THE MYTH OF SHANGRI-LA: TIBET, TRAVEL WRITING AND THE WESTE

The impulse to believe the absurd when presented with the unknowable is called religion. Whether this is wise or unwise is the domain of doctrine. Once you understand someone's doctrine, you understand their rationale for believing the absurd. At that point, it may no longer seem absurd. You can get to both sides of this conondrum from here.

Re: THE MYTH OF SHANGRI-LA: TIBET, TRAVEL WRITING AND THE W

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5. Outside Time and Space

1. P. Landon, Lhasa, 2 vols. (London: Hurst & Blackett, 1905), vol. 1, pp. 222-8.

2. See H. Bower, Diary of a Journey Across Tibet (1894; Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar, 1976) pp. 13, 271-2; N. Prejevalsky, Mongolia, The Tangut Country, and the Solitudes of Northern Tibet (London Sampson Low, Marston, Serle & Rivington, 1876), Vol. 1, pp. 74, 80; J. White, Sikhim and Bhutan (1909; New Delhi: Cultural Publishing House, 1983), p. 15.

3. S. Das, Journey to Lhasa and Central Tibet (1902; New Delhi: Manjusri Publishing House, 1970); G. Sandberg, The Exploration of Tibet (1904; Delhi: Cosmo Publications, 1973); P. Hopkirk, Trespassers on the Roof of the World (London: John Murray, 1982); C. Allen, A Mountain in Tibet (London: Andre Deutsch, 1982); P. Hopkirk, Foreign Devils on the Silk Road (Newton Abbot, Devon: Readers Union, 1981).

4. D. Rayfield, the Dream of Lhasa (London: Paul Elek, 1976), p. 209: G. Bonvalot, Across Thibet, 2 vols. (London: Cassell & Co., 1891, Vol. 2), pp. 195-6; S. Hedin, Through Asia 2 vols. (London Methuen & Co., 1898), vol. 1. pp. 3-18.

5. This is the comment by Lord Rosebery, the British Foreign Secretary, quoted in the introduction to Bower, p vii.

6. See Hopkirk, Foreign Devils; J. Keay, The Gilgit Game (London: John Murray, 1979).

7. Annie Taylor was also the inspiration for setting up the Tibetan Pioneer Mission and generally stimulating British missionary work in the Himalayan region. See W. Carey, Travel and Adventure in Tibet (1900; Delhi: Mittal Publications, 1983) pp. 143-4 (this work contains Taylor's diary). For other missionary activity see J. Barton, 'Report of Missionary Work in Thibet', Church Missionary Intelligence 14 (1863); A. Francke, History, Folklore and Culture of Tibet (1905; New Delhi: Ess Ess Publications, 1979), which shows some of the remarkable scholarly work carried out by the Moravian missionaries in the Western Himalayas.

8. See Hedin; as well as the recent popular accounts by Hopkirk: Foreign Devils; Trespassers; Allen, A Mountain; see also the story of Theo Sorensen, missionary, in P. Kvaerne, A Norwegian Traveler in Tibet (New Delhi: Manjusri Publishing House, 1973).

9. D. Freshfield, Round Kanchenjunga (1903; Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar, 1979) pp. 12-13.

10. D. Whitley, 'The Attack on Tibet', Littel's Living Age 206 (1895), p. 218.

11. See A. Lamb, Britain and Chinese Central Asia (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1960).

12. Landon, Vol. l, pp. 22 -3.

13. L. Waddell, Among the Himalayas (1899; Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar, 1978), p. 414.

14. F. Grenard, Tibet (1903; Delhi: Cosmo Publications, 1974) pp. 51, 53-4, 148; Bonvalot, Across Thibet, Vol. 1, p. 90; F. Younghusband, The Heart of a Continent (1896; London: John Murray, 1937), pp. 37, 48, 60.

15. W. Rockhill, The Land of the Lamas (1891; New Delhi: Asian Publication Services, 1975), pp. 43-4; C. Macaulay, Report on a Mission to Sikhim and the Tibetan Frontier - 1884 (1885; Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar, 1977).

16. A. Carey, 'A Journey Round Chinese Turkistan and along the Northern Frontier of Tibet', Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society 9 (1887), pp. 731, 735; Hedin, Through Asia, Vol. l, pp. 988, 1027-8, 1173-6; St George Littledale, A Journey Across Tibet, From North to South, and West to Ladak', The Geographical Journal VII no. 5 (May 1896), p. 454.

17. Rockhill, pp. 166, 175.

18. On the Tibetan mythologizing of Queen Victoria and the czar, see Landon, Vol. l, pp. 356-7; for stories of travelers told by Tibetans, see Grenard, pp. 115-17; Littledale, p. 476.

19. Grenard, pp. 45-6.

20. Hedin, Vol. 2, p. 956; Grenard, p. 142; Bonvalot, Vol. 1, p. 6; Littledale, p. 460; Younghusband, Heart of a Continent, p. 216; J. Duncan, A Summer Ride Through Western Tibet (1906; London: Collins, 1925), p. 112.

21. P. Millington, To Lhassa at Last (London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1905).

22. See S. Kern, The Culture of Time and Space (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1983); R. Shannon, The Crisis of Imperialism: 1865 -1915 (St Albans, Herts: Paladin, 1976).

23. Shannon, p. 270.

24. M. Edwardes, The West in Asia: 1850-1914 (London: B.T. Batsford Ltd, 1967), pp. 8, 25-6; R. Faber, The Vision and the Need (London: Faber & Faber, 1966).

25. Faber, p. 13.

26. Kern, pp. 1-2.

27. Ibid. pp. 61-4, 68, 89-90, 104-6, 230-3; J. Fabian, Time and the Other (New York: Columbia University Press, 1983), pp. 111-13, 121-2.

28. Faber, p. 166.

29. E. Relph, Place and Placelessness (London: Pion, 1976), pp. 59 -61, 79.

30. Kern, pp. 223-6.

31. Ibid. pp. 230-3; T. Freeman, 'The Royal Geographical Society and the Development of Geography', in Geography: Yesterday and Tomorrow, ed. E. Brown (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980), p. 25.

32. Kern, p. 228.

33. Ibid. p. 92.

34. Ibid. pp. 164 -7.

35. Ibid. p. 4.

36. Edwardes, The West in Asia, pp. 68, 75-6.

37. Faber, pp. 119-20

38. Lamb, Britain and Chinese Central Asia, pp. 172, 266-71.

39. Ibid. p. 207.

40. Ibid. pp. 230 1, 294; Keay, The Gilgit Game; Hopkirk, Foreign Devils.

41. H. Blavatsky, Isis Unveiled (1877; Pasadena: Theosophical University Press, 1972).

42. R. Kipling, Kim (1898; London: Macmillan, 1943).

43. A. Conan Doyle, 'The Empty House', in Sherlock Holmes: The Complete Short Stories (1928; London: John Murray, 1980), p. 569.

44. H. Rider Haggard, She (1887; London: Macmillan, 1943).

45. Kern, pp. 19-20, 24-7,41-2; Fabian, pp. 111-13, 121-2, claims that anthropological discourse is part of a long tradition of rhetoric that has been concerned with conceiving outlandish images and moving them in a strange, imaginary space. He connects anthropology with earlier memory systems.

46. See F. Barker et al. (eds), Europe and Its Others, 2 vols. (Colchester: University of Essex, 1984); H. Ridley, Images of Imperial Rule (London: Croom Helm, 1983).

47. E. Said, Orientalism (New York: Vintage Books, 1979), p. 6.

48. See W. Conway, Climbing and Exploration in the Karakoram-Himalayas (London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1894), p. ix.

49. See Rockhill, Land of the Lamas, pp. 67-73, 176-7; H. Tanner, 'Our Present Knowledge of the Himalayas', Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society 13 (1891), p. 411; Hopkirk, Foreign Devils; Franke; H. Bates (ed.), Illustrated Travels, Vol. 1 (London: Cassell, Petter & Galpin, 1895), p. 30.

50. Said, p. 7.

51. M. Foucault, Power/Knowledge (London: The Harvester Press, 1980); C. Markham (ed.), Narratives of the Mission of George Bogle to Tibet and of the Journey of Thomas Manning to Lhasa (1876; New Delhi: Manjusri Publishing House, 1971).

52. F. Younghusband, India and Tibet (London: John Murray, 1910), pp. 2-3.

53. Younghusband's introduction to Landon, vol. 1, pp. ix -x.

54. Said, p. 7.

55. Lamb, Britain and Chinese Central Asia, p. 207.

56. Edwardes, The West in Asia, pp 68-76.

57. Ibid. p. 127; Lamb, Britain and Chinese Central Asia, pp. 49, 172.

58. Ibid, pp. 47-8; D. Woodman, Himalayan Frontiers (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1969); A. Lamb, The Sino-Indian Border in Ladakh (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1975).

59. Edwardes, The West in Asia, pp. 95-7, 102-13; Younghusband, India and Tibet, pp. 76-7, 236.

60. Quoted in A. Lamb, 'Some Notes on Russian Intrigue in Tibet', Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society 46 (1959), p. 52; Freshfield, Kanchenjunga, p. 62; Waddell, Himalayas, pp. vi-viii, 279-81.

61. E.g. Waddell, Himalayas, pp. 147-8; Lamb, Britain and Chinese Central Asia, p. 238; Younghusband, Heart of a Continent, p. xiv; Lamb, 'Notes', pp. 42, 49; Landon, Vol. l, p. 28.

62. Lamb, Central Asia, p. 152, discusses the riots in Sikkim which occurred during this period.

63. E. Chandler, The Unveiling of Lhasa (1905; London: Edward Arnold, 1931), pp. 6, 19; A. Landor, In the Forbidden Land (London: William Heinemann, 1899), pp. 41, 91, 452; Landon, Vol. 1, p. 48; Lamb, Central Asia, p. 170; G. Curzon, Frontiers (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1908), p. 6.

64. Landon, vol. 1, p. 25; see also Curzon's comments quoted in Lamb, Central Asia, p. 260.

65. Ney Elias quoted in Lamb, 'Notes', p. 51.

66. Lamb, Central Asia, p. 155; Landon, vol. 2, pp. 8, 14.

67. Lamb, Central Asia, pp. 235, 256 ff; Lamb, 'Notes', p. 57; Edwardes, The West in Asia, p. 91.

68. Grenard, p. 39.

69. See Bower.

70. Landon, vol. 2, pp. 21, 24.

71. Lamb, Central Asia, pp. 206, 266-71.

72. Freshfield, pp. 66-8.

73. Curzon, pp. 55-7.

74. Fantasies comparing the British and Roman Empires were common among British imperial theorists at the close of the nineteenth century; see Faber, p. 19; F. Hutchins, The lllusion of Permanence (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967), pp. 143-51.

75. E. Knight, Where Three Empires Meet (1892; London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1935).

76. Bower, p. 242.

77. J. Louis, The Gates of Thibet (1894; Delhi: Vivek Publishing House, 1972) p. 32; Littledale, 'Journey'.

78. Younghusband, India and Tibet, p. 115; Bower, p. 95.

79. Landon, Vol. 1, p. 116.

80. Grenard, p. 285.

81. Whitley, pp. 218-19.

82. Carey, Travel and Adventure, p. 20.

83. See C. Ryan, H.P. Blavatsky and the Theosophical Movement (Pasadena: Theosophical University Press, 1975).

84. Landon, Vol. 2, p. 224.

85. Bower, p. 1; Landon, Vol. l, p. xi; Waddell Himalayas, p. vii; Hedin, Vol. 1, pp. 3-18.

86. Freshfield, p. 152; Knight, p. 69; Yule, in Prejevalsky, p. ix; H. Hensoldt, 'Occult Science in Thibet', Arena 10 (1894), p. 184.

