alberta, Canada, sterilization law, 242
Albrecht, Charles, 293
alcoholism, 27, 58, 285, 299
Algonquin Indians, 176
Allan, William, 421
Allen, Bennet, 292
Allport, Frank, 151
Alma College, 75
AMA. See American Medical Association
American Academy of Actuaries, 432-33
American Bar Association Journal, 154
American Birth Control League, 132, 133,
138-40
See also birth control movement
American Breeders Association (ABA), 291
Agriculture Department and, 97-98
establishment, 38-39
Eugenics Committee, 39, 44, 411
Eugenics Section
committee on elimination of defective
germ plasm, 57-61, 69-70, 73, 235
English eugenics and, 210, 224
Eugenics Record Office and, 47-48, 98
formation, 44
meetings, 97
support for euthanasia, 247, 250-5\
meetings, 44, 45, 51, 97
See also American Genetic Association
American Breeders Magazine, 40, 412
See also Journal of Heredity
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), 399,
400
American Committee on Sterilization, 217
American eugenics
comparison to English movement, 208,
219
evolution of
decline of, 385, 411, 413-14, 425
defections from, 412-13
development of field, 21-25, 65
postwar changes, 417-18
global ambitions, 61, 185, 235
goals, 7, 21, 29, 88, 107
influence
on American thinkers, 99
American Committee on Sterilization, influence
(continued)
dominance of international meetings,
213, 235, 237, 239, 264
in England, 207, 208-10, 212, 224-26
in Europe, 213, 243, 244, 245
in foreign countries, 240
in Germany, 258-59, 261, 264-65, 277,
312, 408-9
on Hitler, 259, 274-76, 277, 298
on social reform movements, 125
lack of scientific foundation, 99-100,
106-7, 414, 423
organizations, 87, 140, 219
reactions to
criticism of, 99-104
press coverage of plans, 10 1-4
public opposition to proposals, 87
ridicule of, 387
relations with birth control movement,
137-42
relations with German eugenics movement,
270-72, 277
American influence, 258-59, 261,
264-65, 277, 312, 408-9
American support for Nazi eugenics, 7,
27, 297, 300-301, 304-5, 313,
314-16, 317-18, 340-44, 388, 392-93,
414-17
common belief in Nordic supremacy,
266, 297
German dominance, 286, 294, 299
influence of Germans in United States,
281
joint projects, 288, 303-4
opposition to Nazi eugenics, 313, 417,
418
partnership, 280-83, 342
postwar communications, 377-79
reactions to Nazi atrocities, 411, 423-24
during Weimar Republic, 266
research bodies, 89-90, 219
See also Carnegie Institution, Station for
Experimental Evolution (Cold Spring
Harbor); Davenport, Charles;
Laughlin, Harry Hamilton
American Eugenics Society (AES)
finances, 142
founding, 137, 244
goals, 424
leaders, 137-38
members, 163, 377
name change, 425
postwar changes, 417-18, 422-25
presidents, 259, 418, 422-24
proposed alliance with birth control movement, 138-40
publications, 138-40, 174, 394, 424
relations with British organizations,
229-30
relations with Carnegie Institution, 421
relations with German eugenics movement,
313, 377, 378
Ultimate Program, 239
during World War II, 422
American Genetic Association (AGA), 219, 349,
412, 425
See also American Breeders Association
American Hebrew, 306-7
American Indians
bans on interracial marriages, 146
census statistics, 176-77
citizenship, 177
in colonial Virginia, 168, 176
interracial marriages, 146, 165, 168, 176,
177-79
music of, 180
reservations, 156
seen as unfit, 179-80
sterilizations, 5, 400
Virginia racial laws and, 176-81
American Jewish Congress, 129
American Journal of Public Health, 304
American Management Association, 437
American Medical Association (AMA), 72
Section on Ophthalmology, 147-48,
149-51, 153
American Medical Society, 63
American Museum of Natural History, 236,
245, 298
American Ophthalmological Society, 146, 158
American Philosophical Society, 397
American Public Health Association, 174
American Review of Tuberculosis, 241
American Social Hygiene Association (ASHA),
225
American Society of Human Genetics, 379
Amish, 53
Andrews, George Reid, 142
Anglo-Saxon Clubs, 166
Anthropometric Laboratory, 16-17
Anti-Defamation League, 382
anti-Semitism
in Germany, 297, 302
of Hitler, 269-70, 311
of Ploetz, 262
Appalachia, forced sterilizations in, 3-4
Appleget, Thomas, 306, 307
Archiv fur Rassen- und Gesellschaftsbiologie
(Archives of Race Science and Social
Biology), 262, 263, 265, 272, 273, 281,
295, 308, 341
Argentina, eugenicists in, 238
Armed Forces Repository of Specimen Samples,
430
Army, U.S.
African-American soldiers in World War I,
186
intelligence tests, 80-82, 83, 84, 132, 201,
279
Nazi war crimes trials, 404
number of blue-eyed recruits, 273
Arps, George, 148
Aryan superiority
Germanization of Polish children, 331-32,
347, 405
Hitler's belief in, 270, 307
master race as Nazi goal, 299, 370
Nazi breeding program, 405, 406
as point of agreement between American
and German eugenicists, 266, 297
See also Nazi eugenics; super race
ASHA. See American Social Hygiene
Association
Asian Americans, bans on interracial marriages,
146, 175-76
Association of Agricultural Colleges and
Experimental Stations, 38
Association of Medical Officers of American
Institutions for Idiotic and
Feebleminded Persons, 250
Athena Diagnostics, 438
Atwood, Edith, 96
Auschwitz
blood samples taken from prisoners,
363-66, 376
deaths in, 338
gassing, 337
liberation of, 371
medical experiments, 331, 338, 358-59,
361, 362-63, 376, 379
selection of arriving Jews, 337-38
survivors, 355-56, 359
twins camp, 354-61, 362-63, 365-66
See also Mengele, Josef
Austin, O. P., 57
Australia
DNA databanks, 429, 440
eugenicists, 238
Austria
DNA databanks, 429
genetic discrimination legislation, 440
Nazi annexation, 313
Autogen, 439-40
aviation medicine, 367, 381-82
Azores, 292-93

Bach, James, I 50
Baltimore Sun, 200, 202
Banker, Howard, 148
Barker, Lewellys E, 281
Barker, Olin, 150
Bates College, 75
Bateson, William, 26, 27, 28, 411-12
Baur, Erwin, 270-73
articles in American journals, 281
eugenic views, 281-82
Foundation of Human Heredity and Race
Hygiene, 270, 272-73, 296-97, 351
at international meetings, 287
Belgian Eugenics Society (Societe Beige
d'Eugenique), 240-41
Belgium
eugenicists, 195, 235, 238, 240-41, 255
eugenic screening of potential U.S. immigrants,
195, 198, 205
Nazi occupation, 407
occupation of German lands after World
War I, 267, 269, 271
Bell, Alexander Graham
discomfort with eugenics goals, 89-90
distancing from eugenics movement, 104-5
Eugenics Record Office and, 89-90, 94,
101, 159
at international meetings, 71, 213, 237
rejection of charity, 210
work with Davenport, 44
Bell, J. H., 116
Bellamy, Raymond, 291
Beringer, Kurt, 369
Bethnal Green (London), 221, 222
Betts, Jane, 396
Beverly, Pal S., 170-71
Bible, 9-10, 13
Bibliography of Hereditary Eye Defects, 147
Bigelow, Maurice, 422
Biggs, Hermann M., 153
Billings, John, 31, 40-41
Binet, Alfred, 76, 82
Binet-Simon test, 76, 78
bioethics, 44 3
See also genetic discrimination
Biometric Laboratory, 220
biometrics, 72, 345, 430
Birkenau concentration camp, 367
Birkett, H. S., 151
birth control
for all women, 135
compulsory, 60
opponents, 127
See also birth control movement
Birth Control Clinical Research Bureau, 134
Birth Control Federation of America, 134
birth control movement, 125
American Birth Control League, 132, 133,
138-40
conferences, 134, 136-37
current activities, 426
distinction from eugenics, 136
eugenic beliefs, 127, 128-33, 135-37, 138
eugenicists involved in, 133-35, 136-39
name, 128
organizations, 140
origins, 126-27, 128
Planned Parenthood, 127, 144, 426
proposed alliances with eugenics groups,
137-42
support of lethal chambers, 251
See also Sanger, Margaret
Birth Control Review, 132, 138-40, 301
Bismarck, Otto von, 266
Blacker, C. P., 300
Blacks. See African-Americans
The Black Stork, 257-58
Blake, John R., 175
Blakeslee, Albert F., 389
Blakeslee, Alfred, 271
blind individuals
costs of maintaining in institutions, 147,
153
data collected from, 148, 152-54
defective family members, 152-53
eugenic legislation, 149-52, 153, 154, 155
family pedigrees, 148
institutions, 148, 153
Jews, 301
marriage restrictions, 145, 146, 149-52,
154, 155, 157
number in United States, 147, 149, 160
preventing reproduction, 58
segregation of, 145, 146, 149, 153
sterilizations, 145, 146, 148, 149, 299
blindness
hereditary, 145, 147, 149, 301, 341
prevention of hereditary, 145, 147-54, 237
as test case for eugenic legislation, 152, 157
Blitch, J. S., 291
Bliven, Bruce, 306
blood groups of twins, 364, 365
Bluhm, Agnes, 268
Bobbitt, John Franklin, 29
Boeters, Gustav, 261
Bolley, Henry, 292
Bollinger, Allan, 252-54
Bollinger, Anna, 252-54
Bolton, Kate, S
Bradby, William, 179
brains
Hallervorden-Spatz Syndrome, 369,
382-83
Nazi research on, 382-83
remains of Holocaust victims, 383-84
See also Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain
Research
Brandeis, Louis, 120
Brandenburg State Hospital, 369
Brazil
eugenicists, 23 8
marriage restrictions, 245
Breeders Associations (Britain), 224
breeding
of animals, 36, 44
feminist view of, 127-28
history of, 13
of humans, 21-22, 28, 367
of plants, 13, 26
See also super race
Brigham, Carl, 82-83, 84, 85, 90
Britain. See England
British Columbia, Canada, sterilization law, 242
British Medical Association, 226, 434
British Medical Journal, 434
Brock, Sir Lawrence, 231, 23 3
Brock Commission, 233-34, 249
Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 132
Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, 34, 36
Brooks Air Force Base, 382
Brower, Daniel R., 63
Brown, Louise, 427
Brunn, James, 398
Brush Mountain, Virginia, 3-4
Bryan, WE., 291
Bryn, Halfdan, 292
Buchenwald concentration camp
ancestral research barrack, 331
cruelty in, 326-27, 329
deaths in, 324, 329
doctors, 325-26
functions, 324
Katzen-Ellenbogen at, 319-21, 325-31,
332-35
Little Camp, 319-21, 326, 327-28, 333
medical experiments, 324, 329-30, 331,
367
work details, 329
Buck, Carrie, 108, 109-10, 112, 113-17,
120-22, 167, 400, 401-2
Buck, Emma, 108-10, 115, 116, 122
Buck, Vivian, 113, 114-15, 122
Buck v. Bell, 113-17, 119, 120-22, 123, 315,
401-2, 409
Buffalo Eye and Ear Infirmary, 145
Bumke, Oswald, 369
Burbank, Luther, 133
Bureau of Vita! Statistics, Virginia, 161, 163,
164-65, 166, 168-69, 173-74, 175, 177,
181
Burlington Santa Fe, 437-38
Bush, Vannevar, 393-94
Butler, Pierce, 120

