Aion, by C.G. Jung

What is the mind? What is the mind of a human? What is the mind of the one who investigates the human? Can the human mind understand itself? Can a human mind understand the mind of an other? This is psychology.

Re: Aion, by C.G. Jung

Postby admin » Thu Feb 26, 2015 9:50 am

Part 1 of 2


Since all cognition is akin to recognition, it should not come as a surprise to find that what I have described as a gradual process of development had already been anticipated, and more or less prefigured, at the beginning of our era. We meet these images and ideas in Gnosticism, to which we must now give our attention; for Gnosticism was, in the main, a product of cultural assimilation and is therefore of the greatest interest in elucidating and defining the contents constellated by prophecies about the Redeemer, or by his appearance in history, or by the synchronicity of the archetype. [1]

In the Elenchos of Hippolytus the attraction between the magnet and iron is mentioned, if I am not mistaken, three times. It first appears in the doctrine of the NAASSENES, who taught that the four rivers of Paradise correspond to the eye, the ear, the sense of smell, and the mouth. The mouth, through which prayers go out and food goes in, corresponds to the fourth river, the Euphrates. The well-known significance of the "fourth" helps to explain its connection with the "whole" man, for the fourth always makes a triad into a totality. The text says: "This is the water above the firmament, [2] of which, they say, the Saviour spoke: 'If you knew who it is that asks, you would have asked him, and he would have given you a spring of living water to drink.' [3] To this water comes every nature to choose its own substances, and from this water goes forth to every nature that which is proper to it, more [certainly] than iron to the Heracleian stone," [4] etc.

As the reference to John 4: 10 shows, the wonderful water of the Euphrates has the property of the aqua doctrinae, which perfects every nature in its individuality and thus makes man whole too. It does this by giving him a kind of magnetic power by which he can attract and integrate that which belongs to him. The Naassene doctrine is, plainly, a perfect parallel to the alchemical view already discussed: the doctrine is the magnet that makes possible the integration of man as well as the lapis.

In the PERATIC doctrine, so many ideas of this kind reappear that Hippolytus even uses the same metaphors, though the meaning is more subtle. No one, he says, can be saved without the Son:

But this is the serpent. For it is he who brought the signs of the Father down from above, and it is he who carries them back again after they have been awakened from sleep, transferring them thither from hence as substances proceeding from the Substanceless. This, they say, is [what is meant by] the saying, "I am the Door." [5]) But they say he transfers them to those whose eyelids are closed, [6] as naphtha draws everywhere the fire to itself, [7] more than the Heracleian stone draws iron ... [8] Thus, they say, the perfect race of men, made in the image [of the Father] and of the same substance [homoousion], is drawn from the world by the Serpent, even as it was sent down by him; but naught else [is so drawn]. [9]

Here the magnetic attraction does not come from the doctrine or the water but from the "Son," who is symbolized by the serpent, as in John 3: 14. [10] Christ is the magnet that draws to itself those parts or substances in man that are of divine origin, the ; (signs of the Father), and carries them back to their heavenly birthplace. The serpent is an equivalent of the fish. The consensus of opinion interpreted the Redeemer equally as a fish and a serpent; he is a fish because he rose from the unknown depths, and a serpent because he came mysteriously out of the darkness. Fishes and snakes are favourite symbols for describing psychic happenings or experiences that suddenly dart out of the unconscious and have a frightening or redeeming effect. That is why they are so often expressed by the motif of helpful animals. The comparison of Christ with the serpent is more authentic than that with the fish, but, for all that, it was not so popular in primitive Christianity. The Gnostics favoured it because it was an old-established symbol for the "good" genius loci, the Agathodaimon, and also for their beloved Nous. Both symbols are of inestimable value when it comes to the natural, instinctive interpretation of the Christ-figure. Theriomorphic symbols are very common in dreams and other manifestations of the unconscious. They express the psychic level of the content in question; that is to say, such contents are at a stage of unconsciousness that is as far from human consciousness as the psyche of an animal. Warm-blooded or cold-blooded vertebrates of all kinds, or even invertebrates, thus indicate the degree of unconsciousness. It is important for psychopathologists to know this, because these contents can produce, at all levels, symptoms that correspond to the physiological functions and are localized accordingly. For instance, the symptoms may be distinctly correlated with the cerebrospinal and the sympathetic nervous system. The Sethians may have guessed something of this sort, for Hippolytus mentions, in connection with the serpent, that they compared the "Father" with the cerebrum () and the "Son" with the cerebellum and spinal cord ( ). The snake does in fact symbolize "cold-blooded," inhuman contents and tendencies of an abstractly intellectual as well as a concretely animal nature: in a word, the extra-human quality in man.

The third reference to the magnet is to be found in Hippolytus' account of the SETHIAN doctrine. This has remarkable analogies with the alchemical doctrines of the Middle Ages, though no direct transmission can be proved. It expounds, in Hippolytus' words, a theory of "composition and mixture": the ray of light from above mingles with the dark waters below in the form of a minute spark. At the death of the individual, and also at his figurative death as a mystical experience, the two substances unmix themselves. This mystical experience is the divisio and separatio of the composite ( ). I purposely give the Latin terms used in medieval alchemy, because they denote essentially the same thing as do the Gnostic concepts. The separation or unmixing enables the alchemist to extract the anima or spiritus from the prima materia. During this operation the helpful Mercurius appears with the dividing sword (used also by the adept!), which the Sethians refer to Matthew 10: 34: "I came not to send peace, but a sword." The result of the unmixing is that what was previously mixed up with the "other" is now drawn to "its own place" and to that which is "proper" or "akin" to it, "like iron to the magnet" (). [11] In the same way, the spark or ray of light, "having received from the teaching and learning its proper place, hastens to the Logos, which comes from above in the form of a slave ... more [quickly] than iron [flies] to the magnet." [12]

Here the magnetic attraction comes from the Logos. This denotes a thought or idea that has been formulated and articulated, hence a content and a product of consciousness. Consequently the Logos is very like the aqua doctrinae, but whereas the Logos has the advantage of being an autonomous personality, the latter is merely a passive object of human action. The Logos is nearer to the historical Christ-figure, just as the "water" is nearer to the magical water used in ritual (ablution, aspersion, baptism). Our three examples of magnetic action suggest three different forms of magnetic agent:

1. The agent is an inanimate and in itself passive substance, water. It is drawn from the depths of the well, handled by human hands, and used according to man's needs. It signifies the visible doctrine, the aqua doctrinae or the Logos, communicated to others by word of mouth and by ritual.

2. The agent is an animate, autonomous being, the serpent. It appears spontaneously or comes as a surprise; it fascinates; its glance is staring, fixed, unrelated; its blood cold, and it is a stranger to man: it crawls over the sleeper, he finds it in a shoe or in his pocket. It expresses his fear of everything inhuman and his awe of the sublime, of what is beyond human ken. It is the lowest (devil) and the highest (son of God, Logos, Nous, Agathodaimon). The snake's presence is frightening, one finds it in unexpected places at unexpected moments. Like the fish, it represents and personifies the dark and unfathomable, the watery deep, the forest, the night, the cave. When a primitive says "snake," he means an experience of something extrahuman. The snake is not an allegory or metaphor, for its own peculiar form is symbolic in itself, and it is essential to note that the "Son" has the form of a snake and not the other way round: the snake does not signify the "Son."

3. The agent is the Logos, a philosophical idea and abstraction of the bodily and personal son of God on the one hand, and on the other the dynamic power of thoughts and words.

It is clear that these three symbols seek to describe the unknowable essence of the incarnate God. But it is equally clear that they are hypostatized to a high degree: it is real water, and not figurative water, that is used in ritual. The Logos was in the beginning, and God was the Logos, long before the Incarnation. The emphasis falls so much on the "serpent" that the Ophites celebrated their eucharistic feast with a live snake, no less realistic than the Aesculapian snake at Epidaurus. Similarly, the "fish" is not just the secret language of the mystery, but, as the monuments show, it meant something in itself. Moreover, it acquired its meaning in primitive Christianity without any real support from the written tradition, whereas the serpent can at least be referred back to an authentic logion.

All three symbols are phenomena of assimilation that are in themselves of a numinous nature and therefore have a certain degree of autonomy. Indeed, had they never made their appearance, it would have meant that the annunciation of the Christ-figure was ineffective. These phenomena not only prove the effectiveness of the annunciation, but provide the necessary conditions in which the annunciation can take effect. In other words, the symbols represent the prototypes of the Christ-figure that were slumbering in man's unconscious and were then called awake by his actual appearance in history and, so to speak, magnetically attracted. That is why Meister Eckhart uses the same symbolism to describe Adam's relation to the Creator on the one hand and to the lower creatures on the other. [13]

This magnetic process revolutionizes the ego-oriented psyche by setting up, in contradistinction to the ego, another goal or centre which is characterized by all manner of names and symbols: fish, serpent, centre of the sea-hawk, [14] point, monad, cross, paradise, and so on. The myth of the ignorant demiurge who imagined he was the highest divinity illustrates the perplexity of the ego when it can no longer hide from itself the knowledge that it has been dethroned by a supraordinate authority. The "thousand names" of the lapis philosophorum correspond to the innumerable Gnostic designations for the Anthropos, which make it quite obvious what is meant: the greater, more comprehensive Man, that indescribable whole consisting of the sum of conscious and unconscious processes. This objective whole, the antithesis of the subjective ego-psyche, is what I have called the self, and this corresponds exactly to the idea of the Anthropos.


When, in treating a case of neurosis, we try to supplement the inadequate attitude (or adaptedness) of the conscious mind by adding to it contents of the unconscious, our aim is to create a wider personality whose centre of gravity does not necessarily coincide with the ego, but which, on the contrary, as the patient's insights increase, may even thwart his ego-tendencies. Like a magnet, the new centre attracts to itself that which is proper to it, the "signs of the Father," i.e., everything that pertains to the original and unalterable character of the individual ground-plan. All this is older than the ego and acts towards it as the "blessed, nonexistent God" of the Basilidians acted towards the archon of the Ogdoad, the demiurge, and -- paradoxically enough -- as the son of the demiurge acted towards his father. The son proves superior in that he has knowledge of the message from above and can therefore tell his father that he is not the highest God. This apparent contradiction resolves itself when we consider the underlying psychological experience. On the one hand, in the products of the unconscious the self appears as it were a priori) that is, in well-known circle and quaternity symbols which may already have occurred in the earliest dreams of childhood, long before there was any possibility of consciousness or understanding. On the other hand, only patient and painstaking work on the contents of the unconscious, and the resultant synthesis of conscious and unconscious data, can lead to a "totality," which once more uses circle and quaternity symbols for purposes of self-description. [15] In this phase, too, the original dreams of childhood are remembered and understood. The alchemists, who in their own way knew more about the nature of the individuation process than we moderns do, expressed this paradox through the symbol of the uroboros, the snake that bites its own tail.

The same knowledge, formulated differently to suit the age they lived in, was possessed by the Gnostics. The idea of an unconscious was not unknown to them. For instance, Epiphanius quotes an excerpt from one of the Valentinian letters, which says: "In the beginning the Autopator contained in himself everything that is, in a state of unconsciousness [lit., 'not-knowing': ]." [16] It was Professor G. Quispel who kindly drew my attention to this passage. He also points out the passage in Hippolytus: , which he translates: "le Pere ... qui est depourvu de conscience et de substance, celui qui est ni masculin, ni feminin." [17] So the "Father" is not only unconscious and without the quality of being, but also nirdvandva, without opposites, lacking all qualities and therefore unknowable. This describes the state of the unconscious. The Valentinian text gives the Autopator more positive qualities: "Some called him the ageless Aeon, eternally young, male and female, who contains everything in himself and is [himself] contained by nothing." In him was , consciousness, which "conveys the treasures of the greatness to those who come from the greatness." But the presence of does not prove that the Autopator himself is conscious, for the differentiation of consciousness results only from the syzygies and tetrads that follow afterwards, all of them symbolizing processes of conjunction and composition. must be thought of here as the latent possibility of consciousness. Oehler translates it as mens, Cornarius as intelligentia and notio.

St. Paul's concept of (ignorantia) may not be too far removed from , since both mean the initial, unconscious condition of man. When God "looked down" on the times of ignorance, the Greek word used here, (Vulgate: despiciens) has the connotation 'to disdain, despise.' [18] At all events, Gnostic tradition says that when the highest God saw what miserable, unconscious creatures these human beings were whom the demiurge had created, who were not even able to walk upright, he immediately got the work of redemption under way. [19] And in the same passage in the Acts, Paul reminds the Athenians that they were "God's offspring," [20] and that God, looking back disapprovingly on "the times of ignorance," had sent the message to mankind, commanding "all men everywhere to repent." Because that earlier condition seemed to be altogether too wretched, the (transformation of mind) took on the moral character of repentance of sins, with the result that the Vulgate could translate it as "poenitentiam agere." [21] The sin to be repented, of course, is or , unconsciousness. [22] As we have seen, it is not only man who is in this condition, but also, according to the Gnostics, the , the God without consciousness. This idea is more or less in line with the traditional Christian view that God was transformed during the passage from the Old Testament to the New, and, from being the God of wrath, changed into the God of Love -- a thought that is expressed very clearly by Nicolaus Caussin in the seventeenth century. [23]

In this connection I must mention the results of Riwkah Scharf's examination of the figure of Satan in the Old Testament. [24] With the historical transformation of the concept of Satan the image of Yahweh changes too, so that one can well say that there was a differentiation of the God-image even in the Old Testament, not to speak of the New. The idea that the world-creating Deity is not conscious, but may be dreaming, is found also in Hindu literature:

Who knows how it was, and who shall declare
Whence it was born and whence it came?
The gods are later than this creation;
Who knows, then, whence it has sprung?

Whence this created world came,
And whether he made it or not,
He alone who sees all in the highest heaven
Knows -- or does not know. [25]

Meister Eckhart's theology knows a "Godhead" of which no qualities, except unity and being, [26] can be predicated; [27] it "is becoming," it is not yet Lord of itself, and it represents an absolute coincidence of opposites: "But its simple nature is of forms formless; of becoming becomingless; of beings beingless; of things thingless," etc. [28] Union of opposites is equivalent to unconsciousness, so far as human logic goes, for consciousness presupposes a differentiation into subject and object and a relation between them. Where there is no "other," or it does not yet exist, all possibility of consciousness ceases. Only the Father, the God "welling" out of the Godhead, "notices himself," becomes "beknown to himself," and "confronts himself as a Person." So, from the Father, comes the Son, as the Father's thought of his own being. In his original unity "he knows nothing" except the "suprareal" One which he is. As the Godhead is essentially unconscious, [29] so too is the man who lives in God. In his sermon on "The Poor in Spirit" (Matt. 5: 3), the Meister says: "The man who has this poverty has everything he was when he lived not in any wise, neither in himself, nor in truth, nor in God. He is so quit and empty of all knowing that no knowledge of God is alive in him; for while he stood in the eternal nature of God, there lived in him not another: what lived there was himself. And so we say this man is as empty of his own knowledge as he was when he was not anything; he lets God work what he will, and he stands empty as when he came from God." [30] Therefore he should love God in the following way: "Love him as he is: a not-God, a not-spirit, a not-person, a not-image; as a sheer, pure, clear One, which he is, sundered from all secondness; and in this One let us sink eternally, from nothing to nothing. So help us God. Amen." [31]

The world-embracing spirit of Meister Eckhart knew, with· out discursive knowledge, the primordial mystical experience of India as well as of the Gnostics, and was itself the finest flower on the tree of the "Free Spirit" that flourished at the beginning of the eleventh century. Well might the writings of this Master lie buried for six hundred years, for "his time was not yet come." Only in the nineteenth century did he find a public at all capable of appreciating the grandeur of his mind.

These utterances on the nature of the Deity express trans· formations of the God-image which run parallel with changes in human consciousness, though one would be at a loss to say which is the cause of the other. The God-image is not something invented, it is an experience that comes upon man spontaneously -- as anyone can see for himself unless he is blinded to the truth by theories and prejudices. The unconscious God-image can therefore alter the state of consciousness, just as the latter can modify the God-image once it has become conscious. This, obviously, has nothing to do with the "prime truth," the unknown God -- at least, nothing that could be verified. Psychologically, however, the idea of God's , or of the , is of the utmost importance, because it identifies the Deity with the numinosity of the unconscious. The atman / purusha philosophy of the East and, as we have seen, Meister Eckhart in the West both bear witness to this.

Now if psychology is to lay hold of this phenomenon, it can only do so if it expressly refrains from passing metaphysical judgments, and if it does not presume to profess convictions to which it is ostensibly entitled on the ground of scientific experience. But of this there can be no question whatever. The one and only thing that psychology can establish is the presence of pictorial symbols, whose interpretation is in no sense fixed beforehand. It can make out, with some certainty, that these symbols have the character of "wholeness" and therefore presumably mean wholeness. As a rule they are "uniting" symbols, representing the conjunction of a single or double pair of opposites, the result being either a dyad or a quaternion. They arise from the collision between the conscious and the unconscious and from the confusion which this causes (known in alchemy as "chaos" or "nigredo"). Empirically, this confusion takes the form of restlessness and disorientation. The circle and quaternity symbolism appears at this point as a compensating principle of order, which depicts the union of warring opposites as already accomplished, and thus eases the way to a healthier and quieter state ("salvation"). For the present, it is not possible for psychology to establish more than that the symbols of wholeness mean the wholeness of the individual. [32] On the other hand, it has to admit, most emphatically, that this symbolism uses images or schemata which have always, in all the religions, expressed the universal "Ground," the Deity itself. Thus the circle is a well-known symbol for God; and so (in a certain sense) is the cross, the quaternity in all its forms, e.g., Ezekiel's vision, the Rex gloriae with the four evangelists, the Gnostic Barbelo ("God in four") and Kolorbas ("all four"); the duality (tao, hermaphrodite, father-mother); and finally, the human form (child, son, anthropos) and the individual personality (Christ and Buddha), to name only the most important of the motifs here used.

All these images are found, empirically, to be expressions for the unified wholeness of man. The fact that this goal goes by the name of "God" proves that it has a numinous character; and Indeed, experiences, dreams, and visions of this kind do have a fascinating and impressive quality which can be spontaneously felt even by people who are not prejudiced in their favour by prior psychological knowledge. So it is no wonder that naive minds make no distinction between God and the image they have experienced. Wherever, therefore, we find symbols indicative of psychic wholeness, we encounter the naive idea that they stand for God. In the case of those quite common Romanesque pictures of the Son of Man accompanied by three angels with animal heads and one with a human head, for example, it would be simpler to assume that the Son of Man meant the ordinary man and that the problem of one against three referred to the well-known psychological schema of one differentiated and three undifferentiated functions. But this interpretation would, according to the traditional view, devalue the symbol, for it means the second Person of the Godhead in its universal, fourfold aspect. Psychology cannot of course adopt this view as its own; it can only establish the existence of such statements and point out, by way of comparison, that essentially the same symbols, in particular the dilemma of one and three, often appear in the spontaneous products of the unconscious, where they demonstrably refer to the psychic totality of the individual. They indicate the presence of an archetype of like nature, one of whose derivates would seem to be the quaternity of functions that orient consciousness. But, since this totality exceeds the individual's consciousness to an indefinite and indeterminable extent, it invariably includes the unconscious in its orbit and hence the totality of all archetypes. But the archetypes are complementary equivalents of the "outside world" and therefore possess a "cosmic" character. This explains their numinosity and "godlikeness."


To make my exposition more complete, I would like to mention some of the Gnostic symbols for the universal "Ground" or arcanum, and especially those synonyms which signify the "Ground." Psychology takes this idea as an image of the unconscious background and begetter of consciousness. The most important of these images is the figure of the demiurge. The Gnostics have a vast number of symbols for the source or origin, the centre of being, the Creator, and the divine substance hidden in the creature. Lest the reader be confused by this wealth of images, he should always remember that each new image is simply another aspect of the divine mystery immanent in all creatures. My list of Gnostic symbols is no more than an amplification of a single transcendental idea, which is so comprehensive and so difficult to visualize in itself that a great many different expressions are required in order to bring out its various aspects.

According to Irenaeus, the Gnostics held that Sophia represents the world of the Ogdoad, [33] which is a double quaternity. In the form of a dove, she descended into the water and begot Saturn, who is identical with Yahweh. Saturn, as we have already mentioned, is the "other sun," the sol niger of alchemy. Here he is the "primus Anthropus." He created the first man, who could only crawl like a worm. [34] Among the Naassenes, the demiurge Esaldaios, "a fiery god, the fourth by number," is set up against the Trinity of Father, Mother, and Son. The highest is the Father, the Archanthropos, who is without qualities and is called the higher Adam. In various systems Sophia takes the place of the Protanthropos. [35] Epiphanius mentions the Ebionite teaching that Adam, the original man, is identical with Christ. [36] In Theodor Bar-Kuni the original man is the five elements (i.e., 4 + 1). [37] In the Acts of Thomas, the dragon says of itself: "I am the son ... of him that hurt and smote the four brethren which stood upright." [38]

The primordial image of the quaternity coalesces, for the Gnostics, with the figure of the demiurge or Anthropos. He is, as it were, the victim of his own creative act, for, when he descended into Physis, he was caught in her embrace. [39]The image of the anima mundi or Original Man latent in the dark of matter expresses the presence of a transconscious centre which, because of its quaternary character and its roundness, must be regarded as a symbol of wholeness. We may assume, with due caution, that some kind of psychic wholeness is meant (for instance, conscious + unconscious), though the history of the symbol shows that it was always used as a God-image. Psychology, as I have said, is not in a position to make metaphysical statements. It can only establish that the symbolism of psychic wholeness coincides with the God-image, but it can never prove that the God-image is God himself, or that the self takes the place of God.

This coincidence comes out very clearly in the ancient Egyptian Heb-Sed festival, of which Colin Campbell gives the following description: "The king comes out of an apartment called the sanctuary, then he ascends into a pavilion open at the four sides, with four staircases leading up to it. Carrying the emblems of Osiris, he takes his seat on a throne, and turns to the four cardinal points in succession.... It is a kind of second enthronement . . . and sometimes the king acts as a priest, making offerings to himself. This last act may be regarded as the climax of the deification of the king." [40]

All kingship is rooted in this psychology, and therefore, for the anonymous individual of the populace, every king carries the symbol of the self. All his insignia -- crown, mantle, orb, sceptre, starry orders, etc. -- show him as the cosmic Anthropos, who not only begets, but himself is, the world. He is the homo maximus, whom we meet again in Swedenborg's speculations. The Gnostics, too, constantly endeavoured to give visible form and a suitable conceptual dress to this being, suspecting that he was the matrix and organizing principle of consciousness. As the "Phrygians" (Naassenes) say in Hippolytus, [41] he is the "undivided point," the "grain of mustard seed" that grows into the kingdom of God. This point is "present in the body." But this is known only to the , the "spiritual" men as opposed to the and the ("material" men). He is , the utterance of God (sermo Dei), and the "matrix of the Aeons, Powers, Intelligences, Gods, Angels, and Emissary Spirits, of Being and Non-Being, of Begotten and Unbegotten, of the Non-Intelligible Intelligible, of the Years, Moons, Days, Hours .... " This point, "being nothing and consisting of nothing," becomes a "certain magnitude incomprehensible by thought." Hippolytus accuses the Naassenes of bundling everything into their thought like the syncretists, for he obviously cannot quite understand how the point, the "utterance of God," can have a human form. The Naassenes, he complains, also call him the "polymorphous Attis," the young dying son of the Great Mother, or, as the hymn cited by Hippolytus says, the 'dark rumour of Rhea.' In the hymn he has the synonyms Adonis, Osiris, Adam, Korybas, Pan, Bacchus, and , 'shepherd of white stars.'

The Naassenes themselves considered Naas, the serpent, to be their central deity, and they explained it as the "moist substance," in agreement with Thales of Miletus, who said water was the prime substance on which all life depended. Similarly, all living things depend on the Naas; "it contains within itself, like the horn of the one-horned bull, the beauty of all things." It "pervades everything, like the water that flows out of Eden and divides into four sources" (). "This Eden, they say, is the brain." Three of the rivers of Paradise are sensory functions (Pison = sight, Gihon = hearing, Tigris = smell), but the fourth, the Euphrates, is the mouth, "the seat of prayer and the entrance of food." As the fourth function it has a double significance, [42] denoting on the one hand the purely material activity of bodily nourishment, while on the other hand it "gladdens, [43] feeds, and forms [] the spiritual, perfect [] man." [44] The "fourth" is something special, ambivalent -- a daimonion. A good example of this is in Daniel 3: 24f., where the three men in the burning fiery furnace are joined by a fourth, whose form was "like a son of God."

The water of the Euphrates is the "water above the firmament," the "living water of which the Saviour spoke," [45] and possessing, as we have seen. magnetic properties. It is that miraculous water from which the olive draws its oil and the grape the wine. "That man," continues Hippolytus, as though still speaking of the water of the Euphrates, "is without honour in the world." [46] This is an allusion to the . Indeed, this water is the "perfect man," the , the Word sent by God. "From the living water we spiritual men choose that which is ours," [47] for every nature, when dipped in this water, "chooses its own substances ... and from this water goes forth to every nature that which is proper to it." [48] The water or, as we could say, this Christ is a sort of panspermia, a matrix of all possibilities, from which the chooses "his Osob," his idiosyncrasy, [49] that "flies to him more [quickly] than iron to the magnet." But the "spiritual men" attain their proper nature by entering in through the "true door," Jesus Makarios (the blessed), and thus obtaining knowledge of their own wholeness, i.e., of the complete man. This man, unhonoured in the world, is obviously the inner, spiritual man. who becomes conscious for those who enter in through Christ, the door to life, and are illuminated by him. Two images are blended here: the image of the "strait gate," [50] and that of John 14: 6: "I am the way, and the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father but through me." [51] They represent an integration process that is characteristic of psychological individuation. As formulated, the water symbol continually coalesces with Christ and Christ with the inner man. This, it seems to me, is not a confusion of thought but a psychologically correct formulation of the facts, since Christ as the "Word" is indeed the "living water" and at the same time the symbol of the inner "complete" man, the self.

For the Naassenes, the universal "Ground" is the Original Man, Adam, and knowledge of him is regarded as the beginning of perfection and the bridge to knowledge of God. [52] He is male/female; from him come "father and mother"; [53] he consists of three parts: the rational (), the psychic, and the earthly (). These three "came down together into one man, Jesus," and "these three men spoke together, each of them from his own substance to his own," i.e., from the rational to the rational, etc. Through this doctrine Jesus is related to the Original Man (Christ as second Adam). His soul is "of three parts and (yet) one" -- a Trinity. [54] As examples of the Original Man the text mentions the Cabiros [55] and Oannes. The latter had a soul capable of suffering, so that the "figure () of the great, most beautiful and perfect man, humbled to a slave," might suffer punishment. He is the "blessed nature, at once hidden and revealed, of everything that has come to be and will be," "the kingdom of heaven which is to be sought within man" ), even "in children of seven years." [56] For the Naassenes, says Hippolytus, place the "procreative nature of the Whole in the procreative seed." [57] On the face of it, this looks like the beginnings of a "sexual theory" concerning the underlying psychic substance, reminiscent of certain modern attempts in the same vein. But one should not overlook the fact that in reality man's procreative power is only a special instance of the "procreative nature of the Whole." "This, for them, is the hidden and mystical Logos," which, in the text that follows, is likened to the phallus of Osiris -- "and they say Osiris is water." Although the substance of this seed is the cause of all things, it does not partake of their nature. They say therefore: "I become what I will, and I am what I am." For he who moves everything is himself unmoved. "He, they say, is alone good." [58] A further synonym is the ithyphallic Hermes Kyllenios. "For they say Hermes is the Logos, the interpreter and fashioner of what has been, is, and will be." That is why he is worshipped as the phallus, because he, like the male organ, "has an urge [] from below upwards." [59]


The fact that not only the Gnostic Logos but Christ himself was drawn into the orbit of sexual symbolism is corroborated by the fragment from the Interrogationes maiores Mariae, quoted by Epiphanius. [60] It is related there that Christ took this Mary with him on to a mountain, where he produced a woman from his side and began to have intercourse with her: "... seminis sui defluxum assumpsisset, indicasse illi, quod oporteat sic facere, ut vivamus." [61] It is understandable that this crude symbolism should offend our modern feelings. But it also appeared shocking to Christians of the third and fourth centuries; and when, in addition, the symbolism became associated with a concretistic misunderstanding, as appeared to be the case in certain sects, it could only be rejected. That the author of the Interrogationes was by no means ignorant of some such reaction is evident from the text itself. It says that Mary received such a shock that she fell to the ground. Christ then said to her: "Wherefore do you doubt me, O you of little faith?" This was meant as a reference to John 3: 12: "If I have told you earthly things and you do not believe, how can you believe if I tell you heavenly things?" and also to John 6: 53: "Unless you eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood, you have no life in you" (RSV).

This symbolism may well have been based, originally, on some visionary experience, such as happens not uncommonly today during psychological treatment. For the medical psychologist there is nothing very lurid about it. The context itself points the way to the right interpretation. The image expresses a psychologem that can hardly be formulated in rational terms and has, therefore, to make use of a concrete symbol, just as a dream must when a more or less "abstract" thought comes up during the abaissement du niveau mental that occurs in sleep. These "shocking" surprises, of which there is certainly no lack in dreams, should always be taken "as-if," even though they clothe themselves in sensual imagery that stops at no scurrility and no obscenity. They are unconcerned with offensiveness, because they do not really mean it. It is as if they were stammering in their efforts to express the elusive meaning that grips the dreamer's attention. [62]

The context of the vision (John 3: 12) makes it clear that the image should be taken not concretistically but symbolically; for Christ speaks not of earthly things but of a heavenly or spiritual mystery -- a "mystery" not because he is hiding something or making a secret of it (indeed, nothing could be more blatant than the naked obscenity of the vision!) but because its meaning is still hidden from consciousness. The modem method of dream-analysis and interpretation follows this heuristic rule. [63] If we apply it to the vision, we arrive at the following result:

1. The MOUNTAIN means ascent, particularly the mystical, spiritual ascent to the heights, to the place of revelation where the spirit is present. This motif is so well known that there is no need to document it. [64]

2. The central significance of the CHRIST-FIGURE for that epoch has been abundantly proved. In Christian Gnosticism it was a visualization of God as the Archanthropos (Original Man = Adam), and therefore the epitome of man as such: "Man and the Son of Man." Christ is the inner man who is reached by the path of self-knowledge, "the kingdom of heaven within you." As the Anthropos he corresponds to what is empirically the most important archetype and, as judge of the living and the dead and king of glory, to the real organizing principle of the unconscious, the quaternity, or squared circle of the self. [65] In saying this I have not done violence to anything; my views are based on the experience that mandala structures have the meaning and function of a centre of the unconscious personality. [66] The quaternity of Christ, which must be borne in mind in this vision, is exemplified by the cross symbol, the rex gloriae, and Christ as the year.

3. The production of the WOMAN from his side suggests that he is interpreted as the second Adam. Bringing forth a woman means that he is playing the role of the Creator-god in Genesis. [67] Just as Adam, before the creation of Eve, was supposed by various traditions to be male/female, [68] so Christ here demonstrates his androgyny in a drastic way. [69] The Original Man is usually hermaphroditic; in Vedic tradition too he produces his own feminine half and unites with her. In Christian allegory the woman sprung from Christ's side signifies the Church as the Bride of the Lamb.

The splitting of the Original Man into husband and wife expresses an act of nascent consciousness; it gives birth to a pair of opposites, thereby making consciousness possible. For the beholder of the miracle, Mary, the vision was the spontaneous visualization or projection of an unconscious process in herself. Experience shows that unconscious processes are compensatory to a definite conscious situation. The splitting in the vision would therefore suggest that it is compensating a conscious condition of unity. This unity probably refers in the first place to the figure of the Anthropos, the incarnate God, who was then in the forefront of religious interest. He was, in Origen's words, the "Vir Unus," [70] the One Man. It was with this figure that Mary was confronted in her vision. If we assume that the recipient of the vision was in reality a woman -- an assumption that is not altogether without grounds -- then what she had been missing in the pure, deified masculinity of Christ was the counterbalancing femininity. Therefore it was revealed to her: "I am both, man and woman." This psychologem is still incorporated today in the Catholic conception of Christ's androgyny as the "Virgo de Virgine," though this is more a sententia communis than a conclusio. Medieval iconography sometimes shows Christ with breasts, in accordance with Song of Solomon 1: 1: "For thy breasts are better than wine" (DV). In Mechthild of Magdeburg, the soul remarks that when the Lord kissed her, [71] he had, contrary to expectation, no beard. The tokens of masculinity were lacking. Mechthild had a vision similar to Mary's, dealing with the same problem from a different angle: she saw herself transported to a "rocky mountain" where the Blessed Virgin sat, awaiting the birth of the divine child. When it was born, she embraced it and kissed it three times. As the text points out, the mountain is an allegory of the "spiritualis habitus," or spiritual attitude. "Through divine inspiration she knew how the Son is the innermost core [medulla] of the Father's heart." This medulla is "strengthening, healing, and most sweet"; God's "strength and greatest sweetness" are given to us through the Son, the "Saviour and strongest, sweetest Comforter," but "the innermost [core] of the soul is that sweetest thing." [72] From this it is clear that Mechthild equates the "medulla" with the Father's heart, the Son, and the inner man. Psychologically speaking, "that sweetest thing" corresponds to the self, which is indistinguishable from the God-image.

There is a significant difference between the two visions. The antique revelation depicts the birth of Eve from Adam on the spiritual level of the second Adam (Christ), from whose side the feminine pneuma, or second Eve, i.e., the soul, appears as Christ's daughter. As already mentioned, in the Christian view the soul is interpreted as the Church: she is the woman who "embraces the man" [73] and anoints the Lord's feet. Mechthild's vision is a continuation of the sacred myth: the daughter-bride has become a mother and bears the Father in the shape of the Son. That the Son is closely akin to the self is evident from the emphasis laid on the quaternary nature of Christ: he has a "fourfold voice" (quadruplex vox), [74] his heart has four kinds of pulse, [75] and from his countenance go forth four rays of light. [76] In this image a new millennium is speaking. Meister Eckhart, using a different formulation, says that "God is born from the soul," and when we come to the Cherubinic Wanderer [77] of Angelus Silesius, God and the self coincide absolutely. The times have undergone a profound change: the procreative power no longer proceeds from God, rather is God born from the soul. The mythologem of the young dying god has taken on psychological form -- a sign of further assimilation and conscious realization.

