THE SEA PEOPLE AND THEIR MIGRATION

The impulse to believe the absurd when presented with the unknowable is called religion. Whether this is wise or unwise is the domain of doctrine. Once you understand someone's doctrine, you understand their rationale for believing the absurd. At that point, it may no longer seem absurd. You can get to both sides of this conondrum from here.

Re: THE SEA PEOPLE AND THEIR MIGRATION

Postby admin » Wed Oct 28, 2015 11:14 am

CONCLUSION

Many controversial theories have flourished about why the Bronze Age collapsed. Here we have surveyed a few such as drought leading to crop failure, resulting in famine, and earthquakes that have been thought to have contributed to the ruins of the Bronze Age and emigration of the Sea Peoples. I have not tried to argue who the Sea People were in some essentialist sense or have become; those theories from other scholars who have had more time to ponder have been presented here. I believe that the evidence left behind which was presented in chapter one, and the fine scholarship that I have discussed in chapter two, having attempted to identify the Sea Peoples ethnicities and locations represent significant contributions to solving the mystery of the Sea Peoples.

Chapter three pieces together the different names of the Sea Peoples and where they are said to have migrated or lingered. Chapter four digs in the dirt for their trail of broken pottery and theorizes with the help of scholars of our day what areas they occupied domestically or left their mark upon with trade. Chapter five goes on to ask how they traveled when migrating. Barako has gone into detail in his PhD dissertation whether they traveled by Sea or by land. I happen to think both on the basis of the Egyptian evidence showing ships as well as ox carts carrying families. Chapter six asks why they left their home-land. The answer lies in the climate changes felt in the last period of the Late Bronze Age. The theory is that many large earthquakes were set off along a fault system resulting in what is called an earthquake storm. Geologic time is measured in greater lengths than human time and fifty or one hundred years is a small period to encompass on this grand scale. One earthquake triggers another which devastates whole regions. This can be in the form of earthquakes or tsunamis which are set off by undersea quakes, both destroyed unreinforced masonry which was the basis for buildings in this time period. This thesis has been brought up in part in the past and was repeatedly refuted for lack of evidence. Evidence has been found dating to 1225-1175 BC.381 It is now believed that earthquakes probably struck at Mycenae, Tiryns, Midea, Thebes, Pylos, Kynos, Lefkandi, the Menelaion, Kastanas, Thessaly, Korakou, Profitis Elias, Troy, Karaoglun, Hattusa, Ugarit, Alalakh, Megiddo, Ashdod and Akko.382 This massive ruination led to staggering population losses and Mediterranean-wide migrations. This thesis has been brought up in part in the past and was repeatedly refuted for lack of evidence. Schaffer lost his reputation on a theory of earthquake damage. He did not have archaeoseismology, paleoseismology or dendochronology to supplement his finds. Our modern breakthroughs in science ought to be highlighted. Science has come a long way since the Egyptians carved the story of the Sea Peoples in stone.

Chapter seven reiterates their conclusion in favor of a famine which led to migration for greener pastures, mineral wealth, and trade. We also have Tigris’ and Euphrates’ diminishing river levels and other emerging climatic changing knowledge. Drought is shown in retreating glaciers. That brings up the point in which I have the floating hypothesis of earthquake destruction and the previously formed drought hypothesis. These theses look at both as factors in an evolving erratic weather pattern. Both have evidence that comes back again and again. I have cited many different ancient cultures that recorded these food shortages in their epigraphical records. It was an abnormal time and was left behind in records for future generations to learn from. With the earthquake hypothesis, many prominent archaeologists and specialists have put forth speculation that in, at least, 50 different sites of the eastern Mediterranean, earthquakes and sometimes secondary fires were the cause of their ruin. We now know of the phenomena of earthquake storms. The story is in the layers of earth we try to read for clues to the past more studies in paleoseismology must be done and published.

