1. Among its other topics, Jeffery Paine's 2004 book Re-Enchantment: Tibetan Buddhism Comes to the West discusses the problems caused by romantic relationships between dharma students and three teachers in the Tibetan tradition: two Tibetan men (Kalu Rinpoche and Chogyam Trungpa) and one American woman (Catherine Burroughs). The latter is also the subject of Martha Sherrill's 2001 book The Buddha from Brooklyn. In addition, Shoes Outside the Door: Desire, Devotion, and Excess at San Francisco Zen Center put out by Michael Downing in 2002 tells the story of an American Zen master, Richard Baker Roshi, who ran into problems partially because of liaisons with devotees.
2. Four books were published in 2003 and 2004 on the Karmapa, all raking the side of the Dalai lama's candidate Ogyen Trinley. The first of these was Michele Martin's 2003 biography of the young lama, Music in the Sky: The .Life, Art & Teachings of the 17th Karmapa Ogyen Trinley Dorje. In 2004, three books on the Karmapa controversy followed: Karmapa: The Politics of Reincarnation by Lea Terhune, The Dance of 17 Lives: The Incredible True Story of Tibet's 17th Karmapa by Mick Brown, and Wrestling the Dragon: In Search of the Boy Lama Who Defied China by Gaby Naher. An earlier book, Rogues in Robes published in 1998 by Tomek Lehnert, discussed the controversy from the experience of a follower of Shamar Rinpoche. I will occasionally refer to these books in my discussion.
1. The titular head of the Gelug school is known as the Ganden Tripa (or Tri) Rinpoche, the abbot of Ganden monastery. The post is filled on a rotating basis by high lamas in the school, but never by the Dalai Lama himself. The current throne-holder, the 101st Ganden Tri Rinpoche, Khensur Lungri Namgyel, is a French national. Now in his seventies, he was appointed by the Dalai Lama in 2003.
2. Dalai Lama, "Human Rights and Universal Responsibility." Address to the United Nations World Conference on Human Rights, Vienna, Austria, June 15, 1992, http://www.tibet.com/DL/vienna.html , accessed September 12, 2005.
3. P. Christiaan Klieger, Tibetan Nationalism, 89.
4. Flight of A Karmapa. Directed by Yoichi Shimatsu. Hong Kong: Nachtvision, 2001.
5. Rumtek Sangha Duche. Proceedings of the International Karma Kagyu Conference. New Delhi, 1996.
6. Karmapa Charitable Trust vs. the State of Sikkim and Gyaltsab Rinpoche, Civil Suit No. 40 of 1998 in the Court of the District Judge, East and North Sikkim in Gangtok.
7. "Affidavit of Geoffrey Brian Samuel," Lama vs. Hope and Ors, CIV-2004-404-001363, High Court of New Zealand Auckland Registry, November 11, 2004.
8. Dhoring Tenzin Paljor, True Account of the Dhoring Gazhi Family. The edition I used (with the help of Tibetan translators) was published in 1988 in Tibetan by People's Publications of the Tibet Autonomous Region in Lhasa. In the Wylie system of transliteration, the title is Ga' bzhi ba'i mi rabs kyi byung ba brjod pa zol med gtam gyi rol mo zhes bya ba gzhugs so.
9. Compared to other major religions, Buddhism is the fastest growing in the United States. According to a 2001 study, since the previous survey held in 1990, Buddhism had grown 12% versus 11% for Christianity and 10% for both Judaism and Islam. Interestingly, Buddhism grew overall 33%, but at the same time shrank 23%, making it one of the "high turnover" religions in the study. See Egon Mayer, et al., American Religious Identification Survey, City University of New York, 2001, http://www.gc.cuny.edu/faculty/research ... ndings.htm , accessed June
1 BAYONETS TO RUMTEK
1. "Protector Practices," http://www.kadampa.org/english/practice ... ctices.php, accessed July 24, 2005.
2. "The Dharma Protector Dorje Shugden," http://www.kadampa.org/english/traditio ... hugden.php , accessed July 24, 2005.