4. But to turn back to the first vision: the bringing forth of the woman is followed by COPULATION. The hieros gamos on the mountain is a well-known motif, [78] just as, in the old alchemical pictures, the hermaphrodite has a fondness for elevated places. The alchemists likewise speak of an Adam who always carries his Eve around with him. Their coniunctio is an incestuous act, performed not by father and daughter but, in accordance with the changed times, by brother and sister or mother and son. The latter variant corresponds to the ancient Egyptian mythologem of Amen as Ka-mutef, which means 'husband of his mother,' or of Mut, who is the "mother of her father and daughter of her son." [79] The idea of self-copulation is a recurrent theme in descriptions of the world creator: for instance, God splits into his masculine and feminine halves, [80] or he fertilizes himself in a manner that could easily have served as a model for the Interrogationes vision, if literary antecedents must be conjectured. Thus the relevant passage in the Heliopolitan story of the Creation runs: "I, even I, had union with my clenched hand, I joined myself in an embrace with my shadow, 1poured seed into my mouth, my own, 1sent forth issue in the form of Shu, I sent forth moisture in the form of Tefnut." [81]

Although the idea of self-fertilization is not touched on in our vision, there can be no doubt that there is a close connection between this and the idea of the cosmogonic self-creator. Here, however, world creation gives place to spiritual renewal. That is why no visible creature arises from the taking in of seed; it means a nourishing of life, "that we may live." And because, as the text itself shows, the vision should be understood on the "heavenly" or spiritual plane, the pouring out () refers to a , which in the language of the gospels means a living water "springing up into eternal life." The whole vision reminds one very much of the related alchemical symbolisms. Its drastic naturalism, unpleasantly obtrusive in comparison with the reticence of ecclesiastical language, points back on the one hand to archaic forms of religion whose ideas and modes of expression had long since been superseded, but forwards, on the other, to a still crude observation of Nature that was just beginning to assimilate the archetype of man. This attempt continued right up to the seventeenth century, when Johannes Kepler recognized the Trinity as underlying the structure of the universe -- in other words, when he assimilated this archetype into the astronomer's picture of the world. [82]

After this digression on the phallic synonyms for the Original Man, we will turn back to Hippolytus' account of the central symbols of the Naassenes and continue with a list of statements about Hermes.

Hermes is a conjurer of spirits (), a guide of souls (), and a begetter of souls (). But the souls were "brought down from the blessed Man on high, the archman Adamas, ... into the form of clay, that they might serve the demiurge of this creation, Esaldaios, a fiery god, the fourth by number." [83] Esaldaios corresponds to Ialdabaoth, the highest archon, and also to Saturn. [84] The "fourth" refers to the fourth Person -- the devil -- who is opposed to the Trinity. Ialdabaoth means "child of chaos"; hence when Goethe, borrowing from alchemical terminology, calls the devil the "strange son of chaos," the name is a very apt one.

Hermes is equipped with the golden wand. [85] With it he "drops sleep on the eyes of the dead and wakes up the sleepers." The Naassenes referred this to Ephesians 5: 14: "Awake, O sleeper, and arise from the dead, and Christ shall give you light." Just as the alchemists took the well-known allegory of Christ, the lapis angularis or cornerstone, for their lapis philosophorum, so the Naassenes took it as symbolizing their Protanthropos Adam, or more precisely, the "inner man," who is a rock or stone, since he came from the , "fallen from 'Adamas the arch-man on high." [86] The alchemists said their stone was "cut from the mountain without hands," [87] and the Naassenes say the same thing of the inner man, who was brought down "into the form of oblivion." [88] In Epiphanius the mountain is the Archanthropos Christ, from whom the stone or inner man was cut. As Epiphanius interprets it, this means that the inner man is begotten "without human seed," "a small stone that becomes a great mountain." [89]

The Archanthropos is the Logos, whom the souls follow "twittering," as the bats follow Hermes in the nekyia. He leads them to Oceanus and -- in the immortal words of Homer -- to "the doors of Helios and the land of dreams." "He [Hermes] is Oceanus, the begetter of gods and men, ever ebbing and flowing, now forth, now back." Men are born from the ebb, and gods from the flow. "It is this, they say, that stands written: 'I have said, you are gods, and all of you the sons of the most High.'" [90] Here the affinity or identity of God and man is explicit, in the Holy Scriptures no less than in the Naassene teachings.


The Naassenes, as Hippolytus says, [91] derived all things from a triad, which consists firstly of the "blessed nature of the blessed Man on high, Adamas," secondly of the mortal nature of the lower man, and thirdly of the "kingless race begotten from above," to which belong "Mariam the sought-for one, and Jothor [92] the great wise one, and Sephora [93] the seer, and Moses whose generation was not in Egypt." [94] Together these four form a marriage quaternio [95] of the classic type:


Their synonyms are:


Moses corresponds to the husband, Sephora to the wife; Mariam (Miriam) is the sister of Moses; Jothor (Jethro) is the archetype of the wise old man and corresponds to the fatheranimus, if the quaternio is that of a woman. But the fact that Jothor is called "the great wise one" suggests that the quaternio is a man's. In the case of a woman the accent that falls here on the wise man would fall on Mariam, who would then have the significance of the Great Mother. At all events our quaternio lacks the incestuous brother-sister relationship, otherwise very common. Instead, Miriam has something of a mother significance for Moses (cf. Exodus 2: 4ff.). As a prophetess (Exodus 15: 20f.) she is a "magical" personality. When Moses took a Moor to wife- -- he "Ethiopian woman" -- his incensed Miriam so much that she was smitten with leprosy and became "as white as snow" (Numbers 12: 10). Miriam is therefore not altogether unsuited to play the role of the anima. The best-known anima-figure in the Old Testament, the Shulamite, says: "I am black, but comely" (Song of Songs 1: 5). In the Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz, the royal bride is the concubine of the Moorish king. Negroes, and especially Ethiopians, playa considerable role in alchemy as synonyms of the caput corvi and the nigredo. [96] They appear in the Passion of St. Perpetua [97] as representatives of the sinful pagan world.

The triad is characterized by various names that may be onomatopoetic: Kaulakau, Saulasau, Zeesar. [98] Kaulakau means the higher Adam, Saulasau the lower, mortal man, and Zeesar is named the "upwards-flowing Jordan." The Jordan was caused by Jesus to flow up-stream; it is the rising flood and this, as already mentioned, is the begetter of gods. "This, they say, is the human hermaphrodite in all creatures, whom the ignorant call 'Geryon of the threefold body' [that is, , 'flowing from the earth']; but the Greeks name it the celestial horn of the moon." The text defines the above-mentioned quaternio, which is identical with Zeesar, the upwards-flowing Jordan, the hermaphrodite, Geryon of the threefold body, and the horn of the moon, as the cosmogonic Logos (John 1: 1ff.), and the "life that was in him" (John 1: 4) as a "generation of perfect men" (). [99]

This Logos or quaternity is "the cup from which the king, drinking, draws his omens," [100] or the beaker of Anacreon. The cup leads Hippolytus on to the wine miracle at Cana, which, he says, "showed forth the kingdom of heaven"; for the kingdom of heaven lies within us, like the wine in the cup. Further parallels of the cup are the ithyphallic gods of Samothrace and the Kyllenic Hermes, who signify the Original Man as well as the spiritual man who is reborn. This last is "in every respect consubstantial" with the Original Man symbolized by Hermes. For this reason, says Hippolytus, Christ said that one must eat of his flesh and drink of his blood, for he was conscious of the individual nature of each of his disciples, and also of the need of each "to come to his own special nature." [101]

Another synonym is Korybas, who was descended from the crown of the head and from the unformed () brain, like the Euphrates from Eden, and permeates all things. His image exists -- unrecognized -- "in earthly form." He is the god who dwells in the flood. I need not describe this symbol here, as I have already discussed it at some length in one of my Paracelsus studies. [102] So far as Korybas is concerned, the parallel between him and the Protanthropos is explained by the ancient view that the corybants were the original men. [103] The name "Korybas" does not denote a particular personality, but rather the anonymous member of a collectivity, such as the Curetes, Cabiri, Dactyls, etc. Etymologically, it has been brought into connection with (crown of the head), though this is not certain. [104] Korybas seems in our text to be the name of a single personality -- the Kyllenian Hermes, who appears here as synonymous with the Cabiri of Samothrace. With reference to this Hermes the text says: "Him the Thracians . . . call Korybas." [105] I have suggested in an earlier publication [106] that this unusual single personality may perhaps be a product of contamination with Korybas, known to us from the Dionysus legend, because he too seems to have been a phallic being, as we learn from a scholium to Lucian's De dea Syria. [107]

From the centre of the "perfect man" flows the ocean (where, as we have said, the god dwells). The "perfect" man is, as Jesus says, the "true door," through which the "perfect" man must go in order to be reborn. Here the problem of how to translate "teleios" becomes crucial; for -- we must ask -- why should anyone who is "perfect" need renewal through rebirth? [108] One can only conclude that the perfect man was not so perfected that no further improvement was possible. We encounter a similar difficulty in Philippians 3: 12, where Paul says: "Not that I ... am already perfect" (). But three verses further on he writes: "Let us then, as many as are perfect () be of this mind." The Gnostic use of obviously agrees with Paul's. The word has only an approximate meaning and amounts to much the same thing as 'spiritual,' [109] which is not connected with any conception of a definite degree of perfection or spirituality. The word "perfect" gives the sense of the Greek correctly only when it refers to God. But when it applies to a man, who in addition is in need of rebirth, it can at most mean "whole" or "complete," especially if, as our text says, the complete man cannot even be saved unless he passes through this door. [110]

The father of the "perfectus" is the higher man or Protanthropos, who is "not clearly formed" and "without qualities." Hippolytus goes on to say that he is called Papa (Attis) by the Phrygians. He is a bringer of peace and quells "the war of the elements" in the human body, [111] a statement we meet again word for word in medieval alchemy, where the filius philosophorum "makes peace between enemies or the elements." [112] This "Papa" is also called (cadaver), because he is buried in the body like a mummy in a tomb. A similar idea is found in Paracelsus; his treatise De vita longa opens with the words: "Life, verily, is naught but a kind of embalmed mummy, which preserves the mortal body from the mortal worms." [113] The body lives only from the "Mumia," through which the "peregrinus microcosmus," the wandering microcosm (corresponding to the macrocosm), rules the physical body. [114] His synonyms are the Adech, Archeus, Protothoma, Ides, Idechtrum, etc. He is the "Protoplast" (the first-created), and, as Ides, "the door whence all created things have come." [115] (Cf. the "true door" above!) The Mumia is born together with the body and sustains it, [116] though not to the degree that the "supercelestial Mumia" does. [117] The latter would correspond to the higher Adam of the Naassenes. Of the Ideus or Ides Paracelsus says that in it "there is but One Man ... and he is the Protoplast." [118]

The Paracelsian Mumia therefore corresponds in every way to the Original Man, who forms the microcosm in the mortal man and, as such, shares all the powers of the macrocosm. Since it is often a question of cabalistic influences in Paracelsus, it may not be superfluous in this connection to recall the figure of the cabalistic Metatron. In the Zohar the Messiah is described as the "central column" (i.e., of the Sephiroth system), and of this column it is said: "The column of the centre is Metatron, whose name is like that of the Lord. It is created and constituted to be his image and likeness, and it includes all gradations from Above to Below and from Below to Above, and binds [them] together in the centre." [119]
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Re: Aion, by C.G. Jung

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Part 2 of 2

The dead man, Hippolytus continues, will rise again by passing through the "door of heaven:' Jacob saw the gate of heaven on his way to Mesopotamia, "but they say Mesopotamia is the stream of the great ocean that flows from the midst of the perfect man:' This is the gate of heaven of which Jacob said: "How terrible is this place! This is no other but the house of God, and the gate of heaven." [120] The stream that flows out of the Original Man (the gate of heaven) is interpreted here as the flood-tide of Oceanus, which, as we have seen, generates the gods. The passage quoted by Hippolytus probably refers to John 7: 38 or to an apocryphal source common to both. The passage in John -- "He who believes in me, as the scripture has said, Out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water" -- refers to a nonbiblical source, which, however, seemed scriptural to the author. Whoever drinks of this water, in him it shall be a foun- tain of water springing up into eternal life, says Origen. [121] This water is the "higher" water, the aqua doctrinae, the rivers from the belly of Christ, and the divine life as contrasted with the "lower" water, the aqua abyssi, where the darknesses are, and where dwell the Prince of this world and the deceiving dragon and his angels. [122] The river of water is the "Saviour" himself. [123] Christ is the river that pours into the world through the four gospels, [124] like the rivers of Paradise. I have purposely cited the ecclesiastical allegories in greater detail here, so that the reader can see how saturated Gnostic symbolism is in the language of the Church, and how, on the other hand, particularly in Origen, the liveliness of his amplifications and interpretations has much in common with Gnostic views. Thus, to him as to many of his contemporaries and successors, the idea of the cosmic correspondence of the "spiritual inner man" was something quite familiar: in his first Homily on Genesis he says that God first created heaven, the whole spiritual substance, and that the counterpart of this is "our mind, which is itself a spirit, that is, it is our spiritual inner man which sees and knows God." [125]

These examples of Christian parallels to the partly pagan views of the Gnostics may suffice to give the reader a picture of the mentality of the first two centuries of our era, and to show how closely the religious teachings of that age were connected with psychic facts.

Now let us come back to the symbols listed by Hippolytus. The Original Man in his latent state -- so we could interpret the term -- is named Aipolos, "not because he feeds he- goats and she-goats," but because he is , the Pole that turns the cosmos round. [126] This recalls the parallel ideas of the alchemists, previously mentioned, about Mercurius, who is found at the North Pole. Similarly the Naassenes named Aipolos -- in the language of the Odyssey -- Proteus. Hippolytus quotes Homer as follows: "This place is frequented by the Old Man of the Sea, immortal Proteus the Egyptian ... who always tells the truth ... " [127] Homer then continues: "... who owes allegiance to Poseidon and knows the sea in all its depths." [128] Proteus is evidently a personification of the unconscious: [129] it is difficult to "catch this mysterious old being ... he might see me first, or know I am there and keep away." One must seize him quickly and hold him fast, in order to force him to speak. Though he lives in the sea, he comes to the lonely shore at the sacred noon-tide hour, like an amphibian, and lies down to sleep among his seals. These, it must be remembered, are warm-blooded -- that is to say, they can be thought of as contents of the unconscious that are capable of becoming conscious, and at certain times they appear spontaneously in the light and airy world of consciousness. From Proteus the wandering hero learns how he may make his way homewards "over the fish-giving sea," and thus the Old Man proves to be a psychopomp. [130] , Hippolytus says of him, which can best be translated by the French colloquialism "il ne se laisse pas rouler." "But," the text goes on, "he spins round himself and changes his shape." He behaves, therefore, like a revolving image that cannot be. grasped. What he says is , 'in sooth,' infallible; he is a "soothsayer," So it is not for nothing that the Naassenes say that "knowledge of the complete man is deep indeed and hard to comprehend. "

Subsequently, Proteus is likened to the green ear of corn in the Eleusinian mysteries. To him is addressed the cry of the celebrants: "The Mistress has borne the divine boy, Brimo has borne Brimos!" A "lower" correspondence to the high Eleusinian initiations, says Hippolytus, is the dark path of Persephone, who was abducted by the god of the underworld; it leads "to the grove of adored Aphrodite, who rouses the sickness of love." Men should keep to this lower path in order to be initiated "into the great and heavenly" mysteries. [131] For this mystery is "the gate of heaven" and the "house of God," where alone the good God dwells, who is destined only for the spiritual men. They should put off their garments and all become , 'bridegrooms,' "robbed of their virility by the virgin spirit." [132] This is an allusion to Revelation 14: 4: "... for they are virgins. These ... follow the Lamb whithersoever he goeth." [133]

Among the objective symbols of the self I have already mentioned the Naassene conception of the , the indivisible point. This conception fully accords with that of the "Monad" and "Son of Man" in Monolmos. Hippolytus says:

Monoimos . . . thinks that there is some such Man as Oceanus, of whom the poet speaks somewhat as follows: Oceanus, the origin of gods and of men. [134] Putting this into other words, he says that the Man is All, the source of the universe, unbegotten, incorruptible, everlasting; and that there is a Son of the aforesaid Man, who is begotten and capable of suffering, and whose birth is outside time, neither willed nor predetermined . . . This Man is a single Monad, uncompounded [and] indivisible, [yet] compounded [and] divisible; loving and at peace with all things [yet] warring with all things and at war with itself in all things; unlike and like [itself], as it were a musical harmony containing all things . . . showing forth all things and giving birth to all things. It is its own mother, its own father, the two immortal names. The emblem of the perfect Man, says Monolmos, is the jot or tittle. [135] This one tittle is the uncompounded, simple, unmixed Monad, having its composition from nothing whatsoever, yet composed of many forms, of many parts. That single, indivisible jot is the many-faced, thousand· eyed and thousand-named, the jot of the iota. This is the emblem of that perfect and indivisible Man. . .. The Son of the Man is the one iota, the one jot flowing from on high, full and filling all things, containing in himself everything that is in the Man, the Father of the Son of Man. [136]

This paradoxical idea of the Monad in Monoimos describes the psychological nature of the self as conceived by a thinker of the second century under the influence of the Christian message.

A parallel conception is to be found in Plotinus, who lived a little later (c. 205-70). He says in the Enneads: "Self-knowledge reveals the fact that the soul's natural movement is not in a straight line, unless indeed it have undergone some deviation. On the contrary, it circles around something interior, around a centre. Now the centre is that from which proceeds the circle, that is, the soul. The soul will therefore move around the centre, that is, around the principle from which she proceeds; and, trending towards it, she will attach herself to it, as indeed all souls should do. The souls of the divinities ever direct themselves towards it, and that is the secret of their divinity; for divinity consists in being attached to the centre .... Anyone who withdraws from it is a man who has remained un-unified, or who is a brute." [137]

Here the point is the centre of a circle that is created, so to speak, by the circumambulation of the soul. But this point is the "centre of all things," a God-image. This is an idea that still underlies the mandala-symbols in modern dreams. [138]

Of equal significance is the idea, also common among the Gnostics, of the or spark. [139] It corresponds to the scintilla vitae, the "little spark of the soul" in Meister Eckhart, [140] which we meet with rather early in the teachings of Saturninus. [141] Similarly Heraclitus, "the physicist," is said to have conceived the soul as a "spark of stellar essence." [142] Hippolytus says that in the doctrine of the Sethians the darkness held "the brightness and the spark of light in thrall," [143] and that this "very small spark" was finely mingled in the dark waters [144] below. [145] Simon Magus [146] likewise teaches that in semen and milk there is a very small spark which "increases and becomes a power boundless and immutable." [147]

The symbol of the point is found also in alchemy, where it stands for the arcane substance; in Michael Maier [148] it signifies "the purity or homogeneity of the essence." It is the "punctum solis" [149] in the egg-yolk, which grows into a chick. In Khunrath it represents Sapientia in the form of the "salt-point"; [150] in Maier it symbolizes gold. [151] To the scholiast of the "Tractatus aureus" it is the midpoint, the "circulus exiguus" and "mediator" which reconciles the hostile elements and "by persistent rotation changes the angular form of the square into a circular one like itself." [152] For Dorn the "punctum vix intelligibile" is the starting point of creation. [153] Similarly John Dee says that all things originated from the point and the monad. [154] Indeed, God himself is simultaneously both the centre and the circumference. In Mylius the point is called the bird of Hermes. [155] In the "Novum lumen" it is spirit and fire, the life of the arcane substance, similar to the spark. [156] This conception of the point is more or less the same as that of the Gnostics.

From these citations we can see how Christ was assimilated to symbols that also meant the kingdom of God, for instance the grain of mustard-seed, the hidden treasure, and the pearl of great price. He and his kingdom have the same meaning. Objections have always been made to this dissolution of Christ's personality, but what has not been realized is that it represents at the same time an assimilation and integration of Christ into the human psyche. [157] The result is seen in the growth of the human personality and in the development of consciousness. These specific attainments are now gravely threatened in our antichristian age, not only by the sociopolitical delusional systems, but above all by the rationalistic hybris which is tearing our consciousness from its transcendent roots and holding before it immanent goals.



1. Unfortunately it is not possible for me to elucidate or even to document this statement here. But, as Rhine's ESP (extrasensory perception) experiments show, any intense emotional interest or fascination is accompanied by phenomena which can only be explained by a psychic relativity of time, space, and causality. Since the archetypes usually have a certain numinosity, they can arouse just that fascination which is accompanied by synchronistic phenomena. These consist in the meaningful coincidence of two or more causally unrelated facts. For details I would refer the reader to my "Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle."

2. Genesis 1 : 7.

3. Non-verbatim quotation from John 4: 10.

4. Elenchos, V, 9, 18f. (Cf. Legge trans., I, pp. 143f.) "Heracleian stone" = magnet.

5. John 10: 9: "I am the door. By me, if any man enter in, he shall be saved."

6. I use the reading: . Does this mean those who close their eyes to the world?

7. The naphtha analogy reappears in the teachings of the Basilidians (Elenchos, VII, 24. 6f.). There it refers to the son of the highest archon, who comprehends the (idea of the blessed sonship). Hippolytus' exposition seems to be a trifle confused at this point.

8. Several more metaphors now follow, and it should be noted that they are the same as in the passage previously quoted (V, 9. 19).

9. Elenchos, V. 17, 8ff. (Cf. Legge trans., I, pp. 158f.)

10. "And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up."

11. Here, as in the previous passages about the magnet, mention is made of electron (amber) and the sea-hawk, emphasis being laid an the bird's centre.

12. Elenchos, V, 21, 8 (Legge trans., I, p. 168). The ray of light (radius) plays an analogous role in alchemy. Dorn (Theatr. chem., I. p. 276) speaks of the "invisible rays of heaven meeting together at the centre of the earth," and there, as Michael Maier says, shining with a "heavenly light like a carbuncle" (Symbola aureae mensae, 1617, p. 377). The arcane substance is extracted from the ray, and constitutes its "shadow" (umbra), as the "Tractatus aureus" says (Ars chemica, 1566, p. 15). The aqua permanens is extracted from the rays of the sun and moon by the magnet (Mylius, Philosophia reformata, p. 314), or the rays of the sun are united in the "silver water" (Beatus, "Aurelia occulta," Theatr. chem., IV. p. 563).

13. "And therefore the highest power, seeing her stability in God, communicates it to the lowest, that they may discern good and evil. In this union Adam dwelt, and while this union lasted he had all the power of creatures in his highest power. As when a lodestone exerts its power upon a needle and draws it to itself, the needle receives sufficient power to pass on to all the needles beneath, which it raises and attaches to the lodestone." (Meister Eckhart, trans. by Evans, I, p. 274, slightly modified.)

14 [Cf. n. 11, supra.]

15. Cf. Psychology and Alchemy, pars. 127ff., and "A Study in the Process of Individuation," in Part I of vol. 9.

16. . Panarium, XXXI, cap. V (Oehler edn., I, p. 314).

17. Elenchos, VI, 42, 4; Quispel, "Note sur 'Basilide:" p. 115.

18. Acts 17: 30.

19. Cf. Scott, Hermetica (I, pp. 150f.) where there is a description of the krater filled with Nous which God sent down to earth. Those whose hearts strive after consciousness () can "baptize" themselves in the krater and thereby obtain Nous. "God says that the man filled with Nous should know himself" (pp. 126f.).

20. (Acts 17: 29).

21. Likewise the of the Baptist (Matt. 3: 2).

22. Cf. the , 'sin of unconsciousness' in pseudo-Clement (Homilies XIX, cap. XXII), referring to the man who was born blind (John 9: 1).

23. Polyhistor symbolicus, p. 348: "God, formerly the God of vengeance, who with thunders and lightnings brought the world to disorder, took his rest in the lap of a Virgin, nay, in her womb, and was made captive by love."

24. "Die Gestalt des Satans im Allen Testament."

25. Rig-Veda, X, 129. (Cf. MacNicol trans., Hindu Scriptures, p. 37.)

26. "Being" is controversial. The Master says: "God in the Godhead is a spiritual substance, so unfathomable that we can say nothing about it except that it is naught [niht ensi]. To say it is aught [iht] were more lying than true." (Cf. Evans trans., I, p. 354.)

27. "To this end there is no way, it is beyond all ways." (Cf. ibid., p. 211.)

28 " ... von formen formelos, von werdenne werdelos, von wesenne weselos und ist von sachen sachelos." (Cf. ibid., p. 352.)

29. "[The will] is the nobler in that it plunges into unknowing, which is God." Cf. ibid., p. 351. Cf. also n. 16, supra: .

30. Evans, I, p. 219.

31. End of the sermon "Renovamini spiritu" (Eph. 4: 23). Ibid., pp. 247f.

32. There are people who, oddly enough, think it a weakness in me that I refrain from metaphysical judgments. A scientist's conscience does not permit him to assert things he cannot prove or at least show to be probable. No assertion has ever yet brought anything corresponding to it into existence. "What he says, is" is a prerogative exclusive to God.

33. Adversus haereses, I, 30, 3. In the system of Barbelo-Gnosis (ibid., 29, 4) the equivalent of Sophia is who "sinks into the lower regions." The name Prunicus () means both 'carrying a burden' and 'lewd.' The latter connotation is more probable, because this Gnostic sect believed that, through the sexual act, they could recharge Barbelo with the pneuma that was lost in the world. In Simon Magus it is Helen, the and , who "descended to the lower regions ... and generated the inferior powers, angels. and firmaments." She was forcibly held captive by the lower powers (Irenaeus, I, 27, 1-4). She corresponds to the much later alchemical idea of the "soul in fetters" (cf. Dorn, Theatr. chem., I, pp. 298, 497; Mylius, Phil. ref., p. 262; Rosarium philosophorum in Art. aurif., II, p. 284; "Platonis liber quartorum," Theatr. chem., V, pp. 185f.; Vigenere, Theatr. chem., VI, p. 19). The idea derives from Greek alchemy and can be found in Zosimos (Berthelot, Alch. grecs, III, xlix, 7; trans. in Psychology and Alchemy, pars. 456ff.). In the "Liber quartorum" it is of Sabaean origin. See Chwolsohn, Die Ssabier und der Ssabismus (II, p. 494): "The soul once turned towards matter, fell in love with it, and, burning with desire to experience bodily pleasures, was no longer willing to tear herself away from it. So was the world born." Among the Valentinians, Sophia Achamoth is the Ogdoad. In Pistis Sophia (trans. by Mead, p. 362) she is the daughter of Barbelo. Deluded by the false light of the demon Authades, she falls into imprisonment in chaos. Irenaeus (I, 5, 2) calls the demiurge the Heptad, but Achamoth the Ogdoad. In I, 7, 2 he says that the Saviour is compounded of four things in repetition of the first Tetrad. A copy of the Four is the quaternity of elements (I, 17, 1), and so are the four lights that stand round the Autogenes of Barbelo- Gnosis (I, 29, 2).

34. Adv. haer., I, 24, 1.

35. Bousset, Hauptprobleme der Gnosis, p. 170.

36. Panarium, XXX, 3.

37. Theodor Bar-Kuni, Inscriptiones mandaites des coupes de Khouabir, Part 2. p. 185.

38. The Apocryphal New Testament, ed. James, p. 379.

39. Bousset, pp. 114ff.

40. The Miraculous Birth of King Amon-Hotep III, p. 81.

41. Elenchos, V, 9, 5f. (Legge trans., I, pp. 140f.).

42. Psychology and Alchemy, index, s.v. "Axiom of Maria." Cf. infra, pars. 395ff.

43. a play on the word , 'well-speaking.'

44. Elenchos, V, g. 15ff. [Cf. Legge, I, p. 143.]

45. An allusion to John 4: 10.

46. Legge, I, p. 144.

47. Elenchos, V. 9, 21.

48. V, 9. 19 (Legge trans., p. 144).

49. This means the integration of the self, which is also referred to in very similar words in the Bogomil document discussed above (pars. 225ff.), concerning the devil as world creator. He too finds what is "proper" () to him.

50. Malt. 7: 14: "Strait is the gate, and narrow is the way, which leadeth unto life."

51. The passage discussed here is in Elenchos, V. 9, 4ff. (Legge trans., I, p. 140).

52. Elenchos, V. 6. 6: ("Knowledge of God is perfect wholeness").

53. V, 6, 5 (Legge trans., I, p. 120).

54. V, 6, 6f. (p. 121).

55 Nicknamed 'with beautiful children' or 'the beautiful child.' (Elenchos, V, 7, 4.)

56. According to Hippocrates, a boy at seven years old is half a father. (Elenchos, V, 7, 21.)

57. . Archegonos is the tribal father.

58. With express reference to Matt. 19: 17: "One is good, God."

59. Cf. Legge trans., p. 128.

60. Panarium, XXVI, cap. VIII.

61. " ... partaking of his flowing semen, showed that this was to be done, that we might have life."

62. On the other hand, I cannot rid myself of the impression that dreams do occasionally twist things in a scurrilous way. This may have led Freud to the singular assumption that they disguise and distort for so-called "moral" reasons. However, this view is contradicted by the fact that dreams just as often do the exact opposite. I therefore incline to the alchemical view that Mercurius -- the unconscious Nous -- is a "trickster." [Cf. "The Spirit Mercurius" and "The Psychology of the Trickster Figure."-EDITORS.]

63. But not the Freudian, "psychoanalytical" method, which dismisses the manifest dream-content as a mere "facade," on the ground that the psychopathology of hysteria leads one to suspect incompatible wishes as dream-motifs. The fact that the dream as well as consciousness rest on an instinctual foundation has nothing to do either with the meaning of the dream-figures or with that of the conscious contents, for the essential thing in both cases is what the psyche has made of the instinctual impulse. The remarkable thing about the Parthenon is not that it consists of stone and was built to gratify the ambitions of the Athenians, but that it is -- the Parthenon.

64. Cf. "Phenomenology of the Spirit in Fairytales." par. 403.

65. Cf. "The Psychology of Eastern Meditation," pars. 942f.

66. Cf. "A Study in the Process of Individuation."

67. This is consistent with his nature as the Logos and second Person of the Trinity.

68. Naturally this view is rejected by the Church.

69. Three different interpretations of Christ are combined here. Such contaminations are characteristic not only of Gnostic thinking but of all unconscious image-formation.

70. Gregory the Great, Expositiones in librum 1 Regum, Lib. I. cap. I (Migne, P.L., vol. 79, col. 23): "For God and man is one Christ. Therefore in that he is called one, he is shown to be incomparable." In accordance with the spirit of the age, his incomparability or uniqueness is explained by the "excellence of his virtue." It is, however, significant in itself.

71. "He offered her his rosy [sic!] mouth to kiss" (Liber gratiae spiritualis, fol. J ivv).

72. "Medulla vera animae est illud dulcissimum." Ibid., fol. B.

73. Gregory the Great; Migne, P.L., vol. 79, col. 23. Cf. Jerem. 31: 22: "A woman shall compass a man" (AV).

74. Liber gratiae spiritualis, fol. A viir. The quaternity refers to the four gospels.

75. Ibid., fol. B iiv. 76. Ibid., fol. B viiv.

77. Cf. Flitch, Angelus Silesius, pp. 128ff.

78. For instance, the hieros gamos of Zeus and Hera on "the heights of Gargaros," Iliad, XIV, 246ff.(Cf. Rieu trans., p. 266.)

79. Brugsch, Religion und Mythologie der allen A'gypter, p. 94.

80. In the ancient Egyptian view God is "Father and Mother," and "begets and gives birth to himself" (Brugsch, p. 97). The Indian Prajapati has intercourse with his own split-off feminine half.

81. Budge, Gods of the Egyptians, I, pp. 310f.

82. I owe this idea to a lecture delivered by Professor W. Pauli, in Zurich, on the archetypal foundations of Kepler's astronomy. Cf. his "The Influence of Archetypal Ideas" etc.

83. Elenchos, V, 7, 30f. (Cf. Legge trans., I, p. 128.)

84. Bousset, Hauptprobleme der Gnosis, pp. 352f.

85. Here Hippolytus cites the text of Odyssey, XXIV, 2.

86. Elenchos, V, 7, 36 (Legge trans., I, pp. 129f.).

87. Daniel 2 : 34: "Thus thou sawest, till a stone was cut out of a mountain without hands" (DV). This was the stone that broke in pieces the clay and iron feet of the statue.

88. , i.e., lethargia, the state of forgetfulness and sleep resembling that of the dead. The "inner man" is as if buried in the somatic man. He is the "soul in fetters" or "in the prison of the body," as the alchemists say. Lethe corresponds to the modern concept of the unconscious.

89.Ancoratus, 40. Cf. Daniel 2 : 35: "But the stone that struck the statue became a great mountain and filled the whole earth" (DV).

90. Elenchos, V, 7, 37 (Legge trans., I, p. 130). Cf. Psalm 82 (Vulg. 81): 6, to which reference is made in Luke 6: 35 and John 10: 34.

91 V, 8, 2 (ibid., p. 131).

92. =Jethro, the priest-king of Midian and the father-in-law of Moses.

93. Zipporah, the wife of Moses.

94. This is probably an allusion to the pneumatic nature of the "generation" produced by Moses, for, according to Elenchos, V, 7, 41, "Egypt is the body" (Legge trans., I, p. 130).

95. The marriage quaternio is the archetype to which the cross-cousin marriage corresponds on a primitive level. I have given a detailed account of it in "The Psychology of the Transference," pars. 425ff.

96. Cf. Psychology and Alchemy, par. 484.

97. See the study by Marie-Louise von Franz.

98. These words .occur in the Hebrew of Isaiah 28: 10, where they describe what "men with stammering lips and alien tongue" speak to the people. [The Hebrew runs: "tsaw latsaw, tsaw latsaw, kaw lakaw, kaw lakaw, zeer sham, zeer sham." -- EDITORS.] AV: "For precept must be upon precept, precept upon precept, line upon line, line upon line; here a little and there a little."

99. Cf. Psychology and Alchemy, pars. 550f. [Cf. Legge trans., I, p. 131.]

100. Cf. Genesis 44: 5.

101. Elenchos, V, 8, 12 (Legge trans., I, p. 133).

102. "Paracelsus as a Spiritual Phenomenon," pars. 181ff.