California
ban on interracial marriages, 146
eugenicists, 277
governor's apology for sterilizations, 400
sterilization law, 68, 122
sterilizations performed, 7, 69, 122, 123,
228, 233, 277, 315, 342, 398
California School for the Deaf and Blind, 147
Cambridge University Eugenics Society, 215
Campbell, Clarence, 314-15
Campbell, E. Taylor, 398
Canada
DNA databank, 429
eugenicists, 238, 241-42
genetic testing issues, 435
immigrants, 241
insurance industry, 435
sterilization laws, 242
cancer, genetic markers, 430, 431
Cannon, W. B., 57
capital punishment, 250, 258
Carnegie, Andrew, 31, 37, 56, 72, 140
Carnegie Endowment, 296
Carnegie Institution
concerns about Laughlin, 191-92, 193-94,
198
criticism of, 101-2, 201, 202
Department of Genetics, 388, 412
endowments, 31, 56
establishment, 31
eugenics research funding, 7, 32, 296, 387
in Europe, 245, 298
in Germany, 258
global goals, 235
international conferences, 238
lessening interest in, 385, 391, 401
genetics research funding, 421
medical education survey, 283
purpose, 31
relations with Pearson, 220
Carnegie Institution, Station for Experimental
Evolution (Cold Spring Harbor)
buildings, 40
corresponding scientists, 43-44, 263, 272
criticism of, 392
Davenport at, 40, 105
Davenport's retirement, 386, 388
early years, 43
establishment, 40, 43
foreign scholars at, 240, 241, 244, 314, 419,
420
merger with Eugenics Record Office, 105
postwar changes, 426
proposal, 36-38
relations with German eugenics movement,
262-63, 268-69, 270-72, 273,
392-93
reviews of activities, 389-90
staff, 43
summer biology courses, 46, 51
Carnegie Steel Company, 72
carpal runnel syndrome, 437-38
Carr, Wilbur, 200
Carrel, Alexis, 57
Castellino, Vittorio, 96
Castle, W. E., 412
Catholic Church
charity, 10
opposition to eugenics, 232-33, 293
opposition to sterilization, 70, 232, 233
Cattell, James, 76
cemeteries, white, 172-73
census, German, 309, 311
Census, U.S.
of 1880, 41
of 1890, 202-3, 204, 205
of 1910, 190
of 1920, 159, 186, 205
information requested by eugenics
researchers, 159, 160-61
use of Hollerith machines, 289
Census Bureau, 159, 203
census of state institution inhabitants,
159-60
data on Indians, 176-77
defective, dependent, and delinquent population,
159, 160
number of blind people, 147
relations with eugenics researchers, 159-61
Chamberlain, George, 67
Chamberlain, J. P., 154, 155
Chamberlain, Neville, 227, 228, 233
Chambers, Robert, 247
charity
dysgenic effects, 251
in England, 10-11, 214, 218
historical background, 9- I0
Hitler's rejection of, 27 5
negative views of, 12, 127, 129-30, 138,
210, 222-23
seen as perpetuating poverty, 12, 29
Cheatham, Mrs. Robert H., 169
Cheever, Ezekiel, 200-202
chemical weapons, 258, 276
Chicago
defective baby killed in, 252-54
Municipal Court, 113, 256
Chicago Ame1'ican, 254
Chicago House of Corrections, 79
Chicago Tribune, 253
Childs, Prescott, 293
China, DNA databanks, 429
Chinese Exclusion Act, 22
Chloupek, Joseph, 106
Chloupek, Mary Sullivan, 106
Church, A. G., 233
Churchill, Winston, 71, 215, 403
Civil War, 117-18, 161, 273
Clark, Frank C, 172
Clark, Mrs. Frank C, 171-72
Clark, W. H., 169-70
Clement VII, Pope, 10
Cleveland
multiple births, 350
public schools, 147
clones, 427, 443
CODIS. See Combined National DNA Index
System
Cold Spring Harbor
Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences
biological station, 34
See also Carnegie Institution, Station for
Experimental Evolution; Eugenics
Record Office
Cole, Leon J., 251
College Board, 83
Collier's, 13 3
Colombia, eugenicists in, 238
colonies, 156, 215, 218
Colony for Epileptics and the Feebleminded
(Lynchburg, Virginia), 4, 5-6, 109-10,
113-14, 122, 400
Columbia, Missouri, twins in, 350
Columbia University, 152, 154, 155
Combined National DNA Index System
(CODIS), 429
Commission for Relief in Belgium Educational
Foundation, 241
Commission on Feeblemindedness (Virginia),
108-9, 111
Committee for Legalising Sterilization
(Britain), 228
Committee on Selective Immigration, 192,
198-99
Committee to Prevent Hereditary Blindness,
151, 153, 157
Communism, 186
Comstock, Ada, 99
concentration camps, 313
international awareness of, 343
medical experiments, 331, 365, 380-81
Ravensbruck, 406
twin studies in, 354-61
See also Auschwitz; Buchenwald; Dachau
conferences
First International Congress on Eugenics,
70-73, 207, 213, 217, 235, 263, 264
Second International Congress on
Eugenics, 236-38, 241, 244, 268, 351,
364, 422
Third International Congress of Eugenics
(New York), 245, 298, 419
Congress
House Committee on Immigration and
Naturalization, 187-88, 192-93, 199,
311-12
Laughlin as "Expert Eugenics Agent,"
188-92, 194
racial origins of senators, 204
Senate Immigration Committee, 393-94
congresses, international. See conferences
Connecticut
Biometric ID project, 430
Department of Social Services, 430
institutions, 67-68, 69
sterilization law, 67-68
sterilizations performed, 69
Constitution, U.S., 107-8
Constitutional Convention, 204
constructive eugenics, 135
See also positive eugenics
consuls. See State Department, U.S.
Conti, Leonardo, 339
contraception. See birth control
Coolidge, Calvin, 202, 203-4
Cox, Earnest S., 165-67
Crick, Francis, 426
criminality
environmental conditions and, 24
hereditary, 23-25, 96
criminals
DNA databanks, 429, 439
executions, 250, 258
family histories, 96
names collected in Virginia, 165
in Nazi concentration camps, 367
preventing reproduction, 58
sterilizations, 59, 63-64, 65-67, 68, 69,
122, 211
See also prisons
Crismond, A. H., 175
Cuba, eugenicists in, 238
Czechoslovakia
Aryan children kidnapped by Germans,
406-7
eugenicists, 23 8
eugenic screening of potential U.S. immigrants,
205
Nazi invasion, 313, 323
persecution of Jews, 323

Dachau concentration camp
medical experiments, 367, 381-82
opening of, 299
war crimes trials held at, 320, 328, 329-30,
332, 333-35
Dallas, John T., 99
Danforth, C. R, 342, 344
Danielson, Florence, 54
Danvers State Hospital (Massachusetts), 321,
327
Dartmouth Medical School, 425
Darwin, Charles, 12, 13, 15, 26, 45, 71, 74, 251
Darwin, Leonard, 71, 213, 215, 216-17
data processing. See Hollerith data processing
machines
Davenport, Amzi Benedict, 32, 33
Davenport, Charles
audience with Mussolini, 293
books, 33, 35, 73-75, 255, 272, 349, 386
career, 33
Cold Spring Harbor laboratory, 36-38, 40,
43, 105
criticism of, 99-101, 102-4
data collected, 44-45, 54, 88
death, 387
English eugenicists and, 212, 230
Eugenical News and, 305
Eugenics Record Office and, 89, 105, 106,
412
eugenic views, 36, 37, 75, 416-17
on carriers of defects, 58
on euthanasia, 254
on germ plasm, 364, 386
on heredity, 105-6
identification of unfit, 78
on immigration restrictions, 187
on marriage restrictions, 147, 216
on segregation of unfit, 39, 60, 75
on skin color, 164
on twins, 349, 350
family, 32-33, 385-86
files, 397
Fisher and, 134
Galton and, 34-35, 37, 43-44
in Germany, 287-88
influence on Hitler, 259
Laughlin and, 51, 193-94, 196, 197, 202,
388, 395
Davenport, Charles (continued)
leadership of American eugenics, 32,
34-38, 48, 385
organizational activities
American Breeders Association, 97
American Eugenics Society, 137
Eugenics Research Association, 90, 91
international cooperation, 240, 243, 244
international meetings, 71, 73, 213, 217,
230, 236, 237-38, 279-80, 287
Permanent International Commission
on Eugenics, 238, 239-40
personality, 32, 34, 385
physical appearance, 34
relations with German eugenics movement,
258, 262-63, 267, 268-69,
270-72, 273, 286, 291, 298, 313, 344,
385
research, 55, 56, 88, 255, 263, 386-87
retirement, 386-87, 388
Rockefeller Foundation and, 93
Sanger and, 136, 139, 140
survey of mixed race individuals, 288-89,
290, 350
tribute to Ploetz, 295
whaling museum, 387
Davenport, Charlie, 385-86
Davenport, Gertrude Crotty, 34
Davenport, Jane, 33
Davis, James J., 193, 194, 195, 199, 200, 203,
239
Davis, J. S., 108, 175
deaf individuals
institutions, 147
marriages, 210
number in United States, 160
preventing reproduction, 58
sterilizations in Germany, 299
Deavin, Sadie, 54-55
deCODE Genetics, 439
DeJarnette, Joseph, 7, 112, 114-15, 277
Delaware, marriage restrictions, 146
Delia (Plecker family servant), 162
Denmark
eugenicists, 235, 238, 243-44, 418-20
eugenic screening of potential U.S. immigrants,
195, 205
genetic discrimination legislation, 440
Institute for Human Genetics, 418, 420-21
marriage restrictions, 243
Nazi occupation, 407
sterilization law, 243
sterilization proposals, 420
Dennis, David, 150-51
Denson, William, 334
designer babies, 442
detention, forcible. See segregation of unfit
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. See German
Research Society
Dickens, Charles, 11
Dight Institute, University of Minnesota, 397
Dina (Auschwitz inmate), 357
Ding-Schuler, Erwin, 329-30
diplomats. See State Department, U.S.
disabilities, people with
preventing reproduction, 58
See also blind individuals; deaf individuals;
unfit
DNA
analysis in criminal investigations, 429-30,
439
databanks, 429-30, 439-40
double helix, 426
fingerprints of soldiers, 430
uses of information, 429-32, 439
See also genetics
Dobbs, J. T., 109, 113, 122
Dodge, Cleveland H., 31, 238
Dodge Foundation, 422
Dolly (cloned sheep), 427
Donald, Mary, 6
Dora works, 329
Dow Chemical, 437
Drange-Graebe, Mary, 53
Draper, John, 351-52
Draper, Wickliffe, 288-89
Draper Fund, 422
Dugdale, Richard, 24, 25, 64, 272
Dumbock (SS lieutenant), 326-27
Dunn, L. c., 391-92, 412, 412-13
Duvall, John c., 138