87. Carey, Travel and Adventure, p. 19.

88. The Spectator (London), 6 October 1888.

89. The Spectator (London), 13 August 1904; quoted in Lamb, Central Asia p. 203; A. and K. Heber, Himalayan Tibet and Ladakh (1903; New Delhi: Ess Ess Publications, 1978), pp. 34-5, refer to 'Hob-goblin-land' and 'eerie wonderland'.

90. Carey, Travel and Adventure, p. 25; Rockhill (p. 56) also entered Tibet from China.

91. Louis, p. 69 (emphasis added); see also Chandler, p. 28; Grenard, p. 10; Freshfield, p. 261.

92. Hensoldt, p. 648; Hedin, Vol. 2, p. 1000; Chandler, p. 82; I. Bird-Bishop, Among the Tibetans (New York: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1894), p. 40.

93. Landon, Vol. 1, pp. 84, 137, 139.

94. Carey, Travel and Adventure, p. 26 (emphasis added).

95. Louis, pp. 2-3 (emphasis added); Freshfield, pp. 16-17.

96. S. Stone, In and Beyond the Himalayas (London: Edward Arnold, 1896), p. 286.

97. Waddell, Himalayas, p. 189.

98. Ibid. Himalayas, p. 400.

99. Chandler, pp. 86-7; Landon, Vol. 2, p. 154.

100. Hedin, Vol. 2, p. 1050.

101. Littledale, p. 464

102. Grenard, pp. 5, 80.

103. See Landon; Younghusband, India and Tibet; Bonvalot, vol. 1, pp. 188 -93; Grenard, p. 175.

104. Chandler, p. 63; Landon, Vol. 1, pp. 122, 136.

105. See J. Hillman, The Dream and the Underworld (New York: Harper & Row, 1979), pp. 21, 178.

106. Stone, p. 160.

107. Chandler, p. 50; Knight, p. 45; Carey, Travel and Adventure, pp. 22-3.

108. Macaulay, p. 71.

109. Bower, pp. 82, 106

110. Knight, p. 44

111. Landon, Vol. 2, pp. 154-5.

112. Freshfield, pp. 130-1

113. Grenard, p. 28.

114. Rockhill, p. 241.

115. Chandler, p. 290.

116. Younghusband, India and Tibet, pp. 56, 268.

117. Ibid. pp. 174-5; Grenard, p. 311.

118. Grenard, p. 301.

119. Landon, Vol. l, p. 176.

120. Chandler, p. 124.

121. Ibid. p. 246.

122. Ibid. p. 265.

123. Waddell, Himalayas, p. 268.

124. Landon, Vol. 1, p. 156; vol. 2, p. 54.

125 Younghusband, India and Tibet, p. 128.

126. Freshfield, p. 250.

127. Grenard, pp. 336-7.

128. Landon, Vol. 2, p. 262.

129. Hensoldt, pp. 370-3.

130. See Ryan, pp.18-21, 23-8

131. Ryan, p. 51; R. Hutch, 'Helena Blavatsky Unveiled', Journal of Religious History 11, no. 2 (December 1980), p. 324.

132. Landon, vol. 1, p. 301.

133. J. White, p. 49.

134. Grenard, p. 136.

135. Hensoldt, pp. 186-7.

136. Grenard, p. 72; Bonvalot, Vol. 2, p. 142.

137. Landon, vol. 2, p. 126.

138. L. Waddell, Tibetan Buddhism (1895; New York Dover Publications, 1972), p. 4; Hensoldt, p. 186; Freshfield, pp. 90-1.

139. Bower, p. 35; Whitely, p. 220.

140. See J. Napier, Bigfoot (London: Abacus, 1976).

141. Waddell, Himalayas, pp. 223-4.

142. Macaulay, p. 36.

143. Rockhill, pp. 116-17.

144. Ibid. p. 150.

145. Ibid. p. 151.

146. Ibid. p. 256.

147. Stone, In and Beyond the Himalayas, p. 129; see also Bates, Illustrated Travels, Vol. 3, pp. 284-7: 'any bachelor, with an income of 500 pounds a year and not tied down by a profession, or any other hindrance, can enjoy a trip to the "glorious East", and four months of first rate shooting, amidst the grandest scenery imaginable and in a delicious climate.'

148. Napier.

149. Ryan, pp. 19-20.

150. Hutch, pp. 324 -5.

151 Rayfield, p. 116.

152. Bonvalot, vol. 2, pp. 64-7.

153. Landon, Vol. 1, p. 36; Younghusband, India and Tibet, pp. 122-4, 268; Chandler, Unveiling, p. l.

154. Hutchins, pp. 73 ff.

155. See J. Hillman, 'Abandoning the Child', in his Loose Ends (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1975); N. Chabani Manganyi, 'Making Strange: Race, Science and Ethnopsychiatric Discourse', in Europe and Its Others, vol. 1, ed. F. Barker.

156. See H. Ellenberger, The Discovery of the Unconscious (New York: Basic Books, 1970).

157. Landon, Vol. 2, p. 45

158. See Grenard, p. 262.

159. Grenard, pp 88-9; 'The Capture of Lhasa', The Spectator (London), 13 August 190, pp. 213-14.

160. Landon, Vol. 2, p. 262.

161. Knight, p. 43; Heber, p. 35, writes of 'a fantastic dream'.

162. Grenard, p. 273

163. Hedin, Vol. 2, p. 1018.

164. BonvaJot, vol. I, p. 207.

165. Ibid.

166. Carey, 'A Journey', p. 742; Littledale, p. 465.

167. Bonvalot, Vol. l, p. 207; see also Waddell, Himalayas, p. 34.

168. Grenard, pp. 37, 43-4.

169. Landon, Vol. 1, p. 139; Whitley, pp. 219-20; littledale, p. 460; Stone, p. 286.

170. See Waddell, Himalayas, pp. 34, 416.

171. Bonvalot, Vol. 1, p. 185; Chandler, p. 64.

172. See Landor, pp. 298, 300; Hedin, Vol. 2, p. 1000; Freshfield, p. 146.

173. Grenard, pp. 4, 9-10; Louis, p. 69; Carey, Travel and Adventure, p. 25.

174. Younghusband, India and Tibet, pp. 326-7; Grenard, p. 18.

175. Younghusband, Heart of a Continent, pp. 39-40, 219-21.

176. See Hedin, vol. 2, pp. 1000-1; Freshfield, p. 113.

177. Bonvalot, Vol. 1, p. 24.

178. Landon, Vol. 1, p. 381; Grenard, p. 48; Freshfield, pp. 257-8.

179. Landon, Vol. 1, pp. 340-1, 346.

180. Chandler, p. 28.

181. Landon, Vol. 2, p. 115.

182. Millington, pp. 118-19.

183. See Kern's discussion of Impressionism in terms of its role within the changes in attitude towards space and time that were occurring at the turn of the century: Kern, p. 21.

184. Waddell, Himalayas, p. 337.

185. Landon, Vol. 1, p. 141.

186. Grenard, p. 48.

187. Chandler, p. 126; Landon, Vol. 2, pp. 29, 43.

188. See Yule's comments in the introduction to Prejevalsky, p. x; also Landon, Vol. 1, p. 146.

189. Chandler, p. 227.

190. Landon, Vol. 2, pp. 92, 97, 98.

191. See G. Welbon, The Buddhist Nirvana and its Western Interpreters (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968).

192. Grenard, p. 61.

193. Louis, pp. 69-70.

194. Younghusband, India and Tibet, pp. 315 ff; Grenard, pp. 61-2, 326-9

195. Landon, Vol. 2, pp. 40-1; see Kern for a discussion of the revolution that was occurring in the western conception of immensity at the turn of the century.

196. In Markam, Narratives, pp. 23-4; Millington, p. 140.

197. See Grenard, p. 18; Knight, p. 39; Stone, p. 286; Freshfield, p. 146; Bird-Bishop, p. 40; Duncan, pp. 89-90.

198. Chandler, pp. 146-7.

199. Bower, pp. 63, 102, 208.

200. Landor, pp. 174, 269, 276, 338.

201. Ibid. pp. 217, 293.

202. Ibid. p. 436.

203. See Littledale, p. 469; Grenard, pp. 87 ff.

204. Rockhill, pp. 92, 151, 229; and J. White, p. 110.

205. Grenard, p. 226 (emphasis added); Bower, p. 13.

206. E. Kawaguchi, Three Years in Tibet (1909; Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar, 1979).

207. For a negative evaluation of Tibetan monks, see Prejevalsky, p. 74; Landor, pp. 255-6. For mixed reactions, see Younghusband, India and Tibet, pp. 266, 310-12; Rockhill, p. 91. For a positive evaluation, see Hensoldt.

208. See Littledale, pp. 473-4; Whitley, p. 226; Landon, vol. 1, p. 355; Vol. 2, p. 44; Waddell, Tibetan Buddhism, p. 573.

209. Landon, Vol. l, p. 358.

210. Grenard, p. 346; Waddell, Himalayas, p. 213; Rockhill, pp. 87, 205, 286.

211. Rockhill, pp. 64-5; Kawaguchi.

212. Grenard, p. 109.

213. W. Carey, Travel and Adventure, p. 58.

214. Ibid. p. 23.

215. Grenard, p. 283.

216. Ibid. p. 330.

217. Ibid. p. 336.

218. Ibid. pp. 346-7; W. Carey, pp. 117-20.

219. Landon, Vol. 1, p. 355; W. Carey, p. 116.

220. Kawaguchi, pp. 422-3.

221. Landon, Vol. 2, pp. 40-1.

222. Grenard, p. 95.

223. Rockhill, p. 216; Chandler, p. 246.

224. Grenard, p. 336; Landon, Vol. 2, p. 270.

225. Prejevalsky, p. 80; for extreme attitudes also see Grenard, pp. 326 -9; Landon, Vol. 2, p. 46.

226. Hedin, Vol. 1, pp. 4-5. Hensoldt. pp. 184-5.

227. See Landon, Vol. 2, pp. 10-18.

228. Grenard, pp. 88-9; W. Carey Travel and Adventure, p. 56.

229. See Millington, pp. 145-8.

230. Bonvalot, Vol. l, p. 139.

231. See Said, Orientalism.

232. W. Carey, p. 23.

233. See Bower, p. 177.

234. Landon, Vol. 2, pp. 283-4.

235. Ibid. Vol. l, pp. 130-3.

236. Hedin, Vol. l, pp. 3-18.

237. Kern, p. 166.

238. Landon, Vol. l, preface.

239. Grenard, p. iv.

240. Chandler, p. 248.

241. See Kern, pp. 9, 68, 68, 88-90, 128, 211-13, 228-32.

242. Chandler, p. 248.

243. Freshfield, p. 152.

244. Ibid.

245. See Kern, pp. 47-9.

246. Chandler, p. 251.

247. W. Ottley, With Mounted Infantry in Tibet (London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1906), p. 236; Millington, p. 165.

