Wife No. 19, the Story of a Life in Bondage, Being a Complet

The impulse to believe the absurd when presented with the unknowable is called religion. Whether this is wise or unwise is the domain of doctrine. Once you understand someone's doctrine, you understand their rationale for believing the absurd. At that point, it may no longer seem absurd. You can get to both sides of this conondrum from here.

Re: Wife No. 19, the Story of a Life in Bondage, Being a Com

Postby admin » Sat Jun 23, 2018 3:26 am

CHAPTER XXXVII. THE DIVORCE SUIT. -- PROCEEDINGS IN COURT. - BRIGHAM'S AFFIDAVIT.

I bring an Action against the Prophet. My "Complaint" against Him. What the "Complaint" Stated. My Birth and Early Life. My Marriage with the Prophet. Exile to Brigham's Farm. Cause of Action for Divorce. The Question of Alimony. My Own Affidavit. Corroborative Testimony. Opinion of Judge McKean. Brigham Young's Reply and Affidavit. The Prophet states the Value of his Property. Wonderful Difference of Opinion. Proceedings in Court. Judge McKean Sums Up. Order for Allowance and Alimony. Judge McKean Removed. His Order Quashed by the New Judge.--The latest Proceedings.

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Brigham Fined and Imprisoned for Contempt Of Court.

ON the 28th of July, 1873, I commenced an action for divorce against Brigham Young in the District Court of the Third Judicial District of Utah, and the "Complaint" was served upon him by the United States marshal.

This "Complaint" set forth, with the usual prolixity of all legal instruments, the grievances which I had appealed to the law to remedy; but, as it would be utterly impossible, in the circumscribed limits of these pages, to give that document entire, I shall present the reader with as succinct a resume of its contents as I possibly can.

It was addressed "To the Hon. James B. McKean, Judge of the Third Judicial District Court, in and for the Territory of Utah, and County of Salt Lake, in Chancery sitting," and the following are the several items which it contained: --

It began by stating who and what I was; that I was born at Nauvoo, Illinois, but had, since the year 1848, been resident in Utah; that I was the wife of Brigham Young; and that I was married to him on the 6th of April, 1868, when I was in my twenty-fifth year, and was the mother of two children by a former marriage, one four and the other three years of age; that neither I nor my children had anything to depend upon, -- a fact of which Brigham was well aware, -- and also that my children were boys, still living.

That Brigham had lived with me for about a year after our marriage, treating me with some degree of kindness, and providing, though inadequately, for my support; and that I had always fulfilled my duties as a wife toward him.

That about a year after our marriage he began to neglect and ill-treat me; that during the year 1869 he sent me, against my wishes, to a farm, four miles distant from Salt Lake City, where, for three years and a half I was compelled to labor until I was completely broken down in health; that my only companion was my mother; that, except the limited fare which the defendant allowed me, he appropriated all the proceeds of the farm; and that on the few occasions when he visited the farm he treated me with studied contempt, objecting even to my aged mother remaining with me, after her health was destroyed by overwork on his farm.

That toward the end of 1872 Brigham removed me to a house in Salt Lake City, where, however, he seldom visited me; that when I called upon him to ask a supply of the necessaries of life, he used the most opprobrious language toward me, and gave me so little that I had to work constantly to support myself and children.

That for five years past my health had been so bad that I was now altogether unfitted to labor, and was in constant need of medical advice; that Brigham knew it, but repeatedly refused to furnish me with assistance, medicine, or food, so that I was obliged to rely upon the charity of friends; that Brigham had declared he would never do anything more for me, and said that henceforth I must support myself, notwithstanding that he was the owner of several millions of dollars; that, as President of the Mormon Church, he occupied a very important position, and I believed that his monthly income could not be less than forty thousand dollars.

That I had been compelled to sell my furniture, and all my household goods, in order to obtain the necessaries of life; and that, for a year previous to that date [1873], Brigham had entirely deserted me.

Further, I stated that it was impossible for our union to continue; that I prayed for a separation, and also an allowance, as all I possessed consisted of about three hundred dollars, and my children were dependent upon me for support; I asserted that I had secured the aid of Messrs. F. M. Smith, A. Hagan, and F. Tilford as my counsel; that I had been informed that twenty thousand dollars would be a reasonable compensation for their services; and I therefore prayed the court to direct a subpoena, commanding the defendant, Brigham Young, to appear to answer to my suit; that, pending it, he might be ordered to pay me a thousand dollars a month from the date of filing this bill, a preliminary fee of six thousand dollars to my counsel, and that after the final decree he should pay them the remaining fourteen thousand, and all the expenses of the court.

Furthermore, I prayed, that after our legal separation, he might be ordered to support myself and children suitably; and that for that purpose the sum of two hundred thousand dollars might be set aside from his estate.