3. Stephen Bachelor, "Letting Daylight into Magic: The Life and Times of Dorje Shugden," Tricycle: The Buddhist Review, Vol. 7 No. 3, Spring 1998.
4. Parvathi Menon, "Of the Dalai Lama and a Witch-hunt," Frontline, Vol. 17 Issue 26, December 23 to January 5, 2001.
5. Jeffery Paine, "Reply to Jay Landman," Washington Post Book World, August 1, 2004.
2 THE PLACE OF POWER
1. Gaby Naher, Wrestling the Dragon, 207.
2. Rumtek monastery website, http://www.rumtek.org, accessed July 10, 2005.
3. Gaby Naher, Wrestling the Dragon, 207.
4. Rumtek Sangha Duche, Proceedings of the International Karma Kagyu Conference, 44. My discussion of Rumtek before and during the takeover relies heavily on testimony presented at the 1996 event, the International Karma Kagyu Conference. Billed as "A Gathering of the 16th Karmapa's Devotees Organized by the Rumtek Sangha Duche [monk's body]," the meeting was held at the Karmapa Institute in New Delhi from March 28 through March 30, 1996. Shangpa Rinpoche, the leader of Karma Kagyu centers in Singapore, organized the event, which featured speeches by Shamar, Topga, and Khenpo Chodrak. In addition, monks living at the monastery gave first-hand, eyewitness accounts of what they had experienced and seen during the takeover of Rumtek in August 1993. More than three hundred supporters attended the conference, including lamas and monks from Rumtek and other Karma Kagyu monasteries, and lay people from East Asia and Western countries. The hundreds of centers founded by Ole and Hannah Nydahl were particularly well represented at the event, with devotees coming from as far away as Australia, Spain, Japan, and Venezuela.
5. Lea Terhune, Karmapa: The Politics of Reincarnation, 198.
6. Rumtek Sangha Ouche, Proceedings of the International Karma Kagyu Conference, 45.
7. A remarkable woman, Bedi was known in India as the mother of Bollywood heartthrob Kabir Bedi and the grandmother of talk-show host Puja Bedi.
8. Christopher Hitchens, "Blaming bin Laden First," The Nation, October 22, 2001.
3 AN ANCIENT RIVALRY
1. Tsepon W.D. Shakabpa, Tibet: A Political History, 50-56.
2. John T. Davenport has translated the Sakya Lekshe as Ordinary Wisdom: Sakya Pandita's Treasury of Good Advice, published in 2000.
3. Tsepon W.D. Shakabpa, Tibet: A Political History, 65.
4. In The Religion of Tibet, 81, Sir Charles Bell wrote that the order's original name was Ga-luk, the "Ganden Way," after the sect's main monastery outside of Lhasa, Ganden, which means "the Joyous." But since "this seemed to suggest the way of pleasure, a slight change was made, and it became Ga-luk, 'The Virtuous Way.'"
5. Shakabpa's text, Tibet: A Political History, is the standard modern source on the history of Tibet in both its Tibetan original and its English translation. However, the two-volume Tibetan version contains much information that has been edited out of the single-volume English translation. The translation leaves out emotional prose that is acceptable in Tibetan works but that might offend Westerners, as well as numerous historical facts that conflict with Shakabpa's thesis that Tibet was independent of China throughout most of its history or that might impugn the reputation of the Dalai Lamas.
6. The primary sources for the conflict between the Tsangpa kings and the Karma Kagyu on one side and the Depa or Duke of Lhasa. the Mongols, and the Gelugpa on the other are two works by the fifth Dalai Lama, his autobiography and a history of Tibet, as well as Shakabpa's own two-volume history of Tibet in the original (but not in its single-volume English translation, which omits mention of the Duke of Lhasa).
7. Called the Bod Kartso Chig Gyur, this system of government would have given Tibet a level of centralization that such European powers as France and England were beginning to achieve at the same period.
8. Fifth Dalai Lama, Autobiography, vol. 1, 255-256. See also Tsepon W.D. Shakabpa, An Advanced Political History of Tibet, vol. 1, 392. Both of these works are in Tibetan language. I use translations courtesy of Shamar Rinpoche.
