THE MYTH OF SHANGRI-LA: TIBET, TRAVEL WRITING AND THE WESTE

The impulse to believe the absurd when presented with the unknowable is called religion. Whether this is wise or unwise is the domain of doctrine. Once you understand someone's doctrine, you understand their rationale for believing the absurd. At that point, it may no longer seem absurd. You can get to both sides of this conondrum from here.

Re: THE MYTH OF SHANGRI-LA: TIBET, TRAVEL WRITING AND THE W

Postby admin » Sat Mar 19, 2016 5:16 am

Part 1 of 2

Chapter References

1. An Imaginative Geography


1. E Relph, Place and Placelessness (London: Pion, 1976); M. Samuels, 'Existentialism and Human Geography', in Humanistic Geography, ed. D. Ley and M. Samuels (London: Croom Helm, 1979); C.G. Jung, 'Mind and Earth', in his Collected Works Vol. 10 (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974).

2. G. Bachelard, The Poetics of Space (Boston: Beacon Press, 1969); Yi-Fu Tuan, 'Topophilia', in Man, Space and Environment, ed. p. English and R. Mayfield (New York: Oxford University Press, 1972); Yi-Fu Tuan, 'Sacred Space', in Dimensions of Human Geography, ed. K Butzer (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978).

3. M. Eliade, The Sacred and the Profane (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1959); See F. Yates, The Art of Memory (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1978) for a discussion of space and memory.

4. J. Sumption, Pilgrimage (London: Faber & Faber, 1975).

5. E. Said, Orientalism (New York: Vintage Books, 1979); H. Baudet, Paradise on Earth: Some Thoughts on European Images of Non- European Man (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965).

6. See Baudet; and B. Stafford, Voyage into Substance (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1984).

7. See p. Dodd (ed.), The Art of Travel (London: Frank Cass, 1982) for extensive discussion of travel writing; also E. swinglehurst, Cook's Tours (Poole, Dorset: Blandford Press, 1982).

8. See Relph, pp. 79.ff; also Eliade, pp. 22 -4; I. Illich, H2O and the Waters of Forgetfulness (Dallas: Dallas Institute of Humanities and Culture, 1985)

9. See M. Le Bris, Romantics and Romanticism (Geneva: skira, 1981); C. Loomis, 'The Arctic Sublime', in Nature and the Victorian Imagination, ed. U. Knoepflmacher and G. Tennyson (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977); A. Moorehead: The Fatal Impact (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1968); The White Nile (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1976).

10. Said; also Stafford, Voyage into Substance; E. Brown (ed), Geography Yesterday and Tomorrow (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980); L. Brockway, Science and Colonial Expansion (New York: Academic Press, 1979); J. Boon, The Anthropological Romance of Bali (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1977); R. Nash, Wilderness and the American Mind (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1973); A. Miller, 'I see no end to traveling' (Sydney: Bay Books, 1986); C. Glacken, Traces on the Rhodian Shore (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967).

11. See C. Allen, A Mountain in Tibet (London: Andre Deutsch, 1982); P. Hopkirk, Trespassers on the Roof of the World (London: John Murray, 1982); L. Miller, On Top of the World (London: Paddington Press, 1976); G. Woodcock, Into Tibet (London: Faber & Faber, 1971); S. Camman, Trade Through the Himalayas (Connecticut Greenwood Press, 1970); J. MacGregor, Tibet: A Chronicle of Exploration (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1970).

12. see A. Lamb, Britain and Chinese Central Asia (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1960).

13. See Dodd, Art of Travel; Stafford, Voyage into Substance; P. Fussell, Abroad (New York:Oxford University Press, 1980); F. Barker et al. (eds.), Europe and Its Others, 2 vols. (Colchester University of Essex, 1984).

14. Fussell, pp. 202-15.

15. Ibid. pp. 108-9, 174-7.

16. C. Levi-Strauss, The Savage Mind (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1973); also J. Hillman, Re-Visioning Psychology (New York Harper & Row, 1975), p. 164 on the idea of bricoleur; R. Byron, First Russia-Then Tibet (1933; Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1985) See also N. Douglas, Siren Land (1911; Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1986) for a brilliant example of this collage style

17. Byron.

18. Fussell, p. 214.

19. Bachelard, Poetics. See also R. Funk, Language, Hermeneutic and Word of God (New York: Harper & Row, 1966), pp. 265-73, where the travel section of Paul's letters in the New Testament are read as an integral part of Paul's message.

20. Fussell, p. 210.

21. W. Mitchell (ed.), On Narrative (Chicago University of Chicago Press, 1981), p. x.

22. P. Matthiesson, The Snow Leopard (London: Picador, 1980); P. Bishop, 'The Geography of Hope and Despair, Peter Matthiesson's The Snow Leopard', Critique XXVI, no. 4 (Summer 1985) See also W. Least Heat-Moon, Blue Highways (London: Picador, 1984) for a striking image of route. He structures his narrative around the blue roads on maps of US highways.

23. J. Hillman, 'The Thought of the Heart', The Eranos Jahrbuch 48-1979 (Frankfurt a/M: Insel Verlag, 1980), pp. 151-3; M. Foucault, The History of Sexuality, vol. l (New York: Vintage Books, 1980), p. 58; see also P. Spacks, Imagining a Self (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1976). This is an examination of autobiography and novel in the eighteenth century, which was a critical period in the intensification of concern over personal identity and subjectivity.

24. H. White, 'The Value of Narrativity in the Representation of Reality', in Mitchell, p. 18.

25. V. Turner: 'Pilgrimages as Social Processes', in his Dramas, Fields and Metaphors (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1974), 'The Centre Out There. Pilgrim's Goal', History of Religions, 13, no. 3 (February 1973).

26. See Yi-Fu Tuan, Space and Place (London: Edward Arnold, 1977; also Bachelard, Poetics

27. See J. Layard, A Celtic Quest (Zurich: Spring Publications, 1975). He examines this triple parallelism between geographical boundaries, those of individual psychology and those of social reality.

28. D. Lowenthal, 'Geography, Experience and Imagination Towards a Geographical Epistemology', in English and Mayfield.

29. Yi-Fu Tuan, 'Sacred Space', in Butzer, p. 92; Barker; J. Fabian, Time and the Other (New York Columbia University Press, 1983).

30. Said, pp. 157-97

31. Ibid. pp. 167.

32. Ibid. pp. 166-88.

33. J. Hillman, 'Notes on White Supremacy', Spring 1986 (Dallas. Spring Publications, 1986), pp. 45-6. We can trace the appearance of the West's unconscious even closer to home than Africa. For example, in the imaginative constructions and reconstructions of places such as Pompeii (moral warnings about imperial decline and sexual permissiveness); Knossos (a golden age of innocence, power and wisdom destroyed by the overwhelming forces of nature); Capri (a languid, earthy paradise underlain by dark myths); Patmos (the visionary extreme of European consciousness). See, for example, H. Wunderlich, The Secret of Crete (Athens Efstathiadis Group, 1983) for insights into the discovery and archaeological reconstruction of Knossos on Crete early in the twentieth century; or N. Douglas's Siren Land (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1986) for a broody, complex evocation of Capri and the Amalfi coast at the turn of the century. On Patmos's evocative power in the nineteenth century, see Holderlin's poem 'Bread and Wine'.

34. J. Hillman 'Notes on White Supremacy', 'An Introductory Note: C.G Carus -- C.G. Jung', in C.G. Cams, Psyche: Part One (New York: Spring Publications, 1970). On the 'discovery' of the unconscious, see H. Ellenberger, The Discovery of the Unconscious (New York: Basic Books, 1970). There is, of course, no fixed category of the Other. From disciplines as diverse as anthropology, psychology, religious philosophy, art aesthetics, and so on comes a bewildering array of images and reflections on Otherness. While most of these perspectives attempt to conceptualize 'their' Other as a coherent, unified object, archetypal psychology insists upon its complexity, diversity and contradictory qualities. However, some moves against unified images of Otherness can be seen in these other disciplines. In anthropology, for example, there is Fabian's Time and the Other, or Boon's Anthropological Romance of Bali. A wide range of discussions, owing much to the deconstructionalist philosophy of Foucault, can be found in Barker, Europe and Its Others. Archetypal psychology's insistence on the transpersonal roots of these images of Otherness is similarly echoed by at least some of these post-modernist theorists; see the discussion in E. Casey, 'Jung and the Post-Modern Condition', Spring 1987 (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1987)

35. S. Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1971); C.G. Jung, Collected Works, Vol. 16 (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974); J. Hillman. Re-Visioning Psychology (New York: Harper & Row, 1975), The Dream and the Underworld (New York Harper & Row, 1979).

36. See J. Anderson, The Ulysses Factor (New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1970); W. Noyce, The Springs of Adventure (New York: the World Publishing Company, 1958); J. Lester, 'Wrestling with the Self on Mount Everest', Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 23, no. 2 (Spring 1983); M. and J. Fisher, Shackleton (London: James Barrie, 1957), is an excellent example of the biographical approach to the psychology of exploration.

37. See Relph; Lowenthal, 'Geography, Experience ...'; Tuan, 'Topophilia'; R. Sach, 'Conceptions of Geographical Space', Progress in Human Geography 4, no. 3 (September 1980); T. Saarinen and J. Sell, 'Environmental Perception', Progress in Human Geography, 5, no. 4 (1981); J. Allen, 'The Place of the Imagination in the History of Geographical Exploration', in Geographies of the Mind, ed D. Lowenthal and M. Bowden (New York Oxford University Press, 1976).

38. See M. Bowden, 'The Great American Desert in the American Mind. The Historiography of a Geographical Notion', in Lowenthal and Bowden; R. Barthes, 'The Blue Guide', Mythologies (London: Paladin, 1973).

39. F. Grenard, Tibet (1903; Delhi: Cosmo Publications, 1974).

40. See C. Norberg-Schulz, Genius Loci (New York: Rizzoli, 1980).

41. Eliade; Jung, 'Mind and Earth'; J. Hillman, 'Anima Mundi', Spring 1982 (Dallas. Spring Publications, 1982); E. Casey, 'Getting Placed', Spring 1982 (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1982); Layard.

42. Relph; Bachelard, Poetics; Tuan, 'Sacred Space'; Lowenthal, 'Geography, Experience ...'; M. Heidegger, Poetry, Language, Thought (New York: Harper & Row, 1975); E. Gison, 'Understanding the Subjective Meaning of Places', in Ley and Samuels.

43. See M. Eliade, Australian Religions (New York: Cornell University Press, 1973).

44. Tuan, 'Topophilia'; Tuan, 'Geopiety'.

45. Heidegger.

46. Casey, 'Getting Placed', p. 17.

47. Eliade, Sacred and Profane, p. 25; see also L. Shiner, 'Sacred Space, Profane Space, Human Space', Journal of the American Academy of Religion XL, no. 4 (December 1972); I. Saliba, 'Homo Religiousus' in Mircea Eliade (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1976)

48. Eliade, Sacred and Profane; D. Eck, 'India's Tirthas: "Crossings" in Sacred Geography', History of Religions 20, no. 4 (May 1981).

49. Eliade, Sacred and Profane, pp. 32 -40; D. Lowenthal, 'Past Time, Present Place. Landscape and Memory', The Geographical Review LXV, no. 1 (January 1975). Yates, Art of Memory, presents a brilliant discussion of the Classical and Renaissance art of using structured places for the purposes of reclaiming both empirical memory and also archetypal memory, memoria.

50. See J. Nicholas, Temenos and Topophilia (London: The Guild of Pastoral Psychology Monograph 186, 1977); J. Swan, 'Sacred Places in Nature', The Journal of Environmental Education 14 (1983).

51. See P. Porter and F Lukerman, 'The Geography of Utopia', in Lowenthal and Bowden.

52. N. Graburn, 'Tourism The Sacred Journey', in Hosts and Guests, ed. V. Smith (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1979); S. Bhardway, Hindu Places of Pilgrimage in India (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973); J. Preston, 'Sacred Centres and Symbolic Networks in South Asia', The Mankind Quarterly XX, nos.3, 4 (January -April 1980); Sumption.

53. Turner: 'Pilgrimages as Social Processes', 'The Centre Out There'/

54. Quoted in M. Philip, 'Disconcerting Discourses', Australian Society (February 1985); M. Foucault, Power/Knowledge (London: The Harvester Press, 1980).

55. Said, p. 216; also M. Edwardes, The West in Asia 1850 -1914 (London: B.T. Batsford Ltd., 1967). Despite his insistence on the primacy of geography as an organizer of disparate discourses, Said pays scant attention to the details of place and to the images evoked by specific places. Nor does he address his influential study to the problem of imaginative creation and production. The context of his work is also limited, dealing primarily with imperial politics and the organization of scholarship.

56. See I. Sachs, The Discovery of the Third World (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1976) for a discussion of Europocentrism; also Said, p. 117.

57. Said, p. 5.

58. Ibid. p. 62.

59. See M. Sheridan, Foucault: The Will to Truth (London: Tavistock Publications, 1981), p. 34.

60. T. Gladwin, East is a Big Bird (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971).

61. See R. Jenkyns, The Victorians and Ancient Greece (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980); Moorehead, The White Nile; Fussell, Abroad.

62. See P. Newby, 'Literature and the Fashioning of Tourist Taste', in Humanistic Geography and Literature, ed. D. Pocock (London: Croom Helm, 1981).

63. Boon, p. 149; there are many overt examples of anthropology as a travel account. These include C. Levi-Strauss, Triste Tropique (London: Cape, 1973); J. Briggs, Never in Anger (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1970); F. Donner, Shabono (New York: Delacorte Press, 1982). What makes these studies fit into the genre of travel accounts is the presence of the authors within the stories. They are shown as experiencing, involved, reacting subjects. The texts also have a certain essayistic and collage-like quality.

64. Said, pp. 93-8.

65. Ibid. pp. 63, 67.

66. See Brown; D. Middleton, Victorian Lady Travelers (Chicago: Academy, 1982) discusses the role of the Royal Geographical Society in the nineteenth century; E. Gilbert, British Pioneers in Geography (Newton Abbot, Devon: David & Charles, 1972).

67. Said, p. 14.

68. Ibid. p. 22.

69. Said, p. 6; see also his 'Orientalism Reconsidered', Race and Class XXVII, no. 2 (Autumn 1985).

70. J. Hillman, 'On Parapsychology', Loose Ends (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1978) p. 127; H. Corbin: Creative Imagination in the Sufism of Ibn 'Arabi (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969), 'Mundus Imaginalis or the Imaginary and the Imaginal', Spring 1972 (New York: Spring Publications, 1972); G. Durand, 'Exploring the Imaginal', Spring 1971 (New York: Spring Publications, 1971).

71. Three archetypes are of particular relevance in this study -- the puer, the anima and the senex. See J. Hillman (ed.), The Puer Papers (Dallas. Spring Publications, 1979); Hillman: Anima (Dallas Spring Publications, 1985), 'On Senex Consciousness', Spring 1970 (New York: Spring Publications, 1970), 'The Negative Senex', Spring 1975 (New York: Spring Publications, 1975)

72. J. Hillman, 'The Imagination of Air and the Collapse of Alchemy'. The Eranos Jahrbuch 50-1981 (Frankfurt a/M Insel Verlag, 1982), pp. 283-4.

73. J. Allen, 'Imagination and Exploration', tends to consider individual fantasies as leading to a failure in the creation of accurate geographical ideas.

74. Hillman, Anima, p. 25.

75. C.G. Jung, Collected Works Vo1. 16: The Practice of Psychotherapy (London. Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974); see also J. Hillman, Healing Fiction (Barry town, NY: Station Hill Press 1983).

76. J. Hillman, Re-Visioning Psychology, p. 62. See also G Dudley, 'Jung and Eliade', Psychological Perspectives 10, no. 1 (1979); D. Holt, 'Jung and Marx', Spring 1973 (Dallas Spring Publications, 1973)

77. Saliba.

78. Said, Orientialism.

79. J. Hilton, Lost Horizon (1933; London: Pan, 1947).

80. See Fussell.

81. D. Rayfield, The Dream of Lhasa (London: Paul Elek, 1976), p. 115.

82. See C. Allen, A Mountain in Tibet.

83. P. Fleming, Travels in Tartary (1934/6; London: The Reprint Society, 1941), pp. 258, 275-9.

84. C. Markham (ed. ), Narratives of the Mission of George Bogle to Tibet and of the Journey of Thomas Manning to Lhasa (1879; New Delhi. Manjusri Publishing House, 1971); S. Turner, An Account of an Embassy to the Court of the Teshoo Lama in Tibet (1800; New Delhi Manjusri Publishing House, 1971).

85. G. Bachelard, Water and Dreams (Dallas: Pegasus Foundation, 1983), p. 4.

86. W. Booth, The Rhetoric of Fiction (Chicago University of Chicago Press, 1961)

2. Tibet Discovered

1. See G. Woodcock, Into Tibet (London Faber & Faber, 1971); F. de Filippi, An Account of Tibet. Travels of Ippolito Desideri of Pistoia S.J. 1712-1727 (London: n. p., 1927); J. MacGregor, Tibet -- A Chronicle of Exploration (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1970) C. Markham, Narratives of George Bogle to Tibet and of the Journey of Thomas Manning to Lhasa (1879; Delhi: Manjusri Publishing House, 1971).

2 See A. Moorehead, The Fatal Impact (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1968); B. Stafford, Voyage Into Substance (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1984).

3. M. Nicolson, Mountain Gloom and Mountain Glory (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1959); G. de Beer, Early Travelers in the Alps (1930; London, Sidgwick & Jackson, 1966); L. Stephen, The Playground of Europe (London: Longmans, Green & Co, 1871); Stafford.

4 C. Hibbert, The Grand Tour (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1969).

5. S. Turner, An Account of an Embassy to the Court of the Teshoo Lama in Tibet (1800; New Delhi Manjusri Publishing House, 1971) p. 343.

6. Markham, p. 19.

7. Ibid. p. 100; Turner, p. 215

8. Kirkpatrick, An Account of the Kingdom of Nepaul (London, 1811; New Delhi Asian Publishing Services, 1975), p. xii.

9. See E. Said, Orientalism (New York Vintage Books, 1979); H. Baudet, Paradise on Earth (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965).

10 See Baudet; Stafford; C. Glacken, Traces on the Rhodian Shore (Berkeley University of California Press, 1967); T. Penniman, A Hundred Years of Anthropology (New York William Morrow & Co., 1974)

11. R. Phillimort, Historical Records of the Survey of India (Dehra Dun Survey of India, 1945, Vol. 1).

12. In Bogle's and Turner's accounts, reference is made to the 'Teshoo Lama', whose correct title is the 'Panchen Lama'. I will refer to him by his correct title throughout this study. Also in these early texts, the term 'Booteeas', was often used vaguely to denote both Bhutanese and Tibetans.

13. Turner, p. ix.

14. S. Camman, Trade Through the Himalayas (Connecticut Greenwood Press, 1970) p. 31.

15. Markham, p. 5.

16. Ibid. p. 6.

17. Ibid. pp. 6-7.

18. Ibid. pp. 8 -9.

19. For example, at about the same time J. Goethe shows in his Italian Journey 1786-1788 (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1982), that he was struggling to combine both an objective descriptive style and one that addressed inner experiential questions. In this text one can trace the leading edge of the European literary and aesthetic exploration of mountain landscape.

20. See D. Siddle, 'David Livingstone: A Mid-Victorian Field Scientist', Geographical Journal 140, no. 1 (February 1974), on the nineteenth-century debate about amateur versus professional travelers and explorers.

21. J. Fabian, Time and the Other (New York: Columbia University Press, 1983), pp. 111-13, 149; Europe and Its Others, ed. F. Barker et al., 2 vols. (Colchester: University of Essex, 1984)

22. Markham, p. 9.

23. See Camman, pp. 20-1.

24. Markham, p. 12.

25. Turner, pp. 206-7.

26. Markham, p. 9.

27. Ibid. p. 11.

28. See H. Seton-Watson, The Russian Empire 1801-1917 (Oxford Oxford University Press, 1967).

29. Turner, p. 209.

30. Camman, pp. 55-6.

31. Turner, p. 288.

32. Ibid. p. 289.

33. See K. Panikkar, Asia and Western Dominance (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1955).

34. Markham, p. 318.

35. Ibid. p. 177.

36. Ibid. p118.

37. Baudet, pp. 43-4.

38. Ibid. pp. 38-9.

39. Turner, p. xiii.

40. Phillimore.

41. Said, Orientalism, p. 117.

42. Markham, Narratives, p. 107.

43. Markham, p. 111.

44. Ibid. p. 99.

45. Ibid. p. 112.

46. Turner, p. 293.

47. Ibid. pp. 272 -3; see also Bogle's expansionist attitudes, in Markham, pp. 57-60.

48. Kirkpatrick, pp. vi -vii.

49. Markham, p. 6.

50. Baudet, p. 49.

51. See Turner's stereotypical generalizations about Asiatics as lacking innovation, being conservative, and so on: An Account, pp. 41, 367.

52. See Said, Orientalism, p. 51.

53. Ibid. p. 52.

54. Markham, p. 14.

55. Ibid. p. 15;Turner, pp. v-vi.

56. Turner, p. 9.

57. Markham, p. 16.

58. Turner, p. v.

59. M. Eliade, in his classic study of sacred space, does not bring out this idea of the boundary being a place in its own right; that the threshold has imaginal depth. Sacred and Profane (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1959).

60. Markham, p. 18.

61. Ibid.

62. Markham, p. 69.

63. Ibid. p. 75.

64. Ibid. pp. 67-8.

65. Ibid. p. 68.

66. Turner, pp. 198, 317-18.

67. Ibid. pp. 197 -217; Markham, pp. 68-72.

68. See K. Bazarov, Landscape Painting (London: Octopus Books, 1981), pp. 86-7.

69. Markham, p. 20.

70. Turner, p. 387.

71. Ibid. p. 45.

72. Ibid. pp. 20, 53-4, 192-3.

73. Markham, p. 18; cf. Kirkpatrick, pp. 137-8.

74. See Stephen, p. 39.

75. Turner, pp. 137, 213-14.

76. Cf. also ibid., p. 197, where Turner comments on Tibetan beliefs about mountain spirits.

77. Ibid., p. 101. See E. Burke, A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origins of our Ideas of the Sublime and the Beautiful, ed. J. Boulton (1757; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1958).