103. Roscher, Lexikon, II, part I, col. 1608, s.v. "Kuretes."

104. Ibid., col. 1607. The descent from the brain may be an allusion to the ancient idea that the sperm was conducted down from the head to the genitals, through the spinal cord. [cf. Onians, The Origins of European Thought, p. 234. -- EDITORS.]

105. Elenchos, V, 8, 13 (Legge trans., I, p. 133).

106. "The Spirit Mercurius," par. 278.

107. Roscher, col. 1392, s.v. "Korybos," where the text is given in full.

108. The alchemists say very aptly: "Perfectum non perficitur" (that which is perfect is not perfected).

109. Elenchos, V, 8, 22, describes the as "perfect men endowed with reason," from which it is clear that the possession of an anima rationalis is what makes the "spiritual"' man.

110. Elenchos, V, 8, 21 (Legge trans., 1. p. 134). Cramer (Bibl.-theol. Worterbuch der Neutestamentlichen Grazitat) gives as the meaning of 'complete, perfect. lacking nothing, having reached the destined goal: Bauer (Griech.-deutsch. Worterbuch zu den Schriften des Neuen Testaments, col. 1344) has. with reference to age, 'mature, full-grown,' and with reference to the mysteries. 'initiated.' Lightfoot (Notes on the Epistles of St Paul, p. 173) says: " is properly that of which the parts are fully developed. as distinguished from , that in which none of the parts are wanting, 'ful1-grown: as opposed to , 'child· ish,' or 'childhood:" Teleios is the man who has received Nous: he has gnosis (knowledge). Cf. Guignebert, "Quelques remarques sur la perfection () et ses voies dans le mystere paulinien," p. 419. Weiss (The History of Primitive Christianity, II. p. 576) declares that it is just the "consciousness of imperfection and the will to progress that is the sign of perfection." He bases this on Epictetus (Enchiridion, 51, 1f.), where it says that he who has resolved to progress () is. by anticipation. already "perfect."

111. First mentioned at V, 8, 19. [Cf. Legge, I. p. 134.)

112. Hermetis Trismegisti Tractatus vere Aureus cum scholiis (1610), p. 44.

113. Published 1562 by Adam von Bodenstein. In Paracelsus Samtliche Werke, ed. Sudhoff, III, p. 249. [Cf. "Paracelsus the Physician," par. 21.]

114. De origine Morborum invisibilium, beginning of Book IV, says of the Mumia: "All the power of herbs and of trees is found in the Mumia; not only the power of the plants grown of earth, but also of water, all the properties of metals. al1 the qualities of marcasites, all the essence of precious stones. How should I count all these things. and name them? They are al1 within man, no fewer and no less. as strong and as powerful, in the Mumia." (Volumen Paramirum, pp. 291ff.)

115. Fragmentarische Ausarbeitungen zur Anatomie (Sudhoff, III, p. 462).

116. The Mumia is, accordingly, an alexipharmic. (De mumia libellus; ibid., p. 375.)

117. De vita longa, Lib. IV, cap. VII (ibid., p. 284).

118. "Paracelsus as a Spiritual Phenomenon," par. 168.

119. Zohar, cited in Schoettgen, Horae Hebraicae et Talmudicae, II, p. 16.

120. Gen. 28: 17 (DV).

121. In Genesim hom. XI, 3 (Migne, P.G., vol. 12, co1. 224): "And that ye may see the well of vision, and take from it the living water, which shall be in you a fountain of water springing up unto eternal life."

122. Ibid., I, 2 (col. 148).

123. In Numeros hom. XVII, 4 (Migne, P.G., vol. 12, cols. 707f.): "For these paradises upon the waters are like and akin to that paradise in which is the tree of life. And the waters we may take to be either the writings of the apostles and evangelists, or the aid given by the angels and celestial powers to such souls; for by these they are watered and inundated, and nourished unto all knowledge and understanding of heavenly things; although our Saviour also is the river which maketh glad the city of Cod; and the Holy Spirit not only is himself that river, but out of those to whom he is given, rivers proceed from their belly."

124. See the valuable compilation of patristic allegories in Rahner, "Flumina de ventre Christi," pp. 269ff. The above reference is on p. 370 and comes from Hippolytus' Commentary on Daniel, I, 17 (Werke, I, pp. 28f.).

125. In Genesim hom. I, 2 (Migne, P.G., vol. 12, col. 147).

126. Elenchos, V, 8, 34 (Legge, I, p. 137). This is a play on the words (from ), 'goat-herd,' and (from , 'ever turning'). Hence = the earth's axis, the Pole.

127. Odyssey, trans. by Rouse, p. 65.

128. Ibid., trans. by Rieu, p. 74.

129. He has something of the character of the "trickster" (cf. n. 62, supra).

130. Proteus has much in common with Hermes: above all, the gift of second sight and the power of shape-shifting. In Faust (Part II, Act 5) he tells the Homunculus how and where to begin his labours.

131. When I visited the ancient pagoda at Turukalukundram, southern India, a local pundit explained to me that the old temples were purposely covered on the outside, from top to bottom, with obscene sculptures, in order to remind ordinary people of their sexuality. The spirit, he said, was a great danger, because Yama, the god of death, would instantly carry off these people (the "imperfecti") if they trod the spiritual path directly, without preparation. The erotic sculptures were meant to remind them of their dharma (law), which bids them fulfil their ordinary lives. Only when they have fulfilled their dharma can they tread the spiritual path. The obscenities were intended to arouse the erotic curiosity of visitors to the temples, so that they should not forget their dharma; otherwise they would not fulfil it. Only the man who was qualified by his karma (the fate earned through works in previous existences), and who was destined for the life of the spirit, could ignore this injunction with impunity, for to him these obscenities mean nothing. That was also why the two seductresses stood at the entrance of the temple, luring the people to fulfil their dharma, because only in this way could the ordinary man attain to higher spiritual development. And since the temple represented the whole world, all human activities were portrayed in it; and because most people are always thinking of sex anyway, the great majority of the temple sculptures were of an erotic nature. For this reason too, he said, the lingam (phallus) stands in the sacred cavity of the adyton (Holy of Holies), in the garbha griha (house of the womb). This pundit was a Tantrist (scholastic; tantra = 'book').

132. Their prototypes are the emasculated Attis and the priests of Eleusis, who, before celebrating the hieros gamos, were made impotent with a draught of hemlock.

133. Cf. Matt. 5: 8: "Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God."

134. A condensation of Iliad, XIV, 200f. and 246: "I am going to the ends of the fruitful earth to visit Ocean, the forbear of the gods, and Mother Tethys ... even Ocean Stream himself, who is the forbear of them all." (Rieu trans., pp. 262f.)

135. The iota (), the smallest Greek character. corresponding to our "dot" (which did not exist in Greek). Cf. Luke 16: 17: "And it is easier for heaven and earth to pass than one tittle of the law to fall." Also Matt. 5: 18. This may well be the origin of the iota symbolism, as Irenaeus (Adv. haer., I, 3, 2) suggests.

136. Elenchos, VIII, 12, 51ff. (Legge, pp. 107ff.).All this is a Gnostic paraphrase of John I and at the same time a meaningful exposition of the psychological self. The relationship of the to the self is the same as that of the Hebrew letter Yod () to the lapis in the cabala. The Original Man. Adam, signifies the small hook at the top of the letter Yod. (Shaare Kedusha, III. I.)

137. Ennead, VI, 9, 8 (Guthrie trans., p. 163, slightly mod.).

138. See "A Study in the Process of Individuation" and "Concerning Mandala Symbolism."

139. Bousset, Hauptprobleme der Gnosis, p. 321, says: "[The Gnostics believed] that human beings, or at any rate some human beings, carry within them from the beginning a higher element [the spinther] deriving from the world of light, which enables them to rise above the world of the Seven into the upper world of light, where dwell the unknown Father and the heavenly Mother."

140. Meerpohl, "Meister Eckharts Lehre vom Seelenfunklein."

141. Irenaeus, Adv. haer., I, 24. The pneumatikoi contain a small part of the Pleroma (II, 29). Cf. the doctrine of Satorneilos in Hippolytus, Elenchos, VII, 28, 3 (Legge trans., II, pp. 80f.).

142. Macrobius, Commentarium in Somnium Scipionis, XIV, 19.

143. Elenchos, V, 19, 7: ".

144. This idea reappears in alchemy in numerous variations. Cf. Michael Maier. Symbola aureae mensae, p. 380. and Scrutinium chymicum, Emblema XXXI: "The King swimming in the sea, and crying with a loud voice: Whosoever shall bring me out, shall have a great reward." Also Aurora Consurgens (ed. von Franz). p. 57: "For this cause have I laboured night by night with crying, my jaws be- come hoarse; who is the man that liveth, knowing and understanding, deliver- ing my soul from the hand of hell?"

145. Elenchos, V, 21, 1: .

146. Elenchos, VI, 17, 7. Cf. "Transformation Symbolism in the Mass," par. 359.

147. Cf. the vision reported by Wickes, The Inner World of Man, p. 245. It is a typical piece of individuation symbolism: "Then I saw that on the shaft there hung a human figure that held within itself all the loneliness of the world and of the spaces. Alone, and hoping for nothing. the One hung and gazed down into the void. For long the One gazed, drawing all solitude unto itself. Then deep in the fathomless dark was born an infinitesimal spark. Slowly it rose from the bottomless depth, and as it rose it grew until it became a star. And the star hung in space just opposite the figure, and the white light streamed upon the Lonely One." Conversely, it is related of Zoroaster that he drew down sparks from a star. which scorched him. (Bousset. p. 146.)

148. Maier, De circulo physico quadrato (1616), p. 27.

149. Or punctus solis. "In the egg therefore are four things: earth, water, air, and fire; but the 'punctum solis' is apart from these four, in the midst of the yolk (which) is the chick." (Turba., Sermo IV.) Ruska (Turba philosophorum, p. 51) puts "saliens" instead of "solis" ("springing point" instead of "sun-point"), in the belief that all the copyists repeated the same error. I am not so sure of this.

150. Von hylealischen Chaos, p. 194.

151. De circulo quadrato, p. 27.

152. Theatr. chem., IV. p. 691.

153. "Physica genesis," Theatr. chem., I, p. 382.

154. Monas hieroglyphica (first edn., 1564). Also in Theatr. chem. (1602), II, p. 218.

155. Phil. ref., p. 131.

156. Mus. herm., p. 559.

157. Here I would like to cite a theological opinion: "Jesus is a synthesis and a growth, and the resultant form is one which tells of a hundred forces which went to its making. But the interesting thing is that the process did not end with the closing of the canon. Jesus is still in the making." Roberts, "Jesus or Christ? -- A Reply," p. 124.
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Re: Aion, by C.G. Jung

Postby admin » Thu Feb 26, 2015 9:57 am

Part 1 of 2



The examples given in the previous chapter should be sufficient to describe the progressive assimilation and amplification of the archetype that underlies ego-consciousness. Rather than add to their number unnecessarily, I will try to summarize them so that an over-all picture results. From various hints dropped by Hippolytus, it is dear beyond a doubt that many of the Gnostics were nothing other than psychologists. Thus he reports them as saying that "the soul is very hard to find and to comprehend," [1] and that knowledge of the whole man is just as difficult. "For knowledge of man is the beginning of wholeness (), but knowledge of God is perfect wholeness ( )." Clement of Alexandria says in the Paedagogus (III, 1): "Therefore, as it seems, it is the greatest of all disciplines to know oneself; for when a man knows himself, he knows God." And Monolmos, in his letter to Theophrastus, writes: "Seek him from out thyself, and learn who it is that taketh possession of everything in thee, saying: my god, my spirit, my understanding, my soul, my body; and learn whence is sorrow and joy, and love and hate, and waking though one would not, and sleeping though one would not, and getting angry though one would not, and falling in love though one would not. And if thou shouldst closely investigate these things, thou wilt find Him in thyself, the One and the Many, like to that little point [], for it is in thee that he hath his origin and his deliverance." [2]

One cannot help being reminded, in reading this text, of the Indian idea of the Self as brahman and atman, for instance in the Kena Upanishad: "By whom willed and directed does the mind fly forth? By whom commanded does the first breath move? Who sends forth the speech we utter here? What god is it that stirs the eye and ear? The hearing of the ear, the thinking of the mind, the speaking of the speech . . . That which speech cannot express, by which speech is expressed ... which the mind cannot think, by which the mind thinks, know that as Brahman." [3]

Yajnyavalkya defines it in indirect form in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad: "He who dwells in all beings, yet is apart from all beings, whom no beings know, whose body is all beings, who controls all beings from within, he is your Self, the inner controller, the immortal.... There is no other seer but he, no other hearer but he, no other perceiver but he, no other knower but he. He is your Self, the inner controller, the immortal. All else is of sorrow. [4]

In Monoimos, who was called "the Arab," Indian influences are not impossible. His statement is significant because it shows that even in the second century [5] the ego was considered the exponent of an all-embracing totality, the self -- a thought that by no means all psychologists are familiar with even today. These insights, in the Near East as in India, are the product of intense introspective observation that can only be psychological. Gnosis is undoubtedly a psychological knowledge whose contents derive from the unconscious. It reached its insights by concentrating on the "subjective factor," [6] which consists empirically in the demonstrable influence that the collective unconscious exerts on the conscious mind. This would explain the astonishing parallelism between Gnostic symbolism and the findings of the psychology of the unconscious.

I would like to illustrate this parallelism by summarizing the symbols previously discussed. For this purpose we must first of all review the facts that led psychologists to conjecture an archetype of wholeness, i.e., the self. These are in the first place dreams and visions; in the second place, products of active imagination in which symbols of wholeness appear. The most important of these are geometrical structures containing elements of the circle and quaternity; [7] namely, circular and spherical forms on the one hand, which can be represented either purely geometrically or as objects; and, on the other hand, quadratic figures divided into four or in the form of a cross. They can also be four objects or persons related to one another in meaning or by the way they are arranged. Eight, as a multiple of four, has the same significance. A special variant of the quaternity motif is the dilemma of 3 + 1. Twelve (3 x 4) seems to belong here as a solution of the dilemma and as a symbol of wholeness (zodiac, year). Three can be regarded as a relative totality, since it usually represents either a spiritual totality that is a product of thought, like the Trinity, [8] or else an instinctual, chthonic one, like the triadic nature of the gods of the underworld -- the "lower triad." Psychologically, however, three -- if the context indicates that it refers to the self -- should be understood as a defective quaternity or as a stepping-stone towards it. [9] Empirically, a triad has a trinity opposed to it as its complement. The complement of the quaternity is unity. [10]

From the circle and quaternity motif is derived the symbol of the geometrically formed crystal and the wonder-working stone. From here analogy formation leads on to the city, [11] castle, church, [12] house, [13] and vessel. [14] Another variant is the wheel (rota). The former motif emphasizes the ego's containment in the greater dimension of the self; the latter emphasizes the rotation which also appears as a ritual circumambulation. Psychologically, it denotes concentration on and preoccupation with a centre, conceived as the centre of a circle and thus formulated as a point. This leads easily enough to a relationship to the heavenly Pole and the starry bowl of heaven rotating round it. A parallel is the horoscope as the "wheel of birth."

The image of the city, house, and vessel brings us to their content -- the inhabitant of the city or house, and the water contained in the vessel. The inhabitant, in his turn, has a relationship to the quaternity, and to the fifth as the unity of the four. The water appears in modern dreams and visions as a blue expanse reflecting the sky, as a lake, as four rivers (e.g., Switzerland as the heart of Europe with the Rhine, Ticino, Rhone, and Inn, or the Garden of Eden with the Gihon, Pison, Hiddekel, and Euphrates), as healing water and consecrated water, etc. Sometimes the water is associated with fire, or even combined with it as fire-water (wine, alcohol).

The inhabitant of the quadratic space leads to the human figure. Apart from the geometrical and arithmetical symbols, this is the commonest symbol of the self. It is either a god or a godlike human being, a prince, a priest, a great man, an historical personality, a dearly loved father, an admired example, the successful elder brother -- in short, a figure that transcends the ego personality of the dreamer. There are corresponding feminine figures in a woman's psychology.

Just as the circle is contrasted with the square, so the quaternity is contrasted with the 3 + 1 motif, and the positive, beautiful, good, admirable, and lovable human figure with a daemonic, misbegotten creature who is negative, ugly, evil, despicable and an object of fear. Like all archetypes, the self has a paradoxical, antinomial character. It is male and female, old man and child, powerful and helpless, large and small. The self is a true "complexio oppositorum," [15] though this does not mean that it is anything like as contradictory in itself. It is quite possible that the seeming paradox is nothing but a reflection of the enantiodromian changes of the conscious attitude which can have a favourable or an unfavourable effect on the whole. The same is true of the unconscious in general, for its frightening figures may be called forth by the fear which the conscious mind has of the unconscious. The importance of consciousness should not be underrated; hence it is advisable to relate the contradictory manifestations of the unconscious causally to the conscious attitude, at least in some degree. But consciousness should not be overrated either, for experience provides too many incontrovertible proofs of the autonomy of unconscious compensatory processes for us to seek the origin of these antinomies only in the conscious mind. Between the conscious and the unconscious there is a kind of "uncertainty relationship," because the observer is inseparable from the observed and always disturbs it by the act of observation. In other words, exact observation of the unconscious prejudices observation of the conscious and vice versa.

Thus the self can appear in all shapes from the highest to the lowest, inasmuch as these transcend the scope of the ego personality in the manner of a daimonion. It goes without saying that the self also has its theriomorphic symbolism. The commonest of these images in modern dreams are, in my experience, the elephant, horse, bull, bear, white and black birds, fishes, and snakes. Occasionally one comes across tortoises, snails, spiders, and beetles. The principal plant symbols are the flower and the tree. Of the inorganic products, the commonest are the mountain and lake.

Where there is an undervaluation of sexuality the self is symbolized as a phallus. Undervaluation can consist in an ordinary repression or in overt devaluation. In certain differentiated persons a purely biological interpretation and evaluation of sexuality can also have this effect. Any such conception overlooks the spiritual and "mystical" implications of the sexual instinct. [16] These have existed from time immemorial as psychic facts, but are devalued and repressed on rationalistic and philosophical grounds. In all such cases one can expect an unconscious phallicism by way of compensation. A good example of this is the mainly sexualistic approach to the psyche that is to be found in Freud.


Coming now to the Gnostic symbols of the self, we find that the Naassenes of Hippolytus lay most emphasis on the human images; of the geometrical and arithmetical symbols the most important are the quaternity, the ogdoad, the trinity, and unity. Here we shall give our attention mainly to the totality symbol of the quaternity, and above all to the symbol mentioned in section 6 of the last chapter, which I would like to call, for short, the Moses Quaternio. We shall then consider the second Naassene Quaternio, the one with the four rivers of Paradise, which I shall call the Paradise Quaternio. Though differently constituted, the two quaternios express roughly the same idea, and in what follows I shall try not only to relate them to one another psychologically, but also to bring out their connection with later (alchemical) quaternary structures. In the course of these investigations, we shall see how far the two quaternios are characteristic of the Gnostic age, and how far they can be correlated with the archetypal history of the mind in the Christian aeon.

The quaternity in the Moses Quaternio [17] is evidently constructed according to the following schema:


The "lower Adam" corresponds to the ordinary mortal man, Moses to the culture-hero and lawgiver, and thus, on a personalistic level, to the "father"; Zipporah, as the daughter of a king and priest, to the "higher mother." For the ordinary man, these two represent the "royal pair," [18] which for Moses corresponds on the one hand to his "higher man," and on the other hand to his anima, Miriam. The "higher" man is synonymous with the "spiritual, inner" man, who is represented in the quaternio by Jethro. Such is the meaning of the quaternio when seen from the standpoint of Moses. But since Moses is related to Jethro as the lower Adam, or ordinary man, is to Moses, the quaternio cannot be understood merely as the structure of Moses' personality, but must be looked at from the standpoint of the lower Adam as well. We then get the following quaternio:


From this we can see that the Naassene quaternio is in a sense unsymmetrical, since it leads to a senarius (hexad) with an exclusively upward tendency: Jethro and Miriam have to be added to the above four as a kind of third storey, as the higher counterparts of Moses and Zipporah. We thus get a gradual progression, or series of steps leading from the lower to the higher Adam. This psychology evidently underlies the elaborate lists of Valentinian syzygies. The lower Adam or somatic man consequently appears as the lowest stage of all, from which there can be only an ascent. But, as we have seen, the four persons in the Naassene quaternio are chosen so skilfully that it leaves room not only for the incest motif [Jethro-Miriam], which is never lacking in the marriage quaternio, but also for the extension of the ordinary man's psychic structure downwards, towards the sub-human, the dark and evil side represented by the shadow. That is to say, Moses marries the "Ethiopian woman," and Miriam, the prophetess and mother-sister, becomes "leprous," which is clear proof that her relation to Moses has taken a negative turn. This is further confirmed by the fact that Miriam "spoke against" Moses and even stirred up his brother Aaron against him. Accordingly, we get the following senarius:


Though nothing is said against Jethro, "the great wise one," in the Bible story, yet as a Midianite priest he did not serve Yahweh and did not belong to the chosen people, but departs from them to his own country. [19] He seems also to have borne the name Reguel ("friend of God") and to have helped Moses with his superior wisdom. He is, accordingly, a numinous personality, the embodiment of an archetype, obviously that of the "wise old man" who personifies the spirit in myth and folklore. The spirit, as I have shown elsewhere, [20] has a dichotomous nature. Just as Moses in this case represents his own shadow by taking to wife the black daughter of the earth, so Jethro, in his capacity as heathen priest and stranger, has to be included in the quaternio as the "lower" aspect of himself, with a magical and nefarious significance (though this is not vouched for in the text). [21]

As I have already explained, the Moses Quaternio is an individual variant of the common marriage quaternio found in folklore. [22] It could therefore be designated just as well with other mythical names. The basic schema of the cross-cousin marriage:


has numerous variants; for instance the sister can be replaced by the mother or the wife's brother by a father-like figure. But the incest motif remains a characteristic feature. Since the schema is a primary one characterizing the psychology of love relationships and also of the transference, it will, like all characterological schemata, obviously manifest itself in a "favourable" and an "unfavourable" form, for the relationships in question also exhibit the same ambivalence: everything a man does has a positive and a negative aspect.

The reader, therefore, should not let himself be put off by the somewhat scurrilous Gnostic nomenclature. The names are accidental, whereas the schema itself is universally valid. The same is true of the "Shadow Quaternio," for which I have kept the same names because the biography of Moses offers certain features that are well suited to illustrate the shadow.

The lower senarius reaches its nadir not in the "lower Adam" but in his dark, theriomorphic prefiguration -- the serpent who was created before man, or the Gnostic Naas. Accordingly we have the structures shown on the facing page.

This schema is no idle parlour game, because the texts make it abundantly clear that the Gnostics were quite familiar with the dark aspect of their metaphysical figures, so much so that they caused the greatest offence on that account. (One has only to think of the identification of the good God with Priapus, [23] or of the Anthropos with the ithyphallic Hermes.) It was, moreover, the Gnostics -- e.g., Basilides -- who exhaustively discussed the problem of evil (; -- 'whence comes evil?'). The serpentine form of the Nous and the Agathodaimon does not mean that the serpent has only a good aspect. Just as the Apophis-serpent was the traditional enemy of the Egyptian sun-god, so the devil, "that ancient serpent," [24] is the enemy of Christ, the "novus Sol." The good, perfect, spiritual God was opposed by an imperfect, vain, ignorant, and incompetent demiurge. There were archontic Powers that gave to mankind a corrupt "chirographum" (handwriting) from which Christ had to redeem them. [25]

With the dawn of the second millennium the accent shifted more and more towards the dark side. The demiurge became the devil who had created the world, and, a little later, alchemy began to develop its conception of Mercurius as the partly material, partly immaterial spirit that penetrates and sustains all things, from stones and metals to the highest living organisms. In the form of a snake he dwells inside the earth, has a body, soul, and spirit, was believed to have a human shape as the homunculus or homo altus, and was regarded as the chthonic God. [26] From this we can see clearly that the serpent was either a forerunner of man or a distant copy of the Anthropos, and how justified is the equation Naas = Nous = Logos = Christ = Higher Adam. The medieval extension of this equation towards the dark side had, as I have said, already been prepared by Gnostic phallicism. This appears as early as the fifteenth century in the alchemical Codex Ashburnham 1166, [27] and in the sixteenth century Mercuri us was identified with Hermes Kyllenios. [28]




It is significant that Gnostic philosophy found its continuation in alchemy. [29] "Mater Alchimia" is one of the mothers of modern science, and modern science has given us an unparalleled knowledge of the "dark" side of matter. It has also penetrated into the secrets of physiology and evolution, and made the very roots of life itself an object of investigation. In this way the human mind has sunk deep into the sublunary world of matter, thus repeating the Gnostic myth of the Nous, who, beholding his reflection in the depths below, plunged down and was swallowed in the embrace of Physis. The climax of this development was marked in the eighteenth century by the French Revolution, in the nineteenth century by scientific materialism, and in the twentieth century by political and social "realism," which has turned the wheel of history back a full two thousand years and seen the recrudescence of the despotism, the lack of individual rights, the cruelty, indignity, and slavery of the pre-Christian world, whose "labour problem" was solved by the "ergastulum" (convict-camp). The "transvaluation of all values" is being enacted before our eyes.

The development briefly outlined here seems to have been anticipated in medieval and Gnostic symbolism, just as the Antichrist was in the New Testament. How this occurred I will endeavour to describe in what follows. We have seen that, as the higher Adam corresponds to the lower, so the lower Adam corresponds to the serpent. For the mentality of the Middle Ages and of late antiquity, the first of the two double pyramids, the Anthropos Quaternio, represents the world of the spirit, or metaphysics, while the second, the Shadow Quaternio, represents sublunary nature and in particular man's instinctual disposition, the "flesh" -- to use a Gnostic-Christian term -- which has its roots in the animal kingdom or, to be more precise, in the realm of warm-blooded animals. The nadir of this system is the cold-blooded vertebrate, the snake, [30] for with the snake the psychic rapport that can be established with practically all warm-blooded animals comes to an end. That the snake, contrary to expectation, should be a counterpart of the Anthropos is corroborated by the fact -- of especial significance for the Middle Ages -- that it is on the one hand a well-known allegory of Christ, and on the other hand appears to be equipped with the gift of wisdom and of supreme spirituality. [31] As Hippolytus says, the Gnostics identified the serpent with the spinal cord and the medulla. These are synonymous with the reflex functions.

The second of these quaternios is the negative of the first; it is its shadow. By "shadow" I mean the inferior personality, the lowest levels of which are indistinguishable from the instinctuality of an animal. This is a view that can be found at a very early date, in the idea of the , the 'excrescent soul' [32] of Isidorus. [33] We also meet it in Origen, who speaks of the animals contained in man. [34] Since the shadow, in itself, is unconscious for most people, the snake would correspond to what is totally unconscious and incapable of becoming conscious, but which, as the collective unconscious and as instinct, seems to possess a peculiar wisdom of its own and a knowledge that is often felt to be supernatural. This is the treasure which the snake (or dragon) guards, and also the reason why the snake signifies evil and darkness on the one hand and wisdom on the other. Its unrelatedness, coldness, and dangerousness express the instinctuality that with ruthless cruelty rides roughshod over all moral and any other human wishes and considerations and is therefore just as terrifying and fascinating in its effects as the sudden glance of a poisonous snake.

In alchemy the snake is the symbol of Mercurius non vulgi, who was bracketed with the god of revelation, Hermes. Both have a pneumatic nature. The serpens Mercurii is a chthonic spirit who dwells in matter, more especially in the bit of original chaos hidden in creation, the massa confusa or globosa. The snake-symbol in alchemy points back to historically earlier images. Since the opus was understood by the alchemists as a recapitulation or imitation of the creation of the world, the serpent of Mercurius, that crafty and deceitful god, reminded them of the serpent in the Garden of Eden, and therefore of the devil, the tempter, who on their own admission played all sorts of tricks on them during their work. Mephistopheles, whose "aunt is the snake," is Goethe's version of the alchemical familiar, Mercurius. Like the dragon, Mercurius is the slippery, evasive, poisonous, dangerous forerunner of the hermaphrodite, and for that reason he has to be overcome.

For the Naassenes Paradise was a quaternity parallel with the Moses quaternio and of similar meaning. Its fourfold nature consisted in the four rivers, Pison, Gihon, Hiddekel, and Phrat. [35] The serpent in Genesis is an illustration of the personified treenumen; hence it is traditionally represented in or coiled round the tree. It is the tree's voice, which persuades Eve -- in Luther's version -- that "it would be good to eat of the tree, and pleasant to behold that it is a lusty tree." In the fairytale of "The Spirit in the Bottle," Mercurius can likewise be interpreted as a tree-numen. [36] In the Ripley "Scrowle" Mercurius appears as a snake in the shape of a Melusina descending from the top of the Philosophical Tree ("tree of knowledge"). [37] The tree stands for the development and phases of the transformation process, [38] and its fruits or flowers signify the consummation of the work. [39] In the fairytale Mercurius is hidden in the roots of a great oak-tree, i.e., in the earth. For it is in the interior of the earth that the Mercurial serpent dwells.

For the alchemists Paradise was a favourite symbol of the albedo, [40] the regained state of innocence, and the source of its rivers is a symbol of the aqua permanens. [41] For the Church Fathers Christ is this source, [42] and Paradise means the ground of the soul from which the fourfold river of the Logos bubbles forth. [43] We find the same symbol in the alchemist and mystic John Pordage: divine Wisdom is a "New Earth, the heavenly Land .... For from this Earth grew all the Trees of Life .... Thus did Paradise ... rise up from the Heart and Centre of this New Earth, and thus did the lost Garden of Eden flourish in greenness." [44]


The snake symbol brings us to the images of Paradise, tree, and earth. This amounts to an evolutionary regression from the animal kingdom back to plants and inorganic nature, epitomized in alchemy by the secret of matter, the lapis. Here the lapis is not to be understood as the end product of the opus but rather as its initial material. This arcane substance was also called lapis by the alchemists. The symbolism here described can be represented diagrammatically as another quaternio or double pyramid:


The lapis was thought of as a unity and therefore often stands for the prima materia in general. But just as the latter is a bit of the original chaos which was believed to be hidden somewhere in metals, particularly in mercury, or in other substances, and is not in itself a simple thing (as the name "massa confusa" shows), so too the lapis consists of the four elements or has to be put together from them. [45] In the chaos the elements are not united, they are merely coexistent and have to be combined through the alchemical procedure. They are even hostile to one another and will not unite of their own accord. They represent, therefore, an original state of conflict and mutual repulsion. This image serves to illustrate the splitting up or unfolding of the original unity into the multiplicity of the visible world. Out of the split-up quaternity the opus puts together the unity of the lapis in the realm of the inorganic. As the filius macrocosmi and a living being, the lapis is not just an allegory but is a direct parallel of Christ [46] and the higher Adam, of the heavenly Original Man, of the second Adam (Christ), and of the serpent. The nadir of this third quaternio is therefore a further counterpart of the Anthropos.

As already mentioned, the constitution of the lapis rests on the union of the four elements, [47]which in their turn represent an unfolding of the unknowable inchoate state, or chaos. This is the prima materia, the arcanum, the primary substance, which in Paracelsus and his followers is called the increatum and is regarded as coeternal with God -- a correct interpretation of the Tehom in Genesis 1: 2: "And the [uncreated] earth was without form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the Spirit of God [brooded] over the face of the waters." This primary substance is round (massa globosa, rotundum, ), like the world and the world-soul; it is in fact the world-soul and the world-substance in one. It is the "stone that has a spirit," [48] in modern parlance the most elementary building-stone in the architecture of matter, the atom, which is an intellectual model. The alchemists describe the "round element" now as primal water, now as primal fire, or as pneuma, primal earth, or "corpusculum nostrae sapientiae," the little body of our wisdom. [49] As water or fire it is the universal solvent; as stone and metal it is something that has to be dissolved and changed into air (pneuma, spirit).

This lapis symbolism can once more be visualized diagrammatically as a double pyramid:


Zosimos calls the rotundum the omega element (), which probably signifies the head. [50] The skull is mentioned as the vessel of transformation in the Sabaean treatise "Platonis liber quartorum," [51] and the "Philosophers" styled themselves "children of the golden head," [52] which is probably synonymous with "filii sapientiae." The vas is often synonymous with the lapis, so that there is no difference between the vessel and its content; in other words, it is the same arcanum. [53] According to the old view the soul is round [54] and the vessel must be round too, like the heavens or the world. [55] The form of the Original Man is round. Accordingly Dorn says that the vessel "should be made from a kind of squaring of the circle, so that the spirit and the soul of our material, separated from its body, may raise the body with them to the height of their own heaven." [56] The anonymous author of the scholia to the "Tractatus aureus" also writes about the squaring of the circle and shows a square whose corners are formed by the four elements. In the centre there is a small circle. The author says: "Reduce your stone to the four elements, rectify and combine them into one, and you will have the whole magistery. This One, to which the elements must be reduced, is that little circle in the centre of this squared figure. It is the mediator, making peace between the enemies or elements." [57] In a later chapter he depicts the vessel, "the true philosophical Pelican," [58] as shown on the next page. [59]

He comments: "A is the inside, as it were the origin and source from which the other letters flow, and likewise the final goal to which all the others flow back, as rivers flow into the ocean or into the great sea." This explanation is enough to show that the vessel is nothing else but a mandala, symbolizing the self or the higher Adam with his four emanations (like Horus with his four sons). The author calls it the "Septenarius magicus occultus" (the hidden magic number, seven). [60] Likewise Maria the Prophetess says: "The Philosophers teach everything except the Hermetic vessel, because that is divine and is hidden from the Gentiles by the Lord's wisdom; and they who know it not, know not the true method, because of their ignorance of the vessel of Hermes." Theobald de Hoghelande adds: "Senior says that the vision thereof is more to be sought after than [knowledge of] the Scriptures." Maria the Prophetess says: "This is the vessel of Hermes, which the Stoics hid, and it is no nigromantic vessel, but is the measure of thy fire [mensura ignis tui]." [61]


It is clear from these quotations that the vessel had a great and unusual significance. [62] Philalethes, summing up the innumerable synonyms for Mercurius, says that Mercurius is not only the key to the alchemical art, and "that two-edged sword in the hand of the cherub who guards the way to the tree of life," but also "our true, hidden vessel, the Philosophic garden, wherein our Sun rises and sets." [63] This helps us to understand, more or less, the strange advice given by Johannes de Rupescissa: "Have a vessel made after the manner of a cherub, which is the figure of God, and have six wings, after the fashion of six arms, turning back on themselves; and above, a round head ... and put within this vessel the said burning water," etc. [64] The definition of the cherub as "the figure of God" suggests that Rupescissa is referring here to the vision of Ezekiel, which was arranged in such a way that a horizontal section through it would produce a mandala divided into four parts. This, as I have already mentioned, is equivalent to the squaring of the circle, from which, according to one alchemical recipe, the vessel should be constructed. The mandala signifies the human or divine self, the totality or vision of God, as in this case is quite clear. Naturally a recipe of this sort can only be understood "philosophically," that is psychologically. It then reads: make the Hermetic vessel out of your psychic wholeness and pour into it the aqua permanens, or aqua doctrinae, one of whose synonyms is the vinum ardens (cf. Rupescissa's "burning water"). This would be a hint that the adept should "inwardly digest" and transform himself through the alchemical doctrine.