9. Fifth Dalai Lama, Autobiography, vol. 1, 201.
10. These figures come from Khenpo Chodrak Tenphel.
11. Dawa Norbu, Tibet: The Road Ahead, 265.
12. Quoted by Elliot Sperling in "Orientalism and Aspects of Violence in the Tibetan Tradition," included in Imagining Tibet edited by Thierry Dodin and Heinz Rather, 319. Sperling uses this passage from the Autobiography of the fifth Dalai Lama to explain the pitfalls of taking historical material out of context and applying contemporary standards to it: "One may say with some confidence that the Fifth Dalai Lama does not fit the standard image that many people today have of a Dalai Lama, particularly the image of a Nobel Peace Prize laureate."
13. Sir Charles Bell, The Religion of Tibet, 107.
14. Isabel Hilton, The Search for the Panchen Lama, 63-75.
4 THE ORIGIN OF THE KARMAPAS
1. Nik Douglas, Karmapa: The Black Hat Lama of Tibet, 33.
2. Karma Thinley, The History of the Sixteen Karmapas of Tibet, 42.
3. In his book History as Propaganda: Tibetan Exiles versus the People's Republic of China, John Powers discusses in great derail the conflicting interpretations of tribute missions by lamas. among other topics, as part of the ongoing argument over the historical relationship between Tibet and China.
4. Karma Thinley Rinpoche, The History of the Sixteen Karmapas of Tibet, 74.
5. The rest of the story comes from a version told to me by Shamar Rinpoche.
6. Lea Terhune. Karmapa: The Politics of Reincarnation, 111.
7. Mick Brown, The Dance of 17 Lives, 34. Later, in July 2005, Brown apologized to Shamar Rinpoche for making this claim and promised to remove it from future editions of his book.
5 A LULL IN HOSTILITIES
1. Patrick French, Tibet, Tibet, 14.
2. I draw on two main sources for information about the United Party initiative and the sectarian conflict that followed it: Anil Maheshwari, The Buddha Cries!, 19-21,and "Division and Reunification of Chushi Gangdrug." http://www.chushigangdruk.org/history/history 12.html, accessed December 28, 2004.
3. Dawa Norbu, Tibet: The Road Ahead, 266.
4. Anil Maheshwari, The Buddha Cries!, 20-21.
5. Namgyal Shastri, "Situ Rinpoche: Fully Satisfied," Dharamsala Tibetan Review, August 1992.
6. Chodrak told me that his source for the story was a book published by Topga Rinpoche in Tibetan in New Delhi in 1994, Tam natshok kun tog ge rimo or Assorted Tales on the Art of Thinking. Topga's book in turn was based on records kept by the general secretary at the Karmapa's Tsurphu monastery in the 1920s.
7. This chart of Karmapas is taken from information submitted by Professor Geoffrey Samuel of the University of Newcastle in Australia in a 2004 court case in neighboring New Zealand: "Affirmation of Geoffrey Brian Samuel," Lama vs. Hope and Ors, CIV- 2004-404-001363, High Court of New Zealand Auckland Registry, November 11, 2004.
6 EXILE, DEATH, AND DISSENT
I. Melvyn Goldstein, A History of Modern Tibet 1913-1951, 34.
2. Nik Douglas in Karmapa: The Black Hat Lama of Tibet lists fifty-two major objects along with sixteen manuscripts, some in multiple volumes, preserved at Rumtek monastery as of the early 1970s.
3. There were seven other lamas in Shamar's hotel room at the time that Shamar agreed to Situ's request. Three of them are still alive as witnesses -- Shamar's brother Jigme Rinpoche, Lama Karma Thinley, and Jamgon Kongtrul's attendant Trinley Ngodrup.
4. Mick Brown, The Dance of 17 Lives, 80.
7 THE TRADITIONALIST
1. Drukchen Rinpoche later told the story of his discussion with the Karmapa to Shamar when the two met at the Ashoka Hotel in New Delhi in 1985. Later, Drukchen retold the story to a group of Western devotees at the Dhagpo Kagyu Ling center in Dordogne. France in 1994.