78. Markham, p. 113.

79. Turner, p. 223.

80. Ibid. p. 297.

81. Cf. ibid. pp. 190, 353.

82. Ibid. p. 63.

83. See the plates in ibid. pp. 86, 96, 138; and in Kirkpatrick, p. 158.

84. Cf. Bazarov, pp. 70-1, 84-6; de Beer, fig. 34, p. 185.

85. Turner, p. 216.

86. Markham, p. 93.

87. Turner, p. 127.

88. Ibid. p. 184.

89. See Nicolson; Stephen.

90. de Beer, pp. 180-4; J Hillman, 'The Imagination of Air and the Collapse of Alchemy', The Eranos Jahrbuch 50-1981 (Frankfurt a/M Insel Verlag, 1982).

91. See Hillman, 'Imagination of Air', pp. 290-1, for detailed discussion on the place of air in the scientific imagination of the eighteenth century; also I. Illich, H2O and the Waters of Forgetfulness (Dallas: Dallas Institute of Humanities and Culture, 1985).

92. Turner, p. 102.

93. Ibid. p. 198.

94. Ibid. p. 388.

95. Ibid. p. 45.

96. Ibid. p. 408.

97. See Hillman, 'Imagination of Air', for a discussion of the imagination at work in empirical fantasies about air.

98. Turner, p. 192.

99. Ibid. p. 16

100. Ibid. p. 21

101. Ibid. p. vi.

102. Markham, p. 12

103. R. Fields, How the Swans Came to the Lake (Boulder, CO: Shambhala, 1981), pp. 42-7.

104. Markham, p. 11

105. W. Jones, 'On the Gods of Greece, Italy and India', in The British Discovery of Hinduism in the Eighteenth Century, ed. P. Marshall (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970).

106. The apex of this cult of Classical Greece was surely reached in Victorian England. See R. Jenkyns, The Victorians and Ancient Greece (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980).

107. Turner, pp. 306-7.

108. Kirkpatrick, p. 188.

109. Markham, pp. 138, 143, 146, 196; Turner, p. 307.

110. Markham, p. 88.

111. Ibid. p. 102.

112. Turner, pp. 308-10.

113. See Baudet, pp. 49-50, on the respect shown towards Islamic literature in eighteenth-century Europe.

114. Turner, pp. v, 17.

115. Markham, p. 87.

116. Turner, pp. 306-7.

117. Ibid. p. 362.

118. Ibid. pp. 243, 256; Kirkpatrick, p. 152.

119. Turner, p. 312.

120. Ibid. pp. 172, 257.

121. Markham, p. 143

122. Turner, p. 257.

123. See Fields, pp. 32-3

124. Markham, p. 33

125. Ibid. p. 196; see M. Foucault, The Order of Things (London: Tavistock, 1980), for an extensive discussion of the organization of knowledge in the Age of Reason.

126. Turner, p. 310.

127. Markham, pp. 12, 80.

128. Ibid. pp. 152-5.

129. Ibid. p. 196.

130. Turner, pp. 334-7

131. Ibid. pp. 334-5.

132. Markham, pp. 84, 95.

133. Ibid. p. 196.

134. Turner, pp. 202, 257.

135. Markham, p. 29

136. Ibid. pp. 48, 62

137. Ibid. p. 103.

138. Ibid. p. 104.

139. Ibid. pp. 27-30; Turner, pp. 256-8

140. Markham, pp. 11, 86.

141. Turner, pp. 31, 104, 198, 256, 319.

142. Markham, p. 23

143. Turner, pp. 102, 171.

144. Markham, p. 144.

145. Turner, p. 284.

146. Ibid. p. 152.

147. Ibid. pp. 331-2

148. Ibid. p. 284.

149. See, for example, the delightful anthology of eighteenth-and early-nineteenth-century verse in The Poetry of Geology, ed. R. Hazen (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1982).

150. Markham, p. 18; Turner, p. 404

151. Turner, p. 277.

152. Ibid. p. 278; see for example, Penniman, pp. 34-72. He discusses the importance of travel in laying the basis for modern anthropology; see also Stafford.

153. See F. Jacob, The Logic of Living Systems (London: Allen Lane, 1974), p. 138 Jacob discusses the emergence of the modern concept of 'environment'.

154. Markham, p. 18.

155. Turner, pp. 281-2.

156. See C. Bell, The Religion of Tibet (Oxford Oxford University Press, 1931); C. Humphreys, Buddhism (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1974), p. 189.

157. See the discussions in Said, Orientialism, Foucault, Order.

158. Baudet, pp. 59 -60

159. Said, Orientalism, p. 120

160. Ibid. p. 120.

161. See C.G. Jung's use of the term 'complexio oppositorum', in his Collected Works Vol. 9ii: Aion (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1959).

162. Turner, p. xvi.

3. Inventing the Threshold

1. G. White, 'Views in India, chiefly among the Himalaya Mountains, 1825', in Eternal Himalaya, ed. H. Ahluwalia (New Delhi: Interprint, 1982), p. 94.

2. White, p. 95; see also L. Barber, The Heyday of Natural History (London: Jonathan Cape, 1980) for a discussion of the enthusiasm for natural history between 1820 and 1870. Similarly, for his comments in 1856 on the suitability of the Himalayas for tea plantations and for general colonization by Europeans, see B. Hodgson, Essays on the Languages, Literature and Religion of Nepal and Tibet (ed. P. Denwood: New Delhi: Manjusri Publishing House, 1972). For other early-nineteenth-century approaches to the aesthetics of Indian and Himalayan landscape see W. and T. Daniell, Oriental Scenery, 6 vols. (London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown, 1795-1815); W. Orme, Twenty Four Views in Hindustan (London: Edward Orme, 1905); J. Fraser, Views in the Himala Mountains (London: Rodwell & Martin, 1820).

3. A. Lamb, Britain and Chinese Central Asia (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1960), p. 30

4. J. Keay, When Men and Mountains Meet (London: Century Publishing, 1983), p. 163.

5. R. Phillimore, Historical Records of the Survey of India: Vol. II, 1800-1815 (Dehra Dun Survey of India, 1950), p. 86.

6. M. Le Bris, Romantics and Romanticism (Geneva: Skira, 1981), p. 19.

7. Le Bris.

8. See K. Bazarov, Landscape Painting (London: Octopus Books, 1981), pp. 44, 53.

9. Le Bris, p. 30; see the examples of the picturesque in Daniell; Orme; Fraser.

10. White, p. 126.

11. Ibid. p. 125.

12. R. Phillimore, Historical Records of the Survey of India: Vol. III, 1815-1830 (Dehra Dun: Survey of India, 1950), p. 42.

13. A. Gerard, 'Narrative of a Journey from Soobathoo to Shipke, in Chinese Tartary, 1818', Journal of the Asiatic Society 11, no. 1 (1842), p. 371.

14. Gerard, p. 375.

15. Ibid. p. 378.

16. L. Stephen, The Playground of Europe (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1871), pp. 258-61.

17. C. Markham, Narratives of the Mission of Geoge Bogle to Tibet and of the Journey of Thomas Manning to Lhasa (1879; New Delhi: Manjusri Publishing House, 1971) p. 224.

18. White, p. 135.

19. Le Bris, p. 23.

20. Ibid. p. 24.

21. Ibid. p. 30; M. Nicolson, Mountain Gloom and Mountain Glory (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1959); P. Fletcher, in Gardens and Grim Ravines (Princeton Princeton University Press, 1983), discusses the shift in Romantic aesthetics that occurred in Victorian poetry.

22. White, p. 135.

23. In Markham, p. 248.

24. Quoted in White, p. 177; see also pp. 93, 148, 156; also Manning's observations in Markham, p. 251.

25. Cf. the criticism by J. Goethe, in the late eighteenth century, of an overly subjective attitude towards landscape: Italian Journey: 1786-1788 (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1982).

26. See S. Kern, The Culture of Time and Space: 1880-1918 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983), for a discussion about the relationship between travel, European imperial expansion and images of extended time and space

27. In Markham; and G. Woodcock, Into Tibet (London: Faber & Faber, 1971).

28. M. Huc and Gabet, Travels in Tartary, Tibet and China, 1844-5-6 (1850; London: George Routledge & Sons, 1928).

29. W. Moorcroft and G. Trebeck, Travels in the Himalayan Provinces of Hindustan and in the Punjab; in Ladakh and Kashmir; in Peshawar, Kabul, Kunduz, and Bokhara: Vol. 1 (London: John Murray, 1838); W. Moorcroft, 'A Journey to Lake Manasarovara in Un- des, a Province of Little Tibet', Asiatik Researches 12 (1816); G. Adler, Beyond Bokhara (London Century Publications, 1985).

30. T. Duka, Life and Works of Alexander Csoma de Koros (1885; New Delhi: Manjusri Publishing House, 1972); Hodgson.

31. See the general accounts by Keay, Where Men and Mountains Meet; and C. Allen, A Mountain in Tibet (London: Andre Deutsch, 1982).

32. White; see also J. Fraser, Journal of a Tour through Part of the Snowy Range of the Himala (London: 1820); F. Hamilton, An Account of the Kingdom of Nepal (1819; New Delhi: Manjusri Publishing House, 1971); A. Eden, Political Missions to Bootan (New Delhi: Manjusri Publishing House, 1972).

33. J. Shipp, The Path of Glory (ed. C. Stranks: London: Chat to & Windus, 1969); W. Henry, Surgeon Henry's Trifles (ed. P. Hayward: London: Chat to & Windus, 1970); Phillimore, Survey Vols. II, III, IV

34. Keay, Men and Mountains.

35. Ibid. Men and Mountains, pp. 80 ff.

36. Moorcroft and Trebeck, p. 338.

37. Mutual familiarity of each other's work was quite extensive among Himalayan travelers, even in these early years. See, for example, Hamilton's repeated comments on Kirkpatrick's earlier journey over a similar route: An Account.

38. Manning in Markham, p. 283.

39. D. Middleton, 'Guide to the Publications of the Royal Geographical Society, 1830-1892', Geographical Journal 144, Part 1 (January -December 1978).

40. Keay, Men and Mountains.

41. T. Freeman, 'The Royal Geographical Society and the Development of Geography', in Geography: Yesterday and Tomorrow, ed. E. Brown (London: Oxford University Press, 1980), p. 5.

42. Freeman, p. 4.

43. See Markham's complaints about Manning, in Markham.

44. See Huc and Gabet, especially the introduction by P. Pelliot.

45. See Keay, Men and Mountains, pp. 107-8, 122-3, 132.

46. Wilson's comments in Moorcroft and Trebeck, p. 1ii.

47. Moorcroft and Trebeck, p. xiv.

48. Ibid., p. xxxv.

49. H. Baudet, Paradise on Earth (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965), pp. 60 ff.

50. Wilson in Moorcroft and Trebeck, p. 1v.

51. A. Burns, Travels into Bokhara (London: n. p., 1834); and Keay's comments in Men and Mountains, p. 134.

52. Keay, Men and Mountains, p. 34.

53. Wilson in Moorcroft and Trebeck, p. 1 iv.

54. Markham, p vi.

55. Ibid. p. lxxx

56. Ibid. p. 283.

57. Ibid. p. 284.

58. Ibid.

59. Ibid. p. 258.

60. Ibid.

61. L. Sterne, A Sentimental Journey (1768; Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1970).

62. In Markham, p. 214.

63. Ibid. p. 290.

64. Ibid. p. 289.

65. F. Maraini, Secret Tibet (London: Hutchinson, 1952).

66. P. Millington, To Lhassa at Last (London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1905).

67. R. Byron, First Russia: Then Tibet (London: Macmillan & Co., 1933)

68. P. Matthiesson, The Snow Leopard (London: Picador, 1980).

69. See D. Siddle, 'David Livingstone: A Mid-Victorian Field Scientist', Geographical Journal 140, Part 1 (February 1974); also J. Jackson in The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society 5 (1835), pp. 381-7.

70. Markham, p. vi.

71. See the discussion of Bogle's journey in the previous chapter; also E. Kawaguchi, Three Years in Tibet (1909; Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar, 1979); Moorcroft and Trebeck, Travels, is full of sensitive ethnographic observations.

72. In Markham, Narratives, pp. 275, 271-3, 267 ff.

73. Ibid. p. 286.

74. Ibid. pp. 220-2.

75. Ibid.

76. Ibid. pp. 228-9, 240.

77. Ibid. p. 288.

78. Gerard, p. 363.

79. Ibid. p. 390.

80. Ibid. p. 366.

81. Ibid. p. 367.

82. Moorcroft, p. 407.

83. Ibid. p. 408

84. Gerard, p. 366.

85. Ibid. p. 370

86. For other examples of entry in Tibet being denied to Westerners at this time, see Phillimore Survey Vol. III, p. 43; Lamb, Britain and Chinese Central Asia, pp. 43, 63, 65.

87. Moorcroft, p. 402; Allen, A Mountain in Tibet.

88. Gerard, p. 372.

89. Heidegger, quoted in E. Casey, 'Getting Placed', Spring 1982, (Dallas Spring Publications, 1982), p. 18.

90. See V. Turner, The Ritual Process (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1979) for the idea of a 'liminal phase' in a rite of passage.

91. See H. Colebrook, 'On the Height of the Himalaya Mountains', Asiatick Researches 12 (1816); Phillimore, Survey Vol. II, pp. 86-8; Survey Vol. III, p. 2; Allen, A Mountain, p. 59.

92. See Lamb, Britain and Chinese Central Asia, pp. 20-4.

93. Ibid. pp. 28-9, 37, 46. It seems unlikely that British actions in the Himalayas had any significant influence on Peking's policy towards Britain.

94. Ibid. pp. 32, 41 ff.

95. See B. Gordon, 'Sacred Directions, Orientation and the Top of The Map, History of Religions 10, no. 3 (February 1971).

96. Moorcroft and Trebeck; M. Edwardes, Playing the Great Game (London Hamish Hamilton, 1975), p. 20; Lamb, Britain and Chinese Central Asia, p. 61.

97. Edwardes, Playing the Great Game, pp. 10-11, 16-19, 24; Phillimore, Survey Vols. II, III, IV

98. Quoted in Phillimore, Survey Vol. III, p. 35 (emphasis added).

99. Hamilton, p. 89.

100. Phillimore, Survey Vol. II, p. 86.

101. Quoted in W. Hunter, Life of Brian Houghton Hodgson (London: John Murray, 1896), p. 287.

102. Phillimore, Survey Vol. III, p. 39.

103. See Hodgson; also M Foucault, Power/Knowledge (London: The Harvester Press, 1980).

104. Phillimore, Survey Vol. II, p. 89.

105. In Markham, p. 265.

106. Ibid. p. 267.

107. See H.P. Blavatsky: The Book of Golden Precepts (London: n.p., 1889), The Voice of the Silence (London: n. p., 1889).

108. Moorcroft, p. 430.

109. Ibid. p. 485.

110. Hamilton, pp. 56-8; H de Lubac, La Rencontre du Bouddhisme et de l'Occident (Paris. n.p., 1952); G. Welbon, The Buddhist Nirvana and its Western Interpreters (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1968).

111. Hamilton, p. 57.

112. See the appreciative comments about Tibetan religious ritual made in Gerard, p. 382; and in Moorcroft and Trebeck, pp. 340-5; Moorcroft, pp. 432-4, 465. These can be compared with the negative comments by Hamilton, pp. 56-8.

113. Moorcroft and Trebeck, p. 346.

114. Ibid.

115. Ibid. p. 291.

116. Ibid. p. 365.

117. Moorcroft, p. 433

118. In Markham, Narratives, p. 291

119. Ibid. p. 255.

120. Ibid. p. 256.

121. Ibid. p. 290.

122. Ibid. p. 291.

123. See E. Said, Orientalism (New York: Vintage Books, 1979); Foucault, Power/Knowledge, also T. Penmman, A Hundred Years of Anthropology (New York: William Morrow & Co., 1974) for comments about the place of travel in the development of anthropology

124. White, p. 159.

4. The Axis Mundi Appears

1. L. Miller, On Top of the World (London: Paddington Press, 1976), pp. 17, 33.

2. M. Huc and Gabet, Travels in Tartary, Tibet and China, 1844-5-6 (1850; London: George Routledge & Sons, 1928); see also the introduction to H. Prinsep, Tibet, Tartary and Mongolia (London: W.H. Allen, 1852).

3. J. Hooker, Himalayan Journals, 2 vols. (London 1855; New Delhi Today and Tomorrow Publishers, 1980); L. Huxley, Life and Letters of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (London: John Murray, 1918), Vol. 1, p. 363.

4. A. Cunningham, Laddk (1853; New Delhi: Sagar Publications, 1977); T. Thomson, Western Himalayas and Tibet (1852; Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar, 1979); H Strachey, 'On the Physical Geography of Western Tibet', Journal of the Royal Geographical Society 23 (1853).

5. E. Schlagintweit, Buddhism in Tibet (1863; New Delhi: Susil Gupta, 1968).

6. G. Heaney, 'Rennell and the Surveyors of India', Geographical Journal 134, Part 3 (September 1968); R. Clark, Men, Myths and Mountains (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1975), pp. 93 ff.

7. B. Hodgson, Essays on the Languages, Literature and Religion of Nepal and Tibet (1874; New Delhi: Manjusri Publishing House, 1972). Especially important was his work on the Dhyani Buddhas.

8. Hodgson, part II, p. 1.

9. W. Hunter, The Life of Brian Houghton Hodgson (London: John Murray, 1896), p. 287.

10. See C. Allen, A Mountain in Tibet (London: Andre Deutsch, 1982) pp. 68, 140-5, 149, for some examples of the quest to find 'missing links' and 'blank spots'.

11. C.H. Gutzlaff, 'Tibet and Stefan', Journal of the Royal Geographical Society 20 (1851).

12. See T. Penniman, A Hundred Years of Anthropology (New York: William Morrow & Co., 1974).

13. J. and P. Phillips, Victorians at Home and Away (London: Croom Helm, 1978), p. 18.

14. Huxley, Life and Letters, Vol. 1, p. 364.

15. T. Freeman, 'The Royal Geographical Society and the Development of Geography', in Geography: Yesterday and Tomorrow, ed. E. Brown (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980); C. Loomis, 'The Arctic Sublime', in Nature and the Victorian Imagination, eds. U. Knoepflmacher and G. Tennyson (Berkeley University of California Press, 1977)

16. Gutzlaff, p. 191

17. See chapter 2.

18. Huxley, Vol. 1, pp. 363, 486; Vol. 2, p. 412.

19. J. Ruskin, Modern Painters Vol4 (1854; Orpington, Kent: George Allen, 1888); D. Robertson, 'Mid-Victorians Among the Alps', in Knoepflmacher, Nature and the Victorian Imagination; K. Clark, The Victorian Mountaineers (London: B.T. Batsford, 1953); E. Helsinger, Ruskin and the Eye of the Beholder (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982).

20. See the analysis in R. Shannon, The Crisis of Imperialism 1865-1915 (St Albans, Herts: Paladin, 1976)

21. A. Wilson, The Abode of Snow (1885; Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar, 1979) p. ix.

22. Ibid. p. x.

23. Ibid.

24. M. Eliade, The Sacred and the Profane (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1959), pp. 36,42.

25. Wilson, p. 128.

26. Ibid. pp. 120-30

27. See K. Clark, Ruskin Today (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1982); Robertson, 'Mid-Victorians'; D. Cosgrove, 'John Ruskin and the Geographical Imagination', The Geographical Review 69, No. 1 (January 1979).

28. Hooker, Vol. l, p. 324.

29. Ruskin, quoted in K. Clark, p. 25.

30. See the introduction to Thomson.

31. Thomson, pp. 207, 231. Thomson's strictly empirical approach to clouds (pp. 244-5) is in contrast with Ruskin's use of both empiricism and imagination. See D. Cosgrove and J. Thornes, 'Of Truth of Clouds: John Ruskin and the Moral Order of Things', in Humanistic Geography and Literature, ed. D. Pocock (London: Croom Helm, 1981)

32. Huxley, Vol. l, pp. 363-4: Vol. 2, pp. 223, 265; see also H. Smith, 'A Trip to Tibet ...', Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society II (1866-67), for a lively debate between Smith, an amateur, and the famous Himalayan scientist-explorer Thomson, about the accuracy of Strachey's observations at Lake Manasarovar. Thomson sprang to the defence of Strachey, his friend and colleague: 'He did not think that a traveler merely going on a fishing excursion should pass a very decided opinion in contradiction of the observations of travelers who had preceded him'. See also D. Siddle, 'David Livingstone: A Mid-Victorian Field Scientist', Geographical Joumal 140, Part 1 (February 1974) for a discussion about the demise in status of the amateur scientist-traveler.

33. Hooker, Vol. l, p. 254.

34. See Huxley, Vol. 1, p. 303; Wilson, p. 238. Both dearly indicate the concern over Himalayan altitude records which started to appear in the mid-nineteenth century. See also K. Mason, 'Johnson's "Suppressed Account" of E61', Alpine Journal 34, no. 22 (1921), for a discussion concerning Johnson's much-disputed claim to have climbed to 23,890 feet in 1866. This controversy was a long and famous one in Himalayan mountaineering history. Geology, too, contributed towards this direct engagement with the high mountain peaks. There was, for example, an interconnection between geological drawing and the representation of the sublime. The aesthetics of the sublime -- mysterious, awe-inspiring, theatrical and wonderful -- were encouraged by close attention to geological features. Early-nineteenth-century paintings such as 'Gordale Scar' (1813) by James Ward, which combined topographical and geological precision with bold imaginative interpretation, were direct precursors of Ruskin's ideas. M. Pointon, 'Geology and Landscape Painting in Nineteenth Century England', in his Images of the Earth (Lancaster: British Society for the History of Science Monograph, 1981).

35. See R. Clark.

36. Hooker, Vol. l, pp. 252-3; Wilson, p. 239.

37. Wilson, p. 182

38. S. Bourne, 'Narratives of a Photographical Trip to Kashmir and Adjacent Districts', The British Journal of Photography (23 November - 28 December 1866) 23 November, pp. 559-60; C. Lambert, A Trip to Cashmere and Ladak (London: H. King, 1877) for another example of early Himalayan photography.

39. J. Berger and J. Mohr, Another Way of Telling (London: Writers & Readers, 1982) p. 97; F. Barker et al. (eds), Europe and Its Others, 2 vols. (Colchester: University of Essex, 1984), Vol. 1 pp. 10-11.

40. R. Herschkowitz, The British Photographer Abroad (London: Robert Herschkowitz Ltd, 1980), p. 7.

41. Ibid. p. 6.

42. Ruskin, Modern Painters Vol. 4, pp. 32-3

43. Bourne, 'Narrative of a Photographic Trip . ..' (28 December 1866), p. 618.

44. S. Bourne, 'Ten Weeks with a Camera in the Himalayas', The British Journal of Photography (15 February 1864), p. 69; see also Pointon, 'Geology and Landscape Painting'.