248. Younghusband, India and Tibet, pp. 316-17.

249. Chandler, pp. 77-80.

250. Ibid. pp. 116-18

251. Ibid. p. 225.

252. Ibid. pp. 38, 93

253. Ibid. pp. 109-10.

254. Ibid. pp. 247-8.

255. Freshfield, pp. 2-4, 49; Tanner, 'Our Present Knowledge', p. 420; Waddell, Himalayas, pp. 73, 256, 315.

256. See Freshfield, p. 55.

257. Waddell, Himalayas, pp. 243, 286; Freshfield, pp. 78-9.

258. Younghusband, Heart of a Continent, pp. 208-9.

259. Bonvalot, Vol. 2, pp. 73-4.

260. Waddell, Himalayas, p. 21.

261. Grenard, p. 20; Freshfield, p. 165.

262. Chandler, p. 247; Kern, pp. 105-6, discusses Spengler's work in the context of this period of disillusionment.

263. Chandler, pp. 251, 353.

264. Ibid. pp. 256-60.

265. Younghusband, India and Tibet, pp. 395-6.

266. Quoted in Allen, A Mountain, pp. 201-2.

267. Millington, p. 77.

268. See Chandler; 'The Capture of Lhasa', The Spectator (London), 13 August 1904.

269. Landon, Vol. 2, p. 29.

270. Waddell, Tibetan Buddhism, pp. 3-4.

271. 'The Capture of Lhasa', The Spectator (London), 13 August 1904.

272. Rayfield, pp. 130, 154-5.

273. See D. Middleton, Victorian Lady Travelers (Chicago: Academy Chicago, 1982); L. Miller, On Top of the World (London: Paddington Press, 1976).

274. Duncan, p. 118.

275. E. Said, 'Orientalism Reconsidered', Race and Class XXVII, no. 21 Autumn 1985), p. 12.

276. M. Foucault: Power/Knowledge (London: The Harvester Press, 1980), The History of Sexuality (New York: Vintage Books, 1980).

277. See J. Hillman, Anima (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1985) pp. 28, 47, for a discussion of one aspect of the 'eternal feminine'; for another see his The Myth of Analysis (New York: Harper & Row, 1978), part III; see also C.G. Jung, Collected Works Vol. 5 (trans. R.F.C. Hull; London Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974); E. Whitmont, Return of the Goddess (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1983).

278. See Hillman, Anima, pp. 29 -31, 41-7; Ellenberger, Discovery of the Unconscious; Hillman, The Myth of Analysis, part III. For a more precise discussion, see A. Carotenuto, 'Sabina Spielrein, and C.G. Jung', Spring 1980 (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1980).

279. Stone, p. 274; Tanner, p. 418; Grenard, p. 99.

280. See Freshfield, p. 127; Louis, p. 69; Stone; Bird-Bishop, pp. 39, 71.

281. Hensoldt, p. 182.

282. See Bird-Bishop, pp. 40, 146; Duncan, p. 90. Landon, Vol. 2, pp. 215-16, discusses the hats and clothing of the Tibetans. These examples could be greatly increased by referring to other travelers.

283. Quoted in Rayfield, p. 191.

284. Landon, Vol. 2, pp. 157-64.

285. Ibid. pp. 319-20.

286. W. Carey, p. 40.

287. Hensoldt, pp. 654-9; see also chapter 2 where Bogle's similar reaction to the Panchen lama over a hundred years earlier is discussed

288. See Hillman, Anima, pp. 21, 128-33.

289. Ibid. pp. 29-31,41-7.

290. Ibid. pp. 103 -13, on depersonalization and soul-loss.

291. Ibid. pp109-11. It should be noted that Jung made repeated reference to Rider Haggard's novel She when discussing the anima.

292. See J. Hillman, 'Anima Mundi', Spring 1982 (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1982), p. 77.

293. Lamb, Central Asia, p. 203.

294. Ibid. pp. 157, 273-4; Ottley, pp. 234-5; Lamb, 'Notes', p. 59; also Macaulay, pp. 83-4; Littledale, p. 475; Rockhill, p. 209; Waddell, Himalayas, pp. vi, 4.

295. Comments in Tanner, pp. 422-3.

296. W. Carey, Travel and Adventure, pp. 21, 65, 114; Bower, p. 226; The Spectator (London), 13 August 1904.

297. Jung, Collected Works Vol. 5, para. 678; J. Hillman: Puer Papers (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1979); 'The Negative Senex', Spring 1975 (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1975); see also G. Paris, Pagan Meditations (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1986) for reflections on Aphrodite and gold.

298. Rockhill, pp. 102, 230; Waddell, Tibetan Buddhism, p. 3.

299. Landon, Vol. 2, pp. 31-5, 190-1; Hedin, Vol. 1.

300. Hensoldt, pp. 650-1; P. Bishop, Tibetan Religion: Western Imagination (London: Athlone Press, forthcoming).

301. Hensoldt, pp. 370-3, 656; Blavatsky, Isis Unveiled.

302. See Waddell, Himalayas, p. 283; Landon, vol. 2, p. 30.

303. See, for example, the Himalayan veteran Hooker's opinions about this manuscript in 1894-5; L. Huxley, The Life and Letters of Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, 2 vols. (London: John Murray, 1918, Vol. 2), pp. 334-5.

304. Hensoldt, pp. 660-1; Landon, vol. 2, pp. 163-7.

305. A. David-Neel, My Journey to Lhasa (New York: Harper & Row, 1927); Miller, On Top of the World, pp. 144-5.

306. See Hillman, Puer Papers.

307. Kipling; Faber, pp. 13, 100-1, 122.

308. Landon, Vol. 2, p. 50; Chandler, p. 278.

309. See G. Seaver, Francis Younghusband: Explorer and Mystic (London: John Murray, 1952); P. Bishop, 'The Mysticism of Immensity', Colloquium 18, no. 2 (October 1986) for details of Younghusband's mysticism.

310. Younghusband, India and Tibet, p. 325.

311. Seaver, pp. 374-5.

312. Ibid; see also Younghusband, Heart of a Continent; see Freshfield, p.160, for more reflections on mountains and stars by a Himalayan mountaineer.

313. W. Graham, 'Travel and Ascents in the Himalaya', Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, 6 (1884); Conway; Miller, On Top of the World; F. Keenlyside, Peaks and Pioneers (London: Elek, 1975), pp. 107-9; Waddell, Himalayas, pp. 377-92; K. Mason, Abode of Snow (London: Rupert Hart-Davis, 1955).

314. Freshfield, pp. 3-4.

315. Ibid.pp. 71, 124-5.

316. Ibid. p. 126, 127

317. Ibid. p. 152.

318. See Graham, pp. 446-7; Waddell, Himalayas, pp. vi, 359, 391.

319. Huxley, Vol. 2, pp. 452-3.

320. Chandler, p. 51.

321. Macaulay, pp. 24, 37.

322 Louis, pp. 142-3.

323. Chandler, p. 199; Landon; also Whitley; see Millington, p. 30, for details of the signpost at Jeylap-la.

324. Bower, pp. 147-8

325. Grenard, pp. 115-17; Macaulay, p. 16; Louis, p. 48; Younghusband, India and Tibet, pp. 254, 270; Landon, Vol. 1, p. 246; Lamb, Central Asia, pp. 296-7.

326. See J. White, pp. 48-9; Younghusband, India and Tibet, p. 123.

327. Lamb, Central Asia, p. 232.

328. Ibid. pp. 245-51.

329. Ibid. p. 253; also Lamb, 'Notes', pp. 54-7; Landon, Vol. 1, p. 33.

330. Edwardes, The West in Asia, p. 95.

331. Waddell, Himalayas, p. 242; Freshfield, p. 242.

332. Younghusband, India and Tibet, pp. 197-200; Landon, Vol. 1, pp. 309-11.

333. Waddell, Himalayas, p. 282; Louis, p. 72.

334. Lamb, Central Asia, p. 309

335. Relph, pp. 48-9.

336. Grenard, pp. 36-7.

337. Kern, p. 187; see Macaulay and Landon for extensive comments on, and use of, photographs that are typical of the era. Fanny Bullock Workman was described as a 'Keen Kodaker': in Middleton, Victorian Lady Travelers, pp. 86-7.

338. Kern, p. 39.

339. On the use of photographs for ethnographic purposes, see Waddell, Tibetan Buddhism; Rockhill.

340. Freshfield, pp. 40, 71, 301; Conway, pp. 165-6.

341. Freshfield, p. 29.

342. Ibid. pp. vii, ix, xix, 29, 40,159, 195-8, 263.

343. Kipling, pp. 7-13.

6. Lost Horizons

1. F. Maraini, Secret Tibet (London: Hutchinson, 1952) p. 47.

2. C. Bell, Tibet Past and Present (London: Oxford University Press, 1927) pp. 160-1; C. Bell, Portrait of the Dalai Lama (London: Collins, 1946).

3. S. Chapman, Lhasa: The Holy City (London: Chatto & Windus, 1940), p. 11; W. King, 'The Telegraph to Lhasa', The Geographical Journal 63 (1924), pp. 527-31.

4. R. Byron, First Russia: Then Tibet (London: Macmillan and Co., 1933), pp. 270, 278-9; R. Ford, Captured in Tibet (London: Pan Books, 1958).

5. A. de Riencourt, Lost World: Tibet, Key to Asia (London: Victor Gollancz, 1951), pp. 23, 152-3; H. Harrer, Seven Years in Tibet (London: Rupert Hart-Davis, 1953), p. 119.

6. Harrer, p. 126.

7. King, p. 530.

8. Chapman, pp. 145, 185-6.

9. Ibid. pp. 51, 70-1; Bell, Tibet, pp. 162-3.

10. Byron, p. 239.

11. Chapman, p. 245

12. See A. David-Neel: My Journey to Lhasa (New York: Harper & Row, 1927). Magic and Mystery in Tibet (Paris, 1929; New York: Dover Publications, 1971); A. Govinda, The Way of the White Clouds (London: Hutchinson, 1969); K Winkler, Pilgrim of the Clear Light (Berkeley: Dawnfire Books, 1982); de Riencourt.

13. Chapman, p. 290.

14. Byron, p. 196.

15. David-Neel, Magic and Mystery, pp. 199-204.

16. Chapman, p. 17.

17. Harrer, p. 196.

18. L. Thomas Jnr., Out of this World (New York: The Greystone Press, 1950), pp. 208-9.

19. A. Migot, Tibetan Marches (London: Rupert Hart Davis 1960) pp. 226-9. A Guibaut: Tibetan Venture (London: John Murray, 1949), pp. 7-8, 15, 79-80.

20. W. Unsworth, Everest (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1982); K. Mason, Abode of Snow (London: Rupert Hart-Davis, 1955).

21. David-Neel, My Journey, pp. xii, xxi-xxvi, 190.

22. Guibaut, p. 84.

23. See G. Tucci, To Lhasa and Beyond (Rome: Istituto Poligrafico Dello Stato, 1956), pp. 5-7.

24. See Bell, Tibet, pp. 150, 154-9, 246; F. Bailey, No Passport to Tibet (London: The Travel Book Club, 1957), pp. 117-18.