East, Edward, 138, 228
Eaton, Amey, 53
Eberhard-Karls University, Tubingen, 383-84
Eliot, Thomas D., 102-3
Elizabeth City County, Virginia, 162-63
Ellinger, Tage U.H., 354, 414-16
Ellis Island, 23, 78
Emergency Fund for German Science
(Notgemeinchaft der Deutschen
Wissenschaften), 295, 307, 364, 365
See also German Research Society
employers, genetic testing by, 437-38, 440
Energy, Department of, 437
England
charitable institutions for poor, 10-11, 218
costs of maintaining unfit, 226
DNA analysis, 430
DNA databanks, 429, 440
eugenic screening of potential U.S. immigrants,
196, 198, 205, 222
genetic testing and discrimination, 433-35
geographic distribution of pretty women,
442
illegal sterilizations, 211, 230-32
immigrants, 22, 207
insurance industry, 433-35, 436
intelligence testing, 76, 226
Jews in, 196
laws
Defective and Epileptic Children Act,
214
Idiots Act, 2 14
inheritance, 212
Lunacy Act, 214
Mental Deficiency Act, 214, 215,
216-18, 227
poor laws, 10-11, 214, 220-21, 222
lethal chambers in, 247-49
Ministry of Health, 211, 227, 228, 230,
231, 232, 233
National DNA Database, 429
number of feebleminded, 132
number of unfit, 226-27
primogeniture, 212
social problems, 207, 209
England, eugenics in
American influence, 207, 208-10, 212,
224-26
comparison to American movement, 208,
219
debate on murder of unfit, 248-49
family investigations, 211-12, 216, 220,
221
international cooperation, 238
lack of public support, 211-12, 226, 234
lack of scientific foundation, 28-29
marriage restriction proposals, 211, 216,
217, 218
postwar changes, 425
preventing reproduction of unfit, 210-11
research, 212-13, 219-22
segregation proposals, 210, 211, 214,
215-18, 226
sterilization proposals, 210, 214-15,
233-34
debates on, 226
illegality, 211, 230
lack of public support, 232, 300
lobbying for law, 227-29
opposition to, 211, 226, 227, 232, 233,
234
successors of Galton, 207, 209
view of American eugenics, 99-100
See also Eugenics Education Society;
Eugenics Society; Galton, Francis].
epilepsy
causes, 55
definitions, 56
hereditary, 55, 322
Katzen-Ellenbogen's research, 91, 321-22
link to feeblemindedness, 55
Nazi research, 367-68
epileptics
data collected on, 54-56
deaths in institutions, 256
efforts to identify and prevent reproduction,
56
institutions, 4, 54-55, 91, 98, 108, 256,
322, 327
Laughlin as, 395
marriage restrictions, 146
names collected in Virginia, 165
preventing reproduction, 58
seen as feebleminded, 55, 108
sterilizations, 5, 231, 299, 322
equality, 237, 238
ERA. See Eugenics Research Association
Der Erbarzt (The Genetic Doctor), 339, 346, 347,
362
Erbkrank (The Hereditarily Diseased), 315-16,
393
ERO. See Eugenics Record Office
Estabrook, A. H., 53, 238
Estonia Genome Project, 439
ethnic groups
conflicts, 22, 186-87
eugenic ratings, 282
immigration quotas, 202-5
melting pot concept, 22, 134
ethnic groups (continued)
seen as inferior, 29-30, 35, 44-45, 134
stereotypes of, 35
See also race
Eugenical News
advisory committee, 344
articles, 105, 180, 256-57, 267
book reviews, 166
on eyes, 361
by German eugenicists, 282
German sterilization law, 300
on hereditary blindness, 147
on Hitler, 298
on interstate deportation, 157
on marriage restriction laws, 155
on Nazi eugenics, 304-6, 314-15,
341-42, 352-53, 388, 389, 392-93
news from Germany, 281, 282-83, 286,
295, 297, 304-6, 364
news from other countries, 240-41, 243,
244, 266
on racial integrity laws, 174, 175, 178
reviews of German books, 273, 282, 297,
302, 343
on sterilization, 211
on twin research, 349, 350-51, 365
criticism of Nazis, 418
distancing of Carnegie Institution, 391,
394
editorial committee, 305
editorial on Sanger, 135
focus on race science, 280-81
foreign readership, 305-6
on future of eugenics, 416-17
Howe obituary, 158
Laughlin as editor, 98, 280-81, 305, 389
Laughlin's obituary, 395
launching of, 98
name change, 425
postwar changes, 417-18
publication by American Eugenics Society,
394, 424
racial references to Jews, 282-83
subtitles, 280-81, 300, 412
topics covered, 98-99
during World War II, 422
eugenics
definitions, 18
distinction from genetics, 391-92
Galton's contributions, 15-17
goals, 7
historical background, 9-13
international cooperation, 70, 23 5-40
lack of scientific foundation, 27, 99-100,
296, 391, 414, 423
term, 16
transition to genetics, 411-14, 417-18,
422-26
See also American eugenics; England,
eugenics in; Nazi eugenics; negative
eugenics
Eugenics (journal), 138-40, 174
eugenics curriculum, 75-76
Eugenics Education Society (EES)
activities, 212, 214-18, 219, 220-22, 226
debate on murder of unfit, 248-49
focus on negative eugenics, 70
founding, 210
invitations to international congresses, 71
lack of funds, 212, 223-24
Laughlin's visit, 196
leaders, 213
lobbying by, 214-15, 226, 227-29
mission, 212
publications, 223
relations with American organizations,
224-25
research, 223-24
warning on illegality of sterilizations, 211
See also England, eugenics in; Eugenics
Society
Eugenics Laboratory, 27, 60
Eugenics Quarterly, 425
Eugenics Record Office (ERO)
Board of Scientific Directors, 89-90,
93-94, 104-5
buildings, 51, 396
Carnegie Institution and, 47-48
closing of, 395-96, 413
criticism of, 99-101, 388, 390-91
data collected, 76, 388, 390-91, 396-97,
425
data collection process, 52-55, 56, 106-7,
165, 289, 291
Davenport's office, 386
draft laws on people with vision problems,
149-50
establishment, 45
estimated number of unfit, 216
family pedigrees
of blind people, 148
collection of, 105, 106, 290, 396-97, 398
family folders, 106
family trait booklets, 106
forms, 44, 239-40, 398
field investigators, 52-55, 80, 96-97,
179-80
foreign scholars at, 419, 420
funding, 46-47
global goals, 61
Harriman funding, 47, 48, 51, 56-57,
94-95, 96, 105, 238
hereditary tuberculosis data, 255
identification of unfit Americans, 52-55, 56
influence abroad, 213
Laughlin as superintendent, 51, 52, 390
letters received after closing, 396, 397-98
marriage restriction laws, 147, 156
political advocacy activities, 46
purpose, 45, 48
reforms, 388
relationship to Carnegie Institution, 105,
388-97, 412, 413
relations with German eugenics movement,
265, 267, 272, 313, 315-16, 342
review of activities, 390-91
songs, 123
study of sterilization in foreign countries,
235
twin studies, 350, 361-Q2
unscientific methods, 106-7
See also Laughlin, Harry Hamilton
Eugenics Research Association (ERA)
birth control movement and, 137-38
census data requested, 160
charter members, 90, 91, 322
establishment, 90
Eugenics Record Office and, 388
meetings, 266-67
members, 412
political advocacy activities, 90
presidents, 146, 158, 193, 257, 314-15,
343, 413-14
publications, 389
relations with German eugenics movement,
313, 342
survey of mixed race individuals, 289
Eugenics Review, 216-18, 22 5, 267
Eugenics Society
activities, 226, 233-34
endowments, 229
lobbying by, 226, 227-29
mission, 212
name change, 22 5
postwar changes, 425
relations with American organizations,
225, 229-30
sterilization proposals, 233, 300
See also England, eugenics in; Eugenics
Education Society
eugenics textbooks, 53, 255
by Davenport, 73-75
by Dunn, 412
German, 270, 272-73, 296-97, 351
in high schools, 75-76
by Johnson and Popenoe, 137, 255, 258,
351
read by Hitler, 259, 272-73
twin information, 349, 351
in universities, 75
euthanasia
debates on, 248-52
in Nazi Germany, 317
by neglect and abuse, 255-56
support for, 60, 247, 248
See also murders of unfit
Evian Conference, 343, 393
evolution, 12, 13
executions, 250, 258
See also murders of unfit
Extermination by Labor, 329
eyes
colors, 273, 359
hereditary defects, 361
medical experiments in concentration
camps, 331, 359, 376
of twins, 361-63
vision problems, 149-52
See also blindness

Fairchild, Henry Pratt, 134, 137, 141
families
carriers of defects, 58, 296, 308, 363-66
segregation of, 215-18
superior, 46, 135, 137, 139, 301
of unfit, 24-25, 58, 59, J 52-53, 215-18
See also heredity
family investigations
by Plecker, 169-72, 177-79, 180-81
of poor, 220, 221
of potential U.S. immigrants, 187, 188,
189, 192, 193, 194-99, 205
Family Life, 379
family pedigrees
of blind people, 148
collected by Eugenics Record Office, 105,
106, 290, 396-97, 398
collected by Nazis, 331, 342-43, 405
of criminals, 96
eugenic registries, 88, 165
Eugenics Record Office forms, 44, 239-40,
398
genetic profiles, 431, 432
of German Jews, 311, 316, 407-9
of immigrants, 189
medical histories, 431-32, 435-36, 438
of superior families, 46
in Tasmania, 440
use of genetic information, 432-37
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 429
Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in
America, 307
feebleminded individuals
British policies, 214
in concentration camps, 367
conferences on, 80
costs of maintaining, 39, 153, 226, 228-29
executing, 250, 251
identification, 78, 196, 201
institutions, 4, 11, 254-55, 256, 257
life expectancies, 257
marriage restrictions, 146
morons, 78, 79, 85, 189
names collected in Virginia, 165
Nazi gassing of (T-4 project), 312-13, 317,
339, 369, 382-83
number in England, 226-27
number in United States, 132
preventing reproduction, 58
segregation of, 214, 215
See also sterilizations, of feebleminded
feeblemindedness
definitions, 77, 78-79, 94, 96, 257
hereditary, 77
link to epilepsy, 55, 108
feminists
Sanger as, 142-43
support of eugenics, 22, 127-28
Field, James, 57
Fifth International Congress on Genetics
(Berlin), 287
Filipinos, 175-76
films
The Black Stork, 257-58
Erbkrank (The Hereditarily Diseased),
315-16, 393
fingerprints, 15, 431
Finland
eugenicists, 245
genetic discrimination legislation, 440
sterilizations, 245
First American Birth Control Conference, 134,
136
First International Congress on Eugenics
(London), 70-73, 207, 213, 217, 235,
263, 264
First National Conference on Race Betterment,
88-89, 249, 251
Fischer, Eugen, 263, 265-66, 272
articles in American journals, 281
audience with Mussolini, 293
Davenport and, 287, 291, 294, 298
Eugenical News advisory committee, 344
Foundation of Human Heredity and Race
Hygiene, 270, 272-73, 296-97, 351
at international meetings, 279, 280
involvement in Nazi eugenics, 300,
316-17, 339, 347, 354
at Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for
Anthropology, Human Heredity, and
Eugenics, 286, 288
national anthropological survey, 294-95
postwar attacks on, 378
retirement, 347
at Society for Racial Hygiene, 302
support for sterilizations, 297
Fisher, Agnes, 399
Fisher, Irving, 57, 89, 103-4, 134, 136-37, 224
Fisher, Ronald A., 221-22, 223, 351
Fletcher, Robert, 25
Flexner, Abraham, 283-84, 285
Florida State Reformatory, 291
Ford, Henry, 50-51
Forel, Auguste, 242, 243, 257
Fosdick, Raymond, 313, 314, 365
France
African soldiers in army, 267, 271, 275, 305
eugenicists, 235, 238, 239
eugenic screening of potential U.S. immigrants,
196-97
genetic discrimination legislation, 440
Nazi occupation, 323, 407
occupation of German lands after World
War I, 267, 269, 271, 305
Frank, Hans, 404
Frankenfish, 443
Frankfurt University, 340
Frazer, Robert, 197
Frazier, Charles, 398
"Free Issue" Negroes, 170, 171
Free World, 403-4
French Canadians, 241, 242
Frick, Wilhelm, 304, 305, 314, 353, 354, 394,
404
Fritzche, Hans, 404