45. See Ruskin, in K. Clark, pp. 94-5.

46. L. Stephen, The Playground of Europe (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1871) pp. 48 -9; Wilson, p. 216. Intricate associations with wild landscape were beginning to spring up in the British imagination, from Dartmoor to the Outer Hebrides. By the end of the eighteenth century such places, long abandoned by mainstream culture, had come to be imaginatively repopulated, drawn firmly into a new sense of British identity. As the nineteenth century progressed, this network of intimate associations spread wider to encompass the Alps, and then the Himalayas, the Arctic, and so on.

47. Thomson, p. 336 (emphasis added)

48. Hooker, Vol. l, pp. 112-15, 327; Vol. 2, pp. 46, 53, 118.

49. Ibid. Vol. 2, p. 102; Wilson, pp. 214-16, 340-1.

50. Hooker, Vol. 2, pp. 43, 46, 50, 77, 84, 86.

51. R. Temple, Travels in Nepal and Sikhim: 1881-7 (Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar, 1977) p. 8; L. Barber, The Heyday of Natural History' 1820-1870 (London: Jonathan Cape, 1980); Knoepflmacher, Nature and the Victorian Imagination; P. Fletcher, Gardens and Grim Ravines (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983); L. Brockway, Science and Colonial Expansion (New York: Academic Press, 1979).

52. Hooker, Vol. 2, p. 202

53. G. Bachelard, The Poetics of Space (Boston: Beacon Press, 1969)

54. Hooker, vol. 1, p. 218; see chapter 2 for a discussion of S. Turner's association of Tibet with Ancient Egypt; Temple, p. 16.

55. See the comparisons between The Tibetan Book of the Dead and The Egyptian Book of the Dead in C.G. Jung, Collected Works Vol. II (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974), para. 833; also C. Wilson, The Occult (New York: Vintage Books, 1973).

56. See A. Elkin, Aboriginal Men of High Degree (St. Lucia Queensland University Press, 1980); P. Matthiesson, The Snow Leopard (London: Picador, 1980).

57. A. Wilson, pp. 262-3.

58. Hooker, Vol. 1, p. 255

59. A. Wilson, pp. 243-50.

60. Hooker, Vol. 1, p. v; Lambert; F. Markham, Shooting in the Himalayas (London: Richard Bentley, 1854), p. 1.

61. Hooker, vol.1, pp. 234, 329-30.

62. Ibid. Vol. 2, pp. 7, 34, 60.

63. Fletcher; Knoepflmacher.

64. See Fletcher, pp. 18, 82-3, 223; R. Clark, pp. 136 -7; See also Ruskin's subsequent doubts about nature as a moral force, Modern Painters Vol. 4; and in K. Clark, pp. 88-9; see also G. Levine, 'High and Low: Ruskin and the Novelists', in Knoepflmacher, pp. 138-40.

65. Hooker, Vol. 2, p. 137.

66. See Thomson, pp. 92, 133, 135, 160, 233.

67. Ibid. p. 376 (emphasis added).

68. Cf. the discussion about revolutions in T. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970).

69. A. Wilson, pp. 92, 129, 132.

70. Ibid. pp. 134, 209, 251.

71. Ibid. pp. 251-2.

72. Hooker, Vol. 2, p. 174.

73. Ibid. Vol. l, p. 253.

74. Temple, p. 121.

75. Hooker, Vol. 2, p. 131 (emphasis added).

77. Hooker, Vol. 1, pp. 253-4; Ruskin, Modern Painters Vol. 4

78. Hooker, Vol. 1, p. 110.

79. Ruskin in K. Clark, pp. 97, 105.

80. Robertson, 'Mid-Victorians', p.128; Ruskin in K. Clark, p. 118; Cosgrove and Thornes, p. 39.

81. Stephen, p. 67

82. A. Wilson, p. 1.

83. A. Wilson, p. 2; E. Swinglehurst, Cook's Tours (Pool, Dorset: Blandford Press, 1982).

84. A. Wilson, pp. 20, 78 ff; Temple, p. 10; Lambert, p. 5.

85. A. Wilson, p. 4.

86. Ibid. pp. 8, 17-18, 29-30, 32, 34, 66-73.

87. Ibid. pp. 63-5.

88. Ibid. pp. 63-4.

89. D. MacIntyre, Hindu-Koh (London: n.p., 1889).

90. Huxley, Vol. 1, p. 529.

91. See the discussion in Cosgrove and Thornes.

92. A. Wilson, p. 218; see also W. Houghton, The Victorian Frame of Mind (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1970).

93. Ruskin in K. Clark, pp. 95-6.

94. K. Clark, p. 106.

95. Ibid. pp. 91-3.

96. A. Wilson, p. 88.

97. Cosgrove and Thornes.

98. G. Himmelfarb, Victorian Minds (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1968) pp. 314 ff; Huxley, Vol. 2, pp. 39-45; M. Peckham, Victorian Revolutionaries (New York: George Braziller, 1970).

99. A. Wilson, p. 130.

100. See Penniman, A Hundred Years of Anthropology, pp. 53, 64-7; Cunningham, Ladak; Hooker, Vol. l, pp. 58-9; see H. Spenser, The Principles of Sociology Vol. l (London: Williams & Norgate, 1877), pp. 677 ff, for an example of the way in which travel accounts were used to establish anthropological ideas. In this case Spenser refers to Wilson's Abode of Snow, as well as to Bogle's and Turner's accounts; see also G. Leitner, Dardistan: 1866-1893 (New Delhi: Manjusri Publishing House, 1978) for a vast compilation of facts and measurements so typical of the mid-to-late nineteenth century.

101. Hooker, Vol. l, p. 165.

102. Penniman, p. 142; Peckham, pp. 175 -234; Hooker, vol. 1, p. 174.

103. Temple, p. 13.

104. Hooker, Vol. 1, p. 131; Huxley, Vol. 1, p. 270; R. Latham, Tribes and Races Vol. l (1859; Delhi: Cultural Publishing House, 1983), p. 502.

105. Temple, p. 46.

106. A Davies, 'The Aryan Myth: Its Religious Significance', Studies in Religion 10, no. 3 (1981), pp. 290-5; Penniman, p. 149; see also, E.P. Thompson's comments, about Max Mueller's formative contribution to the Aryan mythologizing, in his 'Folklore, Anthropology and Social History', Indian Historical Review II, no. 2 (January 1978).

107. Hodgson, Part II, p. 32; Hooker, vol. 1, p. 130.

108. A. Wilson, p. 147.

109. Ibid. pp.183-93.

110. Ibid. p. 217.

111. Cunningham, pp. 281-3.

112. A. Wilson, pp. 164-5.

113. Ibid. pp. 24-5, 302; Hodgson, Part II, pp. 83-90.

114. Allen, A Mountain in Tibet, pp. 15, 17, 68, 87, 106-7, 129.

115. A. Wilson, pp. 31-2

116. Hooker, vol. II, p. 138 (emphasis added); A. Wilson, p. 151.

117. A. Wilson, p. 152 (emphasis added).

118. Ibid. p. 219.

119. Ibid. p. 63; Davies, p. 291.

120. The idea of a core-image which gathers and organizes imagery is a fundamental one in theories of imaginative discourse. See, for example, R. Makkreel, Dilthey: Philosopher of the Social Sciences (Princeton Princeton University Press, 1975), p. 102.

121. Hooker, vol. 1, p. 118.

122. A. Wilson, p. 217.

123. See S. Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1973) for a discussion of the processes of condensation and displacement in dream work.

124. T. Cooper, 'Travels in Western China and Eastern Thibet', Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society 14 (1869-70); W. Gill, The River of Golden Sand (London: John Murray, 1880).

125. A. Wilson, pp. 78-83.

126. Temple, p. 116

127. A. Bennett, 'Rough Notes of a Visit to Daba, in Thibet, in August 1865'; Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society 10 (1865/66), pp. 166-7

128. See Bennett; Cooper, p. 340; Hooker, Vol. 2, pp. 71-81, 89, 127; Wilson, pp. 138-9, 142-5; Smith; Markham, Shooting, p. 162; A and R Schalgintweit, 'A Short Account', Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 25 (1856), p. 126; J. Edgar, Report on a Visit to Sikhim and the Thibetan Frontier (1873; New Delhi: Manjusri Publishing House, 1969) p. 11; T. Montgomerie, 'Journey to Shigatze in Tibet', Royal Geographical Journal 45 (1875), p. 331.

129. Markham, Shooting, p. 162; Cooper, 'Travels', p. 341.

130. A. Wilson, pp. 178-9.

131. See Loomis.

132. T. Montgomerie, 'Report on Trans-Himalayan Exploration During 1867', Journal of the Royal Geographical Society 39 (1869), p. 148.

133. Hooker, Vol. 2, p. 215; A. Wilson, p. 47.

134. Bennett, p. 165.

135. Hooker, vol. 1, pp. 112, 118, 126, 274-282, 288, 342; Vol. 2, pp. 73, 78 -80, 219, 232, 246; Cunningham, p. 261.

136. A. Wilson, p 98.

137. Gutzlaff, p. 215.

138. See A. Wilson, p. 177; E. Schlagintweit, pp. 152-3; Hooker, Vol. 2, p. 177.

139. Gutzlaff, pp. 214-15.

140. Montgomerie, 'Journey'.

141. Hooker, Vol. 1, p. 138.

142. See Temple, p. 19, where he refers to the famous poem by Sir Edwin Arnold about the life of the Buddha: 'The Light of Asia'.

143. A. Wilson, p. 255.

144. Ibid.

145. Temple, pp. 21, 25.

146. See Gutzlaff, pp. 204-5, 222

147. A. Wilson, p. 146; Gill, p. 268; Hooker, vol. l, pp. 340-1; Gutzlaff, pp. 203-4, 207, 225; Cooper, p. 340; Cunningham, pp. 263-7; J. Barton, 'Report of Missionary Work in Thibet', Church Missionary Intelligence 14 (1863), p. 185.

148. B. Porter, Britain, Europe and the World, 1850-1982 Delusions of Grandeur (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1983), pp. 3-17

149. Hooker, Vol. 2, p. 38.

150. Loomis; L. Neatby, The Search For Franklin (London: Arthur Barker, 1970), pp. 245-6.

151. Hooker, Vol. 1, pp. 222, 255; Robertson, p. 126.

152. S. Bourne, 'Narrative of a Photographic Trip ...', The British Journal of Photography (7 December 1866), p. 584

153. See M. Le Bris, Romantics and Romanticism (Geneva: Skira, 1981) for discussion about this new mid-century Romanticism.

154. A. Wilson, p. 243.

155. Ibid. p. 247.

156. Ibid. p. 245.

157. Ibid. pp. 88, 244-8.

158. See P. Bishop, 'The Mysticism of Immensity', Colloquium 18, no. 2 (October 1986) for a discussion of the later results of this shift of religious belief and its new grounding in the vast horizons opened up by the physical sciences in the late nineteenth century. In particular the religious ideas of the Himalayan and Central Asian explorer Francis Younghusband are examined.

159. A. Wilson, p. 249.

160. Cunningham, pp. 232-4.

161. Freud.

162. A. Wilson, pp. 147 ff.

163. Gutzlaff; Montgomerie, 'Report'.

164. Cooper, p. 338.

165. Cunningham, p. 232.

166. A. Wilson, p. 148

167. C.G Jung, 'Paracelcus as a Spiritual Phenomenon', Collected Works Vol. 13 Alchemical Studies (trans R.F.C. Hull: London Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974), paras 186, 196.

168. A. Wilson, pp. 151-2 (emphasis added).

169. Gutzlaff, p. 215.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 30246
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: THE MYTH OF SHANGRI-LA: TIBET, TRAVEL WRITING AND THE W

Postby admin » Sat Mar 19, 2016 5:16 am

Part 2 of 2

5. Outside Time and Space

1. P. Landon, Lhasa, 2 vols. (London: Hurst & Blackett, 1905), vol. 1, pp. 222-8.

2. See H. Bower, Diary of a Journey Across Tibet (1894; Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar, 1976) pp. 13, 271-2; N. Prejevalsky, Mongolia, The Tangut Country, and the Solitudes of Northern Tibet (London Sampson Low, Marston, Serle & Rivington, 1876), Vol. 1, pp. 74, 80; J. White, Sikhim and Bhutan (1909; New Delhi: Cultural Publishing House, 1983), p. 15.

3. S. Das, Journey to Lhasa and Central Tibet (1902; New Delhi: Manjusri Publishing House, 1970); G. Sandberg, The Exploration of Tibet (1904; Delhi: Cosmo Publications, 1973); P. Hopkirk, Trespassers on the Roof of the World (London: John Murray, 1982); C. Allen, A Mountain in Tibet (London: Andre Deutsch, 1982); P. Hopkirk, Foreign Devils on the Silk Road (Newton Abbot, Devon: Readers Union, 1981).

4. D. Rayfield, the Dream of Lhasa (London: Paul Elek, 1976), p. 209: G. Bonvalot, Across Thibet, 2 vols. (London: Cassell & Co., 1891, Vol. 2), pp. 195-6; S. Hedin, Through Asia 2 vols. (London Methuen & Co., 1898), vol. 1. pp. 3-18.

5. This is the comment by Lord Rosebery, the British Foreign Secretary, quoted in the introduction to Bower, p vii.

6. See Hopkirk, Foreign Devils; J. Keay, The Gilgit Game (London: John Murray, 1979).

7. Annie Taylor was also the inspiration for setting up the Tibetan Pioneer Mission and generally stimulating British missionary work in the Himalayan region. See W. Carey, Travel and Adventure in Tibet (1900; Delhi: Mittal Publications, 1983) pp. 143-4 (this work contains Taylor's diary). For other missionary activity see J. Barton, 'Report of Missionary Work in Thibet', Church Missionary Intelligence 14 (1863); A. Francke, History, Folklore and Culture of Tibet (1905; New Delhi: Ess Ess Publications, 1979), which shows some of the remarkable scholarly work carried out by the Moravian missionaries in the Western Himalayas.

8. See Hedin; as well as the recent popular accounts by Hopkirk: Foreign Devils; Trespassers; Allen, A Mountain; see also the story of Theo Sorensen, missionary, in P. Kvaerne, A Norwegian Traveler in Tibet (New Delhi: Manjusri Publishing House, 1973).

9. D. Freshfield, Round Kanchenjunga (1903; Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar, 1979) pp. 12-13.

10. D. Whitley, 'The Attack on Tibet', Littel's Living Age 206 (1895), p. 218.

11. See A. Lamb, Britain and Chinese Central Asia (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1960).

12. Landon, Vol. l, pp. 22 -3.

13. L. Waddell, Among the Himalayas (1899; Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar, 1978), p. 414.

14. F. Grenard, Tibet (1903; Delhi: Cosmo Publications, 1974) pp. 51, 53-4, 148; Bonvalot, Across Thibet, Vol. 1, p. 90; F. Younghusband, The Heart of a Continent (1896; London: John Murray, 1937), pp. 37, 48, 60.

15. W. Rockhill, The Land of the Lamas (1891; New Delhi: Asian Publication Services, 1975), pp. 43-4; C. Macaulay, Report on a Mission to Sikhim and the Tibetan Frontier - 1884 (1885; Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar, 1977).

16. A. Carey, 'A Journey Round Chinese Turkistan and along the Northern Frontier of Tibet', Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society 9 (1887), pp. 731, 735; Hedin, Through Asia, Vol. l, pp. 988, 1027-8, 1173-6; St George Littledale, A Journey Across Tibet, From North to South, and West to Ladak', The Geographical Journal VII no. 5 (May 1896), p. 454.

17. Rockhill, pp. 166, 175.

18. On the Tibetan mythologizing of Queen Victoria and the czar, see Landon, Vol. l, pp. 356-7; for stories of travelers told by Tibetans, see Grenard, pp. 115-17; Littledale, p. 476.

19. Grenard, pp. 45-6.

20. Hedin, Vol. 2, p. 956; Grenard, p. 142; Bonvalot, Vol. 1, p. 6; Littledale, p. 460; Younghusband, Heart of a Continent, p. 216; J. Duncan, A Summer Ride Through Western Tibet (1906; London: Collins, 1925), p. 112.

21. P. Millington, To Lhassa at Last (London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1905).

22. See S. Kern, The Culture of Time and Space (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1983); R. Shannon, The Crisis of Imperialism: 1865 -1915 (St Albans, Herts: Paladin, 1976).

23. Shannon, p. 270.

24. M. Edwardes, The West in Asia: 1850-1914 (London: B.T. Batsford Ltd, 1967), pp. 8, 25-6; R. Faber, The Vision and the Need (London: Faber & Faber, 1966).

25. Faber, p. 13.

26. Kern, pp. 1-2.

27. Ibid. pp. 61-4, 68, 89-90, 104-6, 230-3; J. Fabian, Time and the Other (New York: Columbia University Press, 1983), pp. 111-13, 121-2.

28. Faber, p. 166.

29. E. Relph, Place and Placelessness (London: Pion, 1976), pp. 59 -61, 79.

30. Kern, pp. 223-6.

31. Ibid. pp. 230-3; T. Freeman, 'The Royal Geographical Society and the Development of Geography', in Geography: Yesterday and Tomorrow, ed. E. Brown (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980), p. 25.

32. Kern, p. 228.

33. Ibid. p. 92.

34. Ibid. pp. 164 -7.

35. Ibid. p. 4.

36. Edwardes, The West in Asia, pp. 68, 75-6.

37. Faber, pp. 119-20

38. Lamb, Britain and Chinese Central Asia, pp. 172, 266-71.

39. Ibid. p. 207.

40. Ibid. pp. 230 1, 294; Keay, The Gilgit Game; Hopkirk, Foreign Devils.

41. H. Blavatsky, Isis Unveiled (1877; Pasadena: Theosophical University Press, 1972).

42. R. Kipling, Kim (1898; London: Macmillan, 1943).

43. A. Conan Doyle, 'The Empty House', in Sherlock Holmes: The Complete Short Stories (1928; London: John Murray, 1980), p. 569.

44. H. Rider Haggard, She (1887; London: Macmillan, 1943).

45. Kern, pp. 19-20, 24-7,41-2; Fabian, pp. 111-13, 121-2, claims that anthropological discourse is part of a long tradition of rhetoric that has been concerned with conceiving outlandish images and moving them in a strange, imaginary space. He connects anthropology with earlier memory systems.

46. See F. Barker et al. (eds), Europe and Its Others, 2 vols. (Colchester: University of Essex, 1984); H. Ridley, Images of Imperial Rule (London: Croom Helm, 1983).

47. E. Said, Orientalism (New York: Vintage Books, 1979), p. 6.

48. See W. Conway, Climbing and Exploration in the Karakoram-Himalayas (London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1894), p. ix.

49. See Rockhill, Land of the Lamas, pp. 67-73, 176-7; H. Tanner, 'Our Present Knowledge of the Himalayas', Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society 13 (1891), p. 411; Hopkirk, Foreign Devils; Franke; H. Bates (ed.), Illustrated Travels, Vol. 1 (London: Cassell, Petter & Galpin, 1895), p. 30.

50. Said, p. 7.

51. M. Foucault, Power/Knowledge (London: The Harvester Press, 1980); C. Markham (ed.), Narratives of the Mission of George Bogle to Tibet and of the Journey of Thomas Manning to Lhasa (1876; New Delhi: Manjusri Publishing House, 1971).

52. F. Younghusband, India and Tibet (London: John Murray, 1910), pp. 2-3.

53. Younghusband's introduction to Landon, vol. 1, pp. ix -x.

54. Said, p. 7.

55. Lamb, Britain and Chinese Central Asia, p. 207.

56. Edwardes, The West in Asia, pp 68-76.

57. Ibid. p. 127; Lamb, Britain and Chinese Central Asia, pp. 49, 172.

58. Ibid, pp. 47-8; D. Woodman, Himalayan Frontiers (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1969); A. Lamb, The Sino-Indian Border in Ladakh (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1975).

59. Edwardes, The West in Asia, pp. 95-7, 102-13; Younghusband, India and Tibet, pp. 76-7, 236.

60. Quoted in A. Lamb, 'Some Notes on Russian Intrigue in Tibet', Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society 46 (1959), p. 52; Freshfield, Kanchenjunga, p. 62; Waddell, Himalayas, pp. vi-viii, 279-81.

61. E.g. Waddell, Himalayas, pp. 147-8; Lamb, Britain and Chinese Central Asia, p. 238; Younghusband, Heart of a Continent, p. xiv; Lamb, 'Notes', pp. 42, 49; Landon, Vol. l, p. 28.

62. Lamb, Central Asia, p. 152, discusses the riots in Sikkim which occurred during this period.

63. E. Chandler, The Unveiling of Lhasa (1905; London: Edward Arnold, 1931), pp. 6, 19; A. Landor, In the Forbidden Land (London: William Heinemann, 1899), pp. 41, 91, 452; Landon, Vol. 1, p. 48; Lamb, Central Asia, p. 170; G. Curzon, Frontiers (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1908), p. 6.

64. Landon, vol. 1, p. 25; see also Curzon's comments quoted in Lamb, Central Asia, p. 260.

65. Ney Elias quoted in Lamb, 'Notes', p. 51.

66. Lamb, Central Asia, p. 155; Landon, vol. 2, pp. 8, 14.

67. Lamb, Central Asia, pp. 235, 256 ff; Lamb, 'Notes', p. 57; Edwardes, The West in Asia, p. 91.

68. Grenard, p. 39.

69. See Bower.

70. Landon, vol. 2, pp. 21, 24.

71. Lamb, Central Asia, pp. 206, 266-71.

72. Freshfield, pp. 66-8.

73. Curzon, pp. 55-7.

74. Fantasies comparing the British and Roman Empires were common among British imperial theorists at the close of the nineteenth century; see Faber, p. 19; F. Hutchins, The lllusion of Permanence (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967), pp. 143-51.

75. E. Knight, Where Three Empires Meet (1892; London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1935).

76. Bower, p. 242.

77. J. Louis, The Gates of Thibet (1894; Delhi: Vivek Publishing House, 1972) p. 32; Littledale, 'Journey'.

78. Younghusband, India and Tibet, p. 115; Bower, p. 95.

79. Landon, Vol. 1, p. 116.

80. Grenard, p. 285.

81. Whitley, pp. 218-19.

82. Carey, Travel and Adventure, p. 20.

83. See C. Ryan, H.P. Blavatsky and the Theosophical Movement (Pasadena: Theosophical University Press, 1975).

84. Landon, Vol. 2, p. 224.

85. Bower, p. 1; Landon, Vol. l, p. xi; Waddell Himalayas, p. vii; Hedin, Vol. 1, pp. 3-18.

86. Freshfield, p. 152; Knight, p. 69; Yule, in Prejevalsky, p. ix; H. Hensoldt, 'Occult Science in Thibet', Arena 10 (1894), p. 184.