This bill, the substance of which I have given above, was signed by my solicitors, Smith, Hagan, and Jilford, and to it the following was appended:

"TERRITORY OF UTAH,

County of Salt Lake,

"Ann Eliza Young, being first duly sworn, deposes and says: That she is the complainant in the above entitled action; that she has heard read the foregoing bill of complaint, and knows the contents thereof, and that the same is true of her own knowledge, except the matters and things therein stated on information and belief, and as to those she believes them to be true.

"ANN ELIZA YOUNG.

"Subscribed and sworn to before me, this 19th day of July, A. D., 1873. JOSEPH F. NOUNNAN, Clerk."


A motion for an allowance and counsel fees was noticed for hearing at the same time, and the service was by the same officer. This document was headed with all due form and ceremony. It stated, I, Ann Eliza Young, the plaintiff, being duly sworn, alleged:

That I was the wife of Brigham Young, the defendant; that while I was living with him, and performing the work mentioned in the bill already filed, he acquired enormous property, of the value of several millions of dollars, and was now the owner of at least eight millions.

That I had no means of knowing his exact income, but was sufficiently informed to allege that it was at least forty thousand dollars a month.

That the facts stated in the bill were true; that I and my children were penniless; that knowing the power and influence of Brigham, that he had the disposition to harm me, and that my life would be unsafe in any private house, I had taken refuge in the chief hotel in Salt Lake City, -- the Walker House, -- about the 15th of July, where I had since resided; that my expenses were very large, but that I had no income, and that my health was too feeble to allow me to work. I therefore prayed the court to grant me the items included in the bill already filed.


This affidavit was signed by me, and countersigned by Joseph F. Nounnan, the clerk of the court.

Attached to it was an affidavit, signed C. M. Turck, making, upon oath, a statement of the destitute condition in which I was previous to the time when I left my private residence and went to the Walker House.

Of this affidavit it is needless for me to speak in detail, further than to say that it more than fully establishes to the utmost all that the previous bill and affidavit affirmed. Other affidavits were made by gentlemen who knew me well, -- one by Mr. Malcolm Graham, and another by my medical adviser, J. M. Williamson, both of which fully confirmed my own statements.

James B. McKean, judge of the court, was absent temporarily on account of sickness at that time, and Judge Emerson, of the First District Court, presided for him. Judge McKean had held that, in equity cases, the United States marshal was the proper officer to serve process, but the defendant came into court at the time appointed for the hearing, and moved to quash the service of the process, on the ground that the "territorial marshal," and not the United States marshal, was the proper officer to serve the process in the case. Reversing the rule administered by Judge McKean, the judge temporarily presiding held the motion good, and quashed the service.

Therefore new process was issued, and placed in the hands of the territorial marshal, accompanied by an order to the defendant to appear and answer to the motion for an allowance and alimony. This was regularly served, and at the day appointed the defendant appeared by counsel, and, for cause against the motion, filed his demurrer to the bill, on the ground that the District Court had not jurisdiction of the subject of divorce in Utah Territory. Two days were occupied in the argument of this question, and it was taken under advisement for ten days longer. At the end of that time the presiding judge came into court, and held that this court had no jurisdiction in matters of divorce, and denied the motion.

The case then stood over, by an agreement between the counsel, until the following May, 1874. The Supreme Court of the Territory, at its term held in that month, in the case of Cast vs. Cast, decided that the district courts of the territory had jurisdiction in actions for divorce and alimony, thus reversing the opinion of Emerson, justice in this case. The case being afterwards in July, 1874 called on for hearing on the demurrer to the complaint in the District Court, McKean, presiding, overruled the demurrer, and gave the defendant leave to answer.

Thereupon my counsel asked and obtained leave to renew the motion for an allowance and alimony pending the suit which had been denied. It is proper also here to state, that on the 24th of June, 1874, Congress enacted a law expressly conferring authority in divorce cases on the District Court of the Territory; but this law only affirmed by legislation what the Supreme Court had already decided to be the law.

On the 24th of August, 1874, Brigham Young filed an answer, of which the following is a correct summary: --

He denied that at any time he had been married to me.

That at the time when my affidavit alleged that this marriage to me took place, I was really the wife of James L. Dee, never having been legally divorced from him, but that he [Brigham] believed at the time of alleged marriage in April, 1868, that I had been properly divorced from Dee.

He alleged his previous marriage with Mrs. Mary Ann Angell Young, at Kirtland, Ohio, on the 10th of January, 1834, and that the said legal wife was still living, of which fact I, complainant, was aware.

He admitted his marriage with me, after the custom of the Latter-Day Saints, but denied that the marriage was legal, in any sense acknowledged by the laws of the land.

He then proceeded to deny every one of the counts in my complaint, seriatim, winding up with the following statement:


"Defendant denies that he is or has been the owner of wealth amounting to several millions of dollars, or that he is or has been in the monthly receipt from his property of forty thousand dollars or more. On the contrary, defendant alleges that, according to his best knowledge, information, and belief, all his property, taken together, does not exceed in value the sum of six hundred thousand dollars, and that his gross income from all of his property, and every source, does not exceed six thousand dollars per month.