The long time enigma of the Sea Peoples and their mark left on the Late Bronze Age has puzzled scholars for millennia, myself catching the hunger to study them. The desperate lengths a people will go to sustain their families is remarkable and these tribes left wide sweeping changes for us to study. Somehow this confederation of tribes has touched our lives, as we try to glimpse the past and fill in the unwritten pages of their life story for future generations who may well be curious about what really happened to move these tribes through life-threatening hard-ships to reach the wealthy lands of Egypt and the Levant. No one will ever really know for sure unless a firsthand account from the tribes themselves is found. We have never found evidence of their side of the story, just the foreign perspective. Therefore we are left with their story written from the enemies’ perspective. The missing piece of the puzzle may still be buried somewhere, hidden from modern historians who have to trust their gut instincts to relay theories on how these people moved and lived. I could only wish for more time and evidence to study this perplexing and enigmatic group. Here I close my study, once again to cover with dust until the next scholar opens the never ending story of the Sea Peoples.
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Re: THE SEA PEOPLE AND THEIR MIGRATION

Postby admin » Wed Oct 28, 2015 11:18 am

Illustrations and Tables

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Re: THE SEA PEOPLE AND THEIR MIGRATION

Postby admin » Wed Oct 28, 2015 11:19 am

Bibliography

Primary Sources


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Re: THE SEA PEOPLE AND THEIR MIGRATION

Postby admin » Wed Oct 28, 2015 11:19 am

_______________

Notes:

202 John Strange, “The Philistine City-states” in A Comparative Study of Thirty City-State Cultur S, ed. Mogens Herman Hansen (Copenhagen: Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selslab. 2000), 134.
203 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology and the Wrath of God, 29.
204 Birney, “Sea People or Syrian peddlers?” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 82.
205 Birney, “Sea People or Syrian peddlers?” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 90.
206 Birney, “Sea People or Syrian peddlers?” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 90.
207 Birney, “Sea People or Syrian peddlers?” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 90.
208 Birney, “Sea People or Syrian peddlers?” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 90-91.
209 Birney, “Sea People or Syrian peddlers?” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 92.
210 Birney, “Sea People or Syrian peddlers? ” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 126.
211 Birney, “Sea People or Syrian peddlers?” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 127.
212 Tristan J. Barako, “The Seaborne Migration of the Philistines” (PhD thesis, Harvard University, 2001), 40.
213 Birney, “Sea People or Syrian Peddlers?” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 440.
214 Birney, “Sea People or Syrian Peddlers?” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 421-422.
215 Birney, “Sea People or Syrian Peddlers?” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 422.
216 Tristan Barako, “One if by Sea…Two if by Land: How Did the Philistines Get to Canaan? Part One: by Sea,” BAR:29:02 (Mar/April 2003), under “Sea Peoples,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... bPrintPage (accessed October 13, 2008).
217 John A. Wilson, “Egyptian Historical texts” in The Ancient Near Eastern Texts relating to the Old Testament, Ed. James B. Pritchard (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969,1974),262.
218 Birney, “Sea People or Syrian Peddlers?” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 423;citing I., “New Evidence on the End of the Hittite Empire”, 22.
219 Birney, “Sea People or Syrian Peddlers?” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 424.
220 Birney, “Sea People or Syrian Peddlers?” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 424.
221 Birney, “Sea People or Syrian Peddlers?” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 426.
222 Birney, “Sea People or Syrian Peddlers?” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 426.
223 Birney, “Sea People or Syrian Peddlers?” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 426.
224 Birney, “Sea People or Syrian Peddlers?” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 427-428.
225 Birney, “Sea People or Syrian Peddlers?” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 428.
226 Birney, “Sea People or Syrian Peddlers?” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 428.
227 Birney, “Sea People or Syrian Peddlers?” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 428.
228 Birney, “Sea People or Syrian Peddlers?” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 429.
229 Birney, “Sea People or Syrian Peddlers?” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 431.
230 Birney, “Sea People or Syrian Peddlers?” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 432.
231 Birney, “Sea People or Syrian Peddlers?” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 432.
232Birney, “Sea People or Syrian Peddlers?” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 432.
233 Tristan Barako, “One if by Sea…Two if by Land: How Did the Philistines Get to Canaan? Part One: by Sea,” BAR:29:02 (Mar/April 2003), under “Sea Peoples,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... bPrintPage (accessed October 13, 2008).
234 Tristan Barako, “One if by Sea…Two if by Land: How Did the Philistines Get to Canaan? Part One: by Sea,” BAR:29:02 (Mar/April 2003), under “Sea Peoples,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... bPrintPage (accessed October 13, 2008).
235 Tristan Barako, “One if by Sea…Two if by Land: How Did the Philistines Get to Canaan? Part One: by Sea,” BAR:29:02 (Mar/April 2003), under “Sea Peoples,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... bPrintPage (accessed October 13, 2008).
236 Barako, “The Seaborne Migration of the Philistines” (PhD diss., Harvard University, 2001), 8.
237 John A. Wilson, “Egyptian Historical Texts” in The Ancient Near Eastern Texts relating to the Old Testament, Ed. James B. Prichard (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969, 1974) , 262.
238 Tristan Barako, “One if by Sea…Two if by Land: How Did the Philistines Get to Canaan? Part One: by Sea,” BAR: 29:02 (Mar/April 2003), under “Sea Peoples,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... bPrintPage (accessed October 13, 2008); citing Irad Malkin, Religion and Colonization in Ancient Greece (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1987), 122-124.
239 Birney, “Sea Peoples or Syrian Peddlers?” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 382.
240 Birney, “Sea Peoples or Syrian Peddlers?” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 382.
241Birney, “Sea Peoples or Syrian Peddlers?” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 382.
242 Birney, “Sea Peoples or Syrian Peddlers?” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 382.
