Collaborative Reform Initiative: An Assessment of Deadly

Re: Collaborative Reform Initiative: An Assessment of Deadly

Postby admin » Tue Jun 09, 2015 2:44 am

About the COPS Office

The Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS Office) is the component of the U.S. Department of Justice responsible for advancing the practice of community policing by the nation’s state, local, territory, and tribal law enforcement agencies through information and grant resources.

Community policing is a philosophy that promotes organizational strategies that support the systematic use of partnerships and problem-solving techniques, to proactively address the immediate conditions that give rise to public safety issues such as crime, social disorder, and fear of crime.

Rather than simply responding to crimes once they have been committed, community policing concentrates on preventing crime and eliminating the atmosphere of fear it creates. Earning the trust of the community and making those individuals stakeholders in their own safety enables law enforcement to better understand and address both the needs of the community and the factors that contribute to crime.

The COPS Office awards grants to state, local, territory, and tribal law enforcement agencies to hire and train community policing professionals, acquire and deploy cutting-edge crime fighting technologies, and develop and test innovative policing strategies. COPS Office funding also provides training and technical assistance to community members and local government leaders and all levels of law enforcement. The COPS Office has produced and compiled a broad range of information resources that can help law enforcement better address specific crime and operational issues, and help community leaders better understand how to work cooperatively with their law enforcement agency to reduce crime.

Since 1994, the COPS Office has invested more than $14 billion to add community policing officers to the nation’s streets, enhance crime fighting technology, support crime prevention initiatives, and provide training and technical assistance to help advance community policing.

To date, the COPS Office has funded approximately 125,000 additional officers to more than 13,000 of the nation’s 18,000 law enforcement agencies across the country in small and large jurisdictions alike.

Nearly 700,000 law enforcement personnel, community members, and government leaders have been trained through COPS Office-funded training organizations.

To date, the COPS Office has distributed more than 8.57 million topic-specific publications, training curricula, white papers, and resource CDs.

COPS Office resources, covering a wide breadth of community policing topics—from school and campus safety to gang violence—are available, at no cost, through its online Resource Center at http://www.cops.usdoj.gov. This easy-to-navigate website is also the grant application portal, providing access to online application forms.
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Re: Collaborative Reform Initiative: An Assessment of Deadly

Postby admin » Tue Jun 09, 2015 2:46 am

About CNA

CNA is a not-for-profit organization based in Arlington, Virginia. The organization pioneered the field of operations research and analysis 70 years ago and, today, applies its efforts to a broad range of national security, defense, and public interest issues including education, homeland security, public health, and criminal justice. CNA applies a multidisciplinary, field-based approach to helping decision makers develop sound policies, make better-informed decisions, and lead more effectively. CNA is the technical assistance provider for the U.S. Department of Justice’s Office of Community Oriented Policing Services’ Collaborative Reform Initiative Technical Assistance program.

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First published March 2015
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Re: Collaborative Reform Initiative: An Assessment of Deadly

Postby admin » Tue Jun 09, 2015 2:46 am

______________

Notes:

1. Sam Wood, “Exclusive: Shootings by Philly Police soar as violent crime plummets,” Philly.com, May 14, 2013, http://www.philly.com/philly/news/Police_ involved_shootings_in_Philly_soar_as_violent_crime_falls.html.

2. Because of the relatively small number of OISs involving Asian suspects, we do not make any conclusions regarding the rate at which these suspects were unarmed.

3. Crime in the United States, 2012 (Washington, DC: Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2013), accessed February 10, 2015, http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/cr ... nnsylvania.

4. Philadelphia Police Department, “PPD Organizational Chart,” November 6, 2013, https://www.phillypolice.com/assets/abo ... 1-6-13.pdf.

5. “Crime Maps & Stats,” Philadelphia Police Department, accessed January 7, 2015, https://www.phillypolice.com/crime-maps-stats.– 11 – Chapter 1. Introduction

6. Wood, “Exclusive: Shootings by Philly Police” (see note 1).

7. Throughout the report, we generally refer to information obtained from interviews, focus groups, or meetings as being from “interviews.”

