CITY OF CLEARWATER COMMISSION HEARINGS RE: THE CHURCH OF SC

The impulse to believe the absurd when presented with the unknowable is called religion. Whether this is wise or unwise is the domain of doctrine. Once you understand someone's doctrine, you understand their rationale for believing the absurd. At that point, it may no longer seem absurd. You can get to both sides of this conondrum from here.

Re: CITY OF CLEARWATER COMMISSION HEARINGS RE: THE CHURCH O

Postby admin » Sat Nov 28, 2015 12:35 am

21 July 1976

SECRET


GPgm O 408, OT 9

OPERATION BULLDOZER LEAK

MAJOR TARGET:


To effectively spread the rumor that will lead Government media, and individual SPs to conclude that LRH has no control of the O of S and no Legal Liability for Church activity.

PRIMARY TARGETS:

1) All US B1 Secs are there on Post.

2) The purpose here, is to protect LRH from Legal Liability for an C of S activities.

3) All US B1 Secs are responsible, each in his area, for seeing that this project gets done. - Sub [illegible] Done as needed.

4) US B1 Ops Nat is responsible for the over all planning of this project.

5) Any debugging necessary on this project is to be done by each US B1 Sec working in liaison with US B1 Ops Nat.

6) This project is not to impede upon any other projects/programmes etc that the Secs already have going.

VITAL TARGETS:

1) That all US B1 Secs ensure that their AG is keep security in on this project.

2) That the AG Is recruit all the necessary FSMs to do this project.

3) That the names of all the Government, Media, and individual SPs be obtained for each area by the concerned AG Is.

OPERATING TARGETS:

GOVERNMENT:


1) Each AG I is to make a list of all the Government Bureaus / Departments / Organizations etc., in his area covering National Stats and City; that have:

a) Attacked Scientology in any fashion.

b) Would have any interest in Scientology for any reason.

_____ AG In

2) Each AG I is to work out a simple "cover story" for his FSM to use on this project. It can be something like the FSM is going to write a book on Scientology and just wants to get some information. FSM does not use his / her correct name on this cycle.

_____ AG Is

3) Each AG I recruits a reliable FSM to carry out this project. And ensures that security is "in" on the FSM.

_____ AG Is

4) Drill / bullbaits / briefs the FSM on the following:

a) He will be visiting all proper people in each of the Government agencies.

b) He will be giving out his cover that in some way he is investigating the C of S.

c) During the interviews, he will in several different ways mention that he has heard that LRH no longer has any control of the Church, and that an ex Scientologist had shown some articles to the FSM that stated that it had definitely been established in several Court Case precedents, that LRH had no liability for any Church activity. This should be presented in such interview with very good "intention", so that it is remembered.

SEE ADDITIONAL PATTER TO INCORPORATE AS WRITTEN (for tgt 4C)

d) Those areas that can't be reached for any reason, should be telephoned by the FSM and the cover story and rumor be given. Say if a Government Office were 2 hundred miles away.

_____ AG Is

5) FSM does his in person or telephone interviews and writes up clear reports on each interview's outcome. He should really 'IMPINGE" when stating the rumors.

6) All AG Is see to it that the FSMs thoroughly complete all those Government Agencies on the list.

_____ AG Is

7) AG Is send up progress report on this action to their US B1 Secs.

_____ AG Is

MEDIA:

1) All AG Is are to make a list of all the Media and the specific individuals concerned (SPs) in their respective areas, that have printed entheta on Scientology.

_____ AG Is

2) All AG Is are to have the same FSH do targets 2-7 on the list of Media.

INDIVIDUAL SPs

1) All AG Is who have penetration FSMs in any anti Scientology groups (Squirrels / Deprogramming Groups / etc.) are to contact these FSMs and work out with them the best approach to spread the rumor, to all the individual SPs / SP groups / etc in each AG Is respective area.

The FSM would be telephoning these various SPs and stating something like, "Well you know that Hubbard has completely resigned from the Scientologists, don't you. I mean he doesn't control it at all any more. I've heard from several ex Scientologists who know, that several times different persons tried to get damages from Hubbard for something that the Scientology Organization did but couldn't. Yes, several Court Cases have ruled that he isn't liable for anything the Scientologists do. I was even shown a few articles on it. Blab / blab / blab. This should really impinge.

SEE ATTACHED PATTER FOR INCORPORATION INTO SPIEL WITH EACH PERSON.

_____ AG Is FSMs

AG Is should have a complete list of all the individual SPs in his area and ensure that the FSM or FSMs contact all of them.

_____ AG Is

Any AG I that has no penetration FSM in on any of these ups or individual SPs, should use the FSM recruited for the first 2 sections.

_____ AG Is

All AG Is are to write up a final Compliance Report on this [illegible].

ACTION TARGET:

The entire project should be completed 3 weeks from receipt.

NAT * Randy
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Re: CITY OF CLEARWATER COMMISSION HEARINGS RE: THE CHURCH O

Postby admin » Sat Nov 28, 2015 12:36 am

Re: Op Bulldozer Leak

21 Sept 1976


I. All government bureaux / departments / organizations that have attacked Scn in any fashion, or would have any interest in Scn for any reason:

Clearwater City Commission
Clearwater Office of the Mayor-Commissioner (Cazares)
Clearwater Police Dept
Clearwater City Attorney (Bustin)
Clearwater Downtown Development Board
Clearwater Building Dept
Clearwater Fire Marshall

Dunedin Police Dept (Wells)
St. Petersburg Police Dept (Meinhardt)

Pinellas County Attorney (Helinger)
Pinellas County Commission (Jones)
Pinellas County Consumer Affairs Division
Pinellas County Tax Appraiser's Office (Haines)
Pinellas County Sheriff's Dept
Pinellas County Health Dept. Clearwater Health Clinic
Pinellas County License Board, Nursery Licenses
Pinellas County Board of Tax Appeals and Adjustment
Pinellas County School Board

State Attorney's Office, Pasco-Pinellas Counties (Russell, Booth, Parker, Mensch)
Florida Dept of Revenue, Sales Tax Division, Pinellas County office (Dyal, Bailey)
Florida Dept. of Business Regulation, Division of Hotels and Restaurants, local office (Dubbeld)

Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, Tampa office (Hoback, Thomas)
IRS, Tampa office
FBI, Tampa office
Immigration & Naturalization Service, Tampa office
U.S. Attorney's Office, Tampa
Customs Service, Tampa office

II. All media and the specific individuals concerned (SPs) that have printed entheta on Scn:

Atlantic Press (Ted Eisenberg, William Rodkey)
Beach Life (Joe Devlin)
Clearwater Sun (Hutchison, Stuart, Pride, Advocat)
Downtown Topics, Clearwater Downtown Development Board Newsletter (M.E. Palmer)
Florida Catholic (Myrtle Smith)
Florida's West Coast ("Oliphant Curmudgeon")
Largo Sentinel (Wally George)
The People's Paper (Sherwood and Lucy Weingarten)
The Pinellas Democrat (Howard Lawrence)
Pinellas Times (Henderson, Kirby, Hilliard, Pugh, Denley, Albury)
St. Petersburg Evening Independent
St. Petersburg Times (Patterson, Barnes, Herndon, Haiman, Orsini)
Tampa Times/Tribune (Rick Allen, Nash Stublen, James Walker)

WDAE radio (Stan Majors)
WDCL radio (Bob Snyder, Ross Charles)
WSUN radio (Larry Crews)

WFLA TV (Sam Latimer)
WLCY TV (George Kay, Jeff Evans)
WTVT TV (Jim Dick, Hugh Smith, Tim Smith)
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Re: CITY OF CLEARWATER COMMISSION HEARINGS RE: THE CHURCH O

Postby admin » Sat Nov 28, 2015 12:36 am

TAPE INTO FRONT COVER OF CODE BOOK

DG INFO US

DG US

G WW

G WW COMM

DG INFO WW COMM

DG INFO WW

A RUSH BY HAND WITH ANNE:

3 December 74

Dear Duke,

RE: CODES

Attached is ISIS, which is a code to be used between US, Flag, and WW on despatch traffic. It is not a normal telex code and is not for ordinary traffic. It is for really confidential despatch traffic and for code names of security operations type actions.

A copy has been sent to A/G Flag and CS-G also.

Love,

Mo

83 pages: It is not to be misused by sloppy coding or abuse of coding rules as it took many man hours to compile and must be treated as a unique, effective & fairly simple code.
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Re: CITY OF CLEARWATER COMMISSION HEARINGS RE: THE CHURCH O

Postby admin » Sat Nov 28, 2015 12:41 am

Part 1 of 6

In Dianetics: MSMH Hubbard writes:

"And in the case of the ulcers, here was baby poked full of holes (Mama is having a terrible time trying to abort him so she can pretend a miscarriage, and she uses assorted household instruments thrust into the cervix to do it) and some of the holes are through and through his baby's abdomen and stomach: he will live because he is surrounded by protein and has a food supply and because the sac is like one of these puncture-proof inner tubes that seals up every hole. (Nature has been smart about attempted abortion for a long, long time.) ... Grandma lives next door and she comes over unexpectedly, shortly after the latest effort to make baby meet oblivion. Grandma may have been an attempted abortionist in her day but now she is old and highly moral."


In this book Hubbard tells of other cases:

"A standard class of prenatal engram has as its content the worry of the parents that the child will be feeble-minded if not now aborted in earnest. This adds an emotional overload to such engrams and it adds, as importantly, an aberrative condition in the now grown patient that he is 'not right,' 'all wrong,' 'feeble-minded,' and so forth. The difficulty of aborting a child is nearly always underestimated: the means used are often novel or bizarre: the worry because the child has not come out of the womb after the abortion attempt is acute, and the concern that he is now damaged beyond repair all combine to make several aberrative engrams."


Again:

"Fathers, for instance, suspicious of paternity, sometimes claim while trouncing and upsetting mothers that they will kill the child if it isn't like Father. This is a very unhappy type of token to say "nothing" of being, usually, a bad engram; it can go to the extent of remodelling structure, of making noses long or hair absent; it may compel an aberree into a profession he does not admire and all out of the engramic command that he must be like the parent."


And again:

"It is very noisy in the womb. A person may think he has sonic and yet hear no 'womb' sounds, which means that he does not have sonic but only 'dub-in'. Intestinal squeaks and groans, flowing water, belches, flatulation and other body activities of the mother produce a continual sound.

It is also very tight in later prenatal life.

In a high blood pressure case, it is extremely horrible in the womb.

When mother takes quinine a high ringing noise may come into being in the foetal ears as well as her own -- a ringing which will carry through a person's whole life.

Mother gets morning sickness, has hiccoughs, and gets colds, coughs and sneezes.

This is prenatal life.

The only reason anybody 'wanted' to 'return to the womb' was because somebody hit mother and yelled 'Come back here!' so the person does."


And again Hubbard writes:

"The standard attempted abortion case nearly always has an infanthood and childhood full of Mama assuring him that he cannot remember anything when he was a baby. She doesn't want him to recall how handy she was, if unsuccessful, in her efforts with various instruments .... In the normal course of work the auditor will have his hands full of Mama screaming objections about her grown son's or daughter's entering into therapy because of what they might find out. Mama has been known, by auditors, to go into a complete nervous collapse at the thought of her child's recalling prenatal incidents. Not all of this, by the way, is based on attempted abortion. Mama often has had a couple of more men than Papa that Papa never knew about; and Mama would ver often rather condemn her child to illness or insanity or merely unhappiness than let a child pursue the course of the preclear."


The interpretation which Hubbard seeks to put upon the mother's objection to her child's undergoing auditing is that she fears that her guilty secrets will be revealed; this is in line with his frequent assertion made in his pamphlet, Why some fight Scientology (see Chapter 26) and elsewhere that famlies and friends of preclears oppose their interest in scientology because they have some shameful secret which they fear will be revealed to the preclear.

Again in Dianetics, MSMH Hubbard writes, "Engrams, particularly in the prenatal area, are in chains" and he lists a number of such chains, which include coitus chain father; coitus chain, lover; constipation chain, contraceptive chain; attempted abortion chain; masturbation chain. He explains that these chains are a series of incidents of similar types, and the burden of his writing is that the unborn child records and remembers them, being able to distinguish each particular kind of event. It would seem, from Hubbard's notes, that the child can distinguish between the father and the lover because the father is either drunk or sober and the lover is always more enthusiastic.

In the same book, he writes;

"It may be that a patient is urgent in her insistence that her father raped her when she was nine and that this is the cause of all her misery. Large numbers of insane patients claim this. And it is perfectly true. Father did rape her, but it happened she was only nine days beyond conception at the time. The pressure and upset of coitus is very uncomfortable to the child and normally can be expected to give the child an engram which will have as its content the sexual act and everything that was said."


The Board heard expert medical evidence that an embryo nine days old, hardly visible to the eye, does not possess an ear, is not capable of being aware of anything and has no nervous system or brain capable of recording anything or of having an understanding, intelligent or otherwise, of anything said or done. Further, Hubbard's assertion that the embryo records and understands what has been said involves the embryo being capable of intelligent understanding of language which the child, after birth, would not attain to for several months or even years.

In Scientology, issue 28-G, 1954, Hubbard gives three case histories selected at random. In the first;

"The basic consisted of a severe quarrel between his mother and father with several abdominal blows being received by the mother. The mother was protesting that it would make her sick all of her life. At the same time the mother was coughing from a throat blow. The father was insisting that he was master in his own home and that people had to do what he told them. This quarrel occurred at about four and a half months after conception and resulted in the temporary paralysis of the preclear's right side."


The second case was of an eighteen-year-old girl in a condition of apathy "bordering upon a break and worsening."

"The basic proved to be a mutual abortion attempt by the mother and father. The mother said she would die if anyone found out.... The father said the baby was probably like her and he didn't want it. Eighteen penetrations of the head, throat and shoulders with a long orange-wood stick - probably in third month. Several similar incidents completed this chain. Coitus followed each attempt at abortions. Another incident proved to be basic without a chain and with innumerable locks: an attempted abortion by a professional abortionist who used some form of needle and scraper."


The third case related to a male negro who had convulsions when audited on prenatal life.

"The convulsion proved to be twenty engrams nearer birth than the basic which lay on another chain and which was discovered by dream technique. The convulsion was caused by the dramatization of an engram involving the injection of turpentine into the uterus by the mother in an attempted abortion. The main engramic chain consisted of the mother's efforts to abort herself. From engramic content it was gathered that the mother was a prostitute, for as many as twenty experiences of coitus succeeded two of these abortion attempts. . . The basic chain contained many quarrels about money between the mother and her customers. . . The basic incident. . . was found to lie about twenty days after conception, when the mother first discovered her pregnancy."


This man's IQ was stated to be "about eighty-five"; the auditor's was not stated.

Hubbard is particularly concerned to show that the act of sexual intercourse while the woman is pregnant is likely to cause an engram to the unborn child, and he considers that intercourse only a few days after conception could have a highly aberrative effect on the barely existing embryo. Hubbard's theories involve the embryo at that early stage being aware of and registering in an aberrative way conversation between the parties to an act of intercourse. On several occasions he actually sets out the conversation between the parties; not infrequently the conversation is between the mother and her paramour and the topic of conversation is in one case at least the conveniently absent husband.

In Dianetics: MSMH, Hubbard writes,

"Attempted abortion is very common. And remarkably lacking in success. The mother, every time she injures the child in such a fiendish fashion, is actually penalizing herself. Morning sickness is entirely engramic, so far as can be discovered, since clears have not so far experienced it during their own pregnancies. And the act of vomiting because of pregnancy is via contagion of aberration. Actual illness generally results only when mother has been interfering with the child either by douches or knitting needles or some such thing.... Morning sickness evidently gets into a society because of these interferences such as attempted abortion, and, of course injury."


Comment would be superfluous.

Hubbard's Mental Health.

Though Hubbard did not attend and give evidence at the inquiry, his personality pervaded the whole of the proceedings. As the person who claims to have founded scientology, and is acknowledged as such by all his adherents, the significance of his personality and his contribution to scientology theory and practice cannot be overestimated. His contribution to theory and practice will emerge later in this Report. His personality is complex and is reflected in his writings and the tape recordings of his lectures.

Expert psychiatric evidence was to the effect that Hubbard's writings are the product of a person of unsound mind. This opinion emerged from a combination of the qualities observable in his writings, which contain great histrionics and hysterical, incontinent outbursts, which, by the very nature of their language, indicate their author to be mentally abnormal. They abound, in self-glorification and grandiosity. Hubbard claims that he is always right, that he has all knowledge on all subjects and that he has had supreme experiences, including visits to the Van Allen Belt, Venus and Heaven; he claims equality with Einstein, Freud, Sir James, Jesus and others, and immeasurable superiority to all leaders in learning, past and present, whose teachings do not agree with or support his propositions; he has instituted his own calendar, his own dynasty, and he grants amnesties as would a potentate.

Failure is unknown or unacknowledged by him. In his own estimation and that of his followers he can do no wrong. Any lack of success is attributed to the incompetence of others, never to him, whose burden in this lifetime is to have only incompetents available to execute his plans.

He has many bizarre ideas on many topics. Some of these are mentioned in this Report. His teachings about the thetan and past lives, claimed by him to be cold-bloodedly factual, are quite nonsensical. His concretization of abstract thought, his making mechanical the mind by establishing the memory banks and the file clerk who operates them and other associated ideas based on the electronic computer, his tractor and other beams projected from the mind which attract and repel and wrap round, are, in conjunction with other matters, significant signs of mental abnormality.

He is brimming over with the most fanciful theories and propositions based on imperfect and incorrect data. He is irresponsible to the utmost degree in the many erroneous ideas which he promulgates on a multitude of sciences, including psychiatry, medicine generally, psychology, physics, and chemistry; and in the quite intemperate attacks which he makes on all branches of the medical and psychological professions, on governments and on religion.