In this connection we can also understand what the Aurora consurgens (Part II) means when it speaks of the vas naturale as the matrix: it is the "One in which there are three things, namely water, air, and fire. They are three glass alembics, in which the son of the Philosophers is begotten. Therefore they have named it tincture, blood, and egg." [65] The three alembics are an allusion to the Trinity. That this is in fact so can be seen from the illustration on page 249 of the 1588 edition of Pandora, where, beside the three alembics immersed in a great cooking-pot, there stands the figure of Christ, with blood pouring from the lance wound in his breast ("flumina de ventre Christi"!). [66] The round Hermetic vessel in which the mysterious transformation is accomplished is God himself, the (Platonic) world-soul and man's own wholeness. It is, therefore, another counterpart of the Anthropos, and at the same time the universe in its smallest and most material form. So it is easy to see why the first attempts to construct a model of the atom took the planetary system as a prototype.


The quaternity is an orgamzing schema par excellence, something like the crossed threads in a telescope. It is a system of co-ordinates that is used almost instinctively for dividing up and arranging a chaotic multiplicity, as when we divide up the visible surface of the earth, the course of the year, or a collection of individuals into groups, [67] the phases of the moon, the temperaments, elements, alchemical colours, and so on. Thus, when we come upon a quaternio among the Gnostics, we find in it an attempt, more or less conscious, to organize the chaotic medley of numinous images that poured in upon them. As we have seen, the arrangement took a form that derives from the primitive cross-cousin marriage, namely the marriage quaternio. [68] This differs from the primitive form in that the sister-exchange marriage has sloughed off its biological character, the sister's husband no longer being the wife's brother but another close relative (such as the wife's father in the Moses Quaternio), or even a stranger. The loss of the cousin- and brother-attribute is compensated as a rule by magical qualities, such as more exalted rank, magical powers, and the like, both in the case of the husband's sister and the wife's brother. That is to say, an anima-animus projection takes place. This modification brings with it a great cultural advance, for the very fact of projection points to a constellation of the unconscious in the husband-wife relationship, which means that the marriage has become psychologically complicated. It is no longer a state of mere biological and social coexistence, but is beginning to turn into a conscious relationship. This happens when the original cross-cousin marriage becomes obsolete as a result of the further differentiation of marriage classes into a six-, eight-, or twelve-class system. The cause of the activation of the unconscious that goes hand in hand with this development is the regression of the endogamous tendency -- the "kinship libido" -- which can no longer find adequate satisfaction owing to the increasing strangeness of the marriage partner. [69]

Besides the marriage quaternio, the Gnostics also used the quaternity of the rivers of Paradise as a means of organizing their numerous symbols. There are thus two (compensatory) attempts, in the symbols we have listed, to organize the apparently disconnected images. This accords with our experience of the series of pictures produced during active imagination and in chaotic psychic states. In both cases quaternity symbols appear from time to time. [70] They signify stabilization through order as opposed to the instability caused by chaos, and have a compensatory meaning.

The four quaternios depicted above are first and foremost an attempt to arrange systematically the almost limitless wealth of symbols in Gnosticism and its continuation, alchemy. But such an arrangement of principles also proves useful for understanding the individual symbolism of modern dreams. The images we encounter in this field are even more varied, and so confusing in their complexity that some kind of organizing schema is absolutely essential. As it is advisable to proceed historically, I have taken the Moses Quaternio as a starting point, because it derives directly from the primitive schema of the cross-cousin marriage. Naturally this quaternio has only a paradigmatic significance. One could base the system just as easily on any other marriage quaternio, but not on any other quaternity, such as, for instance, Horus and his four sons. This quaternity is not aboriginal enough, for it misses out the antagonistic, feminine element. [71] It is most important that just the extreme opposites, masculine-feminine and so on, should appear linked together. That is why the alchemical pairs of opposites are linked together in quaternities, e.g., warm-cold, dry-moist. Applied to the Moses Quaternio, the following schema of relationships would result:


Whereas the first double pyramid, the Anthropos Quaternio, corresponds to the Gnostic model, the second one is a construction derived psychologically from the first, but based on the data contained in the Biblical text used by the Gnostics. The psychological reasons for constructing a second quaternio have already been discussed. That the second must be the "shadow" of the first is due to the fact that the lower Adam, the mortal man, possesses a chthonic psyche and is therefore not adequately expressed by a quaternity supraordinate to him. If he were, he would be an unsymmetrical figure, just as the higher Adam is unsymmetrical and has to be complemented by a subordinate quaternity related to him like his shadow or his darker reflection.

Now just as the Anthropos Quaternio finds its symmetrical complement in the lower Adam, so the lower Adam is balanced by the subordinate Shadow Quaternio, constructed after the pattern of the upper one. The symmetrical complement of the lower Adam is the serpent. The choice of this symbol is justified firstly by the well-known association of Adam with the snake: it is his chthonic daemon, his familiar spirit. Secondly, the snake is the commonest symbol for the dark, chthonic world of instinct. It may -- as frequently happens -- be replaced by an equivalent cold-blooded animal, such as a dragon, crocodile, or fish. But the snake is not just a nefarious, chthonic being; it is also, as we have already mentioned, a symbol of wisdom, and hence of light, goodness, and healing. [72] Even in the New Testament it is simultaneously an allegory of Christ and of the devil, just as we have seen that the fish was. Similarly the dragon, which for us has only a negative meaning, has a positive significance in China, and sometimes in Western alchemy too. The inner polarity of the snake-symbol far exceeds that of man. It is overt, whereas man's is partly latent or potential. The serpent surpasses Adam in cleverness and knowledge and can outwit him. She is older than he, and is evidently equipped by God with a superhuman intelligence, like that son of God who took over the role of Satan. [73]

Just as man culminates above in the idea of a "light" and good God, so he rests below on a dark and evil principle, traditionally described as the devil or as the serpent that personifies Adam's disobedience. And just as we symmetrized man by the serpent, so the serpent has its complement in the second Naassene quaternio, or Paradise Quaternio. Paradise. takes us into the world of plants and animals. It is, in fact, a plantation or garden enlivened by animals, the epitome of all the growing things that sprout out of the earth. As serpens mercurialis, the snake is not only related to the god of revelation, Hermes, but, as a vegetation numen, calls forth the "blessed greenness," all the budding and blossoming of plant life. [74] Indeed, this serpent actually dwells in the interior of the earth and is the pneuma that lies hidden in the stone. [75]

The symmetrical complement of the serpent, then, is the stone as representative of the earth. Here we enter a later developmental stage of the symbolism, the alchemical stage, whose central idea is the lapis. Just as the serpent forms the lower opposite of man, so the lapis complements the serpent. It corresponds, on the other hand, to man, for it is not only represented in human form but even has "body, soul, and spirit," is an homunculus and, as the texts show, a symbol of the self. It is, however, not a human ego but a collective entity, a collective soul, like the Indian hiranyagarbha, 'golden seed.' The stone is the "father-mother" of the metals, an hermaphrodite. Though it is an ultimate unity, it is not an elementary but a composite unity that has evolved. For the stone we could substitute all those "thousand names" which the alchemists devised for their central symbol, but nothing different or more fitting would have been said.

This choice of symbol, too, is not arbitrary, but is documented by alchemical literature from the first to the eighteenth century. The lapis is produced, as we have already seen, from the splitting and putting together of the four elements, from the rotundum. The rotundum is a highly abstract, transcendent idea, which by reason of its roundness [76] and wholeness refers to the Original Man, the Anthropos.

Accordingly our four double pyramids would arrange themselves in a circle and form the well-known uroboros. As the fifth stage, the rotundum would then be identical with the first; that is to say, the heavy darkness of the earth, metal, has a secret relationship to the Anthropos. That is obvious in alchemy, but occurs also in the history of religion, where the metals grow from Gayomart's blood. [77] This curious relationship is explained by the identity of the lowest, most material thing with the highest and most spiritual, which we have already met in the interpretation of the serpent as a chthonic and at the same time the "most spiritual" animal. In Plato the rotundum is the worldsoul and a "blessed God." [78]

We shall now try to condense the argument of the previous chapter and represent it graphically. Vertically arranged, our schema looks like this:


In the diagram I have emphasized the point of greatest tension between the opposites, namely the double significance of the serpent, which occupies the centre of the system. Being an allegory of Christ as well as of the devil, it contains and symbolizes the strongest polarity into which the Anthropos falls when he descends into Physis. The ordinary man has not reached this point of tension: he has it merely in the unconscious, i.e., in the serpent. [79] In the lapis, the counterpart of man, the opposites are so to speak united, but with a visible seam or suture as in the symbol of the hermaphrodite. This mars the idea of the lapis just as much as the all-too-human element mars Homo sapiens. In the higher Adam and in the rotundum the opposition is invisible. But presumably the one stands in absolute opposition to the other, and if both are identical as indistinguishable transcendental entities, this is one of those paradoxes that are the rule: a statement about something metaphysical can only be antinomial.

The arrangement in the uroboros gives the following picture:


This arrangement shows the stronger tension between anthropos-rotundum and serpens on the one hand, and the lesser tension between homo and lapis on the other, expressed by the distance of the points in question from one another. The arrows indicate the descent into Physis and the ascent towards the spiritual. The lowest point is the serpent. The lapis, however, though of decidedly material nature, is also a spiritual symbol, while the rotundum connotes a transcendent entity symbolized by the secret of matter and thus comparable to the concept of the atom. The antinomial development of the concepts is in keeping with the paradoxical nature of alchemy.

The lapis quaternity, which is a product of alchemical gnosis, brings us to the interesting physical speculations of alchemy. In the Scrutinium chymicum (1687) of Michael Maier (1568-1622), there is a picture [80] of the four elements as four different stages of fire (Plate I).

As the picture shows, the four spheres are filled with fire. The author comments with the following verses:

Naturae qui imitaris opus, tibi quattuor orbes
Quaerendi, interius quos levisignis agat.
Imus Vulcanum referat, bene monstret at alter
Mercurium, Lunam tertius orbis habet:
Quartus, Apollo, tuus, naturae auditur et ignis,
Ducat in arte manus illa catena tuas.

From this we learn that the lowest sphere corresponds to Vulcan, the earthly (?) fire; the second to Mercurius, the vegetative life-spirit; the third to the moon, the female, psychic principle; and the fourth to the sun, the male, spiritual principle. It is evident from Maier's commentary that he is concerned on the one hand with the four elements and on the other with the four kinds of fire which are responsible for producing different states of aggregation. His ignis elementalis re et nomine would, according to its place in the sequence, correspond to Vulcan; the fire of Mercurius to air; the third fire to water and the moon; and the fourth, which would correspond to the sun, he calls "terreus" (earthly). According to Ripley, whom Maier quotes, the ignis elementalis is the fire "which lights wood"; it must therefore be the ordinary fire, The sun-fire, on the other hand, seems to be the fire in the earth, which today we would call "volcanic," and corresponds to the solid state of aggregation ("terreus"). We thus get the following series:

ignis mundi intelligibilis = ignis naturalis [82] =
ignis caelestis = ignis innaturalis [83] =
ignis elementaris = ignis contra naturam [84] =
ignis infernalis [81] = ignis elementalis =


ignis terreus = Sulfura et Mercurii = Sun (Apollo) = earth
ignis aqueus = aquae = Moon (Luna) = water
ignis aerius = dracones = Mercurius = air
ignis elementalis = ignis elementalis re et nomine = Ordinary fire (Vulcan) = fire


= solid
= liquid
= gas
= flame

The remarkable thing about this paralleling of states of aggregation with different kinds of fire is that it amounts to a kind of phlogiston theory -- not, of course, explicit, but clearly hinted at: fire is peculiar to all the states of aggregation and is therefore responsible for their constitution. This idea is old [85] and can be found as early as the Turba, where Dardaris says: "The sulphurs are four souls [animae) which were hidden in the four elements." [86] Here the active principle (anima) is not fire, but sulphur. The idea, however, is the same, namely that the elements or states of aggregation can be reduced to a common denominator. Today we know that the factor common to antagonistic elements is molecular movement, and that the states of aggregation correspond to different degrees of this movement. Molecular movement in its turn corresponds to a certain quantum of energy, so that the common denominator of the elements is energy. One of the stepping-stones to the modern concept of energy is Stahl's phlogiston theory, [87] which is based on the alchemical premises discussed above. We can see in them, therefore, the earliest beginnings of a theory of energy. [88]


I. The Four Elements From Michael Maier, Scrutinium chymicum (1687)

The phlogiston theory adumbrated by the alchemists did not get as far as that, but it points unmistakably in that direction. Moreover, all the mathematical and physical elements from which a theory of energy could have been constructed were known in the seventeenth century. Energy is an abstract concept which is indispensable for exact description of the behaviour of bodies in motion. In the same way bodies in motion can only be apprehended with the help of the system of space-time co-ordinates. Wherever movement is established, it is done by means of the space-time quaternio, which can be expressed either by the axiom of Maria, 3 + I, or by the sesquitertian proportion, 3: 4. This quaternio could therefore replace that of the four elements, where the unit that corresponds to the time-coordinate, or the fourth in the alchemical series of elements, is characterized by the fact that one element has an exceptional position, like fire or earth. [89]

The exceptional position of one of the factors in a quaternity can also be expressed by its duplex nature. For instance, the fourth of the rivers of Paradise, the Euphrates, signifies the mouth through which food goes in and prayers go out, as well as the Logos. In the Moses Quaternio, the wife of Moses plays the double role of Zipporah and of the Ethiopian woman. If we construct a quaternity from the divine equivalents of Maier's four elements -- Apollo, Luna, Mercurius, Vulcan -- we get a marriage quaternio with a brother-sister relationship:


In alchemy Mercurius is male-female and frequently appears as a virgin too. This characteristic (3 + 1, or 3: 4) is also apparent in the space-time quaternio:


If we look at this quaternio from the standpoint of the three-dimensionality of space, then time can be conceived as a fourth dimension. But if we look at it in terms of the three qualities of time -- past, present, future -- then static space, in which changes of state occur, must be added as a fourth term. In both cases, the fourth represents an incommensurable Other that is needed for their mutual determination. Thus we measure space by time and time by space. The Other, the fourth, corresponds in the Gnostic quaternities to the fiery god, "the fourth by number," to the dual wife of Moses (Zipporah and the Ethiopian woman), to the dual Euphrates (river and Logos), to the fire [90] in the alchemical quaternio of elements, to Mercurius duplex in Maier's quaternio of gods, and in the "Christian Quaternity" -- if such an expression be permitted [91] -- to Mary or the devil. These two incompatible figures are united in the Mercurius duplex of alchemy. [92]

The space-time quaternio is the archetypal sine qua non for any apprehension of the physical world -- indeed, the very possibility of apprehending it. It is the organizing schema par excellence among the psychic quaternities. In its structure it corresponds to the psychological schema of the functions. [93] The 3: 1 proportion frequently occurs in dreams and in spontaneous mandala-drawings.

A modern parallel to the diagram of quaternities arranged on top of one another (cf. par. 390), coupled with the idea of ascent and descent, can be found among the illustrations to my paper on mandala pictures. [94] The same idea also appears in the pictures relating to a case described there at some length, and dealing with vibrations that formed "nodes." [95] Each of these nodes signified an outstanding personality, as was true also of the picture in the first case. A similar motif may well underlie the representation of the Trinity here appended (Plate II), from the manuscript of a treatise by Joachim of Flora. [96]

I would like, in conclusion, to mention the peculiar theory of world creation in the Clementine Homilies. In God, pneuma and soma are one. When they separate, pneuma appears as the Son and "archon of the future Aeon," but soma, actual substance () or matter (), divides into four, corresponding to the four elements (which were always solemnly invoked at initiations). From the mixing of the four parts there arose the devil, the "archon of this Aeon," and the psyche of this world. Soma had become psychized (): "God rules this world as much through the devil as through the Son, for both are in his hands." [97] God unfolds himself in the world in the form of syzygies (paired opposites), such as heaven/earth, day/night, male/female, etc. The last term of the first series is the Adam/ Eve syzygy. At the end of this fragmentation process there follows the return to the beginning, the consummation of the universe () through purification and annihilation. [98]

Anyone who knows alchemy can hardly avoid being struck by the likeness which pseudo-Clement's theory bears to the basic conceptions of the alchemists, if we disregard its moral aspects. Thus we have the "hostile brothers," Christ and the devil, who were regarded as brothers in the Jewish-Christian tradition; the tetrameria into four parts or elements; the paired opposites and their ultimate unity; the parallel of the lapis and Mercurius with Christ and, because of the snake or dragon symbolism, also with the devil; and finally, the figure of Mercurius duplex and of the lapis, which unites the opposites indivisibly in itself.


If we look back over the course our argument has taken, we see at the beginning of it two Gnostic quaternities, one of which is supraordinate, and the other subordinate, to man, namely the "Positive Moses" or Anthropos Quaternio, and the Paradise Quaternio. [99] It is probably no accident that Hippolytus men- tions precisely these two quaternities, or that the Naassenes knew only these, for the position of man is, in their system, closely connected with the higher Adam but is separated from the chthonic world of plants and animals, namely Paradise. Only through his shadow has he a relationship to the serpent with its dual meaning. This situation is altogether characteristic of the age of Gnosticism and early Christianity. Man in those days was close to the "kingless [i.e., independent] race," that is, to the upper quaternity, the kingdom of heaven, and looked upward. But what begins above does not rise higher, but ends below. Thus we felt impelled to symmetrize the lower Adam of the Naassenes by a Shadow Quaternio, for just as he cannot ascend direct to the higher Adam -- since the Moses Quaternio lies in between -- so we have to assume a lower, shadowy quaternity corresponding to the upper one, lying between him and the lower principle, the serpent. This operation was obviously unknown in the Gnostic age, because the unsymmetrical upward trend seemed to disturb nobody, but rather to be the very thing desired and "on the programme." If, therefore, we insert between Man and Serpent a quaternity not mentioned in the texts, we do so because we can no longer conceive of a psyche that is oriented exclusively upwards and that is not balanced by an equally strong consciousness of the lower man. This is a specifically modern state of affairs and, in the context of Gnostic thinking, an obnoxious anachronism that puts man in the centre of the field of consciousness where he had never consciously stood before. Only through Christ could he actually see this consciousness mediating between God and the world, and by making the person of Christ the object of his devotions he gradually came to acquire Christ's position as mediator. Through the Christ crucified between the two thieves man gradually attained knowledge of his shadow and its duality. This duality had already been anticipated by the double meaning of the serpent. Just as the serpent stands for the power that heals as well as corrupts, so one of the thieves is destined upwards, the other downwards, and so likewise the shadow is on one side regrettable and reprehensible weakness, on the other side healthy instinctivity and the prerequisite for higher consciousness.

Thus the Shadow Quaternio that counterbalances man's position as mediator only falls into place when that position has become sufficiently real for him to feel his consciousness of himself or his own existence more strongly than his dependence on and governance by God. Therefore, if we complement the upward-tending pneumatic attitude that characterizes the early Christian and Gnostic mentality by adding its opposite counterpart, this is in line with the historical development. Man's original dependence on a pneumatic sphere, to which he clung like a child to its mother, was threatened by the kingdom of Satan. From him the pneumatic man was delivered by the Redeemer, who broke the gates of hell and deceived the archons; but he was bound to the kingdom of heaven in exactly the same degree. He was separated from evil by an abyss. This attitude was powerfully reinforced by the immediate expectation of the Second Coming. But when Christ did not reappear, a regression was only to be expected. When such a great hope is dashed and such great expectations are not fulfilled, then the libido perforce flows back into man and heightens his consciousness of himself by accentuating his personal psychic processes; in other words, he gradually moves into the centre of his field of consciousness. This leads to separation from the pneumatic sphere and an approach to the realm of the shadow. Accordingly, man's moral consciousness is sharpened, and, as a parallel to this, his feeling of redemption becomes relativized. The Church has to exalt the significance and power of her ritual in order to put limits to the inrush of reality. In this way she inevitably becomes a "kingdom of this world." The transition from the Anthropos to the Shadow Quaternio illustrates an historical development which led, in the eleventh century, to a widespread recognition of the evil principle as the world creator.
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Re: Aion, by C.G. Jung

Postby admin » Thu Feb 26, 2015 9:57 am

Part 2 of 2

The serpent and its chthonic wisdom form the turning-point of the great drama. The Paradise Quaternio with the lapis, that comes next, brings us to the beginnings of natural science (Roger Bacon, 1214-94: Albertus Magnus, 1193-1280; and the alchemists), whose main trend differs from the pneumatic not by 180 ͦ but only by 90 ͦ -- that is to say, it cuts across the spiritual attitude of the Church and is more an embarrassment for faith than a contradiction of it.

From the lapis, i.e., from alchemy, the line leads direct to the quaternio of alchemical states of aggregation, which, as we have seen, is ultimately based on the space-time quaternio. The latter comes into the category of archetypal quaternities and proves, like these, to be an indispensable principle for organizing the sense-impressions which the psyche receives from bodies in motion. Space and time form a psychological a priori, an aspect of the archetypal quaternity which is altogether indispensable for acquiring knowledge of physical processes.

The development from the Shadow to the Lapis Quaternio illustrates the change in man's picture of the world during the course of the second millennium. The series ends with the concept of the rotundum, or of rotation as contrasted with the static quality of the quaternity, which, as we have said, proves to be of prime importance for apprehending reality. The rise of scientific materialism connected with this development appears on the one hand as a logical consequence, on the other hand as a deification of matter. This latter aspect is based, psychologically, on the fact that the rotundum coincides with the archetype of the Anthropos.

With this insight the ring of the uroboros closes, that symbol of the opus circulare of Nature as well as of the "Art."


Our quaternio series could also be expressed in the form of an equation, where A stands for the initial state (in this case the Anthropos) and for the end state, and B C D for intermediate states. The formations that split off from them are denoted in each case by the small letters a b c d. With regard to the construction of the formula, we must bear in mind that we are concerned with the continual process of transformation of one and the same substance. This substance, and its respective state of transformation, will always bring forth its like; thus A will produce a and B b; equally, b produces B and c C. It is also assumed that a is followed by b and that the formula runs from left to right. These assumptions are legitimate in a psychological formula.

Naturally the formula cannot be arranged in linear fashion but only in a circle, which for that reason moves to the right. A produces its like, a. From a the process advances by contingence to b, which in turn produces B. The transformation turns rightwards with the sun; that is, it is a process of becoming conscious, as is already indicated by the splitting (discrimination) of A B C D each time into four qualitatively discrete units. [100] Our scientific understanding today is not based on a quaternity but on a trinity of principles (space, time, causality). [101] Here, however, we are moving not in the sphere of modem scientific thinking, but in that of the classical and medieval view of the world, which up to the time of Leibniz recognized the principle of correspondence and applied it naively and unreflectingly. In order to give our judgment on A -- expressed by a b c -- the character of wholeness, we must supplement our time-conditioned thinking by the principle of correspondence or, as I have called it, synchronicity. [102] The reason for this is that our description of Nature is in certain respects incomplete and accordingly excludes observable facts from our understanding or else formulates them in an unjustifiably negative way, as for instance in the paradox of "an effect without a cause." [103] Our Gnostic quaternity is a naive product of the unconscious and therefore represents a psychic fact which can be brought into relationship with the four orienting functions of consciousness; for the rightward movement of the process is, as I have said, the expression of conscious discrimination [104] and hence an application of the four functions that constitute the essence of a conscious process.

The whole cycle necessarily returns to its beginning, and does so at the moment when D, in point of contingence the state furthest removed from A, changes into a3 by a kind of enantiodromia. We thus have:


The formula reproduces exactly the essential features of the symbolic process of transformation. It shows the rotation of the mandala, [105] the antithetical play of complementary (or compensatory) processes, then the apocatastasis, i.e., the restoration of an original state of wholeness, which the alchemists expressed through the symbol of the uroboros, and finally the formula repeats the ancient alchemical tetrameria, [106] which is implicit in the fourfold structure of unity:


What the formula can only hint at, however, is the higher plane that is reached through the process of transformation and integration. The "sublimation" or progress or qualitative change consists in an unfolding of totality into four parts four times, which means nothing less than its becoming conscious. When psychic contents are split up into four aspects, it means that they have been subjected to discrimination by the four orienting functions of consciousness. Only the production of these four aspects makes a total description possible. The process depicted by our formula changes the originally unconscious totality into a conscious one. The Anthropos A descends from above through his Shadow B into Physis C ( = serpent), and, through a kind of crystallization process D ( = lapis) that reduces chaos to order, rises again to the original state, which in the meantime has been transformed from an unconscious into a conscious one. Consciousness and understanding arise from discrimination, that is, through analysis (dissolution) followed by synthesis, as stated in symbolical terms by the alchemical dictum: "Solve et coagula" (dissolve and coagulate). The correspondence is represented by the identity of the letters a, a1, a2, a3, and so on. That is to say, we are dealing all the time with the same factor, which in the formula merely changes its place, whereas psychologically its name and quality change too. At the same time it becomes clear that the change of place is always an enantiodromian change of situation, corresponding to the complementary or compensatory changes in the psyche as a whole. It was in this way that the changing of the hexagrams in the I Ching was understood by the classical Chinese commentators. Every archetypal arrangement has its own numinosity, as is apparent from the very names given to it. Thus a to d is the "kingless race," a1 to d1 is the Shadow Quaternio, which is annoying, because it stands for the all-too-human human being (Nietzsche's "Ugliest Man"), [107] a2 to d2 is "Paradise," which speaks for itself, and finally a3 to d3 is the world of matter, whose numinosity in the shape of materialism threatens to suffocate our world. What changes these correspond to in the history of the human mind over the last two thousand years I need hardly specify in detail.

The formula presents a symbol of the self, for the self is not just a static quantity or constant form, but is also a dynamic process. In the same way, the ancients saw the imago Dei in man not as a mere imprint, as a sort of lifeless, stereotyped impression, but as an active force. The four transformations represent a process of restoration or rejuvenation taking place, as it were, inside the self, and comparable to the carbon-nitrogen cycle in the sun, when a carbon nucleus captures four protons (two of which immediately become neutrons) and releases them at the end of the cycle in the form of an alpha particle. The carbon nucleus itself comes out of the reaction unchanged, "like the Phoenix from the ashes." [108] The secret of existence, i.e., the existence of the atom and its components, may well consist in a continually repeated process of rejuvenation, and one comes to similar conclusions in trying to account for the numinosity of the archetypes.

I am fully aware of the extremely hypothetical nature of this comparison, but I deem it appropriate to entertain such reflections even at the risk of being deceived by appearances. Sooner or later nuclear physics and the psychology of the unconscious will draw closer together as both of them, independently of one another and from opposite directions, push forward into transcendental territory, the one with the concept of the atom, the other with that of the archetype.

The analogy with physics is not a digression since the symbolical schema itself represents the descent into matter and requires the identity of the outside with the inside. Psyche cannot be totally different from matter, for how otherwise could it move matter? And matter cannot be alien to psyche, for how else could matter produce psyche? Psyche and matter exist in one and the same world, and each partakes of the other, otherwise any reciprocal action would be impossible. If research could only advance far enough, therefore, we should arrive at an ultimate agreement between physical and psychological concepts. Our present attempts may be bold, but I believe they are on the right lines. Mathematics, for instance, has more than once proved that its purely logical constructions which transcend all experience subsequently coincided with the behaviour of things. This, like the events I call synchronistic, points to a profound harmony between all forms of existence.

Since analogy formation is a law which to a large extent governs the life of the psyche, we may fairly conjecture that our -- to all appearances -- purely speculative construction is not a new invention, but is prefigured on earlier levels of thought. Generally speaking, these prefigurations can be found in the multifarious stages of the mystic transformation process, as well as in the different degrees of initiation into the mysteries. We also find them in the classical as well as Christian trichotomy consisting of the pneumatic, the psychic, and the hylic. One of the most comprehensive attempts of this kind is the sixteenfold schema in the Book of Platonic Tetralogies. [109] I have dealt with this in detail in Psychology and Alchemy and can therefore limit myself here to the basic points. The schematization and analogy-formation start from four first principles: 1. the work of nature, 2. water, 3. composite natures, 4. the senses. Each of these four starting-points has three stages of transformation, which together with the first stage make sixteen parts in all. But besides this fourfold horizontal division of each of the principles, each stage has its correspondence in the vertical series:

1 Opus naturalium Aqua Naturae compositae Sensus
2 Divisio naturae Terra Naturae discretae Discretio intellectualis
3 Anima Aer Simplicia Ratio
4 Intellectus Ignis Aetheris simplicioris Arcanum

This table of correspondences shows the various aspects of the opus alchemicum, which was also bound up with astrology and the so-called necromantic arts. This is evident from the use of significant numbers and the invocation or conjuring up of the familiar spirit. Similarly, the age-old art of geomancy [110] is based on a sixteen-part schema: four central figures (consisting of Subor Superiudex, Judex, and two Testes), four nepotes (grandsons), four sons, four mothers. (The series is written from right to left.) These figures are arranged in a schema of astrological houses, but the centre that is empty in the horoscope is replaced by a square containing the four central figures.

Athanasius Kircher [111] produced a quaternity system that is worth mentioning in this connection:

I. Unum = Monas monadike = Deus = Radix omnium = Mens simplicissima = Divina essentia = Exemplar divinum.

(The One = First Monad = God = Root of all things = Simplest understanding = Divine Essence = Divine Exemplar.)

II. 10 (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10) = Secunda Monas = dekadike = Dyas = Mundus intellectualis = Angelica intelligentia = Compositio ab uno et altero = i.e., ex oppositis.

(... Second Monad = tenth = duality = spiritual world = intel-
ligence of the angels = composition of the One and the Other = i.e., from

III. 102 = 100 = Tertia Monas = hekatontadike = Anima = Intelligentia.

(. . . Third Monad = hundredth = soul = intelligence.)

IV. 103 = 1000 = Quarta Monas = chiliadike = Omnia sensibilia =
Corpus = ultima et sensibilis Unionum explicatio.

(... Fourth Monad = thousandth = all concrete things = body =
final and concrete unfolding of unities.)

Kircher comments that whereas the senses affect only the body, the first three unities are objects of understanding. So if one wants to understand what is perceived by the senses (sensibilia), this can only be done through the mind. "Everything perceived by the senses must therefore be elevated to reason or to the intelligence or to absolute unity. When in this way we shall have brought the absolute unity back to the infinitely simple from all perceptible, rational or intellectual multiplicity, then nothing more remains to be said, and then the Stone too is not so much a Stone as no Stone, but everything is the simplest unity. And even as the absolute unity of that concrete and rational Stone has God for an exemplar, so likewise its intellectual unity is the intelligence. You can see from these unities how the perceiving senses go back to reason, and reason to intelligence, and intelligence to God, where in a perfect cycle is found the beginning and the consummation." [112] That Kircher should choose the lapis as an example of concrete things and of God's unity is obvious enough in terms of alchemy, because the lapis is the arcanum that contains God or that part of God which is hidden in matter.

Kircher's system shows certain affinities with our series of quaternios. Thus the Second Monad is a duality consisting of opposites, corresponding to the angelic world that was split by Lucifer's fall. Another significant analogy is that Kircher conceives his schema as a cycle set in motion by God as the prime cause, and unfolding out of itself, but brought back to God again through the activity of human understanding, so that the end returns once more to the beginning. This, too, is an analogy of our formula. The alchemists were fond of picturing their opus as a circulatory process, as a circular distillation or as the uroboros, the snake biting its own tail, and they made innumerable pictures of this process. Just as the central idea of the lapis Philosophorum plainly signifies the self, so the opus with its countless symbols illustrates the process of individuation, the step-by-step development of the self from an unconscious state to a conscious one. That is why the lapis, as prima materia, stands at the beginning of the process as well as at the end. [113] According to Michael Maier, the gold, another synonym for the self, comes from the opus circulatorium of the sun. This circle is "the line that runs back upon itself (like the serpent that with its head bites its own tail), wherein that eternal painter and potter, God, may be discerned." [114] In this circle, Nature "has related the four qualities to one another and drawn, as it were, an equilateral square, since contraries are bound together by contraries, and enemies by enemies, with the same everlasting bonds." Maier compares this squaring of the circle to the "homo quadratus," the four-square man, who "remains himself" come weal come woe. [115] He calls it the "golden house, the twice-bisected circle, the four-eornered phalanx, the rampart, the 6ty wall, the four-sided line of battle." [116] This circle is a magic circle consisting of the union of opposites, "immune to all injury."

Independently of Western tradition, the same idea of the circular opus can be found in Chinese alchemy: "When the light is made to move in a circle, all the energies of heaven and earth, of the light and the dark, are crystallized," says the text of the Golden Flower. [117]

The ,the circular apparatus that assists the circular process, is mentioned as early as Olympiodorus. [118] Dorn is of the opinion that the "circular movement of the Physiochemists" comes from the earth, the lowest element. For the fire originates in the earth and transforms the finer minerals and water into air, which, rising up to the heavens, condenses there and falls down again. But during their ascent the volatilized elements take "from the higher stars male seeds, which they bring down into the four matrices, the elements, in order to fertilize them spagyrically." This is the "circular distillation" [119] which Rupescissa saysmust be repeated a thousand times. [120]

The basic idea of ascent and descent can be found in the Tabula smaragdina, and the stages of transformation have been depicted over and over again, above all in the Ripley "Scrowle" and its variants. These should be understood as indirect attempts to apprehend the unconscious processes of individuation in the form of pictures.