243 Birney, “Sea Peoples or Syrian Peddlers?” (PhD diss. Harvard University, 2007), 382.
244 Barako, “The Seaborne Migration of the Philistines” (PhD thesis, Harvard University, 2001), 39.
245 Barako, “The Seaborne Migration of the Philistines” (PhD thesis, Harvard University, 2001), 40.
246 Barako, “The Seaborne Migration of the Philistines” (PhD thesis, Harvard University, 2001), 41.
247 Barako, “The Seaborne Migration of the Philistines” (PhD thesis, Harvard University, 2001), 42.
248 Barako, “The Seaborne Migration of the Philistines” (PhD thesis, Harvard University, 2001), 46.
249 Barako, “The Seaborne Migration of the Philistines” (PhD thesis, Harvard University, 2001), 46.
250 Barako, “The Seaborne Migration of the Philistines” (PhD thesis, Harvard University, 2001), 46.
251 Barako, “The Seaborne Migration of the Philistines” (PhD thesis, Harvard University, 2001), 46-47.
252 Barako, “The Seaborne Migration of the Philistines” (PhD thesis, Harvard University, 2001), 47.
253 Barako, “The Seaborne Migration of the Philistines” (PhD thesis, Harvard University, 2001), 47.
254 Barako, “The Seaborne Migration of the Philistines” (PhD thesis, Harvard University, 2001), 48.
255 Barako, “The Seaborne Migration of the Philistines” (PhD thesis, Harvard University, 2001), 48.
256 Cline and O’Connor, “The Mystery of the ‘Sea Peoples’, in Mysterious Lands, 138.
257 Barako, “The Seaborne Migration of the Philistines” (PhD thesis, Harvard University, 2001), 49.
258 Barako, “The Seaborne Migration of the Philistines” (PhD thesis, Harvard University, 2001), 49; citing Paul Courbin.
259 Barako, “The Seaborne Migration of the Philistines” (PhD thesis, Harvard University, 2001), 49.
260 Barako, “The Seaborne Migration of the Philistines” (PhD thesis, Harvard University, 2001), 51.
261 Barako, “The Seaborne Migration of the Philistines” (PhD thesis, Harvard University, 2001), 53.
262 Barako, “The Seaborne Migration of the Philistines” (PhD thesis, Harvard University, 2001), 53.
263 Barako, “The Seaborne Migration of the Philistines” (PhD thesis, Harvard University, 2001), iii.
264Barako, “The Seaborne Migration of the Philistines” (PhD thesis, Harvard University, 2001), 71.
265 Barako, “The Seaborne Migration of the Philistines” (PhD thesis, Harvard University, 2001), 71.
266 Barako, “The Seaborne Migration of the Philistines” (PhD thesis, Harvard University, 2001), 72.
267 Barako, “The Seaborne Migration of the Philistines” (PhD thesis, Harvard University, 2001), 129.
268 Barako, “The Seaborne Migration of the Philistines” (PhD thesis, Harvard University, 2001), 130.
269 Barako, “The Seaborne Migration of the Philistines” (PhD thesis, Harvard University, 2001), 130.
270 Barako, “The Seaborne Migration of the Philistines” (PhD thesis, Harvard University, 2001), 150.
271 Barako, “The Seaborne Migration of the Philistines” (PhD thesis, Harvard University, 2001), 150-151.
272 Barako, “The Seaborne Migration of the Philistines” (PhD thesis, Harvard University, 2001), 157.
273 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology and the Wrath of God, 20-21.
274 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology and the Wrath of God, 58 .
275 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology and the Wrath of God, 58.
276 Drews, The End of the Bronze Age, 4.
277 Strange, “The Palestinian City-States of the Bronze Age”, 68.
278 Strange, “The Palestinian City-States of the Bronze Age”, 69.
279 WilliamH.Stiebing Jr., “Climate and Collapse: Did Weather Make Israel’s Emergence Possible?,” Bible Review 10:04 (August 1994), under “Climate and Collapse,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... Browse.asp? PubID=BSBR&Volume=10&Issue =4&ArticleID=11&UserID=2312 (accessed 10/13/2008).
280 William H. Stiebing Jr., “When Civilization Collapsed: Death of the Bronze Age,” AO 4:05 (Sept/Oct 2001)1-13.
281 William H. Stiebing Jr., “When Civilization Collapsed: Death of the Bronze Age,” AO 4:05 (Sept/Oct 2001)1-13.
|282 William Stiebing Jr., “When Civilization Collapsed,” Archaeology Odyssey 4:05 (September/October 2001), under “City by City: Death of the Bronze Age,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... me=4&Issue =5&ArticleID=9&UserID2312 (accessed 10/13/2008).
283 Amos Nur and Eric H. Cline, “Earthquake Storms: What triggered the collapse?” Archaeology Odyssey Vol.4 No. 5 (Sept/Oct 2001),under “Earthquake Storms,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... Browse.asp? PubID=BSAO&Volume=4&Issue =5&ArticleID=12&UserID=2312 (accessed 10/13/2008).
284 Amos Nur and Eric H. Cline, “Earthquake Storms: What triggered the collapse?” Archaeology Odyssey Vol.4 No. 5 (Sept/Oct 2001),under “Earthquake Storms,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... me=4&Issue =5&ArticleID=12&UserID=2312 (accessed 10/13/2008).
285 Amos Nur and Eric H. Cline, “Earthquake Storms: What triggered the collapse?” Archaeology Odyssey Vol.4 No. 5 (Sept/Oct 2001),under “Earthquake Storms,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... me=4&Issue =5&ArticleID=12&UserID=2312 (accessed 10/13/2008).
286 Amos Nur and Eric H. Cline, “Earthquake Storms: What triggered the collapse?” Archaeology Odyssey Vol.4 No. 5 (Sept/Oct 2001),under “Earthquake Storms,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... me=4&Issue =5&ArticleID=12&UserID=2312 (accessed 10/13/2008).