2. Gaby Naher, Wrestling the Dragon, 260-261.
3. This prediction came from the fifth Shamarpa Konchok Yenlak (1525-1583) and was quoted by Anil Maheshwari, The Buddha Cries', 206.
4. Yeshe Dronma, The Kunzig Shamarpas of Tibet, 19. Interestingly, Shamar received his physical red crown fifty years or more before the Ming emperor Chengzu would present Rolpe Dorje's successor, the fifth Karmapa Deshin Shegpa, with his own physical crown during his stay in Nanjing.
5. Tim McGirk, London Independent, March 18, 1994.
6. Lea Terhune, Karmapa: The Politics of Reincarnation, 147.
7. Tsepon W.D. Shakabpa, Tibet: A Political History, 157.
8. There are four primary Tibetan sources for the life of the tenth Shamarpa and the Tibet-Gorkha War of the eighteenth century: The Golden Lineage by the Great Eighth Tai Situ Chokyi Jungne (early reincarnations); another text by the eighth Situ, his autobiography entitled The Crystal Mirror (the first half of the tenth Shamar's life); the autobiography of Kathog Rig Dzin Chenmo (the end of the Shamarpa's life); and the family history of Tibetan government minister Dhoring Tenzin Paljor (extensive detail about the Gorkha War and the role of the Shamarpa). Aside from the slimmed down English version of Shakabpa's book, an English-language source for dle history of the war and the role of the tenth Shamarpa is an article by Ramesh K. Dhungel, "Nepal-Tibet Cultural Relations and the Zhva-Dmar-Pa (Shyamarpa) Lamas of Tibet" in Contributions in Nepalese Studies, vol. 26, no. 2, July 1999.
9. There is no historical basis for the oft-told story that Shamarpa's Red Crown was buried beneath the floor of this courthouse. This tale is a confusion of Shamarpa's story with that of the great Sakya master Gorampa Sonam Sengye, whose book Clearing Away Wrong Views challenged the Gelugpa view of the Madhyamaka and incurred the wrath of the Dalai lama's administration. The government banned both Gorampa's text and his future incarnations and buried the original of the text along with Gorampa's crown under the entranceway to the Jokhang temple in Lhasa.
10. Yeshe Dronma, The Kunzig Shamarpas of Tibet, 42-44.
11. Anil Maheshwari, The Buddha Cries!, 22-23.
8 THE MODERNIZER
1. Raveena Aulakh, "Holy Hum," Hindustan Times Sunday Magazine, May 2, 2004.
2. Lea Terhune, Karmapa: The Politics of Reincarnation, 7.
3. Mick Brown, The Dance of 17 Lives, 90.
4. Gaby Naher, Wrestling the Dragon, 115.
5. K. Sreedhar Rao, Report to Shri T.S.R. Subramaniam, Cabinet Secretary, Government of India, 5.
6. Government of India Ministry of Home Affairs, Lookout Circular 10/98, August 5, 1998.
7. Mick Brown, The Dance of 17 Lives, 96.
8. Rumtek Sangha Duche, The Siege of Karmapa, viii.
9. Gaby Naher, Wrestling the Dragon, 112.
10. Julian Gearing, "Struggle for Tibet's Soul," Asiaweek, October 20, 2000.
11. "H.H. XVII Gyalwa Karmapa Found," Song of Fulfillment, newsletter of Kagyu Droden Kunchab Buddhist Center (San Francisco), Summer/Fall 1992.
12. Lea Terhune, Karmapa: The Politics of Reincarnation, 131.
13. The full text of this exchange is reproduced from an audio recording made of the meeting in Michel Nestorenko, et al., The Karmapa Papers, 159. Five European devotees of Shamar Rinpoche, Alexander Draszczyk, Martina Draszczyk, Anne Ekselius, Michel Nestorcnko, and Hannah Nydahl, put out this publication at Shamar's request in October 1992. Compiled in Paris. written in English, and distributed from Hong Kong, the publication brought together original documents relating to the Karmapa controversy, with analysis by the editors. The book's highlight is a detailed analysis of Tai Situ's prediction letter, reprinted in appendix B of this book. After its publication, The Karmapa Papers was sent to government officials and opinion leaders in the state of Sikkim, where it helped sway opinion towards Shamar's position.