Gailor, Thomas F., 99
Galton, Francis J., 73, 207
Bateson and, 27, 28
books, 15, 16, 18, 28
counting by, 14-15
data collected, 16-17
Davenport and, 34-35, 37, 43-44
death, 19, 70
distribution of pretty women in England,
442
education, 14
Eugenics Education Society and, 212
eugenics work, 15-17, 18, 28, 70, 72, 209,
219-20, 411, 418
fingerprints, 15, 431
German eugenicists and, 264
Hereditary Genius, 15, 18
on House of Lords, 212
on human breeding, 28
influence, 35
intelligence testing, 76
marginalization, 208, 209, 213
on marriage restrictions, 18-19, 28, 211
physical appearance, 14
research, 15
twin studies, 348-49, 351
Galton Institute, 425
Galton Laboratory, 99, 212-13, 220, 425
Gaupp, Robert, 369
genealogies. See family pedigrees
genelining, 436, 442
General Accounting Office, 400
genes
defective, 296
early study of, 412
See also DNA; genetics; heredity
Genetic Anti-Discrimination Bill, 440
genetic counseling, 411, 421, 423, 431
genetic discrimination, 433-35, 436-38,
440-41, 443-44
genetic identity, 429-32, 439-40
genetics
designer babies, 442
distinction from eugenics, 391-92
eugenics transformed into, 411-14,
417-18, 422-26
future of, 428-29, 431, 441-44
history of field, 26, 411-12
medical, 421-22, 423, 424, 425
See also DNA
Genetics Record Office, 396
See also Eugenics Record Office
genetics research
cloning, 427, 443
corporate involvement, 428
current, 426, 427-28
funding, 424-25
Human Genome Project, 437, 441
Rockefeller funding, 370
transgenic creatures, 443
genetic testing
access to results, 434
discrimination based on, 433-35, 436-37,
440-41
by employers, 437-38, 440
privacy of information, 437
of twins in Nazi Germany, 353-54
genetic therapies, 441
genocide
definition, 404-5
international treaty, 404-5
Nazi eugenics as, 405-9, 411
techniques, 403-4
term coined by Lemkin, 402
German-American Hospital, Chicago, 252-54
German eugenics
American financial support, 7
definitions of Jews, 310-12
international cooperation, 235
isolation after World War I, 267-68
leadership of international movement, 230
national anthropological survey, 294-95
negative eugenics, 261-62
negative view of Jews, 282-83, 294, 295,
296-97, 338-39
Nordic superiority, 70, 239
organizations, 262, 263-64
publisher, 273
race biological index, 282
race biology, 259
racial hygiene, 262
German eugenics (continued)
refusal to cooperate with French and
Belgians after World War 1, 238, 239,
258, 267-69
relations with Nazis, 297-98
research, 224, 229, 283, 419
Rockefeller funding, 7, 297, 298, 302, 313,
364-65
sterilization proposals, 261, 265, 339
textbooks, 270, 272-73, 296-97, 351
twin studies, 297, 350, 352-54
See also American eugenics, relations with
German eugenics movement; Nazi
eugenics
German Medical Association, 339
German Psychiatry Institute, 285, 286
German Research Society (Deutsche
Forschungsgemeinschaft), 346, 353, 354,
355, 360, 362, 364, 365, 367, 369
See also Emergency Fund for German
Science
Germans, stereotypes of, 35
Germany
allied occupation, 376, 377-78
anti-Semitism in, 297, 302
DNA databanks, 429
eugenic screening of potential U.S. immigrants,
205
medical education in, 283, 340
Ministry of the Interior, 285, 287, 304, 311
mixed race individuals, 267
nationalists, 266, 267, 338
Treaty of Versailles, 238, 267, 269, 271
war reparations, 267, 268, 271
Weimar Republic, 266-67, 268, 269
See also German eugenics; Jews, in
Germany; Nazis
germ plasm, 17, 18, 25, 73
carriers of defects, 58, 363-66
defective, 58, 386
Gesellschaft fur Rassenhygiene. See Society for
Racial Hygiene
Gestapo, 316, 323
Gildon, Mary, 169
Giuliani, Rudolph, 439
Goddard, Henry, 76-79
classification of feeblemindedness, 77,
78-79, 94, 257
estimated number of feebleminded, 132
Eugenics Record Office and, 94, 150
intelligence testing, 78-79, 80, 90, 226, 243
The Kallikak Family, 76-77, 107, 243, 250,
272
on morons, 78, 85
relations with German eugenics movement,
342
at Vineland, 76, 91, 243
Goebbels, Joseph, 299, 318
Goethe, C. M., 277, 315, 343, 344, 379
Goldsborough, Phillip L., 71
Goodman, Aileen, 178
Goodrich, C. L., 97
Gordon, Alfred, 351
Gosney, E. S., 277, 342
Govaerts, Albert, 195, 241, 255
Grant, Madison, 30, 31, 83, 167
Committee on Selective Immigration, 192
Eugenics Research Association and, 90-91
influence in Germany, 259, 273, 274-75,
298
international eugenics congresses, 236
Laughlin and, 305
on Nordic race, 29
The Passing of the Great Race, 82, 90,
251-52, 259, 266, 273, 274-75
reaction to alliance with American Birth
Control League, 139-40
support of immigration restrictions, 188
Great Britain. See England
greenlining, 436
Gregg, Alan, 308
Greunuss, Werner, 33 1
Gypsies
in concentration camps, 358, 359, 363, 366,
367
eye colors, 363
medical experiments, 366
Nazi persecution of, 316
twins, 358, 359

Haase, Irmgard, 366
Haber, Fritz, 285
Hahn, Otto, 376
Haiselden, Harry, 252-54, 255, 256, 257
Hale, Howard, 4
Hall, Gertrude, 96
Hallervorden, Julius, 369, 382-83
Hallervorden-Spatz Syndrome, 369, 382-83
Hallervorden-Spatz Syndrome Association,
382-83
Hamilton, Mascott, 171
Hanley, J. Frank, 66-67
Hansen, C.C., 293
Hansen, Soren, 243
Harding, Warren G., 193
Harrell, D. L., Jr., 5
Harriman, E. H., 46
Harriman, Mary, 46, 47
Harriman, Mary (Mrs. E. H.)
criticism of, 101-2
Davenport and, 46-47, 48, 49, 140
funding of Eugenics Record Office, 47, 48,
51, 56-57, 94-95, 96, 105, 238
international eugenics congresses, 236
Harris, J. Arthur, 191
Harvard University, 33, 117, 119
eugenics courses, 75
Howe Laboratory for Ophthalmology, 146
Havemann, Robert, 376, 379
Hays, Willet M., 39-40, 47
Healy, William, 53
Hearst newspapers, 101-4, 254
Hebberd, Robert, 95
Heidelberg, University of, 312, 342, 383
Heidinger, Willi, 309-10
Henry VIII, King of England, 10
hereditary disorders
carpal tunnel syndrome, 437-38
classification, 58
epilepsy, 55, 322
feeblemindedness, 77
genetic counseling, 431
insanity, 295-96
insurance industry records of, 431-32
tuberculosis, 241, 255
vision problems, 361
See also blindness; genetic discrimination
heredity
carriers of defects, 58, 296, 308, 363-66
of character traits, 17, 74, 105-6
of criminality, 23-25, 96
dominant and recessive traits, 26
environmental factors and, 27, 339, 348-49
Galton's views, 15
Mendelian theories, 13, 25-26, 36, 39, 101,
208, 411
of physical traits, 17, 27
role of germ plasm, 17, 18, 25
study of, 13
theories, 17-18
See also genetics
Herndon, C. Nash, 421
Heron, David, 99-100
Hess, Rudolf, 270, 318
HGC. See Human Genetics Commission
High Teams institution (London), 230-32
Hill, Joseph, 159
Himmler, Heinrich, 354, 355, 366
Hindenburg, Paul von, 299
Hindus, 176
Hirschhorn, Kurt, 379-80
Hitler, Adolf
American admirers, 297, 298
anti-Semitism, 269-70, 311
Beer Hall Putsch, 269, 273-74
eugenics texts read by, 259
eugenic views, 259-60, 269-70, 274-77,
280, 297, 307, 318, 367, 403
imprisonment, 259-60, 269
influence of American eugenicists, 259,
274-76, 277, 298
meeting with Stoddard, 318
Mein Kampf, 270, 274, 276, 318, 354, 394
as national Physician, 309
rise to power, 277, 297, 298-99
suicide, 375
in World War 1, 276
See also Nazis
Hitlerschnitte (Hitler's cut), 304
Hodson, Cora, 223, 224-25, 226, 229-30
Hofmann, Otto, 405, 407-9
Holland
DNA databanks, 429
eugenicists, 238, 240, 245, 279
eugenic screening of potential U.S. immigrants,
205
Nazi occupation, 407
Hollerith data processing machines,
289-90
proposed eugenics use, 293-94, 310
use in Jamaica survey, 290, 291
use in Nazi Germany, 309, 311
See also IBM
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 209
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr., 117-22, 315,
401-2, 409
Holmes, Samuel]., 224
Holocaust. See concentration camps; Jews, in
Germany; Nazi eugenics
Holt, Henry, 181
homeland security, 430-31
homosexuals, in concentration camps, 324, 367
Hong Kong, genetic discrimination, 438
Hoover, Herbert, 203, 205
Hoover, J. Edgar, 187
Hottentots, 263, 265-66
House Committee on Immigration and
Naturalization, 187-88, 192-93, 199,
311-12
Howe, Lucien, 145-46
Committee on Selective Immigration and,
192
death, 158
eugenics work, 146, 158
interstate deportation of unfit, 156-57
laboratory, 344
prevention of hereditary blindness, 147-49,
151, 152-55, 237
support of immigration restrictions, 187
widow, 396
Hughes, Charles Evans, 200
Human Betterment Foundation, 277, 281, 342
Human Betterment League of North Carolina,
425
Human Genetics Commission (HGC), 434
Human Genetics League of North Carolina,
425
Human Genome Project, 437, 441
Hungary, eugenicists in, 245
Hunter, George William, 75-76
Huntington's chorea, 54, 299, 431
Hurty, J.N., 65-66
hygiene and sanitary movement, 262

IBM
German subsidiary, 309-10
Iceland DNA databank project, 439
systems designed for Nazi Germany,
290-91, 308-10, 311, 339
See also Hollerith data processing machines
Icarian Colony, 261
Iceland, national DNA databank, 439
IFEO. See International Federation of Eugenic
Organizations
Illinois Institution for the Feebleminded
(Lincoln, IL), 254-55, 256, 257
Illinois sterilization law, 67
immigrants
to England, 22, 207
eugenic selection of, 239
to United States
ethnic groups seen as inferior, 29-30
eugenic screening in home countries,
187, 188, 189, 192, 193, 194-99, 205
family pedigree investigations, 189,
194-98, 199
feebleminded children, 132
intelligence testing, 78, 83, 196
Irish, 30, 35, 78, 95
Italian, 83, 9~ 187, 202
Jews, 74, 78, 83, 95, 191, 273
melting pot concept, 22, 35
Nordic race preferred, 188, 192, 203
number of blue-eyed recruits, 186
opposition to immigration restrictions,
191-92, 203
southern and eastern European, 29-30,
74, 78, 190, 192, 202
undesirable, 185
Immigration Act of 1924, 202-5, 275
Immigration Restriction League, 188
immigration restrictions
in foreign countries, 185
in United States
Chinese Exclusion Act, 22
debates on, 185-86
easing in 1952, 205
eugenic principles in, 185
on Jews, 311-12, 393, 394
Laughlin's support of, 88, 187, 188-89,
311-12, 387-88, 393, 394
opposition to, 191-92, 203, 204
quotas, 189, 190, 192-93, 202-5, 275,
311-12, 394
reactive, 188
support for, 22-23, 45, 134, 187
The Independent, 254
Indiana
Committee on Mental Defectives, 96-97
legislature, 96-97
poor and homeless, 25, 53, 64-65
State Board of Health, 65
sterilizations, 63-64, 209, 211
Tribe of Ishmael, 25, 53, 65, 237
Indiana Reformatory, 63-64, 65-67, 148
Indian Citizenship Act, 177
Indian Health Service, 400
Indians. See American Indians
Industrial Alliance, 435
iNeurology, 382
inherited diseases. See hereditary disorders
inmates. See prisons
Innes, Alfred Mitchell, 71
insane
census statistics, 159
costs of maintaining, 39
executing, 250
institutions, 52
marriage restrictions, 146
names collected in Virginia, 165
preventing reproduction, 58
insanity
conferences on, 80
epilepsy and, 55
hereditary, 295-96
preventing, 80
Institute for Hereditary Biology and Racial
Hygiene (Frankfurt), 341-43, 344, 345,
346, 352-53
Institute for Heredity Research (Potsdam), 267
Institute for Human Genetics (Copenhagen),
418, 420-21
Institute for Racial Hygiene (Munich), 316
Institution for Race Biology (Switzerland),
242-43
Institution Quarterly, 255
institutions
for blind, 148, 153
census of inhabitants, 159-60
conditions in, 254-55, 256
costs, 39, 130, 147, 153
data gathered in, 52, 161
deinstitutionalization, 227
in England, 227
for epileptics, 4, 54-55, 91, 98, 108, 256,
322, 327
mortality rates, 255, 256, 257
national origins of residents, 190-91
surveys of, 201
See also segregation of unfit
insurance industry
access to genetic information, 434, 435,
436
asymmetrical information, 432-33
Medical Information Bureau, 431-32,
435-36
use of genetic information, 432-37, 440
intelligence tests
Army tests, 80-82, 83, 84, 132, 201, 279
Binet-Simon test, 76, 78
criticism of, 80, 84-85
development of, 76
in England, 226
of Goddard, 78-79, 80, 90, 226, 243
identifying feebleminded, 196, 201
immigrant screening, 78, 83, 196
improving scores, 76
IQ, 82, 83, 84
racial differences, 79, 81, 82-84, 85
social use of, 83-84
spread of, 79
Stanford-Binet test, 81, 82, 84
Yerkes-Bridge Point Scale, 80
International Actuarial Association, 436
International Commission on Eugenics, 134
International Congress Against Alcoholism, 285
International Congress of Genetics
(Edinburgh), 346
International Congress of Hygiene, 267
international cooperation, 70, 23 5-40
See also conferences; International
Eugenics Commission; International
Federation of Eugenic Organizations
International DNA Users Conference, 430
International Eugenic Committee, 235-36, 238
International Eugenic Congress, Committee on
Immigration, 146
International Eugenics Commission, 238-40,
243, 264, 268-69, 272
International Federation of Eugenic
Organizations (IFEO), 240, 244, 258,
264
Committee on Race Crossing, 279, 291,
292, 293, 294
Committee on Racial Psychiatry, 295
Germans included in, 279, 286, 288, 302,
341
Munich meeting, 286
Rome meeting, 279-80, 293
Zurich meeting, 304
International Health Exhibition (London),
16-17
International Hygiene Exhibition, 264
International Planned Parenthood Federation,
144
International Society for Race Hygiene, 264
International Space Hall of Fame, 382
Interpol, 430
interracial marriages
of American Indians, 146, 168, 176, 177-79
preventing, 163
restrictions on, 146, 165, 174-76, 400-401
See also mixed race individuals
interstate deportation, 156-57
in vitro fertilization, 427
Iowa
Icarian Colony, 261
Iowa (continued)
legislature, 250
sterilization law, 68
IQ tests, 82, 83, 84
See also intelligence tests
Ireland
eugenic screening of potential U.S. immigrants,
205
immigrants from, 30, 35, 78, 95
Ishmael, Tribe of, 25, 53, 65, 23 7
Italy
eugenicists, 235, 238, 245
eugenic screening of potential U.S. immigrants,
195-96, 198, 205
immigrants from, 83, 96, 187, 202
Mussolini's rule, 293
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Re: War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to