25. See Guibaut, pp. 64, 74, 174-6; Bailey, p. 188; Thomas, Out of this World, pp. 31-2, 134-6.

26. See Migot, p. 167.

27. See David-Neel, My Journey, pp. xviii, 22-3, 27-8, 40, 78-9, 130, 277; Harrer, p. 166; Ronaldshay, Himalayan Bhutan, Sikhim and Tibet (1920; Delhi: Ess Ess Publications, 1977), pp. 16, 220-1, 228-30; H. Ruttledge, Everest 1933 (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1938), p. 81.

28. Maraini, pp. 147-8.

29. Ibid. p. 111.

30. Byron, pp. 223-4, 240, 246-7; Guibaut, pp. 94, 108-9; Ronaldshay, p. 110; Harrer, pp. 39, 166; Unsworth, p. 47; Ruttledge, p. 209.

31. Guibaut, p. 49.

32. Byron, pp. 238, 301; Guibaut, p. 69. Byron's witty style was also part of the changes taking place in the wider field of travel writing between the two world wars. For details of this see P. Fussell, Abroad (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980).

33. Migot, pp. 226-9.

34. Bailey, pp. 19-22, 279-80.

35. Byron, pp. 226-7.

36. David-Neel: Magic and Mystery, pp. v, 291; Journey, pp. 172-5.

37. Maraini, p. 145.

38. Ibid. pp. 62, 153.

39. Ibid. pp. 56, 96-7.

40. Byron, p. 244.

41. Bell, in Tibet, p. 268, describes Tibet as 'The Cinderella of the Indian Foreign Department'. This comment was made in 1922.

42. Guibaut, pp. 80, 118, 186-8.

43. Bailey, pp. 27 ff; C. Allen, A Mountain in Tibet (London: Andre Deutsch, 1982), pp. 162 ff.

44. See Unsworth; R. Clark, The Victorian Mountaineers (London: B. T. Batsford, 1953).

45. P. Fleming, 'News From Tartary', in his Travels in Tartary (London: The Reprint Society, 1941); E. Maillart, Forbidden Journey (London: William Heinemann, 1937).

46. L. Clark, The Marching Wind (London: Hutchinson, 1955); C. Pereira, 'Peking to Lhasa', The Royal Geographical Journal LXIV, no. 2 (August 1924), pp. 97-120.

47. See Guibaut, pp. 20, 92-3, 115; Bailey, p. 131; L. Clark, pp. 19, 29-30, 129-130; de Riencourt, p. 46.

48. L. Clark, p. 29.

49. Guibaut, pp. 140, 60-1; M. Pallis, Peaks and Lamas (1939; London: Cassell, 1946), p. 12.

50. See David-Neel, My Journey; W. McGovern, To Lhasa in Disguise (London: Thornton Butterworth, 1924).

51. See Unsworth, pp. 20-1.

52. N. Roerich, Altai-Himalaya (London: Jarrolds, 1931); G. Roerich, Trails to Inmost Asia (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1931).

53. E. Schary, In Search of the Mahatmas (London: Seeley, Service & Co., 1937); see also the review of this book in The Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society 25 (1938), pp. 130-3; D. MacDonald, Twenty Years in Tibet (London: Seeley, Service & Co., 1932), pp. 159-63.

54. H. Kopp, Himalayan Shuttlecock (London: Hutchinson, 1957); F. Ossendowski, Beasts, Men and Gods (Sydney: Cornstalk Publishing Co., 1926).

55. See Thomas, Out of this World; R. Tung, A Portrait of Lost Tibet (London: Thames & Hudson, 1980), gives details and photographs of Ilya Tolstoy's mission.

56. Byron, p. 253.

57. Pallis, p. 422.

58. Ibid. pp. 121 ff, 210, 227-300, 410 ff, where Pallis discusses the effect of the introduction of chemical dyes into Himalayan painting, and the effect of introducing Western clothes and Western-style education into the Himalayan cultures.

59. de Riencourt, pp. 7, 46.

60. Guibaut, p. 2; David-Neel, Journey, p. 273.

61. T. Bernard, 'The Peril of Tibet', Asia and the Americas 39 (September 1939), pp. 500-4.

62. Thomas, Out of this World, pp. 76-7.

63. Maraini, p. 145.

64. Guibaut, p. 2.

65. Byron, p. 327.

66. Harrer, pp. 148-9.

67. Pallis, pp. xii-xiii, 344.

68. de Riencourt, p. 128.

69. Unsworth, pp. 314 ff.

70. Byron, p. 328.

71. Maraini, p. 144.

72. Thomas, Out of this World, pp. 19-20.

73. See Harrer, pp. 131, 133, 138, 155, 213, on the conservatism at Lhasa. On the other hand, for details of the enthusiasm in Lhasa for modern ideas, see Chapman; King, 'Telegraph'.

74. Harrer, p. 136.

75. Ibid. pp. 256-7.

76. Thomas, Out of this World, p. 30

77. See de Riencourt, p. 300; Thomas, Out of this World, p. 30.

78. de Riencourt, p. 301.

79. Govinda, p. xi.

80. As Eliot wrote in 1935. 'At the still point of the turning world ... / at the still point, there the dance is, / But neither arrest nor movement'. T.S. Eliot, 'Four Quartets. Burnt Norton', The Complete Poems and Plays of T.S. Eliot (London: Faber & Faber, 1978).

81. de Riencourt, p. 224.

82. Fleming, p. 473; see also the extraordinary adventures of Eric Bailey, explorer and special agent, in and around Tashkent just after World War I, in A. Swinson, Beyond the Frontiers (London: Hutchinson, 1971).

83. See Bernard; de Riencourt, pp. 180-1.

84. Independence from China was not universally accepted or desired in Tibet. For example, Tengye-ling monastery supported Chinese rule and so was destroyed by the Dalai Lamas pro-independence forces. This is mentioned in Chapman, p. 139.

85. de Riencourt, pp. 179-80.

86. F. O'Connor, 'Tibet in the Modern World', The Geographical Magazine 6 (1937-8) pp. 93-110.

87. Chapman, pp. 91-2.

89. Chapman, pp. 3-4.

90. de Riencourt, pp. 199-200; Fleming; I. Klein, 'British Imperialism in Decline. Tibet, 1914-21', Historian 34 (1971), pp. 100-15, presents a discussion of the complex situation in Central Asia and its effect on British involvement in Tibet.

91. de Riencourt, pp. 211-13; Harrer, pp. 205-8.

92. Harrer, pp. 219-20.

93. Ford: Harrer, p. 273.

94. For details see Harrer; Ford; de Riencourt; Thomas, Out of this World; L. Thomas Jnr., Silent War in Tibet (London: Secker & Warburg, 1960); D. Woodman: Himalayan Frontiers (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1969), 'Tibet and Imperial China' (Centre of Oriental Studies, Australian National University, Canberra, Occasional Paper No. 7, n.d.).

95. Harrer, p. 287.

96. de Riencourt, p. 301.

97. Fussell, p. 18. This era of disenchantment also produced other places apart from Tibet that evoked yearning, or intimations of a theocratically organized utopian society. See, for example, N. Douglas on the Sorrento coast, in Siren Land (1911; Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1986) or H. Wunderlich, The Secret of Crete (Athens: Efstathiadis Group, 1983).

98. Ronaldshay, pp. 79-80.

99. David-Neel, Magic and Mystery, p. 78.

100. David-Neel, Journey, p. 61.

101. Fussell.

102. Byron, p. 294.

103. Harrer, pp. 116, 160.

104. Migot, p. 127

105. Byron, p. xiii.

106. J. Hilton, Lost Horizon (1933; London: Pan Books, 1947), pp. 162-3.

107. Thomas, Out of this World, p. 17.

108 Migot, pp. 15-16.

109. de Riencourt, p. 14.

110. Thomas, Out of this World, p. 276.

111. de Riencourt, p. 15.

112. L. Weir, 'The Impressions of an Englishwoman in Lhasa', Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, January 1932, pp. 239-41.

113. Byron, pp. 293-4.

114. Guibaut, p. 2.

115. See J. Hillman, The Dream and the Underworld (London: Harper & Row, 1979), pp. 74-85.

116. David-Neel, My Journey, p. 9.

117. deRiencourt, p. 53.

118. Byron, p. xv.

119. Harrer, pp. 193-4; de Riencourt, p. 129.

120. Tucci, To Lhasa, p. 108

121. de Riencourt, pp. 49-50; Chapman, pp. 100, 102; Pallis, p. 288. Maraini is one of the few exceptions to this one-sided viewpoint: pp. 58, 85, 107-8, 209-10.

122. de Riencourt, p. 50.

123. Fussell tends to see the creation of overseas places at this time simply as a compensation for the gloom and despondency felt in Britain after World War I.

124. G. Tucci, Tibet (London: Elek Books, 1967), p. 13.

125. Guibaut, pp. 1-2, 7-8, 29, 31; Unsworth, p. 47; David-Neel, My Journey, pp. xviii, xix, 22-3; de Riencourt, pp. 34-5.

126. Ruttledge, p. 72; Tucci, Tibet, p. 16; Byron, p. 234; de Riencourt, p. 41.

127. Byron, p. 156; Fleming, p. 397.

128. de Riencourt, p. 128.

129. Fleming, p. 392.

130. Chapman, pp. 73, 109-10, 246-7, 299.

131 Weir; Harrer, p. 137.

132. Maraini, p. 86.

133. See Fussell; R. Barthes, 'The Blue Guide', Mythologies (London: Paladin, 1973).

134. On the concept of everyday life, see H. Lefebvre, Everyday Life in the Modern World (London: Allen Lane, 1974).

135. On psychic research after World War I and its relation to Western interpretations of Buddhism, see P. Bishop, Tibetan Religion and the Western Imagination (London: Athlone Press, forthcoming).

136. Pallis, p. 138.

137. H. Desroche, The Sociology of Hope (London Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979), pp. 113, 168-9; see also F. Manuel (ed.), Utopias and Utopian Thought (London: Souvenir Press, 1973); I. Tod and M Wheeler, Utopia (London: Orbis Publishing, 1978).

138. Hilton, pp. 51, 57, 60, 84, 91-2, 94, 147.

139. Ibid. pp. 88, 157-9.

140. Unsworth, pp. 41-4, 63, 70-1, 99-100, 102, 111, 131-41.

141. Hilton, pp. 43, 45, 50-1.

142. Pereira.

143. L. Clark.

144. Hilton, pp. 83, 127, 128.

145. Ibid. p. 49.

146. Ibid. p. 69.

147 Ibid. pp. 103, 124, 129, 146.

148 Ibid. pp. 130-1, 162-3.

149. Ibid. pp. 150, 177-8.

150. Ibid. p. 136.

151. C.G. Jung, 'Religious Ideas in Alchemy', in his Collected Works Vol. 12 Psychology and Alchemy (trans. R.F.C. Hull: London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974), para 332.

152. Thomas, Out of this World, pp. 13-17; de Riencourt, p. 14.

153. Ibid. pp. 68, 248, 310.

154. Fussell, p. 92.

155. Thomas, Out of this World, p. 261.

156. Ibid. p. 186.

157. R. Kaulback, Tibetan Trek (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1934), pp. 54, 95-6, also pp. iv, 11-12, 15, 19-20.

158. David-Neel, My Journey, p. xxii.

159. Ibid. p. xix.

160. David-Neel, Magic and Mystery, p. 167.

161. Pallis, p. 423.

162. David-Neel, My Journey, p. 198.

163. de Riencourt, pp. 251-2; Huston-Smith, Requiem For A Faith (A Hartley Production Film, 1974).