He has a great fear of medical treatment, especially psychiatric, and some of his superlatively rabid abuse is reserved for "medical doctors and psychiatrists".

He has a persecution complex complaining that he is persecuted by people who have not read his books and know nothing about him. In the supplement to Communication magazine, Vol. 3, No. 7, he writes, "These howls come from both conservative and liberal groups -- the A.M.A., the Commies, the Socialists, the Roman Catholics". Included amongst his "persecutors" are governments, British Medical Association, American Medical Association, newspaper editors and reporters. (see Appendix 12)

He has a great fear of matters associated with women and has a prurient and compulsive urge to write in the most disgusting and derogatory way on such subjects as abortions, intercourse, rape, sadism, perversion, and abandonment.

Hubbard's propensity for neologisms, or new words, which he coins is not without its significance, for such a propensity is common in the schizophrenic. A person so afflicted condenses words and thoughts by running together a number of items into a single item. Hubbard has invented a number of new words to convey the burden of his teachings, such as "mest," which stands for matter, energy, space, and time, and is used to describe those things of the finite universe such as the mest body, and other things which are sometimes just "mest"; "obnosis" which is a condensation of "observing" and "the obvious"; "anaten" which means "analytical attenuation"; "preclear," the state of a person before he is "clear"; "randomity," "ded" "dedex" "denyer" meaning one who denies, and many others.

He has hallucinatory experiences such as his trips to the Van Allen belt, Venus and Heaven. Alternatively, he pretends to have had such experiences, explaining the credulity of his followers for his further aggrandisement. Whether Hubbard believes he has had these impossible experiences or not, they serve to place him a little above and beyond his duped adherents who uncritically follow him. He seems compelled to invent theories and experiences which are increasingly bizarre, evidencing the behavior of the typical paranoid schizophrenic of some years standing who can never satisfy himself of reaching his own limits of expansion. The basis of his paranoid illnesses is to push everybody down, to belittle them and treat them oppressively and sadistically in order to build up his own stature. Such a person may feign the experiences and illusions he claims to experience, but he can come to believe them to be real and in seeking for a logical reason for illusions of greatness, he may arrogate super human qualities.

These qualities which are apparent in Hubbard's writings and on his tapes, and the whole disorder and fragmentation of thought which permeates all his pronouncements, constitute an [illegible] of symptoms which [illegible] indicative of a condition of paranoid schizophrenia with [illegible] common to dictators.

CHAPTER 7: HUBBARD'S SCIENTIFIC DEFICIENCIES

Hubbard makes for dianetics and scientology a great many preposterous, ridiculous, and entirely untrue claims. He is a great propagandist and believes that, if he repeats sufficiently often his false claims for his "sciences", his pretence to knowledge in all the other sciences, his rabid denunciation of the medical profession, and the imagined villainy of those who criticise him, there will be sufficient people who will uncritically accept his nonsense as true.
In his books and other writings he frequently repeats the same weird idea in a multitude of alternative ways, often becoming quite didactic in an urgent and frenzied fashion. Any statement, even though initially only tentatively made, is thereafter asserted and repeated as true without any further proof as to its truth than Hubbard's repeated assertions. A common practice of Hubbard is to assert that something "could" be so, without any proof that it is, and upon such a foundation to build his false thesis. In most of his writings, as well as writing for the gullible and the anxious who may be mentally ill or on the verge of mental illness, he is writing for the uninformed and ill educated, who are unable to challenge his confident assertions of "fact", and who accept uncritically what he writes because its deceptive simplicity appeals and they think they are reading about facts, scientifically established, simply because Hubbard has said so. They are happy to read science fiction and to regard it as scientific fact.

It would be wasteful of time and energy to take each and every one of Hubbard's untrue or inaccurate statements and condemn it in specific terms, with detailed reasons in each case. Hubbard continually distorts and misrepresents, frequently asserting as fact propositions which are positively wrong. His writings and theories stand condemned en masse as being entirely contrary to conventional learning and experience in the many sciences in which he falsely claims to be knowledgeable. So far as his own theories are concerned, they are either contrary to existing scientific learning or are unsupported by any proof and are generally contrary to reason. If there is a scintilla which Hubbard has written or said that is justifiably excluded from the foregoing general denunciation of his works, it is of negligible content, and cannot serve as a foundation for the fabric of falsehood, fraud and fantasy which he has forged.

The Board heard many expert witnesses, of high integrity, holding the highest qualifications in their respective sciences. The roll call of such experts is imposing. Their names, qualifications, and appointments are listed in Appendix 3. They were uniformly of the opinion that Hubbard's writings revealed him as ignorant and ill-informed in those sciences in which they were expert. In varying degrees they considered that what he wrote was harmful to those who embarked upon Hubbardian treatment and to the community in general. They expressed, in various terms and with varying emphasis according to their personalities, their concern that such nonsense should circulate under the flattering cloak of science and that such pernicious techniques should be practised on the victims of Hubbard's deception. Again, it is unnecessary to repeat in extenso what each individual expert had to say concerning Hubbard and his works.

One remarkable feature of the expert evidence which the Board heard is that the scientology interests, though they were concerned to cross-examine the several experts searchingly and at length, did not call any, or any appreciable, evidence to controvert the opinions and conclusions stated by the experts. It is proper to say that, though the cross-examination was skilfully and painstakingly done on instructions from the HASI, it served only to confirm, and indeed to strengthen, the several opinions expressed by the expert witnesses in their evidence in chief.

The only effect which the cogent and uncontradicted evidence of such an imposing gallery of expert witnesses could have on any tribunal of fact would be that the tribunal should accept it. Such evidence was inherently probable, and the material which it condemned so improbable, that the Board has no hesitation in accepting and acting upon it.

During the course of the Inquiry, the Board made repeated comments on the continued absence of any substantial scientific evidence in support of scientology teaching, in the hope that, if such evidence existed, it would eventually be tendered. The scientology interests evidently had no intention of tendering any such evidence - if, indeed, it existed - and, though they were given the opportunity and were invited to do so, they declined to lead any such evidence. A few scientology witnesses who gave evidence had scientific or technical qualifications and experience, but their evidence was not, except in the most tenuous way, directed towards justifying scientology on any scientific basis. These witnesses merely sought to justify scientology empirically and subjectively. Typical of their defence or justification of Hubbard's theories, which were contradicted by expert evidence, was the comment of one scientology witness, a medical practitioner who, in relation to Hubbard's theories as to engrams and that ulcers were due to attempted abortions, said, "I don't see how anybody could prove that it was not so. How can you prove it was not so?" Several witnesses sought to justify Hubbard's theories on the basis that they could not be proved wrong, and they took this stand, notwithstanding that they acknowledged that Hubbard's theories were contrary to generally accepted scientific principles. The qualifications and appointments, without names, of these scientology witnesses appear in Appendix 2.

As already indicated, although Hubbard claims that he has degrees, he has no worthwhile academic distinction. He seeks to remedy this deficiency by ridiculing those who possess academic degrees and by denouncing them as rogues and charlatans who perpetuate outmoded and evil ideas and disproved techniques of an earlier century. The Board finds it unnecessary to attempt a vindication of the several professions which Hubbard so abuses. The subject of this Report being scientology, this Chapter is devoted to some discussion of the standards of research said to be engaged in by the founder of scientology, and an examination of the validity of his claims to knowledge in the several sciences on which he claims to write with authority.

Hubbard and Medicine.

Hubbard's completely unjustified claims to speak with authority on medical matters are not confined to psychiatry and psychology. His writings range the gamut of medicine, and many of his theories are based on entirely erroneous ideas of several branches of medicine. A great part of this Report is concerned with the errors of Hubbard in relation to psychiatry and psychology. In this Chapter, other branches of medicine, particularly anatomy and gynaecology, regarding which Hubbard has many fanciful and incorrect ideas, are briefly dealt with. In relation to the matters dealt with in this part of this Chapter, the expert medical evidence which the Board heard included evidence from Professors of Anatomy and Gynaecology and Obstetrics and a Dean of Medicine.

As already mentioned, no good purpose would be served in dealing with the multitude of untrue or inaccurate statements which Hubbard has made in relation to medicine. For the purpose of illustrating the fallacies in his theories, it is sufficient to deal with a few matters which are fundamental to his whole teaching.

Of prime importance to both dianetics and scientology is the "engram" which Hubbard has defined as a moment of unconsciousness containing pain or painful emotion. It was one of the fundamental axioms of dianetics that the engram was the single source of aberration and psychosomatic ills. the most prolific period for engrams was said to be the prenatal period, and Hubbard's writings contain many examples of the ways in which engrams are said to be received in this period. Several examples are set out in Chapter 6.

Briefly expressed, Hubbard's view was that, when a pregnant woman was struck in the abdomen or engaged in intercourse, the child she was carrying suffered pain, and aberratively heard words which accompanied such incidents, and so received an engram.

"Birth," wrote Hubbard, "is a very aberrative affair," and engrams were frequently received at birth because the child, in the process of being born, was experiencing pain, and, accordingly, words spoken at that stage were said to be aberratively heard and recorded.

Hubbard further considered that a person apparently unconscious under an anaesthetic was in such a condition as to be highly receptive of engrams because of the "injury" which the accompanying surgery inflicted upon him.

The Board heard expert medical evidence that the engram as developed in scientology is unknown to medical science, and that Hubbard's engram theories are based on assumptions which are contrary to or unknown to orthodox medical knowledge and principles. Of course, many of them are also contrary to reason. For instance, Hubbard wrote of engrams being received within a few days of conception. He even goes so far in A History of Man as to write, "Pre-sperm recordings are quite ordinary .... Pre-ovum sequences are on record but are not common", the implication being that engrams may be received, even though conception has not taken place. The Board heard expert medical evidence that such things were not possible. Such assertions as Hubbard makes require that the sperm or the ovum before conception, or the embryo when it is barely visible to the naked eye, is capable of hearing without any aural equipment and of understanding and remembering without a nervous system or a brain. It involves, too, that the sperm or the ovum or the embryo, as the case may be, already knows a language which, when the child is eventually born, has slowly to be acquired over many months and even years. The development of any equipment capable of receiving sounds does not take place till the foetus is substantially advanced, and the hearing of sounds by an unborn child, except very shortly prior to birth and then only if they are very loud, is not possible; any sort of intelligent understanding or appreciation of the meaning of words spoken prior to or at birth is, of course, impossible.

Hubbard further wrote that auditing procedures produce prenatal recollections of light. In A History of Man, he wrote that "There is a 'visio' which is quite standard, of the race. There is quite often a light, a spark, in the sequence" and that "Actual prenatal visio, of course, is black except at such times as when light may be entered for surgical purposes, at which time light is sometimes recorded". The Board heard expert medical evidence that such suggestions were nonsense.

Hubbard has written in many places that many aberrations are the result of injuries inflicted on the unborn child when abortions have been attempted. He writes of the child experiencing terror, fear, and pain, "when the parents or the professional abortionist start after it and thrust it full of holes" and that ulcers in later life are caused by attempts at abortion in which household instruments are used and "some of the holes are through and through the baby's abdomen and stomach" and a lot more besides. He writes that attempted abortions are very frequent but generally fail, because "the ability of the foetus to repair the damage is phenomenal," brain damage being ordinarily "repaired perfectly regardless of how many foreign substances were introduced into it", and other damage is also attended to, because the child "is surrounded by protein and has a food supply and because the sac is like one of these puncture-proof inner tubes that seals up every hole".

The Board heard expert medical evidence that all these statements were incorrect. An unborn child does not know terror; a number of holes thrust into a foetus would certainly destroy it; once brain damage occurs it does not repair itself; the punctured sac does not seal itself, and a punctured sac is fatal to the child, unless it shortly precedes the birth of the child.
Hubbard's claim in Dianetics: MSMH that "a large proportion of allegedly feeble-minded children are actually attempted abortion cases" is medically absurd.

Hubbard has made many claims to the effect that dianetics and scientology can cure ailments. The broad claims are dealt with in Chapter 19. At this stage it is sufficient to mention some specific claims and to outline expert medical evidence which indicates that the claims to cure are quite unjustified.

Hubbard claimed that "recording begins in the cells of the zygote - which is to say, with conception", and that "Cancer has been eradicated by auditing out conception and mitosis". Expert evidence was that what was suggested was impossible. Cancer is not of psychological origin and is not cured by any type of psychological treatment. In Chapter 19 are the details of a tragic case where the Melbourne HASI attempted to cure, by auditing, a cancer sufferer. Hubbard's claims that scientology cures cancer, leukaemia, and radiation burns are entirely unjustified and dangerous.

Often Hubbard's ideas are so loosely expressed, and his terminology so inexact, that little meaning can be given to what he writes. In Self-Analysis in Scientology, he writes:

"Arthritis of the knee, for instance, is the accumulation of all knee injuries in the past ... The fluids of the body avoid the pain area. Hence a deposit which is called arthritis. The proof of this is that when the knee injuries of the past are located and discharged, the arthritis ceases, no other injury takes its place and the person is finished with arthritis of the knee. And this happens in ten cases out of ten - except in those cases where age and physical deterioration are so well advanced towards death that the point of no-return is passed."


The Board heard expert medical evidence that the assertions in this quotation, if intelligible at all, are quite contrary to accepted medical facts. The fanciful accumulation of "all knee injuries in the past" does not make sense: it is quite incorrect to say that in traumatic arthritis fluid avoids an injured knee, the reverse is the fact; where traumatic arthritis progresses to chronic arthritis due to repetition of injury, the osteo-arthritic condition which develops involves irreversible changes in the cartilage linings of the joint, producing a calcification or ossification of the cartilaginous joints. Such a condition is permanent, and spontaneous retrogression or cure by some mental process is not possible.
In the same book, Hubbard writes.

"Consider the bad heart. The person has a pain in his heart. He can take medicine or voodoo or another diet and still have a bad heart. Find and eradicate or nullify an actual physical injury to the heart and the heart ceases to hurt and gets well."


Expert medical evidence was that such a statement did not make sense, and that any actual heart condition, whether congenital or arising from injury or disease, could not be cured by psychological means.
The Board heard expert medical opinion at length on other medical claims made by Hubbard which were quite alien to accepted medical knowledge; but the foregoing selection is sufficient to illustrate the impossibility of Hubbard's pseudo-medical theories and knowledge.

Hubbard and Psycho-Analysis.

From time to time, Hubbard, in his denigration of the various professions concerned with the treating of the mentally ill, has singled out for particular attack and abuse the practice of psycho-analysis. In a long article entitled "A Critique of Psycho-Analysis", published in Com. Mag. Vol. 4, No. 10, October, 1962, Hubbard, while seeking to terrify his followers as to the imagined evils of psycho-analysis, in fact shows both his ignorance and his misconceptions of this particular branch of psychiatric medicine by the patently absurd and erroneous statements contained in the article. For instance, he writes:

"The first solid criticism of psycho-analysis is inherent in its failure to advance . . . Psycho-analysis did not advance or did not evolve. There is little, if any, difference between the writings of Freud in 1894 and the declarations of analysts today unless it is a deteriorated difference . . . Psycho-analysis has not [succeeded], and to-day is almost a lost subject. There are fewer analysts in the world to-day than there were twenty years ago despite the enormous wages which could have been earned by them."


All this is quite incorrect. Throughout the world there are several thousand practising psycho-analysts, and their number is growing. In selected cases, where psycho-analytical methods are indicated, psycho-analytical techniques are successfully practised, and they are being constantly developed. Hubbard shows ignorance of the general literature, learning and development of psycho-analysis. He does not know or understand the meaning of many technical terms which he uses. Though using psycho-analytical terms he gives to them a meaning different from their accepted meaning in psycho-analysis, indicating, that he has not understood the underlying concepts. Psycho-therapy has not stood still as at 1894 as Hubbard asserts but has made great advances. He has the mistaken idea that Freud alone is responsible for psycho-analysis as practised to-day, and he ignores or is unaware of the many famous psychiatrists who, since Freud's time, have assisted in developing psycho-analysis into what is practised to-day. He suffers from the popular but erroneous belief, formerly current amongst some to whom Freud was little more than a name, that, as he puts it, of the practitioner (i.e., the psycho-analyst) reads sexual significance into all discourse and evaluates it for the patient along sexual lines".
Such acquaintance as he has with the teachings of Freud seems to be limited to Freud's earlier writings. Many of Hubbard's theories as to the significance of recollections of "past lives" and "engrams", show that he is unfamiliar with Freud's later work.

His acquaintance with Freud's teachings is claimed to have been initiated by and come through a Commander Thompson, a doctor in the United States Navy, but not otherwise identified, who is said by Hubbard to have been a personal student of Freud and a source of inspiration to Hubbard. For no other reason than this attenuated connexion between Freud and himself, Hubbard writes:

"Better than others, then, some sixty-eight years after Freud's original declarations, I could be considered qualified to criticize not only the failure of the basic work of Freud but the later offshoots which, while following his original tenets, yet sought to expand information on psycho-analysis .... Very few living analysts today have as a direct connexion with the subject as I have. . . Having established then my possible qualifications to criticize and having compounded such right by having bettered the results of Freud, I feel it is necessary to overhaul rapidly the points of failure of psycho-analysis as we understand the mind today."


All this is patently false. He claims, "I have used psycho-analysis as a practitioner", but his writings show almost complete ignorance of what it really is, and such practice as he may have made of psycho-analysis must have been as twisted as his practice of other therapies, good and bad, which he has prostituted. How he, as a science fiction writer, who has spent years travelling the world investigating the customs of peoples in many continents and, during the last fifteen years promoting an impudent fraud, can claim to speak with authority on a subject of which he is almost completely ignorant, makes sense only to Hubbard and his deluded followers.