8. Because PPD’s shooting database defaults to 12:00 a.m. when there is no time entered, we removed all 12:00 a.m. OISs from our analysis to account for any potential over-counting. Doing so removed 45 cases from our analysis.

9. Complete data for 2014 was not available at the time of writing.

10. Philadelphia Police Department, “Philadelphia Police Part One Crime Incidents,” Open Data Philly, accessed January 8, 2015, http://www.opendataphilly.org/ opendata/resource/215/philadelphia-police-part-one-crime-incidents/.

11. Homicides are not broken out by firearm and non-firearm homicides. However, nationwide the proportion of homicides committed with firearms is around 70 percent. Therefore, we include homicides in our measure of violence throughout the city. We use present-day police districts and boundaries. Therefore, the previously existing district 4 was combined with district 3 and district 23 was combined with district 24.

12. The incident involving 16 officers occurred in 2012 during a standoff with an armed suspect who had fired a .38 caliber revolver at motorists and buildings in the area. Responding officers established a perimeter. When the suspect moved towards the officers and fired his weapon, 16 officers returned fire.

13. Based on average number of officers involved in OISs in each unit from 2007 to 2013.

14. Based on average number of officers in each unit from 2010 to 2013. (PPD QIST database, accessed October 23, 2014.)

15. OIS rate per 100 officers is calculated by dividing the average number of OISs by the average number of officers in each unit annually and multiplying by 100.

16. Because our database contains data only from 2007 through 2013, if an officer was involved in a shooting prior to that, it is not captured in this analysis.

17. For this analysis, we remove any incidents (n=1) in which there was no suspect. We also do not include bystanders who were accidentally caught in crossfire (n=5).

18. The relatively small sample we have for some observations, primarily non-Black suspects, necessitated the use of a relatively conservative test of statistical significance. Specifically, we use the Fisher’s exact test in order to determine statistical significance in proportions across the multiple suspect racial groups. The test is appropriate for analyses in which there are fewer than five observations in any columns of a contingency table, which is the case in our dataset.

19. There are three TPF incidents represented in table 7 that are not represented in table 8 because they involved officers of multiple races.

20. Directive 10. Subject: Use of Force Involving the Discharge of Firearms (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Police Department, 2014); see appendix E on page 139.

21. Ibid.

22. Ibid.

23. Ibid.

24. Ibid.

25. Ibid.

26. Ibid.

27. Ibid.

28. Directive 22. Subject: Use of Force (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Police Department, 2010); see appendix F on page 152.

29. Ibid.

30. CNA interviews.

31. Draft ECW Policy (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Police Department, 2014).

32. Deorle v. Rutherford, 272 F. 3d 1272 (2001).

33. James Marker, “Teaching 4th Amendment-Based Use-of-Force,” AELE Monthly Law Journal 7 (July 2012), http://www.aele.org/law/2012all07/2012- 07MLJ501.pdf.

34. Although the PPD is not within the Ninth Circuit’s jurisdiction, the court’s decision provides a valuable illustrative point.

35. Philadelphia Police Department, Directive 10 (see note 20).

36. CNA interviews.

37. Philadelphia Police Department, Directive 10 (see note 20).

38. Ibid.

39. Ibid. (emphasis added).

40. Ibid.

41. Brinegar v. United States, 338 U.S. 160 (1949).

42. Graham v. Connor, 490 U.S. 386 (1989).

43. National Law Enforcement Policy Center, Use of Force: Concepts and Issues Paper (Alexandria, VA: International Association of Chiefs of Police, 2006).

44. CNA interviews.

45. See, e.g., U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division to Gerard J. Pisanelli, June 21, 2005, “Re: Beacon Police Department,” http://www.justice.gov/crt/about/ spl/documents/split_beacon_ta_letter_6-21-05.pdf.

46. Philadelphia Police Department, Directive 22 (see note 28).

47. Steven Edwards, John Grandfield, and Jamie Onnen, “Evaluation of Pepper Spray,” National Institute of Justice Research in Brief (February 1997); Robert Kaminski, Steven Edwards, and James Johnson, “The Deterrent Effects of Oleoresin Capsicum on Assaults Against Police: Testing the Velcro-Effect Hypothesis,” Police Quarterly 1 (1998); “The Effectiveness and Safety of Pepper Spray,” National Institute of Justice Research for Practice (April 2003).