1. Elenchos, V, 7, 8 (Legge trans., I, p. 123).

2. Elenchos, VIII. 15. Iff. Cf. Legge trans., II. p. 10.

3. Based on Radhakrishnan, The Principal Upanishads, pp. 581f.

4. Ibid., pp. 228f.

5. Hippolytus lived c. A.D. 230. Monoimos must therefore antedate him.

6. Psychological Types, pars. 620ff.

7. The circle has the character of wholeness because of its "perfect" form; the quaternity, because four is the minimum number of parts into which the circle may naturally be divided.

8. Cf. "A Psychological Approach to the Dogma of the Trinity," pars. 182ff.

9. Cf. "Spirit in Fairy tales" pars. 425f., 436ff., and "Trinity," pars. 243ff.

10. Five corresponds to the indistinguishability of quaternity and unity.

11. [Psychology and Alchemy, pars. 138f., fig. 31.]

12. Church built of living stones in the Shepherd of Hermas. [Psychological Types, ch. V, 4a.]

13. Golden Flower (1962 edn.), pp. 22, 36.

14. Psychology and Alchemy, par. 338.

15. A definition of God in Nicholas of Cusa. Cf. "The Psychology of the Transference," par. 537.

16. Cf. Hurwitz, "Archetypische Motive in der chassidischen Mystik," ch. VI.

17. Elenchos, V, 8, 2.

18. Cf. "The Psychology of the Transference," pars. 410ff.

19. Exodus 18: 27.

20. "Phenomenology of the Spirit in Fairytales," pars. 400ff.

21. Since the whole Shadow Quaternio is a symmetrical construction, the "good Wise Man" must here be contrasted with a correspondingly dark, chthonic figure.

22. Cf. "Psychology of the Transference," pars. 425ff.

23. In the gnosis of Justin. See Hippolytus, Elenchos, V, 26, 32 (Legge trans., I, p. 178): (But the Good One is Priapus).

24. Rev. 12: 9.

25. Coloss. 2: 14: "Blotting out the handwriting of the decree that was against us, which was contrary to us. And he hath taken the same out of the way, fastening it to the cross" (DV). The handwriting is imprinted on the body. This view is con- firmed by Orosius ("Ad Aurelium Augustum commonitorium de errore Priscillianistarum et Origenistarum," p. 153), who says that in the opinion of Priscillian the soul, on descending through the spheres into birth, was caught by the powers of evil, and at the behest of the victor ("victoris principis") was cast into separate bodies, upon which a "handwriting" was written. The parts of the soul receive a divine chirographum, but the parts of the body are imprinted with the signs of the zodiac (caeli signa).

26. "The Spirit Mercurius," esp. pars. 271, 282, 289.

27. See Psychology and Alchemy, fig. 131.

28. In "Chrysopoeia" (in Gratarolus, Verae alchemiae artisque metallicae, 1561, pp. 269ff.), which Augurellus dedicated to Pope Leo X. It contains an invocation of the alma soror of Phoebus:

"Tu quoque, nec coeptis Cylleni audacibus usquam
Defueris, tibi nam puro de fonte perennis
Rivulus argentum, vulgo quod vivere dicunt,
Sufficit, et tan tis praestat primordia rebus."
(You too, Cyllenian, this bold enterprise
Fail not, the stream from whose pure spring supplies
The silver men call "quick," the primal state
And first beginning of a work so great. [Trans. by A. S. B. Glover.])

29. In the Western Roman Empire there is a gap in this development, extending from the 3rd to about the 11th cent., that is, to the time of the first translations from the Arabic.

30. Synonymous with the dragon, since draco also means snake.

31. , 'the most spiritual animal.'

32. In Valentinus the "appendages" are spirits indwelling in man. Clement of Alexandria, Stromata, II, 20, 112 and 114 (trans. Wilson, II, pp. 64f.).

33. Isidorus was the son of Basilides. See Clement of Alexandria, ibid., II, 20. 113 (Wilson, II, p. 65). The "outgrowths" are animal souls, as of wolves. monkeys, lions, etc.

34. In Levit. hom. V, 2 (Migne, P.G., vol. 12, col. 450): "So when thou seest that thou hast all the things the world has, doubt not that thou hast within thee even the animals which are offered in sacrifice."

35. Euphrates.

36. "The Spirit Mercurius," Part I.

37. See Psychology and Alchemy, fig. 257.

38. Ibid., par. 357.

39. Ibid., fig. 122, and "The Philosophical Tree," pars. 402ff.

40. Ripley, Cantilena, verse 28 [cf. Mysterium Coniunctionis, p. 317], and Chymische Schrifften, p. 51; also Mylius, Phil. ref., p. 124.

41. "A land to be watered with the clear water of paradise" (Hollandus, "Fragmentum de lapide," Theatr. chem., II, p. 142). The "Tractatus Aristotelis ad Alexandrum Magnum (conscriptus et collectus a quodam Christiano Philosopho)," Theatr. chem., V, p. 885, compares the "practica Aristotelis" with the water of paradise, which makes man "whole" (incolumem) and immortal: "From this water all true Philosophers have had life and infinite riches."

42. Didymus of Alexandria, De trinitate (Migne, P.G., vol. 39, col. 456).

43. St Ambrose, Explanationes in Psalmos, Ps. 45, 12 (Corp. Script. Eccl. Lat., LXIV, p. 337) Cf. Rahner, "Flumina de ventre Christi," pp. 269ff.

44. Sophia (1699), p. 9.

45. The lapis is made of the four elements, like Adam. The centre of the squared circle is the "mediator, making peace between the enemies or elements, so that they may love one another in a meet embrace" ("Tractatus aureus," Theatr. chem., IV, p. 691).

46. Cf. the evidence for this in Psychology and Alchemy, "The Lapis-Christ Parallel."

47. Mylius (Phil. ref., p. 15) identifies the elements that constitute the lapis with corpus, spiritus, and anima: corpus is matter, earth, and spiritus is the nodus (bond) animae et corporis, and therefore corresponds to fire. Water and air, which would properly characterize the anima, are also "spirit." Three of the elements are "moving," one (earth) "unmoving." Cf. n. 89, infra.

48. Quotation from Ostanes in Zosimos, "Sur l'art" (Berthelot, Alch. grecs, III vi. 5).

49. "Aurora consurgens," Art. aurif., I. p. 208.

50. Cf. my remarks on the significance of the head in "Transformation Symbolism in the Mass." pars. 365ff. "Head" also means "beginning," e.g., "head of the Nile," etc.

51. Theatr. chem., V. p. 151.

52. Berthelot. III, x. 1.

53. "There is one stone, one medicine, one vessel, one method, one disposition" (Rosarium philosophorum, Art. aurif., II, 206). "In our water all modes of things are brought about .... In the said water they are made as in an artificial vessel, which is a mighty secret" (Mylius, Phil. ref., p. 245). "The Philosophical vessel is their water" (ibid., p. 33). This saying comes from de Hoghelande's treatise in Theatr. chem., I, p. 199. There we find: "Sulphur also is called by Lully the vessel of Nature," and Haly's description of the vessel as "ovum." The egg is content and container at once. The vas naturale is the aqua permanens and the "vinegar" of the Philosophers. ("Aurora consurgens," Part II, Art. aurif., I, p. 203.)

54. Caesarius of Heisterbach, Dialogue on Miracles, trans. Scott and Bland, Dist. I, chs. XXXII and XXXIV.

55. In Olympiodorus the transforming vessel is the "spherical phial" or ( . (circular apparatus). (Berthelot, II, iv, 44.) "The spagiric vessel is to be made after the likeness of the natural vessel. For we see that all heaven and the elements have the likeness of a spherical body" (Dorn, Theatr. chem., I, p. 430). "The end of all this master-work is, that the Philosophic Mercury be placed in the heavenly sphere" (ibid, p. 499). Trevisanus calls the vessel the rotundum cubile, "round bridal bed" ("Liber de alchemia," Theatr. chem., I, p. 790).

56. "Congeries," Theatr. chem., I, pp. 574f.

57. Ibid., IV, p. 691.

58. "Nor is any other to be sought after in all the world." The Pelican is a distilling vessel, but the distillate, instead of dripping into the receiver, runs back into the belly of the retort. We could take this as illustrating the process of conscious realization and the reapplication of conscious insights to the unconscious. "It restored their former security of life to those once near to death," the author says of the Pelican, which, as we know, is an allegory of Christ.

59 Cf. Psychology and Alchemy, par. 167, n. 44. [Also "Paracelsus as a Spiritual Phenomenon," fig. B7.]

60. That is, counting the letters F and G (not included in the diagram), which signify Above and Below.

61. Art. aurif., I. p. 324; Theatr. chem., I. p. 199; Art. aurif., I. p. 323.

62. Cf. Psychology and Alchemy, par. 338.

63. Mus. herm., p. 770.

64. La Vertu et la propriete de la quinte essence (1581), p. 26.

65. Art. aurif., I, p. 203.

66. "Paracelsus as a Spiritual Phenomenon," fig. B4.

67. Marriage classes and settlements.

68. "Psychology of the Transference," pars. 433ff. [Cf. Layard, Stone Men of Malekula, chs. 5 and 6, and "The Incest Taboo and the Virgin Archetype," pp. 266ff. -- EDITORS.]

69. "Psychology of the Transference," par. 438.

70. Case material in Psychology and Alchemy, part II. Triadic symbols also occur, but they are rarer.

71. The Gnostic quaternio is naturally later than the Horus quaternity in point of time, but psychologically it is older, because in it the feminine element reassumes its rightful place, as is not the case with the patriarchal Horus quaternio.

72. Like, for instance. the Aesculapian and Agathodaimon serpent.

73. Scharf. "Die Gestalt des Satans im Alten Testament," p. 151.

74. "O blessed greenness, which givest birth to all things, whence know that no vegetable and no fruit appears in the bud but that it hath a green colour. Likewise know that the generation of this thing is green, for which reason the Philosophers have called it a bud." (Ros. phil., Art. aurif., II, p. 220.)

75. Cf. the Ostanes quotation in Zosimos, Psychology and Alchemy, par. 405.

76. A hint that rotation may be a principle of matter.

77. According to the report of the Damdad·Nashk (Reitzenstein and Schader, Studien zum antiken Syncretismus aus Iran und Griechenland, p. 18). Gayomart is the Original Man in the theosophical version of Zarathustra's system. Yima, on the other hand, is the Original Man of ancient Aryan legend. His name is Yimo kshaeto, 'the shining Yima.' According to the Mainyo-i-Khard, the metals were created from his,body. (Kohut, "Die talmudisch-midraschische Adamssage," pp. 68, 70.) In the Bundahish, Gayomart's body consisted of metals. (Christensen, "Le Premier Homme et Ie premier roi dans l'histoire legendaire des Iraniens," p. 21.) 78 [Cf. "A Psychological Approach to the Dogma of the Trinity," par. 185. -- EDITORS.]

79. Most people do not have sufficient range of consciousness to become aware of the opposites inherent in human nature. The tensions they generate remain for the most part unconscious, but can appear in dreams. Traditionally, the snake stands for the vulnerable spot in man: it personifies his shadow, i.e., his weakness and unconsciousness. The greatest danger about unconsciousness is proneness to suggestion. The effect of suggestion is due to the release of an unconscious dynamic, and the more unconscious this is, the more effective it will be. Hence the ever-widening split between conscious and unconscious increases the danger of psychic infection and mass psychosis. With the loss of symbolic ideas the bridge to the unconscious has broken down. Instinct no longer affords protection against unsound ideas and empty slogans. Rationality without tradition and without a basis in instinct is proof against no absurdity.

80. Emblema XVII, p. 49.

81. Vigenere comments: "The intelligible fire of the world: is all light. The heavenly fire: partakes of heat and light. The elemental fire: less in light, heat, and glow. The infernal fire: opposed to the intelligible, of heat and burning without any light," ("De igne et sale," Theatr. chem., VI, p. 39.) [Cf. supra, par. 203.]

82. "Is present in everything."

83. "The heat of ashes and baths."

84. "Tortures bodies, is the dragon."

85. The oldest source is Heraclitus.

86. Turba, ed. by Ruska. Sermo XLIII, p. 149.

87. G. E. Stahl (1660-1734) supposed that all combustible (i.e., oxidizable) substances contain an igneous principle. It was assumed to be weightless, or even to possess a negative weight. Cf. H. E. Fierz-David, Die Entwicklungsgeschichte der Chemie, pp. 148f.

88. Psychologically, of course, the primitive idea of mana is very much older, but here we are talking of scientific concepts. The sulphur = anima equation still contains a trace of the original mana theory. Earlier, mana was characteristically misunderstood as animism.

89. Fire as spiritual, the other elements material; earth unmoving, the others moving.

90. Bohme calls the "fire of Nature" the "fourth form," "Tabula principiorum," De signatura rerum (1682), p. 279.

91. The doctrine of Sabellius (beginning of the 2nd cent.) concerning the pre-worldly Monad, the "silent and un acting God" and its three prosopa (modes of manifestation), calls for further investigation, as it bequeathed to posterity the first beginnings of a quaternary view of the Deity. Thus Joachim of Flora makes the following accusation against Peter Lombard: "Quod in suis dixit Sententiis, quoniam quaedam summa res est Pater et Filius et Spiritus Sanctus et ilIa non est generans, neque genita, neque procedens: unde asserit quod ilIe non tam Trinitatem, quam quaternitatem astruebat in Deo, videlicet tres personas, et ilIam communem essentiam quasi quartam." (As he [Peter] says in his Book of Sentences, For a certain supreme Something is Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, and It neither begets, nor is begotten, nor proceeds. On this basis Joachim asserts that the Lombard ascribed not Trinity, but Quaternity to God, that is to say, three Persons, and that common Something as a fourth). (Fourth Lateran Council, 1215. Decrees, Cap. 2; Denzinger and Bannwart, Enchiridion, p. 190.) Cf. "A Psychological Approach to the Dogma of the Trinity," pars. 243ff.

92. Cf. "The Spirit Mercurius," pars. 267ff.

93. The three relatively differentiated functions and one undifferentiated, "inferior" function. Cf. Psychological Types, and the diagrams in Jacobi, The Psychology of C. G. Jung.

94. "A Study in the Process of Individuation," fig. 2, p. 309.

95. Ibid., Picture 3 and accompanying text.

96. Zurich Central Library, Graphics Collection, B x 606.

97. Harnack, Dogmengeschichte, I, p. 334.

98. Condensed'from the reconstruction by Uhlhorn, in Realencyklopadie fur Protestantische Theologie und Kirche, ed. by Hauck, IV, pp. 173ff.

99. To avoid misunderstandings I would like to emphasize that "Paradise" is used here not in the metaphorical sense, as "future heaven" or the Abode of the Blessed, but in the sense of the earthly Garden of Eden.

100. Corresponding to the phylokrinesis. [Cf. supra, pars. 118, 133.]

101. I am not counting the space-time continuum of modem physics.

102. Cf. "Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle."

103. [Jeans, Physics and Philosophy, pp. 127, 151. -- EDITORS.]

104. The immediate cause is the rightward movement of our writing. The right, so to speak, is ruled by conscious reason: the right is "right" in all senses (upright, downright, forthright, etc.). The left is the side of the heart, the emotions, where one is affected by the unconscious.

105. Cf. "Concerning Mandala Symbolism," figs. 19, 21, 37, 60.

106. Cf. Psychology and Alchemy, pars. 189 and 209f., in relation to the four regimina and dispositiones.

107. [Cf. Thus Spake Zarathustra, trans. by Common, pp. 303ff. -- EDITORS.]

108. Gamow, Atomic Energy, p. 72.

109. An anonymous Harranite treatise entitled "Platonis liber quartorum." printed in Theatr. chem., V (1633). pp. 114ff.; conjectured to have been translated from the Arabic in the 12th cent.

110. Fludd, "De animae intellectualis scientia seu Geomantia," Fasciculus geomanticus (1687), pp. 35f.

111. Arithmologia, sive De abditis numerorum mysteriis (1665), pp. 260ff. I have to thank Dr. M. L. von Franz for calling my attention to this.

112. Ibid., p. 266. (The next sentence is revised and transposed from par. 418. (2nd edn.)]

113. Documentation in Psychology and Alchemy, esp. pars. 427, n. 4. and 431.

114. De circulo physico quadrato, p. 16.

115. Ibid., p. 17.

116. Ibid., p. 19.

117. Wilhelm, The Secret of the Golden Flower (1962 edn.). p. 30.

118. Berthelot. Alch. grecs, II, iv, 44.

119. "Physica genesis," Theatr. chem., I, p. 391.

120. La Vertu et la propriete de la quinte essence, p. 26.
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Re: Aion, by C.G. Jung

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Chapter 15: CONCLUSION

I have tried, in this book, to elucidate and amplify the various aspects of the archetype which it is most important for modern man to understand -- namely, the archetype of the self. By way of introduction, I described those concepts and archetypes which manifest themselves in the course of any psychological treatment that penetrates at all deeply. The first of these is the SHADOW, that hidden, repressed, for the most part inferior and guilt-laden personality whose ultimate ramifications reach back into the realm of our animal ancestors and so comprise the whole historical aspect of the unconscious. Through analysis of the shadow and of the processes contained in it we uncover the ANIMA/ANIMUS syzygy. Looked at superficially, the shadow is cast by the conscious mind and is as much a privation of light as the physical shadow that follows the body. For this superficial view, therefore, the psychological shadow with its moral inferiority might also be regarded as a privation of good. On closer inspection, however, it proves to be a darkness that hides influential and autonomous factors which can be distinguished in their own right, namely anima and animus. When we observe them in full operation -- as the devastating, blindly obstinate demon of opinionatedness in a woman, and the glamorous, possessive, moody, and sentimental seductress in a man -- we begin to doubt whether the unconscious can be merely the insubstantial comet's tail of consciousness and nothing but a privation of light and good.

If it has been believed hitherto that the human shadow was the source of all evil, it can now be ascertained on closer investigation that the unconscious man, that is, his shadow, does not consist only of morally reprehensible tendencies, but also displays a number of good qualities, such as normal instincts, appropriate reactions, realistic insights, creative impulses, etc. On this level of understanding, evil appears more as a distortion, a deformation, a misinterpretation and misapplication of facts that in themselves are natural. These falsifications and caricatures now appear as the specific effects of anima and animus, and the latter as the real authors of evil. But we cannot stop even at this realization, for it turns out that all archetypes spontaneously develop favourable and un favourable, light and dark, good and bad effects. In the end we have to acknowledge that the self is a complexio oppositorum precisely because there can be no reality without polarity. We must not overlook the fact that opposites acquire their moral accentuation only within the sphere of human endeavour and action, and that we are unable to give a definition of good and evil that could be considered universally valid. In other words, we do not know what good and evil are in themselves. It must therefore be supposed that they spring from a need of human consciousness and that for this reason they lose their validity outside the human sphere. That is to say a hypostasis of good and evil as metaphysical entities is inadmissible because it would deprive these terms of meaning. If we call everything that God does or allows "good," then evil is good too, and "good" becomes meaningless. But suffering, whether it be Christ's passion or the suffering of the world, remains the same as before. Stupidity, sin, sickness, old age, and death continue to form the dark foil that sets off the joyful splendour of life.

The recognition of anima and animus is a specific experience that seems to be reserved mostly, or at any rate primarily, for psychotherapists. Nevertheless, anyone who has a little knowledge of belles-lettres will have no difficulty in forming a picture of the anima; she is a favourite subject for novelists, particularly west of the Rhine. [1] Nor is a careful study of dreams always necessary. It is not quite so easy to recognize the woman's animus, for his name is legion. But anyone who can stand the animosity of his fellows without being infected by it, and is capable at the same time of examining it critically, cannot help discovering that they are possessed. It is, however, more advantageous and more to the point to subject to the most rigorous scrutiny one's own moods and their changing influence on one's personality. To know where the other person makes a mistake is of little value. It only becomes interesting when you know where you make the mistake, for then you can do something about it. What we can improve in others is of doubtful utility as a rule, if, indeed, it has any effect at all.

Although, to begin with, we meet the anima and animus mostly in their negative and unwelcome form, they are very far from being only a species of bad spirit. They have, as we have said, an equally positive aspect. Because of their numinous, suggestive power they have formed since olden times the archetypal basis of all masculine and feminine divinities and therefore merit special attention, above all from the psychologist, but also from thoughtful laymen. As numina, anima and animus work now for good, now for evil. Their opposition is that of the sexes. They therefore represent a supreme pair of opposites, not hopelessly divided by logical contradiction but, because of the mutual attraction between them, giving promise of union and actually making it possible. The coniunctio oppositorum engaged the speculations of the alchemists in the form of the "Chymical Wedding," and those of the cabalists in the form of Tifereth and Malchuth or God and the Shekhinah, [2] not to speak of the marriage of the Lamb.

The dual being born of the alchemical union of opposites, the Rebis or Lapis Philosophorum, is so distinctively marked in the literature that we have no difficulty in recognizing it as a symbol of the self. Psychologically the self is a union of conscious (masculine) and unconscious (feminine). It stands for the psychic totality. So formulated, it is a psychological concept. Empirically, however, the self appears spontaneously in the shape of specific symbols, and its totality is discernible above all in the mandala and its countless variants. Historically, these symbols are authenticated as God-images.

The anima/animus stage is correlated with polytheism, the self with monotheism. [3] The natural archetypal symbolism, describing a totality that includes light and dark, contradicts in some sort the Christian but not the Jewish or Yahwistic viewpoint, or only to a relative degree. The latter seems to be closer to Nature and therefore to be a better reflection of immediate experience. Nevertheless, the Christian heresiarchs tried to sail round the rocks of Manichaean dualism, which was such a danger to the early Church, in a way that took cognizance of the natural symbol, and among the symbols for Christ there are some very important ones which he has in common with the devil, though this had no influence on dogma.

By far the most fruitful attempts, however, to find suitable symbolic expressions for the self were made by the Gnostics. Most of them -- Valentinus and Basilides, for instance -- were in reality theologians who, unlike the more orthodox ones, allowed themselves to be influenced in large measure by natural inner experience. They are therefore, like the alchemists, a veritable mine of information concerning all those natural symbols arising out of the repercussions of the Christian message. At the same time, their ideas compensate the asymmetry of God postulated by the doctrine of the privatio boni, exactly like those well-known modern tendencies of the unconscious to produce symbols of totality for bridging the gap between the conscious and the unconscious, which has widened dangerously to the point of universal disorientation.

I am well aware that this work, far from being complete, is a mere sketch showing how certain Christian ideas look when observed from the standpoint of psychological experience. Since my main concern was to point out the parallelism or the difference between the empirical findings and our traditional views, a consideration of the disparities due to time and language proved unavoidable. This was particularly so in the case of the fish symbol. Inevitably, we move here on uncertain ground and must now and then have recourse to a speculative hypothesis or tentatively reconstruct a context. Naturally every investigator must document his findings as fully as possible, but he should also venture an occasional hypothesis even at the risk of making a mistake. Mistakes are, after all, the foundations of truth, and if a man does not know what a thing is, it is at least an increase in knowledge if he knows what it is not.



1. The outstanding example in Swiss literature is Spitteler's Imago. [In English literature, perhaps Rider Haggard's She. -- EDITORS.)

2. Hurwitz, "Archetypische Motive in der chassidischen Mystik," ch. VI.

3. This thema is the subject of an Oxford dissertation by Amy I. Allenby: A Psychological Study of the Origins of Monotheism.
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Re: Aion, by C.G. Jung

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The items of the bibliography are arranged alphabetically under two headings: A. Ancient volumes containing collections of alchemical tracts by various authors; B. General bibliography, including cross-references to the material in section A. Short titles of the ancient volumes are printed in capital letters.


ARS CHEMICA, quod sit licita recte exercentibus, probationes doctissimorum iurisconsultorum .... Argentorati [Strasbourg]; 1566.

Contents quoted in this volume:

i Septem tractatus seu capitula Hermetis Trismegisti aurei
[pp. 7-31; usually referred to as "Tractatus aureus"]

ii Tabula smaragdina [pp. 32-33]

ARTIS A URIFERAE quam chemiam vocant .... Basileae [Basel], [1593]. 2 vols.

Contents quoted in this volume:


i Turba philosophorum [two versions: pp. 1-65, 66-139]

i-a Allegoriae super librum Turbae [pp. 139-45]

ii Aenigmata ex Visione Arislei philosophi et allegoriis sapientum
[pp. 146-54; usually referred to as "Visio Arislei"]

iii In Turbam philosophorum exercitationes [pp. 154-82]

iv Aurora consurgens, quae dicitur Aurea hora [pp. 185-246]

v [Zosimus]: Rosinus ad Sarratantam episcopum [pp. 277-319]

vi Maria Prophetissa: Practica ... in artem alchemicam [pp.

vii Tractatulus Aristotelis de practica lapidis philosophici [pp.

viii Interpretatio cuiusdam epistolae Alexandri Macedonum
regis [pp. 382-88]

ix Tractatulus Avicennae [pp. 405-37]


X Morienus Romanus: Sermo de transmutatione metaIlica [pp.

xi Rosarium philosophorum [pp. 204-384]

MANGETUS, JOANNES JACOBUS (ed.). BIBLIOTHECA CHEMICA CURIOSA, seu Rerum ad alehemiam pertinentium thesaurus instruetissimus ... Coloniae Allobrogum [Geneva], 1702. 2 vols.

Contents quoted in this volume:


i Allegoriae sapientum supra librum Turbae philosophorum XXIX distinctiones [pp. 467-79]

ii Turba philosophorum [pp. 445-65; another version, pp. 480-94]

iii Allegoriae supra librum Turbae [pp. 494-95]

MUSAEUM HERMETICUM reformatum et amplifieatum continens tractatus chimicos XXI praestantissimos ... Francofurti [Frankfurt a. M.], 1678. For translation, see (B) WAITE, The Hermetic Museum.

Contents quoted in this volume:

i [Barcius (F. von Sternberg)]: Gloria mundi, alias Paradysi tabula [pp. 203-304]

ii Lambspringk: De lapide philosophico figurae et emblemata [pp. 337-72]

iii Sendivogius: Novum lumen chemicum e naturae fonte et manuali experientia depromptum [pp. 545-600]

iv [Sendivogius:] Novi luminis chemici Tractatus alter de sulphure [pp. 601-46]

v Philalethes: Introitus apertus ad occlusum regis palatium [pp. 647-700]

vi Philalethes: Metallorum metamorphosis [pp. 741-74]

THEATRUM CHEMICUM, praecipuos seleetorum auetorum traetatus ... eontinens. Ursellis [Ursel] and Argentorati [Strasbourg], 1602-61. 6 vols. (Vols. I-III, Ursel, 1602; Vols. IV-VI, Strasbourg, 1613, 1622, 1661 respectively.)

Contents quoted in this volume:


i Fanianus: De arte metallicae metamorphoseos ad Philoponum [pp. 28-48]

ii Hoghelande: Liber de alchemiae difficultatibus [pp. 121- 215]

iii Dorn: Ars chemistica [pp. 217-54]

iv Dorn: Speculativae philosophiae, gradus septem vel decem continens [pp. 255-310]

v Dorn: Physica genesis [pp. 367-404]

v-a Dorn: Physica Trismegisti [pp. 405-37]

vi Dorn: Philosophia meditativa [pp. 450-72]

vii Dorn: Philosophia chemica ad meditativam comparata [pp. 472-517]

viii Dorn: Congeries Paracelsicae chemicae de transmutationibus metallorum [pp. 557-646]

ix Bernardus Trevisanus: Liber de alchemia [pp. 773-803]


x Ripley: Duodecim portarum axiomata philosophica [pp. 123-39]

xi Hollandus: Fragmentum de lapide [pp. 142-46]

xii Dee: Monas hieroglyphica [pp. 218-43]


xiii Aristoteles de perfecto Magisterio [pp. 56-118]


xiv Artefius: Clavis maioris sapientiae [pp. 221-40]

XV Duodecim tractatus de lap ide philosophorum [pp. 478- 502]

xvi Beatus: Aurelia occulta philosophorum [pp. 525-81]

xvii Hermetis Trismegisti Tractatus vere aureus de lapide philosophici secreta [pp. 672-797; usually referred to as "Tractatus aureus"]


xvii-a Turba philosophorum [pp. 1-57]

xviii Allegoriae sapientum et distinctiones XXIX supra librum Turbae [pp. 64-100]

xix Platonis liber quartorum [pp. 114-208]

xx Tractatus Aristotelis alchymistae ad Alexandrum Magnum de lap ide philosophico [pp. 880-92]


xxi Blaise de Vigenere: Tractatus de igne et sale [pp. 1-139]

xxii Collesson: Idea perfecta philosophiae hermeticae [pp. 143-61]

xxiii Fidelissima et jucunda instructio de arbore solari [pp. 163-194]

xxiv Grasseus: Arca arcani artificiosissimi de summis naturae mysteriis [pp. 294-381]

xxv [Barchius:] Summa libri quae vocatur Gloria mundi, seu Tabula comprehensa [pp. 513-17]

xxvi Chartier: Scientia plumbi sacri sapientum [pp. 569-99]


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ALCIATI, ANDREA.Emblemata. Padua, 1621 (another edn., 1661).


"Allegoriae sapientum et distinctiones XXIX supra librum Turbae." See (A) MANGETUS, Bibliotheca chemica, i; Theatrum chemicum, xviii.

"Allegoriae supra librum Turbae." See (A) Artis auriferae, i-a; MANGETUS, Bibliotheca chemica, iii.

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--. De Trinitate. See MIGNE, P.L., vol. 42, cols. 819-1098. For translation, see: Augustine: Later Works. Selected and translated by John Burnaby. (Library of Christian Classics, 8.) London, 1955. (Pp. 37-181.)

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--. Tractatus in Joannis Evangelium. In MIGNE, P.L., vol. 35. For translation, see: Lectures or Tractates on the Gospel accord· ing to Saint John, Vol. II. Translated by James Innes. (Works of Aurelius Augustinus, edited by Marcus Dods, 11.) Edinburgh, 1874.

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Bahman Yast. In: Pahlavi Texts, Part I. Translated by E. W. West. (Sacred Books of the East, 5.) Oxford, 1880.

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BASIL THE GREAT, SAINT. Quod Deus non est auctor malorum. See MIGNE, P.G., vol. 31, cols. 329-54.

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--. Homiliae in Hexaemeron. See MIGNE, P.G., vol. 29, cols. 3-208. For translation, see: The Treatise De Spiritu Sancto, the Nine Homilies of the Hexaemeron and the Letters of St. Basil the Great. Translated by the Rev. Blomfield Jackson. (Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, Second Series, 8.) Oxford and New York, 1895.

BAUER, WALTER. Griechisch-Deutsches Worterbuch zu den Schriften des neuen Testaments. 3rd edn., Berlin, 1937.

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BERTHELOT, MARCELLIN. Collection des annens alchimistes grecs. Paris, 1887-88. 3 vols.

Bible. The following versions are cited textually: [AV] Authorized ("King James") Version (cited unless otherwise indicated). [DV] Douay-Reims Version. [RSV] Revised Standard Version.

BOHME, JAKOB. "Aurora, oder die Morgenrote im Aufgang." In: Des gottseligen, hocherleuchteten ... Schrifften, q.v. For translation, see: Aurora. Translated by John Sparrow. London, 1914.

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BOLL, FRANZJOHANNES. Sphaera. Leipzig, 1903.

--. Aus der Offenbarung Johannis. (ETOIXEIA, Heft I.) Leipzig and Berlin, 1914.

BOUCHE-LECLERCQ, AUGUSTE. L'Astrologie grecque. Paris, 1899.

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BRUGSCH, HEINRICH. Religion und Mythologie der alten Agypter. Leipzig, 1885.

BUDGE, E. A. WALLIS. The Gods of the Egyptians. London, 1904. 2 vols.

--. The Papyrus of Ani. London, 1895.

CABROL, FERNAND, and LECLERCQ, HENRI. Dictionnaire d'archeologie chretienne et de liturgie. Paris, 1907-53. 15 vols.

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STEPHEN OF CANTERBURY. Liber Allegoricus in Habacuc. [Facts unavailable.- EDITORS.]

STRAUSS, HEINZ ARTHUR. Die Astrologie des Johannes Kepler. Munich and Berlin, 1926.

SYNESIUS OF CYRENE. Hymni et Opuscula. Edited by Nicholas Terzaghi. Rome, 1944. 2 vols.


Tabula smaragdina. See (A) Ars chemica, ii; RUSKA.

TACITUS, P. CORNELIUS. Historiarum Liber: The Histories. Edited by W. A. Spooner. London, 1891. For translation, see: The Histories. Translated by W. Hamilton Fyfe. Oxford, 1912. 2 vols.

Talmud. The Babylonian Talmud. Translated into English under the editorship of Isidore Epstein. London, 1935-52. 35 vols. (Abbr.: BT.)

Targum. The Targum to The Song of Songs. Translated by Hermann Gollancz. London, 1908.

TATlAN. Oratio adversus Graecos. See MIGNE, P.G., vol. 6, cols. 803- 888. For translation, see: The Writings of Tatian, etc. Translated by B. P. Pratten [and others]. (Ante-Nicene Christian Library, 3·) Edinburgh, 1867.

TERTULLIAN. Adversus Marcionem. See MIGNE, P.L., vol. 2, cols. 239-526. For translation, see: The Five Books of Tertullianus against Marcion. Translated by Peter Holmes. (Ante-Nicene Christian Library, 7.) Edinburgh, 1868.

--. Apologeticus adversus gentes pro Christianis. See MIGNE, P.L., vol. I, cols. 257-536. For translation, see: The Writings of Quintus Septimus Tertullianus. Vol. I. Translated by S. Thelwall. (Ante-Nicene Christian Library, II.) Edinburgh, 1869. (Pp. 53- 140.)

--. De baptismo. See MIGNE, P.L., vol. I, cols. 1197-1224. For translation, see: The Writings (as above). (Pp. 231-56.)

THEODOR BAR-KUNI. Inscriptiones mandaites des coups de Khouabir. Edited by H. Pognon. Paris, 1898-99. 3 parts (consecutively paginated).

THEOPHILUS OF ANTIOCH. Ad Autolycum. See MIGNE, P.G., vol, 6, cols. 1023-1168.

THIELE, GEORG. Antike Himmelsbilder. Berlin, 1898.

THOMAS AQUINAS, SAINT. Summa contra Gentiles. Translated by the English Dominican Fathers. London, 1924-29. 5 vols.

--. Summa theologica. Translated by the Fathers of the English Dominican Province. London, 1911-22. 18 vols.