His critique of psycho-analysis contains such dangerous statements as

"The treatment of the insane today is far worse than it was two centuries ago and the brutality practised under the name of 'mental healing' cannot be regarded with equanimity by any civilized man."


Such a statement would be likely to cause a person in need of psychiatric care to avoid psychiatric treatments at all costs; and, if a mentally ill person, having read such a dangerous statement, later did undergo proper psychiatric treatment, the prospect of treating such a person successfully would be greatly diminished because of the grave obstacle which fear of the psychiatrist had presented.
The evidence of highly qualified psychiatrists and in particular of an expert psycho-analyst with high qualifications and long experience, makes it clear that far from having any real knowledge or appreciation of what psycho-analysis is and does, Hubbard's knowledge does not extend beyond a scrappy acquaintance with some of the popular misconceptions of Freud's early tentative writings.

Hubbard As a Scientist.

The editorial note to Scientology: 8-80 reads,

"The discovery and isolation of Life Energy in such a form as to revive the dead or dying has been an ambition as old as Man himself. In the last two thousand years a few individuals have claimed the ability without explaining it. With this book, the ability to make one's body old or young at will, the ability to heal the ill without physical contact, the ability to cure the insane and the incapacitated, is set forth for the physician, the layman, the mathematician and the physicist."


Scientology: 8-80, which has as its sub-title "The Discovery and Increase of Life Energy in the Genus Homo Sapiens", originally copyright in 1952 and subsequently reprinted at least in 1957, to the extent that it impinges upon anything vaguely resembling the province of the physician, the layman, the mathematician or the physicist, contains just so much nonsense. In this book, Hubbard devises wave lengths for aesthetics, analytical thought, emotion - there are high wave beauty and high wave ugliness - and he gives a "formula" of the energy of life source.
It would be wasteful of time and energy to attempt to discuss aspects of Hubbard's unashamed nonsense in this book. The Board heard evidence from a highly qualified physicist, a master of science and senior lecturer in physics at the University of Melbourne, who said that much of the text of this book, if written as or claiming to be in any way scientific, was meaningless or just rubbish, and was the sort of nonsense a matriculation or first year student might "dream up" outside his formal study periods. He said none of the views set out in the book bore any resemblance to the theories of physics and that the "bits of science that crop up in this book are not the work of a competent nuclear scientist." Hubbard, this witness said, had not developed at all in physics; he had acquired some familiarity with the language of physics at a high school level - he knew some words existed in a genuine discipline that was physics - but he had not learned physics, and was quite unfamiliar with the scientific usage of the terms which he used.

One witness, called on behalf of the HASI, was also a master of science and had been a senior lecturer in mathematics at an interstate University. He was constrained to admit that as to some of Hubbard's writings in Scientology: 8-80 it would be necessary to ask the author just what he meant, and the witness was unable to reconcile other passages in the book with his own scientific knowledge.

Notwithstanding that the book purported to be written for scientists about a branch of science this witness endeavoured to justify those parts of it which were completely inconsistent with generally accepted principles of science on the basis that Hubbard was writing philosophically, and that "you can say something in the name of philosophy which is completely inconsistent with science." The witness was unable to reconcile Hubbard's writings in Scientology 8-80 with his own scientific knowledge or anything scientific in the generally accepted sense, yet he sought to maintain the validity of Hubbard's writings because, as he said, being written in the framework of scientology there was nothing in such writings which could be "disproven by the science of physics" which was in a different "frame of reference." It is almost incredible that this witness, with such high academic qualifications, could voice such nonsense; yet solemnly he did so, and a careful re-reading of the evidence confirms the impression which the Board had at the time he gave evidence, namely, that he, in common with many other scientology witnesses, appeared to be overborne by some inescapable compulsion which conditioned him to give quite fantastic and incredible evidence on matters scientological, while at the same time appearing to be bright, alert and rational on other matters.

Some scientology witnesses had been processed only shortly before they gave evidence. and this may have accounted for their peculiar attitude. It did not appear in evidence whether or not this particular witness had been processed shortly before he gave evidence.

Hubbard As a Nuclear Physicist.

One of the many claims made by Hubbard about himself, and oft repeated by his followers, is that he is a nuclear physicist, and his boast is that he was even one of the first nuclear physicists who, in 1932, were studying on lines which finally led to the atomic bomb. He claims to be an authority on the atom bomb and on radiation and he has written a book to prove it. This book, All About Radiation, is in two parts. The first part, being entitled "The Facts about the Atomic Bomb" and written by "a medical doctor", deals with certain medical aspects of atom bomb damage and is written in temperate language and, within limits, is reasonably accurate. The second part of the book is entitled, "Man's Inhumanity to Man", and Hubbard is its author. In the book he is described as "Dr. Hubbard" and as "A Nuclear Physicist".

The Board heard evidence from a highly qualified radiologist who has made a special study of radiation and its effects. He said that Hubbard's knowledge of radiation, as displayed by his writings in All About Radiation, was the "sort of knowledge that perhaps a boy who has read Intermediate Physics might, with a lot of misapprehensions and lack of understanding, demonstrate". One of Hubbard's assertions is that "a 16-foot wall cannot stop a gamma ray but a body, that is to say human, can". This witness said that this was a complete denial of physical truths and was a basic scientific fallacy which would lead to disastrous consequences in this community at this time if it were not resisted. He said that such a statement "shows complete and utter ignorance of physics, nuclear science and medicine". Speaking in general terms about Hubbard's contribution to All About Radiation which he described as "ravings and ramblings", the witness said:

"There is no attempt to present precise data or conclusions from precise data; no attempt to clearly present his views coherently and progressively in terms the reader can follow; colloquial and extraordinary terminology is used to confuse rather than enlighten; the more basic fundamental established truths of science are ignored and replaced by imaginative fiction without a vestige of corroborative experiment designed to support such hypotheses."


In All About Radiation, Hubbard states that "the danger in the world today in my opinion is not the atomic radiation which may or may not be floating through the atmosphere but the hysteria occasioned by that question". This is in line with much of his teaching that most illnesses are caused by the mind, and he claims that man can be exposed to radiation and escape illness or damage, so long as no hysteria is associated with the event. This contention, the witness pointed out, is absolutely untrue and contrary to all authority on radiation which is uniformly of the view that damage done by radiation is quantitatively related to the magnitude of the physical dose received. "Radiation", writes Hubbard, "is more of a mental than a physical problem". This, said the witness, is completely false. Hubbard's ignorance and confusion of thought are further illustrated by his contention that sunburn is the same sort of burn as that caused by atomic radiation. This, of course, is not so, as the evidence made clear.

The witness gave many other examples as appearing in All About Radiation of Hubbard's lack of knowledge, misunderstanding and positively wrong views on matters of radiation and biology. It is unnecessary further to itemize instances of Hubbard's ignorance on the subject of radiation except, perhaps, to refer to a formula which he claims to have evolved for a tonic called "dianazene", for which he claims almost magical powers. He wrote:

"Dianazene runs out radiation - or what appears to be radiation. It also proofs a person against radiation in some degree. It also turns on and runs out incipient cancer. I have seen it run out skin cancer. A man who didn't have much liability to skin cancer (only had a few moles) took Dianazene. His whole jaw turned into a raw mass of cancer. He kept on taking Dianazene and it disappeared after a while. I was looking at a case of cancer that might have happened."


This, said the witness, was "utter nonsense". Hubbard gave the formula for dianazene in the book, but there was, as the witness said, nothing remarkable about it; it was much the same sort of formula which is found in many proprietary medicines which are given for vague ill health, though the dosage in dianazene may be a little higher than is generally the case in such medicines. The fact that many Melbourne scientologists have taken dianazene is indicative of the degree of influence exercised by Hubbard over them.
One cannot but agree with the witness that it is a tragedy that anything so ridiculous should be inflicted on the general public.

From this witness's evidence it is apparent that Hubbard is completely incompetent to deal with the subject of radiation and that his knowledge of nuclear physics is distorted, inaccurate, mistaken and negligible. No evidence was called which disputed in any way these conclusions.

The dissemination of such nonsense as Hubbard has written in All About Radiation may well have dangerous consequences, for people reading and accepting it may develop a sense of false security or neglect or mistreat a condition which might otherwise respond to appropriate treatment.
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Re: CITY OF CLEARWATER COMMISSION HEARINGS RE: THE CHURCH O

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Part 2 of 6

CHAPTER 8: HUBBARD'S RESEARCH

If one excludes as "research" the fanciful imaginings of Hubbard, his research material appears to have been almost entirely what preclears have revealed in their processing. Almost if not entirely subjective and based on subjective standards, the "data" which Hubbard uses is that obtained from preclears who, while in a state of hypnosis induced by auditing, or otherwise mentally conditioned by processed which produce hallucinations, imagine fantastic, ludicrous and unusual experiences and thoughts, which Hubbard accepts as conclusive proof and on which he builds his theories. The evidence before the Board shows that processing reports of preclears from the several countries where scientology is practised are sent to Hubbard in England where they are examined and collated and the results reduced to some order, from which Hubbard then draws conclusions or gets ideas.

Williams described the development of a particular process called, "listing", wherein the goals of preclears were being sought. He said that preclears were required to provide a list of about 850 goals. These lists were compared and it was found that certain similarities began to emerge. There were many other goals, said Wil1iams, "which were not in common, but there were certain plots of those goals that were in common. The strange thing was, even though a person did not know the plot, with very little steering they could originate the plot. This was rather peculiar. Unless there was telepathic communication, how did the person know of the plot?" The question was rhetorical but the answer obvious. Preclears in auditing session are in a highly suggestible condition, and a "very little steering" would go a very long way. There was an abundance of evidence that preclears came up with particular past experiences only after they had become aware of Hubbard's theories on that particular topic. Furthermore, it is probable that in a list of 850 goals there would be at least some which would be found in another list of similar size. The thoughts, hopes and aspirations of mankind follow a fairly common pattern and their similarity in different people does not require a fanciful theory that they were electronically implanted in thetans trillions of years ago. Early in their sojourn in scientology, preclears become aware of Hubbard's ideas on a great variety of matters, and the evidence shows that when being audited they obligingly provide "data" on these matters, which "data" is taken as confirming Hubbard's theories.

The power of suggestion on preclears is strikingly illustrated by the disclosures by preclears as to helatrobus implants. During 1963 Hubbard promulgated information concerning the helatrobus implants, stating the periods at which these implants were laid in. Thereafter, when preclears were audited on the helatrobus implant of the goal "to forget", they told of the implanting of that goal at some date between those indicated by Hubbard, namely, 38 to 43 trillion years ago.

A further indication of the dependence of Hubbard on the evaluations of preclears during processing is Williams' evidence on "theta traps". In A History of Man Hubbard, in writing of "theta traps", states:

"There is no subject more interesting than that of theta traps. It is of vast interest to any invader, It is of vaster interest to your preclear. How can you trap a thetan ? By curiosity, by giving him awards and prizes (of an implant), by retractor screens, by mock-ups, by ornate buildings which he will enter unsuspectingly only to be electroniced down; by many such means the thetan is reduced from knowing to a colonist, a slave, a mest body.

All theta traps have one thing in common: they use electronic force to knock the thetan into forgetting, into unknowingness, into effect . . .

The thetan feels himself, in some traps, being drawn up to a post. He fights it with his force. It cannot be suc cessfully fought. He succumbs. A day or a hundred years later, he is picked off and elsewhere used ... there was a theta trap called the fly trap. It was of a gummy material."


Williams said in evidence that Hubbard had no other way of acquiring such knowledge about thetans than from what preclears had revealed.
Hubbard's "research" is done at Saint Hill by himself and a small team of assistants. The facilities for "scientific research" into all the fields with which Hubbard claims great familiarity are very meagre.

Mrs. Williams, the most recently returned advanced Australian student to visit Saint Hill and to study there for about eight months, told the Board that "there is really not a laboratory at Saint Hill". He said that the manor house had three large halls and other rooms, a T.V. room, and a room with tape recording equipment, &c.; that the "experiments" comprised, in effect auditing experiments on the advanced students and a consideration of auditing results supplemented by reports from ,all over the world as to what has been produced by auditing in the way in which Hubbard has directed the auditing to be conducted; that Hubbard first puts forward to the students at Saint Hill whatever is to be audited and when it is successful with them he promulgates it for wider application, even though at that time research on it may not have been finalized; that the student groups which are the subject of such tests at Saint Hill may contain up to about 100 students from various parts of the world, and that the staff consists of from thirteen to twenty individuals, functioning as instructors, assistant instructors, case supervisors, clerks, auditors, and others and performing associated duties.

Gillham, who was also a Saint Hill graduate, said:

"We never saw Ron actually engaged in research, but then, because, as I understand, a lot of research was done in the early hours of the morning, but from the fact that the course was going, was also part of the research programme, as he would observe stu dents and see what they were doing, and then, in his own time, what was going wrong and correct it, and I was there for that."


Gillham did not know of anyone else apart from Hubbard who was engaged in research and, as far as Gillham knew, Hubbard's "research" was done in his own private room.
Mrs. Gillham, another Saint Hill graduate, said that the only research she observed at Saint Hill was amongst the students, and that:

"Sometimes Ron would say if he wanted to do research on a certain process and there was at one time a number of students selected to run this process, but the majority of research he gets Mary Sue [his wife] to run. So whatever he worked out, Mary Sue runs on him before he uses it."


Mrs. Tampion, who also was at Saint Hill, said that the research there consisted of "auditors, pc's and students running new processes on each other to see how they fared".

How Hubbard, without laboratory, equipment or scientific assistants, could carry out experiments in all the sciences in which he claims to speak as an expert remains unexplained.

Notwithstanding the absence of such indispensable aids, Hubbard claims that all his work in dianetics and scientology is validated by scientific proof and, early in the Inquiry, Williams went to great lengths in evidence in an endeavour to explain and pr ove that Hubbard and scientology proceeded by the scientific method to experiment, test, evaluate, prove and draw justifiable conclusions. However, his evidence was purely argumentative and mere empty words and no evidence in fact was called which remotel y suggested that there was anything scientific - or for that matter any real method - in Hubbard's experiments and "research".

One witness, a former ardent scientologist, and now a bachelor of science, who languished in the slough of scientology for a few years during which his University course was halted, had the opportunity of observing at close quarters the validity of Hubba rd's claims for scientology. His verdict was, "unproven, a lot of words, no evidence".

Hubbard makes claims that he has the proofs, that these proofs are inWashington and elsewhere, that his books and other writings tell of his experiments and their results. Judging the standard, value and extent of his research methods by what he has chos en to make public in his books and other writings, Hubbard fails ignominiously. Several expert scientific witnesses gave evidence to the effect that Hubbard's methods as revealed by his writings have not the slightest resemblance to scientific method.

Experts in many scientific fields criticized the so-called scientific method and research of Hubbard, and out of the evidence which the Board heard emerged the following criticisms, with which the Board wholly agrees: -

1. Hubbard is satisfied with, and regards as sufficient, subjective standards of proof;
2. He does not test the data obtained by subjective means even when there are means of objective testing; e.g., Hubbard's claims as to exteriorization could be tested objectively, but no such tests appear to have been undertaken. Hubbard and a scientology witness claimed that scientology processing could add 30 pounds of weight to a body by mocking up a mass and bringing it into the body. The Board invited the scientology interests to arrange a demonstration, but the invitation was declined;
3. He does not give sufficient detail to establish the validity of his conclusions;
4. There is no confirmation of any of his findings by experiments carried out by other workers in the same field;
5. The experiments are not described and there is no way of testing his conclusions;
6. The material which he uses is -
(a) not capable of being tested,
(b) obtained under conditions which do not admit of any control or check,
(c) necessarily suspect for the reasons, amongst others, that it is generally obtained from persons who are hypnotized or who are in some illusory state, and to whom suggestions have frequently been made;
7. A great part of the material relied upon is no more than categorical pronouncements by Hubbard without any suggestion that there is any evidence to justify them;
8. An enormous proportion of Hubbard's so-called evidence, alleged results of experiments, findings and conclusions is totally at variance with orthodox theory and actual known facts which are the results of scientifically conducted experiments made under proper control conditions and capable of being duplicated, tested and confirmed.

Hubbard's attitude and that of his followers, as shown by several who gave evidence before the Board, is in effect, "I say such and such is possible, therefore it is. Now you prove me wrong, and since you can't, it must be right." Hubbard categorically asserts as a fact that "a few mornings ago" he was up in the Van Allen belt and that he then went on to Venus, where he inspected an implant station. Prove him wrong!
Each new "discovery" he hails as the ultimate, the final "breakthrough", the answer to all problems, requiring only that auditors develop sufficient skills in the techniques he has devised to "clear" the world. Yet very soon that "breakthrough" is superseded by another, more wonderful and more promising than the last. And so it goes on.

Reliance on the data provided by preclears in auditing, where hallucinatory images are generated, does not of course bear any resemblance to scientific method. Yet it is on such a foundation that Hubbard has built the whole structure of his teaching. In A History of Man, which Hubbard claims is "a cold-blooded and factual account of your last sixty trillion years", Hubbard writes the most fanciful nonsense. Examples of the material contained in A History of Man and on which Hubbard based his "research" are set out in Chapter 11. Hubbard published this book in 1952, before the Piltdown man hoax was exposed. In it, Hubbard writes,

"The Piltdown contains freakish acts of strange 'logic', of demonstrating dangerous on one's fellows, of eating one's wife and other somewhat illogical activities. The Piltdown teeth were enormous and he was quite careless as to whom and what he bit and often very much surprised at the resulting damage. Obsessions about biting, efforts to hide the mouth and early familial troubles can be found in the Piltdown. It is a wonderful area in which to locate GE overt acts."