"Defendant further says, that at the time of the said alleged marriage, this defendant had, and still has, a very large family; that his said family now consists of sixty-three persons, all of whom are dependent upon this defendant for maintenance and support.

"Whereof the defendant prays judgment of the court that he be hence dismissed with his costs herein.


"WILLIAMS, YOUNG & SHEEKES, and HEMPSTEAD & KIRKPATRICK,

Defendant's Attorneys"


To the replication of defendant, which was very lengthy, denying or explaining away every point in the bill which I had filed, the following was appended:

"TERRITORY OF UTAH,

County of Salt Lake.

"Brigham Young, being duly sworn, on his oath says: That he has heard read the foregoing answer, and knows and understands the contents thereof, and that the same is true of his own knowledge, except those matters therein stated on his information and belief, and as to those matters he believes it to be true. Affiant further says that he is the defendant in the above entitled suit.

"BRIGHAM YOUNG.

"Subscribed and sworn to before me this 25th day of August, 1874.

"Jos. F. NOUNNAN, Clerk."


The court then gave me, or my counsel for me, leave to renew the motion for alimony as asked; and notice having been given, the motion was by agreement fixed for hearing on the 3d day of October following. My counsel also filed a motion to strike out portions of the defendant's answer, and on the hearing of the motion for alimony, insisted upon submitting it to the court. When the motion was called for hearing, I offered to submit a number of affidavits bearing on the question of alimony, which were filed and served with the original complaint. The defendant objected to the reading of them, on the ground that they had not had sufficient notice of them by the notice renewing the motion, and they were withdrawn.

The defendant then offered to read affidavits in support of his answer, but as they had not been served, and their contents not made known prior to the hearing, they were objected to and excluded. It also appeared that the affidavits were addressed to other matters of defence than those set up in the answer.

The hearing was then had upon my complaint and the defendant's answer, my counsel at the same time submitting their motion to strike out certain objectionable portions of the answer, and insisting that such portions should be disregarded by the court, and treated -- if the motion were well founded -- as out of the answer.

The questions involved were argued, and on the 23d day of February, 1875, the judge decided the motion for alimony, pending the suit, in an elaborate written opinion, of which the following is an accurate summary:

The Judge, Jas. B. McKean, laid down nine general axioms tending to demonstrate that the defendant's pleas were invalid; that a marriage solemnized in Utah, after Mormon fashion, would be legally valid, provided the parties married were competent to enter into that engagement; that the court could not grant a divorce if the marriage were proved bigamous or polygamous; that the court had power to grant alimony, and intended to do so to the extent of one twelfth of what the defendant admitted his income to be, or one eightieth according to my assertion.

He then summed up the statements of both parties to the suit. He gave the substance of my "Complaint," and then took into consideration Brigham Young's reply.

Then he considered the defendant's denial that any marriage had ever taken place between us; his statement that, at the time when I alleged that our marriage took place, I was actually the wife of Jas. L. Dee, never having been properly divorced from him; and also his admission that we had been married polygamously in April, 1868.

The judge gave quotations from various sources to prove that this marriage was legal and binding according to the laws of the Territory and of the United States, notwithstanding that the forms of the Mormon Church were used; providing, always, that we were both competent to enter into the contract.

He discussed the assertion of defendant that he was also incompetent to marry while his lawful wife, Mary Ann Angell, was still living. This, the judge explained, was the admission of felony; as, if admitted, it would prove that the defendant had entered into a bigamous marriage. Such statements he, the judge, said should be admitted as evidence, so far as they were to defendant's prejudice, but must be proved true before they could be admitted as evidence against the plaintiff. The defendant must prove that the plaintiff was the wife of another man, and that he himself was the husband of another woman, on the 6th of April, 1868.

The judge stated, that in order to prove the allegations made on both sides, it would be necessary to summon witnesses, procure documentary evidence, &c., which would involve very great expense. He should, therefore, allow alimony, and a certain amount for costs of prosecution.

He quoted legal precedents to show what amount should be considered reasonable; and then he summed up, and decreed that, after considering all circumstances, the court had concluded to order defendant to pay three thousand dollars for the prosecution of the suit, and also five hundred dollars a month for the maintenance of plaintiff and her children, from the day of the filing of the "Complaint." The order was accordingly made.

In deciding the question, it will be seen that virtually the court disregarded portions of the answer, and, to that extent, sustained the motion to strike out those portions, though it did not formally pass on that motion.

The defendant excepted to the decision, and shortly afterward filed a notice of appeal, and bond to stay proceedings under the order.

The copy of the order directing the payment of the alimony was duly served personally on Brigham Young; and demand having been made upon him for the allowance made for my attorney's fees, and payment refused, he was arrested in proceedings in contempt, and brought before the court.