Postby admin » Mon Aug 11, 2014 7:12 am

PART 2 OF 2

Jacob, 13
Jacobson, Bertha, 290
JAMA. See Journal of the American Medical
Association
Jamaica, survey of mixed race individuals,
288-89, 290, 291, 350
Java, mixed race individuals, 279
Jeffreys, Sir Alec, 439
Jehovah's Witnesses, 367
Jesus Christ, 10, 13
Jeter, Mildred, 400-401
Jewish question, 297, 340
Jews
in Africa, 295
blindness, 301
in England, 196
German eugenicists' views of, 282-83, 294,
295, 296-97, 338-39
in Germany
Christian converts, 323
definition of, 310-12, 315
from eastern Europe, 27 5
elimination as Nazi goal, 318, 347, 415
family pedigrees, 311, 316, 407-9
Final Solution, 407-8
Hitler's view of, 270
IBM system to collect data, 290-91,
308-10, 311, 340
international criticism of Nazi persecution,
304
international reaction to persecution,
311
Kristallnacht, 316, 344, 393
Mischling (mixed breeds), 311
Nazi persecution of, 277, 299, 304, 306,
308-9, 311, 316-17, 318, 343, 407-9
Nuremberg Laws, 311, 312, 323, 339,
345, 392-93
physicians, 306, 307, 308
Ploetz's view of, 262
refugees, 299, 304, 305, 306, 393
registration of, 340
sterilizations, 407-8
twins at Auschwitz, 355-61
hereditary disorders, 343
marriages
consanguineous, 282
to non-Jews, 280
Mengele's identification of, 345
physical characteristics, 415-16
in Poland, 395
positive views of, 262
racial stereotypes of, 316
in United States
immigrants, 74, 78, 83, 95, 191, 273
immigration restrictions, 311-12, 393,
394
intelligence testing, 83
See also anti-Semitism; concentration
camps
Johnson, Albert, 187-90, 191, 192-93, 194, 199,
201, 202, 203, 311-12
Johnson, Roswell, 137, 139
Applied Eugenics, 137, 255, 258, 351
Johnstone, E. R., 250
Jordan, David Starr, 65, 70, 71, 210, 213, 222,
223
Jost, Alfred, 262
Journal of Delinquency, 78
Journal of Heredity
articles, 161, 265-66
on blindness, 147, 149
on German eugenics, 281, 414-16
on immigration restrictions, 188
news from Germany, 286
reviews of German books, 273, 341, 352
on twin research, 350, 351, 352, 353, 354
current mission, 425-26
topics covered, 412
Journal of Sociology, 160
Journal of the American Medical Association
(JAMA), 63, 73, 211, 281-82
criticism of Nazis, 313
Nazi propaganda published in, 301-2
news from Germany, 286, 341, 342-43,
352
Juhan, Joseph, 398-99
Jukes family, 24, 25, 64, 281
Julius Klaus Foundation for Heredity Research,
Social Anthropology and Racial
Hygiene, 242-43
Juvenile Psychopathic Institute (Chicago), 53

Kahler, Hans, 375
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology,
Human Heredity, and Eugenics
cover-up of wartime activities, 375
Ellinger's visit, 414-16
establishment, 286
exhibits at international conferences, 298
Fischer as director, 286, 288
funding, 283, 286-87
involvement in mass sterilization, 300
Jewish doctor at, 308
medical research, 367-68
Nazi control, 316
Rockefeller funding, 297, 302
twin studies, 297, 302, 354, 359, 360-61,
364, 414, 415, 420
Verschuer at, 339-40, 341, 347-48, 420
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology, 297-98,
369
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Brain Research,
283, 288, 302-3, 368-69, 379, 382,
419-20
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical
Chemistry and Electrochemistry, 369-70
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics, 283
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Psychiatry, 283,
285, 286, 296, 306-7, 308, 369
Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes
American funding, 283, 288
development of, 283, 284
Nazi control, 302-3, 306-7, 316
Rockefeller funding, 285, 296, 306-7, 313,
369-70, 419-20
Kaiser Wilhelm Society, 283, 284
Kallikak family, 76-77, 107
Kansas, sterilizations in, 63, 122, 209
Kansas Home for the Feebleminded, 63
Katzen-Ellenbogen, Edwin, 91-93, 319-24
at Buchenwald, 319-21, 325-31, 332-35
education, 321
expertise in fake symptoms, 321, 332
as hypnotist, 331
Jewish ancestry, 92, 321
murders by injection, 330
as prisoner, 323-24
as psychologist, 92, 326-27
son, 92
study of epilepsy, 91, 321-22
testimony against other doctors, 332-33
trial, 328, 329-30, 332, 333-35
Katzen-Ellenbogen, Marie Pierce, 91-92, 321
Keeler, Clyde, 344
Kellogg, Frank, 203
Kellogg, John Harvey, 88, 238
Kellogg, V. L., 75
Kellogg, Will, 88
Kellogg Company, 88
Kemp, Tage, 243-44, 418-20
Kennedy, Helena, 434
Kenya, 293
Kidder, A. v., 389-90
Kiep, Otto, 300
Kirksville, Missouri, 49, 50, 395
Klaus, Julius, 242
Klein, Zvi, 355-56
Knorr, George W., 97
Knox, P. c., 71, 72
Kogon, Eugen, 329-30, 333
Kommando 22a, 331
Kopp, Marie, 315
Kranz, Heinrich, 353
Kriegel, Vera, 362
Kristallnacht, 316, 344, 393
Kuhn, Alfred, 308
Ku Klux Klan, 186
Kupas, Eva, 357

Labor, Department of, 193, 194, 197, 198, 199
labor camps, Nazi, 324, 329, 347
See also concentration camps
Lait, Jack, 257
Lambert, Robert, 302-3
Lancashire Asylums Board, 210
Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 53
Lancet, 382
Lang, Theodore, 307
Laski, Harold J., 120
Laughlin, Deborah, 49
Laughlin, George, 49
Laughlin, Harry Hamilton
campaign to prevent blindness, 152-53,
157
career, 49-50
Laughlin, Harry Hamilton (continued)
census and, 160, 161
concerns about speeches and beliefs, 185,
191-92, 193-94, 198, 200-202,
387-88
congressional testimony, 189, 191, 199,
202, 393-94
as consultant to Municipal Court of
Chicago, 256
data collected, 53, 106, 361-62
Davenport and, 51, 193-94, 196, 197, 202,
388, 395
death, 395
deposition in Buck case, 115-16
epilepsy bulletin, 55
epilepsy of, 395
as Eugenical News editor, 98, 280-81, 305,
389
at Eugenics Record Office, 51, 52
eugenic views, 88-89, 193
on carriers of defects, 58
on immigration restrictions, 88, 187,
188-89, 311-12, 387-88, 393, 394
on marriage restrictions, 155, 156
on Nazi eugenics, 304-5
racial classifications, 161-62, 190
social inadequacy concept, 159-60, 189,
225
on sterilization, 88
European tour, 194-98, 199, 222, 238-39,
241
as "Expert Eugenics Agent" for Congress,
188-92, 194
family, 49
Fisher and, 134
Harriman and, 94-95
influence in Germany, 312, 342
model sterilization law, 113, 121
organizational activities
ABA Eugenic Section, 57, 250-51
American Eugenics Society, 137
Committee on Selective Immigration,
192, 198-99
Eugenics Research Association, 90, 160,
266-67, 389
international cooperation, 238-39, 240,
241
International Federation of Eugenic
Organizations, 286
at international meetings, 236
Plecker and, 174, 175
racial origins of senators investigated, 204
racism, 191-92, 201, 387-88, 394
rejection of charity, 222-23
relations with German eugenics movement,
265, 266-67, 315-16, 342, 388,
392, 394
removal of, 388-92
residence, 51, 52, 390
retirement, 395
ridicule of, 200-202, 387-88
Sanger and, 136-37
self-promotion, 50-51
speeches in England, 22 5
state sterilization laws compilation, 113,
243
study of hereditary blindness, 147, 148
survey of state institutions, 159-60, 20 I
writings, 50-51
See also Eugenics Record Office
Laughlin, Pansy, 50, 52, 195, 390
law enforcement, DNA analysis and databanks,
429-30, 439
Lawton, Henry, 231
League of Nations, 68-69
Lebensborn, 405
Lehmann, Julius, 273-74, 295
Lehmanns Verlag, 273, 282, 292, 302
Leipzig University, 345
Lemkin, Raphael, 402-4
Lenz, Fritz, 272
articles in American journals, 281, 282
Foundation of Human Heredity and Race
Hygiene, 270, 272-73, 296-97, 351
involvement in Nazi eugenics, 316, 317,
347
relations with American eugenicists, 394
research, 308
lethal chambers
animals euthanized in, 247
criminal executions, 258
in England, 247-49
support in birth control movement, 251
use on unfit, 276
Libby, G. F., 151
Lidbetter, Ernest J., 221, 222, 223, 224, 229
Lidice, Czechoslovakia, 406-7
Lincoln. See Illinois Institution for the
Feebleminded
Lincoln, Abraham, 118
Lippmann, Walter, 84
Lithuania, marriage restrictions, 245
Little, Clarence C., 137
Loeb, Clarence, 151, 285
London
Battersea Dogs Home, 247
First International Congress on Eugenics,
70-73, 207, 213, 217, 235, 263, 264
High Teams institution, 230-32
poverty in, 221, 222
London Sociological Society, 209
Lorimer, Frank, 423
Lorinczi, Lea, 355
Los Angeles, ethnic groups, 292
Loving, Mildred Jeter, 400-401
Loving, Richard, 400-401
Loving v. Virginia, 40 I
Luftwaffe Institute for Aviation Medicine, 381
Lundborg, Hermann, 237, 244
lynchings, 23, 84