87. Carey, Travel and Adventure, p. 19.

88. The Spectator (London), 6 October 1888.

89. The Spectator (London), 13 August 1904; quoted in Lamb, Central Asia p. 203; A. and K. Heber, Himalayan Tibet and Ladakh (1903; New Delhi: Ess Ess Publications, 1978), pp. 34-5, refer to 'Hob-goblin-land' and 'eerie wonderland'.

90. Carey, Travel and Adventure, p. 25; Rockhill (p. 56) also entered Tibet from China.

91. Louis, p. 69 (emphasis added); see also Chandler, p. 28; Grenard, p. 10; Freshfield, p. 261.

92. Hensoldt, p. 648; Hedin, Vol. 2, p. 1000; Chandler, p. 82; I. Bird-Bishop, Among the Tibetans (New York: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1894), p. 40.

93. Landon, Vol. 1, pp. 84, 137, 139.

94. Carey, Travel and Adventure, p. 26 (emphasis added).

95. Louis, pp. 2-3 (emphasis added); Freshfield, pp. 16-17.

96. S. Stone, In and Beyond the Himalayas (London: Edward Arnold, 1896), p. 286.

97. Waddell, Himalayas, p. 189.

98. Ibid. Himalayas, p. 400.

99. Chandler, pp. 86-7; Landon, Vol. 2, p. 154.

100. Hedin, Vol. 2, p. 1050.

101. Littledale, p. 464

102. Grenard, pp. 5, 80.

103. See Landon; Younghusband, India and Tibet; Bonvalot, vol. 1, pp. 188 -93; Grenard, p. 175.

104. Chandler, p. 63; Landon, Vol. 1, pp. 122, 136.

105. See J. Hillman, The Dream and the Underworld (New York: Harper & Row, 1979), pp. 21, 178.

106. Stone, p. 160.

107. Chandler, p. 50; Knight, p. 45; Carey, Travel and Adventure, pp. 22-3.

108. Macaulay, p. 71.

109. Bower, pp. 82, 106

110. Knight, p. 44

111. Landon, Vol. 2, pp. 154-5.

112. Freshfield, pp. 130-1

113. Grenard, p. 28.

114. Rockhill, p. 241.

115. Chandler, p. 290.

116. Younghusband, India and Tibet, pp. 56, 268.

117. Ibid. pp. 174-5; Grenard, p. 311.

118. Grenard, p. 301.

119. Landon, Vol. l, p. 176.

120. Chandler, p. 124.

121. Ibid. p. 246.

122. Ibid. p. 265.

123. Waddell, Himalayas, p. 268.

124. Landon, Vol. 1, p. 156; vol. 2, p. 54.

125 Younghusband, India and Tibet, p. 128.

126. Freshfield, p. 250.

127. Grenard, pp. 336-7.

128. Landon, Vol. 2, p. 262.

129. Hensoldt, pp. 370-3.

130. See Ryan, pp.18-21, 23-8

131. Ryan, p. 51; R. Hutch, 'Helena Blavatsky Unveiled', Journal of Religious History 11, no. 2 (December 1980), p. 324.

132. Landon, vol. 1, p. 301.

133. J. White, p. 49.

134. Grenard, p. 136.

135. Hensoldt, pp. 186-7.

136. Grenard, p. 72; Bonvalot, Vol. 2, p. 142.

137. Landon, vol. 2, p. 126.

138. L. Waddell, Tibetan Buddhism (1895; New York Dover Publications, 1972), p. 4; Hensoldt, p. 186; Freshfield, pp. 90-1.

139. Bower, p. 35; Whitely, p. 220.

140. See J. Napier, Bigfoot (London: Abacus, 1976).

141. Waddell, Himalayas, pp. 223-4.

142. Macaulay, p. 36.

143. Rockhill, pp. 116-17.

144. Ibid. p. 150.

145. Ibid. p. 151.

146. Ibid. p. 256.

147. Stone, In and Beyond the Himalayas, p. 129; see also Bates, Illustrated Travels, Vol. 3, pp. 284-7: 'any bachelor, with an income of 500 pounds a year and not tied down by a profession, or any other hindrance, can enjoy a trip to the "glorious East", and four months of first rate shooting, amidst the grandest scenery imaginable and in a delicious climate.'

148. Napier.

149. Ryan, pp. 19-20.

150. Hutch, pp. 324 -5.

151 Rayfield, p. 116.

152. Bonvalot, vol. 2, pp. 64-7.

153. Landon, Vol. 1, p. 36; Younghusband, India and Tibet, pp. 122-4, 268; Chandler, Unveiling, p. l.

154. Hutchins, pp. 73 ff.

155. See J. Hillman, 'Abandoning the Child', in his Loose Ends (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1975); N. Chabani Manganyi, 'Making Strange: Race, Science and Ethnopsychiatric Discourse', in Europe and Its Others, vol. 1, ed. F. Barker.

156. See H. Ellenberger, The Discovery of the Unconscious (New York: Basic Books, 1970).

157. Landon, Vol. 2, p. 45

158. See Grenard, p. 262.

159. Grenard, pp 88-9; 'The Capture of Lhasa', The Spectator (London), 13 August 190, pp. 213-14.

160. Landon, Vol. 2, p. 262.

161. Knight, p. 43; Heber, p. 35, writes of 'a fantastic dream'.

162. Grenard, p. 273

163. Hedin, Vol. 2, p. 1018.

164. BonvaJot, vol. I, p. 207.

165. Ibid.

166. Carey, 'A Journey', p. 742; Littledale, p. 465.

167. Bonvalot, Vol. l, p. 207; see also Waddell, Himalayas, p. 34.

168. Grenard, pp. 37, 43-4.

169. Landon, Vol. 1, p. 139; Whitley, pp. 219-20; littledale, p. 460; Stone, p. 286.

170. See Waddell, Himalayas, pp. 34, 416.

171. Bonvalot, Vol. 1, p. 185; Chandler, p. 64.

172. See Landor, pp. 298, 300; Hedin, Vol. 2, p. 1000; Freshfield, p. 146.

173. Grenard, pp. 4, 9-10; Louis, p. 69; Carey, Travel and Adventure, p. 25.

174. Younghusband, India and Tibet, pp. 326-7; Grenard, p. 18.

175. Younghusband, Heart of a Continent, pp. 39-40, 219-21.

176. See Hedin, vol. 2, pp. 1000-1; Freshfield, p. 113.

177. Bonvalot, Vol. 1, p. 24.

178. Landon, Vol. 1, p. 381; Grenard, p. 48; Freshfield, pp. 257-8.

179. Landon, Vol. 1, pp. 340-1, 346.

180. Chandler, p. 28.

181. Landon, Vol. 2, p. 115.

182. Millington, pp. 118-19.

183. See Kern's discussion of Impressionism in terms of its role within the changes in attitude towards space and time that were occurring at the turn of the century: Kern, p. 21.

184. Waddell, Himalayas, p. 337.

185. Landon, Vol. 1, p. 141.

186. Grenard, p. 48.

187. Chandler, p. 126; Landon, Vol. 2, pp. 29, 43.

188. See Yule's comments in the introduction to Prejevalsky, p. x; also Landon, Vol. 1, p. 146.

189. Chandler, p. 227.

190. Landon, Vol. 2, pp. 92, 97, 98.

191. See G. Welbon, The Buddhist Nirvana and its Western Interpreters (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968).

192. Grenard, p. 61.

193. Louis, pp. 69-70.

194. Younghusband, India and Tibet, pp. 315 ff; Grenard, pp. 61-2, 326-9

195. Landon, Vol. 2, pp. 40-1; see Kern for a discussion of the revolution that was occurring in the western conception of immensity at the turn of the century.

196. In Markam, Narratives, pp. 23-4; Millington, p. 140.

197. See Grenard, p. 18; Knight, p. 39; Stone, p. 286; Freshfield, p. 146; Bird-Bishop, p. 40; Duncan, pp. 89-90.

198. Chandler, pp. 146-7.

199. Bower, pp. 63, 102, 208.

200. Landor, pp. 174, 269, 276, 338.

201. Ibid. pp. 217, 293.

202. Ibid. p. 436.

203. See Littledale, p. 469; Grenard, pp. 87 ff.

204. Rockhill, pp. 92, 151, 229; and J. White, p. 110.

205. Grenard, p. 226 (emphasis added); Bower, p. 13.

206. E. Kawaguchi, Three Years in Tibet (1909; Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar, 1979).

207. For a negative evaluation of Tibetan monks, see Prejevalsky, p. 74; Landor, pp. 255-6. For mixed reactions, see Younghusband, India and Tibet, pp. 266, 310-12; Rockhill, p. 91. For a positive evaluation, see Hensoldt.

208. See Littledale, pp. 473-4; Whitley, p. 226; Landon, vol. 1, p. 355; Vol. 2, p. 44; Waddell, Tibetan Buddhism, p. 573.

209. Landon, Vol. l, p. 358.

210. Grenard, p. 346; Waddell, Himalayas, p. 213; Rockhill, pp. 87, 205, 286.

211. Rockhill, pp. 64-5; Kawaguchi.

212. Grenard, p. 109.

213. W. Carey, Travel and Adventure, p. 58.

214. Ibid. p. 23.

215. Grenard, p. 283.

216. Ibid. p. 330.

217. Ibid. p. 336.

218. Ibid. pp. 346-7; W. Carey, pp. 117-20.

219. Landon, Vol. 1, p. 355; W. Carey, p. 116.

220. Kawaguchi, pp. 422-3.

221. Landon, Vol. 2, pp. 40-1.

222. Grenard, p. 95.

223. Rockhill, p. 216; Chandler, p. 246.

224. Grenard, p. 336; Landon, Vol. 2, p. 270.

225. Prejevalsky, p. 80; for extreme attitudes also see Grenard, pp. 326 -9; Landon, Vol. 2, p. 46.

226. Hedin, Vol. 1, pp. 4-5. Hensoldt. pp. 184-5.

227. See Landon, Vol. 2, pp. 10-18.

228. Grenard, pp. 88-9; W. Carey Travel and Adventure, p. 56.

229. See Millington, pp. 145-8.

230. Bonvalot, Vol. l, p. 139.

231. See Said, Orientalism.

232. W. Carey, p. 23.

233. See Bower, p. 177.

234. Landon, Vol. 2, pp. 283-4.

235. Ibid. Vol. l, pp. 130-3.

236. Hedin, Vol. l, pp. 3-18.

237. Kern, p. 166.

238. Landon, Vol. l, preface.

239. Grenard, p. iv.

240. Chandler, p. 248.

241. See Kern, pp. 9, 68, 68, 88-90, 128, 211-13, 228-32.

242. Chandler, p. 248.

243. Freshfield, p. 152.

244. Ibid.

245. See Kern, pp. 47-9.

246. Chandler, p. 251.

247. W. Ottley, With Mounted Infantry in Tibet (London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1906), p. 236; Millington, p. 165.

248. Younghusband, India and Tibet, pp. 316-17.

249. Chandler, pp. 77-80.

250. Ibid. pp. 116-18

251. Ibid. p. 225.

252. Ibid. pp. 38, 93

253. Ibid. pp. 109-10.

254. Ibid. pp. 247-8.

255. Freshfield, pp. 2-4, 49; Tanner, 'Our Present Knowledge', p. 420; Waddell, Himalayas, pp. 73, 256, 315.

256. See Freshfield, p. 55.

257. Waddell, Himalayas, pp. 243, 286; Freshfield, pp. 78-9.

258. Younghusband, Heart of a Continent, pp. 208-9.

259. Bonvalot, Vol. 2, pp. 73-4.

260. Waddell, Himalayas, p. 21.

261. Grenard, p. 20; Freshfield, p. 165.

262. Chandler, p. 247; Kern, pp. 105-6, discusses Spengler's work in the context of this period of disillusionment.

263. Chandler, pp. 251, 353.

264. Ibid. pp. 256-60.

265. Younghusband, India and Tibet, pp. 395-6.

266. Quoted in Allen, A Mountain, pp. 201-2.

267. Millington, p. 77.

268. See Chandler; 'The Capture of Lhasa', The Spectator (London), 13 August 1904.

269. Landon, Vol. 2, p. 29.

270. Waddell, Tibetan Buddhism, pp. 3-4.

271. 'The Capture of Lhasa', The Spectator (London), 13 August 1904.

272. Rayfield, pp. 130, 154-5.

273. See D. Middleton, Victorian Lady Travelers (Chicago: Academy Chicago, 1982); L. Miller, On Top of the World (London: Paddington Press, 1976).

274. Duncan, p. 118.

275. E. Said, 'Orientalism Reconsidered', Race and Class XXVII, no. 21 Autumn 1985), p. 12.

276. M. Foucault: Power/Knowledge (London: The Harvester Press, 1980), The History of Sexuality (New York: Vintage Books, 1980).

277. See J. Hillman, Anima (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1985) pp. 28, 47, for a discussion of one aspect of the 'eternal feminine'; for another see his The Myth of Analysis (New York: Harper & Row, 1978), part III; see also C.G. Jung, Collected Works Vol. 5 (trans. R.F.C. Hull; London Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974); E. Whitmont, Return of the Goddess (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1983).

278. See Hillman, Anima, pp. 29 -31, 41-7; Ellenberger, Discovery of the Unconscious; Hillman, The Myth of Analysis, part III. For a more precise discussion, see A. Carotenuto, 'Sabina Spielrein, and C.G. Jung', Spring 1980 (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1980).

279. Stone, p. 274; Tanner, p. 418; Grenard, p. 99.

280. See Freshfield, p. 127; Louis, p. 69; Stone; Bird-Bishop, pp. 39, 71.

281. Hensoldt, p. 182.

282. See Bird-Bishop, pp. 40, 146; Duncan, p. 90. Landon, Vol. 2, pp. 215-16, discusses the hats and clothing of the Tibetans. These examples could be greatly increased by referring to other travelers.

283. Quoted in Rayfield, p. 191.

284. Landon, Vol. 2, pp. 157-64.

285. Ibid. pp. 319-20.

286. W. Carey, p. 40.

287. Hensoldt, pp. 654-9; see also chapter 2 where Bogle's similar reaction to the Panchen lama over a hundred years earlier is discussed

288. See Hillman, Anima, pp. 21, 128-33.

289. Ibid. pp. 29-31,41-7.

290. Ibid. pp. 103 -13, on depersonalization and soul-loss.

291. Ibid. pp109-11. It should be noted that Jung made repeated reference to Rider Haggard's novel She when discussing the anima.

292. See J. Hillman, 'Anima Mundi', Spring 1982 (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1982), p. 77.

293. Lamb, Central Asia, p. 203.

294. Ibid. pp. 157, 273-4; Ottley, pp. 234-5; Lamb, 'Notes', p. 59; also Macaulay, pp. 83-4; Littledale, p. 475; Rockhill, p. 209; Waddell, Himalayas, pp. vi, 4.

295. Comments in Tanner, pp. 422-3.

296. W. Carey, Travel and Adventure, pp. 21, 65, 114; Bower, p. 226; The Spectator (London), 13 August 1904.

297. Jung, Collected Works Vol. 5, para. 678; J. Hillman: Puer Papers (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1979); 'The Negative Senex', Spring 1975 (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1975); see also G. Paris, Pagan Meditations (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1986) for reflections on Aphrodite and gold.

298. Rockhill, pp. 102, 230; Waddell, Tibetan Buddhism, p. 3.

299. Landon, Vol. 2, pp. 31-5, 190-1; Hedin, Vol. 1.

300. Hensoldt, pp. 650-1; P. Bishop, Tibetan Religion: Western Imagination (London: Athlone Press, forthcoming).

301. Hensoldt, pp. 370-3, 656; Blavatsky, Isis Unveiled.

302. See Waddell, Himalayas, p. 283; Landon, vol. 2, p. 30.

303. See, for example, the Himalayan veteran Hooker's opinions about this manuscript in 1894-5; L. Huxley, The Life and Letters of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, 2 vols. (London: John Murray, 1918, Vol. 2), pp. 334-5.

304. Hensoldt, pp. 660-1; Landon, vol. 2, pp. 163-7.

305. A. David-Neel, My Journey to Lhasa (New York: Harper & Row, 1927); Miller, On Top of the World, pp. 144-5.

306. See Hillman, Puer Papers.

307. Kipling; Faber, pp. 13, 100-1, 122.

308. Landon, Vol. 2, p. 50; Chandler, p. 278.

309. See G. Seaver, Francis Younghusband: Explorer and Mystic (London: John Murray, 1952); P. Bishop, 'The Mysticism of Immensity', Colloquium 18, no. 2 (October 1986) for details of Younghusband's mysticism.

310. Younghusband, India and Tibet, p. 325.

311. Seaver, pp. 374-5.

312. Ibid; see also Younghusband, Heart of a Continent; see Freshfield, p.160, for more reflections on mountains and stars by a Himalayan mountaineer.

313. W. Graham, 'Travel and Ascents in the Himalaya', Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, 6 (1884); Conway; Miller, On Top of the World; F. Keenlyside, Peaks and Pioneers (London: Elek, 1975), pp. 107-9; Waddell, Himalayas, pp. 377-92; K. Mason, Abode of Snow (London: Rupert Hart-Davis, 1955).

314. Freshfield, pp. 3-4.

315. Ibid.pp. 71, 124-5.

316. Ibid. p. 126, 127

317. Ibid. p. 152.

318. See Graham, pp. 446-7; Waddell, Himalayas, pp. vi, 359, 391.

319. Huxley, Vol. 2, pp. 452-3.

320. Chandler, p. 51.

321. Macaulay, pp. 24, 37.

322 Louis, pp. 142-3.

323. Chandler, p. 199; Landon; also Whitley; see Millington, p. 30, for details of the signpost at Jeylap-la.

324. Bower, pp. 147-8

325. Grenard, pp. 115-17; Macaulay, p. 16; Louis, p. 48; Younghusband, India and Tibet, pp. 254, 270; Landon, Vol. 1, p. 246; Lamb, Central Asia, pp. 296-7.

326. See J. White, pp. 48-9; Younghusband, India and Tibet, p. 123.

327. Lamb, Central Asia, p. 232.

328. Ibid. pp. 245-51.

329. Ibid. p. 253; also Lamb, 'Notes', pp. 54-7; Landon, Vol. 1, p. 33.

330. Edwardes, The West in Asia, p. 95.

331. Waddell, Himalayas, p. 242; Freshfield, p. 242.

332. Younghusband, India and Tibet, pp. 197-200; Landon, Vol. 1, pp. 309-11.

333. Waddell, Himalayas, p. 282; Louis, p. 72.

334. Lamb, Central Asia, p. 309

335. Relph, pp. 48-9.

336. Grenard, pp. 36-7.

337. Kern, p. 187; see Macaulay and Landon for extensive comments on, and use of, photographs that are typical of the era. Fanny Bullock Workman was described as a 'Keen Kodaker': in Middleton, Victorian Lady Travelers, pp. 86-7.

338. Kern, p. 39.

339. On the use of photographs for ethnographic purposes, see Waddell, Tibetan Buddhism; Rockhill.

340. Freshfield, pp. 40, 71, 301; Conway, pp. 165-6.

341. Freshfield, p. 29.

342. Ibid. pp. vii, ix, xix, 29, 40,159, 195-8, 263.

343. Kipling, pp. 7-13.

6. Lost Horizons

1. F. Maraini, Secret Tibet (London: Hutchinson, 1952) p. 47.

2. C. Bell, Tibet Past and Present (London: Oxford University Press, 1927) pp. 160-1; C. Bell, Portrait of the Dalai Lama (London: Collins, 1946).

3. S. Chapman, Lhasa: The Holy City (London: Chatto & Windus, 1940), p. 11; W. King, 'The Telegraph to Lhasa', The Geographical Journal 63 (1924), pp. 527-31.

4. R. Byron, First Russia: Then Tibet (London: Macmillan and Co., 1933), pp. 270, 278-9; R. Ford, Captured in Tibet (London: Pan Books, 1958).

5. A. de Riencourt, Lost World: Tibet, Key to Asia (London: Victor Gollancz, 1951), pp. 23, 152-3; H. Harrer, Seven Years in Tibet (London: Rupert Hart-Davis, 1953), p. 119.

6. Harrer, p. 126.

7. King, p. 530.

8. Chapman, pp. 145, 185-6.

9. Ibid. pp. 51, 70-1; Bell, Tibet, pp. 162-3.

10. Byron, p. 239.

11. Chapman, p. 245

12. See A. David-Neel: My Journey to Lhasa (New York: Harper & Row, 1927). Magic and Mystery in Tibet (Paris, 1929; New York: Dover Publications, 1971); A. Govinda, The Way of the White Clouds (London: Hutchinson, 1969); K Winkler, Pilgrim of the Clear Light (Berkeley: Dawnfire Books, 1982); de Riencourt.

13. Chapman, p. 290.

14. Byron, p. 196.

15. David-Neel, Magic and Mystery, pp. 199-204.

16. Chapman, p. 17.

17. Harrer, p. 196.

18. L. Thomas Jnr., Out of this World (New York: The Greystone Press, 1950), pp. 208-9.

19. A. Migot, Tibetan Marches (London: Rupert Hart Davis 1960) pp. 226-9. A Guibaut: Tibetan Venture (London: John Murray, 1949), pp. 7-8, 15, 79-80.

20. W. Unsworth, Everest (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1982); K. Mason, Abode of Snow (London: Rupert Hart-Davis, 1955).

21. David-Neel, My Journey, pp. xii, xxi-xxvi, 190.

22. Guibaut, p. 84.

23. See G. Tucci, To Lhasa and Beyond (Rome: Istituto Poligrafico Dello Stato, 1956), pp. 5-7.

24. See Bell, Tibet, pp. 150, 154-9, 246; F. Bailey, No Passport to Tibet (London: The Travel Book Club, 1957), pp. 117-18.

25. See Guibaut, pp. 64, 74, 174-6; Bailey, p. 188; Thomas, Out of this World, pp. 31-2, 134-6.

26. See Migot, p. 167.

27. See David-Neel, My Journey, pp. xviii, 22-3, 27-8, 40, 78-9, 130, 277; Harrer, p. 166; Ronaldshay, Himalayan Bhutan, Sikhim and Tibet (1920; Delhi: Ess Ess Publications, 1977), pp. 16, 220-1, 228-30; H. Ruttledge, Everest 1933 (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1938), p. 81.