164. David-Neel, My Journey, pp. xix -xx.

165 Ibid. p. 259.

166. David-Neel, Magic and Mystery, p. 9.

167. David-Neel, My Journey, p. 257.

168. Ibid. pp. 28, 40, 130, 277.

169. Chapman, pp. 104-5, 107.

170. See Ibid. pp. 106-7, 300.

171. Ibid. p. 228.

172. Ibid. p. 222.

173. See ibid. pp. 61, 68; compare with Landon's remarks as noted in chapter 5.

174. Chapman, p. 195.

175. See Ibid. pp. 44, 155, 158; Harrer; Ford.

176. David-Neel, My Journey, p. 45; de Riencourt, p. 285

177. Kaulback, p. 65.

178. Ibid. pp. 65, 70-1,82-3.

179. Byron, p. xv.

180. See F. Younghusband's introduction to Ruttledge, Everest; and Younghusband, Everest: The Challenge (London: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1949); Pallis, Peaks and Lamas, pp. 190-1.

181. de Riencourt, p. 223.

182. de Riencourt, pp. 224, 293.

183. Thomas, Out of this World, p. 31.

184. D. Duff, On the Worlds Roof (London: Abbey Rewards, 1950).

185. Guibaut, pp. 42-4.

186. Ibid. p. 93.

187. David-Neel, Magic and Mystery, p. 9.

188. de Riencourt, p. 259.

189. C. Humphreys, Buddhism (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1974), p. 189.

190. C. Bell, The Religion of Tibet (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1931).

191. Huston-Smith.

192. See Ronaldshay; Tucci, To Lhasa; Younghusband, Everest.

193. Tucci, To Lhasa, p. 107.

194. G. Tucci and E. Ghersi, Secrets of Tibet (London: Blackie, 1935), p. 17.

195. Ronaldshay, pp. 9, 23-6, 65-7, 75-8, 110, 141-2, 170, 177-8.

196. Maraini, p. 42.

197. Ibid. pp. 55-6.

198. Ibid. pp. 84, 172.

199. Ibid. p. 82.

200. Ibid. p. 60.

201. Ibid. p. 48.

202. Byron, p. 248.

203. Fleming, p. 373.

204. Migot, p. 122.

205. Migot, p. 184 This attitude among travelers -- of wanting to get 'inside' a culture -- paralleled developments in anthropology and sociology. Malinowski revolutionized anthropological field work between the wars, whilst at the same time the Chicago School and ethnomethodology were transforming sociological investigations.

206. See David-Neel, My Journey, p. 61.

207. Harrer, p. 173.

208. L. Waddell, Tibetan Buddhism (1895; New York: Dover Publications, 1972), p. ix.

209. David-Neel, My Journey, p. 61.

210. Pallis, pp. 229-30.

211. Maraini, p. 58.

212. de Riencourt, p. 258.

213. David-Neel: Magic and Mystery, p. 22: Journey, p. 198.

214. G. Patterson, Tibetan Journal (London: Readers Book Club, 1956), p. 114.

215. Ruttledge, p. 77.

216. Chapman, pp. 247-55.

217. Pallis, pp. 230, 255.

218. de Riencourt, pp. 31, 37, 57-8.

219. Harrer, pp. 142-3.

220. See Bell, Tibet, p. 183; Pallis, pp. 33-4; Ruttledge, p. 214; Migot, p. 94; Bacot, quoted Pallis, p. 230.

221. Pallis, p. 3.

222. Chapman, pp. 92-3.

223. Migot, p. 104.

224. de Riencourt, p. 7.

225. Guibaut.

226. Harrer, p. 90; see also Schary's condemnation of Tibetan inhospitality. MacDonald p. 163.

227. L. Clark, pp. 45, 54-7, 112.

228. Guibaut, p. 71.

229. Fleming, p. 359.

230. David-Neel, My Journey, p. 142.

231. Ibid.

232. Ibid. pp. 218-23.

233. Ibid. p. 254.

234. Pallis, pp. 194-5, 263.

235. Ibid. pp. 329-30.

236. Ibid. pp. 257-8; Migot, p. 104.

237. David-Neel, Magic and Mystery, pp. 11, 131, 244, 258.

238. Maraini, pp. 50-2.

239. Ibid. p. 143. For a 'balanced' account of Bhutanese character which weighs the various estimations made by Westerners, see Ronaldshay, pp. 205 ff.

240. David-Neel, Magic and Mystery, pp. 288-300.

241. Fleming, p. 325.

242. Chapman, pp. 44, 73, 124, 155, 158, 214.

243. Ibid. pp. 214-4.

244. See Lobsang Rampa, Tibetan Sage (London: Corgi Books, 1980).

245. David-Neel, Magic and Mystery, pp. vi, 291.

246. de Riencourt, pp. 247-8, 252, 257; see also L. Clark, p. 331.

247. Maraini, pp. 81-2, 172; see also Bishop, Tibetan Religion, for a fuller discussion of the relation between Tibetan spiritual 'techniques' and Western fantasy-making.

248. Thomas, Out of this World, p. 118.

249. Maraini, p. 42; see also F. Smythe, Snow on the Hills (London: Adam and Charles Black, 1946) as well as his numerous other works; Younghusband, Everest.

250. Maraini, p. 42.

251. Pallis, p. 99.

252. Migot, pp. 90-2.

253. de Riencourt, p. 19.

254. Ibid. p. 28.

255. Chapman, p. 5.

256. Ibid. p. 159.

257. P. Matthiesson, The Snow Leopard (London: Picador, 1980), pp. 16, 26, 121-2; J. Lester, 'Wrestling with the Self on Mount Everest', Journal of Humanistic Psychology 23, no. 2 (Spring 1983).

258. Matthiesson, pp. 16, 21; see also P. Bishop, 'The Geography of Hope and Despair: Peter Matthiesson's The Snow Leopard', Critique, XXVI, no. 4 (Summer 1985).

259. Matthiesson, pp. 29, 271.

260. E. Haas, Himalayan Pilgrimage (London: Thames & Hudson, 1978), p. 10.

261. J. Napier, Bigfoot (London: Abacus, 1976).

262. Winkler.

263. See Bishop, Tibetan Religion, for a full discussion of the place of The Tibetan Book of the Dead in Western fantasy-making.

264. G. Stuhlmann (ed.), The Diaries of Anais Nin, Vol. 6 (New York: Harvest Books, 1976), p. 332.

265. David-Neel, Magic and Mystery, pp. 23-40.

266. Ronaldshay, pp. 130-1, 134; Govinda; Maraini.

267. See chapter 2 for Bogle's association of Tibet with a state of primitive innocence.

268. See de Riencourt, p. 294; Migot, p. 184.

269. See Harrer, pp. 145-6, 225.

270 Ibid. pp. 145-6; Chapman, p. 174.

271. See David-Neel, My Journey, p. xviii; Chapman, p. 174; Bell, Tibet, p. 48. Although these titles were similar to those used before by Westerners to designate the Dalai Lama, now they were used seriously and not as mere curiosities.

272. Chapman, p. 192.

273. Bell, Tibet, p. 49.

274. A. Artaud, Anthology (San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1972), p. 64.

275. Hilton, pp. 43, 45, 50-1

276. Pallis, pp. 320-4.

277. de Riencourt, pp. 274, 281.

278. Maraini, p. 12.

279. J. Perry, Lord of the Four Quarters (New York: George Braziller, 1966); also Bishop, Tibetan Religion, for a fuller discussion of the figure of the Dalai Lama as an archetypal father figure for many Westerners involved with Tibetan spirituality.

280. See N. Barber, From the Land of Lost Content (London: Collins, 1969).

7. Conclusion

1. See, for example, the work 'Splendor Solis' by the sixteenth-century alchemist Solomon Trismosin, in C. Burland, The Arts of the Alchemists (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1967); and in J. Read, Prelude to Chemistry (London: G. Bell & Sons, 1936).

2. G. White, 'Views in India, chiefly among the Himalaya Mountains: 1825', in Eternal Himalaya, ed. H. Ahluwalia (New Delhi: Interprint, 1982), p. 135.

3. A. Gerard, 'Narrative of a Journey from Soobathoo to Shipke, in Chinese Tartary, 1818', Journey of the Asiatic Society 11, no. 1 (1842), p. 375.

4. W. Giegerich, 'Saving the Nuclear Bomb', Facing Apocalypse (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1986).

5. C.G. Jung, 'Paracelsus as a Spiritual Phenomenon', Collected Works, Vol. 13, Alchemical Studies (trans. R.F.C. Hull; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974), paras 186, 196.

6. See L. Shiner, 'Sacred Space, Profane Space, Human Space', Journal of the American Academy of Religion XL, no. 4 (December 1972). He argues that everyday, or 'lived', space is not homogeneous, nor devoid of sacred qualities.

7. For a full discussion of the highly selective import of Tibetan Buddhism into Western fantasy-making in the mid-twentieth century, see P. Bishop, Tibetan Religion and the Western Imagination (London: Athlone Press, forthcoming).

8. H. Harrer, Return to Tibet (New York: Schocken, 1985)

9. See, for example, C. Furer-Haimendorf, The Sherpas of Nepal (London: John Murray, 1964); J. Hitchcock and R. Jones (eds.), Spirit Possession in the Nepal Himalayas (Warminster, Wiltshire: Aris & Phillips, 1976); T. Palakshappa, Tibetans in India (New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1978).

10. A notable exception is D. Snellgrove's Himalayan Pilgrimage (Boulder, Co: Prajana Press, 1981), which recounts the author's journey through remote regions of Nepal in 1956. P. Matthiesson's The Snow Leopard, while a classic, does hover at times on the edge of cliche. A. Harvey's Journey to Ladakh (London: Jonathan Cape, 1983), while sensitive and at times moving, fails to acknowledge the changes that have taken place since the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries both in the genre of travel writing and in the neo- imperial relationship between the West and Third World countries. A. Blum's Annapurna: A Woman's Place (London: Granada, 1980) succeeds precisely because it presents all the seemingly unresolvable contradictions between gender, race, culture, power and personal experience. H. Suyin's Lhasa: The Open City (New York: Putnam, 1977) unfortunately has to be classed in the category of Chinese propaganda. Vikram Seth's beautiful account of his journey across Tibet to his home in India skilfully avoids most of the pitfalls that await the travel writer in this well-trod, but still little-known region (From Heaven Lake, New York: Random, 1987).

11. See P. Allen, 'Tibet, China and the Western World', History Today 30, December 1980, pp. 25-31.

12. In addition to the abundance of glossy travel brochures, there are the pervasively influential and seemingly indispensable guidebooks which are filled with cultural vignettes, snatches of traditional wisdom and splashes of local color. Among the best are H. Swift, The Trekker's Guide to the Himalaya and Karakoram (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1982) and M. and R. Schettler, Kashmir, Ladakh and Zanskar (Victoria: Lonely Planet Publications, 1981). Such guides are now starting to emerge for Tibet.