Magdalen Home for the Feebleminded, 80
Magnussen, Karin, 362-63
Maine
sterilizations, 122
Workshop for the Blind, 147
Mainz Academy of Sciences and Literature, 379
Mallory, George, 110-12
Mallory, Jessie, 111-12, 114
Mallory, Nannie, 111-12
Mallory, Willie, 110-12, 114
Malthus, Thomas, 11-12, 15, 120, 128
Manchuria, 293
marriage
among Amish, 53
Catholic Church views, 232-33
consanguineous
among elite, 74
effects, 53, 54, 282
of Jews, 282
government screening, 175-76, 421
of Jews and non-Jews, 280
polygamy, 60
registration in Virginia, 164
regulations proposed by Galton, 18-19, 28
selection of spouses, 15, 60, 74
See also interracial marriages
marriage restrictions
for blind, 145, 146, 149-52, 154, 155, 157
bonding proposal, 154-56, 157
Catholic opposition, 232
current, 409
Davenport's support of, 75
English proposals, 211, 216, 217, 218
found unconstitutional, 401
history of, 146
interracial marriages prohibited, 146, 165,
174-76, 400-401
model legislation, 156
in Nazi Germany, 341, 407
in other countries, 243, 245
state laws, 146-47, 165-72, 174-76, 208,
400-401
for unfit, 60, 146
Virginia Racial Integrity law, 165-72,
174-76, 177, 181, 400-401
Marshall, Louis, 57, 59-60
Maryland, ban on interracial marriages, 146
Massachusetts
institutions, 54, 321, 327
sterilizations performed, 209
master race, 270
Max Planck Institute for Brain Research, 383
McCarran-Walter Immigration and
Naturalization Act, 205
McCreary, James, 71
McCulloch, Oscar, 25, 64-65
McKim, W. Duncan, 248
McReynolds, James Clark, 120
medical education
genetics, 421-22, 423
in Germany, 283, 340
medical experiments, Nazi, 367
at Auschwitz, 338, 358-59, 361, 362-63,
376, 379
aviation medicine, 367, 381
at Buchenwald, 324, 329-30, 367
in concentration camps, 331, 365, 380-81
at Dachau, 367, 381-82
funding, 365
on Gypsies, 366
by Mengele, 338, 359, 361, 376, 379
postwar coverup, 375, 376-80
real medical advances, 380-83
retention of victims' remains, 383-84
See also twin studies
Medical Information Bureau (MIB), 431-32,
435-36
medical profession. See physicians
Medico-Legal Society, 227-28
Mein Kampf (Hitler), 270, 274, 276, 318, 354,
394
Melchers, George, 363
Mencken, H.L., 200-202
Mendel, Gregor
at Auschwitz, 355-61
Howe and, 152
influence on Davenport, 36, 101
memorial to, 263
pea breeding, 26
publication of research, 13, 15
rediscovery of theories, 25-26, 27, 31, 36,
39, 208, 411
Mengele, Josef
at Auschwitz, 337, 348, 363, 370, 376
assistants, 356-57
data collected, 359-61, 375
escape, 371, 375
medical experiments, 338, 359, 361, 376,
379
prisoners murdered by, 358-59
twin studies, 353, 357, 358, 362, 365-66
career, 344-47
character, 357-58
eugenic views, 344, 356
Jewish ancestry, 345
Mental Deficiency Act, 214, 215, 216-18, 227
Mental Deficiency Committee (Britain), 226-27
mental illness. See insanity
mental retardation. See feebleminded individuals
mental tests. See intelligence tests
Merriam, C. Hart, 46
Merriam, John C., 31, 185, 191, 193-94, 198,
200, 387-88, 392
meteorology, 15
Metropolitan Relieving Officer's Association,
221
Mexicans, 176, 387
Mexico, eugenicists in, 238
Meyer, Adolf, 90, 138, 150
MIE. See Medical Information Bureau
Michigan
legislature, 66
sterilizations, 123
Miles, Walter, 220
military
DNA fingerprints of soldiers, 430
See also Army, U.S.
Milledgeville State Hospital (Georgia), 399
Minnesota
marriage restriction law, 208
sterilizations, 122-23
Minnesota Historical Society, 397
miscegenation. See mixed race individuals
mixed race individuals
in Africa, 263, 265-66
attempts to prevent passing as white, 164
in Canada, 242
children of African soldiers in Rhineland,
267, 271, 275, 305, 316
consuls' reports on, 292-93
efforts to eliminate, 163-82, 279, 288
in Germany, 305, 340
global survey of, 288-89, 291-94
Indians, 177-80
Jamaica survey, 288-89, 290, 291, 350
negative views of, 30, 31
research on, 179-80
sterilizations, 305, 316
study of, 89
survey in United States, 291
twins, 350
in Virginia, 163, 164, 165, 169-70, 177-80
Win Tribe, 179-80
Mjoen, Jon Alfred, 71, 244, 279
Mollison, Theodor, 344-45, 420
Monacan Indians, 177, 178
mongrelization. See mixed race individuals
Mongrel Virginians, 179-80
Monson State Hospital for Epileptics
(Massachusetts), 54
Montana, ban on interracial marriages, 146
Montgomery County, Virginia, 3-4, 5
Moore, Elizabeth, 99
Moral Education League, 210
Morgan, ]. P., 31
Morgan, William, 151
morons, 78, 79, 85, 189
See also feebleminded individuals
moths, 308
Mozes, Eva, 355
Muller, Hermann, 351
Muller, Hermann Joseph, 302-3, 351, 379
Muller-Hill, Benno, 380
Municipal Court of Chicago, 113, 256
murders of unfit
capital punishment, 258
defective babies, 252-54, 257-58
denial of treatment, 252-54, 327-29
in Nazi Germany, 3 I 7
Nazi T-4 project, 312-13, 339, 369,
382-83
opposition to, 250-52
right of state, 262
Sanger's views, 133, 251
support for, 247, 248-49, 250-52
See also euthanasia; lethal chambers
Mussolini, Benito, 279, 293

Nachtsheim, Hans, 367-68, 375
Nassau County, New York, 95
National Academy of Sciences, 236
National Association for the Study of Epilepsy,
91, 322
National Committee for Federal Legislation on
Birth Control, 134
National Committee for the Prevention of
Blindness, 146
National Committee on Prison and Prison
Labor, 96
National Conference on Charities and
Correction, 248-49, 255
National Institutes of Health, 383, 425
National Origins Act, 202-5, 275
National Prison Association, 250
National Research Council, 236
National Socialism. See Nazis
National Socialist Doctors' Association, 307
Native Americans. See American Indians
natural selection, 12, 251
Nature, 198
Nazi doctors, 277
at Auschwitz, 33 7
at Buchenwald, 325-26, 329-31, 332
political takeover of medicine, 313, 316
war crimes trials, 320, 332-33, 381
See also Katzen-Ellenbogen, Edwin; medical
experiments; Mengele, Josef
Nazi eugenics, 316-17
American admiration of, 7, 280, 313
cover-up of wartime activities, 375, 379,
380
criticism of, 312
depopulation strategy, 403
elimination of Jews, 318, 347, 415
Eugenic Courts, 318, 345
eugenic laws, 277
family pedigrees, 331, 342-43, 405
films, 315-16, 393
as genocide, 405-9, 411
Germanization of Polish children, 331-32,
347, 405
increased birth rate among Germans, 403
influence on medicine, 380-83
international conferences, 346
racial examinations, 406, 415- J 6
research bodies, 339-40
revulsion of other eugenicists, 3 I 3
sterilization law, 299-301, 339
sterilizations performed, 277, 304, 315,
316, 317, 324, 342, 406, 407-8
T-4 project (gassing of feebleminded),
312-13, 317, 339, 369, 382-83
techniques, 403-5
twin camps, 352, 354-61, 362-63
See also American eugenics, relations with
German eugenics movement; Aryan
superiority; Jews, in Germany; medical
experiments
Nazi Heredity Courts, 315
Nazis
American sympathizers, 313
Beer Hall Putsch, 269, 273-74
census, 309, 311
defeat, 375
international knowledge of atrocities,
299, 303, 311, 343, 402-4
labor camps, 324, 329, 347
Luftwaffe, 367, 381
marriage restrictions, 341
persecution of Gypsies, 316
propaganda, 299, 315-16, 393
registration of citizens, 310, 339
scientists brought to United States,
381-83
seizure of power, 298-99
use of IBM technology, 290-91, 308-10,
311, 339
See also concentration camps; Hitler,
Adolf; Nazi eugenics
NBIA Disorders Association, 382-83
Nebraska, sterilizations in, 122
negative eugenics, 19
Carnegie Institution funding, 32
criticism of, 417
in England, 209
in Germany, 261-62
Sanger's views, 131, 135
term replaced by medical genetics, 424
Netherlands. See Holland
Die Neue Zeitung, 405
Nevada
ban on interracial marriages, 146
sterilization law, 68
newgenics, 428-29
New Jersey
State Village for Epileptics (Skillman),
54-55, 91, 98, 322, 327
sterilization law, 68, 322
Vineland Training School for
Feebleminded Girls and Boys, 76, 80,
91, 213, 243, 322, 327
New York American, 103-4
New York City
health conditions, 126
Second International Congress on
Eugenics, 236-38, 241, 244, 268, 351,
364, 422
Third International Congress of Eugenics
(New York), 245, 298, 419
New York City Police Department, 96, 98
New York Public Library, 54, 397
New York (state)
county surveys of unfit, 95-96
criminal families, 23-24
eugenics agency, 95-96
institutions, 52, 53, 130
legislature, 93, 151-52, 154, 155
marriage restrictions for blind, 151-52,
154, 155
Senate Commission to Investigate
Provision for the Mentally Deficient,
96
sterilization law, 69
sterilizations performed, 123
New York State Asylum (Matteawan), 52, 53
New York State Board of Charities, Bureau of
Analysis and Investigation, 95, 96
New York State Board of Health, 152, 153
New York State Bureau of Industries and
Immigration, 95-96
New York State Chamber of Commerce,
Special Committee on Immigration and
Naturalization, 394
New York State Department of Labor, 96
New York Times, 199, 297, 304, 311, 314
New York University
College of Dentistry, 351
eugenics courses, 75
New Zealand, eugenicists in, 238
Nordic race
histories of, 30
intelligence test scores, 82
Nazi breeding program, 405
preferences for immigrants of, 188, 192,
203
superiority seen, 29-31, 195, 213, 239, 244,
266, 315
See also Aryan superiority; super race
North Carolina
eugenics program, 421-22
marriage screening proposal, 421
sterilization law, 400
sterilizations performed, 123, 400, 421, 422
North Dakota
ban on interracial marriages, 146
ethnic groups, 292
Northwestern University, 75
Norway
eugenicists, 71, 235, 238, 240, 244
eugenic screening of potential U, S. immigrants,
205
International Society for Race Hygiene
branch, 264
mixed race individuals, 279, 292
Nazi occupation, 407
sterilization law, 244
sterilizations performed, 244
Norwich Hospital (Connecticut), 67-68, 69
Norwich Union Insurance, 434
Notgemeinschaft der Deutschen Wissenschaften. See
Emergency Fund for German Science
number names, 40
Nuremberg Laws, 311, 312, 323, 339, 345,
392-93
Nuremberg war crimes trials, 325, 332-33, 381,
404, 405-9
Nyiszli, Miklos, 356-57, 358, 359, 360-61

O'Brien, Daniel, 419
O'Brien, Stephen, 425-26
Ochsner, Albert John, 63
Offer, Moshe, 356
Ohio legislature, 250
Ohio State University, 382
Oliv (prisoner), 319-20
Olshansky, S. Jay, 425
Olson, Harry, 79, 96, 113, 195, 222, 243,
256-57
Oneida Community, 21
Operation Paperclip, 381-83
ophthalmology, 145, 150-51
See also eyes
Oregon
sterilization law, 67
sterilizations performed, 122, 400
The Origin of the Species (Darwin), 12
Osborn, Frederick, 418, 422-24
Osborn, Henry Fairfield, 37, 136, 236, 237,
238, 244, 422
Ossining, New York, Sing Sing prison, 52, 96
Owen, Teresa, 95
Owens-Adair, Bethenia, 67