How preclears could recall "real" incidents which could not have happened has yet to be explained by scientology. Hubbard's research on the Piltdown man is surely a hoax upon a hoax.
It is the claim of scientology that it must be valid because it works, the test being "workability". In Dianetics: MSMH, Hubbard wrote -

"The only test is whether or not a fact works. If it does work and can be used, it is a scientific fact. And the prenatal engram is a scientific fact. Tested and checked for objective reality, it still stands firm. And as for subjective reality, the acceptance of the prenatal engram as a working fact alone makes possible the clear."


Hubbard finds his proof of workability in the claims made that preclears frequently say they feel better after auditing. Leaving aside for the time being the likelihood that post-hypnotic suggestion may well explain a preclear's statement that he feels better after auditing, workability of itself really proves nothing. This is evident from, for example, the research of Freud whom, incidentally, Hubbard acknowledges as one on whose work he has drawn. Early in the history of psycho-analysis his experiments led Freud to regard recent sexual trauma as being solely responsible for the production of hysterical, neurotic symptoms, He noted that, when his patients recalled a sexual trauma, they tended to lose their symptoms. However, Freud soon noticed that the "cures" were not permanent and he then assumed that the symptoms might have had their origins in more distant sexual traumas. When he investigated this theory he found that patients reported sexual traumas occurring in adolescence and that when they recalled those incidents their symptoms disappeared, but these gains likewise tended to be temporary. Further experiments which brought to light sexual trauma experienced in early childhood once more brought in its train some relief, often only temporary, of the patient's symptoms. However, Freud found that, in some cases where patients reported such incidents as having occurred in early childhood and they appeared to be benefiting from this recall, there was no possibility whatsoever that the incident could have occurred. This, "workability", the fact that a patient may benefit from "recall" of an incident which did not happen, was no proof that the incident happened.

As already mentioned, Hubbard's acquaintance with Freud's work appears to be very superficial and to be confined to Freud's early writings. If Hubbard was aware of Freud's later work and theories, in which Freud later considerably modified his earlier tentatively propounded theories, Hubbard entirely ignores them, for whereas Freud accepted the position that temporary relief was experienced by conjuring up incidents which did not happen, Hubbard wrongly treats the hallucinations of the preclear in relation to things that could not have happened as conclusive proof of such happenings, and on this entirely unwarranted assumption he bases the great bulk of his theories and teachings on the thetan, the time track, past lives and many other fantasies.

The following extracts from Dianetics: MSMH illustrate the nature of Hubbard's "experiments" and the standard of his research. They are examples of how engrams are said to be acquired; one relates to engrams said to have been received at birth and the other relates to engrams said to have been received during a dental operation.

Hubbard considers that "birth is a very aberrative affair"; and to make his point tells of the case where, by processing a patient on his birth, it was established that

"his asthma had been caused by the doctor's enthusiasm in yanking him off the table just when he was fighting for his first breath. He had had conjunctivitis. That came from the eye drops. He had had sinusitis. That had come from the nose swabs used by th e pretty nurse."


The second case is described in the following terms:

"Let us make this an example: a man is under nitrous oxide (the most vicious anaesthetic ever invented as it is actually not anaesthetic but a hypnotic) undergoing exodontistry. As usual everybody present around the 'unconscious' patient chatters and yaps about the patient, the weather, the most popular movie star, of baseball. The exodontist is a tough character, bossy to the nurse, apt to be angry about trifles; he is also very sympathetic toward the patient. The nurse is a blue-eyed blonde, who is sexually aberrated. The patient, actually in agony, receiving an engram amongst engrams which may ruin his life (terrible stuff, nitrous oxide; really hands out a fancy engram as any dianeticist can attest) is unanalytical. Everything said to him or around him is taken literally. He takes the valence of the exodontist as both the top valence present and the sympathetic valence. But every phrase uttered is aberrative and will be interpreted by that happy little moron, the reactive mind, on the order of Simple Simon who was told he had to be careful how he stepped in the pies, so he stepped in them carefully. These people may be talking about somebody else but every 'I' or 'he' or 'you' uttered is engramic and will be applied to others and himself by the patient in the most literal sense. 'He can't remember anything' says the exodontist. All right, when the engram keys-in, this patient will have an occlusion on memory in greater or lesser degree. 'He can't see or feel it': this means an occlusion on sight, pain and tactile. If the patient has his eyes watering in agony at the moment (though completely 'under') he may get actual bad vision as well as poor visual recall from this experience. Now they put him in the hands of this blonde nurse to let him sleep off the drug and recover. She is an aberree amongst aberrees. She knows patients do weird things when they are still 'out' so she pumps him for information about his life. And she knows they are hypnotic (yes, she sure does) so she gives him some positive suggestions. Amusing herself. She says he'll like her. That she'll be good to him. And stay there now for the present.

"So the poor patient, who has had two wisdom teeth, impacted, taken out, has a full anger-sympathy dramatization. The general tone he takes is the tone the exodontist showed to the others in the room. The exodontist was angry at the nurse. With his recalls all messed up, the patient a few years later meets a woman similar to this nurse. The nurse has given him compulsions towards her. The silly little moron, the reactive mind, sees in this entirely different person enough similarity to create an identity between the nurse and this new woman. So the patient divorces his wife and marries the pseudo-nurse. Only now that he has married the pseudo-nurse the dental engram begins to key-in in earnest. Physically he gets ill: the two molars adjacent to where the wisdom teeth came out develop large cavities and begin to rot (circulation shut down, pain in the area but can't be felt because there's a pain recall shut-out). His memory goes to pieces. His recalls become worse. He begins to develop eye trouble and a strange conjunctivitis. Further (because the dentist leaned on his chest and stomach with a sharp elbow from time to time) he has chest and stomach pains. This nitrous oxide hurt his lungs and this pain is also in chronic restimulation. But most horrible; he believes that this pseudo-nurse will take care of him and he stops to some degree taking care of himself in any way; his energy dissipates; and analytically he knows it is all wrong and that he is not himself. For he is now fixed in the valence of the exodontist who is angry with this nurse and so he beats the pseudo-nurse because he senses that from her all evil flows. The girl he married is not and was not the nurse, she sounds something like her and is a blonde. She has her own engrams and reacts. She attempts suicide.

"Then, one day, since this is one engram among many, the mental hospital gets our patient and the doctors there decide that all he needs is a good solid series of electric shocks to tear his brain up, and if that doesn't work, a nice ice-pick into each eyeball after and during electric shock, the ice-pick sweeping a wide arc to tear the analytical mind to pieces. His wife agrees. Our patient can't defend himself; he's insane and the insane have no rights, you know.

"Only the cavalry, in this one case, arrived in the form of dianetics and cleared the patient and the wife and they are happy today. This is an actual engram and an actual case history. It is a sympathy engram, pro-survival on the moronic reactive mind level".
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Re: CITY OF CLEARWATER COMMISSION HEARINGS RE: THE CHURCH O

Postby admin » Sat Nov 28, 2015 12:48 am

Part 3 of 6

CHAPTER 9: DIANETlCS

Dianetics is described by Hubbard as "the modern science of mental health". He explains that its derivation is from two Greek words, "dia" meaning "through" and "noos" meaning "mind". An examination of the content of dianetic teaching suggests that its derivation would more aptly be from Diana, the moon goddess, and that a word with a Latin root but much the same meaning would have been more appropriate.

Hubbard wrote a number of books about dianetics and it has been the subject of a substantial number of articles in scientological publications. Before discussing dianetics in the light of the evidence placed before the Board some excerpts from the books all articles written by Hubbard can conveniently be referred to for an idea of the fanciful claims which Hubbard made for it.

The word "dianetics" is said to be "a term employed to embrace the science of thought and including a family of subsciences by which the individual collective activities of mankind may be understood and bettered".

Hubbard writes that dianetics is "a sub-subject of scientology and covers the anatomy of the mind rather than the brain"; it is "that branch of scientology that covers mental anatomy"; it is "a form of science of thought applicable to psychosomatic ills and individual aberrations". Its purpose is "to pass man across the abyss of irrational, solely reactive thought and to enter a new stage of constructive progression to the ultimate goal."

The goal of dianetics is "a world without insanity, without criminals and without war". It looks for a simpler course to the achievement of its aims than through the conventional therapies. In Science of Survival, which was first published in l95l, Hubbard wrote

"It took four to twelve years to get an inkling of these [conventional] therapies and all evidence to hand, carefully compiled, shows that they do not work, that the problems of criminality, insanity and war still remained, with these systems of 'therapy' far out of control."


He then claimed that dianetics was a simpler solution, which did not require twelve years of schooling and practice to learn, but which provided "an understanding of life, man, and mind operation which could resolve the 19,000,000 insane, our millions of criminals, and international madness".
Dianetics is, wrote Hubbard in Dianetics: MSMH,

"actually a family of sciences .... With the techniques presented in this handbook the psychiatrist, psycho-analyst and intelligent layman can successfully and invariably treat all psychosomatic ills and inorganic aberrations. More importantly, the skills offered in this handbook will produce the dianetic clear, an optimum individual with intelligence considerably greater than the current normal, or a dianetic release, an individual who has been freed from his major anxieties or illnesses. The release c an be done in less than twenty hours of work and is a state superior to any produced by several years of psycho-analysis, since the release will not relapse."


The principal books on dianetics are Dianetics: MSMH, Science of Survival, and Dianetics 1955. These books contain an exposition of the principles of dianetics and instructions for the practice of dianetic therapy as well as a large number of instances of the alleged beneficial application of dianetics. Fundamental to dianetics is "survival", towards which all activity should be directed. "The dynamic principle of existence is "survive!". The first axiom is: survive. "We do not know", writes Hubbard, "to what end we are surviving and in our field of the knowable and in our choice of only the workable axioms we do not know and have no immediate reason to ask why".

Survival, considered as a single and sole purpose, is said by Hubbard to subdivide into four dynamics.

"Dynamic One is the urge of the individual towards survival for the individual and his symbiotes. ['Symbiotes' means all energies and entities which aid survival.]

Dynamic Two is the urge of the individual towards survival through procreation; it includes both the sex act and the raising of progeny, the care of children and their symbiotes.

Dynamic Three is the urge of the individual towards survival for the group or the group for the group and includes the symbiotes of that group.

Dynamic Four is the urge of the individual towards survival for Mankind or the urge toward survival of Mankind for Mankind as well as the group for Mankind, &c., and includes the symbiotes of mankind."


The mind of an individual, so dianetics teaches, has really three parts. They are the analytical, the reactive and the somatic.

The analytical mind, sometimes referred to as the conscious mind, is that portion of the mind which perceives and retains experienced data to compose and resolve problems and directs the organism along the four dynamics. It thinks in differences and similarities.

The reactive mind is that portion of the mind which sites and retains pain and painful emotion and seems to direct the organism solely on a stimulus-response basis. It thinks only in identities.

The somatic mind is that mind which, directed by the analytical or reactive mind, places solutions into effect on the physical level.

Williams understood the "somatic mind" as a term used to describe

"that package of information or data appertaining to the automatic function of the body, and automatic responses of the body. The somatic mind, functionally, would include such things as the automatic heart beat and breathing and this sort of thing."


In Dianetics: MSMH, Hubbard wrote that "the hidden source of all psychosomatic ills and human aberrations has been discovered and skills have been developed for their invariable cure." The goal of dianetics being to cure psychosomatic illness and remove aberrations, dianetics was therefore dedicated to "running out" and so removing what Hubbard said was the cause of all the trouble, the engram. According to dianetics, psychosomatic ills are caused by engrams, the engram being the single source of psychosomatic ills and aberrations. "The engram and only the engram causes aberrations and psychosomatic illnesses." Aberrations include all deranged or irrational behaviour. Moments of "unconsciousness", when the analytical mind is attenuated in a greater or lesser degree, are the only moments when engrams can be received. The engram is a moment of "unconsciousness" containing physical pain or painful emotion and all perceptions and is not available to the analytical mind as experience.

Hubbard declared that all psychosomatic illnesses, "which constitute 70 per cent. of man's illnesses, can be positively cured by dianetic processing". This, he said, was effected by auditing the preclear or sufferer and thereby discovering and running out the engram. The source of the aberration was said to be the reactive mind which acted more or less irrationally and fed information to the conscious mind and body, without the knowledge or consent of the individual, save that sometimes the individual might perceive that he was acting irrationally in relation to some matter, but could not understand why. An individual, according to Hubbard, thus possessed two minds; the analytical mind, which is the conscious mind which becomes aware of things learned by actual experience and functions logically; and the reactive mind, which is the unconscious mind and which operates irrationally or irresponsibly and is the cause of all aberrations. The problems of life are complicated by the functioning of the reactive mind, and it is the cause of ill-health and mental troubles.

The reactive mind, so Hubbard claims, received engrams in the past. Initially, the "past" was earlier in the life of the individual concerned but quickly Hubbard propounded the theory that many engrams, perhaps most, were incurred in the prenatal period, i.e., during the pregnancy of the mother; and at this period the reactive mind of the unborn child became aware of events happening and words spoken at a time when it, the unborn child, received some injury, e.g. by the father hitting the mother in the stomach, or much more frequently by an injury received by the embryo or foetus during intercourse between the parents, the embryo being aware of and suffering injury and remembering such incidents and accompanying words from as early as eight days after conception. As these theories further developed, Hubbard claimed that engrams could be experienced by the individual even before conception! All of this, of course, is nonsense, and a large body of expert evidence was called to prove that it and much more fantastic theorising was nonsense, However, Hubbard, disdaining to admit such theories as fantasy, boldly asserts them to be scientifically proven facts.

An attempt was made by scientology witnesses at the Inquiry to show that dianetics is now, in effect, in abeyance, but that is clearly not so; it was the forerunner of scientology, and out of it scientology developed; and it is claimed by Hubbard that dianetics is part of scientology. Hubbard has consistently maintained that an understanding of his book, Dianetics: MSMH, is essential to an understanding of scientology, and he has repeatedly, right up to very recent times, directed that every effort be made to sell this book, a million copies, so he claims, having already been sold. Its present price is £2 3s. 6d.

In dianetics Hubbard considered that

"The entire physical pain and painful emotion of a lifetime, whether the individual 'knows' about it or not, is contained, recorded, in the engram bank. Nothing is forgotten. And all physical pain and painful emotion, no matter how the individual may think he has handled it, is capable of reinflicting itself upon him from this hidden level, unless that pain is removed by dianetic therapy."


Hubbard writes in Dianetics: MSMH,

" 'Dianetic therapy', may briefly be stated. Dianetics deletes all the pain from a lifetime. When the pain is erased in the engram bank and refiled as memory and experience in the memory banks, all aberrations and psychosomatic illnesses vanish, the dynamics are entirely rehabilitated and the physical and mental being regenerate".


Hubbard claimed that in dianetics had been discovered the method of refiling pain and that "wide awake and without drugs an individual can return to any period of his entire life providing his passage is not blocked by engrams". The technique or therapy is done by what is called "dianetic reverie", and is applied by an auditor, who

"directs the attention of the patient to the patient's self and then begins to place the patient in various periods of the patient's life merely by telling him to go there rather than remember. All therapy is done, not by remembering or associating, but by travel on the time track. Every human being has a time truck. It begins with life and it ends with death, It is a sequence of events from portal to portal as recorded".


That many of the processes used in dianetics were hypnotic is evident both from their nature and their operation but Hubbard either ignores or denies this fact. In these processes the processing was towards clear, which was at the time said to be the optimum state attainable by man. In such a state, all illness and aberrations fell away. An intermediate stage was the release.

"In a release, the case is not progressed to the point of complete recall. In a clear, full memory exists throughout the lifetime, with the additional bonus that he has photographic recall in colour, motion, sound, &c., as well as optimum computational ability".


Dianetics taught that past experiences were recorded, "that the engram recording was probably done on the cellular level, that the engram bank was contained in the cells", that "the engram is a recording like the ripples in the groove of a phonograph record". Hubbard was emphatic in pointing out that what were impinged on the cell were not memories but actually prenatal engrams or recordings, and that these recording at a cellular level were capable of being made from the earliest stage of prenatal development onward; even at the zygote stage. The most prolific source of engrams was, so Hubbard considered, in the prenatal period, and his dianetic writings are cluttered to a degree which is obsessive with examples of how the prenatal engrams were experienced by the embryo, sometimes only a few days after conception, and by the foetus, as a result of violent assaults on or other physical injury to the mother, attempted abortions and intercourse which is often described as promiscuous. In Chapter 6, aspects of prenatal engrams and Hubbard's morbid preoccupation with abortion and sexual perversion are dealt with.