48. CNA interviews.

49. Geoffrey Alpert and Roger Dunham, “Policy and Training Recommendations Related to Police Use of CEDs: Overview of Findings from a Comprehensive National Survey,” Police Quarterly 13, no. 3, 235–259, http://pqx.sagepub.com/content/13/3/235.full.pdf.

50. Study of Deaths Following Electro Muscular Disruption (Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, 2011), https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/233432.pdf.

51. Ibid.

52. Michael White and Justin Ready, “The TASER as a Less Lethal Force Alternative: Findings on Use and Effectiveness in a Large Metropolitan Police Agency,” Police Quarterly 10, no. 2 (2007): 170, http://pqx.sagepub.com/content/10/2/170.full.pdf+html; Geoffrey Alpert, Michael Smith, Robert Kaminski, Lorie Fridell, John MacDonald, and Bruce Kubu, “Police Use of Force, Tasers and Other Less‐Lethal Weapons,” National Institute of Justice Research in Brief (May 2011), https://www.ncjrs. gov/pdffiles1/nij/232215.pdf; Eugene Paoline, William Terrill, and Jason Ingram, “Police Use of Force and Officer Injuries: Comparing Conducted Energy Devices (CED) to Hands- and Weapon-based Tactics,” Police Quarterly 15, no. 2 (2012), http://pqx.sagepub.com/content/15/2/115.full.pdf+html.

53. Justin Ready and Michael White, “Exploring Patterns of TASER Use by the Police: An Officer-Level Analysis,” Journal of Crime and Justice 34, no. 3 (2011).

54. Kyle Thomas, Peter Collins, and Nicholas Lovrich, “Conducted Energy Device Use in Municipal Policing: Results of a National Survey on Policy and Effectiveness Assessments,” Police Quarterly 13, no. 3 (2010), http://pqx.sagepub.com/content/13/3/290.full.pdf+html.

55. William Sousa, Justin Ready, and Michael Ault, “The impact of TASERs on Police Use-of-Force Decisions. Findings from a Randomized Field Training Experiment,” Journal of Experimental Criminology 6, no. 1 (2010): 35–55; Thomas et al., “Conducted Energy Device Use” (see note 54).

56. Philadelphia Police Department, Draft ECW Policy (see note 31).

57. Michael White and Justin Ready, “Examining Fatal and Nonfatal Incidents Involving the Taser,” Criminology & Public Policy 8, no. 4 (2009): 865–891, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1 ... 600.x/pdf; Police Executive Research Forum, 2011 Electronic Control Weapons Guidelines (Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 2011), http://ric-zai-inc.com/Publications/cops-p202-pub.pdf; National Institute of Justice, Study of Deaths (see note 50).

58. Philadelphia Police Department, Directive 10 (see note 20).

59. Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics (Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2007).

60. Census of Law Enforcement Training Academies (Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2006).

61. Philadelphia Police Recruit Basic Training Curriculum (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Police Department, December 2013).

62. CNA interviews.

63. 37 Pa. Code § 203.72 (effective December 21, 1996).

64. Ibid.

65. Ibid.

66. Ibid.

67. Ibid.

68. CNA interviews.

69. Ibid.

70. “Section V-C: Tactical Self-Defense,” Basic Recruit Curriculum (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Police Department, 2004).

71. Recruit Officers’ Tactical Self Defense Training, (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Police Department, n.d.).

72. Ibid.

73. Use of Force in Law Enforcement (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Police Department, n.d.).

74. Philadelphia Police Department, Recruit Officers’ Tactical Self Defense Training (see note 71).

75. Police Communications: Defusing and De-Escalation Techniques (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Police Department, 2011).

76. Ibid.

77. Ibid.

78. National Council for Behavioral Health, “Mental Health First Aid for Public Safety,” accessed January 12, 2015, http://www.thenationalcouncil.org/about ... ic-safety/.