Parliament, British, 211, 214-15, 217
delegation to Nazi concentration camps,
325
genetic testing issue, 434
House of Lords, 212
opposition to sterilization, 233
pathologists, at Auschwitz, 356-57, 360
Paton, Stewart, 57
Paul, Eden, 248
pauperism. See poverty
Pearl, Raymond, 150, 412
Pearson, Karl
criticism of, 60-{51, 72
on House of Lords, 212
relations with Carnegie Institution, 220
research, 27, 35, 93, 212-13, 219-20
Pegram, Richard, 231
Peiffer, Jurgen, 383-84
Pennsylvania sterilization law, 66
Pennsylvania Training School for the
Feebleminded, 66
Pennypacker, Samuel, 66
Perkins, Harry, 141, 142
Permanent International Commission on
Eugenics. See International Eugenics
Commission
Peter, W. W., 304
Peyton, David C., 148
physicians
concentration camp inmates, 356-57, 362
interest in eugenics, 73
Jewish, in Germany, 306, 307, 308
See also medical education; Nazi doctors
Pilcher, F. Hoyt, 63, 66
Pitt-Rivers, George, 279
Pius XI, Pope, 232
Plague, 10
Planck, Max, 303
Planned Parenthood, 127, 144, 426
See also birth control movement
Plecker, Walter Ashby, 161-{55
data collection, 164-Q5
goals, 165
investigations of racial backgrounds,
169-72, 177-79, 180-81
Laughlin and, 163-64
marriages prohibited by, 175-76, 400
racism, 162, 166, 173-74, 175, 181
registration of Virginians by race, 167,
168-72, 177-79, 180-82
Ploetz, Alfred
anti-Semitism of, 262
Archiv fur Rassen- und Gesellschaftsbiologie,
262, 273
Davenport and, 294, 295
definition of racial hygiene, 341
Eugenical News and, 306
in international eugenics organizations, 71,
164
relations with American eugenicists, 264,
394
Rudin and, 285
Society for Racial Hygiene, 262, 263-{54,
302, 339
tribute to, 295
in United States, 261-62
during World War I, 266
Pocahontas, 168, 176, 177, 181
Poland
eugenic screening of potential U.S. immigrants,
205
German invasion, 317
Germanization of children, 331-32, 347,
405
marriage restrictions under German occupation,
403
Nazi labor camps, 347
persecution of Jews, 395
See also Auschwitz
Poll, Heinrich, 284-85, 349
Pond, Clara, 96, 98
poor
pauper class, 11, 12
preventing reproduction, 58
See also poverty
Popenoe, Paul, 424
Applied Eugenics, 137, 255, 258, 351
influence on Hitler, 259
reaction to alliance with American Birth
Control League, 139, 142
relations with German eugenics movement,
272, 281, 342, 377-79
reviews of German books, 273
support for euthanasia, 251
tribute to Ploetz, 295
Popenoe, Paul (continued)
twin studies, 351, 353
population control, 11-l2, 142-43
Population Council, 422, 426
Population Reference Bureau, 426
positive eugenics, 18-19, 131, 135, 209
See also super race, building of
poverty
in England, 11, 207, 211, 218, 221, 222
history, 10
pauper class, II, 12
seen as genetic defect, 5, 25, 65, 74, 130,
211, 220
Powell, John, 165, 166, 167, 169, 175, 181
Powhatan, 176
Priddy, Albert, 110, 111-12, 113, 114-15, 116
prisons
costs per inmate, 39, 153
data gathered in, 52
family histories of criminals collected, 96
inmates counted in censuses, 159
sterilizations in, 63-64, 65-67, 211
See also criminals
prostitution, 284, 419
psychiatry. See Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for
Psychiatry
psychologists. See Katzen-Ellenbogen, Edwin
Public Health Service, U.S., 196
punch cards. See Hollerith data processing
machines
Puzyna, Martina, 356, 375

Quebec, genetic testing issues, 435
Quota Board, 203-4
quotas. See immigration restrictions

race
classifications, 161-62, 168, 190
concepts, 65
conflicts related to, 186-87
eugenic ratings, 282
intelligence test scores, 79, 81, 82-84, 85
racism, 22, 269-70
registration of citizens by, 163, 165, 166,
167, 168-73, 177-79
segregation, 21, 171, 172-73
See also African-Americans; interracial marriages;
mixed race individuals; whites
Race Betterment Foundation, 87-89, 238
race cards, 282
Race Policy Office of the Nazi Parry, 3 15
race science, 31
race suicide, 22-23, 31, 209
racial hygiene (Rassenhygiene), 262, 280-81, 341
Racial Integrity Act (Virginia), 165-72, 174-76,
177, 181, 400-401
Rascher, Sigmund, 381
Rassenhygiene. See racial hygiene
Ratner, Brett, 106-7
Ravensbruck concentration camp, 406
Reconstruction, 162
redlining, 436
Red Scare, 186
Reed, Horace, 67
Reed, Sheldon, 397, 423-24
Reeves, Helen, 54
"Rehoboth bastards, " 263, 265-66
Reichenberg boys, 358
Reich Research Fund, 365
Reich Statistics Bureau, 353-54
Rentoul, Robert, 208-10, 241-42, 250
Race Culture; Or, Race Suicide?, 146-47, 209,
248
reproduction. See birth control; breeding; sterilizations
Richardson, Benjamin Ward, 247, 262
Richmond Times-Dispatch, 166, 167, 277
Riddell, Lord George Allardice, 215-16,
227-29
Ripley, William, 82
Risk Management, 434
Riverview Cemetery, 172-73
Robertson, John Dill, 252-53
Robinson, William, 251
Rockbridge County, Virginia, 177, 178
Rockefeller, John D., 57, 93
Rockefeller, John D., Jr., 93, 284
Rockefeller Foundation
establishment, 93
eugenics research funding
avoidance of, 296, 313-14, 365, 370
criticism of, 101-2
Eugenics Record Office, 93, 94, 95
in Europe, 243-44, 245, 418-21
in Germany, 7, 258, 294-95, 297, 298, 302,
313, 364-65
move to genetics from, 244
twin studies, 349, 364
German research funding
criticism of, 306-7
eugenics research, 7, 258, 294-95, 297,
298, 302, 313, 364-65
Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes, 283, 285, 296,
306-7, 419-20
protection of German scientists, 302-3
scientific research, 283-85, 288, 295,
296, 306-8, 313, 365, 369-70
goals, 364-65
Paris office, 302-3, 419
political neutrality, 302, 364
Population Council funding, 422
Rodenwaldt, Ernst, 312
Rogers, Samuel, 160-61
Rolfe, John, 176
Roman Empire, 10
Romania, eugenicists in, 245
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 403
Roosevelt, Theodore, 46, 99, 118, 209
Root, Elihu, 31
Rosanoff, A.J., 100
Ross, E. A., 23, 209
Royal Commission on the Care and Control of
the Feebleminded, 214, 217, 226
Royal Commission on the Poor Law, 220-21
Royal Horticultural Society, 39, 411
Royal Statistical Society, 60
Rucker, W.C., 147
Rudin, Ernst
Eugenical News advisory committee, 344
eugenic views, 285
family profiles collected by, 285, 286
at German Psychiatry Institute, 285
International Federation of Eugenic
Organizations and, 286, 295, 302
involvement in Nazi eugenics, 316, 364
at Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Psychiatry,
307, 369
Nazis and, 306-7
relations with American eugenicists, 286,
394
research, 286, 295-96, 307, 308, 419
Rockefeller funding, 307
sterilization law, 299
sterilization proposals, 295-96, 301
RuSHA. See SS Race and Settlement Office
Ruttke, Falk, 344

Sachs, Jake and Saide, 126
Saleeby, Caleb, 213, 216, 217, 218, 224, 248-49
San Francisco Daily News, 101-3
Sanger, Margaret, 125-27
ancestors, 128
conferences, 134
eugenicists and, 315
eugenic views, 127, 128-33, 135-37, 139,
143-44, 156
feminism of, 142-43
on large families, 132-33, 139, 301
legacy of, 426
opposition to charity, 127, 129-30
organizations, 140, 142
Pivot of Civilization, 129-30, 131, 251
rejection of euthanasia, 251
support for sterilizations and segregation,
131-32
Woman and the New Race, 132-33
See also birth control movement
SAT. See Scholastic Aptitude Test
Saure, Philip N., 175-76
Scandinavia, eugenics in, 70, 224, 240
See also Denmark; Finland; Iceland;
Norway; Sweden
Schiedlausky, Gerhard, 326, 330-31
Schlaginhaufen, Otto, 242, 243
Schneider, Carl, 312
Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), 83
schools, racially segregated, 171, 173
Schultz, A. E, 203
Schultz, Bruno, 419
Science Magazine, 202
Second International Congress on Eugenics
(New York), 236-38, 241, 244, 268, 351,
364, 422
Second Race Betterment Conference, 89, 134
segregation, racial, 22, 171, 172-73
segregation of unfit
of alcoholics, 285
of blind, 145, 146, 149, 153
colonies, 156, 215, 218
English proposals, 210, 211, 214, 215-18,
226
of feebleminded, 214, 215
including extended families, 215-18
interstate deportation, 156-57
support for, 52, 60, 78, 280, 285
by Davenport, 39, 60, 75
by Laughlin, 88-89
by Sanger, 131-32
See also institutions
Senate, U.S.
Immigration Committee, 393-94
racial origins of senators, 204
sexology, 243
Sexual Sterilization Act (Alberta), 242
Shackleford, C. D., 108-10
Sharp, Harry Clay, 63-64, 65-67, 69, 148, 211,
273
Shaw, George Bernard, 28, 248
sheep, clones of, 427
Shelton, Robert, 113, 114
Sherlock, E. B., 250
shiftlessness, 74, 108, 189
ship captains, 105
Siemens, H. W, 281
Simon, Theodor, 76
Sing Sing prison, 52, 96
Sixth International Neo-Malthusian and Birth
Control Conference, 134, 136-37
Skinner, Robert, 197
Slaughter, Louise, 440, 441
slaves, breeding of, 21
Smith, Buck, 5-6
Smith, D. E, 248
Smith, John, 176
Snyder, Laurence, 413-14
Social Biology, 425
social Darwinism, 12-13, 119, 129, 262, 275
social inadequacy, 159-60, 189, 225
socialists, 367
social reform movements, 125, 262
See also birth control movement
Societe Belge d'Eugenique (Belgian Eugenics
Society), 240-41
Society for Racial Hygiene (Gesellschaft fur
Rassenhygiene), 262, 263-64, 274, 285,
302, 316, 339, 341
Society for the Prevention of Blindness, 315-16
Society for the Study of Social Biology, 425
Solvay Institute, 195, 241
Southard, E.E., 89
South Carolina, sterilizations in, 400
South Dakota, sterilizations in, 122
Soviet Union
liberation of Auschwitz, 371
mixed race individuals, 292
Sparta, 251
Spatz, Hugo, 369, 382-83
Spencer, Herbert, 12, 13, 15, 26, 119, 129, 262
Spiegel, Magda, 355
Spielmeyer, Walther, 306, 308
SS, 316, 326-27, 329, 337
SS Race and Settlement Office (RuSHA)
Genealogical Section, 347
Hollerith data processing machines,
290-91
Mengele at, 347, 348
persecution of Jews, 407-9
Polish children kidnapped by, 331-32, 405
racial examinations, 406
Stalin, Josef, 403
Stanford, Leland, 65
Stanford-Binet test, 81, 82, 84
Stanford University, 65, 75
State Department, U.S.
consul in Jamaica, 289
consuls involved in immigrant screening,
195, 196, 197, 199, 205
consuls involved in survey of mixed race
individuals, 292-93
invitations to eugenics meetings sent by,
71-72, 236, 268
Jewish refugees refused visas by, 393
reluctance to cooperate with other departments,
196-97, 199-200
Steggerda, Morris, 305
sterilization laws
amending to include blind, 149
British, 227-29
Canadian, 242
constitutionality, 59-60, 64, 113
Danish, 243
due process safeguards, 113
model, 113, 121
Nazi, 299-301, 339
remaining on books, 400
of states, 66-69, 89, 112-13, 122, 208, 209,
300, 408
Swiss, 243
sterilizations
of alcoholics, 285
of American Indians, 5, 400
of blind, 145, 146, 148, 149, 299
in Canada, 242
of criminals, 59, 63-64, 65-67, 68, 69, 122
criticism of, 63
Davenport's support of, 75
of deaf, 299
in Denmark, 420
of epileptics, 5, 231, 299, 322
of family members of unfit, 225, 295-96
of feebleminded
Buck case, 108-10, 113-17, 119, 120-22,
167, 315, 401-2
in California, 68, 122
in Canada, 242
debates, 63, 66
in England, 227-29
in New York, 96
supporters, 77-78
in Virginia, 3-7
in foreign countries, 23 5
in Germany
by Nazis, 277, 299-301, 304, 315, 316,
317, 324, 342, 406, 407-8
proposals, 261, 265, 297, 339
governors' apologies for, 400
grounds for, 4, 123
Hitler on, 276
illegal, 63-64, 65-67, 110-12, 211, 230-32
increasing number, 122-23
lack of public support, 66, 69-70
Laughlin's support of, 88
lawsuits by victims, 398-400
lobbying for legislation, 64, 66-67
Mallory case, 110-12
of mixed race individuals, 305, 316
model law, 113, 300
number in United States, 7, 234, 301, 398
opposition to, 70, 87, 101-4
press coverage of plans, 10 1-4
recent, 400, 409
Sanger's support of, 131-32, 143
therapeutic, 110
of unfit, 3-7, 39, 52
voluntary, 60, 228
See also England, eugenics in
Stern, Hedvah, 356, 366
Stern, Leah, 356, 366
Stern, William, 82
Stimson, Henry, 72
Stoddard, Lothrop
Into the Darkness, 317-18
Eugenics Research Association and, 90, 91
Hitler and, 298, 318
on immigration, 29-30, 35
involvement in birth control movement,
133-34, 167
support of Virginia Racial Integrity Act,
167
Streicher, Julius, 404
Stribling, Francis T., 4
Strode, Aubrey, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117
Strughold, Hubertus, 381-82
Stubbs, Walter, 71
Stypanovitz, Eva, 95
Sullivan, Mary, 106
super race, building of
breeding Aryan babies, 367
Davenport's goals, 36, 37, 416-17
eliminating lower levels of population, 59
encouraging reproduction in superior families,
46, 135, 137, 139, 301
Galton on, 15
as goal of American eugenics, 7, 88
Grant on, 90
Hitler on, 270, 276, 367
Mengele's goals, 356
Nazi goals, 370
potential in future, 441-44
role of twin studies, 351, 354
See also Aryan superiority; Nordic race
Supreme Court, U.S.
Buck v. Bell, 117, 119, 120-22, 123, 315,
401-2, 409
Holmes as justice, 118-19
Loving v. Virginia, 401
survival of fittest, 12, 29
Sweden
emigration discouraged, 195
eugenicists, 237, 238, 244
eugenic screening of potential U.S. immigrants,
195, 198, 205
genetic discrimination legislation, 440
International Eugenics Commission meeting,
238-39, 268-69
International Society for Race Hygiene
branch, 264
State Institute of Race-Biology, 195, 244
sterilization law, 244-45
Swift, Walter, 98
Switzerland
eugenicists, 242-43
sterilization law, 243
syphilis, 146