9 A PRETENDER TO THE THRONE
1. In rare cases, a tulku could be recognized before the death of a particular Buddhist master as a ma-dey tulku. For many Tibetans, such tulkus carried little credibility.
2. Nestorenko, et el., The Karmapa Papers, 50.
3. All quotes from monks at Rumtek concerning the events of the takeover of the monastery come from Proceedings of the International Karma Kagyu Conference, March 1996, unless otherwise indicated.
4. This letter is reproduced in appendix B of this book.
5. The Karmapa Papers, 34.
6. Michelle Martin, Music in the Sky, 18-19.
7. Topga Rinpoche, Tam natshok kun tog ge rimo or Assorted Tales on the Art of Thinking, New Delhi, 1994.
8. Lea Terhune, Karmapa: The Politics of Reincarnation, 164.
9. Mick Brown, The Dance of 17 Lives, 113.
10. Alexander Berzin, Relating to a Spiritual Teacher, 42.
11. "Affirmation of Geoffrey Brian Samuel," Lama vs. Hope and Ors, CIV-2004404-001363, High Court of New Zealand Auckland Registry, November 11, 2004. Samuel went on to write that even once the Dalai Lamas came along, the Karmapa's labrang at Tsurphu never asked for permission from the Dalai Lama to choose a Karmapa, except in the one exceptional case of the recognition of the sixteenth Karmapa in the late twenties. In that case, as we have seen, the thirteenth Dalai Lama originally supported the son of his council minister Lungshar as a candidate, but the Tibetan leader later backed down and was forced to concede that the Karma Kagyu could recognize its own choice, who became the sixteenth Karmapa Rangjung Rigpe Dorje.
12. The Politics of Reincarnation. Directed by Yoichi Shimatsu. Hong Kong: Nachtvision, 2001.
13. Mick Brown, The Dance of 17 Lives, 172.
14. Department of Information and International Relations, Central Tibetan Administration, "H.H. Dalai Lama Recognizes Karmapa's Reincarnation," July 3, 1992.
15. Since this time, some of Shamar's supporters have claimed that the Dalai Lama simply misunderstood the situation, and did not realize that Shamar had not agreed with Situ and Gyaltsab. Once the Tibetan leader discovered his error, it was too late for him to withdraw his support for Ogyen Trinley without losing face. "This point seemed quite important at the time," Shamar told me. "But now it is clear that the Dalai Lama's office had already determined to support Ogyen Trinley, and that it would have found one way or another to do so."
16. K. Sreedhar Rao, Report to Shri T.S.R. Subramaniam, Cabinet Secretary, Government of India, 4-5.
10 ABORTIVE SKIRMISHES
1. LeaTerhune, Karmapa: The Politics of Reincarnation, 192.
2. Mick Brown, The Dance of 17 Lives, 166.
3. In his book on the Karmapa controversy, Mick Brown quoted a layman who held a low- level post at Rumtek with a version of the argument that Situ's followers have often made against testing the prediction letter: '''Why did Shamar say the prediction letter should be analyzed?' says Ngodrup Burkhar. 'This is a point in his favor to the modern Western audience, who will think, why not? There's no harm. It's an appeal to rationalism; not blind faith. But the second thing is he knew this test could never he done, and that would again be in his favor. He could say "Look, I am asking for something very straight, very plain, something the whole world acknowledges, and they're not going to do it!" But he knew that nobody would plunge themselves into hell by desecrating the letter.''' See Mick Brown, The Dance of 17 Lives, 171.
4. Tomek Lehnert, Rogues in Robes, 166.
5. The day after Shamar put out his letter in Tibetan, Situ had one of his American devotees, Michelle Martin (who would later write the 2003 biography of Ogyen Trinley Music in the Sky) release a translation that was much more affirmative than Shamar intended. This translation interpreted him as saying "now I have attained complete confidence in Situ Rinpoche, and the contents of this letter, according to which the reincarnation has definitely been discovered and further confirmed by His Holiness the Dalai Lama as the incarnation of His Holiness the Gyalwang Karmapa. I offer my willing acceptance and henceforth, I will no longer pursue the matter of examining the sacred testament, etc."