28. Maraini, pp. 147-8.

29. Ibid. p. 111.

30. Byron, pp. 223-4, 240, 246-7; Guibaut, pp. 94, 108-9; Ronaldshay, p. 110; Harrer, pp. 39, 166; Unsworth, p. 47; Ruttledge, p. 209.

31. Guibaut, p. 49.

32. Byron, pp. 238, 301; Guibaut, p. 69. Byron's witty style was also part of the changes taking place in the wider field of travel writing between the two world wars. For details of this see P. Fussell, Abroad (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980).

33. Migot, pp. 226-9.

34. Bailey, pp. 19-22, 279-80.

35. Byron, pp. 226-7.

36. David-Neel: Magic and Mystery, pp. v, 291; Journey, pp. 172-5.

37. Maraini, p. 145.

38. Ibid. pp. 62, 153.

39. Ibid. pp. 56, 96-7.

40. Byron, p. 244.

41. Bell, in Tibet, p. 268, describes Tibet as 'The Cinderella of the Indian Foreign Department'. This comment was made in 1922.

42. Guibaut, pp. 80, 118, 186-8.

43. Bailey, pp. 27 ff; C. Allen, A Mountain in Tibet (London: Andre Deutsch, 1982), pp. 162 ff.

44. See Unsworth; R. Clark, The Victorian Mountaineers (London: B. T. Batsford, 1953).

45. P. Fleming, 'News From Tartary', in his Travels in Tartary (London: The Reprint Society, 1941); E. Maillart, Forbidden Journey (London: William Heinemann, 1937).

46. L. Clark, The Marching Wind (London: Hutchinson, 1955); C. Pereira, 'Peking to Lhasa', The Royal Geographical Journal LXIV, no. 2 (August 1924), pp. 97-120.

47. See Guibaut, pp. 20, 92-3, 115; Bailey, p. 131; L. Clark, pp. 19, 29-30, 129-130; de Riencourt, p. 46.

48. L. Clark, p. 29.

49. Guibaut, pp. 140, 60-1; M. Pallis, Peaks and Lamas (1939; London: Cassell, 1946), p. 12.

50. See David-Neel, My Journey; W. McGovern, To Lhasa in Disguise (London: Thornton Butterworth, 1924).

51. See Unsworth, pp. 20-1.

52. N. Roerich, Altai-Himalaya (London: Jarrolds, 1931); G. Roerich, Trails to Inmost Asia (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1931).

53. E. Schary, In Search of the Mahatmas (London: Seeley, Service & Co., 1937); see also the review of this book in The Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society 25 (1938), pp. 130-3; D. MacDonald, Twenty Years in Tibet (London: Seeley, Service & Co., 1932), pp. 159-63.

54. H. Kopp, Himalayan Shuttlecock (London: Hutchinson, 1957); F. Ossendowski, Beasts, Men and Gods (Sydney: Cornstalk Publishing Co., 1926).

55. See Thomas, Out of this World; R. Tung, A Portrait of Lost Tibet (London: Thames & Hudson, 1980), gives details and photographs of Ilya Tolstoy's mission.

56. Byron, p. 253.

57. Pallis, p. 422.

58. Ibid. pp. 121 ff, 210, 227-300, 410 ff, where Pallis discusses the effect of the introduction of chemical dyes into Himalayan painting, and the effect of introducing Western clothes and Western-style education into the Himalayan cultures.

59. de Riencourt, pp. 7, 46.

60. Guibaut, p. 2; David-Neel, Journey, p. 273.

61. T. Bernard, 'The Peril of Tibet', Asia and the Americas 39 (September 1939), pp. 500-4.

62. Thomas, Out of this World, pp. 76-7.

63. Maraini, p. 145.

64. Guibaut, p. 2.

65. Byron, p. 327.

66. Harrer, pp. 148-9.

67. Pallis, pp. xii-xiii, 344.

68. de Riencourt, p. 128.

69. Unsworth, pp. 314 ff.

70. Byron, p. 328.

71. Maraini, p. 144.

72. Thomas, Out of this World, pp. 19-20.

73. See Harrer, pp. 131, 133, 138, 155, 213, on the conservatism at Lhasa. On the other hand, for details of the enthusiasm in Lhasa for modern ideas, see Chapman; King, 'Telegraph'.

74. Harrer, p. 136.

75. Ibid. pp. 256-7.

76. Thomas, Out of this World, p. 30

77. See de Riencourt, p. 300; Thomas, Out of this World, p. 30.

78. de Riencourt, p. 301.

79. Govinda, p. xi.

80. As Eliot wrote in 1935. 'At the still point of the turning world ... / at the still point, there the dance is, / But neither arrest nor movement'. T.S. Eliot, 'Four Quartets. Burnt Norton', The Complete Poems and Plays of T.S. Eliot (London: Faber & Faber, 1978).

81. de Riencourt, p. 224.

82. Fleming, p. 473; see also the extraordinary adventures of Eric Bailey, explorer and special agent, in and around Tashkent just after World War I, in A. Swinson, Beyond the Frontiers (London: Hutchinson, 1971).

83. See Bernard; de Riencourt, pp. 180-1.

84. Independence from China was not universally accepted or desired in Tibet. For example, Tengye-ling monastery supported Chinese rule and so was destroyed by the Dalai Lamas pro-independence forces. This is mentioned in Chapman, p. 139.

85. de Riencourt, pp. 179-80.

86. F. O'Connor, 'Tibet in the Modern World', The Geographical Magazine 6 (1937-8) pp. 93-110.

87. Chapman, pp. 91-2.

89. Chapman, pp. 3-4.

90. de Riencourt, pp. 199-200; Fleming; I. Klein, 'British Imperialism in Decline. Tibet, 1914-21', Historian 34 (1971), pp. 100-15, presents a discussion of the complex situation in Central Asia and its effect on British involvement in Tibet.

91. de Riencourt, pp. 211-13; Harrer, pp. 205-8.

92. Harrer, pp. 219-20.

93. Ford: Harrer, p. 273.

94. For details see Harrer; Ford; de Riencourt; Thomas, Out of this World; L. Thomas Jnr., Silent War in Tibet (London: Secker & Warburg, 1960); D. Woodman: Himalayan Frontiers (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1969), 'Tibet and Imperial China' (Centre of Oriental Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, Occasional Paper No. 7, n.d.).

95. Harrer, p. 287.

96. de Riencourt, p. 301.

97. Fussell, p. 18. This era of disenchantment also produced other places apart from Tibet that evoked yearning, or intimations of a theocratically organized utopian society. See, for example, N. Douglas on the Sorrento coast, in Siren Land (1911; Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1986) or H. Wunderlich, The Secret of Crete (Athens: Efstathiadis Group, 1983).

98. Ronaldshay, pp. 79-80.

99. David-Neel, Magic and Mystery, p. 78.

100. David-Neel, Journey, p. 61.

101. Fussell.

102. Byron, p. 294.

103. Harrer, pp. 116, 160.

104. Migot, p. 127

105. Byron, p. xiii.

106. J. Hilton, Lost Horizon (1933; London: Pan Books, 1947), pp. 162-3.

107. Thomas, Out of this World, p. 17.

108 Migot, pp. 15-16.

109. de Riencourt, p. 14.

110. Thomas, Out of this World, p. 276.

111. de Riencourt, p. 15.

112. L. Weir, 'The Impressions of an Englishwoman in Lhasa', Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, January 1932, pp. 239-41.

113. Byron, pp. 293-4.

114. Guibaut, p. 2.

115. See J. Hillman, The Dream and the Underworld (London: Harper & Row, 1979), pp. 74-85.

116. David-Neel, My Journey, p. 9.

117. deRiencourt, p. 53.

118. Byron, p. xv.

119. Harrer, pp. 193-4; de Riencourt, p. 129.

120. Tucci, To Lhasa, p. 108

121. de Riencourt, pp. 49-50; Chapman, pp. 100, 102; Pallis, p. 288. Maraini is one of the few exceptions to this one-sided viewpoint: pp. 58, 85, 107-8, 209-10.

122. de Riencourt, p. 50.

123. Fussell tends to see the creation of overseas places at this time simply as a compensation for the gloom and despondency felt in Britain after World War I.

124. G. Tucci, Tibet (London: Elek Books, 1967), p. 13.

125. Guibaut, pp. 1-2, 7-8, 29, 31; Unsworth, p. 47; David-Neel, My Journey, pp. xviii, xix, 22-3; de Riencourt, pp. 34-5.

126. Ruttledge, p. 72; Tucci, Tibet, p. 16; Byron, p. 234; de Riencourt, p. 41.

127. Byron, p. 156; Fleming, p. 397.

128. de Riencourt, p. 128.

129. Fleming, p. 392.

130. Chapman, pp. 73, 109-10, 246-7, 299.

131 Weir; Harrer, p. 137.

132. Maraini, p. 86.

133. See Fussell; R. Barthes, 'The Blue Guide', Mythologies (London: Paladin, 1973).

134. On the concept of everyday life, see H. Lefebvre, Everyday Life in the Modern World (London: Allen Lane, 1974).

135. On psychic research after World War I and its relation to Western interpretations of Buddhism, see P. Bishop, Tibetan Religion and the Western Imagination (London: Athlone Press, forthcoming).

136. Pallis, p. 138.

137. H. Desroche, The Sociology of Hope (London Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979), pp. 113, 168-9; see also F. Manuel (ed.), Utopias and Utopian Thought (London: Souvenir Press, 1973); I. Tod and M Wheeler, Utopia (London: Orbis Publishing, 1978).

138. Hilton, pp. 51, 57, 60, 84, 91-2, 94, 147.

139. Ibid. pp. 88, 157-9.

140. Unsworth, pp. 41-4, 63, 70-1, 99-100, 102, 111, 131-41.

141. Hilton, pp. 43, 45, 50-1.

142. Pereira.

143. L. Clark.

144. Hilton, pp. 83, 127, 128.

145. Ibid. p. 49.

146. Ibid. p. 69.

147 Ibid. pp. 103, 124, 129, 146.

148 Ibid. pp. 130-1, 162-3.

149. Ibid. pp. 150, 177-8.

150. Ibid. p. 136.

151. C.G. Jung, 'Religious Ideas in Alchemy', in his Collected Works Vol. 12 Psychology and Alchemy (trans. R.F.C. Hull: London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974), para 332.

152. Thomas, Out of this World, pp. 13-17; de Riencourt, p. 14.

153. Ibid. pp. 68, 248, 310.

154. Fussell, p. 92.

155. Thomas, Out of this World, p. 261.

156. Ibid. p. 186.

157. R. Kaulback, Tibetan Trek (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1934), pp. 54, 95-6, also pp. iv, 11-12, 15, 19-20.

158. David-Neel, My Journey, p. xxii.

159. Ibid. p. xix.

160. David-Neel, Magic and Mystery, p. 167.

161. Pallis, p. 423.

162. David-Neel, My Journey, p. 198.

163. de Riencourt, pp. 251-2; Huston-Smith, Requiem For A Faith (A Hartley Production Film, 1974).

164. David-Neel, My Journey, pp. xix -xx.

165 Ibid. p. 259.

166. David-Neel, Magic and Mystery, p. 9.

167. David-Neel, My Journey, p. 257.

168. Ibid. pp. 28, 40, 130, 277.

169. Chapman, pp. 104-5, 107.

170. See Ibid. pp. 106-7, 300.

171. Ibid. p. 228.

172. Ibid. p. 222.

173. See ibid. pp. 61, 68; compare with Landon's remarks as noted in chapter 5.

174. Chapman, p. 195.

175. See Ibid. pp. 44, 155, 158; Harrer; Ford.

176. David-Neel, My Journey, p. 45; de Riencourt, p. 285

177. Kaulback, p. 65.

178. Ibid. pp. 65, 70-1,82-3.

179. Byron, p. xv.

180. See F. Younghusband's introduction to Ruttledge, Everest; and Younghusband, Everest: The Challenge (London: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1949); Pallis, Peaks and Lamas, pp. 190-1.

181. de Riencourt, p. 223.

182. de Riencourt, pp. 224, 293.

183. Thomas, Out of this World, p. 31.

184. D. Duff, On the Worlds Roof (London: Abbey Rewards, 1950).

185. Guibaut, pp. 42-4.

186. Ibid. p. 93.

187. David-Neel, Magic and Mystery, p. 9.

188. de Riencourt, p. 259.

189. C. Humphreys, Buddhism (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1974), p. 189.

190. C. Bell, The Religion of Tibet (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1931).

191. Huston-Smith.

192. See Ronaldshay; Tucci, To Lhasa; Younghusband, Everest.

193. Tucci, To Lhasa, p. 107.

194. G. Tucci and E. Ghersi, Secrets of Tibet (London: Blackie, 1935), p. 17.

195. Ronaldshay, pp. 9, 23-6, 65-7, 75-8, 110, 141-2, 170, 177-8.

196. Maraini, p. 42.

197. Ibid. pp. 55-6.

198. Ibid. pp. 84, 172.

199. Ibid. p. 82.

200. Ibid. p. 60.

201. Ibid. p. 48.

202. Byron, p. 248.

203. Fleming, p. 373.

204. Migot, p. 122.

205. Migot, p. 184 This attitude among travelers -- of wanting to get 'inside' a culture -- paralleled developments in anthropology and sociology. Malinowski revolutionized anthropological field work between the wars, whilst at the same time the Chicago School and ethnomethodology were transforming sociological investigations.

206. See David-Neel, My Journey, p. 61.

207. Harrer, p. 173.

208. L. Waddell, Tibetan Buddhism (1895; New York: Dover Publications, 1972), p. ix.

209. David-Neel, My Journey, p. 61.

210. Pallis, pp. 229-30.

211. Maraini, p. 58.

212. de Riencourt, p. 258.

213. David-Neel: Magic and Mystery, p. 22: Journey, p. 198.

214. G. Patterson, Tibetan Journal (London: Readers Book Club, 1956), p. 114.

215. Ruttledge, p. 77.

216. Chapman, pp. 247-55.

217. Pallis, pp. 230, 255.

218. de Riencourt, pp. 31, 37, 57-8.

219. Harrer, pp. 142-3.

220. See Bell, Tibet, p. 183; Pallis, pp. 33-4; Ruttledge, p. 214; Migot, p. 94; Bacot, quoted Pallis, p. 230.

221. Pallis, p. 3.

222. Chapman, pp. 92-3.

223. Migot, p. 104.

224. de Riencourt, p. 7.

225. Guibaut.

226. Harrer, p. 90; see also Schary's condemnation of Tibetan inhospitality. MacDonald p. 163.

227. L. Clark, pp. 45, 54-7, 112.

228. Guibaut, p. 71.

229. Fleming, p. 359.

230. David-Neel, My Journey, p. 142.

231. Ibid.

232. Ibid. pp. 218-23.

233. Ibid. p. 254.

234. Pallis, pp. 194-5, 263.

235. Ibid. pp. 329-30.

236. Ibid. pp. 257-8; Migot, p. 104.

237. David-Neel, Magic and Mystery, pp. 11, 131, 244, 258.

238. Maraini, pp. 50-2.

239. Ibid. p. 143. For a 'balanced' account of Bhutanese character which weighs the various estimations made by Westerners, see Ronaldshay, pp. 205 ff.

240. David-Neel, Magic and Mystery, pp. 288-300.

241. Fleming, p. 325.

242. Chapman, pp. 44, 73, 124, 155, 158, 214.

243. Ibid. pp. 214-4.

244. See Lobsang Rampa, Tibetan Sage (London: Corgi Books, 1980).

245. David-Neel, Magic and Mystery, pp. vi, 291.

246. de Riencourt, pp. 247-8, 252, 257; see also L. Clark, p. 331.

247. Maraini, pp. 81-2, 172; see also Bishop, Tibetan Religion, for a fuller discussion of the relation between Tibetan spiritual 'techniques' and Western fantasy-making.

248. Thomas, Out of this World, p. 118.

249. Maraini, p. 42; see also F. Smythe, Snow on the Hills (London: Adam and Charles Black, 1946) as well as his numerous other works; Younghusband, Everest.

250. Maraini, p. 42.

251. Pallis, p. 99.

252. Migot, pp. 90-2.

253. de Riencourt, p. 19.

254. Ibid. p. 28.

255. Chapman, p. 5.

256. Ibid. p. 159.

257. P. Matthiesson, The Snow Leopard (London: Picador, 1980), pp. 16, 26, 121-2; J. Lester, 'Wrestling with the Self on Mount Everest', Journal of Humanistic Psychology 23, no. 2 (Spring 1983).

258. Matthiesson, pp. 16, 21; see also P. Bishop, 'The Geography of Hope and Despair: Peter Matthiesson's The Snow Leopard', Critique, XXVI, no. 4 (Summer 1985).

259. Matthiesson, pp. 29, 271.

260. E. Haas, Himalayan Pilgrimage (London: Thames & Hudson, 1978), p. 10.

261. J. Napier, Bigfoot (London: Abacus, 1976).

262. Winkler.

263. See Bishop, Tibetan Religion, for a full discussion of the place of The Tibetan Book of the Dead in Western fantasy-making.

264. G. Stuhlmann (ed.), The Diaries of Anais Nin, Vol. 6 (New York: Harvest Books, 1976), p. 332.

265. David-Neel, Magic and Mystery, pp. 23-40.

266. Ronaldshay, pp. 130-1, 134; Govinda; Maraini.

267. See chapter 2 for Bogle's association of Tibet with a state of primitive innocence.

268. See de Riencourt, p. 294; Migot, p. 184.

269. See Harrer, pp. 145-6, 225.

270 Ibid. pp. 145-6; Chapman, p. 174.

271. See David-Neel, My Journey, p. xviii; Chapman, p. 174; Bell, Tibet, p. 48. Although these titles were similar to those used before by Westerners to designate the Dalai Lama, now they were used seriously and not as mere curiosities.

272. Chapman, p. 192.

273. Bell, Tibet, p. 49.

274. A. Artaud, Anthology (San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1972), p. 64.

275. Hilton, pp. 43, 45, 50-1

276. Pallis, pp. 320-4.

277. de Riencourt, pp. 274, 281.

278. Maraini, p. 12.

279. J. Perry, Lord of the Four Quarters (New York: George Braziller, 1966); also Bishop, Tibetan Religion, for a fuller discussion of the figure of the Dalai Lama as an archetypal father figure for many Westerners involved with Tibetan spirituality.

280. See N. Barber, From the Land of Lost Content (London: Collins, 1969).

7. Conclusion

1. See, for example, the work 'Splendor Solis' by the sixteenth-century alchemist Solomon Trismosin, in C. Burland, The Arts of the Alchemists (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1967); and in J. Read, Prelude to Chemistry (London: G. Bell & Sons, 1936).

2. G. White, 'Views in India, chiefly among the Himalaya Mountains: 1825', in Eternal Himalaya, ed. H. Ahluwalia (New Delhi: Interprint, 1982), p. 135.

3. A. Gerard, 'Narrative of a Journey from Soobathoo to Shipke, in Chinese Tartary, 1818', Journey of the Asiatic Society 11, no. 1 (1842), p. 375.

4. W. Giegerich, 'Saving the Nuclear Bomb', Facing Apocalypse (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1986).

5. C.G. Jung, 'Paracelsus as a Spiritual Phenomenon', Collected Works, Vol. 13, Alchemical Studies (trans. R.F.C. Hull; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974), paras 186, 196.

6. See L. Shiner, 'Sacred Space, Profane Space, Human Space', Journal of the American Academy of Religion XL, no. 4 (December 1972). He argues that everyday, or 'lived', space is not homogeneous, nor devoid of sacred qualities.

7. For a full discussion of the highly selective import of Tibetan Buddhism into Western fantasy-making in the mid-twentieth century, see P. Bishop, Tibetan Religion and the Western Imagination (London: Athlone Press, forthcoming).

8. H. Harrer, Return to Tibet (New York: Schocken, 1985)

9. See, for example, C. Furer-Haimendorf, The Sherpas of Nepal (London: John Murray, 1964); J. Hitchcock and R. Jones (eds.), Spirit Possession in the Nepal Himalayas (Warminster, Wiltshire: Aris & Phillips, 1976); T. Palakshappa, Tibetans in India (New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1978).

10. A notable exception is D. Snellgrove's Himalayan Pilgrimage (Boulder, Co: Prajana Press, 1981), which recounts the author's journey through remote regions of Nepal in 1956. P. Matthiesson's The Snow Leopard, while a classic, does hover at times on the edge of cliche. A. Harvey's Journey to Ladakh (London: Jonathan Cape, 1983), while sensitive and at times moving, fails to acknowledge the changes that have taken place since the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries both in the genre of travel writing and in the neo- imperial relationship between the West and Third World countries. A. Blum's Annapurna: A Woman's Place (London: Granada, 1980) succeeds precisely because it presents all the seemingly unresolvable contradictions between gender, race, culture, power and personal experience. H. Suyin's Lhasa: The Open City (New York: Putnam, 1977) unfortunately has to be classed in the category of Chinese propaganda. Vikram Seth's beautiful account of his journey across Tibet to his home in India skilfully avoids most of the pitfalls that await the travel writer in this well-trod, but still little-known region (From Heaven Lake, New York: Random, 1987).

11. See P. Allen, 'Tibet, China and the Western World', History Today 30, December 1980, pp. 25-31.

12. In addition to the abundance of glossy travel brochures, there are the pervasively influential and seemingly indispensable guidebooks which are filled with cultural vignettes, snatches of traditional wisdom and splashes of local color. Among the best are H. Swift, The Trekker's Guide to the Himalaya and Karakoram (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1982) and M. and R. Schettler, Kashmir, Ladakh and Zanskar (Victoria: Lonely Planet Publications, 1981). Such guides are now starting to emerge for Tibet.

13. E. Haas's Himalayan Pilgrimage (London: Thames & Hudson, 1978) is a typical glossy coffee-table book, filled with images of extraordinary clarity and vitality but, in the end, with a kind of flat sameness about them. The accompanying text echoes the tone of the illustrations. Such books have been produced on most out-of-the-way exotic places, and their geneses can be seen in texts such as The Geographical Magazine of the 1930s (e.g. Vol. VI, no. 6, December 1937). By comparison, see the two photostudies: B. Coburn, Nepali Aama (Santa Barbara, CA: Ross-Erikson Inc., 1982) and H. Downs, Rhythms of a Himalayan Village (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1980). These are both of the popular anthropological variety and attempt to locate their intimate, black-and-white photograph within a community context rather than a more voyeuristic tourist one.

14. Cf. M. Eliade, The Sacred and the Profane (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1959) with Shiner's analysis.

15. J. Hillman, in The Dream and the Underworld (New York: Harper & Row, 1979) insists upon the relative autonomy of the 'underworld' and 'dayworld' perspectives, of the unconscious and the conscious.