13. E. Haas's Himalayan Pilgrimage (London: Thames & Hudson, 1978) is a typical glossy coffee-table book, filled with images of extraordinary clarity and vitality but, in the end, with a kind of flat sameness about them. The accompanying text echoes the tone of the illustrations. Such books have been produced on most out-of-the-way exotic places, and their geneses can be seen in texts such as The Geographical Magazine of the 1930s (e.g. Vol. VI, no. 6, December 1937). By comparison, see the two photostudies: B. Coburn, Nepali Aama (Santa Barbara, CA: Ross-Erikson Inc., 1982) and H. Downs, Rhythms of a Himalayan Village (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1980). These are both of the popular anthropological variety and attempt to locate their intimate, black-and-white photograph within a community context rather than a more voyeuristic tourist one.

14. Cf. M. Eliade, The Sacred and the Profane (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1959) with Shiner's analysis.

15. J. Hillman, in The Dream and the Underworld (New York: Harper & Row, 1979) insists upon the relative autonomy of the 'underworld' and 'dayworld' perspectives, of the unconscious and the conscious.

16. C.G. Jung, 'Psychology and Literature', Collected Works, Vol. 15 The Spirit of Man in Art and Literature (trans. R.F.C. Hull; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974), p. 85.

17. J. Boon, The Anthropological Romance of Bali (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1977), pp. 134-5.

18. Eliade; F. Yates, The Art of Memory (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1978); D. Lowenthal, 'Past Time, Present Place, Landscape and Memory', The Geographical Review LXV, no. 1 (January 1975). T. Moore, 'Animus Mundi', Spring 1987 (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1987), argues that the animus can be envisaged as the spirit of a place, like its genius loci; also that the animus relates to the source of family and ancestral continuity.

19. M. Foucault, Madness and Civilization (New York: Vintage Books, 1973).

20. J. Fabian, in Time and the Other (New York: Columbia University Press, 1983), pp. 111-13, 121-2, provocatively argues that anthropology, along with other social sciences, was also part of this 'art of memory' tradition.

21. H. Corbin, Spiritual Body and Celestial Earth (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977), p. 90.

22. J. Hillman, 'Anima Mundi. The Return of Soul to the World', Spring 1982 (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1982).

23. Traditional memory systems operated in such a multileveled way. See Yates.

24. P. Berry, 'Echo's Passion', in her Echos Subtle Body (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1982), p. 113.

25. Berry, p. 120.

26. See P. Bishop, 'The Geography of Hope and Despair: Peter Matthiesson's The Snow Leopard', Critique XXVI, no. 4 (Summer 1985).

27. See J. Loewenstein, Responsible Readings: Versions of Echo in Pastoral, Epic, and the Jonsonian Masque (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984) pp. 18, 152 n.2 4. He suggests that Echo acts as a psychoanalyst and also points out that many famous places of echo in Antiquity also symbolized doorways into the Underworld; see also Berry, p. 120. In such circumstances it would perhaps be more appropriate to talk of an axis imaginalis rather than an axis mundi. This term which more specifically relates to an opening into the intermediary realm, the metaxy, the imaginal, and perhaps has less of a monotheistic connotation.

28. Berry, p. 120.

29. See T. Moore, 'Musical Therapy', Spring 1978 (Dallas: Spring Publications, 1978); Loewenstein, p. 25.

30. Berry, p. 115.

31. Ibid. pp. 118-19; Loewenstein, p. 151 n. 21.

32. Loewenstein, p. 22.

33. C.G. Jung, 'Religious Ideas in Alchemy', Collected Works, Vol. 12 Psychology and Alchemy (trans. R.F.C. Hull; London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974), para. 396.

34. Hillman, 'Anima Mundi', pp. 73 ff.

35. See R. Bly, News of the Universe (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1980) for a discussion of this loss of imaginal relation to the world in eighteenth-and nineteenth-century poetry; also J. Hillman, 'An Introductory Note: C.G. Carus-C.G. Jung, in Psyche (Part One) by C.G. Carus (New York: Spring Publications, 1970).

36. J. Hillman, 'The Imagination of Air and the Collapse of Alchemy', The Eranos Jahrbuch 50-1981 (Frankfurt a/M. Insel Verlag, 1982) pp. 283-4.
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Re: THE MYTH OF SHANGRI-LA: TIBET, TRAVEL WRITING AND THE W

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Peckham, M. Victorian Revolutionaries (New York: George Braziller, 1970).

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Phillips, I. and P. Victorians at Home and Away (London: Croom Helm, 1978).

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Porter, P. and F. Lukermann, 'The Geography of Utopia" in Geographies of the Mind, ed. D. Lowenthal and M. Bowden (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976)

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Preston, J. 'Sacred Centres and Symbolic Networks in South Asia', The Mankind Quarterly, XX, nos. 3, 4 (January-April 1980).

Prinsep, H. Tibet, Tartary and Mongolia (London W.H. Allen, 1852)

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Read, I. Prelude to Chemistry (London: G. Bell & Sons, 1936).

Relph, E. Place and Placelessness (London: Pion, 1976).

Rider Haggard, H. She (1887; London: Hodder, 1971).

Ridley, H. 'Slaves and Mistresses', in his Images of Imperial Rule (London: Croom Helm, 1983).

de Riencourt, A. Lost World: Tibet, Key to Asia (London: Victor Gollancz, 1951)

Robertson, D. 'Mid-Victorians Amongst the Alps', in Nature and the Victorian Imagination, ed. U. Knoepflmacher and G. Tennyson (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977).

Rockhill, W. The Land of the Lamas (London, 1981; New Delhi: Asian Publication Services, 1975).

Roerich, G. Trails to Inmost Asia (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1931)

Roerich, N. Altai-Himalaya (London: Jarrolds, 1931).

Ronaldshay, Himalayan Bhutan, Sikhim and Tibet (London, 1920; Delhi: Ess Ess Publications, 1977).

Ruskin, J. Modern Painters Vol. 4 (1854; Orpington: George Allen, 1888).

Ruttledge, H. Everest 1933 (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1938).

Ryan, C. H.P. Blavatsky and the Theosophical Movement (Pasadena: Theosophical University Press, 1975).

Saarinen, T. and J. Sell 'Environmental Perception', Progress in Human Geography 5, no. 4 (1981).

sachs, I. The Discovery of the Third World (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1976).

Sack, R. 'Conceptions of Geographical Space', Progress in Human Geography 4, no. 3 (September, 1980).

Said, E. Orientialism (New York: Vintage Books, 1979).

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Saliba, J. 'Homo Religiosus in Mircea Eliade (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1976)

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Schlagintweit, A. and R. 'A Short Account ..." Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 25 (1856)

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Snellgrove, D. Himalayan Pilgrimage (Boulder, CO: Prajna Press, 1981)

Spacks, P. Imagining a Self (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1976)

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Re: THE MYTH OF SHANGRI-LA: TIBET, TRAVEL WRITING AND THE W

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Index

Proper and Mythological Names


Abruzzi, Duke of, 184, 196
Allen, C., 265n10
Allen, J., 257n73
d'Anville, J., 32
Aragon, L., 1
Arch-Bishop of Canterbury, 187
Aristotle, 10
Arnold, E., 127, 269n, 142
Artaud, A., 238-9

Bachelard, G, 9, 22, 109
Bacot, 195
Bailey, F., 195, 198
Banks, J., 30
Barber, L., 261n2
Barker, F., 255n34
Baudet, H., 35, 37, 75
Be1l, C., 193, 195, 208, 224, 238
Bennett, A., 124-5
Berger, J., 106
Bergson, H., 144
Bernard, T., 196, 203
Berry, P. , 249-50
Bishop, P., 270n, 158, 283n, 135, 286n, 263, 286n, 279
Blavatsky, H.P., 91, 110, 143, 145, 149-50, 155, 158, 181-2, 186, 188, 211, 234
Blum, A., 287n10
Bly, R., 288n35
Bogle, G., 15, 22, 25-36, 38-44, 46,48-61, 65, 90-1, 95, 152, 165, 183, 186, 242, 250, 258n12, 258n47, 277n, 287, 286n, 267
Bonvalot, G., 138-40, 160-2, 170, 174
Boon, J., 247
Bourne, S., 105-7, 130-1
Bower, H., 138, 140, 147, 149-50, 153, 166, 186
Bruce, C., 184
Bullock-Workman, F., 184
Burns, A., 75-6, 111
Byron, R., 3, 79, 193-4, 197-200, 202-4, 210-13, 216, 219, 228, 250, 280n32

Carey, A., 138-140, 160
Carey, W., 149-151, 168, 170, 179, 181
Casey, E., 9, 255n34
Chandler, E., 152-4, 162-4, 165, 171-6, 183, 185-6
Chapman, S., 193, 214, 216, 221-2, 225, 230-1, 233-4, 236, 238
Clark, L., 201, 206, 217, 231-2
Cobum, B., 287n13
Colebrook, H., 88
Conan-Doyle, A., 143
Conway, W., 184
Cook, J., 26, 30, 35
Cook, T., 116, 174
Coolidge, W., 105
Cooper, T., 123-4, 133
Corbin, H., 249
Csoma de Koros, 72-3, 90, 92, 111, 122
Cunningham, A., 97, 121, 133
Curzon, G., 146-8, 176, 187
Czar, 140, 187, 207

Dalai Lama, 17, 32, 49, 51, 53-4, 57, 90-4, 116, 126-9, 133, 160, 165, 169, 172, 175, 179, 181-3, 185, 191-2, 195, 205, 207-9, 213, 217, 221, 224, 237-40, 286n271
Dalgleish, 138, 140
Darwin, C., 14, 16, 21, 100, 102, 118-9, 120, 132, 182, 242
Das, S., 138
David-Neel A., 182, 186, 188, 193-6, 199, 201, 210, 213, 216, 220-2, 224-5, 228-30, 232-4, 237
Davies, A., 123
De1la Penna, 34-5
Desgodins, 138
Desideri, I., 196
Dorjieff, 147
Douglas, N., 3, 254n33, 282n97
Downs, H., 287n13
Duncan, J., 140, 176
Durand, G., 139
Durkheim, E., 144
Dutreuil de Rhins, 138, 152, 156, 198

Echo, 249-251, 288n27
Eliade, M., 9, 10, 18, 65, 97, 259n59
Elias, N., 138, 139
Eliot, T.S., 281n80
Evans-Wentz, W., 237

Fabian, J., 31, 272n45, 287n20
Fleming, P., 20, 194, 199, 201, 206, 210, 214, 228, 233, 250
Ford, R., 208
Foucault M., 5, 12, 18-19, 144, 177, 248
Francke, A., 270n7
Fraser, J., 72
Freshfield, D., 21, 150, 155, 162, 172, 184-5, 189
Freud, S., 8, 132, 144, 159, 172, 177, 209
Funk, R., 254n19
Fussell, P., 4,209, 280n32

Gardiner, A., 72
Gerard, A., 68-9, 72, 80-3, 87, 96, 242
Giegerich, W., 242
Gladwin, T., 12
Goethe, J., 180, 258n19, 262n25
Gould, 195, 208
Govinda, A., 237
Graham, W., 184
Grenard, F., 9, 138-40, 147, 149, 152-6, 160-4, 167-9, 171, 177, 186, 188
Grombtchevsky, 138
Guibaut, A., 195-6, 198, 203, 212, 214, 223, 231
Gutzlaff, C.H., 98-101, 126