79. CNA interviews.

80. Directive 136. Subject: Severely Mentally Disabled Persons (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Police Department, July 2000).

81. Section X: Human Relations: A: Perceptions of Human Behavior (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Police Department, 2000).

82. Section X: Human Relations: B: Communication (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Police Department, 2000).

83. Section X: Human Relations: C: Cultural Diversity (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Police Department, 2000).

84. Section X: Human Relations: D: Ethnic Intimidation/Bias Crimes (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Police Department, 2000).

85. CNA interviews.

86. Vehicle Investigations Scenario Training (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Police Department, n.d.).

87. Ibid.

88. Ibid.

89. CNA observations.

90. “The Community Policing Self-Assessment Tool,” Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, accessed January 12, 2015, http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/ Default.asp?Item=2673.

91. Community Policing Self-Assessment Tool (CP-SAT) Results Report: Philadelphia Police Department (Fairfax, VA: ICF International, 2013).

92. As responded to by command staff only.

93. As responded to by command staff only.

94. “Simunition” is a brand of non-lethal training ammunition. However, police departments have generally come to refer to any nonlethal training ammunition as “simunitions.”

95. Recruit Lesson Plan Outline. Instructor Cues and Performance Objectives (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Police Department, n.d.).

96. Ibid.

97. Tactical and Judgmental Lesson Plan (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Police Department, n.d.).

98. Simunitions: Instructor Cues and Performance Objectives (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Police Department, n.d.).

99. CNA interviews.

100. Although the evaluation form asked for explanations of any “No” responses, it was understood that for this particular question, the unit was soliciting explanations for “Yes” responses, meaning if any instructors contradicted each other.

101. CNA interviews.

102. CNA interviews.

103. Francis Czarnecki and Reggie Miller, Trooper-Trainee Active Countermeasures Training Evaluation (Miami, FL: The Gables Group, Inc., 2006).

104. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of Law Enforcement (see note 60)

105. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of Law Enforcement (see note 60).

106. Philadelphia Police Department, Vehicle Investigations Scenario Training (see note 86).

107. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of Law Enforcement (see note 60).

108. Ibid.

109. Lorie Fridell, “Racially Biased Policing: The Law Enforcement Response to the Implicit Black-Crime Association,” In Racial Divide: Racial and Ethnic Bias in the Criminal Justice System, edited by M.J. Lynch, E.B. Patterson, and K.K. Childs (Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press, 2008).

110. James Stewart, George Fachner, Denise King, and Stephen Rickman, Collaborative Reform Process: A Review of Officer-Involved Shootings in the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department (Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 2013), http://ric-zai-inc.com/Publications/cops-p273-pub.pdf.

111. Committee to Review Research on Police Policy and Practices, Fairness and Effectiveness in Policing: The Evidence, edited by W. Skogan and K. Frydl (Washington, DC: National Research Council, 2004).

112. See Tammy Rinehart, Anna Laszlo, and Gwen Briscoe, Collaboration Toolkit: How to Build, Fix, and Sustain Productive Partnerships (Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 2005), http://ric-zai-inc.com/Publications/cops-w0686-pub.pdf.

113. Jeff Adickes, “The Community Immersion Program: Building Relationships,” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 78, no. 2 (2009): 16, http://leb.fbi.gov/2009-pdfs/lebfebruary- 2009.

114. CNA interviews.

115. CNA interviews.

116. Matthew Durose and Christine Eith, Contacts between Police and the Public, 2008 (Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2011), http://www.bjs.gov/ content/pub/pdf/cpp08.pdf.

117. Philadelphia Police Department, Vehicle Investigations Scenario Training (see note 86).

118. Kenneth Murray, Training at the Speed of Life: Volume One – The Definitive Textbook for Military and Law Enforcement Reality Based Training (Gotha, FL: Arminger Publications, 2004).

119. Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, Survival Scores Research Project (Glynco, GA: U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2004).

120. Murray, Training at the Speed of Life: Volume One (see note 118).

121. CNA interviews.

122. 37 Pa. Code § 203.72 (effective December 21, 1996).

123. MPO In-Service Lesson Plan. Instructor Cues and Performance Objectives (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Police Department, n.d.).