287 Amos Nur and Eric H. Cline, “Earthquake Storms: What triggered the collapse?” Archaeology Odyssey Vol.4 No. 5 (Sept/Oct 2001),under “Earthquake Storms,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... me=4&Issue =5&ArticleID=12&UserID=2312 (accessed 10/13/2008).
288 Amos Nur and Eric H. Cline, “Earthquake Storms: What triggered the collapse?” Archaeology Odyssey Vol.4 No. 5 (Sept/Oct 2001),under “Earthquake Storms,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... me=4&Issue =5&ArticleID=12&UserID=2312 (accessed 10/13/2008).
289 Amos Nur and Eric H. Cline, “Earthquake Storms: What triggered the collapse?” Archaeology Odyssey Vol.4 No. 5 (Sept/Oct 2001),under “Earthquake Storms,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... me=4&Issue =5&ArticleID=12&UserID=2312 (accessed 10/13/2008).
290 Amos Nur and Eric H. Cline, “Earthquake Storms: What triggered the collapse?” Archaeology Odyssey Vol.4 No. 5 (Sept/Oct 2001),under “Earthquake Storms,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... me=4&Issue =5&ArticleID=12&UserID=2312 (accessed 10/13/2008).
291 Amos Nur and Eric H. Cline, “Earthquake Storms: What triggered the collapse?” Archaeology Odyssey Vol.4 No. 5 (Sept/Oct 2001),under “Earthquake Storms,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... me=4&Issue =5&ArticleID=12&UserID=2312 (accessed 10/13/2008).
292 Amos Nur and Eric H. Cline, “Earthquake Storms: What triggered the collapse?” Archaeology Odyssey Vol.4 No. 5 (Sept/Oct 2001),under “Earthquake Storms,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... me=4&Issue =5&ArticleID=12&UserID=2312 (accessed 10/13/2008).
293 Amos Nur and Eric H. Cline, “Earthquake Storms: What triggered the collapse?” Archaeology Odyssey Vol.4 No. 5 (Sept/Oct 2001),under “Earthquake Storms,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... me=4&Issue =5&ArticleID=12&UserID=2312 (accessed 10/13/2008).
294 Nur and Burgess. Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 88.
295 Drews, The End of the Bronze Age, 9.
296 Amos Nur and Eric H. Cline, “Earthquake Storms: What triggered the collapse?” Archaeology Odyssey Vol.4 No. 5 (Sept/Oct 2001),under “Earthquake Storms,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... me=4&Issue =5&ArticleID=12&UserID=2312 (accessed 10/13/2008).
297 Amos Nur and Eric H. Cline, “Earthquake Storms: What triggered the collapse?” Archaeology Odyssey Vol.4 No. 5 (Sept/Oct 2001),under “Earthquake Storms,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... me=4&Issue =5&ArticleID=12&UserID=2312 (accessed 10/13/2008).
298 J.W. Barber, Review of Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and The Wrath of God by Amos Nur and Dawn Burgess, AJA 112, no.4 (October 2008): 764-765.
299 J.W. Barber, Review of Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and The Wrath of God by Amos Nur and Dawn Burgess, AJA 112, no.4 (October 2008): 764-765.
300 J.W. Barber, Review of Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and The Wrath of God by Amos Nur and Dawn Burgess, AJA 112, no.4 (October 2008): 764-765.
301 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology and the Wrath of God, 11.
302 Frank Roth “Modelling of Stress Patterns Along the Western Part of the North Anatolian Fault Zone,” Tectonophysics vol.152 (1988): 215-226.
303 Frank Roth “Modelling of Stress Patterns Along The Western Part of the North Anatolian Fault Zone,” Tectonophysics vol.152 (1988): 215-226.
304 J.W. Barber, Review of Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and The Wrath of God by Amos Nur and Dawn Burgess, AJA 112, no.4 (October 2008): 764-765.
305 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 150.
306 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 150.
307 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 133.
308 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 230-231.
309 Drews, The End of the Bronze Age, 35.
310 Drews, The End of the Bronze Age, 35.
311 Drews, The End of the Bronze Age, 35.
312 Drews, The End of the Bronze Age, 35.
313 Drews, The End of the Bronze Age, 35.
314 Drews, The End of the Bronze Age, 36.
315 Drews, The End of the Bronze Age, 36.
316 Drews, The End of the Bronze Age, 37.
317 Drews, The End of the Bronze Age, 43.
318 Drews, The End of the Bronze Age, 44.
319 Drews, The End of the Bronze Age, 37.
320 Drews, The End of the Bronze Age, 37.
321 Nur Amos and Dawn Burgess. Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 62.
322 Nur Amos and Dawn Burgess. Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 94.
323 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 64.
324 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 49.
325 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 54.
326 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 54.
327 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 60.
328 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 60-61.
329 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 62.
330 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 88.
331 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 89.
332 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 95.
333 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 95.
334 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 96.
335 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 99.
336Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 101.
337 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 107.
338 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 113.
339 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 130.