16. C.G. Jung, 'Psychology and Literature', Collected Works, Vol. 15 The Spirit of Man in Art and Literature (trans. R.F.C. Hull; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974), p. 85.

17. J. Boon, The Anthropological Romance of Bali (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1977), pp. 134-5.

18. Eliade; F. Yates, The Art of Memory (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1978); D. Lowenthal, 'Past Time, Present Place, Landscape and Memory', The Geographical Review LXV, no. 1 (January 1975). T. Moore, 'Animus Mundi', Spring 1987 (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1987), argues that the animus can be envisaged as the spirit of a place, like its genius loci; also that the animus relates to the source of family and ancestral continuity.

19. M. Foucault, Madness and Civilization (New York: Vintage Books, 1973).

20. J. Fabian, in Time and the Other (New York: Columbia University Press, 1983), pp. 111-13, 121-2, provocatively argues that anthropology, along with other social sciences, was also part of this 'art of memory' tradition.

21. H. Corbin, Spiritual Body and Celestial Earth (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977), p. 90.

22. J. Hillman, 'Anima Mundi. The Return of Soul to the World', Spring 1982 (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1982).

23. Traditional memory systems operated in such a multileveled way. See Yates.

24. P. Berry, 'Echo's Passion', in her Echos Subtle Body (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1982), p. 113.

25. Berry, p. 120.

26. See P. Bishop, 'The Geography of Hope and Despair: Peter Matthiesson's The Snow Leopard', Critique XXVI, no. 4 (Summer 1985).

27. See J. Loewenstein, Responsible Readings: Versions of Echo in Pastoral, Epic, and the Jonsonian Masque (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984) pp. 18, 152 n.2 4. He suggests that Echo acts as a psychoanalyst and also points out that many famous places of echo in Antiquity also symbolized doorways into the Underworld; see also Berry, p. 120. In such circumstances it would perhaps be more appropriate to talk of an axis imaginalis rather than an axis mundi. This term which more specifically relates to an opening into the intermediary realm, the metaxy, the imaginal, and perhaps has less of a monotheistic connotation.

28. Berry, p. 120.

29. See T. Moore, 'Musical Therapy', Spring 1978 (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1978); Loewenstein, p. 25.

30. Berry, p. 115.

31. Ibid. pp. 118-19; Loewenstein, p. 151 n. 21.

32. Loewenstein, p. 22.

33. C.G. Jung, 'Religious Ideas in Alchemy', Collected Works, Vol. 12 Psychology and Alchemy (trans. R.F.C. Hull; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974), para. 396.

34. Hillman, 'Anima Mundi', pp. 73 ff.

35. See R. Bly, News of the Universe (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1980) for a discussion of this loss of imaginal relation to the world in eighteenth-and nineteenth-century poetry; also J. Hillman, 'An Introductory Note: C.G. Carus-C.G. Jung, in Psyche (Part One) by C.G. Carus (New York: Spring Publications, 1970).

36. J. Hillman, 'The Imagination of Air and the Collapse of Alchemy', The Eranos Jahrbuch 50-1981 (Frankfurt a/M. Insel Verlag, 1982) pp. 283-4.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 30246
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: THE MYTH OF SHANGRI-LA: TIBET, TRAVEL WRITING AND THE W

Postby admin » Sat Mar 19, 2016 5:17 am

Bibliography

Adler, G. Beyond Bokhara: The Life of William Moorcroft (London: Century Publications, 1985).

Allen, C. A Mountain in Tibet (London: Andre Deutsch, 1982).

Allen, D. Structure and Creativity in Religion (The Hague Mouton Publishers, 1978).

Allen, J. 'The Place of the Imagination in the History of Geographical Exploration', in Geographies of the Mind, ed. D. Lowenthal and M. Bowden (New York Oxford University Press, 1976).

Allen, P. 'Tibet, China and the Western World', History Today, 30 December 1980, pp. 25-31.

Anderson, J, The Ulysses Factor (New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1970)

Aragon, L. Paris Peasant (1924/5; London: Picador, 1980).

Artaud, A. Anthology (San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1972).

Asad, T. and J. Dixon 'Translating Europe's Others', in Europe and Its Others, ed. F. Barker et al (vol. 1: Colchester University of Essex, 1984).

Bachelard, G. The Poetics of Space (Boston: Beacon Press, 1969)

-Water and Dreams (Dallas: Pegasus Press, 1983).

Bailey, F. No Passport to Tibet (London: The Travel Book Club, 1957).

Barber, L. The Heyday of Natural History: 1820-1870 (London: Jonathan Cape, 1980).

Barber, N. From the Land of Lost Content (London: Collins, 1969).

Barker, F. et al (eds) Europe and Its Others, 2 vols. (Colchester: University of Essex, 1984).

Barthes, R. Mythologies (London: Paladin, 1973).

Barton, J. 'Report of Missionary Work in Thibet', Church Missionary intelligence 14 (1863).

Bates, H. Illustrated Travels, 3 vols (London: Cassell, Fetter & Galpin, 1895).

Baudet, H. Paradise on Earth: Some Thoughts on European Images of Non-European Man (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1965).

Bazarov, K. Landscape Painting (London: Octopus Books, 1981).

de Beer, G. Early Travelers in the Alps (1930; London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1966)

Bell, C. Tibet. Past and Present (London: Oxford University Press, 1927).

-The Religion of Tibet (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1931)

-Portrait of the Dalai Lama (London: Collins, 1946).

Bennett, A. 'Rough Notes of a Visit to Daba, in Thibet, in August 1865', Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society 10 (1865/1866).

Berger, J. and J. Mohr Another Way of Telling (London: Writers & Readers, 1982)

Bernard, T. 'The Peril of Tibet', Asia and Americas 39 (September 1939).

Berry, P. 'Echo's Passion, Echos Subtle Body (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1982)

Bhardway, S. Hindu Places of Pilgrimage in India (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973).

Bird-Bishop, I. Among the Tibetans (New York: Fleming H. Revell Co. 1894)

Bishop, P. 'The Geography of Hope and Despair: Peter Matthiesson's The Snow Leopard', Critique XXVI, no. 4 (Summer 1985).

-'The Mysticism of Immensity', Colloquium 18, no. 2 (October 1986)

-Tibetan Religion and the Western Imagination (London: Athlone Press, forthcoming)

Blavatsky, H. Isis Unveiled (1877; Pasadena: Theosophical University Press, 1972).

-The Book of Golden Precepts (London: n.p., 1889).

-The Voice of the Silence (London n. p., 1889)

Blum, A. Annapurna: A Woman's Place (London: Granada, 1980).

Bly, R. News of the Universe (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1980).

Bonvalot, G. Across Thibet, 2 vols. (London: Cassell & Co., 1891).

Boon, J. The Anthropological Romance of Bali (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1977).

Booth, W. The Rhetoric of Fiction (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961).

Boswell, J. Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides (1785; London: William Heinemann, 1936).

Bourne, S. 'Ten Weeks With a Camera in the Himalayas', The British Journal of Photography, 15 February 1864.

-'Narrative of a Photographic Trip to Kashmir and Adjacent Districts', The British Journal of Photography, 23 November - 28 December 1866.

Bowden, M. 'The Great American Desert in the American Mind. The Historiography of a Geographical Notion, in Geographies of the Mind, ed. D. Lowenthal and M. Bowden (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976).

Bower, H. Diary of a Journey Across Tibet (London, 1894; Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar, 1976).

Briggs, J. Never in Anger (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1970).

Brockway, L. Science and Colonial Expansion: The Role of the British Botanical Gardens (New York: Academic Press, 1979).

Brown, E. (ed.) Geography: Yesterday And Tomorrow (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980).

Burke, E. A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origins of our Ideas of the Sublime and the Beautiful, ed. J. Boulton (1757; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1958).

Burland, C. The Arts of the Alchemists (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1967).

Burns, A. Travels into Bokhara (London: n.p., 1834).

Butzer, K. (ed.) Dimensions of Human Geography (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978).

Byron, R. First Russia: Then Tibet (London: Macmillan & Co., 1933)

Camman, S. Trade Through the Himalayas -- Early British Attempts to Open Tibet (Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1970).

'The Capture of Lhasa', The Spectator (London), 13 August 1904.

Carey, A. 'A Journey Round Chinese Turkistan and along the Northern Frontier of Tibet', Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society 9 (1887).

Carey, W. Travel and Adventure in Tibet (London, 1900; Delhi. Mittal Publications, 1983).

Carotenuto, A 'Sabina Spielrein and C.G. Jung', Spring 1980 (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1980).

Casey, E. 'Getting Placed', Spring 1982 (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1982).

-'Jung and the Post-Modern Condition', Spring 1987 (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1987).

Chandler, E. The Unveiling of Lhasa (1905; London: Edward Arnold, 1931).

Chapman, S. Lhasa: The Holy City (London: Chatto & Windus, 1940).

Chobani Manganyi, N. 'Making Strange: Race, Science and Ethnopsychiatric Discourse', in Europe and Its Others, 2 vols., ed. F. Barker et al. (Colchester: University of Essex, 1984)

Clark, K. The Victorian Mountaineers (London: B. T. Batsford, 1953)

Clark, K. Ruskin Today (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1982).

Clark, L. The Marching Wind (London: Hutchinson, 1955).

Clark, R. Men, Myths and Mountains (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1975).

Colebrook, H. 'On the Height of the Himalaya Mountains', Asiatick Researches 12 (1816).

Conan Doyle, A 'The Empty House', in Sherlock Holmes' The Complete Short Stories (1928; London: John Murray, 1980).

Conway, W. Climbing and Exploration in the Karakoram-Himalayas (London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1894).

Cooper, T., 'Travels in Western China and Eastern Thibet', Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society 14 (1869/70).

Corbin, H. Creative Imagination in the Sufism of Ibn Arabi (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969).

-'Mundus Imaginalis or the Imaginary and the Imaginal', Spring 1972 (New York: Spring Publications, 1972).

-Spiritual Body and Celestial Earth (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977).

Cosgrove, D. 'John Ruskin and the Geographical Imagination, The Geographical Review 6, no.1 January 1979).

Cosgrove, D. and J. Thomes 'Of Truth of Clouds: John Ruskin and the Moral Order in Landscape', in Humanistic Geography and Literature, ed. D. Pocock (London: Croom Helm 1981).

Cunningham, A. Laddk (London, 1853; New Delhi: Sagar Publications, 1977).

Curzon, G. Frontiers (Romanes Lecture; Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1908).

Daniell, W. and T. Oriental Scenery, 6 vols (London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown 1795-1815).

Das, S. Journey to Lhasa and Central Tibet (London, 1902; New Delhi: Manjusri Publishing House, 1970).

David-Neel, A. My Journey to Lhasa (New York: Harper & Row, 1927).

-Magic and Mystery in Tibet (Paris, 1929; New York: Dover Publications, 1971).

Davies, A. 'The Aryan Myth: Its Religious Significance', Studies in Religion 10, no. 3 (1981).

Desroche, H. The Sociology of Hope (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979).

Dodd, P. (ed.) The Art of Travel (London: Frank Cass, 1982).

Donner, F. Shabono (New York: Delacorte Press, 1982).

Douglas, N. Siren Land (1911; Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1986).

Downs, H. Rhythms of a Himalayan Village (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1980).

Dudley, G. 'Jung and Eliade', Psychological Perspectives 10, no. 1 (1979).

Duff, D. On The World's Roof (London: Abbey Rewards, 1950).

Duka, T. Life and Works of Alexander Csoma de Koros (1885; New Delhi: Manjusri Publishing House, 1972).

Duncan, J. A Summer Ride Through Western Tibet (1906; London: Collins, 1925).

Durand, G. 'Exploring the Imaginal', Spring 1971 (New York: Spring Publications, 1971).

Eck, D. 'India's Tirthas: "Crossings" in Sacred Geography', History of Religions 20, no. 4 (May 1981).

Eden, A. Political Missions to Bootan (London, 1865; New Delhi: Manjusri Publishing House, 1972).

Edgar, J. Report on a Visit to Sikhim and the Thibetan Frontier (London, 1873; New Delhi: Manjusri Publishing House, 1969).

Edwardes, M. The West in Asia, 1850-1914 (London: B.T. Batsford Ltd, 1967).

-Playing the Great Game (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1975).

Eliade, M. The Sacred and the Profane (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1959).

-Australian Religions (New York: Cornell University Press, 1973).

Eliot, T.S. 'The Four Quartets', The Complete Poems and Plays of T.S, Eliot (London: Faber & Faber,1978).

Elkin, A. Aboriginal Men of High Degree (St Lucia: Queensland University Press, 1980).

Ellenberger, H. The Discovery of the Unconscious (New York: Basic Books, 1970).

English, P. and R. Mayfield (eds), Man, Space and Environment (New York: Oxford University Press, 1972).

Faber, R. The Vision and the Need: Late Victorian Imperialist Aims (London: Faber & Faber, 1966).

Fabian, J. Time and the Other (New York: Columbia University Press, 1983)

Fields, R. How the Swans Came to the Lake: A Narrative History of Buddhism in America (Bouder, CO: Shambhala, 1981).

de Filippi, F. An Account of Tibet' Travels of Ippolito Desideri of Pistoia S.J. 1712-1727 (London: n.p., 1937).

Fisher, M. and J. Shackleton (London: James Barrie, 1957).

Fleming, P. Travels in Tartary (1934/6; London: The Reprint Society, 1941).

Fletcher, P. Gardens and Grim Ravines: The Language of Landscape in Victorian Poetry (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983).

Ford, R. Captured in Tibet (London: Pan Books, 1958).

Foucault, M. Madness and Civilization (New York: Vintage Books, 1973).

-The Order of Things (London: Tavistock, 1980).

-The Archaeology of Knowledge (London: Tavistock, 1972).

-The History of Sexuality, Vol. 1 (New York: Vintage Books, 1980).

-Power/Knowledge (London: The Harvester Press, 1980).

Francke, A. History, Folklore and Culture of Tibet (1905; New Delhi: Ess Ess Publications, 1979).

Fraser, J. Journal of a Tour Through Part of the Snowy Range of the Himala (London: n. p., 1820).

-Views in the Himala Mountains (London: Rodwell & Martin, 1820).

Freeman, T. 'The Royal Geographical Society and the Development of Geography', in Geography Yesterday and Tomorrow, ed. E. Brown (London: Oxford University Press, 1980).

Freshfield, D. Round Kanchenjunga (London: 1903; Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar, 1979).

Freud, S. The interpretation of Dreams (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1971).

Funk, R. Language, Hermeneutic and Word of God (New York: Harper & Row, 1966).

Furer-Haimendorf, C. The Sherpas of Nepal (London: John Murray, 1964).

Fussell, P. Abroad: British Literary Travelers Between the Wars (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980).

Galton, F. The Art of Travel (London: John Murray, 1867).

Gerard, A. 'Narrative of a Journey from Soobathoo to Shipke, in Chinese Tartary, 1818', Journal of the Asiatic Society 11, no.1 (1842).

Giegerich, W. 'Saving the Nuclear Bomb', Facing Apocalypse (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1986).

Gilbert, E. British Pioneers in Geography (Newton Abbot, Devon: David & Charles, 1972).

Gill, W. The River of Golden Sand (London: John Murray, 1880).

Gison, E. 'Understanding the Subjective Meaning of Places', in Humanistic Geography, ed. D. Ley and M. Samuels (London: Croom Helm, 1979).

Glacken, C. Traces on the Rhodian Shore (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967)

Gladwin, T. East is a Big Bird (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971).

Goethe, J. Italian Journey' 1786 -1788 (trans. W.H. Auden and E. Mayer San Francisco: North Point Press, 1982).

Gordon, B. 'Sacred Directions, Orientation and the Top of the Map', History of Religions 10, no. 3 (February 1971).

Govinda, A. The Way of the White Clouds (London: Hutchinson, 1969)

Graburn, N. 'Tourism: The Sacred Journey', in Hosts and Guests, ed. V Smith (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1979)

Graham, W. 'Travel and Ascents in the Himalaya', Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society 6 (1884).

Grenard, F. Tibet (Paris, 1903; Delhi: Cosmo Publications, 1974).

Guibaut, A. Tibetan Venture (London: John Murray, 1949).

Gutzlaff, C.H. 'Tibet and Stefan', Journal of the Royal Geographical Society 20 (1851).

Haas, E. Himalayan Pilgrimage (London: Thames & Hudson, 1978).

Hamilton, F. An Account of the Kingdom of Nepal (London, 1819; New Delhi: Manjusri Publishing House, 1971).

Harbsmeier, M. 'Early Travels to Europe: Some Remarks on the Magi, of Writing', in Europe and Its Others, ed. F. Barker et al. (Colchester University of Essex, 1984).

Harrer, H. Seven Years in Tibet (London: Rupert Hart-Davis, 1953).

-Return to Tibet (New York: Schocken, 1985)

Harvey, A. A Journey in Ladakh (London: Jonathan Cape, 1983).

Hazen, R. (ed.) The Poetry of Geology (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1982).

Heaney, G. 'Rennell and the Surveyors of India', Geographical Journal 134, Part 3 (September 1968)

Heber, A and K. Himalayan Tibet and Ladakh (1903; New Delhi: Ess Ess Publications, 1978)

Hedin, S. Through Asia, 2 vols. (London: Methuen & Co., 1898).

Heidegger, M. Poetry, Language, Thought (New York: Harper & Row, 1975).

Helsinger, E. Ruskin and the Eye of the Beholder (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press 1982)

Henry, W. Surgeon Henry's Trifles: Events of a Military Life (ed. P. Hayward. London: Chatto & Windus, 1970)

Hensoldt, H. 'Occult Science in Thibet', Arena 10 (1894).

Herschkowitz, R. The British Photographer Abroad: The First Thirty Years (London: Robert Herschkowitz Ltd, 1980).

Hibbert, C. The Grand Tour (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1969)

Hillman, I. 'An Introductory Note: C.G. Carus -CG. Jung', in Psyche (Part One) by C.G. Carus (New York: Spring Publications, 1970).

-'On Senex Consciousness', Spring 1970 (New York: Spring Publications, 1970).

-'The Negative Senex and a Renaissance Solution', Spring 1975, (New York: Spring Publications, 1975).

-Re-Visioning Psychology (New York: Harper & Row, 1975).

-The Myth of Analysis (New York: Harper Colophon, 1978).

-Loose Ends (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1978).

-in Puer Papers, ed. J. Hillman (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1979).

-The Dream and the Underworld (New York: Harper & Row, 1979).

-'The Thought of the Heart', The Eranos Jahrbuch 48-1979 (Frankfurt a/M: Insel Verlag, 1980).

-'The Imagination of Air and the Collapse of Alchemy', The Eranos Jahrbuch 50-1981 (Frankfurt a/M: Insel Verlag, 1982).

-'Anima Mundi: The Return of Soul to the World' , Spring 1982 (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1982).

-Healing Fiction (Barrytown, NY: Station Hill Press, 1983).

-Anima (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1985).

-'Notes on White Supremacy', Spring 1986 (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1986).

Hilton, J. Lost Horizon (1933; London: Pan, 1947).

Himmelfarb, G. Victorian Minds (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1968).

Hitchcock, J. and R. Jones, Spirit Possession in the Nepal Himalayas (Warminster, Wiltshire: Aris & Phillips, 1976).

Hodgson, B. Essays on the Languages, Literature and Religion of Nepal and Tibet (ed P. Denwood, 1874; New Delhi: Manjusri Publishing House, 1972).

Holt, D. 'Jung and Marx', Spring, 1973 (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1973).

Hooker, J. Himalayan Journals, 2 vols. (London, 1855; New Delhi. Today and Tomorrow's Publishers,1980).

Hopkirk, P. Foreign Devils on the Silk Road (Newton Abbot, Devon: Readers Union, 1981)

-Trespassers on the Roof of the World (London: John Murray, 1982).

Houghton, W. The Victorian Frame of Mind (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1970).

Huc, M. and Gabet Travels in Tartary, Tibet and China, 1844-5-6 (1850; London George Routledge & Sons, 1928).

Humphreys, C. Buddhism (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1974)

Hunter, W. Life of Brian Houghton Hodgson (London: John Murray, 1896).

Huston-Smith, Requiem For a Faith (A Hartley Production, 1974).

Hutch, R. 'Helena Blavatsky Unveiled', Journal of Religious History II, no. 2 (December 1980).

Hutchins, F. The Illusion of Permanence: British Imperialism in India (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967).

Huxley, L. Life and Letters of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, 2 vols. (London: John Murray, 1918).

IIIich, I. H2O and the Waters of Forgetfulness (Dallas: Dallas Institute of Humanities and Culture Press, 1985).

'In Search of the Mahatmas', (Review) Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society 25 (1938) pp.130 -3.

'An Invasion of Tibet', The Spectator (London), 2 June 1888.

Jackson, J. 'Untitled article', The Journal of the Royal Geographical Society 5 ( 1835), pp. 381-7.

Jacob, F. The Logic of Living Systems (London: Allen Lane, 1974).

Jenkyns, R. The Victorians and Ancient Greece (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980).

Jones, W. 'On the Gods of Greece, Italy and India', in The British Discovery of Hinduism in the Eighteenth Century, ed. P. Marshall (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970).

Jung, C.G. Collected Works Vol. 5: Symbols of Transformation (trans. R.F.C. Hull; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974).

-Collected Works Vol. 9ii: Aion.

-'Mind and Earth' Collected Works Vol. 10: Civilization in Transition.

-'Psychological Commentary on the Tibetan Book of the Dead', Collected Works Vol. 11.

Psychology and Religion: West and East.

-'Religious Ideas in Alchemy, Collected Works Vol. 12: Psychology and Alchemy.

-'Paracelsus as a Spiritual Phenomenon, Collected Works Vol. 13: Alchemical Studies

-'Psychology and Literature', Collected Works Vol. 15: The Spirit of Man in Art and Literature.

-'The Practical Use of Dream Analysis', Collected Works Vol. 16: The Practice of Psychotherapy.

Kaulback, R. Tibetan Trek (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1934).

Kawaguchi, E. Three Years in Tibet (Benares, 1909; Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar, 1979).

Kaye, J. 'Islamic Imperialism and the Creation of Some Ideas of "Europe"', in Europe and Its Others, ed F. Barker et al. (vol.1: Colchester: University of Essex, 1984).

Keay, J. The Gilgit Game: Explorers of the Western Himalayas, 1865-95 (London: John Murray, 1979).

-When Men and Mountains Meet: Explorers of the Western Himalayas, 1820-75 (London: Century Publishing, 1983).