His answer to the proceedings consisted of a showing that he had taken an appeal, and filed a bond for a stay, &c., and, therefore, he was not in contempt. The court held it not to be an appealable order, and adjudged that he pay a fine of twenty-five dollars, and be committed to custody for one day, which was complied with.

Thereupon he caused the amount then due under the order to be paid. My allowance he had been given twenty days to pay, and this portion of the order had not been complied with, and had not become due, except five hundred dollars, which was paid, when Judge McKean was removed by President Grant, and David P. Lowe, an ex-congressman from Kansas, was appointed chief-justice, and succeeded to the position.


Shortly after Judge Lowe entered upon his duties, proceedings were begun by counsel to bring the defendant up again in contempt, for refusing to comply with the order as first stated. On appearing, he again showed cause, by claiming his right of appeal, as in the former hearing; and objected, also, that the district courts had no jurisdiction of matters of divorce at the time of the bringing of the suit; that the order was null and void; that there was no contempt.

The court held, in deciding the matter, that it had jurisdiction; that the order was not appealable. In the course of his summing up, he said, "The complaint and answer are each upon oath, and it appears from the record as well as from the statement of counsel in argument, that the order for alimony and expenses was made upon the complaint and answer alone, without any other evidence or showing whatever. It is the general doctrine of the courts in divorce, that before temporary alimony can properly be awarded, the marriage must be admitted by the parties, or established by proofs. In the very recent case of York vs. York, 34 Iowa, 530, it is said, 'Alimony is a right that results from the marital relation, and the fact of marriage between the parties must be admitted or proved before there can be a decree for it even pendente lite.'" He then decided that the order was erroneously made, and dismissed the proceedings against the defendant.

The case now stands, therefore, on the motion (not yet formally passed upon) to strike out portions of the defendant's answer. The defendant has also filed a motion to vacate and set aside the original order granting the alimony, and the two will probably be heard together.

My counsel, for me, insist that I am entitled to the alimony upon the following grounds: --

1st. That it is alleged in the complaint that the plaintiff and defendant were married at a time and place designated. The defendant admits that a marriage ceremony did take place, and sets up new facts to show that the marriage which actually occurred was invalid. On this state of facts the plaintiff insists that, pending the question as to the legality of the marriage, she is entitled to alimony.

2d. It is denied by the plaintiff that the new matter in the answer ought to be disregarded; first, because it is badly pleaded; and, second, it is an attempt on the part of the defendant to take advantage of his own wrong, to wit, the assertion that he had a lawful wife living, which a court of equity will not permit. The defendant admits that he was married to the plaintiff; that they lived and cohabited together as husband and wife; that he supported and maintained her as such; avers that he never deserted or ill-treated her; and, in fine, clearly shows that a relation of marriage existed in fact between them.

3d. The plaintiff claims that she will succeed on the merits; first, because the defence on the new matter ought to be disregarded as badly pleaded, and inadmissible under any form of plea; second, because the marriage of the defendant to Mary Ann Angell cannot be proved, and never was a lawful marriage. There was cohabitation, but no marriage according to law. This will appear if the true state of facts is ever reached in the trial. And the first alleged marriage must be shown to have been a lawful marriage. In Case vs. Case, 17 Cal. Rep., 598, the law is well stated on this point.

As to the allegation in the answer, that the plaintiff had a lawful husband living at the time of the alleged union between plaintiff and defendant, it is sufficient to say that she was divorced from James L. Dee by the Probate Court of Utah, and that it was done under the statute, and that the Supreme Court of Utah had previously decided that such court had exclusive jurisdiction in divorce matters. While this decision was probably erroneous, it was made by the highest tribunal of the territory, and was not appealable; hence it was the law.

More than this: the act of Congress of June 23, 1874, provided that all judgments of the Probate Courts of Utah which had been executed, or which had not been appealed from, should be held good. So that, upon the facts, there is nothing in the allegation that plaintiff had a husband living at the time of the marriage between the plaintiff and defendant.

It is only right to say, that in the opinion of the ablest lawyers of the West, Judge Lowe, in holding that the new matter in an answer is only denied "at the trial" has misconceived the California case which he cites, and mistakes the law. In injunction cases the pleadings are treated as affidavits by express provision of the California statutes; but no case can be found in California or elsewhere, under the code, where a pleading is treated as true in one stage of a case, and false in another. Such a doctrine would be absurd under any system of pleading that has ever existed.

The last legal step that has been taken, so far, was taken by me in making an affidavit for the purpose of proving that the defendant perjured himself, and which will furnish the foundation for his prosecution for the crime. With this affidavit, the case is stayed for the present.
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Re: Wife No. 19, the Story of a Life in Bondage, Being a Com

Postby admin » Sat Jun 23, 2018 4:28 am

CHAPTER XXXVIII. MY ESCAPE FROM SALT LAKE CITY. MY PUBLIC CAREER.