About 70 per cent. of the physician's "current roster of diseases", so Hubbard claims, falls into the category of psychosomatic illness. "Psychosomatic illnesses", Hubbard explained, "are those which have a mental origin but which are nevertheless organic". Hubbard writes,

"Arthritis, dermatitis, allergies, asthma, some coronary difficulties, eye trouble, bursitis, ulcers, sinusitis, &c., form a very small section of the psychosomatic catalogue. Bizarre aches and pains in various portions of the body are generally psychosomatic. Migraine headaches are psychosomatic and, with the others, are uniformly cured by dianetic therapy. (And the word cured is used in its fullest sense.)"
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Re: CITY OF CLEARWATER COMMISSION HEARINGS RE: THE CHURCH O

Postby admin » Sat Nov 28, 2015 12:49 am

Part 4 of 6

CHAPTER 10: ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DIANETICS AND SCIENTOLOGY

Hubbard founded the Hubbard Dianetic Research Foundation in California in 1950. By 1951, his experiments in dianetic processing had reached the stage where he wished to develop the past lives theory beyond merely the prenatal period. He found in dianetic processing that preclears came up with incidents which could not have happened either in this lifetime or in the prenatal period. He accepted the incidents as real, though it appeared that they had occurred prior to the prenatal period, sometimes very many years earlier. In 1951, because of differences between himself and the board of control of the Hubbard Dianetic Research Foundation, he withdrew from that organization and continued alone his probing of the past. In this way, he founded scientology, which involved his "discovery", by what he claimed to be scientific methods, of the thetan or the soul or the spirit, which he claimed had existed for all time and had possessed countless bodies, over millions of years. There now opened before him the entrancing and limitless vista of the past with boundless scope for his imagination.
The Hubbard Dianetic Research Foundation seems to have fallen on hard times by about 1954, and Hubbard acquired it in some way which did not clearly emerge in the evidence. By 1955, dianetics was Hubbard's once more, and he held a congress to celebrate the reunion which he called the Unification Congress.

Scientology witnesses repeatedly asserted during the Inquiry that dianetics was not now practised. Their anxiety to establish this contention was understandable, because of the forthright claims made by dianetics to cure with certainty a great number of man's ills. Hubbard has not retracted any of the claims which he had earlier made for dianetics, and the scientology witnesses did not resile in any way from the claims which had been made as to the efficacy of dianetics to cure with certainty 70 per cent. of man's psychosomatic illnesses and aberrations. They said, however, that at the present time scientologists were not interested in curing ills but only in making the able more able. Tampion said that, though the highly efficacious skills of dianetics were available to cure the mentally ill, it was uneconomic to do so, as far quicker results were obtained "making the able more able" than by making the less able, able.

The scientology witnesses pointed out what they claimed were important distinctions between dianetics and scientology. For instance, Hubbard in HCO Bull. of 1st July, AD 13 (1963), wrote: "With the advent of Scientology with its complete shift from Dianetic goals, healing went out as a reason for running engrams and concern about the body vanished as an auditing target .... Engram running has vanished as a healing process. Engram handling by chains has emerged as an entirely reoriented subject, not even vaguely connected with the body and with the target not of a human clear but of Operating Thetan."

It was said that since the discovery that the thetan had engrams the theory that the engram recording was cellular did not exist in scientology (notwithstanding the positive assertion in dianetics as a proven fact that the engram recording was cellular), because the recording was now of the engram of the thetan which had no cells on which the recording could be impinged.

Williams explained what he described as the "principal changeover" from dianetics to scientology thus: "The early dianetic work said that what aberrated the individual was what was done to the individual, whereas in scientology we see introduced the concept that it is what the individual himself has done that can aberrate him," that is, the individual takes responsibility for his own condition. Williams further expressed the distinction between dianetics and scientology thus: "At the end of a dianetics se ssion he (the preclear) would say, 'I have recovered from something someone did to me.' At the end of the scientology session he would say, 'I have recovered from something as a result of what I have done.' So, it is contradictory".

One important aspect of scientology auditing is that a person should be "at cause," just as a clear is said to be at cause, and that a person should be responsible and should accept responsibility. The preclear is persuaded in auditing that, by probing the past and uncovering all aspects of whatever may be the situation being audited, he will understand how and why the situation came about. He is said then to have a clearer understanding of things and to accept responsibility, for auditing tends to explain whatever may have happened - or the preclear believes happened - as due to himself and to decisions made or acts done or thoughts entertained by himself. Nobody is sick, asserts Hubbard, unless he wants to be sick; even a soldier wounded by enemy action is said to be responsible for his wound because of his own non-survival thought or action. Anything which has happened to a person, so it is said, is because of some non-survival act which he himself is responsible for. The preclear thus examines his past in an accusative way, accepting responsibility and acknowledging guilt for happenings in respect of which he was in no way culpable. The quality of guilt is thereby given to the most innocent action, and the acceptance of responsibility in this distorted way, far from benefiting the preclear, leaves him prey to great anxieties and predisposed to undertake more auditing to find relief from the very anxieties that auditing produces.

Williams, in pointing out a distinction as to responsibility according to whether the preclear has been dianetically or scientologically processed, merely illustrates an immaterial distinction, for the techniques are essentially the same, and if scientology preclears soliloquize differently from dianetic preclears it is merely because they have been so indoctrinated.

Though there do exist these and other distinctions between dianetics and scientology, though the techniques which have developed in recent years are called by scientological names and are said to be directed towards the thetan or spirit rather than the body, there has continued to be a close and unbroken association between the two As already mentioned, dianetics is repeatedly referred to in scientological writings as a sub-subject of scientology - as that part of scientology which deals with mental anatomy - and scientology witnesses agreed that dianetics was still a part of scientology. Even during the Inquiry the two names appeared boldly across the front of the HASI premises at 157-9 Spring Street, Melbourne.

In HCO Pol. Lr. of the 26th February, 1961, Hubbard refers to the "International Council of Dianetics and Scientology", which "is legalized by the legal structure of HCO. Ltd. and by my will of December 26, 1960," to which Council Williams and Mrs. Williams were appointed, the purpose of the Council being stated to be, "to ensure the smooth running of Dianetics and Scientology throughout the world, to safeguard and increase their money and properties and to provide good administration, excellent service and justice".

Numerous bulletins contain references to dianetics which indicate that it is still very much alive.

Hubbard has been most insistent in numerous bulletins that the sales of his book, Dianetics: MSMH should be pushed virtually to the exclusion of other literature. In HCO Bull. of the 28th April, 1960, Hubbard writes,

"Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health contains today a perfectly workable therapy. But more importantly it contains a bridge between the uninformed and the informed public on the subject of scientology".


In the same bulletin, Hubbard writes,

"When people are asking you questions about Dianetics and Scientology, no matter how obtuse or abstruse the questions are, your best answer to these questions was my earliest answer and that was, Read Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health and that will answer your question . . We have made a break-through. The moment of the break-through is recorded at public level with Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health. If people do not read this book, they just will not have broken through .... To all Central Orgs. Push this book with every possible display and mention .... Play down all other PE books, display Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health as the book they must now buy .... We've lost the people in a maze of many titles. Take down all your modern book displays. Concentrate on one, Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health".


This direction makes it clear that dianetics is a current study and very much alive. Obediently to Hubbard's command the Melbourne HASI gave precedence to Dianetics: MSMH and prominently displayed the book in its window.

In HCO Bull. of the 6th October, 1960, Hubbard directs that professional auditors be written to telling them that there are unlimited supplies of Dianetics: MSMH available and that "As we feel that this book is the best possible dissemination for Scientology, we want to get it out to people with the least possible delay". As an inducement to the auditors, the instruction continued, "For each and every copy of Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health that you buy from us for cash you will get a credit of £1 in the HGC. This offer is only open to professional auditors - the public will buy the book from you in the usual way".

The Melbourne HASI monthly magazine Communication of which Mrs. Williams was at least until October, 1964, the editor, bore at that date the legend "The Official Periodical of Dianetics and Scientology in Australia".

The Com. Mag. of May, 1960, states in relation to Dianetics: MSMH that to say it was "invaluable both to the Student of Scientology and to anyone wishing to find his way in the labyrinth of human behaviour, is an understatement: the book is, in fact, essential reading". The Com. Mag. of June, 1961, reprints part of the first chapter of Dianetics: MSMH.

The Com. Mag. of November, 1962, refers to Dianetics: MSMH thus: "This book describes the states of a 'release' and 'clear' obtainable through Scientology processing". The Com. Mag. of February - March, 1963, describes Dianetics: MSMH as "the basic text book on the mind and clearing"

The Com. Mag. of May, 1965, is mainly an advertisement for The Original Thesis written by Hubbard in 1948, which is described as "The Original Text on Dianetics" and is said to be "an excellent beginning text for anyone starting in Scientology".

Many ideas developed in dianetics were adopted into scientology, e.g., the engram, the time track, the clear, the release. It may well be that emphasis and direction have changed, but dianetics has always remained and is still an integral part of scientology. Witnesses were constrained to admit that it was important to scientology. Williams conceded that "it has key importance", but the explanation of the HASI for the continued association of Dianetics: MSMH with scientology was that it provided helpful background material and enabled the history of scientology to be appreciated and understood, so that the inquirer "can read through Dianetics and can understand the rest of it".

The connexion between dianetics and scientology and the continued prominence given to Dianetics: MSMH were of much more significance and importance in this Inquiry than historical or background material. As will appear later in this Report, for a considerable number of years, scientology, in a guarded and veiled manner yet nonetheless deliberately and consistently, has been purporting to treat illnesses and effect cures.

Protestations that scientology does not claim to cure are idle, because at the same time the HASI offers to inquirers its dianetic literature which proclaims the efficacy at wholesale healing of one of the branches of scientology. In the Melbourne HASI Com. Mag. Vol. 1, No. 10, there appears in bold type the announcement that "All you have read about in scientology and dianetics can be achieved by you with processing from the Hubbard Guidance Centre". The two subjects are deliberately woven together in this confusing way in order to deceive the uncritical who are led to believe that scientology has healing techniques, and at the same time to enable the HASI, when challenged by government authority, to reply that is does not claim to heal. The scientological attitude is, in effect, "Scientology does not claim to cure, but in the past it has done the wonderful things set out in Dianetics: MSMH and other books. Of course it does not claim to cure but ...." The success of this technique is measured by the number of mentally and physically ill people who have patronised the Melbourne HASI. Such number does not admit a precise definition, but it is evident from an examination of numerous files that the technique adopted by the HASI of disclaiming to heal but pointing to past achievements was effective in many cases.
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Re: CITY OF CLEARWATER COMMISSION HEARINGS RE: THE CHURCH O

Postby admin » Sat Nov 28, 2015 12:59 am

Part 5 of 6

CHAPTER 11: SCIENTOLOGY THEORIES

In Scientology: The Fundamentals of Thought, written by Hubbard in 1956 and described as "The Basic Book of the Theory and Practice of Scientology for Beginners", Hubbard seeks to discuss and explain the basic principles of scientology. In quoting from this and other writings of Hubbard, the Board has not followed Hubbard's practice of printing in capitals the many words, phrases and even sentences which he dignifies with capital letters for the purpose of emphasis.

It is also to be noted that, in many of his writings, Hubbard puts in parenthesis after certain words other words with the same or substantially the same meaning for the assistance, so he explains, of translators. In quoting Hubbard's actual texts this Report includes the words which Hubbard has put in parenthesis.

One further preliminary observation should be made: the attempted codification or description of scientology theories in this Chapter - and, indeed, in any other part of this Report - should not be taken as indicating in any way an acceptance of their validity.

Cycle of Action.

Hubbard writes in Scientology: The Fundamentals of Thought that fundamental to scientology is what he calls the "Cycle of Action" which is "an apparency as follows: Create, then survive; then destroy; or Creation, Survival, Destruction". Hubbard illustrates the apparent cycle of action by this example: "A child is born, he grows, he reaches manhood, he grows old, he dies". However, he stresses that this is only the apparent cycle of action and that "The actual cycle of action is as follows: Create, create-create-create, create-counter-create, no creation, nothingness": "create-counter-create" being to "create something against a creation", which equals "to create one thing and then create something else against it", which equals to "destroy".

Hubbard says that an actual cycle of action consists of various activities, each of which is creative. By way of illustration he takes a wall which is seen to be standing.

"To be apparent it is necessary that the wall be constantly created. The act of 'destruction' is to exert against the wall another creativeness that of the action or activity of knocking the wall down. Both the wall standing there and the action of knocking it down are 'creative' actions. Because we may object (to argue against, dislike) to a wall being knocked down, we vilify (swear at, scorn) the creativeness involved in knocking it down with the word 'destructive'. Actuality tells us there is no such thing as destruction. There is only creation against a creation. There is another 'type of destruction' and this is no more creation. By no longer being a party to (a member of) the wall's creation, the wall, in theory, can cease to exist for one. This is true in actual practice in Scientology ".


Reality.

From this line of "reasoning", which is reminiscent of discarded oddities of earlier philosophic speculation, Hubbard then propounds the proposition that what is real for a person is real for that person and what is unreal for that person is unreal for that person, and his followers carry this proposition to extreme lengths. On this basis, several witnesses were prepared to accept Hubbard's claim to have gone to Venus on a particular occasion in this lifetime, because Hubbard had said he had been there a few days before and if it was real to him then it was real to him.

"Reality," writes Hubbard, "is the way things appear. Reality is apparency .... Reality is fundamentally agreement. What we agree to be real is real". This statement and the confusion of the use of the word "create" illustrates the wholesale distortion of the meaning of words in which Hubbard engages. His writings abound in instances of words being assigned meanings different from their accepted or conventional meanings and he frequently invents new words for his purposes. Of course, each branch of learning has its own vocabulary, and a person, whether he be a lay person or the founder of scientology, may make his own dictionary. But Hubbard confuses his followers by the use of common words in a quite artificial and contradictory way, and obscures the meaning which he is endeavouring to convey.

Throughout the Inquiry, the Board has been aware of the difficulty caused by Hubbard's misuse and abuse of common English words, and it has endeavoured to bear in mind the distorted meanings which Hubbard has given to such words. However, allowing for Hubbard's peculiar deviation from standard English meanings, the Board finds no more acceptable to reason the great body of Hubbard's teaching on scientology theory.

The cycle of action thesis which he propounded may appeal to some as an interesting view of life, but one cannot ignore the fallacies which it contains, such as reality being an apparency and the claim that for a thing to exist it must be constantly created, and that in scientology a thing may cease to exist if one ceases to think it exists.

There are three conditions, writes Hubbard, which comprise life, and they are "be, do and have": the conditions of "being" or "beingness", "doing" and "havingness". Hubbard teaches that people's beingness, doing and havingness may vary greatly according to their mental conditions and that scientology processing can produce in a person a greater degree of beingness and havingness, as well as raise his ability to do things.

"This is Life".

One of the highly recommended books on scientology described as standard reading for beginners, is a volume of about 100 pages entitled, This is Life, An Introduction to Scientology by Reg Sharpe, an American. This book was written in 1961 and reprinted on several occasions, including once in Australia. Sharpe somewhat simplifies the cycle of action, stating it to be simply "Create-Survive-Destroy (Decay)" or, as applied to a human body" Birth-Life-Death" and he quotes axiom 13 of the "Axioms of Scientology" in which Hubbard has written "The cycle of action of the physical universe is Create, Survive (persist), Destroy".

This is Life is a simply written book, in which the author takes simple examples to illustrate his points, but lacks logic and assumes a multitude of premises without proving them - in effect, leaving it until later when the student will become more advanced in scientology thought and able then to "cognite" on them without having to be satisfied that such premises are valid.

Stable Datum.

Sharpe stresses the need for a person to have " stable data" in all matters, and he quotes axiom 52 as follows, "A Stable Datum is necessary to the alignment of data". It emerges from a consideration of Hubbard's and Sharpe's writings on stable data that so long as the stable datum is true for you, all is well, even though it may not be true for others ; and, further, if a stable datum which you have chosen turns out to be untrue for you, you start off with a new stable datum and again all will be well. Sharpe readily assumes that the reader will cognite on scientology and requests him to read the book uncritically by the following exhortation

"the reason I have drawn your attention to all this is because in studying this book and, indeed, anything Scientological, I want you to be sure that the data presented is true. If you sit and try to prove it wrong you will be in trouble. On the other hand I do not wish to try to prove it right. I just want you to read it and make up your mind as to its truth or otherwise. I do hope you will neither accept nor reject anything just because you do not understand . . . . Above all I want you to discover for yourself what is true".


He then deals with people who are sure of themselves and who, he writes, have "certainty", because they have the most stable data.

"There are so many things on which they are certain. In consequence they are better able to sum up situations and act to the best advantage. At worst we have the insane. There is little if anything that they are certain about. Certainty you will observe is closely allied to sanity. The more certainties a man has the more sane he is."


In this insidious way, the reader of This is Life is led to read the rest of the book, always with the subconscious thought that what he is reading is right and that his own deficiencies are the explanation for his failure to understand and accept, and the further subconscious thought that to lack certainty about any proposition in the book is, to that extent, to be insane.

The Eight Dynamics.

In Scientology: The Fundamentals of Thought, Hubbard writes, "As one looks out across the confusion which is life or existence for most people, one can discover eight main divisions to each one of which applies the conditions of existence. Each division contains a cycle of action." These divisions are called "dynamics" and there are eight dynamics which, according to Hubbard, are: -

THE FIRST DYNAMIC - is the urge towards existence as one's self. Here we have individuality expressed fully. This can be called the self dynamic.

THE SECOND DYNAMIC - is the urge toward existence as a sexual or bisexual activity. This dynamic actually has two divisions. Second Dynamic (a) is the sexual act itself and the Second Dynamic (b) is the family unit, including the rearing of children. This can be called the sex dynamic.

"THE THIRD DYNAMIC is the urge toward existence in groups of individuals. Any group or part of an entire class could be considered to be a part of the Third Dynamic. The school, the society, the town, the nation are each part of the Third Dynamic, and each one is a Third Dynamic. This can be called the group dynamic.

THE FOURTH DYNAMIC is the urge toward mankind whereas the white race would be considered a Third Dynamic. All the races would be considered the Fourth Dynamic. This can be called the mankind dynamic.

THE FIFTH DYNAMIC is the urge toward existence of the animal kingdom. This includes all living things whether vegetable or animal. The fish in the sea, the beasts of the field, or of the forest, grass, trees, flowers or anything directly and intimately motivated by life. This can be called the animal dynamic.

THE SIXTH DYNAMIC is the urge toward existence as the physical universe. The physical universe is composed of matter, energy, space and time. In Scientology we take the first of each of these words and coin a word MEST. This can be called the universe dynamic.