THOMAS AQUINAS, pseudo "Aurora, sive Aurea hora." In: [H. CONDEESYANUS, pseud., i.e., J. Grasseus.] Harmoniae imperscrutabilis chymico-philosophicae, sive Philosophorum antiquorum consentientium ... Decas I ... collectae ab H.C.D .... Decas II ... collecta studio et industria Joannis Rhenani, M. D. Frankfurt a. M., 1625. See also (A) Artis auriferae, iv.

THORNDIKE, LYNN. A History of Magic and Experimental Science. New York, 1923-57. 8 vols.

TITUS OF BOSTRA. Adversus Manichaeos libri III. See MIGNE, P.G., vol. 18, cols. 1069-1256.

"Tractatulus Avicennae." See (A) Artis auriferae, ix.

"Tractatus Aristotelis ... ." See (A) Artis auriferae, vii; Theatrum chemicum, xx.

"Tractatus aureus." See (A) Ars chemica, i; Theatrum chemicum, xvii.

Turba philosophorum. See RUSKA, Turba Philosophorum; (A) Artis aurijerae, i; MANGETUS, Bibliotheca chemica, ii; Theatrum chemicum, xvii-a.

Upanishads. See: The Principal Upanishads. Translated by Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan. London, 1953.

USENER, HERMANN.Das Weihnachtsfest. 2nd edn., Bonn, 1911.

[VAUGHAN, THOMAS.] The Works of Thomas Vaughan: Eugenius Philaletha. Edited by A. E. Waite. London, 1919.

VIGENERE, BLAISEDE. See (A) Theatrum chemicum, xxi.

VIROLLEAUD, CHARLES. "Note complementaire sur Ie poeme de Mot et Alein, " Syria (Paris), XII (1931), 350-57·

--. "La Legende de Baal, Dieu des Pheniciens, " Revue d'etudes semitiques (Paris), C (1935), iii-xxi.

"Visio Arislei." See (A) Artis auriferae, ii.

VITAL, HAYIM. Shaare Kedusha ("The Gates of Holiness"). (In Hebrew.) Jerusalem, 1926. (Orig., Constantinople, 1731.)

VOLLERS, KARL. "Chidher, " Archiv fur Religionswissenschaft (Leipzig), XII (1909), 234-84.

WACKERBARTH, GRAF AUGUST JOSEPH LUDWIG VON. Merkwurdige Geschichte des weltberuhmten Gog und Magog. Hamburg, 1820.

WAITE, ARTHUR EDWARD. Lives of Alchemystical Philosophers. London, 1888 (reprinted, 1955).

-- (trans.). The Hermetic Museum Restored and Enlarged. London, 1893. 2 vols. (Original: (A) Musaeum hermeticum.)

--. See also VAUGHAN.

WEISS, JOHANNES. The History of Primitive Christianity. London, 1937. 2 vols. (Original: Das Urchristentum. Gottingen, 1914-17.)

WHITE, VICTOR, O.P. "Eranos, 1947, 1948." In his: Dominican Studies. Oxford, 1949. 2 vols. (Vol. II, pp. 399-400.)

WICKES, FRANCES GILLESPY. The Inner World of Man. New York and London, 1950.

WILHELM, RICHARD. The Secret of the Golden Flower. With a European commentary by C. G. Jung. Translated by Cary F. Baynes. London and New York, 1932; revised edn., 1962.

WIRTH, ALBRECHT. Aus orientalischen Chroniken. Frankfurt a. M., 1894.

WISCHNITZER-BERNSTEIN, RAHEL. Symbole und Gestalten der judischen Kunst. Berlin, 1935.

WUNSCHE, AUGUST. or Die Leiden des Messias. Leipzig, 1870.

Zohar, The. Translated by Harry Sperling and Maurice Simon. London, 1931-34. 5 vols.

ZOSIMUS. "Rosmus ad Sarratantam." See (A) Artis auriferae, v.



1. For details of the Collected Works of C. G. Jung, see end of this volume.

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In entries relating to the books of the Bible, the numbers in parentheses
indicate the chapter and verse(s) referred to.


Aaron, 107, 228
abaissement du niveau mental, 28,
Abarbanel, Isaac. 74, 107
Abba, Rabbi, 80
Abercius inscription, 73, 89n, 103,
115, 117
ablution, 187
Abot de Rabbi Nathan, 113n
Abraham, 59
Abraham ben Hiyya, Rabbi, 74
Abu Ma'shar/Abu Mansor, see
accentuation, moral, of opposites,
acetum, 160; see also vinegar
Achamoth, see Sophia
act of God, 25
Acts of the Apostles, (2: 3), 135n;
(7: 43), 75n; (17: 29, 30), 19In
Acts of Thomas, see Thomas, Acts
Adam, 199; Adam/Eve syzygy, 254;
carries Eve with him, 206; Christ
and, 39, 197, 232; Eve's birth
from, 205f; first and second, 37;
higher, 197, 214, 232, 237, 240,
248, 255; -, and lower, 227,
233; lower, 244. 255; male/female,
204; mystic, 36; original man/
Anthropos/ Archanthropos, 200,
203, 208, 218n; relation to creator
and creatures, 189; as "rock, " 88,
208; second, 201, 204; and serpent,
233, 244f
Adamantius, dialogue of, 54n
Adamas (arch-man), 208
adamas (steel), 161
Adam Scotus, 100f
adaptation, weak, and emotion, 9
Adar, month of, 119
Adech, 213
Adler, Alfred, 165
Adonis, 121, 199
"Aenigmata ex Visione Arislei,"
126, 127n, 137-38, 142
Aeon: Autopator as, 191; birth from
Kore, 104
aeon, Christian, ix
"aes Hermetis, " 156
Aesculapius, serpent of, 245n
affects, 9; and anima/animus, 16;
feeling-tone, 33
Africa, 96, 175
agape, 90
Agathodaimon, 186; serpent as, 188,
230, 245n
ages, two, in pseudo-Clement, 55
aggregation, states of, 250f, 257
190-92, 193n; God's, 194
Ailly, Pierre d', 75n, 76n, 77n, 82,
83, 96, 97, 98n, 99
Aipolos, 216
air, 249
Akathriel, 60
albedo, 148, 235
Albertus Magnus, 77n, 80n, 87, 256
Albigenses, 150
Albumasar Ua'far ibn Muhammad
[Abu Ma'shar) al-Balkhi), 75, 76-
78nn, 80n, 95n, 96, 97, 99
alchemy /alchemists, 89 et passim;
beginnings of, 173; Catharism
and, 150; Chinese, 264; and
Christ, 182; Christ-image in, 67;
compensation in, 124; conjunction
of opposites in, 40; dragon in,
120; eagle in, 64n; fish in, 126fJ;
Latin, beginnings of, 87; motive
of, 171; and natural science, 176;
Negroes in, 210; pagan currents
in, 176; phenomenology of symbols
in, 179; physical speculations
of, 249ff; quaternio in, 232fJ; rise
of, 150; significance of matter in,
66; and "theoria, " 179; unconscious
in, 142
Alciati, Andrea, 158
alcohol, 225
alembics, three, 241
Alexandria, 89, 104, 156n
Alexius Comnenus, 148
"Allegoriae sapientum supra librum
Turbae, " 126
"Allegoriae super librum Turbae, "
125n, 126, 127n
allegories, see symbols
Allenby, Amy Ingeborg, 268n
Almaricus, see Amalric of Bene
Amalric of Bene, 83
ambivalence, 13; of fish symbol,
Ambrose, St., 88, 235n
Amen, 206
Amitabha land, vision of, 151n
Amon, 78
Amoraim, 80n
Amos, Book of, (5: 26), 741
Anacreon, beaker of, 211
analogy formation, 261
analysis, 260
anamnesis, 40, 180
Andrew, St., 89
androgyny, of Christ, 204, 205
angels, 146, 195
Angelus Silesius, 206
Anger, Rudolph, 74n
Ani, Papyrus of, 76n
anima, 8, 10, 13ff, 30f, 187, 266; and
Eros, 14; feeling-value of, 28;
liberty as, 30; Miriam as, 210,
228; novelists and, 267; personification
of unconscious, 11n; possession
by, 23; see also animal
anima/animus: appearance of contents,
19; cannot be integrated,
20; effects on ego, 16f; fear of,
33; feeling-value of, 28; as functions,
20; positive aspect, 268;
recognition of, 22, 267; relation
to each other, 15
anima christiana, 36
anima mundi, 136, 142, 160, 198,
anzma rationalis, 38f, 212n
anima rerum, 157-58n
animals, helpful, 145, 186
animosity, 16, 267
animus, 8, 10, '4fJ, 3of, 33, 266,
267; and logos, 14, 16, 21; positive
aspect of, 16; see also animal
annunciation, of Christ-figure, 189
Anthropos, 246, 247, 259; Christ as,
204; figures, ix, 65, 204; Gnostic,
197f; -, names of, 189; and
Hermes, 230; king as, 198; serpent/
snake and, 232f; symbol for
God, 195; vessel as counterpart
of, 242; see also Adam; Archanthropos;
Man, original; Protanthropos
Anthropos quaternio, 231, 233, 244,
Anthropus primus, Saturn as, 197
Antichrist, ix, 36, 61, 62, 63, 94,
106; astrological origin, 76; astrological
prediction of, 99; as half
archetype of self, 44; as King of
the Jews, 79n, 107; Nostradamus
on, 101; problem of, 42f; prophecies
of, 109; second, 96, 102; as
shadow of self, 42, 44
antimimon pneuma, 35, 42
Antony, Mark, 144
Anu, 124
Apelles, 75
Apep, 76
Aphrodite, 21, 104, 112, 217
Apocalypse, ix, 36, 90, 105-6, 110;
see also Revelation of St. John
apocatastasis, 40, 169, 259
Apollo, 81, 252
Apollonius of Tyana, 126n
Apophis-serpent, 230
apperception, 169
aqua, 160; abyssi, 215; doctrinae,
159, 180, 185, 187, 188, 215, 241;
permanens, 88, 150, 158, 187n,
235, 239n, 241; roris nostri, 158
Aquarius (), 82, 87, 91, 92, 93
Aquilo, 100, 125
Arab tradition, fish in, 123
Aratus, 92n
arcane substance/arcanum, 152, 157,
159, 160, 163, 187n; artifex as,
155; fishes as, 150; healing power
of, 180; called lapis, 236; magnesia
as, 156; in man and without,
162; refers to self, 145
Archanthropos, 197, 203, 209; see
also Adam; Anthropos; Man, or-
iginal; Protanthropos
Archegonos, 201n
archetic appetite, 133, 134
archetype(s), 8, 16f, et passim; in
art history, 68; assimilation of,
222; autonomous factors, 21; denotes
completeness, 68; good and
bad effects of, 267; image of instinct,
179; numinosity of, 184n,
196; self as, 167, 169; of the Spirit,
85; totality of, 196; unconscious
organizers of our ideas, 179; see
also anima; animus; brothers,
hostile; Christ; God-man; marriage
quaternio; mother, chthonic;
mother-son marriage; Redeemer;
self; shadow; spirit of
gravity; wholeness; wise old man
Archeus, 133n, 213
Archon(s): Christ and, 65; demiurge,
190; of future/this Aeon, 254;
Gnostic, 57, 230; Ialdabaoth, 75,
208; Sabaoth, 76
argument, animus and, 15
Aries (), 74n, 82, 90n, 98, 103;
see also Ram
Arisleus, 143; vision of, 130n; -,
see also "Aenigmata ex Visione
"Aristoteles de perfecto Magisterio, "
Aristotle, 51
Armilus, 107
Ars chemica, 187n
art, history of, archetype in, 68
Artefius, 132n
Artis auriferae, 126n, 13on, 197n,
238n, 240n, 241n
"as if, " 203
ascendent, 82n, 148
ascension, 65
Ascension of Isaiah, 57
aspersion, 187
ass. 751
assimilation, 189; ego/self, 24/; by
projection-making factor, 24
Assumptio Mariae, see Mary
assumptions, 15
Astarte, 112
astrology, 262; Fishes in, 111; Oriental,
93; Saturn in, 75ff
Atargatis. 73, 104, 111, 112, 121
atheism, 109
Athens: Little Metropolis, 91; St.
Paul and, 176, 191
atman, 32, 69. 144, 167, 194, 222
atom, 237, 242, 249, 260
attention, 24
Attis, 213, 217n; as Ichthys, 152n;
"holy shepherd, " 89n; polymorphous,
199; Shepherd and, 103
Augurellus, Joannes Aurelius, 232n
Augustine, St., 38-40&nn, 46, 49-51,
52, 72n, 79n, 8on, 90n, 100, 113,
120, 147, 158, 182
Augustus, 144
Aurelia occulta, 187n
Aurora consurgens, 88n, 156n, 22on,
1I38n, 239n, 141
aurum nostrum, 127
Authades, Ig7n
authority, inner, 25-26
autism, 9
autoerotism, projections and, 9
Autogenes, 197n
autonomy: of anima/animus, 20, 28;
of archetypes, 21; of characteristics
of shadow, 8
Autopator, 190f
Autun, 89
avatar, 176
Aztecs, 144


Baal, 119
Baba Bathra, see Talmud
Baba Kamma, see Talmud
Babylon, 121
Babylonian tradition, 124
Bacchus, 199
Bacon, Roger, 87, 97, 256
Bactria, 74
Bahman Vast, 108
Balaam, 59, 117
Balak, 59
baptism, 89, go,
Barabbas, 91
barbel, 122
Barbelo, 195, 197n; Barbelo-Gnosis,
196n, 197n
Bardesanes, 54
Bar-Kuni, see Theodor Bar-Kuni
Baruch, Apocalypse of, 115, 116,
Basil the Great, St., 46-48, 82, 12g
Basilides/Basilidians, 64, 66, 185n,
Ig0, 230, 234n, .269
Basilius (Bogomil bishop), 148
bath kol, 106
Baubo, chthonic, 13
Bauer, Walter, 213n
bear, as symbol, 226
Bear, Great, see Great Bear
Beasts, Lady of the, 116
Beatus, Giorgius, 187n
beetle, 226
Beghards, 84, 150
Beguins, 150
Behemoth, 115n, 118, 120, 121, III3,
147n; battle with Leviathan, 80,
118; eucharistic food, 116
being, in God, Ig3
Belinus, 126n
beloved, 12, 13
Benat na'sh, 124
Benedict, St., 82-83, 85
Benoist, Jean, 145
Berakoth, see Talmud
Bereshith Rabba(ti), 5gn, 106
Bernard of Clairvaux, St., 125
Bernardus Trevisanus, 143, 23gn
Berthelot, Marcellin, 65n, 127n,
143n, 156n, 15gn, 238n, 264n
Bethlehem, 106
Bible, Protestants and, 178
bin, 121
bird(s): allegory of Christ. 72; two
fighting, 150; white and black.
body, 64~5; in Basilides, 66
body /spirit triads, 55
Bogomils, 58, 147, 150
88; see also font Bohme, Jakob, 61, 125, 171, 252n
Boll, Franz Johannes, 81n, 90n,
gin, 104n, 105
Bouche-Leclercq, Auguste, 75n, 76n,
81n, 104n, l12n
Bousset, Wilhelm, 75n, 108n, 109,
197n, 198n, 208n, 219n, 220n
Brahe, Tycho, 81n
brahman, 222
"Bread through God, " 84
breasts. Christ's, 205
Brethren of the Free Spirit, 84, 150
brh, 119
Brihadriranyaka Upanishad, 223
Brimos, 217
brother-sister pair, 31, 210
brothers, hostile, 80n, 81, 87, 254;
monsters as, 119
Brugsch, Heinrich, 207n
Buddha, symbol for God, 195
Buddhism, 136; and yoga, 176; see
also Zen
Budge, Ernest Alfred Wallis, 88n,
122n, 123, 207n
bull: Behemoth as, 120; Mithras
and, 124; one-horned, 199; as
symbol, 226
Bundahish, 246n


Cabala/cabalism/cabalists, 58, 61,
125, 173, 218n, 268
Cabiros/Cabiri, 201, 212
Cabrol, Fernand, and Leclercq,
Henri, 89n
Caesarius of Heisterbach, 239n
calendar, revolutionary, 98
Caligula, 144
Campbell, Colin, 198
Cana, miracle of, 211
Canopic jars, 122
Canticles, see Song of Solomon
Capricorn (), 92, 111
caput corvi, 210
carbon-nitrogen cycle, 260
Carcassonne, 145
Cardan, Jerome, 76n, 77n, 82, 95n
Carthage, 121
Carus, C. G., 6
Cassino, Monte, 83
castle, as symbol, 224
Castor, 81
cat, black, 30
Cathari/Cathars, 58, 83, 146ff; and
alchemy, 150
causation, psychological, 62
causes, 165
Caussin, Nicholas, 128, 192
Celsus, 75
centre, 224; in alchemy, 169; in
man, and God-image, 171; in one-
self and environment, 170; in
Plotinus, 219; psychic and ale
chemical, 171
cerebellum, "Son" and, 186
cerebrum, "Father" and, 186
Chaldaeans, 111
chalybs, 132
chaos, 79, 148, 155, 194, 234, 236-
37; and cosmos, 32; magnesia as,
156; see also massa confusa
Charles, R. H., 115n, 118n, 147n
Chartier, Jean, 139n
chemical processes, alchemy and.
cherub/cherubim, 123, 241
child: divine, 31; symbol for God,
China: circular opus in, 264;
dragon symbolism in, 245; religions
of, 70
"chirographum, " 230 & n
Chiun, 74, 75n
choice: four elements and, 56; free, 5
Christ, 32, 255; and age of fishes,
92, 114; as Anthropos, 204; and
Antichrist, 61, 115; archetype of
self, 37; - of wholeness, x, 40;
assimilation into psyche, 221;
attributes of, and self, 44; as
avatar of Vishnu, 176; childhood
of, 103; common symbols with
devil, 72; and contents of unconscious,
181; death of, 35; descent
into hell, 39; dualistic aspects,
Ill; both ego and self, 110; as
fish, see fish(es); and horoscope,
136-37; horoscopes of, 77n; human
soul of, 39; as inner man,
203; as king and priest, 39, 147;
lamb and, 105-6; male/female,
205; and Mary, in Gnostic legend,
202; as new aeon, 90; the perfect
man, 69; pre-existent, 148; as
quaternion of opposites, 63; as
rock, 88; scriptural symbols of,
221; second, 65; and self, parallel,
42, 44; and serpent, 186, 232;
and shadow, 41n, 110; spouse of
the Church, 21; subjective parallel of,
182; symbol for God, 195;
- of self, 36ff, 62n; synoptic and
Johannine, 72; transfiguration of,
122n; "uncomeliness" of, 140;
"within, " 183; as younger son of
God, 57, 147; see also Adam;
androgyny; Ichthys
Christ-figure: annunciation of, 189;
significance of, 203-4
Christ-image: anthropomorphic, 67;
perfection of, 68-69
Christensen, Arthur, 77n, 246n
Christian doctrine: and nature, 173;
and the psyche, 174
Christianity: astrological origin, 76;
divine syzygy in, 21; Germanic
acceptance of, 175; myths underlying,
179; place in Western life,
Christmas Eve, 111
Chronos, 139
chthonic world, shadow and, 34
Church: as Bride of Christ/Lamb,
21, 204; as female, 21n; in modern
world, 176; soul as, 206; as
symbol, 224
Chwolsohn, Daniel, 75n, 197n
cinedian fish/ stone, 138-39
circle(s): character of wholeness,
224n; God as, 153; magic, 32; in
Maier, 264; soul as, 219; and
square/squaring of, 224-25, 239,
241, 264; squared, of self, 204;
symbols, 194; - of God, 195; -,
self in, 190
circumambulation, 224
citrinitas, 127
city: heavenly, 37; in Oxyrhynchus
sayings, 145; -as symbol, 224
Clement of Alexandria, 22, 113n,
121, 222, 234n
Clement of Rome, 125; Second
Epistle to Corinthians, 21n; for
pseudo-Clement, see Clementine
Clementine Homilies, 54ff, 101n,
192n, 254
cloud, 155
Cnidaria, 128
Codex Ashburnham 1166, 232
cognition, 61, 69
collective unconscious, 7, 164, 223,
234; archetypes and, 8; autonomy
of, 20; dogma and, 174-75; and
mythology, 179
CoIlesson, Johannes, 160, 162
collision, of conscious and uncon-
scious, 194
collyrium, 127
Colossians, Epistle to the, (2: 14),
commissure, 93, 148
compass, 134
Compendium theologicae veritatis,
compensation: function of unconscious,
20; in man and woman, 14
completeness: and perfection, 68,
69, 111; voluntary, 70; see also
complexio oppositorum, 6In, 225,
267; see also coniunctio oppositorum
compulsion, 140; c. neurosis, 10
concept, 33; merely a name, 32;
metaphysical, 34
Concorricci, 83, 146n
concupiscentia, 112, 129
confusion, 194
coniunctio, of Adam and Eve, 206
coniunctio(nes) maxima(e), 82, 96,
97, 98, 111
coniunctio oppositorum, 31, 152,
159, 167, 268; see also opposites,
conjunction of
conscientiousness, 24
consciousness: in Autopator, 191;
broadening of, and opus, 148;
cannot comprehend whole, 110-
differentiation of, 191; and discrimination,
260; ego and. 3. 24;
ego as subjective, 164; founded
on unconsciousness, 30; God·
image and, 194; limits of its field,
3; monsters and development of,
121; myths and coming of, 148;
relation of unconscious manifestations
to, 225; and splitting of
Original Man, 204; threshold of,
4; see also ego
consensus omnium / consensus generalis,
29, 30, 47, 178
constellations, 29
consummation of universe, 254
conversion, 40
copulation, 206; self·, 207
coral. 125n
Corinthians, First Epistle to. (5 : 2).
23n; (10 : 4). 88; (10 : 16), 115n;
(15 : 47), 39n; Second Epistle to
(Clement of Rome), un
Cornarius, 191
corpus mysticum, 32
correspondence: in opus alchemi-
cum, 262; principle of, 258; see
also synchronicity
cortex, 127, 137-38
coryhants, 211
Corybas, see Korybas
cosmos, and chaos, 32; see also
Cramer, H., 213n
crazes, 169
creation: Heliopolitan story of, 207;
and opus, 148; of world by devil.
creator: as dreaming. 192; Gnostic
symbols for, 196
creed. 174, 179
crocodile, 244
cross, 65n, 182, 189; as quaternity
symbol, 204, 224; and snake, 78n;
as symbol of God, 195
crucifixion, 69, 70; punishment for
slaves, 78n
crystal, 224
culture hero, Christ as, 36
Cumont. Franz, 91n, 115n, 121
Curetes, 2 11
Cybele, 121
Cyprian, St., 112n
Cyranides, 138


Dactyls, 212
Dagon, 115n, 121
daimon(ion), 27, 199, 226
Damdad-Nashk, 246n
damnation, eternal, 61n
Daniel, Book of, 74; (2: 34).
208n; (2 : 35). 209n; (2 : 45), 88n;
(3 : 24f), 199: (3 : 25), 123n;
(11 : 36ff), 36n
Dardaris. 250
daughter, 12; and father, 14, 16
David, 79
dawn-state, 148
dealbatio, 148
Dee, John. 221
Degenhardus, 139
De Gubernatis, Angelo, 114
"De igne et sale, " 132n
deliberation, 16
Demeter, 12
demiurge, 110, 230; Basilidian, 190;
devil as, 150, 232; Esaldaios, 208;
Gnostic, 150, 196, 197-98; ignorant,
myth of, 189: Satanael as,
147-48; son of, 190
Democritus (alchemist), 143n, 159
Denderah, 76n, 91
Denzinger, Heinrich, and Bann·
wart, Klemens, 52n, 83n, 253n
Derceto, 73, 104. III
descensus ad inferos, 39
Deus absconditus, 135
Deussen, Paul, 152n
Deuteronomy, (32 : 17). 107;
(32 : 39), 55
devaluation, of sexuality, 226
devil: as Adversary. 42; his body
of fire, 132n; in Christian dogma,
124; counterpart of God, 61; as
demiurge, 150, 232; and evil, 48;
fourth person, 208; God ruling
world through, 254; in Joachim
of Flora, 86; Origen and fate of,
110; in Protestantism, 41; serpent
as. 188, 230; symbols, in common
with Christ, 72; world created by,
146; see also Satan
dharma, 217n
Didymus of Alexandria, 235n
Dieterich, Albrecht, 89. 124n
dilemma, of one and three, 195,
224, 225
din, 58
Diodoros (Megarian philosopher),
Diodorus, 76
Dionysius the Areopagite, 46, 49, 51
Dionysus, 81. 158
Diorphos. 121
Dioscorides, 156n
Dioscorus, 159n
Dioscuri, 81
Diotima, 27
discrimination, 121, 258, 260; of the
natures, 79
distillation, circular, 265
disturbance, symptoms of, 29
divisio, 168, 187; see also separatio
doctrinairism, 86
doctrine, Christian, see Christian
Doelger, Franz Josef, 73, 89, ll3n,
114n, 115, 121
dog, 150
dogma(s), 169, 174-75; barbarian
peoples and, 175; "belief" in, 178;
believers and, 178n; drift from,
179; prejudice against, 175; reason
for insistence on, 179; and
"sacred history, " 179; see also
Dominican order, 83
Domitian, 110
Dorn, Gerhard, 157, 159, 160-64,
166, 169-71, 174, 181, 187n, 197n,
220, 221n, 239. 264
dove, 115n, 139. 197
Dozy, Reinhart, and de Goeje,
M. J., 75n
drachates / draconites / dracontias,
138, 139, 140
draconite, see drachates
Dragomanov, M., 147n
dragon, 155, 197; in China, 245;
head of, 100; and snake, 233n,
244; stone of, 138!; winged and
wingless, 120; and woman, 12,
103-4; see also snake
dream-analysis, 203
dreams, 25, 30, 35. 142, 223, 243;
anima/animus in, 19; childhood,
190; of disoriented student, 134;
fire in, 137n; of fishes, 151-52;
image of self in, 67; instinctual
foundation of, 203n; mandalas in,
31; of Passion play and snake,
78n; quaternary symbols in, 132n;
shadow in, 120; symbolism in,
Drews, Arthur, 90n
dualism: in archetypal self, 42; in
Christ-figure, 111; God's humanity
and, 110; Manichaean, 49, 55,
57n, 58, 61, 269
duality: man's, 255; symbol for
God, 195
du Cange, Charles, 128n, 138n, 154n
"Duodecim portarum axiomata philosophica, "
"Duodecim tractatus, " 156n, 158
duty, conflicts of, 25, 45
dyad, 194
Dyophysites. 110


Ea, 121
eagle, 64, 72, 120
earth, 264
East, Philosophical, 1112
Ebionites, 44, 81, 147, Ig7
Ecclesiasticus (g: 18[25]), 135;
(48: I), 129
echeneu, 140-42, 144, 145, 154-55
echinus, see echeneis
Eckhart, Meister, 87, 135, 189, 193-
94, 206, 219
ecliptic, 93, 124
Eden, 225, 234; see also Paradise
education, modern, and dissociation,
egg, 220n, 239n
ego, 190; acquired during lifetime,
5; approximation to self, 23;
archetypes and, 8; as centre of
personality, 6; Christ's correspondence
to, 110; complex nature
of, 3; conscious and unconscious
in, 4; dependence on
unconscious, 7; effects of animal
animus on, 16; exponent of self,
223; individuality of, 6; inflation
of, 23-24; its knowledge of itself,
163-64; and metaphysical ideas,
34; not coincident with conscious
personality, 4; overpowering of,
23; perplexity of, 189; relative
abolition of, 45; somatic and psychic
bases of, 3, 4; subjective consciousness,
164; subordinate to
self, 5; as total consciousness, 5;
what it is, 3; see also assimilation;
ego-consciousness: differentiation
from unconscious, 24; and psyche,
164; shadow and, 28
Egypt, 200n; fish-cult in, 121; flight
of Christ to, 103; and Israel, common
symbols, 123; Jews in, 78;
slaying of firstborn in, 58n
eidos, 114
eight, 224
Eisler, Robert, 90n, 91n, 103n, 104n,
116n, 121n
Eleazar, Abraham, 131
electron, 187n
elements, four, 251, 254, 264f, Plate
I; contained in lapis, 166, 237 &
n; hate and love of, 17; quaternity
of, 86, 197n; as stages of fire, 249
elephant, 226
Elephantine, 121
Eleusis: mysteries of, 217; priests of,
Elias, 106, 122n
elixir vitae, 127, 180
Elogabal, 89n
Elysian Fields, 30
Emmaus, 113
emotion: not an activity, g; and the
shadow, 8-9
emotionality, female, 55
Empedocles, 17
enantiodromia, ix, 43, 93, 95, 102,
108, 149, 225, 258
ends, 165
energy, 251
enkekalymmenos, 18
Enlightenment, the, 43, 150
, 191, 197n; see also consciousness
"Entkrist, " 101
Enuma Elish, 124
environment: influence of, 21; projections
and, 9-10
Ephesians, Epistle to the: (3: 18),
88n; (4: 23), Ig3n; (5: 14), 208
Ephrem the Syrian, St., 140
Epictetus, 213n
Epidaurus, 188
Epiphanius, 44n, 57, 66, 72n, 76n,
81n, 88, 104, 114, 147, 15gn, 190n,
197, 202, 208!
Epiphany, 104
epiphenomenon, psyche as, 174
equation, quaternio as, 257ff
equinoctial point, 77&n
Erman, Adolf, 78
Eros, 11, 12, 19; anima and, 14, 16,
21; a mighty daimon, 27
Esaldaios, 197; "the fourth, " 208
eschatological state, 169
eschatology, in New Testament, 36
Esdras II, 121n; (6: 49ff), 147n;
(13: 2ff), 120; (13: 25), 115n
"Ethiopian woman, " 228, 251, 252
Ethiopians, 210
Eubulides, 18n
eucharist, fish and, 113, 115n, 121,
eucharistic: act of integration, 144;
feast, of Ophites, 188; food, Leviathan
as, 119f
Eucherius, 72n, 100
Euchites, 44, 148
Euphrates, 104, 184-85, 199f, 211,
225, 235, 251, 252
Euthymios Zigabenos, 148
evangelists, four, 36, 195; symbols
of, 123
Eve, 204, 2051, 206, 235; see also
Everlasting Gospel, see Gospel
evil, 41, 46ff; absolute, 10; animal
animus and, 267; Christianity
and, 109; and disposition of soul,
61; Gnostics and, 230; and good,
44-45n, 46ff, 267; and the north,
124; principle of, as creator, 256;
shadow and, 266-67; see also
privatio boni
evolution, 180
exaltatio, of Aphrodite, 112
exaltation, 156n
Exodus, Book of:
(12 : 22), 58;
(15:20f), 210;
(33 : 5), 58
experience: intersexual, 21n; sensory
and immediate, 3
extrasensory perception, 184n
eyes, seven, 105n
Ezekiel, 101, 105n, 124, 132, 195,
241; (1: 22), 123; (1: 26), 123


factors: causal and final, of psychic
existence, 165; see also subjective
fairy tales, 149, 169, 180
faith: is absolute, 174; crumbling
away of content, 178; and dogma,
178; rift from knowledge, 173f
Fall, the, 37, 39
Fallopius, Gabriel, 158
Fanianus, Joannes Chrysippus, 157
Farnese Atlas (Naples), 91
father: and daughter, 14; demiurge
as, 190; in female argumentation,
15; God as, 193; idea of, 18f; in
Moses quaternio, 227; "signs of
the," 190; as unconscious, 191
father-animus, 210
father-mother, symbol for God, 195
fear, of unconscious, 33
feeling, 31, 178; function of value,
feeling-tones, 28, 33; subjective and
objective, 29
feeling-value, 28, 31
female, see male and female
femininity, man's, 21n
Ferguson, John, 133n
"Fidelissima et jucunda instructio
de arbore solari, " 140n, 154
Fierz-David, Hans Eduard, 251n
Fierz-David, Linda, 13n
fifth, the, 225
filius macrocosmi, 66, 127, 155, 237
filius philosophorum, 66, 127, 155,
fire, 101, 264; in alchemy, 130ff, 252;
as dream-symbol, 132n, 137n;
four aspects of, 132, 249ff; and
water, 225
firmament, 164
Firmicus Maternus, Julius, 88
firstborn, slaying of the, 58n
fish(es): 189, 244; aeon of the, 62;
allegory of the damned, 122; in
Arab tradition, 123; assimilation
of Christ-figure, 182; Atargatis
cult and, 121; bad qualities of,
112; beneath the earth, 145;
Christ and, 92, 113, 120; Christ
and age of, 92, 111; and Christ as
Ichthys, 115; Christian significance
of, 114; direction of, 91; "drawn
from the deep, " 79n, 120; eaten
by Christ, 121n; and fire, 135-36;
golden, dream of, 151-52; great,
as shadow of God, 119; -, splitting
of, 119; historical significance
of, 103ff; in Jewish symbolism,
115, 121; Lambspringk's symbol
of reversed, 150; and Leviathan,
120; miraculous draught of, 89;
as mother and son, 111, 114;
originally one, 111; pagan symbolism,
115f; Platonic month of,
ix, 149; in primitive Christianity,
188; "round, " 127ff, 137-38, 140,
144; as ruling powers, 147, 149; as
sepulchral symbol, 115; and serpent,
186; sign () of the, 720,
91; -, a double sign, 111; -,
twelfth, of zodiac, 118; Southern,
111n, 112; symbol, ambivalence
of, 118ff; -, of Christ, 67, 72ff,
89; -, in Eastern religions, 73;
-, of love and religion, 12g; -,
of self, 226; -, of soul, 122; symbolism
of, and self, 183; yoked,
145, 147, 148-49; zodiacal, in
Lambspringk, 145
fish-deities, Semitic, 121
fisherman, 112
fish-glue. 127n
five, 224
fixation, 168
Flaccianus, 72n
flatus voeis, 32
"flesh, " the, 233
flood, god who dwells in, 211
flower, as symbol of self, 226
Fludd, Robert, 262n
Fomalhaut, 111 n, 112
font, baptismal, 73
formlessness, 66
four, see elements s.v. four
"fourth, " the, 184, 252
Franciscan order, 83
Franz, Marie-Louise von, ix, 88n,
210n, 220n, 262n
Free Spirit: Brethren of the, 84,
150; and Eckhart, 194
freedom: of ego, limited. 7; moral,
26; subjective feeling of, 5
French Revolution, 43, 98, 233
Freud, Sigmund, 165, 203n; sexualistic
approach to psyche, 226
frivolity, and evil, 61-62
Frobenius, Leo, 111n
fructificatio, 83
functions: anima/animus as, 20;
differentiated and undifferentiated,
195; four, of consciousness,
258. 259; quaternity of, 196; rational,
28; reflex, 233; sensory,
rivers as, 199; and space-time
quaternio, 253