Thoughts of the Future. The Gentile Papers. A Private Audience at the Walker House. Hopes and Fears. I Resolve to Take the Platform. Sneers and Ridicule. Brigham is made Acquainted with my Plans. Packing under Difficulties. My Perilous Escape from Utah. A Noble Woman. Arrival at Laramie. Denver. My First Public Lecture. A Grand Success. Brigham at Work. A Scandalous Article in the Chicago Times. A Mean Lawyer. Lecture at Boston. Kindness of the Members of Boston Press. Opposed by George Q. Cannon. Washington Lecture a Success. First Glimpses of the True Faith. Conversion to Christianity.

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My Flight at Night.

AS soon as I had fully decided that compromise was impossible, I began to consider my future. I felt able to take care of myself and my children, if I could see the way to do it. I was not afraid to work, and I felt a new impulse stirring within me which made me strong. Life was my own, and I would do the best I could.

The thought of a public career had never occurred to me. I had no ambition to gratify, and I had already gained more notoriety than I cared for. I was keenly sensitive to what was said about me, and many of the newspaper paragraphs, wittily written, by persons who neither knew me nor understood the situation in which I was placed, wounded me deeply.

The Gentile papers in Utah were, without exception, friendly to me, and I am sure kindlier words were never given than they have sent after me, since the very day I came out from under Brigham's control.

During my residence at the Walker House I was requested to give some account of Mormonism to the residents of the hotel and a few of their friends. I consented to do so, and an evening was appointed. I prepared a simple history of my life, and introduced, in the course of it, an epitomized description of the Mormon religion and its rites; and when the evening arrived, and I entered the parlors of the Walker House, I was startled to see the number of persons who had assembled to listen to me. I stood for a moment gazing in sudden bewilderment; the blood rushed to my face, and my first impulse was to run away and hide myself in my own room. But the applause which greeted me, the smiling, reassuring faces which were turned towards me, and the sympathy which I read in them all, gave me courage.

My audience listened with the closest attention, and when, after a while, I grew more accustomed to my strange position, and ventured to look up, I saw tears on more than one cheek, and when the last word was read, and I laid my manuscript down, I was surrounded by my newly made friends, all enthusiastic in their demonstrations of sympathy.

Previous to this involuntary public appearance, it had been suggested to me that I should take the lecture platform against Mormonism. I shrank from the very mention of it, and replied to the friends who proposed it that I could not, and would not, do it. To parade myself and my troubles before the world seemed such an indelicate thing to do! But when it was shown me that I might make of myself a power against Mormonism which should be felt, and which should open people's eyes to the enormity of the religious system which was tolerated by the government, I hesitated no longer.

I wish it to be distinctly understood that I did not undertake this work with a view to self-aggrandizement, or to gratify an inordinate ambition. Nothing has wounded me more, since I commenced my labors, than the oft-repeated accusation, that I was "trying to make capital" out of my position as the wife of Brigham Young. I have seen that accusation within a few months in the Woman's Journal, the leading organ of woman suffrage in Boston, in an article written by one of its editors and part proprietors, who, in the same article, commended Brigham Young to public favor because he gave the suffrage to women.

"Making capital" out of her woes, and, above all, her domestic infelicities, is something no woman of delicacy could do; and had I been governed by no motive except one so unworthy, I should deserve all the contemptuous criticism which I have been treated to by this apostle of "Fair Play for Women."


Just when you think it's safe to dislike a truly dislikable woman, she is treated so unfairly that you have to empathize. I'm speaking of the merciless humiliation of Linda Tripp.

For nearly two years, the media have focused almost totally on her looks, not her acts. I, too, wish she could have had a character transplant. But being born less than conventionally attractive is hardly a bigger crime than taping the confidences of a friend (plus entertaining your bridge group with them).

Taken together, her cosmetic and moral sins have been used to justify anything. Presidential wannabe Donald Trump called her "the personification of evil."

This hostility was her reported reason for undergoing unnecessary plastic surgery, a body carving so drastic that Lucianne Goldberg, her friend and co-conspirator, told the National Enquirer, "It looks like she's had a head transplant."

As a well-socialized woman, Linda Tripp had internalized the fault - "I was responsible for the portrayal in the media by the way I looked," she told People magazine - rather than challenge the fault finders.

Most tragically, Tripp's transformation seems to have been in vain. John Goodman, the beefy comic, has said he will go right on donning drag and a fright wig to do his portrayal of Tripp, pre-surgery and pre-weight loss, on "Saturday Night Live."

-- The Good, The Bad And The Ugly Why Linda Tripp (left And Right) And Other Women Are Forced To Endure Those Dirty Looks, by Gloria Steinem


Does any one think that, for the sake of emolument, I could thus open my heart to the rude gaze of a curious public, bear all the slurs, slights, jeers, and aspersions that are cast at me by malicious Mormon and thoughtless Gentile papers, be made a by-word of, have my name on every vulgar lip? Never. My womanhood revolts at the idea.