Keenlyside, F. Peaks and Pioneers (London: Elek, 1975).

Kern, S. The Culture of Time and Space (1880-1918) (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press,1983).

King, W. 'The Telegraph to Lhasa', The Geographical Journal 63 (1924).

Kipling, R. Kim (1898; London: Macmillan, 1943).

Kirkpatrick, W. An Account of the Kingdom of Nepaul (London, 1811; New Delhi: Asian Publishing Services, 1975).

Klein, I. 'British Imperialism in Decline: Tibet, 1914-21' , Historian 34 (1971).

Knight, E. Where Three Empires Meet (1892; London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1935).

Knoepflmacher, U. and G. Tennyson (eds), Nature and the Victorian Imagination (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977).

Kopp, H. Himalaya Shuttlecock (London: Hutchinson, 1957).

Kuhn, T. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970).

Kvaerne, P. A Norwegian Traveler in Tibet (New Delhi: Manjusri Publishing House, 1973).

Lamb, A. Britain and Chinese Central Asia (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1960).

-The Sino-Indian Border in Ladakh (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1975).

-'Some Notes on Russian Intrigue in Tibet', Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society 46 (1959).

Lambert, C. A Trip to Cashmere and Ladak (London: H. King, 1877)

Landon, P. Lhasa, 2 vols. (London: Hurst & Blackett, 1905).

Landor, A. In the Forbidden Land (London: William Heinemann, 1899).

Latham, R. Tribes and Races: Vol. 1 (1859; Delhi: Cultural Publishing House, 1983).

Layard, J. A Celtic Quest (Zurich: Spring Publications, 1975).

Least Heat-Moon, W. Blue Highways (London: Picador, 1984).

Le Bris, M. Romantics and Romanticism (Geneva: Skira, 1981).

Lefebvre, H. Everyday Life in the Modern World (London: Allen Lane, 1971).

Leitner, G. Dardistan 1866-1893 (New Delhi: Manjusri Publishing House, 1978).

Lester, J. 'Wrestling with the Self on Mount Everest', Journal of Humanistic Psychology 23, no. 2 (Spring 1983).

Ley, D. and M. Samuels (eds) Humanistic Geography (London: Croom Helm, 1979).

Levine, G. 'High and Low: Ruskin and the Novelists', in Nature and the Victorian Imagination, ed. U. Knoepflmacher and G. Tennyson (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977).

Levi-Strauss, C. The Savage Mind (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1973).

-Triste Tropique (London: Cape, 1973).

Littledale, G. 'A Journey Across Tibet, From North to South and West to Ladak', The Geographical Journal VII, no. 5 (May 1896).

'The Little War with Tibet', The Spectator (London), 6 October 1888.

Lobsang, Rampa Tibetan Sage (London: Corgi Books, 1980).

Loomis, C. 'The Arctic Sublime', in Nature and the Victorian Imagination, ed. U. Knoepflmacher and G. Tennyson (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977).

Louis, J. The Gates of Thibet (1894; Delhi. Vivek Publishing House, 1972)

Lowenstein, J. Responsive Readings (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984).

Lowenthal, D. 'Past Time, Present Place: Landscape and Memory', The Geographical Review, LXV, no. 1 (January 1975).

-'Geography, Experience and Imagination: Towards A Geographical Epistemology', in Man, Space and Environment, ed. P. English and R. Mayfield (New York: Oxford University Press, 1972).

Lowenthal, D. and M. Bowden (eds) Geographies of the Mind (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976).

de Lubac, H. La Rencontre du Bouddhisme et de l'Occident (Paris: n.p., 1952).

Macaulay, C. Report of a Mission to Sikhim and the Tibetan Frontier -- 1884 (Calcutta, 1885; Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar, 1977).

MacDonald, D. Twenty Years in Tibet (London: Seeley, Service & Co., 1932).

McGovern, W. To Lhasa in Disguise (London: Thornton Butterworth, 1924).

MacGregor, J. Tibet -- A Chronicle of Exploration (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1970).

MacIntyre, D. Hindu-Koh (London: n.p., 1889).

Maillart, E. Forbidden Journey (London: William Heinemann, 1937).

Makkreel, R. Dilthey: Philosopher of the Human Sciences (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1975).

Manuel, F. (ed.) Utopias and Utopian Thought (London: Souvenir Press, 1973).

Maraini, F. Secret Tibet (London: Hutchinson, 1952).

Markham, C. (ed.) Narratives of the Mission of George Bogle to Tibet and of the Journey of Thomas Manning to Lhasa (London, 1879; New Delhi: Manjusri Publishing House, 1971).

Markham, F. Shooting in the Himalayas (London: Richard Bentley, 1854).

Marshall, J. Britain and Tibet 1765-1947: The Background to the India-China Border Dispute, Annotated Bibliography (Bundoora: La Trobe University Library, 1977).

Mason, K. 'Johnson's "Suppressed Account" of E61', Alpine Journal 34, no. 22 (1921).

-Abode of Snow (London: Rupert Hart-Davis, 1955).

Matthiesson, P. The Snow Leopard (London: Picador, 1980).

Middleton, D. 'Guide to the Publications of the Royal Geographical Society, 1830-1892',

Geographical Journal 144, Part 1 (January-December 1978).

-Victorian Lady Travelers (Chicago: Academy Chicago, 1982).

Migot, A Tibetan Marches (London: Rupert Hart-Davis, 1960).

Millar, A. 'I see no end to traveling' Diaries of Australian Travelers 1813-76 (Sydney: Bay Books, 1986).

Miller, D. The New Polytheism (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1981).

Miller, L. On Top of the World: Five Women Explorers in Tibet (London: Paddington Press, 1976).

Millington, P. To Lhassa at Last (London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1905).

Mitchell, W. (ed.) On Narrative (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981).

Montgomerie, T. 'Report on Trans-Himalayan Exploration during 1867, Journal of the Royal Geographical Society 39 (1869).

-'Journey to Shigatze in Tibet ...'. Royal Geographical Society 45 (1875).

Moorcroft, W. 'A Journey to Lake Manasarovara in Un-des, a Province of Little Tibet', Asiatik Researches 12 (1816).

Moorcroft, W. and G. Trebeck, Travels in the Himalayan Provinces of Hindustan and the Punjab; in Ladakh and Kashmir; in Peshawar, Kabul, Kunduz, and Bokhara' Vol. l (London: John Murray, 1838).

Moore, T. 'Musical Therapy', Spring 1978 (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1978).

-'Animus Mundi', Spring 1987 (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1987).

Moorehead, A. The Fatal Impact (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1968).

-The White Nile (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1976).

Napier, J. Bigfoot: The Yeti and Sasquatch in Myth and Reality (London: Abacus, 1976).

Nash, R. Wilderness and the American Mind (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1973).

Neatby, L. The Search for Franklin (London: Arthur Barker, 1970).

Newby, P. 'Literature and the Fashioning of Tourist Taste', in Humanistic Geography and Literature, ed. D. Pocock (London: Croom Helm, 1981).

Nicholas, J. Temenos and Topophilia (London: The Guild of Pastoral Psychology Monograph: 186, 1977).

Nicolson, M. Mountain Gloom and Mountain Glory (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1959).

Norberg-Schulz, C. Genius Loci (New York: Rizzoli, 1980).

Noyce, w. The Springs of Adventure (New York: The World Publishing Company, 1958).

O'Connor, F. 'Tibet in the Modern World, The Geographical Magazine, 6 (1937-8).

Orme, W. Twenty Four Views in Hindustan (London: Edward Orme, 1905).

Ossendowski, F. Beasts, Men and Gods (Sydney: Cornstalk Publishing Co., 1926).

Ottley, W. With Mounted infantry in Tibet (London: Smith, Elder & Co , 1906).

Palakshappa, T. Tibetans in India (New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1978).

Pallis, M. Peaks and Lamas (4th edn, 1939; London: Cassell, 1946).

Panikkar, K Asia and Western Dominance (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1955).

Paris, G. Pagan Meditations (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1985).

Patterson, G. Tibetan Journey (London: Readers Book Club, 1956).

Peckham, M. Victorian Revolutionaries (New York: George Braziller, 1970).

Penniman, T. A Hundred Years of Anthropology (3rd edn; New York: William Morrow & Co., 1974).

Pereira, C. 'Peking to Lhasa', The Geographical Journal LXIV, no. 2 (August 1924).

Perry, I. Lord of the Four Quarters (New York: George Braziller, 1966).

Philip, M. 'Disconcerting Discourses', Australian Society (February 1985).

Phillimore, R. Historical Records of the Survey of India, 5 Vols. (Dehra Dun: Survey of India, 1945).

Phillips, I. and P. Victorians at Home and Away (London: Croom Helm, 1978).

Pocock, D. (ed.) Humanistic Geography and Literature (London: Croom Helm, 1981).

Pointon, M. 'Geology and Landscape Painting in Nineteenth Century England', in his Images of Earth (Lancaster: British Society for the History of Science Monograph, 1981).

Porter, B. Britain, Europe and the World, 1850-1982: Delusions of Grandeur (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1983).

Porter, P. and F. Lukermann, 'The Geography of Utopia" in Geographies of the Mind, ed. D. Lowenthal and M. Bowden (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976)

Prejevalsky, N. Mongolia, The Tangut Country, and the Solitudes of Northern Tibet (London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington, 1876).

Preston, J. 'Sacred Centres and Symbolic Networks in South Asia', The Mankind Quarterly, XX, nos. 3, 4 (January-April 1980).

Prinsep, H. Tibet, Tartary and Mongolia (London W.H. Allen, 1852)

Rayfield, D. The Dream of Lhasa' The Life of Nikolay Przhevalsky (London: Paul Elek, 1976).

Read, I. Prelude to Chemistry (London: G. Bell & Sons, 1936).

Relph, E. Place and Placelessness (London: Pion, 1976).

Rider Haggard, H. She (1887; London: Hodder, 1971).

Ridley, H. 'Slaves and Mistresses', in his Images of Imperial Rule (London: Croom Helm, 1983).

de Riencourt, A. Lost World: Tibet, Key to Asia (London: Victor Gollancz, 1951)

Robertson, D. 'Mid-Victorians Amongst the Alps', in Nature and the Victorian Imagination, ed. U. Knoepflmacher and G. Tennyson (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977).

Rockhill, W. The Land of the Lamas (London, 1981; New Delhi: Asian Publication Services, 1975).

Roerich, G. Trails to Inmost Asia (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1931)

Roerich, N. Altai-Himalaya (London: Jarrolds, 1931).

Ronaldshay, Himalayan Bhutan, Sikhim and Tibet (London, 1920; Delhi: Ess Ess Publications, 1977).

Ruskin, J. Modern Painters Vol. 4 (1854; Orpington: George Allen, 1888).

Ruttledge, H. Everest 1933 (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1938).

Ryan, C. H.P. Blavatsky and the Theosophical Movement (Pasadena: Theosophical University Press, 1975).

Saarinen, T. and J. Sell 'Environmental Perception', Progress in Human Geography 5, no. 4 (1981).

sachs, I. The Discovery of the Third World (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1976).

Sack, R. 'Conceptions of Geographical Space', Progress in Human Geography 4, no. 3 (September, 1980).

Said, E. Orientialism (New York: Vintage Books, 1979).

-'Orientialism Reconsidered', Race and Class XXVII, no. 2 (Autumn 1985).

Saliba, J. 'Homo Religiosus in Mircea Eliade (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1976)

Samuels, M. 'Existentialism and Human Geography', in Humanistic Geography, ed. D. Ley and M. Samuels (London: Croom Helm, 1979).

Sandberg, G. The Exploration of Tibet (1904; Delhi: Cosmo Publications, 1973)

Schary, E. In Search of the Mahatmas (London: Seeley, Service & Co., 1937)

Schettler, M. and R. Kashmir, Ladakh and Zanskar (Victoria: Lonely Planet Press, 1981).

Schlagintweit, A. and R. 'A Short Account ..." Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 25 (1856)

Schlagintweit, E. Buddhism in Tibet (1863; London: Susil Gupta, 1968)

Seaton-Watson, H. The Russian Empire 1801-1917 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967).

Seaver, G. Francis Younghusband: Explorer and Mystic (London: John Murray, 1952)

Seth, V. From Heaven Lake (New York: Random, 1987)

Shannon, R. The Crisis in Imperialism 1865-1915 (St. Albans, Herts Paladin, 1976).

Sheridan, M. Foucault: The Will to Truth (London: Tavistock Publications, 1981).

Shiner, L. 'Sacred Space, Profane Space, Human Space', Journal of the American Academy of Religion XL, no. 4 (December 1972).

Shipp, J. The Path to Glory (ed C. Stranks: London: Chatto & Winclus, 1969).

Siddle, D. 'David Livingstone: A Mid-Victorian Field Scientist', Geographical Journal 140, Part 1 (February 1974).

Smith, H. 'A Trip to Thibet ...', Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society 11 (1866-67).

Smythe, F. Snow on the Hills (London: Adam and Charles Black, 1946).

Snellgrove, D. Himalayan Pilgrimage (Boulder, CO: Prajna Press, 1981)

Spacks, P. Imagining a Self (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1976)

Spenser, H. The Principles of Sociology Vol. 1 (London: Williams & Norgate, 1877)

Stafford, B. Voyage into Substance: Art, Science, Nature and the Illustrated Travel Account, 1760-1840 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1984).

Stephen, L. The Playground of Europe (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1871).

Steme, L. A Sentimental Journey (1768; Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1970).

Stone, S. In and Beyond the Himalayas (London: Edward Arnold, 1896)

Strachey, H. 'On the Physical Geography of Western Tibet', Journal of the Royal Geographical Society 23 (1853).

Stuhlmann, G. (ed.) The Diaries of Anais Nin, Vol. 6 (New York: Harvest Books, 1976).

Sumption, J. Pilgrimage (London: Faber & Faber, 1975).

Suyin, H. Lhasa, The Open City (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1977)

Swan, J. 'Sacred Places in Nature', The Journal of Environmental Education 14 (1983).

Swift, H. The Trekker's Guide to the Himalaya and Karakoram (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1982).

Swinglehurst, E. Cook's Tours (Poole, Dorset: Blandford Press, 1982).

Swinson, A. Beyond the Frontiers (London: Hutchinson, 1971).

Tanner, H. 'Our Present Knowledge of the Himalayas', Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society 13 (1891).

Temple, R. Travels in Nepal and Sikhim, 1881-7 (London, 1881/7; Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar, 1977).

Thomas, L. Jnr. Out Of This World (New York: The Greystone Press, 1950).

-Silent War in Tibet (London: Secker & Warburg, 1960).

Thompson, E.P. 'Folklore, Anthropology and Social History', Indian Historical Review III, no. 2 (January 1978).

Thomson, T. Western Himalayas and Tibet (1852; Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar, 1979).

Tod, I. and M. Wheeler Utopia (London: Orbis Publishing, 1978).

Juan, Yi-Fu 'Topophilia', in Man, Space and Environment, ed P. English and R. Mayfield (New York: Oxford University Press, 1972).

-'Geopiety', in Geographies of the Mind, ed. D. Lowenthal and M. Bowden (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976)

-Space and Place (London: Edward Arnold, 1977).

-'Sacred Space', in Dimensions of Human Geography, ed. K. Butzer (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1978).

Tucci, G To Lhasa and Beyond (Rome: Istituto Poligrafico Dello Stato, 1956)

-Tibet (London: Elek Books, 1967)

Tucci, G. and E. Ghersi Secrets of Tibet (London: Blackie, 1935)

Tung, R. A Portrait of Lost Tibet (London: Tharnes & Hudson, 1980)

Turner, S. An Account of an Embassy to the Court of the Teshoo Lama in Tibet (London, 1800; New Delhi: Manjusri Publishing House, 1971).

Turner, V. 'The Centre Out There: Pilgrim's Goal', History of Religions 13, no. 3 (February 1973).

-'Pilgrimages as Social Processes', in his Dramas, Fields and Metaphors (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1974).

-The Ritual Process (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1979).

Unsworth, W. Everest (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1982).

Waddell, L. Tibetan Buddhism (London, 1895; New York: Dover Publications, 1972).

-Among the Himalayas (London, 1899; Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar, 1978).

Weir, L. 'The Impressions of an Englishwoman in Lhasa', Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (January 1932)

Welbon, G. The Buddhist Nirvana and Its Western interpreters (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968)

White, G. 'Views in India, chiefly among the Himalayan Mountains, 1825', in H. Ahluwalia, Eternal Himalaya (New Delhi Interprint, 1982)

White, H. 'The Value of Narrativity in the Representation of Reality', in On Narrative, ed. W. Mitchell (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981).

White, J. Sikkim and Bhutan (London, 1909; Delhi: Cultural Publishing House, 1983).

Whitley, D. 'The Attack on Tibet', Littel's Living Age 206 (1895)

Whitmont, E. Return of the Goddess (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1983).

Wilson, A. The Abode of Snow (Edinburgh, 1885; Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar, 1979)

Wilson, C. The Occult (New York: Vintage Books, 1973).

Winkler, K. Pilgrim of the Clear Light: The Biography of Dr. Walter Y. Evans-Wentz (Berkeley, CA: Dawnfire Books, 1982).

Woodcock, G. Into Tibet: The Early British Explorers (London: Faber & Faber, 1971).

Woodman, D. Himalayan Frontiers (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1969).

-'Tibet and Imperial China', (Canberra: Centre of Oriental Studies, A.N.U. Occasional Paper, n.d).

Wordsworth, W. Guide to the Lakes (1835, 5th edn ed. E. de Selincourt: Oxford Oxford University Press, 1977).

Wunderlich, H. The Secret of Crete (Athens: Efstathiadis Group, 1983).

Yates, F. The Art of Memory (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1978).

Younghusband, F. India and Tibet (London: John Murray, 1910)

-The Heart of a Continent (1896; London: John Murray, 1937).

-Everest, The Challenge (London: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1949).
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 30246
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: THE MYTH OF SHANGRI-LA: TIBET, TRAVEL WRITING AND THE W

Postby admin » Wed Jan 01, 2020 2:22 am

Index

Proper and Mythological Names


Abruzzi, Duke of, 184, 196
Allen, C., 265n10
Allen, J., 257n73
d'Anville, J., 32
Aragon, L., 1
Arch-Bishop of Canterbury, 187
Aristotle, 10
Arnold, E., 127, 269n, 142
Artaud, A., 238-9

Bachelard, G, 9, 22, 109
Bacot, 195
Bailey, F., 195, 198
Banks, J., 30
Barber, L., 261n2
Barker, F., 255n34
Baudet, H., 35, 37, 75
Be1l, C., 193, 195, 208, 224, 238
Bennett, A., 124-5
Berger, J., 106
Bergson, H., 144
Bernard, T., 196, 203
Berry, P. , 249-50
Bishop, P., 270n, 158, 283n, 135, 286n, 263, 286n, 279
Blavatsky, H.P., 91, 110, 143, 145, 149-50, 155, 158, 181-2, 186, 188, 211, 234
Blum, A., 287n10
Bly, R., 288n35
Bogle, G., 15, 22, 25-36, 38-44, 46,48-61, 65, 90-1, 95, 152, 165, 183, 186, 242, 250, 258n12, 258n47, 277n, 287, 286n, 267
Bonvalot, G., 138-40, 160-2, 170, 174
Boon, J., 247
Bourne, S., 105-7, 130-1
Bower, H., 138, 140, 147, 149-50, 153, 166, 186
Bruce, C., 184
Bullock-Workman, F., 184
Burns, A., 75-6, 111
Byron, R., 3, 79, 193-4, 197-200, 202-4, 210-13, 216, 219, 228, 250, 280n32

Carey, A., 138-140, 160
Carey, W., 149-151, 168, 170, 179, 181
Casey, E., 9, 255n34
Chandler, E., 152-4, 162-4, 165, 171-6, 183, 185-6
Chapman, S., 193, 214, 216, 221-2, 225, 230-1, 233-4, 236, 238
Clark, L., 201, 206, 217, 231-2
Cobum, B., 287n13
Colebrook, H., 88
Conan-Doyle, A., 143
Conway, W., 184
Cook, J., 26, 30, 35
Cook, T., 116, 174
Coolidge, W., 105
Cooper, T., 123-4, 133
Corbin, H., 249
Csoma de Koros, 72-3, 90, 92, 111, 122
Cunningham, A., 97, 121, 133
Curzon, G., 146-8, 176, 187
Czar, 140, 187, 207

Dalai Lama, 17, 32, 49, 51, 53-4, 57, 90-4, 116, 126-9, 133, 160, 165, 169, 172, 175, 179, 181-3, 185, 191-2, 195, 205, 207-9, 213, 217, 221, 224, 237-40, 286n271
Dalgleish, 138, 140
Darwin, C., 14, 16, 21, 100, 102, 118-9, 120, 132, 182, 242
Das, S., 138
David-Neel A., 182, 186, 188, 193-6, 199, 201, 210, 213, 216, 220-2, 224-5, 228-30, 232-4, 237
Davies, A., 123
De1la Penna, 34-5
Desgodins, 138
Desideri, I., 196
Dorjieff, 147
Douglas, N., 3, 254n33, 282n97
Downs, H., 287n13
Duncan, J., 140, 176
Durand, G., 139
Durkheim, E., 144
Dutreuil de Rhins, 138, 152, 156, 198

Echo, 249-251, 288n27
Eliade, M., 9, 10, 18, 65, 97, 259n59
Elias, N., 138, 139
Eliot, T.S., 281n80
Evans-Wentz, W., 237

Fabian, J., 31, 272n45, 287n20
Fleming, P., 20, 194, 199, 201, 206, 210, 214, 228, 233, 250
Ford, R., 208
Foucault M., 5, 12, 18-19, 144, 177, 248
Francke, A., 270n7
Fraser, J., 72
Freshfield, D., 21, 150, 155, 162, 172, 184-5, 189
Freud, S., 8, 132, 144, 159, 172, 177, 209
Funk, R., 254n19
Fussell, P., 4,209, 280n32

Gardiner, A., 72
Gerard, A., 68-9, 72, 80-3, 87, 96, 242
Giegerich, W., 242
Gladwin, T., 12
Goethe, J., 180, 258n19, 262n25
Gould, 195, 208
Govinda, A., 237
Graham, W., 184
Grenard, F., 9, 138-40, 147, 149, 152-6, 160-4, 167-9, 171, 177, 186, 188
Grombtchevsky, 138
Guibaut, A., 195-6, 198, 203, 212, 214, 223, 231
Gutzlaff, C.H., 98-101, 126