The next day, July 18, Shamar issued his own translation, worded more tentatively:
On March 19th, 1992, at a meeting with Jamgon Rinpoche, Gyaltsab Rinpoche and myself, Situ Rinpoche presented a handwritten prediction letter from his protection pouch, claiming it was the written instructions of H.H. the 16th Karmapa (indicating his reincarnation). I had some doubts (about the letter's authenticity). At this point, I rely on Situ Rinpoche (giving me correct information about H.H. the Dalai Lama's decision). Relying on our confidential discussion, I go along with the decision made by H.H. Dalai Lama that a reincarnation has certainly been found as reincarnation of H.H. the Gyalwa Karmapa. Hence, I suspend my demands such as having the handwritten prediction letter being subjected to a (forensic) test.
6. By the early nineties, the Karmapa Charitable Trust board consisted of J.D. Densapa and T.S. Gyaltshen, former officials of the Sikkim state government; Ashok Burman, a New Delhi businessman; Gyan Jyoti Kansakar, a Kathmandu businessman; and Rumtek general secretary Topga Rinpoche. These board members were all appointed in 1962 when Shamar was a child of seven years old, so he could have had no influence over their selection. The only new members were Shamar, Situ, and Jamgon Rinpoches, all appointed by the other trustees in 1984.
7. Rumtek Sangha Duche, Proceedings of the International Karma Kagyu Conference, 60.
8. K. Sreedhar Rao, Report to Shri T.S.R. Subramaniam, Cabinet Secretary, Government of India, 9.
9. Lea Terhune, Karmapa: The Politics of Reincarnation, 193.
10. Article 26. Freedom to Manage Religious Affairs, declares that "every religious denomination or any section thereof shall have the right (a) to establish and maintain institutions for religious and charitable purposes; (b) to manage its own affairs in matters of religion; (c) to own and acquire movable and immovable property; and (d) to administer such property in accordance with law." See http://indiacode.nic.in/coiweb/coifiles/p03.htm, accessed May 2, 2005.
11. Mick Brown, The Dance of 17 Lives, 212.
11 THE YARNEY PUTSCH
1. Dalai Lama, Human Rights and Universal Responsibility. Address to the United Nations World Conference on Human Rights, Vienna, Austria. June 15, 1992, http://www.tibet.com/DL/vienna.html. accessed September 12, 2005.
2. The meeting was reportedly held at a farmhouse in the Matang Valley, according to numerous Indian newspaper accounts. Without obtaining prior permission to enter the neighboring state of West Bengal, a car from the Sikkim state government picked up Chen at Bagdogra airport beforehand and brought him to Sikkim. At the meeting, Chen allegedly gave Bhandari a suitcase containing $1.5 million.
3. Anil Maheshwari, The Buddha Cries', 122.
4. "Pro-China Coup in Gangtok Monastery," Hindustan Times, August 6, 1993.
5. Anil Maheshwari, The Buddha Cries!, 103.
12 UNDER OCCUPATION
1. Anil Maheshwari. The Buddha Cries!, 99.
2. Rumtek Sangha Duche, Proceedings of the International Karma Kagyu Conference, 56-57.
3. "I will rule like Hitler: Bhandari," Siliguri Telegraph, November 24, 1994.
4. K. Sreedhar Rao, Report to Shri T.S.R. Subramaniam, Cabinet Secretary, Government of India, 13.
5. Lea Terhune, Karmapa: The Politics of Reincarnation, 223-224.
6. Anil Maheshwari, The Buddha Cries!, 120-121.
7. Rumtek Sangha Duche, The Siege of Karmapa, 73-74.
8. Topga Rinpoche, Letter to Gyaltsab Rinpoche, September 15, 1995.
9. K. Sreedhar Rao, Report to Shri T.S.R. Subramaniam, Cabinet Secretary, Government of India, 9.
13 LAMAS ON TRIAL
1. "Shamar Rinpoche Files Defamation Suit against Controversial Karmapa Book," http://www.karmapa-issue.org/politics/l ... erhune.htm, accessed July 27, 2005.