As a means of support, I would never have undertaken it. When I saw it was a duty, I adopted it without hesitation, and I shall never cease my labors as long as I have strength to work. While I have a hand or a voice, Mormonism and Polygamy shall find in me a relentless foe. I will never rest, God helping me, until either I, or this hellish system, so fraught with misery, go down in the contest.


When my decision was fully made, I confided it to my father, who was my constant visitor. He gave me the warmest encouragement; but it was a terrible blow to my mother, who considered that I was setting the final seal to my future and eternal misery.

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AT THE WALKER HOUSE. MY FIRST AUDIENCE.  

I discovered, after my arrangements were made, that my intention had become known to the Mormons, who were threatening me with all sorts of vengeance if I insisted on carrying out my plans. It had been arranged that I should make my first appearance in Denver, and as I was extensively advertised there, the news of my proposed lecture had been telegraphed to Salt Lake, so that the date of my departure was made public.

I did not dare to leave Salt Lake by rail, nor would my friends allow it, and all our final arrangements were forced to be made with the greatest secrecy. I did not venture even to take my own trunk. A new one was bought, carried to a friend's room, my clothing conveyed to the same room, a piece or two at a time, packed as we could find opportunity, and then taken to a carriage, and carried outside the city.

On the evening of the 27th of November, I went with my father, and one or two friends, to the house of Mr. and Mrs. Stratton. We left the hotel by the back door, for the front entrance was closely watched, although it was not expected that I would attempt to leave the city until the next morning. About eleven o'clock we left the Strattons', and started, ostensibly to walk home. A carriage was in waiting at the corner. We got in, called for Mrs. Cooke, who was to be my travelling companion, and were driven rapidly out of the city. I was to take the cars on the Union Pacific road at Uintah, and thus avoid travelling at all on the Utah railroad, where I should be sure to be recognized.

The night was intensely dark; we could not see our hands before our faces, and, as we plunged on through the night and the darkness, we were a gloomy and apprehensive party. We were not sure how closely we had been watched, or whether we had succeeded in eluding Mormon vigilance. Even then, the "Danites," those terrible ministers of Mormon vengeance, might be upon our track, and I could not cast off the feeling that every moment brought us nearer and nearer to some dreadful death.

Twice during the night we were lost. The last time, we missed our way, and went several miles up a canon, and I felt sure that we were betrayed, and that our driver was carrying us to certain destruction. I spoke to him, without letting him know my suspicions, and told him we were going wrong. He turned about, and drove rapidly back, and we reached the mouth of the canon just as the day dawned. Confusion vanished with the darkness, our driver found the right road, and by fast driving we reached Uintah just as the train came up. Tickets and checks had been secured at Ogden, and with a hurried "good by" to my father, I jumped on board the train, with Mrs. Cooke, and we were off.


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My Escape from Salt Lake City.

I can never describe my sensations when the train began to move. With the new sense of freedom came a feeling of such utter loneliness that, for a moment, I was bewildered by the situation, and, turning to Mrs. Cooke, I said, helplessly, "What shall I do?"

"Keep up a brave heart, and think of the work before you," said she.

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STREET SCENE IN SALT LAKE CITY.

Her experience in Mormonism had been no pleasanter than mine, and she was as glad to get away from it as I was. For twenty years she had taught Brigham's children, and acted in the Mormon theatre, and had never received a cent of remuneration. Her husband, a member of the special police force, was killed on duty, and after his death the prophet, through his counsellor, Daniel H. Wells, swindled her out of the two thousand dollars which the city had granted her, and tried to get her house from her. She put the matter into a Gentile lawyer's hands, and still retains her home. She was with me several months, a devoted and faithful companion.


Governor Cumming, responding to persistent newspaper reports that many women were being held in the Mormon territories against their will, offered to assist any of them who needed help to exit the territory. Very few came forward. John Stuart Mill and others concluded from this that the Mormon women were reasonably content. But one documented case may suggest what was actually happening. Mormon bigwig Milo Andrus had eleven wives, but one of them began objecting to polygamy, and was observed planning to escape. Andrus asked Brigham Young how she should be dealt with. Young reportedly replied that "the only way to save the sister's soul was to cut her throat." While the woman was on her knees begging for her life, Andrus cut her throat from ear to ear and held her in an iron grip until she ceased to struggle. (Jesse Augustus Gove, The Utah Expedition, 1857-1858: Letters of Captain Jesse A. Goff to Mrs. Dove and Special Correspondence of the New York Herald (New Hampshire Historical Society, 1928), pp. 283-284, online at books.google.com.)

-- Just Too Weird: Bishop Romney and the Mormon Takeover of America: Polygamy, Theocracy, and Subversion, by Webster Griffin Tarpley, Ph.D.