124. Tactical/Judgmental Lesson Plan. Instructor Cues and Performance Objectives (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Police Department, n.d.).

125. CNA interviews.

126. 5-Day Long Gun Training Lesson Plan. Instructor Cues and Performance Objectives (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Police Department, n.d.).

127. Melissa Reuland, Laura Draper, and Blake Norton, Improving Responses to People with Mental Illnesses (Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Assistance, 2010).

128. Natalie Bonfine, Christian Ritter, and Mark R. Munetz, “Police Officer Perceptions of the Impact of Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) Programs,” International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 37, no. 4 (July–August 2014): 341–350.

129. Kelly E. Canada, Beth Angell, and Amy C. Watson, “Crisis Intervention Teams in Chicago: Successes on the Ground,” Journal of Police Crisis Negotiations 10, no. 1–2 (2010), 86–100.

130. Michael T. Compton, Masuma Bahora, Amy C. Watson, and Janet R. Oliva, “A Comprehensive Review of Extant Research on Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) Programs,” Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 36, no. 1 (March 2008), 47–55.

131. Taser Lesson Plan. Instructor Cues and Performance Objectives (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Police Department, n.d.).

132. CNA observations.

133. Bureau of Justice Statistics, Census of Law Enforcement (see note 60).

134. CNA interviews.

135. A Problem-Based Learning Manual for Training and Evaluating Police Trainees (Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 2001).

136. Tom Tyler, “What are Legitimacy and Procedural Justice in Policing? And Why Are They Becoming Key Elements of Police Leadership?” in Legitimacy and Procedural Justice: A New Element of Police Leadership, ed. C. Fischer (Washington, DC: Police Executive Research Forum, 2014).

137. Tom Tyler and Cheryl Wakslak, “Profiling and the Legitimacy of the Police: Procedural Justice, Attributions of Motive, and the Acceptance of Social Authority” Criminology 42, no. 2 (2004): 253–281, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1 ... 0520.x/pdf.

138. Committee to Review Research on Police Policy and Practices, Fairness and Effectiveness (see note 111).

139. Fridell, “Racially Biased Policing” (see note 109).

140. George Fachner, TRAINSTAT: Establishing a Training Statistics Program in the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department (Arlington, VA: CNA, 2013).

141. Randolph Dupont, Sam Cochran, and Sarah Pillsbury, Crisis Intervention Team Core Elements (Memphis, TN: University of Memphis CIT Center, 2007), http://cit. memphis.edu/pdf/CoreElements.pdf.

142. Philadelphia Police Department, Directive 10 (see note 20).

143. Ibid.

144. Ibid.

145. CNA interviews.

146. Philadelphia Police Department, Directive 10 (see note 16).

147. CNA interviews.

148. Garrity v. New Jersey: 385 U.S. 493 (1967).

149. CNA interviews.

150. David Hatch and Randy Dickson, Officer-Involved Shootings and Use of Force: Practical Investigative Techniques (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2007).

151. Independent Review Board, In-Custody Fatality Independent Review Board for the Death of Tyrone West: Findings and Recommendations (Baltimore, MD: Baltimore Police Department, 2014), http://www.baltimorepolice.org/images/p ... -Final.pdf.

152. Seattle Police Manual Use of Force Policy: Section 8.050 (Seattle, WA: Seattle Police Department, 2013), http://www.justice.gov/usao/waw/press/n ... 7_2013.pdf.

153. The Portland Police Bureau: Officer-Involved Shootings and In-Custody Deaths (Los Angeles: Police Assessment Resource Center, 2003).

154. Stewart et al., Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department (see note 110).

155. CNA interviews.

156. “Administrative Investigations of Police Shootings and Other Critical Incidents: Officer Statements and Use of Force Reports Part Two: The Basics,” AELE Monthly Law Journal 8 (August 2008), http://www.aele.org/law/2008FPAUG/2008-8MLJ201.pdf.

157. CNA interviews.

158. George Fachner and Steven Carter, Collaborative Reform Model: Final Assessment Report of the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department (Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 2014), http://ric-zai-inc.com/Publications/cops-p287-pub.pdf.