340 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 133.
341Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 133.
342 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 133.
343 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 133-134.
344 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 134.
345 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 135.
346 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 135.
347 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 135.
348 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God, 140.
349 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology and the Wrath of God, 143-144.
350 Nur and Burgess, Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology and the Wrath of God, 146-147.
351 Strange, “The Philistine City-states,” 134.
352 Strange, “The Philistine City-states,” 134.
353 Strange, “The Philistine City-states,” 134.
354 Strange, “The Philistine City-states,” 134.
355 Strange, “The Philistine City-states,” 134.
356 Strange, “The Palestinian City-States of the Bronze Age,” 73.
357Alessandra Nibbi, The Tyrrhenians (Oxford: Alessandra Nibbi, 1969), 2;citing C.A.H., G. Posener, Vol. I, XXI, section I.
358 Nibbi, The Tyrrhenians, 9.
359 Nibbi, The Tyrrhenians, 9.
360 Redford, Egypt, Canaan and Israel in Ancient Times, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), 244.
361Redford, Egypt, Canaan and Israel in Ancient Times, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), 44.
362 Peter Machinist, “Biblical Traditions: The Philistines and Israelite History,” in The Sea Peoples and Their World: A Reassessment, ed. Eliezer D. Oren (Philadelphia: University Museum Publications, 2000), 60.
363 WilliamH.Stiebing Jr., “Climate and Collapse: Did Weather Make Israel’s Emergence Possible?,” Bible Review 10:04 (August 1994), under “Climate and Collapse,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... e=10&Issue =4&ArticleID=11&UserID=2312 (accessed 10/13/2008).
364 WilliamH.Stiebing Jr., “Climate and Collapse: Did Weather Make Israel’s Emergence Possible?,” Bible Review 10:04 (August 1994), under “Climate and Collapse,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... e=10&Issue =4&ArticleID=11&UserID=2312 (accessed 10/13/2008).
365 WilliamH.Stiebing Jr., “Climate and Collapse: Did Weather Make Israel’s Emergence Possible?,” Bible Review 10:04 (August 1994), under “Climate and Collapse,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... e=10&Issue =4&ArticleID=11&UserID=2312 (accessed 10/13/2008).
366 Herodotus (1.94)
367 Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, vol.3, 580.
368 Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, vol. 3, (610-611) 260-261.
369 William H. Stiebing Jr., “Climate and Collapse: Did Weather Make Israel’s Emergence Possible?,” Bible Review 10:04 (August 1994), under “Climate and Collapse,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... e=10&Issue =4&ArticleID=11&UserID=2312 (accessed 10/13/2008).
370 Drews, The End of the Bronze Age, 77.
371 Drews, The End of the Bronze Age, 77.
372 Drews, The End of the Bronze Age, 77.
373 Drews, The End of the Bronze Age, 48.
374 Drews, The End of the Bronze Age, 82.
375 WilliamH.Stiebing Jr., “Climate and Collapse: Did Weather Make Israel’s Emergence Possible?,” Bible Review 10:04 (August 1994), under “Climate and Collapse,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... e=10&Issue =4&ArticleID=11&UserID=2312 (accessed 10/13/2008).
376 WilliamH.Stiebing Jr., “Climate and Collapse: Did Weather Make Israel’s Emergence Possible?,” Bible Review 10:04 (August 1994), under “Climate and Collapse,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... e=10&Issue =4&ArticleID=11&UserID=2312 (accessed 10/13/2008).
377 WilliamH.Stiebing Jr., “Climate and Collapse: Did Weather Make Israel’s Emergence Possible?,” Bible Review 10:04 (August 1994), under “Climate and Collapse,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... e=10&Issue =4&ArticleID=11&UserID=2312 (accessed 10/13/2008).
378 WilliamH.Stiebing Jr., “Climate and Collapse: Did Weather Make Israel’s Emergence Possible?,” Bible Review 10:04 (August 1994), under “Climate and Collapse,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... e=10&Issue =4&ArticleID=11&UserID=2312 (accessed 10/13/2008).
379 WilliamH.Stiebing Jr., “Climate and Collapse: Did Weather Make Israel’s Emergence Possible?,” Bible Review 10:04 (August 1994), under “Climate and Collapse,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... e=10&Issue =4&ArticleID=11&UserID=2312 (accessed 10/13/2008).
380 WilliamH.Stiebing Jr., “Climate and Collapse: Did Weather Make Israel’s Emergence Possible?,” Bible Review 10:04 (August 1994), under “Climate and Collapse,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... e=10&Issue =4&ArticleID=11&UserID=2312 (accessed 10/13/2008).
381 Amos Nur and Eric H. Cline, “Earthquake Storms: What triggered the collapse?” Archaeology Odyssey Vol.4 No. 5 (Sept/Oct 2001),under “Earthquake Storms,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... me=4&Issue =5&ArticleID=12&UserID=2312 (accessed 10/13/2008).
382 Amos Nur and Eric H. Cline, “Earthquake Storms: What triggered the collapse?” Archaeology Odyssey Vol.4 No. 5 (Sept/Oct 2001),under “Earthquake Storms,” http://www.basarchive.org.proxy.librari ... me=4&Issue =5&ArticleID=12&UserID=2312 (accessed 10/13/2008).
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