THE SEVENTH DYNAMIC is the urge toward existence as or of spirits. Anything spiritual, with or without identity, would come under the heading of the Seventh Dynamic. This can be called the spiritual dynamic.

THE EIGHTH DYNAMIC is the urge towards existence as Infinity. This is also identified as the Supreme Being. It is carefully observed here that the science of Scientology does not intrude into the Dynamic of the Supreme Being. This is called the Eighth Dynamic because the symbol of infinity stood upright makes the numeral '8'. This can be called the infinity or God dynamic."


It will be noted that dianetics had the first four dynamics only. Scientology, so Hubbard writes, "embraces dynamics one through seven as known territory, scientifically demonstrated and classified". This claim is not borne out by any material placed before the Board, whether orally or as written material. Such written material as dealt with dynamics beyond the third dynamic was patently speculative. Indeed, in practice, scientology has rarely, and barely, gone as far as the third dynamic. The self dynamic and the sex dynamic have been the dominant themes, if one wishes to classify scientology processing in Victoria in terms of dynamics.

Of the eighth dynamic, Sharpe writes, "The 8th Dynamic. This with all humility I'll leave to you. God. The Supreme Being. The Creator. The Infinite. Nature. But you are certainly interested in It's survival. Nothing would be here without It".

Though Hubbard claims that "the science of scientology does not intrude into the Dynamic of the Supreme Being", this is not so, as Chapter 27, which deals with Hubbard's disparagement of religion, makes clear.

The dynamics are constantly referred to in scientology practice, preclears being processed on, and their aberrations being described as being in respect of, one or more of the dynamics.

ARC Triangle.

In Scientology: The Fundamentals of Thought Hubbard writes,

"There is a triangle of considerable importance in Scientology and understanding of it gives a much greater understanding of life, and an ability to use it.

The ARC triangle is the keystone of living associations. This triangle is the common denominator to all of life's activities. The first corner of the triangle is called Affinity .... The word 'affinity' is here used to mean love, liking or any other emotional attitude ....

The second corner of the triangle is Reality. Reality could be defined as 'that which appears to be. Reality is fundamentally agreement. What we agree to be real is real'.

The third corner of the triangle is Communication. In human relationships this is more important than the other two corners of the triangle in understanding the composition of human relations in this universe. Communication is the solvent for all things. It dissolves all things .....

ARC are understanding. If you would continue a strong and able communication with someone there must be some basis for agreement. There must be some liking for the person and then communication can exist.... Communication is essentially something which is sent and which is received. The intention to send and the intention to receive must both be present in some degree before an actual communication can take place ...."

Original with Scientology, as are all these concepts, the ARC triangle understood is an extremely useful tool or weapon in human relationships. For instance, among the ARC triangle laws, a communication to be received must approximate the affinity level of the person to whom it is directed.

As people descend the tone scale they became more and more difficult to communication with, and things with which they will agree, become more and more solid. Thus we have friendly discourse high on the scale and war at the bottom. Where the affinity level is hate, the agreement is solid matter, and the communication . . . bullets."


ARC is stated to be "the component parts of understanding," and in scientology practice great emphasis is placed on the ARC triangle, especially on communication. Several highly placed HASI witnesses explained at great lengths the intricacies of the ARC triangle. Indeed, so detailed and protracted was their evidence on this particular phase that the Board was at first puzzled by the repeated insistence of these witnesses as to the importance of this aspect. It was explained that unless there was affinity, a readiness or willingness to receive the communication, there could be no communication; and, further, unless both the sender and receiver had a reality on what was being communicated the triangle was not functioning and there would be no communication and, of course, if there was no communication there was no triangle. It was said, further, that for the triangle to function effectively there had to be an acknowledgement of the communication by the recipient, and an acknowledgment of the acknowledgment by the sender. For how many stages such acknowledgments should go back and forth was not determined. The acknowledgment could take various forms, and witnesses explained the way in which auditors acknowledged the acknowledgement of preclears to whom they had communicated a reality. Each individual auditor, it was said, had his own pet phrases, such as "good", "right", "O.K.", "beauty", or some other similar pleasantry.

Summary of Scientology by Jack Horner confirms the teaching concerning the travelling back and forth of acknowledgments. He writes, " There are actually five lags in one-half of the cycles; between origination and receipt, between receipt and answer, between answer and its receipt by originator, between receipt of answer and acknowledgment, between acknowledgment and its receipt". In Scientology: The Fundamentals of Thought, Hubbard stipulates the necessity of repetition and of acknowledgments . He writes that auditing ability includes "an ability to place one question worded exactly the same way over and over again to the preclear no matter how many times the preclear has answered the question. It should include the ability to acknowledge with a 'good' and 'all right' every time a preclear executes or completes the execution of a command."

As the Inquiry proceeded it became evident that the scientology witnesses were proceeding on the basis that scientology was real to them but at that stage not real to the Board, and that for the Board to "cognite" on and so understand scientology, it was necessary to establish affinity with the Board and to communicate to the Board the reality which they had on scientology. And so the witnesses sought to indoctrinate the Board, and, as far as circumstances allowed, they applied techniques appropriate to ARC which, however, were merely techniques of salesmanship, whereby they sought to obtain the Board's assent to each statement they made or proposition they advanced. Witnesses even went so far as to seek the Board's actual acknowledgment of each proposition advanced. In this preoccupation to receive the Board's assent to whatever might be said lay the explanation, in part at least, for the thoroughness of their treatment of the ARC triangle.

The Board believes that the processes so practised on it did not extend beyond the elementary personal efficiency course level, probably because graduation or promotion to higher levels in scientology requires a "cognition" on all that has gone before.

When one is in disagreement with the HASI or a person, there is said to have been an "ARC break". A person who endeavours to break away from scientology finds it very difficult to do so, because he has been conditioned to believe that any hostile attitude he develops towards scientology is due to an ARC break for which he must accept responsibility and that it is in his own interests to have the break repaired. If the ARC break is with the HASI, it makes great efforts to repair the break. Frequently many hours of processing are directed towards repairing an ARC break. One very common method by which the preclear is lured back is by the letter writing technique. This technique, devised and directed by Hubbard, involves the writing of letters, sometimes dozens of them to the one person, requesting the recipient to come to the HASI and talk things over and so repair the ARC break.

If a preclear during a course of auditing has an ARC break with HASI it is said that it is because of a "by-passed charge", the auditing being faulty, as for example where the auditor has wrongly found as the "basic" in a chain of engrams an engram later in time than the real basic. In such a case Hubbard directs that the preclear be telephoned and told that there is a more basic incident or RI (reliable item) or GPM (goals-problems-mass), and the rebellious but worried preclear is induced to return for further processing.

Axioms of Scientology.

"Scientology as a science", writes Hubbard in Scientology: The Fundamentals of Thought, "is composed of many axioms (self-evident truths, as in geometry)". There are 57 axioms in scientology. In dianetics there are 190 axioms. There are also 7 prelogics and 24 logics. Hubbard described the first 10 axioms in scientology as the most fundamental "truths", by which he means "commonly held considerations". In propounding the axioms of scientology Hubbard makes entirely unfounded assumptions and is quite illogical. The whole list of scientology and dianetic axioms and the prelogics and logics appear in various scientology publications, including Ability, issue 80, and the New Zealand Affinity Magazine, issue No. 8: and no good purpose would be served in setting out at length in this Report the text of the axioms, prelogics and logics. It will be sufficient to refer in detail to the first 10 axioms of scientology which Hubbard regards as fundamental, and which he sets out as follows in Scientology: The Fundamentals of Thought:

"Axiom 1. . . Life is basically a static. (Definition: A life static has no mass, no motion, no wave-length, no location in space or in time. It has the ability to postulate and to perceive.)

Definition: In Scientology, the word ' postulate ' means to cause a thinkingness or consideration. It is a specially applied word and is defined as causative thinkingness.

Axiom 2 . . . The static is capable of considerations, postulates, and opinions.

Axiom 3 . . . Space, energy, objects, form and time are the result of considerations made and/or agreed upon or not by the static, and are perceived solely because the static considers that it can perceive them.

Axiom 4 . . . Space is a viewpoint of dimensions. (Space is caused by looking out from a point. The only actuality of space is the agreed upon consideration that one perceives through something and this we call space.)

Axiom 5. . . Energy consists of postulated particles in space. (One considers that energy exists and that he can perceive energy. One also considers that energy behaves according to certain agreed upon laws. These assumptions or considerations are the totality of energy.)

Axiom 6 . . . Objects consist of grouped particles.

Axiom 7 . . . Time is basically a postulate that space and particles will persist. (The rate of their persistence is what we measure with clocks and the motion of heavenly bodies.)

Axiom 8 . . . The apparency of time is the change of position of particles in space.

Axiom 9 . . . Change is the primary manifestation of time.

Axiom 10 . . . The highest purpose in the universe is the creation of an effect."


The Board heard by way of final address an analysis of the axioms of scientology by Mr. Phillip Wearne. He submitted that a cursory glance at the axioms may give the impression that they are aligned somewhat with early Christian gnostic faith, and the axiomatic thetan-theory may appear to be a statement in Greek symbols of spirit as created of the physical universe, so that axioms 1 and 2 describe God as Spirit and axioms 2 to 10 describe the creation of the physical universe by God and subsequent axioms state the separation of souls from God by the interposition of MEST, the human soul being then finally designated as the "thetan" in axiom 50. Mr. Wearne submitted, however, that Hubbard really means that a life static is an entity which partakes of the quality of thought and not matter, and is not one Supreme Being by which all life and all things were created but that the physical universe was created jointly and severally by a conglomeration of thetans, that is, by individual souls, each of which had the capacity of infinite and eternal intelligence as distinct from temporal and spatial existence of material substance. The concept of a thetan or thetans creating the physical universe is, as Mr. Wearne pointed out, quite the reverse of Christian belief. Mr. Wearne developed this thesis in a way which would be of interest to the philosopher or theologian minded to embark upon controversy with Hubbard. For the purpose of this Report, it is sufficient to say that Hubbard's dogmatic assertions and assumptions as expressed in the axioms, are unsupported by reasons or proof. As axioms they claim to be self evident truths, but they are neither self evident, nor are they true. One scientologist was quite enthusiastic about Hubbard's axioms of scientology which he regarded as "a gem of literary expression", and as being "the finest piece of writing in the English language", but, to use his own words, "I have found that the axioms were very confusing to me for a start and I will say that it was a couple of years before they began to make sense". So much for their self evident qualities! Gillham, co-principal of the Melbourne College of Personal Efficiency, said that after being a scientologist for many years he still did not understand the axioms.

Not only do some of the axioms contain startling and unproved assertions, but some of the terms used by Hubbard in the axioms are in effect defined in the axioms themselves, so that one goes round in a circle and finds axioms proving each other but little else and with no acceptable premises as a starting point. Hubbard further confuses himself and the reader by equating concepts to substances. For instance, in axiom 3 Hubbard states that space, energy and time, all of which are concepts, may be perceived, presumably in the same way that objects are perceived, and that all or any of them are the result of considerations made and/or agreed upon or not by the static by which presumably he means they exist, only because they are in any given case considered or agreed upon by the static to exist. In axiom 7 he defines "time" as being basically a postulate that space, which is a concept, and particles, which are substances, will persist. So too, in axiom 5, he writes that energy, which is a concept, consists of postulated particles, which are substances, in space, which is a concept.

In the axioms, Hubbard thus confuses abstract concepts with concrete objects and treats the existence of each as purely subjective to and dependent on the considerations and/or agreements of the individual static.

The Tone Scale.

In scientology, constant reference is made to the tone scale. The tone scale was first developed by Hubbard in dianetics and its purpose was to classify a variety of human emotions in a graduated order from the most dismal or lowest, which is said to be apathy, to the highest which is said to be enthusiasm. Each emotional level is given a number and the emotions are arranged in a descending order of desirability. The tone scale has been produced in various forms and representations of this tone scale have not been entirely consistent one with the other. So far as the numbering is concerned it is said that the numerical gradation of the emotions is incidental and any other set of numbers could equally wel1 have been chosen; the significant feature is that the emotions are in a descending order of desirability. Some representations of the tone scale have been very detailed and comprehensive, one such representation or a variant of it being the "Hubbard Chart of Human Evaluations" which is a chart with 12 columns vertically and about 50 columns horizontally, and reproducing what is, in effect, a detailed table of much of the contents of Science of Survival. In this book of several hundred pages, which is "built around a chart", Hubbard has set out what he considers the significance of the tone scale and the way in which persons rise up the tone scale in response to dianetic processing, and, as he would now have it, in response to scientology processing.

For the purpose of this Report the reproduction of Hubbard's highly elaborate Chart of Human Evaluations is unnecessary. It is sufficient to produce here two variations of the tone scale, one appearing in Scientology: 8-8008, and the other appearing in This is Life.

The thetan tone scale appearing in Scientology: 8-8008 is as follows:

Image

40.0 Serenity of beingness
8.0 Exhilaration
4.0 Enthusiasm
3.0 Conservatism
2.5 Boredom
2.0 Antagonism
1.8 Pain
1.5 Anger
1.2 No-sympathy
1.0 Fear
0.9 Sympathy
0.8 Propitiation
0.5 Grief
0.375 Making amends
0.05 Apathy
0.0 Being a body
- 0.2 Being other bodies
- 1.0 Punishing other bodies
- 1.3 Responsibility as blame
- 1.5 Controlling bodies
- 2.2 Protecting bodies
- 3.0 Owning bodies
- 3.5 Approval from bodies
- 4.0 Needing bodies
- 8.0 Hiding

The tone scale appearing in This is Life is in the following form:

4.0 Enthusiasm
3.5 Strong Interest
Mild Interest
3.0 Contentment
Indifference
2.5 Boredom
2.0 Expressed Hostility
1.5 Anger
1.1 Unexpressed Resentment
1.0 Fear
0.5 Grief
0.1 Apathy

It will be observed that the tone scale as shown in Scientology: 8-8008 is rather more extensive than that shown in This is Life. The reason for this is that the former takes in the "thetan scale range well below body death at '0' down to complete unbeingness as a thetan". Hubbard explains this extension of the tone scale by saying that "This sub-zero tone scale shows that the thetan is several bands below knowingness as a body and so he will be found in the majority of cases. In our homo sapiens he will be discovered to be below zero on the tone scale". This remarkable statement is consistent with Hubbard's proposition that most persons are in such a low state that it is not until they have been processed for a substantial time that they are lifted up the tone scale sufficiently to feel apathy. And Hubbard writes in Scientology: 8-8008 that the auditor must not be dismayed that the preclear, who may be otherwise acting normally, becomes irrational in the course of auditing, but should "persevere until he has the thetan up into rational scale. A raving mad thetan is far more sane than a normal human being". Hubbard used this particular argument to explain and justify what one would normally regard as the reduction of a person's condition to what is sometimes referred to by Hubbard as the "sad effect". This is a condition in which the preclear is in such a depressed state after scientology processing as to be likely to contemplate suicide, yet the preclear has been so conditioned by scientology as to believe that, in reaching this state, he is in fact progressing.

Confusion frequently arises because of the loose way in which the word "preclear" is used. The preclear is the real person, is the thetan, which for the time being is in association with the body which it has picked up. The thetan functions through the reactive mind, not the analytical mind which is the adjunct of the "meat body", the mechanism of the physical object which is visible to the eye. Thus the purist does not say "my thetan", but "the thetan which is I", and such refinement of language is to be kept in mind when considering the adventures of a thetan as it journeys up and down the tone scale and ranges beyond emotions experienced when in the state of body-plus-thetan.

The whole purpose of scientology auditing is said to be to raise a person up the tone scale, and as one rises up the tone scale one is said to shed undesirable qualities and to assume more desirable qualities, not only mental but also physical.

Thus a person at 4.0, which is the conventional number given to enthusiasm on the tone scale, would be, writes Sharpe, "excellent at anything he undertakes", be rarely ill, have a high concept of truth, be a truly courageous man, be very much aware of the existence of any danger in a set of circumstances, have a very high sense of responsibility, be excellent as a friend and liked by many, understand and be understood very well.

A person on 2.5 (boredom), so Sharpe writes, whilst capable of some action, would be relatively inactive, bored or indifferent, be occasionally ill and susceptible to the usual diseases, be insincere and careless of facts, just could not be bothered about the truth, have neither courage nor cowardice, be too careless to be trusted with more responsibility, have only fair friendship value and be liked only by a few, misunderstand and be often misunderstood.

In these days of personal hygiene, Hubbard's note in Science of Survival is of passing interest: "The body is normally sweet-smelling down to 2.0 but begins to exude chronically certain unpleasant effluvia from 2.0 down. Individuals from 2.0 down commonly have bad breath. Their feet may have a considerable odour . . . in the orient wives are commonly selected by the sweetness of their perspiration. This is apparently a very reliable test for position on the tone scale."

As to the unfortunate person who is 1.1 (the quality of unexpressed resentment and fear on Sharpe's scale-fear being shown on Hubbard's scale as 1.0), Sharpe writes that he is "only capable of minor executions," is sulky and has a chip on his shoulder, has frequent illnesses and gives way to them and goes to the doctor for the most trivial reasons, is a plausible liar, is scared of the truth and fearful of the consequences, is definitely cowardly, has an incapacity for responsibility, is in fact utterly irresponsible, is almost certainly unable to cause anything, on the score of friendship is a dangerous liability and usually despised and has no real understanding at all.