Hamilton, F., 72, 87, 92, 96
Harrer, H., 192, 193, 201, 204, 210, 213, 216, 229, 231, 238, 245
Harvey, A., 287n10
Hastings, W., 27-34, 49-51, 63, 90, 133
Hearsey, 72, 81, 83, 91
Hedin, S., 138-40, 145, 152, 160, 169, 171, 176, 185, 201
Heidegger, M., 9, 10, 83
Herbert 73, 87, 96
Henry, W., 73, 96
Hensoldt H., 150-1, 155-6, 169, 177, 179, 182, 188
Hermes-Mercurius, 19, 49
Herodotus, 33, 132
Hi1lman, J., 5, 8-9, 17-18, 46, 179-80, 251, 259n91, 287n15
Hilton, J., 19, 211, 216-18, 225, 239, 244
Hitler, 223
Hodgson, B., 72-3, 89-90, 92, 98, 121, 156, 237, 261n2
Hodgson, J., 89
Holt, D., 18
Hooker, J., 21, 97, 99-100,103-5, 108-114, 117, 119, 121-2, 125-7, 129-130, 139, 185
Huc, M. (& Gabet), 21, 72, 74, 96, 138-9
Humbolt 30
Humphreys, C., 224
Hutch, R., 158
Hutchins, F., 273n74

Jacquemont V., 72
Jenkyns, R., 2c60n106
Jesus, 182
Jones, W. , 49-51
Jung, G.G., 8-9, 18, 134, 160, 177, 179-80, 218-19, 234, 237, 247, 251, 261n161, 267n55, 278n291

Kaulback, R., 220, 222
Kawaguchi, E., 79, 167, 169
Kern, S., 141, 262n26, 275n183, 275n195
Kim, 143, 147, 183, 189-90, 211
Kintup, 198
Kipling, R., 143, 147, 183, 189-90, 211
Kirkpatrick, W., 27, 44, 50
Knight E., 139, 148, 153
Kopp, H., 202
Kozlov, 138

Lamb, A., 147, 187
Landon, P., 22, 136-7, 139, 146-7, 149-50, 151-2, 154-6, 158-60, 162-4, 167-9, 171, 178-9, 181-3, 186, 190, 218, 238
Landor, A., 138, 145, 166, 188
Latham, R., 98, 120
Layard, J., 9
Least Heat-Moon, W., 254n22
Le Bris, M., 67, 70
Leitner, G., 181
Littledale, G., 138-40, 152
Liotard, 200, 231
Liu-Shan, 140
Lobsang Rampa, 234
Lowenstein, J., 251, 288n27
Lorrain, C., 67
Louis, J., 149, 151, 164, 186-7
Lowenthal, D., 7, 9

Macaulay, C., 139, 152, 157, 186
MacDonald, D., 195, 201
Maillart E., 20, 201, 206, 228
Mallory, 201, 216
Manning, T., 69, 72, 74, 76-81, 83, 85, 90-1, 93-6, 191, 250
Mao Tse-Tung, 208
Markham, C., 76-7, 79, 144
Markham, F., 111, 124
Maraini, F., 78, 191, 194, 196-7, 199, 203-4, 216, 227-9, 233-5, 237, 239, 250
Marco Polo, 4, 25, 90, 196
Matthiesson, P., 5, 79, 236, 250, 287n10
Mazuchelli, N., 97, 102
McGovem, W., 196, 201, 229
Middleton, D., 256n66
Migot A., 19,198, 210-12, 228, 231-2, 235
Millington, P., 22, 79,163, 165,176
Montgomerie, T., 125
Moorcroft, W., 72-5, 81-3, 86-7, 89, 91, 93, 95-6, 111
Moore, T., 287n18
Muller, M., 98

Nain Singh, 126, 133-4
Nin, A., 237
Noel J ., 201

O'Connor, F., 207
Oderic, 25, 196
Ossendowski, F., 202, 206
Ottley, W., 172

Palden-Llamo, 140
Pa1lis, M., 202-4, 215, 220, 229, 231-2, 236, 239, 281n58
Panchen Lama (Tashi Lama), 2, 41, 52, 54-7, 90, 133, 186, 208, 258n12
Parpi Bai, 140
Patterson, G., 229-30
Pemberton, 72
Penniman, T., 261n152
Pereira, C., 217
Pievtsoff, 138
Prejevalsky, N., 20, 138, 140,157-8, 169, 176-8
Prestor John, 33
Prince Henry of Orleans, 138, 140
Prinsep, H., 98

Raper, 72
Ratzell, F., 141
Relph, E., 1, 4, 188
Rennell, J., 28, 35
Rider Haggard, H., 143, 278n291
de Riencourt, A., 203-5, 209, 211-14, 220, 224, 230-1, 234, 236, 239
Rijnhart, S., 138-9, 152
Rockhi1l, W., 138, 140, 144-5, 153, 157, 166-7, 169, 181, 196
Roerich, N., 201
Ronaldshay, 210, 225-7, 237
Rosa, Salvator, 67
Rosebury, Lord, 142
Rousseau, J., 28, 35, 70
Ruskin, J., 16, 21, 100, 102-4, 106-8, 114-5, 117-8, 131-2, 163, 225, 243, 266n34
Ruttledge, H., 230

Said, E., 7, 12-14, 19, 61, 144-5, 176, 248, 256n55
Sandberg, G., 144
Schary, E., 201
Schettler, M. & R., 287n12
Schlagintweit(s), 97; E., 98; A., 111
Sella, V, 184, 189
Seth, V., 287n10
Shannon, R., 140
Sherlock Holmes, 143
Shipp, J., 96
Smythe, F., 106
Snellgrove, D., 287n10
Spenser, H., 268n100
Stephen, L., 25, 69, 108, 115
Steme, L., 5, 78
Stone, S., 151, 152, 177
Strachey, H., 97
Suyin, H., 287n10
Swift, H., 287n10

Tanner, H., 177
Taylor, A., 138-9
Temple, R., 109, 144, 120
Thomas, L., 195-6, 203, 205-6, 211-2, 219, 223, 225, 234
Thomson, T., 97, 104, 107-8, 113
Tolstoy, I., 196, 208
Trebeck, G., 73
Tsong-ka-pa, 140, 182
Tuan, Yi-Fu, 7, 9-10
Tucci, G., 191, 196, 213-4, 225
Turner, J., 67, 104, 114, 163
Turner, S., 22, 25-8, 31-61, 63, 65, 90, 95, 100, 242
Turner V., 5, 10

Ugyen Kazi, 187

Vigne, G., 72
Victoria, Queen, 140
Von Hugel 72-3

Waddell, L., 139, 151, 154, 156-7, 163, 173-4, 176, 187, 229, 237
Waugh, E., 3
Weir L., 212
White, G., 65-6, 68-72, 95-6
White, J., 156
Whitley, D., 149
Wilson, A., 101, 103, 105, 110-11, 113-118, 121-128, 130-4
Wilson, M., 200
WolfL J., 72
Woodroffe, J., 237

Yates, F., 249, 255n49
Younghusband, F., 138, 144-5, 154-5, 158, 161-2, 164-5, 170-2, 174-6, 183, 186-8, 270n158

Zurbriggen, M., 184

Subjects

Afghanistan, 13, 71, 83, 146
Africa, 8, 111, 155-6, 198, 249
Akka-tagh Mountains, 139, 147
Alps, (Alpine, Alpine Club), 2, 14, 26-7, 43, 45-6, 69, 100, 103, 105-6, 108-9, 111, 115, 118, 130, 184, 197, 200-1, 227, 248-9
American: Indians, 156, 158; travelers (also see individual names), 6, 138, 196, 201, 203, 208
Andes, Mountains, 5, 43, 45, 111, 249
Anima, 19, 179-80, 182, 189, 247, 251, 256n71
Anima Mundi, 5, 117, 180, 251-2
Animus, 179, 287n18
Annales de Geographie, 142
Antarctic, 101, 111, 113, 171
Anthropology, (Ethnography), 8, 11, 31, 95, 98, 119-120, 144-5, 158, 245, 255n34, 256n63, 261n152, 265n123, 268n100, 272n45, 284n205, 287n20
Arbors, 200
Arcadia, 25, 44, 48, 58, 164, 173
Archeology, 11, 144
Arctic, 2, 12, 111, 143, 171, 249
Aryan, 16, 119-23, 132, 156
Asia, Central, 6, 33, 37, 85, 87, 93, 139,
142-157, 201, 206
Assam, 50, 66
Australia, 113, 133, 192, 249
Australian Aboriginals, 9, 110, 158, 229
Austrian Travellers (also see individual names), 6, 196
Axis Mundi, 10, 97, 107-8, 123, 131, 150, 185-6, 216, 246-7
Axis Imaginalis, 288n27

Bali, 13, 247
Bengal 28-30, 37, 39, 48, 50, 60
Bhutan & the Bhutanese, 15, 25, 27-30, 39, 44-5, 47, 50, 53, 60, 66, 85-6, 156, 187, 245, 285n239
Booteeas, 258n12
Botany, 42, 45, 81, 97, 100, 109, 144
Brahmaputra, 30, 122
British: Geo-Political Rivalry, 11, 15, 26, 60, 62, 68, 72-3, 141-3, 144-8, 176, 200, 204, 247, 250; Global Mythologizing, 15, 34, 61-2, 68, 73, 75, 101, 106,120-3, 127, 141-3, 144-8, 171-2, 173-4, 176-7, 203, 205, 214-5, 228, 241-3, 247, 249, 262n26; Imperial Imagination, 6, 11, 13, 16, 26-27, 29, 60-2, 66, 71-3, 76, 79-81, 84-5, 95, 98-100, 101, 108, 110-112, 120-4, 127, 137, 141-8, 176-7, 200, 203, 214-5, 228, 282n90; Travellers (also see individual names and Younghusband Expedition), 6, 99, 138-9, 157, 195, 200-1
Buddhism, (also see Tibetan Religion, Lamas, Monasticism, Monks, Dalai Lama, Panchen Lama), 49-51, 61, 92, 97-8, 111, 121-2, 127-8, 164-5, 182, 208, 210

California, 108, 133
Canada, 111-2, 138
Carpathian Mountains, 43, 45, 69
China, 13, 29, 32, 34-7, 51-5, 61-3, 66, 71-2, 85-7, 93, 123, 128, 133, 138, 142-3, 145-6, 201, 206-9, 245, 248
Chinese: in Lhasa, 78-80, 93, 244; in Tibet 83, 125, 134, 147, 175, 204, 206-9, 235, 239-41, 281n84
Christianity, (also see Missionaries; Rome), 49-53, 56, 61, 94-5, 129, 133, 210, 224, 230
Chumbi Valley, 146, 187, 209, 249
Cold War, 212
Communism: Chinese, 195-6, 203, 205-9, 239-41, 244-5; Russian, 196, 203, 205-8
Complexio Oppositorum, 63, 135, 160, 185

Daily Mail 152, 237
Darjeeling, 73, 98, 111,115, 116, 124, 126, 192, 245
Darwinism, Social, 119-121

East India Company, 25, 28, 37, 53, 100
Ecology, 100, 131, 173, 245-6, 250
Egypt Egyptian Religion, (also see The Nile), 1, 13, 33-4, 37, 49, 109-110, 132, 155, 162, 197-8, 237, 249-50, 267n55
Everest 97, 109, 123, 175,183, 185, 196, 200-1, 204, 216-17, 223, 230, 244
Evolution, 98, 100, 118-19, 156, 158, 182