T-4 project (gassing of feebleminded by Nazis),
312-13, 317, 339, 369, 382-83
Taft, William Howard, 120
Tasmania, DNA databank, 440
Terman, Lewis, 80, 81, 82, 84, 90, 150, 226
terrorism, 430-31
test-tube babies, 427
Thackera, A. M., 196-97
thalassophilia, 105
Thayer, Ethel, 97
Third International Conference on Genetics,
412
Third International Congress of Eugenics (New
York), 245, 298, 419
Third Reich. See Nazis
Thomas, Elsie M., 175-76
Timofeeff-Ressovsky, Nikolai, 288
Tisdale, Walter, 308
Tonga, national D A databank, 439-40
Town, Clara, 257
Trades Union Congress, 234
transgenic creatures, 44 3
Treaty Against Genocide, 404-5
Treaty of Versailles, 238, 267, 269, 271
Tredgold, Arthur F., 249, 256
Tribe of Ishmael, 25, 53, 65, 237
Trinkle, E. Lee, 175
Trowbridge, Augustus, 297
tuberculosis
in cattle, 254-55
hereditary, 241, 255
mortality from, 255, 256
Nazi research, 368
relationship to racial mixing, 279
research on, 241
twins and, 352, 358
in Virginia, 280
Tucker, J. R., 181
twins
blood groups, 364, 365
eyes, 361-63
mixed race, 350
in Nazi Germany, 352, 353-54
twin studies
anatomical, 351-52
in concentration camps, 354-61, 362-63
criminal behavior, 353
deaths in, 354, 359
difficulty of, 349
by Galton, 348-49
in Germany, 350, 352-54, 362-63, 364,
365-66, 414, 415
journals, 353
at Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for
Anthropology, Human Heredity, and
Eugenics, 297, 302, 354, 359, 360-61,
364, 414, 415, 420
by Mengele, 353, 357, 358, 362, 365-66
racial differences in twin frequency, 350
Rockefeller funding, 349, 364
in United States, 361-62
value to eugenicists, 348
Twitchen, Henry, 229

UK Biobank, 440
UK Forum for Genetics and Insurance, 436
Ulster County, New York, criminals, 23-24
unfit
borderline, 58-59
categories, 58
costs of maintaining, 39, 130, 147, 153
county surveys in New York, 95-96
elimination of, 12, 29, 39-40, 56, 61
in England, 214, 227
extended families of, 24-25, 58, 59,
152-53, 215-18
financial responsibility for, 156
global cataloging of, 279, 280
identification, 52-55, 56, 95, 96-97, 107
interstate deportation, 156-57
lack of standards to identify, 76
number in United States, 58-59, 216
preventing reproduction, 18, 21, 46, 57-61,
210-11, 403
seen as subhuman, 21
See also epileptics; feebleminded individuals;
insane; marriage restrictions; murders
of unfit; segregation of unfit;
sterilizations
United Kingdom. See England
United Nations, 403-4
United States
knowledge of Nazi atrocities, 299
See also American eugenics
universities
entrance exams, 83
eugenics classes, 75, 103-4, 412
University of California, Berkeley, 75
Lawrence Berkeley Lab, 437
University of Chicago, 33, 75
University of Copenhagen, 243, 420-21
University of Heidelberg, 312, 342, 383
University of Indiana, 65
University of London, 425
University of Minnesota, Dight Institute, 397
University of Munster, Institute of Human
Genetics, 379-80
urbanization, 186
U.S. News & World Report, 437
Utah
investigation of feebleminded, 97
sterilizations, 122
utopian societies, 261

vagrancy, 10-11
Van Guilder, Elsie, 398
van Wagenen, Bleeker, 213
vasectomies. See sterilizations
Vatican, 232, 293
See also Catholic Church
Vaud, Switzerland, sterilization law, 243
Vaughan, Victor, 151
Vekler, Jancu, 362
Venezuela, eugenicists in, 238
Venter, J. Craig, 443
Vermont, survey of unfit, 107
Verschuer, Otmar Freiherr von, 338-44
bibliographies, 380-81
blood research, 363-66, 376
books, 343, 352
death, 380
Institute for Hereditary Biology and Racial
Hygiene, 341-43, 344, 345, 346,
352-53
investigation of, 380
involvement in Nazi eugenics, 375, 380
at Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for
Anthropology, Human Heredity, and
Eugenics, 339-40, 341, 347-48, 420
Mengele and, 345, 346, 347, 348, 366, 376,
380
postwar rehabilitation efforts, 376-80
relations with American eugenicists, 394
research, 339-40, 368
twin studies, 352-53, 354, 355, 359,
360-61, 362-63, 364, 365-66, 420
Vineland Training School for Feebleminded
Girls and Boys (New Jersey), 76, 80, 91,
213, 243, 322, 327
Virginia
Buck sterilization case, 108-10, 113-17,
119, 120-22, 167, 315, 401-2
Bureau of Vital Statistics, 161, 163,
164-65, 166, 168-69, 173-74, 175,
177, 181
colonial settlers, 162, 168
descendants of Pocahontas, 168, 176, 181
eugenic registry, 165
governor's apology for sterilizations, 400
institutions, 108
legislature, 112, 167
marriage restriction laws, 165-72, 400-401
mixed race individuals in, 163, 165,
169-70, 177-80
Racial Integrity Act, 167-68, 174-76, 177,
181, 400-401
registration of citizens by race, 163, 165,
166, 167, 168-73, 177-79
sterilization law, 68, 113, 114-17, 121, 167
sterilizations performed, 3-7, 108-12,
113-17, 122, 123
tuberculosis in, 280
Virginia Department of Health, 168
Virginia State Health Bureau, 163
vision problems
eugenic legislation, 149-50
marriage restrictions, 149-52
See also blindness
Vogt, Oskar, 288, 302-3
von Hofmann, Geza, 264-65, 266, 273

Wagner, Werner, 369
Wake Forest Medical School, Department of
Medical Genetics, 421-22
Walker, Francis, 22-23
Walsh, Catherine, 252
Wannsee Protocol, 407-8
war crimes trials
at Dachau, 320, 328, 329-30, 332, 333-35
of Katzen-Ellenbogen, 320, 328, 329-30,
332, 333-35
of Nazi doctors, 320, 332-33, 381
Nuremberg, 325, 332-33, 381, 404, 405-9
preparations, 404
threats of, 402, 403
Ward, Robert DeCourcy, 57, 187, 192, 202
Warren, Earl, 401
wars, eugenic effects, 222-23
Washington (state)
sterilization law, 67
sterilizations performed, 69
Watson, James, 426, 442-43
Watson, Thomas]., 290, 309-10
wealthy benefactors of eugenics movement,
56-57, 87, 93-95, 140, 237-38
See also Harriman, Mary (Mrs. E. H.);
Rockefeller Foundation
Weaver, Warren, 370
Wehrmacht, 323-24
Weimar Republic, 266-67, 268, 269
Weismann, August, 17
Welch, William, 89, 93-94, 138
Wells, H. G., 130, 209, 248
Western State Hospital (Virginia), 4, 7
Westrope, Lionel L., 230-32
White, Arnold, 248
White, Wendell, 175
White America Society, 165
Whitehead, Irving, 114, 116, 117
whites
cemeteries, 172-73
death rates, 163
definitions of, 166, 168
intelligence test scores, 79, 81
multiple birth frequency, 350
racial purity, 162, 165-66
See also Aryan superiority; Nordic race;
race
white supremacists, 166
Whitney, Leon, 138-40, 142, 244, 259, 317
Wiggam, Albert, 99
Wigmore, John, 120
Wilhelm II, Kaiser, 284
Wilks, Michael, 434
Williams, Minnie, 398
Willis, Sir Frederick, 227
Wilson, James, 47, 98
Wilson, William George, 231
Wilson, Woodrow, 68-69, 99, 258, 320, 322
Wimmer, August, 243
Winston-Salem Journal, 422
Win Tribe, 179-80
Wisconsin
sterilization law, 67
sterilizations performed, 122
Wise, Stephen, 129
women
promiscuous, 110
See also birth control; feminists; sterilizations
Wood, Sir Arthur, 226-27
Wood, Patricia, 383
Woodhull, Victoria, 22, 128
workers, genetic testing of, 437-38, 440
World Population Congress, 314
World War I
African-American soldiers, 186
effects on eugenics movements, 221, 222-
23, 236, 238, 266
intelligence testing of American soldiers,
80-82
poison gas, 27 6
World War II
beginning of, 317, 346
See also concentration camps; Nazis

Yagudah, Judith, 355
Yerkes, Robert, 80, 81, 82, 90, 99, 150, 226
Yerkes-Bridge Point Scale for Intelligence, 80

Zahn, Friedrich, 310
Zangwill, Israel, 22
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