The tone scale is a great "conditioner" of preclears: it conditions them to listen to the claims by Hubbard that scientology processing effects personality improvements. The expanded tone scale really incorporates almost all human qualities and defects and is sure to contain some reference to a trait as to which an individual is self-conscious and has a secret fear of inadequacy. The friendless person finds himself classified as perhaps 1.1; he desperately wants to be loved, to be appreciated, to have friends; the scientology practitioner finds him very ready to grasp at the rewards which processing is said to achieve with certainty.

There have been other classifications of human emotions in the past and there will no doubt be others in the future; Hubbard's chart does little more than set out in an expansive way his particular classification of recognized emotions and a variety of other human qualities, real and assumed. The existence of emotions and their graduated classification is one thing. The completely unfounded claims by Hubbard that scientology auditing is capable of producing improvements in any real sense is quite another.

The Thetan.

In Science of Survival, Hubbard tells about a life force to which he has assigned the name theta, which is the eighth letter of the Greek alphabet, and is symbolized by 8. Theta, he writes, is "thought, life force, elan vital, the spirit, the soul, or any other of the numerous definitions it has had for some thousands of years". Hubbard elsewhere has described theta as life, and it may be one of his quirks that the letter, theta, in ancient Greece was synonymous with death, being the symbol by which the people marked ballots when voting for a verdict of death upon an accused person.

In scientology, the thetan, or theta being, is an individual entity. It is said that there is a thetan in possession of each human being and that the thetan is infinitely more important than the "meat body" with which it is associated in this lifetime. The meat body is frequently referred to as "mest" body, the letters M, E, S, T, standing respectively for matter, energy, space, and time.

When a preclear is audited, the thetan, according to scientology theory, is contacted and it reveals many things which are hidden from the conscious mind. The individual man, so Hubbard claims, is divisible into three parts, "The first of these is the spirit called in Scientology, the Thetan. The second of these parts is the Mind. The third of these parts is the Body".

The thetan is fundamental to scientology. It is described in scientology as having "no mass, no wave-length, no energy and no time or location in space except by consideration or postulate". In Scientology: The Fundamentals of Thought, Hubbard wrote in 1956:

"Probably the greatest discovery of Scientology and its most forceful contribution to the knowledge of mankind has been the isolation, description and handling of the human spirit. Accomplished in July, 1951, in Phoenix, Arizona, I established along scientific rather than religious or humanitarian lines that that thing which is the person, the personality, is separable from the body and the mind at will and without causing bodily death or mental derangement."


This thing, the person, the spirit, is the theta being or thetan. Though said by Hubbard to be the spirit, the soul or something like it, it is sui generis and finds no parallel in any other discipline or teaching, sacred or profane. It is said to possess immortality, to have existed from all time and to be destined to exist for ever in the future.
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Part 6 of 6

In Scientology: 8-80, first published in 1952, and reprinted as recently as 1957, Hubbard writes:

"Thetan is the word given to the awareness of awareness unit, the life source, the personality, and the beingness of homo sapiens .... It is the person .... The thetan is a glowing unit of energy source. He seems to himself to be anything from a quarter of an inch to two inches in diameter. His capability is knowing and being. He exudes and uses energy in many forms. He can perceive and handle energy flows easily. The thetan enters sometime in early infancy. This may be before, during or following birth. He comes in a state of personal unknowingness, desiring to have an identity which he considers he has not without a body. He throws capping beams at the genetic entity, takes over the body .... The thetan in most preclears is within the skull. It shifts on auditing (which is to say the pc shifts) from behind to in front of the head .... Standing behind anybody the thetan can adjust and change any error in the body at will. He sees these as black spots. To get rid of them one has only to get the flows necessary to make and keep them white .... The thetan collapses into the body when the body feels pain. This was how he got trapped .... A thetan can get partly out of himself on a ridge. Then the preclear seems to be inside himself and yet outside .... The thetan is the preclear. The body-plus-thetan is no increase of personality. The body is a sort of vegetable run by the genetic entity. The thetan can clean up and heal his own body and those of others at will."


The thetan "is the 'I', it is WHO the preclear is .... is both outside and inside the mest body". Though the usual residence of the thetan is said to be in the skull or near, it can, so Hubbard explains in Scientology: The Fundamentals of Thought, be in one of four positions: entirely separate from the body or even from this universe, near the body and knowingly controlling the body, in the body, and compulsively away from the body and unable 0 to approach it.
In A History of Man (originally called What to Audit), Hubbard writes that the "very best place" for the thetan is "out of contact with the mest body entirely and fully alive as 'I'. His worst place is inside the mest body." He further writes that "his second best place is just outside the mest body" and that "the thetan in most cases, is behind and above the mest body". Sometimes, however, he may be in front of the body, and this causes a

"direction reversal on the part of the person so that he doesn't know right from left-people can teach him continually but he will still say his right is his left and his left is his right, and so it is, for 'I' in this person is the thetan and the thetan is in front, facing the mest body and right is the thetan's right, of course."


The thetan has, so Hubbard suggests, remarkable capabilities, all of which, in 1952, he hesitated to enumerate, leaving it to the preclear, who is the thetan, to find out for himself. Some of its skills and attributes he did mention. Thetans communicate by telepathy, they can move material objects by throwing an energy flow at them. They emit a considerable electronic flow, can be rendered unconscious by wave action, can be hypnotized, can be made to sleep. They can quarrel with each other, feel pain, live on some planets. "A theta body with its alertness restored is capable of remoulding the human body within its field, taking off weight here, restoring it there, changing appearances and even height."

Of equal importance to scientology theory and practice is the doctrine of "past lives," in which the thetan had weird experiences, the influences of which are of great significance to the thetan in its present sojourn on earth. In the early stages of the Inquiry the scientologists endeavoured to create the impression that, at the present time, the concept of past lives played very little part in scientology. However, as the Inquiry proceeded, it became evident that past lives were today as significant and important in scientology as they have always been.

In its long existence through the ages, the thetan has been on earth many times before this lifetime and has had many bodies. lt has been picking up bodies and dropping bodies from time immemorial. In scientology it is generally thought that the thetan picks up a body at or about birth but it can be after birth and it can be before birth; in some cases it can even be many months before birth. In his writings Hubbard tells of auditing bringing to light incidents which occurred eight days after conception and even before conception. When one witness, a former scientologist, gave evidence before the Inquiry that in scientology some took the view that sometimes a thetan, looking for a body, would follow around a woman who looked as though she was likely shortly to become pregnant, the Board at first doubted the veracity of the witness; but this witness was later vindicated, for Lake, one of the principals of the Geelong scientology centre, gave evidence that he had experienced two well authenticated cases of this phenomenon.

It is said that a thetan, when it newly picks up a body, is in a state of unknowingness and may be confused because, though it is aware of the body it has taken over operating, it has never been told the identity of its body, and, while there are quite a few adults around, it has not been told that there are specific adults who will care for its body until it can manoeuvre the body thoroughly. So in the ceremonies of the American founding church of scientology there is a "christening" ceremony whereby the thetan is introduced to the human parents of its body. An account of Hubbard's performance of the "christening" ceremony is a travesty.

Apparently, in Hubbard's view, a thetan can take over a body already occupied by another thetan. The extent to which thetans had any choice of bodies did not clearly emerge, though one witness threatened counsel assisting the Board that she would return as his grandson's thetan thirty years hence.

The origin of thetans, whether they reproduce and how many thetans there are, witnesses could not say. Whether there would be sufficient thetans to go around when the population explosion occurs is not known. A scientologist in Hong Kong, corresponding with a highly placed staff member of the Melbourne HASI, has adverted to a gloomy prospect for those thetans which have bodies in this present lifetime. He writes,

"I do know that the population of China is 650 million, and that babies are being born at the rate of 17 million per year. Work this out for the next hundred years keeping in mind that three-quarters of the world's population at present is Chinese .... The chances are that next lifetime one would be a Chinese body, be indoctrinated with Communism from birth, have a minimum of education, be overworked and underfed and eventually die of malnutrition when one should be in the prime of life."


with the prospect, it seems, of picking up yet another Chinese body and repeating the same procedure forever.

When a thetan drops off a body, it goes to an implant station, where it is implanted with various goals, the goal to forget being, if not invariable, very common. The thetan waits until it can pick up another body, for which there is sometimes competition amongst disembodied thetans, for to be without a body can be a some what uncomfortable experience for a thetan. In one of his taped lectures, Hubbard states that the minimum period spent on an implant station is sixty-nine days, though the period was earlier thought to be shorter. Hubbard claims to have visited Venus and to have inspected an implant station there. There are other implant stations throughout the universe to which thetans report. In A History of Man Hubbard writes,

"The report area for most has been Mars. Some women report to stations elsewhere in the Solar System. There are occasional incidents about Earth report stations. The report stations are protected by screens. The last Martian report station on Earth was established in the Pyrenees."


Hubbard has worked out processes which he claims will rehabilitate the thetan by removing all aberrations. If this is achieved in this lifetime, the thetan will be able to enjoy future lives without being troubled by problems. if the aberrations are only "keyed out" the death of the present meat body will still leave the thetan subject to a recurrence of the aberrations; but, if a thetan is properly rehabilitated by scientology processing, Hubbard's teaching is that it will not have to go back to an implant station, where those who have not been properly rehabilitated are required to go and where there awaits the dreadful fate of having goals implanted by electric shocks, the passing of currents, "raw electricity" and a variety of other terrifying procedures. It is to escape such experiences as these that preclears, believing completely in Hubbard's teachings, seek desperately to be processed to clear and beyond, so as to avoid such experiences in the "between lives" periods.

Auditing makes contact with the thetan, and its past experiences are brought to light. A great amount of theory has been propounded concerning the thetan, much of which is not material to this Inquiry. It is sufficient to mention some of the more significant aspects of the thetan.

In scientology auditing, an attempt is made to locate and remove the aberration which is preventing the enjoyment of the optimum quality of being clear. The search is for the "basic-basic" which in dianetics and early scientology was the engram. However, in Scientology: 8-80, first published in 1951, "facsimile one" was stated to be

"the one basic engram, on top of which all this-life engrams are mere locks. It was received by the human race many, many centuries ago, and probably was a supersonic shot in the forehead, chest, and stomach, incapacitating, and reducing, the size and function of the pineal gland."


Implants.

Subsequently, Hubbard made a dramatic "breakthrough," and the basic cause of aberrations was said to be implants. Thetans, it seemed, had a variety of goals implanted in previous lives. A goal common to many thetans was found to be the goal "to forget." The unhappy lot of the thetan is that it does not remember its past, because in a past age it has been implanted with this goal to forget. This appears to have been done on the planet Helatrobus between 38 trillion and 43 trillion years ago. The hostile work of implanting in thetans the goal "to forget" and other goals was done by implanters, generally referred to as "they," who by electronic means and with great ferocity assailed the unfortunate thetans. Other implants have been inflicted on thetans, such as the gorilla implants, the aircraft door implants, the train implants, the bear implants and the glade implants. These implants were inflicted upon thetans at points earlier in time than the helatrobus implants. In HCO Bull. of the 24th July, AD 13 (1963), Hubbard set out a table of periods as "verified" by his "research," showing the times between which the different types of implants were implanted:-

Helatrobus Implants 382 trillion years ago to 52 trillion years ago.

Aircraft Door Implants 216 trillion years ago to 315 trillion years ago.

The Gorilla Goals 319 trillion years ago to 83 trillion trillion trillion years ago.

The Bear Goals 83 trillion trillion trillion years ago to about 40.7 trillion trillion trillion trillion years ago.

The Glade Implants (formerly called Black Thetan) 40.7 trillion trillion trillion trillion years ago to 5.9 trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion years ago.

The Invisible Picture Goals 5.9 trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion years to a date not fully determined.

The Minion Implants Not yet determined.

The Story of Creation Implants 70 trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion years.


The last mentioned, writes Hubbard, is the earliest date yet found, "but an earlier incident is known to exist."

In HCO Bull. of the 14th July, AD 13 (1963), Hubbard gives intriguing details of the manner in which the various goals were "laid in." The "aircraft door" goal "was given in the mocked up fuselage of an aircraft with the thetan fixed before an aircraft door. (There are also two or more aircraft fuselages used in the Helatrobus Implants, but the preclear moved through them, was not fixed in them)." The "gorilla goals" were "given in an amusement park with a single tunnel, a roller coaster and a ferris wheel .... The symbol of a Gorilla was always present in the place the goal was given. Sometimes a large gorilla, black, was seen elsewhere than the park. A Mechanical or a live gorilla was always seen in the park. This activity was conducted by the Hoipolloi, a group of operators in meat body societies. They were typical carnival people. They let out Concessions for these Implant 'Amusement Parks.' A pink-striped white shirt with sleeve garters was the uniform of the Hoipolloi. Such a figure often rode on the roller coaster cars. Monkeys were also used on the cars. Elephants sometimes formed part of the equipment. The Hoipolloi or Gorilla goals were laid in with fantastic motion. Blasts of raw electricity and explosions were both used to lay the Items in." The bear goals were handled by a group called "'The Brothers of the Bear' and were the ancestors of the Hoipolloi." The black thetan goals "were given in a glade surrounded by the stone heads of 'black thetans' who spat white energy at the trapped thetan. The trapped thetan was motionless."

The experiences of thetans for countless ages in the past have the quality of the ultimate in science fiction, with wars between galaxies, machines with minds, and celestial travel between universes whose existence was not even suspected before Hubbard's time.

A History of Man was one of the earliest books on scientology; it was first published in 1952 in America with subsequent editions in 1954 and 1957. Its author is Hubbard in whom the copyright of the book resides. It is still recommended reading for scientologists, but HASI witnesses endeavoured, while not disowning the book, to create the impression that it was really not now of any significance. This attempt was belied by the evidence of many scientology witnesses which showed that they were well acquainted with and accepted many of the theories propounded in A History of Man, many of which Hubbard has repeated and endorsed in more recent writings.

To say it is an astonishing publication does not convey adequately the peculiar qualities or contents of A History of Man. Its style is slapdash and its contents bizarre. It is in the tradition of science fiction and for compressed nonsense and fantasy it must surpass anything theretofore written. Yet in the first sentence of the Foreword the claim is made that "This is a cold-blooded and factual account of your last sixty trillion years." The third paragraph proclaims,

"This is useful knowledge. With it the blind again see, the lame walk, the ill recover, the insane become sane and the sane become saner. By its use the thousand abilities Man has sought to recover become his once more."


This may seem laughable nonsense, but the tragedy is that so many people, reading uncritically and wanting to believe in something, have accepted the validity of these fantastic claims and the contents of the book and a great mass of similar and, if it were possible, more ludicrous nonsense. None of this nonsense which Hubbard has propounded has been repealed or repudiated. A very large part of it has been repeated in later writings and on tapes, much of it quite recently.

This book is concerned particularly with the development of the "whole track" and past life concepts. The contents of the book and the date of the first edition suggest that it was written about the time Hubbard broke with the Hubbard Dianetic Research Foundation which looked with disfavour on his theory of past lives. Hubbard claimed that by auditing the time track over the whole span of the track-at that time considered to be about sixty trillion years-he obtained excellent results, whereas in auditing only the current lifetime one could only obtain slow and mediocre results. "Further," he writes,

"it is very hard to argue with a miracle. Today, Eleanor has arthritis. She is audited 'whole track' with 1952 techniques. Tonight she doesn't have arthritis. Miracles, using 'whole track' are plentiful. By using this data an auditor can obtain a Mest clear rather easily."


Hubbard revealed then that with the invention of the Electropsychometer, commonly called the E-meter, great advances in processing were made. He greatly extended the time track, and sixty trillion years is but the yesterday of the time track which now, seemingly, extends back to the beginning of time and, if possible, even beyond that - one trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion trillion years or less, according to HCO Bull. of the 24th July AD 13 (1963).

The Genetic Entity.

In A History of Man, Hubbard tells of the "genetic entity" or GE. A human body has both a thetan and a GE. The GE is the entity which carries forward from the earliest formation of the mest body and is located more or less in the centre of the body, the stomach. It was formerly referred to as the somatic mind in dianetics.

"The GE facsimiles include a transfer of somatics from past theta beings, for it is not common for a GE to have the same theta being twice .... A GE departs from the body much later than the theta beings abandon one, sees it through the death to the end and only then leaves to join the line once more some two or three days before conception."


Hubbard then develops the thesis that the GE "carries on through the evolutionary line, parallel with the protoplasmic line, generation to generation, usually on the same planet," whereas the theta being comes into the line from various quarters, with the result that a theta being lives each life with a different GE.

"The genetic entity apparently enters the protoplasm line some two days or a week prior to conception. There is some evidence that the GE is actually double, one entering on the sperm side, one entering on the ovum side ....

Pre-sperm recordings are quite ordinary .... Pre-ovum sequences are on record but are not common .... Conception and the impulses generated answer the conditions for one type of cancer, embryonic .... Cancer has been eradicated by auditing out conception and mitosis. The theta being apparently joins the track immediately prior to birth. Its sequence, for itself, is death, between-lives, birth, all in a few minutes according to some findings, a sequence which is quite aberrative .... Birth is a very aberrative affair .... 'Facsimile one' had as many as eighty-thousand births on it as locks. Birth presents itself to be audited much of the time because Mother, complaining of how difficult the preclear's birth was, makes it an overt act. This overt act had birth as a motivator .... The genetic line consists of the total of incidents which have occurred during the evolution of the Mest body itself. The composite of these facsimiles has the semblance of a being," the GE. The discovery of the GE, writes Hubbard, "makes it possible at last to vindicate the theory of evolution proposed by Darwin .... You as a theta being, may or may not have seen Greece or Rome. Your Mest GE has probably activated a body there, just as it has been .... an anthropoid in the deep forests of forgotten continents or a mollusc seeking to survive on the shore of some lost sea."