159. National Forensic Science Technology Center, Crime Scene Investigation: A Guide for Law Enforcement (Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, 2013).

160. Ibid.

161. Hatch and Dickson, Officer-Involved Shootings (see note 150).

162. Office of Professional Responsibility Policy on Officer-Involved Shootings (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Police Department, n.d.).

163. David Klinger, Responses to Officer-Involved Shootings (Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, 2001).

164. Geoffrey Alpert, John Rivera, and Leon Lott, “Working toward the Truth in Officer-Involved Shootings,” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 81, no. 5 (2012): 1–7, http://leb.fbi.gov/2012/may/leb-may-2012.

165. Police Assessment Resource Center, The Portland Police Bureau: Officer-Involved Shootings and In-Custody Deaths (Los Angeles: Police Assessment Resource Center, 2003).

166. “Administrative Investigations of Police Shootings and Other Critical Incidents: Officer Statements and Use of Force Reports, Part One: The Prologue,” AELE Monthly Law Journal 6 (June 2008), http://www.aele.org/law/2008FPJUN/2008-6MLJ201.pdf; Drew Tracy, “Handling Officer-Involved Shootings,” The Police Chief 77, no. 10 (2010), http://www.policechiefmagazine.org/maga ... _id=102010.

167. Hatch and Dickson, Officer-Involved Shootings (see note 150).

168. Samuel Walker and Carol Archbold, The New World of Police Accountability (Los Angeles: Sage Publications, 2014); Stewart et al., Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department (see note 110).

169. Office of Professional Responsibility Policy # 35 IA Pro (Alert/Monitoring System) (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Police Department, 2014).

170. Ibid.

171. “Complaints against Police and Internal Investigations,” Office of Professional Responsibility Policy No. 10 (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Police Department, 2014).

172. Philadelphia Police Department, Directive 10 (see note 20).

173. Ibid.

174. CNA observations.

175. Philadelphia Police Department, Directive 10 (see note 20).

176. CNA interviews.

177. Fachner and Carter, Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department: Final Report (see note 158).

178. Hatch and Dickson, Officer-Involved Shootings (see note 150); Stewart at al., Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department (see note 110).

179. Hatch and Dickson, Officer-Involved Shootings (see note 150).

180. Ibid.

181. Fachner and Carter, Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department: Final Report (see note 158).

182. Disciplinary Code (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Police Department, 2010).

183. Samuel Walker, Early Intervention Systems for Law Enforcement Agencies: A Planning and Management Guide (Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 2013).

184. Samuel Walker, Stacy Milliga, and Aanna Berke, Strategies for Intervening with Officers through Early Intervention Systems (Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, 2006), http://ric-zai-inc.com/Publications/cops-p093-pub.pdf.

185. Ibid.

186. Walker and Archbold, New World of Police Accountability (see note 168).

187. Bruria Tal, Civilian Oversight of Police in Philadelphia: The First 50 Years (2003), accessed January 13, 2015, http://www.phila.gov/pac/PDF/HistoryofOversight.pdf.

188. Philadelphia Police Advisory Commission, 2012–2013 Annual Report (2014).

189. Ibid.

190. CNA interviews.

191. Directive 89: Subject: Media Relations and Release of Information to the Public (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Police Department, 2011).

192. See “Officer-Involved Shootings,” Philadelphia Police Department, accessed January 13, 2015, http://www.phillypolice.com/news/police ... shootings/.

193. City of Philadelphia, Executive Order No. 8-93 (n.d.), http://www.phila.gov/pac/PDF/Exec_Order_893.pdf.

194. George Fachner, Michael D. White, James R. Coldren, Jr., and James K. Stewart, Need for a National Center for Police Shootings and Deadly Force Research, Training, and Technical Assistance (Arlington, VA: CNA, 2014), http://www.cna.org/sites/default/files/ ... 009377.pdf.

195. Michael White, Police Officer Body Worn Cameras: Assessing the Evidence (Washington, DC: Office of Justice Programs, 2014), https://ojpdiagnosticcenter.org/ sites/default/files/spotlight/download/Police Officer Body-Worn Cameras.pdf.
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