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VIEW OF Salt Lake City, showing Tabernacle.

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Our first stopping-place was at Laramie, Wyoming Territory, where we were to await the arrival of my agent from Salt Lake. My presence in town was soon discovered, and I received many friendly and congratulatory calls. After my lecture every hospitality was shown me, and I felt fresh courage, so kindly was my reception, and so genuine were all the expressions of interest.

My agent arrived in a day or two, and we set out for Denver. The news of my escape from Utah had been telegraphed, and on my arrival, I found myself eagerly expected. I was visited by the editors of the different papers, who assured me of the friendly feeling toward me, and offered me the use of their columns. The clergymen all came to see me, and spoke generous words in my behalf from every pulpit in the city. They all literally "took me on trust." I shall never forget the earnest, spontaneous kindness which I met from the professional men of Denver.

The night on which I was to give my first lecture, the 5th of December, 1873, was extremely cold, and the snow fell heavily. I was discouraged and despondent, for I had come to consider this first evening as prophetic of my future career, and I saw failure before me. I did not know whether I should be able to reach the church, the storm was so furious; but as a faithful few had promised to be in attendance, let what might happen, I determined to make the trial.

My forebodings had been utterly useless. Long before the church doors were opened a large crowd was in waiting, and before the hour for beginning the lecture arrived the house was full, and hundreds had gone away unable to gain admission. As I looked into the crowded house, before I came on the platform, my courage almost left me. But while hesitating, the thought of the poor women whose cause I was to plead, came vividly into my mind, and with a firm step, and beating heart, I walked onto the platform, and stood facing my first audience, who greeted me with tumultuous applause.

I have never spoken more effectively in my life than I did that night. It seemed to myself almost as though I was inspired. I forgot myself in my subject, and new indignation thrilled me as I told my story of bondage, such as my hearers never dreamed of, and unveiled the horrors of the Mormon religion. I made no attempts at oratorical effects, I worked up no dramatic "points." Naturally and simply as I could, I said what I had to say, without a single rhetorical flourish.

The lecture was a success. After it was over, my audience crowded around me, with such earnest words of commendation, that I felt my first victory won. Since that memorable evening I have addressed hundreds of audiences, but never have I found one more sympathetic than the one composed of the true-hearted people of Denver.

I was not permitted to be quiet after that evening. Engagements came pouring in, and I worked my way steadily eastward. I was universally well received, but I knew that I should somewhere encounter Mormon opposition. I had seen too many attempts made by Brigham Young to ruin anyone who dared to differ with him, to think that I should escape.

The first blow came through the columns of a Chicago Paper, which devoted considerable space one day to a scandalous article concerning me, giving an air of truth to the statement by mentioning the persons who were authority for the reports. I was overwhelmed by it, for I feared it would put an end to the career of usefulness which I had marked out for myself. After I read the shameful article, my first words were, "Brigham Young's money is at the bottom of this."

And so it proved. The matter was put into the hands of Leonard Swett, Esq., of Chicago, for investigation. Letters came, in most cases unsolicited, from the persons referred to as having started the scandal, each one indignantly denying the whole. Further inquiry revealed that George C. Bates, a Mormon lawyer, of low repute, and twenty thousand dollars, induced the Paper to publish the article which originated in the foul imagination of Bates.

The papers of good standing came at once to my defence, and endeavored in every possible way to heal the wounds which the article had so cruelly inflicted, on me.

The scandal was published on the eve of my first appearance in Boston, and I was greatly distressed lest it should injure my prospects in that city. I wanted my visit there to be a success, as I felt that, if I made a favorable impression, I should hold the key to all New England. And it was to the stanch and loyal New Englanders that I looked for assistance in my labors. My new and good friends had taught me to consider Reform and New England synonymous terms, and I really believed my battle would be well begun if I could gain such devoted allies as her brave, inflexible sons and daughters. But after the attack by the Chicago Paper, I regarded failure as certain. How surprised and gratified I was to find, instead of the prejudice I had expected to meet, a feeling of earnest kindliness toward myself personally, and of unfeigned interest in my work.

All the papers sent representatives to visit me, and I found them kind and intelligent gentlemen, and the papers which they represented were as generous as they. Nowhere have I met that courtesy and chivalric consideration which have been uniformly accorded me by the members of the Boston press. They have refrained from sarcasm and indelicate witticisms; they have been ready with sympathy, and quick to encourage; and whatever their politics or principles, they have been unanimous in their generous treatment of me.

My first lecture was given in Tremont Temple, before a large and enthusiastic audience. Mr. James Redpath introduced me, and the short speech he made fairly inspired me, it was so kind, so reassuring, so generous, and above all, so just. He had never heard me speak, but he was so bitter an enemy to this horrible system, as indeed he is to every wrong, that he was willing to take me for my work's sake. After the lecture was over, I felt that my hopes were realized, and that New England was open to me.