Hubbard then tells of various things the auditor will meet in processing. For instance, there is the clam. Millions of years ago the clam had many troubles, the first of which was the double hinge problem. One hinge wanted to stay open, the other wanted to close and so conflict occurred which was resolved by one hinge overcoming the other with the result that the latter suffered pain. In present time, so Hubbard claims, all you need do with certain people to restimulate the tragic defeat of the weaker hinge is to ask such a person, "Can you imagine a clam sitting on the beach, opening and closing its shell very rapidly ?" at the same time making a motion with thumb and forefinger of a rapid opening and closing, whereupon the victim may grip his jaw with his hands and feel quite upset. He may, writes Hubbard, even have a few teeth pulled mistaking for toothache the restimulation of the engram suffered by the vanquished clam shell hinge.

How silly can people be? Yet, one woman, who told of benefits which scientology had given her, said in evidence that when counsel assisting the Board mentioned "clam" to her, she had a pain in her jaw.

Then there is the Weeper, originally, so Hubbard writes, called the "Grim Weeper," or the "Boohoo," a truly pathetic case. "After leaving the sea," writes Hubbard, "the GE spent a half a million years on the beach." In this state it needed food from the sea, but also air to breathe. It would open up to get food and get a wave in the shell. But as it had to breathe it had to pump sea water out, hence the name "the weeper." "The inability of a preclear to cry is partly a hang-up in the Weeper," Hubbard writes. "He is about to be hit by a wave, has his eyes full of sand or is frightened about opening his shell because he may be hit. An occluded case is sometimes merely a case of 'shell-shut' ". Hubbard tells, too, of engrams about birds and bats, of being eaten and of the sloth, the latter being responsible for fear of snakes and falling, and of the caveman and the Piltdown man, the latter being responsible so writes Hubbard, for "Obsessions about biting, efforts to hide the mouth and early familial troubles," for "the Piltdown teeth were ENORMOUS and he was quite careless as to whom and what he bit and often very surprised at the resulting damage".

The meeting of the GE and the theta body often led to great confusion because, "A theta being takes a picture of the memory of a GE and carries it as a record. A GE takes a picture of the memories of theta being and carries those." A consequence of these developments is that in auditing it is quite a problem whether it is the experiences of the theta being then being audited that come up or those of a theta being whose memories were carried by a GE, whose memory was being carried by a theta being, whose memory in turn was being carried by a GE, from which the theta being then being audited acquired it.

The GE also finds prominent and important mention in Scientology: 8-80 and other scientology publications by Hubbard. Williams said that the GE is not now the subject of scientology teaching, is not now known and practised, and if revived as an active study would require some modification. The GE, however, appears still to be part of the actual structure of scientology theory; it is referred to in axiom 55 of scientology by Hubbard, and has not been abandoned, repudiated or substantially modified since the first occasion when Hubbard wrote in the early fifties of the thetan "playing games" with it. Hubbard's practice is not to acknowledge that anything in his pronouncements ever requires modification or recantation. Earlier inconsistencies and contradictions are glossed over or ignored.

The Clear and The Preclear.

The concept of "clear" is one of the fundamentals of scientology. The word "clear", used as a verb, an adjective and a noun, is the mainspring of scientology; for the principal purpose of scientology auditing is to clear the "preclear" so that he attains to the state of being "clear", and is thus a "clear", shedding the prefix "pre" as he sheds the last of the aberrations from which auditing is said to free him. Everyone who is not a "complete clear" is said to be a "preclear".

On the way to clear is said to be the "release"; this is a person, according to Scientology: 8-80, "who has reached a point in processing where he no longer is suffering from a psychosomatic illness, or who has been freed of his chronic mental and physical difficulties and painful emotions. While he is far from being a 'clear', he is above normal, has good stability, and can enjoy life." A release is said to be a case which will not get worse.

The concept of clear was not developed in Hubbard's first work on dianetics, Dianetics: The Original Thesis, published in 1948, though reference was made therein to an individual who had been "cleared of engrams and chains and who has achieved a general tone four."

The first extensive references to "clear" appeared in Dianetics: MSMH, published in 1950, and it has been constantly referred to in dianetic and scientology publications since that time.

The "clear" is derived from the language of computers and adding machines. Hubbard used the calculating machine as an analogy to the mind. The action of "clearing" was said to be concerned with the clearing of various zones of thinking and to be the removing of some old unwanted computations from the mind, so that the mind could think and act freshly and clearly on some particular problem.

Originally, "clear" as a noun attempted to describe someone who was said to be "cleared of neurotic, psychotic and suboptimum patterns and thoughts and actions that would arise from these."

In Dianetics: MSMH, a "clear" was said to be "an individual who, as a result of dianetic therapy, has neither active nor potential psychosomatic illness or aberration", and "to clear" meant "to release all the physical pain and painful emotion from the life of an individual or, as in Political Dianetics, a society."

Williams accepted as an adequate current description of clear the following: "A clear can be tested for any and all psychoses, neuroses, compulsions and repress ions (all aberrations) and can be examined for any autogenic (self-generated) diseases referred to as psychosomatic aberrations." An almost identical definition appears in Dianetics: MSMH. Hubbard wrote in Dianetics: MSMH that tests on such a person "confirm the clear to be entirely without such ills or aberrations." Williams claimed that he was a clear, and he has in fact been awarded a silver bracelet by Hubbard to prove it. Hubbard has even said that Williams is well beyond clear, but attaining to such an exalted and supposedly sickness-free level did not protect him from a common cold which he sustained during the Inquiry.

Williams said that by clearing in the mental field scientologists meant the removal of some unwanted fixed thought, idea, consideration, motivation or goal that was interfering with the individual's ability to think clearly and rationally about a particular subject. However, the prospect of attaining to clear seems depressingly remote, in spite of Hubbard's promises, for Williams pointed out that "a large mental difficulty is often composed of several difficulties, or several different subjects which have to be cleared separately." Processing is so manipulated that the final difficulty is never reached and cleared; fresh difficulties are constantly discovered as part of the "large mental difficulty", and the preclear is kept always expectant but never attaining to the goal of clear.

A clear was said to be produced by erasing some aberrative materials and keying out others. This state, when all the aberration has not been erased, is called, a "keyed out clear" or "mest clear" or just "clear". There were also "theta clears" and "cleared theta clears".

Theta clears were said to be superior to mest or keyed out or just plain clears. At one stage those beyond theta clear were described as "cleared theta clears." Theta clears are an intermediate step between mest clears and operating thetan. Williams told the Board that Hubbard's teaching was that theta clears could operate outside their bodies, and in The Creation of Human Ability, Hubbard defines "theta clear" as being "An individual who, as a thetan, is certain of his identity apart from that of his body, and who habitually operates the body from outside." Williams said he had witnessed Hubbard read a plaque on a wall some distance away. Williams considered that Hubbard might well be clear, but HCO has no doubt about Hubbard's state, for HCO Infm. Lr. of the 24th November, 1963, states, "He [Hubbard] was clear before 1962, and is now, at this writing, four goals down from present time toward OT, scientology's highest state. He badly needs a vacation." In A History of Man, Hubbard wrote that the first stable clears, produced in 1947, were in reality theta clears, not mest clears. In 1963, the terms "first goal clear", "second goal clear", &c., were used to indicate that that particular number of goals were cleared away from the person's mind.

Over the years the concept of clear has developed, and though the general nature of the concept is indicated in many writings, some of the expositions are contradictory and the boundaries between the various kinds of clears are confused. In some advertisements and elsewhere Hubbard has defined a clear as "a person at willing and knowing cause over his own life, his body and his surroundings and without a reactive or subconscious mind". A clear is credited with having a happy well-balanced personality, with efficiency and intelligence above the average and with an IQ of 135 plus.

Some of the descriptions of "clear" confuse the lower grade clear with the operating thetan, who, however, is also a type of clear. A person who has been "cleared" but is still being audited is still regarded as a preclear and is properly described as "pre-OT (pre-operating thetan)", according to Certainty Magazine, Vol. 5, No. 7. The suggestion that there may even be a "super clear" does not make for clarity.

Operating Thetan.

In Com. Mag. Vol. 5. No. 5, May, 1963, it is said that there are three grades of clears, namely, mest clear, theta clear, and operating thetan, the operating thetan being "a rather esoteric level, hard to reach and hard to describe in full."

An operating thetan, frequently referred to as "OT", is said to be a thetan with restored ability to control or "be at cause" over matter, energy, space, time, life and form. An operating thetan has the ability to knock off hats at 50 yards, to lift telephone receivers from a distance and to read a book some distance away. The ultimate goal in scientology is to become OT. There is an award of a gold bracelet to anyone who becomes OT. Williams hopes to achieve this state and he has been undergoing processing to that end. Remarkable attributes are claimed for the state of OT. In Certainty Magazine, Vol. 5. No. 10, appears the statement that, "Every operating thetan has outsight. Some of the qualities prominent are:-High ethical level; enthusiasm; accident-proof; fast reaction times; theta communication; ability to move at will throughout all universes; high creative ability; self mastery, grants beingness; high truth and courage level; strong sense of responsibility on all dynamics."

Hubbard's enthusiasm about the state of OT is equalled only by the extravagance of his boasts and predictions. In Scientology, issue 15G, Hubbard writes, "There is no excuse now not to be clear. A good thorough-going operating thetan should not take more than fifty hours of auditing."..
In HCO Infm. Lr. of the 24th November, 1963, it is written, "He [Hubbard] considers the research part of his task concluded in August of 1963, since all targets ever envisioned were realized as of that date and only codification and recording remained .... Now that the skills for OT are achieved they are found to be very precise."

Ron's Journal, No. 7, which is HCO Infm. Lr. of the 17th December AD 13 (1963), reads, "Well, here we go into AD 14, with all our technology assembled, with a complete bridge, with OT's emerging."

HCO Infm. Lr. of the 5th February, 1964, reads,

"OT course open to all auditors who have good basic training. I have kicked the doors open on Class VI. training at Saint Hill. All auditors who have good basic training are eligible for enrolment at once in running Actual GPM's. I am just completing a full training course for the Instructors and we are making OT's at Saint Mill smoothly after three years of hard and arduous research .... This news should tell you quite obviously that we have won all the way. And it's waiting for you at Saint Hill."


Though, as earlier indicated, Hubbard considered that 50 hours auditing could produce operating thetans he has now somewhat revised that estimate, and in HCO Bull. of the 9th July, 1963, he states that he himself is "definitely on the easy last half to OT" and that he considers "that OT lies on the sunny side of 1,000 hours of processing now for cases that can be audited"

Mrs. Williams was present in the 1964 classes at Saint Hill as one of the advanced students, but she did not become an OT, not even clear, and she did not make the acquaintance of any OT's and did not know of any OT's being produced. But that OT is a desirable state is evident, for in Certainty Magazine, Vol. 5, No. 10, Hubbard writes,

"the state of operating thetan is about 50 million miles higher than clear, if we put it into symbolic form. There is actually no comparison. A clear can still be invalidated; a clear can still make effect in the face of overwhelming odds. An OT, well, I don't know: for OT, read 'God' and that's just about it. But one thing is certain you cannot be OT without passing through clear first .... Faster routes to OT are envisaged."


Hubbard attributes his failure to produce OT's, after promising for so many years to do so, to the incapacity of auditors to audit properly. His repeated complaint is that he has devised techniques which are certain to produce clears and OTs, and the fault lies not with his techniques but with auditors who are unable to apply the techniques and operate the E-meter.

In HCO Bull. of the 9th July, 1963, Hubbard typically complains, "It is no longer a question of whether Scientology works, it is only a question of whether the auditor can work Scientology. If he or she can't, then the trouble lies in one or more of these basics [i.e., the auditor's basic skills]. The trouble does not lie with the procedure or with the pc."

Hubbard is endeavouring to produce an OT meter, superior to any E-meter, which will, he claims, make possible auditing to OT.
From time to time Hubbard has made claims implying that OTs were being made or had been made. In reply to a pointed inquiry by a rebellious scientologist, Hubbard wrote that, "Our theta clears and operating thetans are for the present remaining incognito." The Board is therefore unable to report upon the identity of any person claimed as OT. It would seem, however, that if Hubbard is to be believed, an OT is "just around the corner", like the fulfilment of so many of his other extravagant promises.

Overt Motivator.

The Overt Act-Motivator in scientology is a principle or working hypothesis, not invariably applicable, that if a person does harm to an area, he will be likely to receive harm from that area.

Williams explained that the principle is that one does an overt act, something bad, harms some part of life, breaches some moral code, and thereafter, because of regret, guilt, &c., and variously associated phenomena, lays oneself open to be hurt by whatever it is against which the overt was committed. The response is called the "motivator," but opinions fluctuate as to which comes first, the overt act or the motivator. People may even be "motivator hungry," and an example was given by Williams in these words: "If you had a lawyer who kept on doing things which caused the judge to scream at him, you would have a lawyer, who in the field of jurisprudence (if that is the word) would be 'motivator hungry' and the assumption would be that he had committed an overt against the judge."

Reference is sometimes made in scientology to "victim," the victim being a person suffering from a run of bad luck or persistent misfortune of any kind, including illness, who, however, is entirely responsible for his own misfortunes, even though it be deliberately inflicted on him by another. As it is a scientology principle that man is good and can be made better, the fault is said to lie with the individual himself, the emphasis in scientology being to make the individual conscious of his complete responsibility for his own condition, whatever it is, and to find out by auditing just what it is in the preclear's own behaviour which has laid the foundation for his present aberrations and misfortune.

Goals-Problems-Mass.

Probably the latest "breakthrough" by Hubbard is the "goals-problems-mass" or GPM, which he now appears to regard as the "basic-basic" cause of all aberration. The GPM is associated with the time track, implants, past lives and OT's.

In scientology it is said that a person's problems have weight which can be measured. As early as Dianetics: 1955, Hubbard wrote,

"If there were no energy being created by the awareness of awareness unit, then one would be at a loss to account for mental energy pictures, for these things, being made at a tremendously rapid rate, have considerable mass in them-mass which is measurable on a thing which is as common and everyday as a pair of bathroom scales."


In evidence, Williams defined GPM as being "the mass of stored mental energy which has accumulated following the setting of a goal." He explained how a person

"sets himself a goal, and in his attempt to succeed in that goal, he acquires the problem, and the problem is trying to achieve the goal, on the one side, and forces opposing that, on the other, and there is conflict giving us the idea of mass."


It means, he said, "a mental mass .... which certainly has mental weight, but whether it is discernible or not, that could be debatable." "Mentally speaking," he said, "it has thickness and other dimensions like that." There was further evidence that, according to scientology, the mind could mock up a mass - a black mass floating in front of the individual but really invisible - which he could then bring into his body and thereby increase his weight by up to thirty pounds, and, by further thinking, he could expel this same weight. Whether a person could, by thought, permanently expel weight from the body was not clearly determined, and scientology has not yet emerged as an alternative to dieting.

During the Inquiry the scientology interests were invited on several occasions to demonstrate how a mass could be mocked up and brought into the body and how the increase of the body weight could be measured on a scales, which was the claim Hubbard made, and which Williams asserted could be relatively easily done. The invitation was not accepted, although it was made clear that the Board would be greatly impressed by any such demonstration.

However, strange physical developments are attributed to processing. In Ability Magazine, issue major 2, is a testimonial from a young lady who writes, " Before starting on these sessions my breasts were unusually small. In fact I wore a size 32A brassiere .... I am now wearing a size 34c, and from all indications will wear still larger." Possibly inspired by such a report, two prominent female members of the Melbourne HASI staff, each with the same male auditor, set goals which were quite opposite. One set as her goal to have a smaller bust, and the other to have a larger bust. Whether the first attained her goal through auditing did not clearly appear in evidence. However, the second woman considered that she had attained her goal through auditing, because formerly she walked round-shouldered, but now she stands up straight and holds her shoulders back.

In HCO Bull. of the 23rd September, 1963, Hubbard tells of implant GPM's and writes that these

"have only passing importance as a pc's Actual Goals and GPM's are a thousand thousand times more aberrative and important than Implants. But one has to know the extent and nature of Implant GPM's in order not to get them confused with Actual GPM's."


In HCO Bull. of the 28th September 1963, Hubbard writes,

"Confusion between Implants and Actual GPM's occurs because the implanters used types of goals and patterns found in actual GPM's. Implanters obviously had a knowledge, from historical record or even research, of what a thetan's own goals look like but obviously they never developed the data to a workable therapy or they probably would not have continued to be driven to such costly expedients as continuous implanting, between lives installations, &c.

The highest level of treatment technology known to exist in the universe before Scientology was Pictureology wherein, at a signal from the therapist, the thetan crunched up the engram. This is currently in use (and has been for many trillions of years) in the Galactic Confederation."


The latest information available to the Board is that work on GPMs is still in the developmental stage. In HCO Infm. Lr. of the 5th February, 1964, Hubbard writes,

"You can't run an Actual GPM unless you're trained to Class VI. You'd kill somebody. The new technology has not been released and will not be. It is too exacting. We can do it safely at Saint Hill".


Though Hubbard in the same information letter stated in effect that by the running of Actual GPM's "we are making OT's at Saint Hill smoothly" the scientology interests did not produce to the Board an OT or anyone who had seen an OT, and in this respect Mrs. Williams, who was a Saint Hill student during the first half of 1964, disappointed many who had hoped to see an OT when she gave evidence before the Board in September, 1964.

The foregoing summary does not exhaust the content of scientology theories but is sufficient to illustrate their general nature.
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Re: CITY OF CLEARWATER COMMISSION HEARINGS RE: THE CHURCH O

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RE: Bulldozer OT 1 GOVERNMENT

9 Oct 76

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