Gaedechens, Rudolf, 91n
Galileo, 34
gall, fish's, 137
Gamaliel the Elder, 113n
Gamow, George, 260n
garbha griha, 217n
Gargaros, 206n
Garnerius, 100, 125n
gate, narrow, 200
Gayomart, 246
Gehenna, fire of, 131
Gemini (), 77, 80n, 81, 83n
Genesis, Book of, 204, 235; (1 : 2).
148, 237; (I: 7), 184n; (18: 23).
59; (28: 17), 214n; (44: 5), 211n
Genesis, Johannine, 80
"genius, " man's, 45
geomancy, 261
Gerard of Borgo San Donnino, 82
Gerhardt, Oswald, 74n, 75n, 77
Germanic peoples, 175
Geryon, 211
Gihon, 199, 225, 235
"Gloria mundi, " 88n, 130
Gnosticism/Gnostics, 58, 93, 181,
192, 196ff, 269; and alchemy, 173,
232; Christ-figure in, 203; and
demiurge, 150n; Eckhart and,
194; and evil, 41, 46, 109f; and
Holy Ghost, 86; and magnetism,
154; and psyche, 174; as psychologists,
222; quaternio among,
242ff, 254ff; and symbols of self,
184ff; and unconscious, 190-91;
and water, 159n
god: dying, 206; "earthly, " Mercurius
as, 232
God: absolute, 143; of Basilidians,
190; fish as shadow of, 119; and
man, affinity, 209; in Old and
New Testaments, 192; pneuma
and soma in, 254; quaternary
view of, 253n; symbols for, 195;
threefold sonship, 64; two sons of,
147; union of natures in, 110;
will of, 26f; without consciousness,
192; of wrath and of love,
God-eating, 144
Godhead: in Eckhart, 193; Second
Person of, 196; unconscious, 193
God-image: alchemy and, 125;
anthropomorphic, 55, 67; centre
as, 219; in Christ and man, 38;
Christian doctrine as expressing,
174; an experience, 194; human
element in, 121; incomplete, 120;
reformation of, 40; results of destruction
of, 109; self as, 63, 109;
and transcendent centre in man,
171; transformations of, and
changes in consciousness, 194;
and wholeness, 198; Yahwistic,
58; see also Imago Dei
God-man, archetype, 181-82
"gods": anima/animus as, 21; ithyphallic,
211; theriomorphic attributes
of, 29
goddess, heavenly, 13
Goethe, J. W. von, 208, 234
Gog and Magog, 79, 80n, 107
gold, in alchemy, 264
good and evil, see evil
Goodenough, Erwin R., 73n, 90n,
113n, 115n, 117, 120n, 122n, 145n
Gospel, Everlasting, 82, 85, 88
gospels: miraculous element in, 177;
synoptic, 93
grace: divine, 129; restoration
through, 39; state of, 34
grape, 200
Grasseus, Johannes, 139
Gratarolus, Gulielmus, 146n, 232n
gravity, spirit of, 116n
Great Bear, 123, 124
Great Mother(s), 89n, 112, 199, 210
green/greenness, 30, 245
Gregory the Great, St., 101, 205n,
Grenfell, B. P., and Hunt, A. S., 37n
ground, universal, 195, 200; Gnostic
symbols for, 196ff
Guignebert, Charles, 213n
gyne (woman), 104n


Habakkuk, Book of, (2 : 3), 60
Haggard, H. Rider, 267n
Hahn, Christoph Ulrich, 84, 145n,
Haly, 239n
Hanan ben Tahlifa, Rabbi, 80n
handwriting, 230
Hapi, 123
Harnack, Adolf, 54n, 254n
Harran, 126
Hartmann, E. von, 6
Hathor, Temple of, 91
heaven(s), 155; in Ascension of
Isaiah, 57; four pillars of, 123;
iron plate in, 122-23; kingdom
of, 145; lapis in, 170; northern,
Heb-Sed festival, 198
Hecate, 21
Heidegger, Johann Heinrich, 76n
Heimarmene, 93n, 137n
Helen (Selene), 21
Helen (in Simon Magus), 197n
Heliogabalus, 89n
hell, 135; St. Basil on, 129; eternity
of, 110; fire of, 131, 132; God's
love in, 125
hemispheres, 134
hemlock, 217n
Hennecke, Edgar, 57n
Henry II, of France, 95
heptad, 197n
Hera, 206n; Babylonian, 116
Heracles, 81
Heraclitus, 219, 250
heresies, 150
hermaphrodite, 159, 211, 234, 248;
and elevated places, 206; Original
Man as, 204; stone as, 246; symbol
for God, 195
Hermaphroditus, 127
Hermas, "Shepherd" of, 88n, 103,
Hermes, 21, 155, 209, 234, 245; bird
of, 221; ithyphallic, 230; Kriophoros,
103; Kyllenian/Kyllenios,
201, 211, 212, 232; Naassene view
of, 208; "Ter Unus," 177; see also
Hertz, Martin, 136n
Heru-ur, 78, 122-23, 132n
hesed, 58
hexad, 228
hexagrams, 260
Hiddekel, 225, 235
hieros gamos, 12, 39-40, 89n, 206
Hierosolymus, 76n
Hinduism, and Buddhism, 176
Hipparchus, 81, 91
Hippocrates, 201n
Hippolytus, 1, 64, 65n, 66, 75n,
88n, 114, 139, 173, 184, 186, 187,
191, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 208ff,
222, 223n, 226, 230n, 233, 254
hiranyagarbha, 246
Hitler, Adolf, 102
Hoghelande, Theobald de, 137,
239n, 240
Holderiin, Friedrich, 29
Hollandus, Johannes Isaacus, 235n
Holy Ghost, 135, 162; age of, 82-
83, 85-86; espousal of, 86; fire of,
129, 131; indwelling of, 88;
movement, 85-86, 87, 89, 150
Homer: Iliad, 206n, 218n; Odyssey,
208n, 209, 216
homo: altus, 232; coelestis, 39;
maximus, 198; quadratus, 264
homosexual, 12
homunculus, 232, 246
Honorius of Autun, 101n
hook, fish-, 112n
horos, 65n
horoscope, 136-37, 224; zodia in,
horse, 226
Horus, 104, 122; four sons of, 122,
123, 124, 132, 240, 243; "older,"
78; quaternio, 243; see also Hemur
house, as symbol, 2241
Hugh of Strasbourg. 8on, 102n
human figure, as symbol of self, 225,
Hurwitz, Sigmund, 226n, 268n
hyacinth, 139
hydromedusa, 134
hyle, 79
hypochondriac ideas, 169
hysteria, 203n; collective, 181


Ialdabaoth, 75, 208
Ibn Ezra, 108
I Ching, 118n, 260
Ichthys: Adonis as, 121; Christ as,
183; Christ or Allis as, 152n;
Christian, 112, 119-20, 121; son
of Derceto. 104, 111; see also
ideals, collective, 29
Idechtrum, 213
Ideler, Christian Ludwig, 124n
identification, with intellectual
standpoint, 31
identity, 18; of hunter and prey,
112; of lowest and highest, 246
Ides/Ideus, 213
idiosyncrasy(-ies), 169, 200
Ignatius Loyola, St., 165
ignis, see fire
ignorance, 191
illusion, 11, 16; see also maya
image of God: Christ and the soul
as, 37; see also imago Dei
imagination, active, 19, 223, 243
imago, of mother, 11, 12, 14
imago Dei, 31, 37, 38n, 41, 260; see
also God-image; image of God
Imhullu, 120
"immutability in the new rock, " 84,
87 impulses, 27
"In Turbam philosophorum exercitationes, "
incarnation, 179; fish and, 121
incest, 206, 210, 228, 229
incompzetude, sentiment d', 9
increatum, 237
India: development of symbol in,
176, 217n; Eckhart and, 194; fish
in, 114; religions of, 70; thought
of, 175
Indian influences, 223
Indies, 133-34
individuality, and ego, 6
individuation, 39, 40, 45, 200; apocatastasis
in, 169; Christianity and,
70; as mysterium coniunctionis,
64; opus and, 264; repressed, 70;
self and, 167; stone compared
with, 170; symbolized in dreams,
infans, 127
infection, psychic, 248n
inferiority, 9, 17
inflation, 25; of ego, 23-24; nega-
tive, 62; peril of, 24; religious, 84
inhabitant, of house, 225
initiation, in mysteries, 261
Innocent III, Pope, 83, 99
innocents, massacre of, 103
Inquisition, 145
insight, intellectual, insufficiency of,
instinct(s), 21, 26, 31, 40-41, 145,
179, 234; archetype image of, 179;
individual and common, 7; snake
symbol of, 244
"Instructio de arbore solari," 140n,
integration, 30, 40, 200; of collective
unconscious, 39; of contents of
anima/animus, 20; mandala and,
32; of shadow, 22; of unconscious
contents, 23
intellect, and values, 32
intellectualism, 86, 150
intensity, of idea, 28
"Interpretatio ... epistolae Alex-
andri, " 167n
Interrogationes maiores Mariae,
202, 207
Irenaeus, 41n, 45-46, 54, 65n, 66n,
lion, 150n, 196, 197n, 218n, 219n
Iron Age, fourth, 108
iron-stone, magnetic, 156n
irrationality, 17
Isaac, 90n
Isaiah, Ascension of, see Ascension
of Isaiah
Isaiah, Book of: (14: 12ff), 100;
(14: 31), 101n; (26: 20), 59;
(27: 1), 118, 119; (28: 10), 21on;
(30 : 18), 60; (33: 14), 144n;
(66 : 7), 105
Ishmael, Rabbi, 60
Ishtar, 112
Isidore of Seville, St., 154n
Isidorus (Gnostic), 234
Isis, 104
Islam, 54n, 76, 95n, 99, 176
Israel and Egypt, common symbols.


Jacob, 214
Jacobi, Jolande, 253n
Ja'far ibn Muhammad (Abu Ma'-
shar) al-Balkhi, see Albumasar
James, Epistle of, 135; (3: 5), 135n;
(3: 6), 135
James of Sarug, 75
James, Montague Rhodes, 37n,
Jeans, Sir James, 258n
jelly-fish, 128, 134, 137-38, 154n
Jeremiah, Book of: (I: 13), 101;
(1 : 14), 100
Jeremias, Alfred, 73n, 74, 112, 124n
Jesuits, 58
Jesus, 1, 65, 144, 201; faith and personality
of, I78-79; as God-man,
35; Makarios, 200; Passion of, 64,
65, 67; in Pistis Sophia, 78-79;
relation to Christ, 67; and separation
of categories, 64; as third
sonship, 67; a trichotomy, 65; as
"truth sprouting from earth, " 79;
see also Christ
Jethro, 209n, 210, 228/, 244
Joachim of Flora, 82-83, 84, 86, 87,
149, 150, 253, Plate II
job, 60, 108, 120
job, Book of, 42, 58, ll8; (26: 7),
100; (26: 12), 120; (26: 13), 12on;
(27: 21), 101; (41), 119n
Jochanan, Rabbi, 60
Johannes de Lugio, 146n
John, St., 145; Epistles of, 43, 68;
First Epistle of (4 : 3), 36n; Revelation
of, see Revelation
John, Gospel of, 148; (1), 218n;
(1: Iff), 211; (1: 2), 148; (1: 4),
211; (3:12), 202, 203; (4:10),
184n, 185, 199n; (5: 2), 131n;
(6 : 53), 202; (7: 38), 214;
(10 : 9), 185n; (10: 34), 89, 209n;
(14: 6), 200; (18: 36), 37n
John the Baptist, 192n
John Chrysostom, St., 48f
John of Paris, 80n
Jonah, 117; sign of, 111
Jonathan, Rabbi, 60
Jordan, 210-1
Joseph (father of Jesus), 78-79
Josephus, 76
Joshua, 111
jot, 218
Jothor, 20g, 210
Judaeus (son of Set), 76n
Judaism, 58ff; Messianism in, 107
judgments: good/evil as, 53; moral,
Jung, Carl Gustav:
CASES: student who dreamed of
jelly-fish, 134; young woman
with intense inner life who
dreamed of fishes, 151-52
WORKS: "Answer to Job, " 87n;
Commentary on The Secret of
the Golden Flower, 182n;
"Concerning Mandala Symbolism, "
40n, 219n; "Concerning
Rebirth, " II In; "Instinct and
Unconscious, " 8n; Memories,
Dreams, Reflections, 134n; Mysterium
Coniunctionis, 13n,
235n; "On the Nature of the
Psyche, " 4, 8n, 24n, 164n, 174n,
17gn; "On Psychic Energy, "
2gn; "Paracelsus the Physi-
cian, " 133n, 213n; "Paracelsus
as a Spiritual Phenomenon, "
211n, 214n, 23gn, 242n; "The
Phenomenology of the Spirit in
Fairy tales, " 55n, 85n, 99n,
159n, 203n, 224n, 22gn; "The
Philosophical Tree, " 235n; "A
Psychological Approach to the
Dogma of the Trinity, " 37n,
86n, 152n, 153n, 224n, 246n,
253n; Psychological Types, 28n,
116n, 159n, 223n, 224n, 253n;
Psychology and Alchemy, 3In,
37n, 40n, 63n, 64n, 67n, 78n,
87, 116n, 125n, 134n, 136n,
140n, 152n, 155n, 182, 190n,
197n, 199n, 237n, 239n, 241n,
243n, 245n, 259n, 262, 264n;
"The Psychology of the Child
Archetype, " 31n; "The Psychology
of Eastern Meditation, "
135n, 151n, 204n;
"Psychology and Religion, "
87n, 182n; "Psychology of the
Transference," 13n, 22n, 64n,
159n, 167n, 209n, 225n, 228n,
229n, 242n, 243n; "The Psychology
of the Trickster Figure, "
203n; "The Relations
between the Ego and the Unconscious,"
21 n, 23n, 63n,
182n; "The Spirit Mercurius,"
43n, 86n, 136n, 152n, 168n,
203n, 212n, 232n, 235n, 253n;
"A Study in the Process of Individuation,"
65n, 67n, 190n,
204n, 219n, 253n; Symbols of
Transformation, 101n, 111n,
132n; "Synchronicity, " 184n,
258n; "Transformation Symbolism
in the Mass, " 144n, 220n,
238n; "Uber das Selbst, " 23n


Jupiter (), 74, 76, n 78, 81, 82,
83n, 95, 97; moons of, 34
jurisprudence, and consciousness, 5
justice, of Yahweh, see Yahweh
Justin Martyr, 173, 177, 230


Ka-mutef, 206
Kant. Immanuel, 6
karma, 140n, 271n
Kaulakau, 210
Kelchner, Ernst, 102n
Kena Upanishad, 223
Kepler, Johann, 77n, 173.
kerygma tics, 177
Keshava, 114
Kewan, 75n
Khidr legend, 111
Khunrath, Heinrich
156, 220
kibla, 124
king(s), deification of, 198; divine
right of, 177
kingdom(s), heavenly/of God, 37;
two, in pseudo-Clement, 55
"kingless race, " 260
Kings, First Book of, 59; (22: 19),
kingship, and self, 198
Kircher, Athanasius, 262f
Kirchmaier, Georg Caspar, 116n
Klaus, Brother, 25
Knapp, Martin Johann, 81n
Kohut, Alexander, 246n
Kolorbas, 195
Korah, children of, 106
Koran, 111n
Kore, 104
Korion, 104
Korybas, 199, 211-12
krater, 65n, 191n
Kurma, 176
Kyrios, 182


lac virginis, 160
"Ladder of the Twin Gods, " 122
Lagarde, Paul A. de, 56n
Laiblin, Wilhelm, 149n
lake, as symbol of self, 226
Lamb, 103; in Apocalypse, 90n,
105f; Church as Bride of, 204;
marriage of the, 12, 36, 268
Lambspringk, 92n, 145, 150
lamp, 112
lapis (Philosophorum), 68, 87, 127,
139, 143, 155, 159, 182, 208, 236ff,
2470, 263; fish as symbol of, 126ff;
found only in heaven, 170; parallel
of Christ, 237; quaternio,
2380; as rock, 88; and serpent,
245; symbol of self, 268; thousand
names of, 182, 189; "uncomeliness"
of, 140; union of opposites
in, 247f; see also stone
Conrad, 88, lapis angularis (Christ), 208
lapis animalis, 157
lapis exilis, 30
lapis vegetabilis, 159
Lateran Council, Fourth, 52n, 82,
83n, 253n
lawlessness, man of, 36n
Layard, John Willoughby, 242n
lead, 139
Leda, 81
left, see right and left
legends, 169
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm, 6, 164n,
lethargia, 208n
Lethe, and unconscious, 208n
Leto, 104
Leviathan, 123, 147n, 182; battle
with Behemoth, 80, 108; eucharistic
food, 112, 120; fish and, 120;
male and female, 118
Levy-Bruhl, Lucien, 29
Lexicon medico-chymicum, 154n
Libavius, Andreas, 158
liberty, idea of, 29
libido, 132", 256; kinship, 243
Libra (), 77n, 83
Libya, 138
life-process, psychic interpretation
of, 4
light, transcendent nature of, 63n
Lightfoot, Joseph Barber, 213n
lime, unslaked, 130; see also quicklime
lingam, 217n
lion(s), 120; Michael and, 75; symbol
of Christ, 72; of the tribe of
Judah, 105; two, 150
lodestone, 189n; see also magnet
Logos, 148, 1871, 201, 252; animus
and, 14, 16, 21; cosmogonic, 211;
Gnostic, 202; Hermes as, 201; as
magnetic agent, 188; Protanthropos
as, 209; serpent as, 188,
, 207
love: fish as symbol of, 129; at first
sight, 15; God's, in hell, 125; lan-
guage of, 15
love-magic, 140
love-potion, 138
Loyola, see Ignatius
Lucian, 212
lucidus, 138n, 139n
Lucifer, 72, 125
Lugio, Johannes de, 146
Luke, Gospel of: (5: 10), 89;
(6 : 35), 89, 209n; (11 : 29f), 111n;
(16: 8), 146n; (16: 17), 218n;
(17: 20ff), 37n; (19: 12ff), 166;
(19: 27), 106n; (24: 42), 121n;
(24: 43), 113
Lully (Lull), Raymond, 239n
Luna, 235; see also moon
Luther, Martin, 89, 235; as Antichrist,
Lycia, 121
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Re: Aion, by C.G. Jung

Postby admin » Thu Feb 26, 2015 10:01 am

Part 2 of 2


Maag, Victor, 182n
Macrobius, Ambrosius Theodosius,
macrocosm, 214
Magi, 89, 132
magic, 140, 242
magnesia, 155-57, 159, 160
magnet, 133, 154ff, 184, 187n; of the
wise, 142, 155
magnetic agent, three forms of, 188
magnetism, 133n; of fish, 154;
Gnostics and, 184ff
Magog, see Gog and Magog
Magus, 167n
Mahomet, 97; see also Mohammed
Maier, Michael, 187n, 220, 249, 252,
264, pl. I
Maimonides, Moses, 116n, 119n
Mainyo-i-Khard, 246n
Majui, 80n
maladaptation, 27
Malchuth, 268
male and female, 55
man: complete, water as, 200;
higher, in Moses quaternio, 228;
inner, 208f, 228; One, 205; Original,
198, 200, 201, 203, 204, 211,
214, 216, 237, 239, see also Adam,
Anthropos, Archanthropos, Protanthropos;
perfect, 212f; pneumatic,
256; primordial, 36
"man, " in II Esdras, 120
mana, 251n
Mandaeans, 124
mandala(s), 64, 152, 219, 241, 253;
Christ in Christian, 36; rotation
of, 259; in student's dream, 134;
symbols of order, 31/, 135; totality
images, 40, 268; and unconscious
personality, 204; vessel as, 240
Manget, Jean Jacques (Joannes
Jacobus Mangetus), 126n
Manichaeans/Manichaeism, 48, 49,
55, 57n, 58, 61n, 99, see also
Manu, 73; fish of, 113f
Marcionites, 49
Marduk, 120, 124
Maria, axiom of, 153, 251
Maria the prophetess, 240
Mariam, see Miriam
Mariette, Francois A. F., 76n
Marinus, 54
Mark, Gospel of, (10 : 18), 58n
marriage: of Christ and the Church,
39; classes, 22; as conscious relationship,
243; constellation of unconscious
in, 242; cross-cousin, 22,
209n, 229, 242f; mingling of
subtle with dense, 167n; of
mother and son, 12; quaternio,
22, 64, 209, 210, 229, 242, 252
Mars (), 79n, 95
Marxism, 181
Mary: as fountain, 116; in Gnostic
symbolism, 202, 204, 205; in Pistis
Sophia, 78
Mary, the Virgin, 205; Assumption,
87; Immaculate Conception, 87n;
as substitute for Church, 21n
masculinity, woman's, 21n
Masenius, Jacobus, 154n
mass man and evil, 166
massa confusa, 148, 155, 234, 236
Mater Alchimia, 173, 232
materialism, 109, 150, 176, 181, 233,
257, 260
mathematics, 261
Matsya, 176
matter, numinosity of, 66, 260
Matthew, Gospel of, 101n, 201n;
(2 : Iff), 89; (3: 2), 192n; (4 : 19),
89; (5: 3), 193; (5: 8), 217n;
(5 : 18), 218n; (5 : 48), 69n;
(7 : 14), 200n; (10: 34), 187;
(12: 39), I11n; (13: 24), 37n;
(13:45), 37n; (16:4), 111n;
(17: 4), 122n; (18: 23), 37n;
(19: 17), 58n, 201n; (21: 19),
106n; (22 : 2), 37n; (22 : 7), 26n;
(27 : 150), 90
maya, 11, 13
meaning, 27
Mechthild of Magdeburg, St., 205f
mediator, 237n, 239; animus as, 16;
man as, 2551
medicament, incorrupt, 170
medulla, 205, 233
medusa, 1260
Meerpohl, Franz, 219
megalomania, 17
Meir ben Isaac, 118
Melusina, 235
memory, 4
mendicant orders, 82, 83
Mephistopheles, 234
Mercurius/Mercury (), 76, 77n,
78, 95, 97, 130, 131, 161, 171, 187,
232, 249f, 252; as anima mundi,
136; and double aspect of water,
180; double/duplex nature of,
150, 252/, 254; "non vulgi," 155,
234; philosophical, see Mercurius
"non vulgi"; and the Pole, 133,
135; synonyms for, 241; as tree-
numen, 235; as trickster, 203n;
as Virgo, 127
mercy, of Yahweh, 59, 60
Mesopotamia, 74, 214
Messahala, 82n
Messiah(s), 1060, 121; ben Joseph
and ben David, 107; birth of,
105, 149; coming of, 74, 118;
two, 107, 108; in Zohar, 214
Mestha, 123
metals, 246
, 192
metaphysical ideas, 34, 35
metaphysics: Jung and, 195n; psychology
and, 54, 61, 67, 194, 198
Metatron, 214
Meyer, Karl R., 146
Michael (angel), 75
Michaias, 57
microcosm/microcosmos, 155, 164,
214; wandering, 213
microphysics, 174
Midrashim, 59; Midrash Tanchuma
(Shemoth), 59n, 118n, 119n
mind, transformation of, 192
Miriam, 20g. 210, 228, 244
Mithraic: liturgy, 124; monuments,
Mithras, 121, 124
modesty, 25
Mohammed, 102; see also Mahomet
molecular movement, 250f
mollusc, 128
monad(s). 18g, 218f; Kircher's, 262-
63; in Sabellius, 253n
monasticism, 82f, 85, 89
monks, as fishes, 113
Monolmos, 218f, 222f
Monophysites, 110
monotheism, 268
monsters: attributes of death, 120;
horned, 105; sea, see Behemoth,
Leviathan; splitting of, 119f
moods, 17
Moon (), 76, 77, 155, 249; celestial
horn of, 211
morality, 25
Morienus Romanus, 166, 168
morphomata, 81
Moses, 74, 107, 122n, 209n, 210,
2270, 244
Moses quaternio, 227ff, 243f, 251,
Moses ha-Darshan, 106
mother, 155; chthonic, 22; higher,
in Moses quaternio, 228; search
for, 11; as symbol, 11; and son,
12; see also Great Mother(s);
mountain, 203, 209; as symbol of
self, 226
Muenter, Friedrich, 74
mumia, 213f
mummy, 122; see also mumia
Mundus, 137
Musaeum hermeticum, 88n, 130n,
131n, 133n, 145n, 150n, 221n,
mussel-shell, 127f
Mut, 206
"mutilation of the soul," evil as, 48
Mylius, Johann Daniel, 88n, 139,
156n, 187n, 197n, 221, 235n, 237n,
mysteries, Eleusinian, 217
mysterium coniunctionis, 64
mysterium iniquitatis, 44, 86
mysticism, Jewish, 108
mythologem: of Amen, 206; dying
god, 206; fish as, 138
"mythological" aspects, 30
mythology, 35; comparative, 34;
and dogma, 179
myths, 35, 149; cosmogonic, 148;
gods in, 177; and unconscious
processes, 180


Naas, 199, 230, 232
Naassenes, 64, 75, 88, 89, 184f, 197,
198, 199, 200, 201, 208f, 241,
226f; see also quaternio
name, and thing, 32
Nanni, Giovanni, 102n
naphtha, 185
Naples: Farnese Atlas, 91
Nathan, Rabbi, 113n
nature: Christianity and, 174; improvement
of, 143; individual, of
Christ's disciples, 211; rejoices in
nature, 159; two powers of, 123
natures, changing of the, 166
Nazis, 102
necromancy, 262
negligence, evil and, 62
Negroes, 210
nekyia, 209
Nelken, Jan, 33n
Nematophora, 128
Neoplatonists, 126
Nero, 102
Neumann, Erich, 116n, 148n, 183n
neurosis(es), 20, 180, 181, 189
neurotic disturbances, 169
New Testament: devil in, 86; eschatology,
36; Jesus in, 179; snake in,
245; see also names of individual
Nicholas of Cusa, 225n
Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm, 260
night-heron, 72
night sea journey, 111
Nigidius Figulus, Publius, 136
nigredo, 148, 149, 194, 210; see also
Nina, 121
Nippur, 124
nirdvandva, 191
nodes, 253
North, the, 99ff; in ancient history,
125; Ezekiel and, 124; King of
the, 125; Mithras and, 124
North Star, 133
Nostradamus, Michel, 95ff, 125, 126
"nothing but," 179
nous, 21; descent to Physis, 233;
krater filled with, 191n; Mercurius
symbol of, 168; serpent as,
186, 188, 230, 232; unconscious,
"Novi luminis chemici Tractatus
alter de sulphure, " 131n
Numbers, Book of: (12: 10), 210;
(16), 106n; (24: 16), 59n; (24: 17),
Numbers, see dyad; triad; quaternity;
heptad; ogdoad; three; four;
five; eight; twelve
Nun, 111, 121


Oannes, 73, 112, 121, 201
observation, uncertainty of, 226
obsessions, 169
obsidian, 138, 139n
ocean/Oceanus, 209, 212, 214, 218
Oehler, Franciscus, 191
ogdoad, 110, 196, 197n, 226; archon
of the, 190
Old Testament, 70; see also names
of individual books
olive, 200
Olympiodorus, 239n, 264
Olympus, 164
omega element, 238
Onians, Richard Broxton, 212n
Ophites, 188
Ophiuchus, 111
opinionatedness, 16
opinions, 21: archetypes and, 17;
Logos and, 15
opposites: alchemical, linked together,
244; anima/animus, 268;
annihilation of, 70; Christ/Satan,
44-45n; cinedian stone and, 139;
coincidence of, 124; -, in Godhead,
193; conjunction of, 40, 70,
194, see also coniunctio oppositorum;
day/night, 123; equivalence
of, 61; Father as without,
191; good/evil, 47, 123; Heru-ur/
Set, 123; husband/wife, 204;
identity of, symbols and, 129f;
kosmos/chaos, 123; life/death,
123; light/darkness, 223; moral
accentuation of, 70; never unite
at own level, 180; pairs of, see
also syzygy(ies); problem of, and
neurosis, 180; serpents, 118n;
tension of, 31, 91, 247f; union of,
264; -, in astrology, 77, 87; -,
and salvation, 195; -, in stone,
170; -, and unconsciousness, 193
opsianus, 138
opus, 237; as apocatastasis, 169; and
creation of world, 148, 234; and
individuation, 264
Oracula sibyllina, 73n
order: mandalas symbols of, 31;
principle of, 195
Origen, 37, 38n, 41, 44-45n, 75, 81,
90n, 114n, 204f, 215, 234; and
the devil, 110
Orion, 136
Orosius, 230n
Orpheus, 103
Orphos, 121
Osiris, 122, 123, 198, 199. 201
Osob, 146, 147n, 200
Ostanes. 159n, 237n, 245n
oxen, fishes and, 145, 147, 148f
Oxford English Dictionary, 25
oxyrhynchus (fish), 122
Oxyrhynchus, fish-worship at, 121
Oxyrhynchus fragments, 37n, 144,


paganism, 96; return of, in Europe,
pair, royal, in Moses quaternio, 228
Palestine, 74, 138
Pan, 199
Pandolfus, 156
Pandora, 241
panic, 33
panspermia, 200
Pantheus, Joannes Augustinus, 139n
Papa, 213
Papyri Graecae Magicae, 126
Paracelsus, 164, 181, 213, 214, 237
para-da, 152
Paradise: four rivers of, 184, 199.
215, 227, 235, 243; Garden of
Eden, 254n; Leviathan eaten in,
113; quaternio, 234f, 236f, 243,
245, 254; as symbol, 189
paradox, 70
Parmenides, 137n, 143
parthenogenesis, 35
Parthenon, 203n
Passion, of Jesus, see Jesus
Passover, 119
Patarenes, 83
patience, 24
Paul, St., 39, 174, 176, 177, 178, 191;
Epistles of, 68; see also names of
separate Epistles
Pauli, W., 207n
Paulicians, 148
Paulinus of Nola, 65n
pearl, round, 127n
Pectorios inscription, 89n, 113, 116n
pelican, 239
penetration, 120n
Pentecost, 129
Pepi I, 88n, 122
Peratic doctrine, 1851
perception(s): conversion of stimuli
into, 4; endosomatic, 3; psyche
and, 32
Perdition, Son of, 36
peregrinatio, 133
perfection: Christ as, 39; and com-
pleteness, 68f; evil as lack of, 41
perforation, 120n
Pernety, Antoine Joseph, 155, 160f
Perpetua, St., Passion of, 210
Persephone, 12, 21, 217
personality: changes of, 6; dissociation
of, 180; double, 120; ego as
centre of, 6; inferior, see shadow;
of Jesus, 178f; not coincident
with ego, 5; self as total, 5; total
description of, impossible, 5
perversions, intellectual, 169
Pesahim, see Talmud
Peter, St., 89; in Clementine
Homilies. 56
Peter, First Epistle of; (2: 4), 88;
(2: 4f), 171n; (2: 5), 88
Peter Damian, St., 113
Peter Lombard, 253n
Peters, C. H. F.m and Knobel, E. B.,
77n, 93n
phallicism: Gnostic, 232; uncon-
scious, 226
phallus. 201f, 226
pharmakon athanasias, 116
phenomenology, individual, and
collective unconscious, 179
Philalethes, Eirenaeus, 132, 133n,
Philippians, Epistle to the (3: 12).
phlogiston theory, 250f
phobias. 169
Phrat, see Euphrates
Phrygians, 198, 213; see also Naassenes
phylokrinesis, 64, 79, 258n
physics: collision of psyche with,
174; nuclear, 261; and psychology,
Physis, 198, 233. 247. 249, 259
Phyton. 131
Picinellus, Philippus, 112n, 113n,
122n, 129, 135
Pisces: aeon. middle of. 150; zodiacal
sign for, 91, 114; see also
pisciculi Christianorum, 103
piscina, 89
Piscis Austrinus, 111n
Pison, 199, 225, 235
Pistis Sophia, 75n, 78f, 93n, 122n,
137n, 197n
Pius IX. Pope, 87n
planets, influence of, 148
Plato. 246; Phaedrus, 64; Timaeus,
Platonic Tetralogies, Book of, see
"Platonis liber quartorum"
"Platonis liber quartorum, " 197n,
238, 261n
Pleiades, 136
pleroma. 41n, 46, 66n, 219n
Pliny, 128, 138, 144, 156n, 177
Plotinus, 219
plough, 148f
Plutarch, 76, 121, 122n
pneuma. 21, 83; and Barbelo. 197n;
feminine, 206; in God. 254; hidden
in stone. 245; of Jesus. 79;
winged beings as. 120
, (), 212&n, 219n
Pohl, Otto. 113n
Poimandres, 103
Poi men, see Hermas
point, 189. 198f, 218, 222; in al-
chemy, 220f
pole, 133-34; centre in North, 171;
heavenly, 123f, 224; North, hid-
den God at, 135; -. magnetism
of, 154
Polemon. 76n
Pollux. 81
polydemonism, 175
polytheism, 175, 268
Poor Men of Lyons. 83, 146, 150
Pordage, John. 163n, 235
Poseidon, 216
Prajapati, 207n
precession of equinoxes. 81, 92, 95
prefigurations, 261
Preisendanz, Karl, 126n
Priapus, 230
prima materia, 132, 142, 161, 162,
237; alchemical laborant as. 168;
anima and, 187; lapis as, 127, 236,
264; production of, 155; as psychic
situation, 155; synonyms of,
primum mobile, 131
principium individuationis, 64
Priscillian, 88, 136, 230n
privatio boni/privation of good. 41,
45n, 46, 48, 50, 52, 54, 58, 61, 62n,
110, 269; see also evil
problems, moral, 25f
projection(s): anima and, 13; ani-
ma/animus, 17, 242; dissolution
of, 18f; effect of, 9f; impersonal
withdrawal of, 23; mandala and
32; in Mary, 204; and mother:
imago, 12; reality of factor mak-
ing, 24; and reality of psyche,
66n; shadow and, 9
Protanthropos, 213; and Korybas,
211; as Logos, 209; Sophia and,
197; see also Adam; Anthropos;
Man, original; Archanthropos
Protestantism/Protestants, 150, 178
Proteus, 216f
Protoplast, 214
Protothoma, 213
Prunicus/, 196n; see also
Psalms: (2: 9), 105; (82 [81]: 6),
209n; (89), 108f
Psel1us, Michael, 44n, 148n
psyche, 142, 255; aspects of, 32;
begetter of all knowledge, 173;
eg0-consciousness of, 164; and
evil, 62; field of consciousness, 6;
horoscope and, 136; and life-processes,
4; man's knowledge of, 165;
and matter, 261; objective reality
of, scientists and; 174; outside
consciousness, 6; reality of, 66n;
reasons for undervaluation of, 62
"psychic, " use of term, 4
psychoanalysis, 203n
psychology, and good/evil, 53
psychopathology, 30
psychopomp(os): anima as, 30; animus
as, 16; fishes as symbols for,
145; Proteus as, 216
psychosis, 33; mass, 248n
psychotherapy: and anima/animus,
267; and problem of opposites,
Ptolemy, 74n, 94n
puer, 127
"puffed-up-ness," 24; see also inflation
pulmo marinus, 128
punctum/punctus solis, 220n; see
also point
purusha, 167, 194
Pyramid Texts, 122
Python, 104