2. Lea Terhune, Karmapa: The Politics of Reincarnation, 231.
3. Judge S.W. Lephcha, Order in Civil Suit No. 40 of 1998, the Court of the District Judge, East and North Sikkim at Gangtok, date of decision October 17, 2001.
4. Rezaul Lascar, "Pro-China Monk Let Into India," Asian Age, September 6, 1998.
5. Government of India Ministry of Home Affairs, Lookout Circular 10/98, August 5, 1998.
6. David Rennie, "Boy Lama Flees Across Himalayas to Escape Chinese," London Telegraph, January 7, 2000.
7. Arthur Max, "Young Monk May Emerge As Leader," San Francisco Examiner, January 15, 2000.
8. Brahma Chellaney, "Chinese piece in Karmapa jigsaw remains a puzzle," Hindustan Times, January 17, 2000.
9. Flight of A Karmapa, directed by Yoichi Shimatsu, Hong Kong: Nachtvision, 2001.
10. Mick Brown, The Dance of 17 Lives, 223.
11. Gaby Naher, Wrestling the Dragon, 262.
12. Martin Brauen, Dreamworld Tibet, 79.
13. Ibid., 67.
14. Dhiman Chattopadhyay and Amalendu Kundu. "Court Order on Rumtek Treasure Opens Pandora's Box," Times of India, March 25, 2002.
15. "Missing Dorje with Ugyen Trinley," Gangtok Weekend Review, July 12-18, 2002.
16. Julian Gearing, "India, Sikkim, China and a vexing Tibetan lama," Asia Times Online, www.atimes.com/atimes/China/FG21Ad06.html, accessed July 21, 2004.
17. Jefferson Penberthy, "Battle of the Future Buddhas," Time, April 4, 1994.
14 THE SECRET BOY
1. The entire letter was reproduced and interpreted by Topga Rinpoche, Tam natshok kun tog ge rimo or Assorted Tales on the Art of Thinking, New Delhi, 1994.
15 THE RETURN OF THE KING
1. Anil Maheshwari, The Buddha Cries!, 112.
2. Lea Terhune, Karmapa: The Politics of Reincarnation, 222.
3. The Attack, Directed by Thule Jug. Vienna: Vienna Dharma Projects, 1994.
4. Lea Terhune, Karmapa: The Politics of Reincarnation, 222.
5. Tim McGirk, "Buddhist Factions Come to Blows," London Independent, March 18, 1994.
6. "Rumtek Chief Crowned Amid Violence," Indian Express, March 18, 1994.
7. "Karmapa Controversy 'Unfortunate'," The Hindu, April 5, 1994.
8. Vijay Kranti, "Newsmaker: Tenzin Khyentde," India Today, April 15, 1994.
9. Interview with Lama Dorje Drolma, January 5, 2000, unpublished.
10. Tina Draszczyk, "An Interview with Trinley Thaye Dorje, the 17th Gyalwa Karmapa," Buddhism Today, Vol. 8, 2000.
11. Gosia Pellarin, et al., "Buddha in Silicon Valley," Buddhism Today, Vol. 13, Fall/Winter 2003.
12. Interview with Lama Dorje Drolma, January 5, 2000, unpublished.
1. In this section, many quotes from Thaye Dorje come from two articles: Tina Draszczyk, "An Interview with Trinley Thaye Dorje, the 17th Gyalwa Karmapa," Buddhism Today, Vol. 8, Summer 2000: and Gosia Pellarin, et al., "Buddha in Silicon Valley," Buddhism Today, Vol. 13, Fall/Winter 2003.
2. Gosia Pellarin, et al., "Buddha in Silicon Valley," Buddhism Today, Vol. 13, Fall/Winter 2003.
3. Dhammapada, "Desire," verse 21.
4. E. Gene Smith, Among Tibetan Texts, 268-269.