Hamilton, F., 72, 87, 92, 96
Harrer, H., 192, 193, 201, 204, 210, 213, 216, 229, 231, 238, 245
Harvey, A., 287n10
Hastings, W., 27-34, 49-51, 63, 90, 133
Hearsey, 72, 81, 83, 91
Hedin, S., 138-40, 145, 152, 160, 169, 171, 176, 185, 201
Heidegger, M., 9, 10, 83
Herbert 73, 87, 96
Henry, W., 73, 96
Hensoldt H., 150-1, 155-6, 169, 177, 179, 182, 188
Hermes-Mercurius, 19, 49
Herodotus, 33, 132
Hi1lman, J., 5, 8-9, 17-18, 46, 179-80, 251, 259n91, 287n15
Hilton, J., 19, 211, 216-18, 225, 239, 244
Hitler, 223
Hodgson, B., 72-3, 89-90, 92, 98, 121, 156, 237, 261n2
Hodgson, J., 89
Holt, D., 18
Hooker, J., 21, 97, 99-100,103-5, 108-114, 117, 119, 121-2, 125-7, 129-130, 139, 185
Huc, M. (& Gabet), 21, 72, 74, 96, 138-9
Humbolt 30
Humphreys, C., 224
Hutch, R., 158
Hutchins, F., 273n74

Jacquemont V., 72
Jenkyns, R., 2c60n106
Jesus, 182
Jones, W. , 49-51
Jung, G.G., 8-9, 18, 134, 160, 177, 179-80, 218-19, 234, 237, 247, 251, 261n161, 267n55, 278n291

Kaulback, R., 220, 222
Kawaguchi, E., 79, 167, 169
Kern, S., 141, 262n26, 275n183, 275n195
Kim, 143, 147, 183, 189-90, 211
Kintup, 198
Kipling, R., 143, 147, 183, 189-90, 211
Kirkpatrick, W., 27, 44, 50
Knight E., 139, 148, 153
Kopp, H., 202
Kozlov, 138

Lamb, A., 147, 187
Landon, P., 22, 136-7, 139, 146-7, 149-50, 151-2, 154-6, 158-60, 162-4, 167-9, 171, 178-9, 181-3, 186, 190, 218, 238
Landor, A., 138, 145, 166, 188
Latham, R., 98, 120
Layard, J., 9
Least Heat-Moon, W., 254n22
Le Bris, M., 67, 70
Leitner, G., 181
Littledale, G., 138-40, 152
Liotard, 200, 231
Liu-Shan, 140
Lobsang Rampa, 234
Lowenstein, J., 251, 288n27
Lorrain, C., 67
Louis, J., 149, 151, 164, 186-7
Lowenthal, D., 7, 9

Macaulay, C., 139, 152, 157, 186
MacDonald, D., 195, 201
Maillart E., 20, 201, 206, 228
Mallory, 201, 216
Manning, T., 69, 72, 74, 76-81, 83, 85, 90-1, 93-6, 191, 250
Mao Tse-Tung, 208
Markham, C., 76-7, 79, 144
Markham, F., 111, 124
Maraini, F., 78, 191, 194, 196-7, 199, 203-4, 216, 227-9, 233-5, 237, 239, 250
Marco Polo, 4, 25, 90, 196
Matthiesson, P., 5, 79, 236, 250, 287n10
Mazuchelli, N., 97, 102
McGovem, W., 196, 201, 229
Middleton, D., 256n66
Migot A., 19,198, 210-12, 228, 231-2, 235
Millington, P., 22, 79,163, 165,176
Montgomerie, T., 125
Moorcroft, W., 72-5, 81-3, 86-7, 89, 91, 93, 95-6, 111
Moore, T., 287n18
Muller, M., 98

Nain Singh, 126, 133-4
Nin, A., 237
Noel J ., 201

O'Connor, F., 207
Oderic, 25, 196
Ossendowski, F., 202, 206
Ottley, W., 172

Palden-Llamo, 140
Pa1lis, M., 202-4, 215, 220, 229, 231-2, 236, 239, 281n58
Panchen Lama (Tashi Lama), 2, 41, 52, 54-7, 90, 133, 186, 208, 258n12
Parpi Bai, 140
Patterson, G., 229-30
Pemberton, 72
Penniman, T., 261n152
Pereira, C., 217
Pievtsoff, 138
Prejevalsky, N., 20, 138, 140,157-8, 169, 176-8
Prestor John, 33
Prince Henry of Orleans, 138, 140
Prinsep, H., 98

Raper, 72
Ratzell, F., 141
Relph, E., 1, 4, 188
Rennell, J., 28, 35
Rider Haggard, H., 143, 278n291
de Riencourt, A., 203-5, 209, 211-14, 220, 224, 230-1, 234, 236, 239
Rijnhart, S., 138-9, 152
Rockhi1l, W., 138, 140, 144-5, 153, 157, 166-7, 169, 181, 196
Roerich, N., 201
Ronaldshay, 210, 225-7, 237
Rosa, Salvator, 67
Rosebury, Lord, 142
Rousseau, J., 28, 35, 70
Ruskin, J., 16, 21, 100, 102-4, 106-8, 114-5, 117-8, 131-2, 163, 225, 243, 266n34
Ruttledge, H., 230

Said, E., 7, 12-14, 19, 61, 144-5, 176, 248, 256n55
Sandberg, G., 144
Schary, E., 201
Schettler, M. & R., 287n12
Schlagintweit(s), 97; E., 98; A., 111
Sella, V, 184, 189
Seth, V., 287n10
Shannon, R., 140
Sherlock Holmes, 143
Shipp, J., 96
Smythe, F., 106
Snellgrove, D., 287n10
Spenser, H., 268n100
Stephen, L., 25, 69, 108, 115
Steme, L., 5, 78
Stone, S., 151, 152, 177
Strachey, H., 97
Suyin, H., 287n10
Swift, H., 287n10

Tanner, H., 177
Taylor, A., 138-9
Temple, R., 109, 144, 120
Thomas, L., 195-6, 203, 205-6, 211-2, 219, 223, 225, 234
Thomson, T., 97, 104, 107-8, 113
Tolstoy, I., 196, 208
Trebeck, G., 73
Tsong-ka-pa, 140, 182
Tuan, Yi-Fu, 7, 9-10
Tucci, G., 191, 196, 213-4, 225
Turner, J., 67, 104, 114, 163
Turner, S., 22, 25-8, 31-61, 63, 65, 90, 95, 100, 242
Turner V., 5, 10

Ugyen Kazi, 187

Vigne, G., 72
Victoria, Queen, 140
Von Hugel 72-3

Waddell, L., 139, 151, 154, 156-7, 163, 173-4, 176, 187, 229, 237
Waugh, E., 3
Weir L., 212
White, G., 65-6, 68-72, 95-6
White, J., 156
Whitley, D., 149
Wilson, A., 101, 103, 105, 110-11, 113-118, 121-128, 130-4
Wilson, M., 200
WolfL J., 72
Woodroffe, J., 237

Yates, F., 249, 255n49
Younghusband, F., 138, 144-5, 154-5, 158, 161-2, 164-5, 170-2, 174-6, 183, 186-8, 270n158

Zurbriggen, M., 184

Subjects

Afghanistan, 13, 71, 83, 146
Africa, 8, 111, 155-6, 198, 249
Akka-tagh Mountains, 139, 147
Alps, (Alpine, Alpine Club), 2, 14, 26-7, 43, 45-6, 69, 100, 103, 105-6, 108-9, 111, 115, 118, 130, 184, 197, 200-1, 227, 248-9
American: Indians, 156, 158; travelers (also see individual names), 6, 138, 196, 201, 203, 208
Andes, Mountains, 5, 43, 45, 111, 249
Anima, 19, 179-80, 182, 189, 247, 251, 256n71
Anima Mundi, 5, 117, 180, 251-2
Animus, 179, 287n18
Annales de Geographie, 142
Antarctic, 101, 111, 113, 171
Anthropology, (Ethnography), 8, 11, 31, 95, 98, 119-120, 144-5, 158, 245, 255n34, 256n63, 261n152, 265n123, 268n100, 272n45, 284n205, 287n20
Arbors, 200
Arcadia, 25, 44, 48, 58, 164, 173
Archeology, 11, 144
Arctic, 2, 12, 111, 143, 171, 249
Aryan, 16, 119-23, 132, 156
Asia, Central, 6, 33, 37, 85, 87, 93, 139,
142-157, 201, 206
Assam, 50, 66
Australia, 113, 133, 192, 249
Australian Aboriginals, 9, 110, 158, 229
Austrian Travellers (also see individual names), 6, 196
Axis Mundi, 10, 97, 107-8, 123, 131, 150, 185-6, 216, 246-7
Axis Imaginalis, 288n27

Bali, 13, 247
Bengal 28-30, 37, 39, 48, 50, 60
Bhutan & the Bhutanese, 15, 25, 27-30, 39, 44-5, 47, 50, 53, 60, 66, 85-6, 156, 187, 245, 285n239
Booteeas, 258n12
Botany, 42, 45, 81, 97, 100, 109, 144
Brahmaputra, 30, 122
British: Geo-Political Rivalry, 11, 15, 26, 60, 62, 68, 72-3, 141-3, 144-8, 176, 200, 204, 247, 250; Global Mythologizing, 15, 34, 61-2, 68, 73, 75, 101, 106,120-3, 127, 141-3, 144-8, 171-2, 173-4, 176-7, 203, 205, 214-5, 228, 241-3, 247, 249, 262n26; Imperial Imagination, 6, 11, 13, 16, 26-27, 29, 60-2, 66, 71-3, 76, 79-81, 84-5, 95, 98-100, 101, 108, 110-112, 120-4, 127, 137, 141-8, 176-7, 200, 203, 214-5, 228, 282n90; Travellers (also see individual names and Younghusband Expedition), 6, 99, 138-9, 157, 195, 200-1
Buddhism, (also see Tibetan Religion, Lamas, Monasticism, Monks, Dalai Lama, Panchen Lama), 49-51, 61, 92, 97-8, 111, 121-2, 127-8, 164-5, 182, 208, 210

California, 108, 133
Canada, 111-2, 138
Carpathian Mountains, 43, 45, 69
China, 13, 29, 32, 34-7, 51-5, 61-3, 66, 71-2, 85-7, 93, 123, 128, 133, 138, 142-3, 145-6, 201, 206-9, 245, 248
Chinese: in Lhasa, 78-80, 93, 244; in Tibet 83, 125, 134, 147, 175, 204, 206-9, 235, 239-41, 281n84
Christianity, (also see Missionaries; Rome), 49-53, 56, 61, 94-5, 129, 133, 210, 224, 230
Chumbi Valley, 146, 187, 209, 249
Cold War, 212
Communism: Chinese, 195-6, 203, 205-9, 239-41, 244-5; Russian, 196, 203, 205-8
Complexio Oppositorum, 63, 135, 160, 185

Daily Mail 152, 237
Darjeeling, 73, 98, 111,115, 116, 124, 126, 192, 245
Darwinism, Social, 119-121

East India Company, 25, 28, 37, 53, 100
Ecology, 100, 131, 173, 245-6, 250
Egypt Egyptian Religion, (also see The Nile), 1, 13, 33-4, 37, 49, 109-110, 132, 155, 162, 197-8, 237, 249-50, 267n55
Everest 97, 109, 123, 175,183, 185, 196, 200-1, 204, 216-17, 223, 230, 244
Evolution, 98, 100, 118-19, 156, 158, 182

Feminine, The Eternal 8, 176-80
France & French Travellers ( also see individual names), 37, 138, 141-2, 146, 195-6, 200, 211
Franklin Expedition, 99, 129-30
Frontiers, (also see Threshold), 62, 66, 73, 82-5, 87-9, 90, 96, 124-6, 138, 145-155, 174, 185-6, 196, 208, 214-5, 223, 243, 247

Ganges, 89, 122
Garwhal, 66, 86
Geographical Journal, 142
Geographische Zeitschrift 142
Geography, 11-13, 45, 59, 141-4
Geology, 34, 42, 45, 59, 144, 261n149, 266n34
Geopiety, 9
Germany, 141-2, 207
Gobi Desert 60, 147, 161
Gold, 33, 87, 90, 132-5, 181-4, 196, 216, 248-51
Grand Tour, 26-7, 66
Great Game, The, 72, 79, 87, 100, 142, 145-8, 183, 204
Greece, 50, 260n106
Gurkhas, 28, 37, 63, 65-6, 71, 86, 120
Guru, 172-3
Gyantse, 188, 192-3, 195, 200, 202

Hero, The, 18, 145, 247
Himalayas, 16, 26, 38-45, 62-71, 84-9, 97, 105, 122, 183, 235
Himalaya Club, 200
Hinduism, 49-51, 95
Holland, 138
Hungary, 92, 122

Imagination: Imperial (see British); Spiritual Mystical Occult 2, 11, 15, 39, 59, 84, 89, 92, 96, 99, 101-2, 110-1, 121, 130-1, 134-5, 137, 143-5, 149-51, 155, 161-5, 181-3, 186, 188, 193-5, 199, 205-6, 209-10, 215, 220-1, 224-7, 233-5, 237-9
Imaginative Knowledge, 3, 8, 17-19, 21-4, 31, 107,131, 225
Imaginative Geography, 12-14, 71, 217
Imaginative Resonance, 6, 102, 148, 236
India, 11, 37,53, 61, 66, 85-6, 72, 100, 128-9, 132, 142, 144-8, 156, 159, 170, 175, 186-7, 206-8, 214, 236, 245
Indian: Mutiny, 100; Independence, 206
Iran, (see Persia), 119
Islam, 50-2, 92-4, 260n113
Italy, Italian travelers (also see individual names), 6, 191, 196, 207

Japan, (see also, Kawaguchi), 50, 61, 207
Jeylap-la, 116, 186-7

Kailas, 122, 134
Kalimpong, 192
Kanchenjunga, 21, 105, 235
Karakoram Mountains, 183
Kashmir, 20, 30, 66, 85-6, 97, 116
Kuamon, 66, 86

Ladakh, 3,66, 71, 73, 86-7, 97, 116, 121, 123, 138-9, 140, 182, 187, 245
Lamas, Lamaism, 19, 41, 52-4, 56-7, 92-3, 122, 127-9, 133-4, 149, 156, 159-60, 166-71, 173, 186, 205-7, 220, 223, 232-4, 236
Landscape Aesthetics, 23-6, 41-5, 66-71, 100, 103-5, 107-8, 112-14, 117-18, 160-3, 225-7, 233, 241-4, 266n34
Landscape Painting, 41-2, 44, 66-8, 162-3
Leh (see Ladakh)
Lepcha, 119-121,123, 173-4
Lhasa, 3, 29-30, 54, 63, 72, 76-80, 85-7, 90-4, 97, 102, 123-6, 132, 135, 138-40, 146-7, 152-4, 161, 164, 168-172, 174-80, 183, 185-90, 192-4, 199, 203, 205-10, 212, 217, 219, 221, 230-2, 238-9, 243-5, 249
Liminal Zone (also see Threshold, and Frontiers), 83-9
Lost Horizons, 19, 211, 216-18

Mahatmas, 143, 150, 155, 181-3, 211, 234
Manasarovar, Lake, 81, 86, 90-1, 266n32
Mapping, 4, 12-13, 36, 73-4, 87, 89, 96-8, 150, 171-2, 201, 203-4, 218, 242-3
Memory, Memoria, 1, 63, 197, 204, 255n49, 272n45, 287n18, 288n23
Missionaries, 11, 21, 25, 34-5, 72, 74, 96, 138-9, 152, 196, 200, 210, 229-30, 270n7, 271n8
Moghuls, 32-4
Monasticism, & Monks, 56-8, 63, 92-3, 99-100, 136-7, 165, 167-8, 181, 187, 198, 208, 212, 232-4, 239-40, 244-5
Mongolia, Mongolians, 13, 33, 72, 98, 128, 157-8, 166,178, 181, 207-9, 224, 232,
Mountain: air, 46-9, 58, 115-17, 122, 132, 134; Romanticism/Mysticism, 16, 45-6, 48, 57-8, 62, 68-71, 100, 115-18, 122, 130-1, 183-5, 223, 234-6, 244, 266n34
Mountaineering, & Mountaineers, 11, 43, 68, 88, 96, 100, 104-5, 183-5, 196, 200-1, 220, 223, 266n34, 278n312
Mount Meru, 122

National Geographic Magazine, 142
Nekyia, 152ff., 189
Nepal Nepalese, 27-9, 50, 63, 65, 85, 114, 121, 147, 174, 245
Nile, 1, 54, 99, 122, 143, 249

Orient Orientalism, 7-8, 12-14, 19, 33, 37, 61, 144-5, 170, 177
Ottoman, 34, 36

Pamir Mountains, 123
Peking, 20, 54, 85-6, 72, 93, 123
Persia, (also see Iran), 87, 146
Phari, 40, 171-2
Photography, 4, 41, 105-7, 171-2, 184, 189-90, 195, 228, 236, 266n38, 279n337, 287n13
Picturesque, The, 44-5, 67-8
Pilgrimage, 1, 4-5, 7, 9, 10-11, 26, 178
Place, Sacred, 1-2, 6, 9-14, 18, 21, 62, 73, 83, 84-5, 96, 100, 102, 108, 117-9, 129, 132-5, 141, 144, 185, 188-90, 202, 206, 215-26, 228-30, 240-52, 286n6, 287n18
Potala, The, 19, 94, 102, 123, 126, 132, 134-5, 155, 160-1, 169, 170, 174-5, 178-80, 182, 185, 188, 241, 243
Polyandry, 32, 41, 94, 116, 121, 159
Psychoanalysis, 11, 144, 159, 177, 215
Psychology: Archetypal 9, 17-19; of Exploration, 9, 255n36
Psycho-Social Context 2, 14-17
Puer, 19, 182-3, 247, 256n71
Pundits, 20, 77, 125-6, 133, 138, 198

Racial Stereotyping, 119-20
Reincarnation, 53-6, 59, 168-9, 229-30, 234, 237-8
Rocky Mountains, 43, 45
Rome, 51, 54-5, 94, 168, 182
Royal Society, The, 14, 22
Royal Asiatic Society, 74-5, 212
Royal Geographical Society, 13-14, 22, 73-6, 79, 96, 98, 126, 144, 176, 189, 200
Russia, (also see Czar, The Great Game, Communism), 13, 33-4, 37, 72, 85, 87-8, 100, 140-2, 145-8, 158, 178, 180, 187, 204, 206-7, 213
Russian Travelers, (also see individual names) 20, 138, 196

Senex, 18, 181-2, 238-9, 247, 256n71, 286n279
Shangri-la, 19-20, 48, 101, 209-14, 216-19, 230, 237, 239, 251
Siam (Thailand), 50, 146
Siberia, 20, 30, 34, 142, 146
Sikhs, 16, 71, 121
Sikkim, 66, 85-6, 97, 111,119, 120, 156, 187, 191-2, 194, 213, 233, 245
Silk-Route, 85-6, 248
Simla: Hill-Station, 115-6, 124; Conference, 207
Sinkiang, 201, 208-9
Sociology, 119
Spectator, The, 150, 176
Spiti, 66, 105, 113
Sublime, The, 26, 42-5, 58, 66-71
Survey of India, 14, 28, 35-6, 89
Sutlej River, 66, 80, 89, 122
Swedish Travellers (see Hedin)
Symbol-formation, 8-9, 122-3, 132-5, 148, 181-3, 196, 214-5, 240-8

Tahiti, 2, 35, 62, 143
Tantra, 127, 233
Tartary & the Tartars, 1, 7, 29, 32-3, 36, 40, 50, 52, 83, 87, 91, 98, 110, 113, 116, 119, 248
Tashilhumpo, 28, 37, 140, 155, 249
Tashilama (see Panchen Lama)
Telegraph in Tibet, 187-8, 191-2
Telephone in Tibet, 213-4, 217
Temenos, (also see Place), 10, 85, 241, 247
Theosophy, 11, 181-2
Threshold, (see also Frontier), 10, 38-40, 65, 84-9, 150ff.
Tibetan: Bandits, 168, 197, 201, 231-2; Book of the Dead, 227, 237-9; Burials, 40-1, 152; Character, 29, 34-5, 40, 47-8, 51, 56-8, 60-1, 119-124, 127-8, 137, 153, 165-9, 197, 205, 222, 231-3, 235-7; Dirt 34, 41, 63, 93-4, 171-4, 197, 202, 227; Government, 52-4, 56, 63, 125, 128-9,154, 158-9, 166-9, 170-1, 205, 208, 231, 240; Light, 113-4, 160-3, 177ff., 197-8, 251; Religion (see Buddhism, Lamaism, Monasticism, Monks, Dalai Lama, Tantra), 30, 32, 41, 49-52, 56-8, 60, 92-3, 97-8, 110, 121-2, 127-8, 137, 164-5, 168, 172,
182-3, 209-10, 220-1, 223-4, 227-8, 233-4, 237-9, 245-6
Times, The, 136
Tourism, 1, 83, 112, 115-7, 134, 174, 195, 203, 215, 220-2, 225, 244-6, 287n12
Trade, Himalayan, 27-31, 55, 62, 82, 85, 88-9, 91, 96
Travel Ceremony of, 11, 20-1, 83, 185-6, 248
Travel Scientific, 26, 30-1, 42, 60, 66, 73-6, 78, 80-1, 95-6, 99, 104, 112
Travellers, Amateur, 30-1, 78-9, 266n32
Travel Writing and Dream, 7-9, 158-60, 180, 198
Travel Writing as a Genre, 2-7, 12-13, 21-2, 27, 30-2, 40-1, 67, 71-6, 78-80, 138-9, 188-9,193-5, 198-202, 209, 219-20, 222, 225, 228-30, 243, 245, 251, 280n32, 282n97, 286n10
Tsang-po, River, 164, 201, 249
Turkestan, 139-40

Unconscious, The, 8-9, 149-65, 170, 177, 180
United Nations, 208
Uranium, 196
Utopia, 215-18, 225, 244, 251, 282n97

Wilderness Appreciation, 11, 23, 61, 68-71, 108, 112-18, 129-31, 142, 147, 180, 242-3
World War One, 17, 140-1, 176, 182, 184, 191, 195, 204, 206, 209-10, 212; Two, 201, 204, 206, 208, 210-12
Women Travelers, (also see individual names), 73, 80, 97, 138, 176, 182, 212

Yaks, 30, 152-3, 156
Yam-dok tso, 164, 173, 222
Yeti, 19, 156-8, 175, 217, 237, 245
Younghusband Expedition, 16, 79, 136, 152-3, 161, 171-2, 175-6, 178, 181, 183, 191, 196, 218, 245
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 30246
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Previous

Return to Religion and Cults

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 3 guests

cron