Feminine, The Eternal 8, 176-80
France & French Travellers ( also see individual names), 37, 138, 141-2, 146, 195-6, 200, 211
Franklin Expedition, 99, 129-30
Frontiers, (also see Threshold), 62, 66, 73, 82-5, 87-9, 90, 96, 124-6, 138, 145-155, 174, 185-6, 196, 208, 214-5, 223, 243, 247

Ganges, 89, 122
Garwhal, 66, 86
Geographical Journal, 142
Geographische Zeitschrift 142
Geography, 11-13, 45, 59, 141-4
Geology, 34, 42, 45, 59, 144, 261n149, 266n34
Geopiety, 9
Germany, 141-2, 207
Gobi Desert 60, 147, 161
Gold, 33, 87, 90, 132-5, 181-4, 196, 216, 248-51
Grand Tour, 26-7, 66
Great Game, The, 72, 79, 87, 100, 142, 145-8, 183, 204
Greece, 50, 260n106
Gurkhas, 28, 37, 63, 65-6, 71, 86, 120
Guru, 172-3
Gyantse, 188, 192-3, 195, 200, 202

Hero, The, 18, 145, 247
Himalayas, 16, 26, 38-45, 62-71, 84-9, 97, 105, 122, 183, 235
Himalaya Club, 200
Hinduism, 49-51, 95
Holland, 138
Hungary, 92, 122

Imagination: Imperial (see British); Spiritual Mystical Occult 2, 11, 15, 39, 59, 84, 89, 92, 96, 99, 101-2, 110-1, 121, 130-1, 134-5, 137, 143-5, 149-51, 155, 161-5, 181-3, 186, 188, 193-5, 199, 205-6, 209-10, 215, 220-1, 224-7, 233-5, 237-9
Imaginative Knowledge, 3, 8, 17-19, 21-4, 31, 107,131, 225
Imaginative Geography, 12-14, 71, 217
Imaginative Resonance, 6, 102, 148, 236
India, 11, 37,53, 61, 66, 85-6, 72, 100, 128-9, 132, 142, 144-8, 156, 159, 170, 175, 186-7, 206-8, 214, 236, 245
Indian: Mutiny, 100; Independence, 206
Iran, (see Persia), 119
Islam, 50-2, 92-4, 260n113
Italy, Italian travelers (also see individual names), 6, 191, 196, 207

Japan, (see also, Kawaguchi), 50, 61, 207
Jeylap-la, 116, 186-7

Kailas, 122, 134
Kalimpong, 192
Kanchenjunga, 21, 105, 235
Karakoram Mountains, 183
Kashmir, 20, 30, 66, 85-6, 97, 116
Kuamon, 66, 86

Ladakh, 3,66, 71, 73, 86-7, 97, 116, 121, 123, 138-9, 140, 182, 187, 245
Lamas, Lamaism, 19, 41, 52-4, 56-7, 92-3, 122, 127-9, 133-4, 149, 156, 159-60, 166-71, 173, 186, 205-7, 220, 223, 232-4, 236
Landscape Aesthetics, 23-6, 41-5, 66-71, 100, 103-5, 107-8, 112-14, 117-18, 160-3, 225-7, 233, 241-4, 266n34
Landscape Painting, 41-2, 44, 66-8, 162-3
Leh (see Ladakh)
Lepcha, 119-121,123, 173-4
Lhasa, 3, 29-30, 54, 63, 72, 76-80, 85-7, 90-4, 97, 102, 123-6, 132, 135, 138-40, 146-7, 152-4, 161, 164, 168-172, 174-80, 183, 185-90, 192-4, 199, 203, 205-10, 212, 217, 219, 221, 230-2, 238-9, 243-5, 249
Liminal Zone (also see Threshold, and Frontiers), 83-9
Lost Horizons, 19, 211, 216-18

Mahatmas, 143, 150, 155, 181-3, 211, 234
Manasarovar, Lake, 81, 86, 90-1, 266n32
Mapping, 4, 12-13, 36, 73-4, 87, 89, 96-8, 150, 171-2, 201, 203-4, 218, 242-3
Memory, Memoria, 1, 63, 197, 204, 255n49, 272n45, 287n18, 288n23
Missionaries, 11, 21, 25, 34-5, 72, 74, 96, 138-9, 152, 196, 200, 210, 229-30, 270n7, 271n8
Moghuls, 32-4
Monasticism, & Monks, 56-8, 63, 92-3, 99-100, 136-7, 165, 167-8, 181, 187, 198, 208, 212, 232-4, 239-40, 244-5
Mongolia, Mongolians, 13, 33, 72, 98, 128, 157-8, 166,178, 181, 207-9, 224, 232,
Mountain: air, 46-9, 58, 115-17, 122, 132, 134; Romanticism/Mysticism, 16, 45-6, 48, 57-8, 62, 68-71, 100, 115-18, 122, 130-1, 183-5, 223, 234-6, 244, 266n34
Mountaineering, & Mountaineers, 11, 43, 68, 88, 96, 100, 104-5, 183-5, 196, 200-1, 220, 223, 266n34, 278n312
Mount Meru, 122

National Geographic Magazine, 142
Nekyia, 152ff., 189
Nepal Nepalese, 27-9, 50, 63, 65, 85, 114, 121, 147, 174, 245
Nile, 1, 54, 99, 122, 143, 249

Orient Orientalism, 7-8, 12-14, 19, 33, 37, 61, 144-5, 170, 177
Ottoman, 34, 36

Pamir Mountains, 123
Peking, 20, 54, 85-6, 72, 93, 123
Persia, (also see Iran), 87, 146
Phari, 40, 171-2
Photography, 4, 41, 105-7, 171-2, 184, 189-90, 195, 228, 236, 266n38, 279n337, 287n13
Picturesque, The, 44-5, 67-8
Pilgrimage, 1, 4-5, 7, 9, 10-11, 26, 178
Place, Sacred, 1-2, 6, 9-14, 18, 21, 62, 73, 83, 84-5, 96, 100, 102, 108, 117-9, 129, 132-5, 141, 144, 185, 188-90, 202, 206, 215-26, 228-30, 240-52, 286n6, 287n18
Potala, The, 19, 94, 102, 123, 126, 132, 134-5, 155, 160-1, 169, 170, 174-5, 178-80, 182, 185, 188, 241, 243
Polyandry, 32, 41, 94, 116, 121, 159
Psychoanalysis, 11, 144, 159, 177, 215
Psychology: Archetypal 9, 17-19; of Exploration, 9, 255n36
Psycho-Social Context 2, 14-17
Puer, 19, 182-3, 247, 256n71
Pundits, 20, 77, 125-6, 133, 138, 198

Racial Stereotyping, 119-20
Reincarnation, 53-6, 59, 168-9, 229-30, 234, 237-8
Rocky Mountains, 43, 45
Rome, 51, 54-5, 94, 168, 182
Royal Society, The, 14, 22
Royal Asiatic Society, 74-5, 212
Royal Geographical Society, 13-14, 22, 73-6, 79, 96, 98, 126, 144, 176, 189, 200
Russia, (also see Czar, The Great Game, Communism), 13, 33-4, 37, 72, 85, 87-8, 100, 140-2, 145-8, 158, 178, 180, 187, 204, 206-7, 213
Russian Travelers, (also see individual names) 20, 138, 196

Senex, 18, 181-2, 238-9, 247, 256n71, 286n279
Shangri-la, 19-20, 48, 101, 209-14, 216-19, 230, 237, 239, 251
Siam (Thailand), 50, 146
Siberia, 20, 30, 34, 142, 146
Sikhs, 16, 71, 121
Sikkim, 66, 85-6, 97, 111,119, 120, 156, 187, 191-2, 194, 213, 233, 245
Silk-Route, 85-6, 248
Simla: Hill-Station, 115-6, 124; Conference, 207
Sinkiang, 201, 208-9
Sociology, 119
Spectator, The, 150, 176
Spiti, 66, 105, 113
Sublime, The, 26, 42-5, 58, 66-71
Survey of India, 14, 28, 35-6, 89
Sutlej River, 66, 80, 89, 122
Swedish Travellers (see Hedin)
Symbol-formation, 8-9, 122-3, 132-5, 148, 181-3, 196, 214-5, 240-8

Tahiti, 2, 35, 62, 143
Tantra, 127, 233
Tartary & the Tartars, 1, 7, 29, 32-3, 36, 40, 50, 52, 83, 87, 91, 98, 110, 113, 116, 119, 248
Tashilhumpo, 28, 37, 140, 155, 249
Tashilama (see Panchen Lama)
Telegraph in Tibet, 187-8, 191-2
Telephone in Tibet, 213-4, 217
Temenos, (also see Place), 10, 85, 241, 247
Theosophy, 11, 181-2
Threshold, (see also Frontier), 10, 38-40, 65, 84-9, 150ff.
Tibetan: Bandits, 168, 197, 201, 231-2; Book of the Dead, 227, 237-9; Burials, 40-1, 152; Character, 29, 34-5, 40, 47-8, 51, 56-8, 60-1, 119-124, 127-8, 137, 153, 165-9, 197, 205, 222, 231-3, 235-7; Dirt 34, 41, 63, 93-4, 171-4, 197, 202, 227; Government, 52-4, 56, 63, 125, 128-9,154, 158-9, 166-9, 170-1, 205, 208, 231, 240; Light, 113-4, 160-3, 177ff., 197-8, 251; Religion (see Buddhism, Lamaism, Monasticism, Monks, Dalai Lama, Tantra), 30, 32, 41, 49-52, 56-8, 60, 92-3, 97-8, 110, 121-2, 127-8, 137, 164-5, 168, 172,
182-3, 209-10, 220-1, 223-4, 227-8, 233-4, 237-9, 245-6
Times, The, 136
Tourism, 1, 83, 112, 115-7, 134, 174, 195, 203, 215, 220-2, 225, 244-6, 287n12
Trade, Himalayan, 27-31, 55, 62, 82, 85, 88-9, 91, 96
Travel Ceremony of, 11, 20-1, 83, 185-6, 248
Travel Scientific, 26, 30-1, 42, 60, 66, 73-6, 78, 80-1, 95-6, 99, 104, 112
Travellers, Amateur, 30-1, 78-9, 266n32
Travel Writing and Dream, 7-9, 158-60, 180, 198
Travel Writing as a Genre, 2-7, 12-13, 21-2, 27, 30-2, 40-1, 67, 71-6, 78-80, 138-9, 188-9,193-5, 198-202, 209, 219-20, 222, 225, 228-30, 243, 245, 251, 280n32, 282n97, 286n10
Tsang-po, River, 164, 201, 249
Turkestan, 139-40

Unconscious, The, 8-9, 149-65, 170, 177, 180
United Nations, 208
Uranium, 196
Utopia, 215-18, 225, 244, 251, 282n97

Wilderness Appreciation, 11, 23, 61, 68-71, 108, 112-18, 129-31, 142, 147, 180, 242-3
World War One, 17, 140-1, 176, 182, 184, 191, 195, 204, 206, 209-10, 212; Two, 201, 204, 206, 208, 210-12
Women Travelers, (also see individual names), 73, 80, 97, 138, 176, 182, 212

Yaks, 30, 152-3, 156
Yam-dok tso, 164, 173, 222
Yeti, 19, 156-8, 175, 217, 237, 245
Younghusband Expedition, 16, 79, 136, 152-3, 161, 171-2, 175-6, 178, 181, 183, 191, 196, 218, 245
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