Qazvini, 123
Qebhsennuf, 123
'qltn, 119
quaternio/quaternity, 159, 194, 210,
211, 226ff; its character of wholeness,
224; of Christ, 204; Christian,
253; and circle, motif, 224;
defective, three as, 224; in fire,
132; in Irenaeus, 197n; Kircher's,
262f; in man, u; Naassene, 22n,
79n; of opposites, in self and
Christ, 63f; as organizing schema,
242; Osiris and, 123; self as, 42;
static quality of, 257; as symbols,
31, 195; -, for God, 195; -, self
in, 190; unity complement of,
224; see also Anthropos quatermo;
Horus quaternio; lapis quaternio;
marriage quaternio;
Moses quaternio; Paradise quat-
ernio; shadoow quaternio; space-time
quick-lime, 158
quicksilver, 139, 155
"quicksilver system," Indian, 152
quid / quis distinction, 164. 169
Quinta Essentia, 159n
Quispel, Gilles, 66&n, 190, 191


Ra, 122
Radhakrishnan, Sarvapalli, 223n
radius, see ray
Rahab, 120
Rahner, Hugo, 215n, 235n
Raison, Deesse, 98
Ram (), 77n; see also Aries
ram: Christ as, 90, 92; daemonic,
105f; symbol of Christ and Attis,
103; see also lamb
Rameses II, 78
Ramsay, William Mitchell, 73n
Raphael, 113
Rashi, see Solomon ben Isaac
Ras Shamra, 119
rationalism, 86, 150, 221
rationality, 248n; male, 55
raven, 72
ray, 187n
realism, 150, 176, 233
reality: psychic, 48; requires polarity,
realization, conscious, 239n
rebirth, 212
Rebis, 159, 268
Red Sea, 74
Redeemer: archetype of, 183; as
fish and serpent, 186; Gnostic/
Gnosticism and, 79, 184; and unconscious,
affinity of, 181
redemption, 35, 70, 175, 191, 256;
of the dead, 39
reflection, 16
Reformation, the, 93, 102, 178;
Holy Ghost movement and, 87
reformation, of God-image, 40
Reguel, 229; see also Jethro
Reitzenstein, Richard, 75n, 103;
and Schader, H. H., 246n
relationship, 17; function of, 14,
16; inadequate, 19; to partner, 22
remora, 140f, 144, 154n
Rempham, 75n
Renaissance, the, 43, 94, 98
renovatio, 98n
renovation of the age, 98
repentance, 192
representations collectives, 29
repression, 226
resentment, 16
resistances, shadow and, 9
responsibility, in jurisprudence, 5
Revelation of St. John: (5: 5), 105;
(5 : 6), 105n; (5 : 6/f), 105;
(6: 15ff), 105; (12 : 1), 103;
(12: 9), 23on; (14: 4), 217;
(17 : 14), 105; (20: ff), 79n; see
also Apocalypse
revolution, 98n
Rex gloriae, 195, 204
Rhabanus Maurus, 100
Rhea, 199
Rhine, J. B., 184n
right and left, 54, 59, 258n
righteousness, 70
Rig-Veda, 192n
Ripley, Sir George, 131n, 139, 144,
148n, 149, 235n, 249
Ripley "Scrowle," 235, 265
ritual, 256; Protestantism and, 178
rivers, four. of Paradise, 184, 199,
215, 225, 227, 235, 243
Roberts, R., 221n
rock: Christ as, 87f; inner man as,
roes, two, 107
Romans, Epistle to: (7: 21), 69n;
(12 : 2), 40
Romulus, 107n
room, as symbol, 224f
Rosarium philosophorum, 156n,
197n, 239n, 245n
Roscher, Wilhelm Heinrich, 211n,
Rosenkreutz, Christian, 210
Rosinus, 156, 157, 167/
rota nativitatis, 136
rotation, 246n, 257
rotundum, 238, 239n, 246, 248f, 257
Rousselle, Erwin, 11n
Ruland, Martin, 133n, 138n, 139,
Rupescissa, Johannes de, 146, 241,
Ruska, Julius, 126n, 130n, 137n,


Sabaeans, 75, 124, 197n
Sabaoth, 76
Sabbath, 75
Sabellius, 253n
Sagittarius, 74n
sailor, 112
sal ammoniac, 154n
sal sapientiae, 133, 161
Salman as, procedure of, 127n
salt, 133, 157; in alchemy, 161; "of
the metals," 139
salvation, 195
Salva tor mundi, 127
Sammael, 57
Samothrace, 211, 212
Sanhedrin, see Talmud
sapientia, 160, 220
Sapientia Dei, 127
Sassanids, 116
Satan, 431, 105n; as elder son of
God, 57, 61; in Old Testament,
192; state before fall, 145; and
two fishes, 148
Satanael, 43, 147
satori, 169
Satorneilos, see Saturninus
Saturn (), 74ff, 77n, 81, 82, 83,
96, 97, 98, 99; and Esaldaios, 208;
as Gnostic symbol, 197; Jewish
thought and, 741; and quicksilver,
139; stone and, 1381
Saturnia (plant), 139
Saturninus, 219
Saulasau, 210
Saviour, compounded of four
things, 197n
Scharf, Riwkah, 42n, 121n, 192,
Scheftelowitz, I., 113n, 116, 117,
118n, 119
Schelling, F. W. J., 6
schizophrenia, 33
Schoettgen, Christian, 107n, 214n
scholasticism, 172
Schopenhauer, Arthur, 6
Schreber, Daniel Paul, 33n
Schwestrones, 84n
science: alchemy and, 176; and
faith, 1731; natural, 27; -, rise
of, 150; modern, 89; trinity in,
scintilla vitae, 219
Scott, Walter, 191n
sculptures, obscene, 217n
scurrility: in dreams, 203; of Gnostic
nomenclature, 230
seyphomedusa, 128
sea, 155; "our," 142
sea-hawk, 187n; centre of the, 189
seal, seventh, opening of, 82
seals, 216
sea-nettle, 128n
sea-urchin, 154"
Second Coming, ix; expectation of,
Secret of the Golden Flower, 182n,
224, 264
secret of the wise, 143
sects, 961
Secundus, 110n
Selene, 21
self, 23ff, 33, 34; Anthropos and,
189; antinomial character, 225;
apotheosis of individuality, 62;
appearance of in unconscious
products, 190; appears in all
shapes, 226; as archetype, 167; as
brahman and atman, 222; Christ
as archetype/symbol of, 36ff, 62n,
182; Christ's correspondence to,
110; dream-symbols and, 132;
"fixation" of, in mind, 1681;
Gnostic symbols of, 184ff, 226ff; a
God-image, 22, 205; impersonal
unconscious and, 169; lapis as,
127, 167; a product of cognition,
69; as quaternion of opposites,
631; relation to ego, 6; religious
mythologem, 30; round fish as,
142, 144; supraordinate to ego, 3;
as total personality, 5; transcendent
(al), 621, 170; union of con
scious and unconscious, 268; see
also assimilation; atman; God-image
self-aggrandizement, 24; see also inflation
self-criticism, 25
self-fertilization, 207
self-knowledge, 16, 1620, 222; and
alchemy, 166f; and ends, 165f;
increased, 19, 230; and knowledge
of ego, 164; shadow and, 8
Senard, Marcelle, 92n
senarius, 228, 230
Sendivogius, Michael, 131n
Senior, 240
sense-perception, see perception
sentimentality, 16
separatio/separation, 168, 170; see
also divisio
Sephiroth, Tree of the, 58
Sephora, 209, 210
septenarius, 240
serpens mercurialis/ Mercurii, 160,
234, 245
serpent(s), 111, 189, 232, 255; fighting,
118; as magnetic agent, 188;
Naas, 199; in Peratic doctrine,
185f; in shadow quaternio, 230,
244; and stone, 245; and tension
of opposites, 247; see also dragon;
snake; uroboros
Set, 76, 78, 99, 122f, 124, 132
Sethians, 186f, 219
sexual theory, of psychic substance,
sexuality, 90-91n; undervaluation
of, 226
Shaare Kedusha, 218n
shadow, 8-10, 17, 30, 33, 155, 233f,
255, 259, 260; Antichrist as, 41;
of arcane substance, 187n; assimilation
into conscious personality,
9; in Christ's birth, 4 In,
110; consciousness of, 8; doubling
of, 120; fear of, 33; fish as shadow
of God, 119; good qualities of,
266; integration of, 22; and Moses
quaternio, 228, 244; has negative
feeling-value, 28; personal unconscious
and, 169; quaternio,
229n, 230f, 233f, 244, 255f, 260;
represents chthonic world, 34
Shatapatha Brahmana, 113n, 114n
sheep, land of, 16
Shekinah, 268
shepherd, 103; good, 103
Shu, 207
Shulamite, 210
Sibyls, Erythraean, 72n
Silberer, Herbert, 164n
Simon Magus, 197, 220
sister, 12
skull, 238
slave's post, 76n, 78
Smith, E. M., 92n, 94n
smoke, 101
snail, 226
snake, 72, 2330; Aesculapian, 188;
allegory of Christ, 233, 245. 247;
on cross, 78n; Mercurius as, 232;
in New Testament, 245; signifies
evil/wisdom, 234; and Son, 188;
symbolism of, 186; as symbol, of
instinct, 244; -, of self, 226; -,
of wisdom, 245
Soderberg, Hans, 147n
Sodom, 59
sol niger, Saturn as, 197
Solomon ben Gabirol, 74
Solomon ben Isaac, 80, 81
solvents, 160
soma, in God, 254
son, 185, 186; as Father's thought of
own being, 193; and mother, 11f;
symbol for God, 195
son of God, serpent as, 188
son of Man, 203. 218; pictures of,
sons of God, two, 42f, 57, 58
Song of Solomon: (1 : 1), 205; (1 : 5),
210; (4: 5), 107; (8: 7), 129
sonship, threefold, of God, 64f
Sophia, 65n; Achamoth, 197n;
Prounikos, 54, 196f
"Soul, My Lady," 13
soul: 64, 142; and anima, 13; animal,
11n; as bride of Christ, 39;
"excrescent," 234; fish as symbol
of, 122; human, of Christ, 39; as
second Eve, 206; as sphere, 136;
"twittering, " 209; world-, see
anima mundi
"soul in fetters," 197n, 208n
space-time continuum, 24, 258n
space-time quaternio, 251, 252, 253,
spark, 219f
Sphere, the, 93n; soul as, 136
spider, 226
Spiegelberg, W., 122n
spinal cord, 233
Spinning Woman, 11
spirit, 64, 142; animus and, 16;
archetype of, 85f; of the world,
"Spirit in the Bottle, the," 235
spirits, seven, 105n
spiritus, 160, 187
Spitteler, Carl, 13, 267n
splitting, 119f, 120n; of conscious/
unconscious, 247-48n; of Original
Man, 204
spondilo, 138
spring-point, 93
square, and circle, 224f, 264
stabilization, 243
stag, 150
Stahl, G. E., 251
star, rising ·of, and birth of hero,
"star of the sea," 128
starfish, 128f, 154n
steel, 133; alchemical, 161; see also
stella marina, 128f
stella maris, 135, 137
Stephen, St., 75n
Stephen of Canterbury, 112
sterility, feeling of, 9
stimuli: endosomatic, 3; uncon-
scious, 4
stone: animate, 159; as Christimage,
67; cinedian, 138f; complement
of serpent, 245; derived
from circle and quaternity motif,
224; dragon's, 138; Heracleian,
185; inner man as, 208; making
the, a "human attitude:' 166;
projection of unified self, 170;
psychic relationship to man, 167;
symbol of self, 246; unity of, 170;
see also lapis
Strauss, Heinz Arthur, 82n
subject, necessary to consciousness,
3; and object, differentiation in
consciousness, 193
"subjective factor:' 223
sublimation, 259
subliminal, see unconscious
substance, metaphysical, 161
sucking-fish, 140
sulphur(s), 171, 239n, 250
Summa Fratris Reneri, 146n
Summum Bonum, God as, 45f, 52
sun, 249, 260
Sutech, 78
swan, 81
Swedenborg, Emanuel, 198
Switzerland, 225
sword, 187
Syene, 121
symbol(s): in alchemy, 179; autonomous,
31; of Christ and the devil,
72; dogma as, 175; Gnostic, 196ff;
for God, 195; Indian, 175; meaning
of, 73; of opposite sex, 10;
pictorial, psychology and, 194;
polarity of, 129f; quaternary, in
dreams, 132; theriomorphic, 186;
triadic, 243n; uniting, 194; of
unity and totality, 31; see also
anima; animus; mandala
symbolism: sexual, Christ and, 202;
theriomorphic, of self, 226
"symbolum": as aqua doctrinae,
180; creed as, 174
symptoms, localization of, 186
synchronicity, 85, 150, 168, 258; of
archetype, 184
Synesius, 159n
Synesius of Cyrene, 116
synthesis, 260
Syria: cult of fish in, 121; dove and
fish in, 115; round fish in, 138
syzygy(-ies), 33, 191, 254; Adam/
Eve, 254; anima/animus, 110,
266; in Clementine Homilies, 54;
divine, in Christianity, 21; prototype
of divine couples, 34; Valen-
tinian, 228; wholeness superior to,
31; see also opposites


Tabari, Chronique of, 79n, 107
Tabula smaragdina, 126, 265
Tacitus, 76
talents, parable of the, 166
Talmud, Babylonian, 58n, 59n, 60n,
79, 80n, 83, 107, 116, 117, 118,
149; and astrology, 81
Tanit, 121
tanninim, 79, 80, 81
Tantrism, 217n
Tao, 58, 69; symbol for God, 195;
as "valley spirit, " 180
Targums, 107n
Tatian, 46
tebuna, 120
Tefnut, 207
Tehom, 237
., 212, 213n
, see completeness
temperature, Arctic, 52
tension: conscious/unconscious, 20;
signified by Christ's advent, 44;
in uroboros, 248f; see also oppo-
tentacles, 128
teoqualo, 144
Tertullian, 37, 76, 90n
tetrads, 191
tetrameria, 254; alchemical, 259
Tetramorph, 36
Thabit ibn Qurrah, 126
Thales, 157, 199
Theatrum chemicum, 130n, 131n
132n, 137n, 139n, 140n, 143n,
156n, 157n, 158n, 160n, 163n,
187n, 197n, 220n, 221n, 235n,
237n, 238n, 239n, 240n, 261n,
thema, 136
Theodor Bar-Kuni, 197
Theologia Germanica, 89
Theophilus of Antioch, 46
Theophrastus, 141, 222
theoria, 142, 171, 179, 181
Thessalonians, Second Epistle to
the: (2: 3ff), 36n
Thiele, Georg, 91n
thieves, two, at crucifixion, 44, 69,
thinking, 32
third, superordinate, 180
Thomas, Acts of, 116, 197
Thomas Aquinas, St., 51f, 87.
Thorndike, Lynn, 96n, 98n, 102n
Thracian riders, 73
three: as defective quaternity, 224;
and one, motif, 225, 253; see also
Tiamat, 120
Tifereth, 268
Tigris, 199
Timaeus, 136
Timochares, planisphere of, 91
tincture, synonyms for, 137
Titus of Bostra, 48
Tobit, 113
tongue(s), 135, 137; fiery, 129, 135n
tortoise, 226
totality, 34, 143f; becoming con-
scious, 259; Christ as divine, 37,
39, 41; chthonic, 224; idea of,
62n; images of. 40; spiritual. 224;
symbols of. 31. 190; see also
"Tractatulus Avicennae." 167n
"Tractatus Aristotelis ..." 235n
Tractatus aureus, 187n, 220, 237n,
tradition, 181
transference. 229
transformation: Christian, 169;
formula of. 259; prefigurations
in, 261; skull as vessel of, 238;
tree as symbol of. 235
transition. from waking to sleeping.
treasure, guarded by dragon/snake,
tree: philosophical, 235; and serpent,
235; as symbol of self. 226
Trevisanus. see Bernardus Trevisanus
triad: lower. 99, 224; male and
female, in pseudo-Clement. 55;
in man. 22; Naassene. 209; opposed
to trinity. 224
trichotomies. 651
trickster, Mercurius as. 203n
Trinity, the, 35, 131, 253, Plate II;
devil lacking in, 86; divine sphere
of, 57; dogma of. 177; Jesus' soul
as. 201; Kepler and, 207; Naassene.
197, 226; space/time/causality,
258; spiritual totality, 224;
triad opposed to, 224
Troad, the, 156n
truth(s), 171; first.
cal, 27
Tuamutef, 123
Tuat, 122
Turba philosophorum, 126, 137,
14, 220n, 250
Turukalukundram, 217n
twelve, 224
Twins, the, see Gemini;
the, 79n, 122n
Typhon, 99, 121, 122


Ugarit, 119
Uhlhorn, 254n
umbra Jesu, 106
Unas, 122
uncertainty relationship, between
conscious and unconscious, 226
uncomeliness, outward, 140
unconscious: alchemy and symbolism
of unconscious processes. 179;
cannot be "done with," 20; collective,
see collective unconscious;
compensation in, 124; contents
of. and man's totality. 140; contents
of ego. three groups. 4, 7;
dawn-state and. 148; fear of, 33;
fishes as product of, 149; frightening
figures in, 225; Gnostics and.
190; in Hippolytus and Epiphanius.
66; importance of, 5; integration
of contents, 23; organizing
principle of, 204; "our sea"
symbol of. 142; personal and impersonal.
7, 169; problems of integration
of. 181; processes. compensatory
to conscious, 204;
Proteus personifying, 216; self
and the. 3; soul as projection of.
142; theriomorphism and, 145; as
the unknown in the inner world.
3; without qualities. 191
unconsciousness: and proneness to
suggestion. 247-48n; sin of, 192n
uncontrollable natural forces, action
of, 25f
underworld, gods of, 224
unicorn, 150
unity, 31, 34; complement of quaternity,
224; in Kircher, 263; as
symbol of self. 226; transcendent,
stone as, 170
Unknown, the: ego and. 3; two
groups of objects in, 3
Upanishads, see Brihadaranyaka
and Kena
Urania, 89n
uroboros, 190, 246, 248, 257, 259,


Valentinians, 65n, 190, 191, 197n,
Valentinus, 41n, 110, 234n, 269
value, 27ff; feeling as function of,
value quanta, 29
values, reversal of, 233
Vamana, 176
vas, 238; naturale, 241; see also
Vaughan, Thomas, 133n
Vedas, 204
"veiled one, " 18
Venus (), 76, 77n, 112, 155
veritas, 160, 161, 171, 181; prima,
vessel: in alchemy, 238ff; Hermetic/
nigromantic, 240; as symbol. 2241
Vigenere, Blaise de. 132. 139. 197n,
vinegar, 239n; see also acetum
viper, 72
Vir Unus, 205
virgin, mother-goddess as, 104
Virgo (), 77n, 80n, 104n, 105;
Mercurius as, 127
Virolleaud, Charles, 119
virtues, 24. 25
Vishnu, 113, 114n, 176
"Visio Arislei, " see "Aenigmata ex
Visione Arislei"
visions, 223
Vitus. Richardus, 13n
voice, fourfold, of Christ. 206
"volatile, " winged beings as. 120
Voltaire, 98n
Vollers, Karl, 111n
Vulcan, 249f, 252


Wackerbarth, Graf August J. L.
von, 80
Waite, Arthur Edward. 133n
Waldenses, 83, 150
wand, golden, of Hermes, 208
water: in alchemy, 1591, 180, 249;
baptismal. 180; bright. 139; in
dreams, 225; of life, 155; living,
184, 199f, 207; magical, 187; as
magnetic agent, 188; prime substance,
199; real, used in ritual,
188; of rivers of Paradise, 199f;
symbol and, 180
"wedding. chymical, " 40, 268
Weiss, Johannes, 213n
Werblowsky, Zwi, 58
West, and Eastern thought, 176
whale-dragon, 111, 118
wheat-sheaf, 105
wheel: as symbol, 224; of birth, 136,
137, 224; of heaven, 136
White, Victor, O.P., 61n, 178n
whitening, 148; see also albedo;
whole: present in ego, 111; procreative
nature of, 201
wholeness, 169, 183; archetype of,
40; in Christ, 41, 62n; empirical.
31; image of, x, 24; of individual,
195; knowledge as, 222; paradoxical,
145; psychic, and God-image,
198; restoration of, 259;
symbols of, 40, 171, 194. 195, 198;
-, and God, 195; see also completeness;
Wickes, Frances G.• 220n
Wilhelm, Richard, 264n
will: free, 51; of God, 261; and impulses,
27; omnipotence of, 26;
and psyche, 4
wind, north, 100, 120, u5n
wine, 225
Wirth, Albrecht, 116n, 117n
Wischnitzer-Bernstein, Rahel, 115n
wise old man, 22, 152, 210, 229
witches, 175
wolf, 150
woman: in Apocalypse, 105; clothed
with the sun, 103; image of, 13;
from side of Christ, 204; star-
crowned, 12, 103t
Word, the, 200; see also Logos
world situation, present, 70
world-soul/world spirit, see anima
world-views, parallel, 173
World War, second, 36
wrath, of Yahweh, see Yahweh
"wrath-fire, " God's, 61
Wunsche, August, 106n, 107n


Yahweh, 46, 229; changing concept
of, 192; demiurge, 65, 75; in-
justice of, 55; justice of, 59;
monsters of, 116, 118, 123, see
also Behemoth, Leviathan; Saturn
and, 197; unreliability of, 108;
wrath of, 58f, 105
Yajnavalkya, 223
Yajui, 80n
Yama, 217n
yang/yin relationship, 58, 180
year: Christ as, 204; Platonic, 81n
Yehoshua/Ycshua, see Joshua
Yima, 246n
yod, 218n
yoga, Buddhism and, 176


Zarathustra, 246n
Zechariah, Book of: (4 : 10), 105n
Zeesar, 210-11
Zen Buddhism, 16g
Zeus, 206n
Zipporah, 209n, 2271, 244, 251, 252
zodia, 118, 148
zodiac, 94n; signs of, 81, 230n
Zohar, 107n, 117, 214
Zoroaster, 220n
Zosimos, 65n, 157n, 182, 197n, 237n,
238, 245n

[Index Ends Page 333]

The Collected Works of C. G. Jung

Editors: Sir Herbert Read, Michael Fordham, and Gerhard Adler; executive editor,
William McGuire. Translated by R.F.C. Hull, except where noted.

1. PSYCHIATRIC STUDIES (1957; 2d ed., 1970)

On the Psychology and Pathology of So-Called Occult
Phenomena (1902)
On Hysterical Misreading (1904)
Cryptomnesia (1905)
On Manic Mood Disorder (1903)
A Case of Hysterical Stupor in a Prisoner in Detention (1902)
On Simulated Insanity (1903)
A Medical Opinion on a Case of Simulated Insanity (1904)
A Third and Final Opinion on Two Contradictory Psychiatric
Diagnoses (1906)
On the Psychological Diagnosis of Facts (1905)


Translated by Leopold Stein in collaboration with Diana Riviere

The Associations of Normal Subjects (by Jung and F. Riklin)
An Analysis of the Associations of an Epileptic
The Reaction-Time Ratio in the Association Experiment
Experimental Observations on the Faculty of Memory
Psychoanalysis and Association Experiments
The Psychological Diagnosis of Evidence
Association, Dream, and Hysterical Symptom
The Psychopathological Significance of the Association Experiment
Disturbances in Reproduction in the Association Experiment
The Association Method
The Family Constellation


On the Psychophysical Relations of the Association Experiment
Psychophysical Investigations with the Galvanometer and Pneumograph
in Normal and Insane Individuals (by F. Peterson and Jung)
Further Investigations on the Galvanic Phenomenon and Respiration in
Normal and Insane Individuals (by C. Ricksher and Jung)
Appendix: Statistical Details of Enlistment ( 1906); New Aspects of Criminal
Psychology (1908); The Psychological Methods of Investigation
Used in the Psychiatric Clinic of the University of Zurich (1910); On
the Doctrine Complexes ([ 191 1] 1913); On the Psychological Diagnosis
of Evidence (1937)


The Psychology of Dementia Praecox (1907)
The Content of the Psychoses (1908/1914)
On Psychological Understanding (J 914)
A Criticism of Bleuler's Theory of Schizophrenic Negativism (1911)
On the Importance of the Unconscious in Psychology (1914)
On the Problem of Psychogenesis in Mental Disease (1919)
Mental Disease and the Psyche (1928)
On the Psychogenesis of Schizophrenia (1939)
Recent Thoughts on Schizophrenia (1957)
Schizophrenia (1958)


Freud's Theory of Hysteria: A Reply to Aschaffenburg (1906)
The Freudian Theory of Hysteria (1908)
The Analysis of Dreams (1909)
A Contribution to the Psychology of Rumour (1910-11)
On the Significance of Number Dreams (1910-11)
Morton Prince, "The Mechanism and Interpretation of Dreams":
A Critical Review (191 I)
On the Criticism of Psychoanalysis (1910)
Concerning Psychoanalysis (1912)
The Theory of Psychoanalysis (1913)
General Aspects of Psychoanalysis (1913)
Psychoanalysis and Neurosis (1916)
Some Crucial Points in Psychoanalysis: A Correspondence between
Dr. Jung and Dr. Loy (1914)
Prefaces to "Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology"
(1916, 1917)
The Significance of the Father in the Destiny of the Individual
( 1909/ 1949)
Introduction to Kranefeldt's "Secret Ways of the Mind" (1930)
Freud and Jung: Contrasts (1929)

5. SYMBOLS OF TRANSFORMATION ([1911-12/1952] 1956;
2d ed., 1967)


Two Kinds of Thinking
The Miller Fantasies: Anamnesis
The Hymn of Creation
The Song of the Moth


The Concept of Libido
The Transformation of Libido
The Origin of the Hero
Symbols of the Mother and Rebirth
The Battle for Deliverance from the Mother
The Dual Mother
The Sacrifice
Appendix: The Miller Fantasies

6. PSYCHOLOGICAL TYPES ([1921] 1971)

A revision by R.F.C. Hull of the translation by H. G. Baynes
The Problem of Types in the History of Classical and Medieval
Schiller's Idea on the Type Problem
The Apollonian and the Dionysian
The Type Problem in Human Character
The Type Problem in Psychopathology
The Type Problem in Modern Philosophy
The Type Problem in Biography
General Description of the Types
Four Papers on the Psychological Typology (1913, 1925, 1931, 1936)

On the Psychology of the Unconscious (1917/1926/1943)
The Relations between the Ego and the Unconscious (1928)
Appendix: New Paths in Psychology (19 12); The Structure of the
Unconscious (1916) (new versions, with variants, 1966)

2d ed., 1969)

On Psychic Energy (1928)
The Transcendent Function ([ 1916] 1957)
A Review of the Complex Theory (1934)
The Significance of Constitution and Heredity in Psychology
Psychological Factors Determining Human Behavior (1937)
Instinct and the Unconscious (1919)
The Structure of the Psyche (1927/1931)
On the Nature of the Psyche (1947/1954)
General Aspects of Dream Psychology (1916/1948)
On the Nature of Dreams (1945/1948)
The Psychological Foundations of Belief in Spirits
Spirit and Life (1926)
Basic Postulates of Analytical Psychology (1931)
Analytical Psychology and Weltanschauung (1928/1931)
The Real and the Surreal (1933)
The Stages of Life (1930-31)
The Soul and Death (1934)
Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle (1952)
Appendix: On Synchronicity (1951)

(1959; 2d ed., 1968)

Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious (1934/1954)
The Concept of the Collective Unconscious (1936)
Concerning the Archetypes, with Special Reference to the Anima
Concept (1936/1954)
Psychological Aspects of the Mother Archetype (1938/1954)
Concerning Rebirth' (1940/ 195~)
The Psychology of the Child Archetype (1940)
The Psychological Aspects of the Kore (1941)
The Phenomenology of the Spirit in Fairytales (1945/1948)
On the Psychology of the Trickster-Figure ( 1954)
Conscious, Unconscious, and Individuation (1939)
A Study in the Process of Individuation (1934/1950)
Concerning Mandala Symbolism (1950)
Appendix: Mandalas (1955)

9. PART II. AION ([1951] 1959; 2d ed., 1968)

The Ego
The Shadow
The Syzygy: Anima and Animus
The Self
Christ, a Symbol of the Self
The Sign of the Fishes
The Prophecies of Nostradamus
The Historical Significance of the Fish
The Ambivalence of the Fish Symbol
The Fish in Alchemy
The Alchemical Interpretation of the Fish
Background to the Psychology of Christian Alchemical
Gnostic Symbols of the Self
The Structure and Dymanics of the Self

10. CIVILIZATION IN TRANSITION (1964; 2d ed., 1970)

The Role of the Unconscious (1918)
Mind and Earth (1927/1931)
Archaic Man (1931)
The Spiritual Problem of Modern Man (1928/193 I)
The Love Problem of a Student (1928)
Woman in Europe (1927)
The Meaning of Psychology for Modern Man (1933/1934)
The State of Psychotherapy Today (1934)
Preface and Epilogue to "Essays on Contemporary Events" (1946)
Wotan (1936)
After the Catastrophe (1945)
The Fight with the Shadow (1946)
The Undiscovered Self (Present and Future) (1957)
Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth (1958)
A Psychological View of Conscience (1958)
Good and Evil in Analytical Psychology (1959)
Introduction to Wolffs "Studies in Jungian Psychology"(1959)
The Swiss Line in the European Spectrum (1928)
Reviews of Keyserling's "America Set Free" (1930) and "La Revolution
Mondiale" (1934)
The Complications of American Psychology (1930)
The Dreamlike World of India (1939)
What India Can Teach Us (1939)
Appendix: Documents (1933-38)

2d ed., 1969)


Psychology and Religion (the Terry Lectures) (1938/1940)
A Psychological Approach to Dogma of the Trinity (1942/1948)
Transformation Symbolism in the Mass (1942/1954)
Forewords to White's "God and the Unconscious" and Werblowsky's
"Lucifer and Prometheus" (1952)
Brother Klaus (1933)
Psychotherapists or the Clergy ~ 932)
Psychoanalysis and the Cure of Souls (1928)
Answer to Job (1952)


Psychological Commentaries on ''The Tibetan Book of Great Liberation"
( 1939/1954) and ''The Tibetan Book of the Dead"
( 1935/ 1953)
Yoga and the West (1936)
Foreword to Suzuki's "Introduction to Zen Buddhism" (1939)
The Psychology of Eastern Meditation (1943)
The Holy Men of India: Introduction to Zimmer's "Der Weg zum
Selbst" ( 1944)
Foreword to the "I Ching" (1950)

12. PSYCHOLOGY AND ALCHEMY([1944] 1953; 2d ed., 1968)

Prefatory Note to the English Edition ([1951?] added 1967)
Introduction to the Religious and Psychological Problems of
Individual Dream Symbolism in Relation to Alchemy (1936)
Religious Ideas in Alchemy (1937)


Commentary on "The Secret of the Golden Flower" (1929)
The Visions of Zosimos (1938/1954)
Paracelsus as a Spiritual Phenomenon (1942)
The Spirit Mercurius (1943/1948)
The Philosophical Tree (1945/1954)

14. MYSTERIUM CONIUNCTIONIS ([1955-56] 1963; 2d ed., 1970)
The Components of the Coniunctio
The Paradoxa
The Personification of the Opposites
Rex and Regina
Adam and Eve
The Conjunction


Paracelsus (1929)
Paracelsus the Physician (1941)
Sigmund Freud in His Historical Setting (1932)
In Memory of Sigmund Freud (1939)
Richard Wilhelm: In Memoriam (1930)
On the Relation of Analytical Psychology to Poetry (1922)
Psychology and Literature (1930/1950)
"Ulysses": A Monologue (1932)
Picasso (1932)

16. THE PRACTICE OF PSYCHOTHERAPY (1954; 2d ed., 1966)

Principles of Practical Psychotherapy (1935)
What Is Psychotherapy? (1935)
Some Aspects of Modern Psychotherapy ( 1930)
The Aims of Psychotherapy (1931)
Problems of Modern Psychotherapy (1929)
Psychotherapy and a Philosophy of Life (1943)
Medicine and Psychotherapy (1945)
Psychotherapy Today (1945)
Fundamental Questions of Psychotherapy (1951)
The Therapeutic Value of Abreaction (1921/1928)
The Practical Use of Dream-Analysis ( 1934)
The Psychology of the Transference (1946)
Appendix: The Realities of Practical Psychotherapy
([1937] added 1966)


Psychic Conflicts in a Child (1910/1946)
Introduction to Wickes's "Analyses der Kinderseele" (1927/1931)
Child Development and Education (1928)
Analytical Psychology and Education: Three Lectures (1926/1946)
The Gifted Child (1943)
The Significance of the Unconscious in Individual Education (1928)
The Development of Personality (1934)
Marriage as a Psychological Relationship (1925)


Translated by R.F.C. Hull and others
Miscellaneous Writings

(1976; 2d ed., 1992)


Supplementary Volume A to the Collected Works.
Edited by William McGuire, translated by
Jan van Heurck, introduction by
Marie-Louise von Franz

Supplementary Volume B to the Collected Works.
Translated by Beatrice M. Hinkle,
introduction by William McGuire

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