In Washington, nearly all the government officials attended my lecture, and expressed themselves enthusiastically in my favor. George Q. Cannon was contesting his seat in Congress, and Mormonism and its rulers were at that juncture prominently before the public. Cannon resented my appearance at the capital, and tried to break me down by ridicule. He made friends with the Washington Chronicle, in Brigham's most approved style of winning allegiance, and the day after my first lecture a burlesque report of it appeared in that paper. It was intended to prejudice the public; but when the lecture was over, and all the papers were unanimous in their commendation, the Chronicle suddenly grew ashamed of its disreputable alliance, and refused to maintain it longer, and, at the same time, grew more respectful toward me.

I have had hundreds of pleasant platform experiences since I commenced my crusade against polygamy; but the three which stand out the most vividly in my memory, are the first evenings at Denver, Boston, and Washington.

All this time I was learning to love my Gentile friends very dearly, and to feel at home in "Babylon." I was comparatively happy, but I was not at rest. There was something lacking in my life, -- a void which nothing seemed to fill. Ever since I had found myself the dupe of a false religion, I had drifted blindly on, with no belief in anything, no faith in any system; sometimes, even, doubting the existence of God.

I was in this bitter mood when I spoke, one day, before the Methodist clergymen of Boston and vicinity. Among the persons to whom I was introduced on this occasion, was the Rev. Dr. Daniel Steele, of Auburndale. I had noticed him during my address, and felt quite strongly toward him, on account of the extreme interest which he evinced. One of his first questions was whether I had found any religion to take the place of the superstition I had cast off.

A hopeless "No," was my reply.

Then, for the first time in my life, I heard the principles of the religion of Christ. It was like day-dawn after a night of the blackest darkness, and I cried out eagerly, --

"This is what I want, -- this religion of love."

A few weeks after this I was the guest of the Methodist Female College, at Delaware, Ohio, of which Rev. Dr. M'Cabe was president. I was recovering from a severe illness, and was very much depressed. My mother was constantly writing to me, telling me of the struggles through which she was passing in giving up her religion; for Brigham's treatment of me, his utter disregard of the truth, and his malicious attempts to ruin me, opened her eyes, and unbound her reason; and she soon saw the falsity of the whole Mormon plan of salvation. I knew every pang which she was suffering, for I have passed through it all myself. Yet I was powerless to comfort her, for I was not at peace.

Dr. M'Cabe was my frequent visitor, and patiently and kindly he pointed out the way of rest to me, until at last I willingly placed myself and my troubles in the loving, out-stretched arms of God. Life opened out to me fuller than ever of possibilities, and my work grew holier. Peace brooded over my tired heart, and in the new experience I found infinite rest. Tossed all my life on a stormy sea of superstition, I was at last anchored in the sheltered haven of Christian belief.
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CHAPTER XXXIX. CHURCH GOVERNMENT. MORMON APOSTLES. THE ORDER OF ENOCH.

Mormon Administration. The Earthly Trinity. Filling Vacancies. Mormon Apostles. Polygamy made Profitable. The Seventy. Two-Dollar Blessings. Astounding Promises. Bishops and Spies. The 'Order of Enoch. All things in Common. An Apostolic Row. How Enoch Works. A Stupid Telegram. Logic Extraordinary. A Gigantic Swindle. Zion's Co-operative Mercantile Institution. Brigham's Revelations. The Saints Laugh in their Sleeves. "It pays to be a Mormon." Beginning to see through It. The Apostate President.

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The Co-operative Store.

ALTHOUGH the power wielded by Brigham Young is absolute, he is ostensibly assisted in the administration of church affairs by a large number of officers, whose real business it is to see that the President's plans are carried out, and his commands obeyed. He is the motive power, and they are mere tools in his hands, to be employed as he sees fit.

The "First Presidency," which controls the whole church, is supposed to be the earthly representative of the Trinity, "the Eternal Godhead, Three in One," and consists of the President and the First and Second Counsellors, who are the types on earth of "the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost," in heaven. It is needless to say which rank Brigham assigns to himself.

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GEORGE A. SMITH. [Counsellor.]

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George A. Smith


His first counsellor, George A. Smith, has recently died, and it is yet undecided who shall fill his place. If the plan was followed which raised Brigham to his present position, the second counsellor would have it by right of seniority; but the general impression is that "Young Briggy" will be jumped into the position, and the Saints will be obliged to receive him as certain "successor," whether they wish it or not. They will have less difficulty in becoming reconciled to the inevitable, since he has been for so long a time persistently thrust upon the people as the "probable successor," that they have grown used to hearing his claims discussed.

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Daniel H. Wells. [Second Counsellor.]

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Daniel Hanmer Wells


The second counsellor is Daniel H. Wells, who is notoriously one of the most cruel, bigoted, and tyrannical men in Utah. He, like Smith and Brigham, has the title of "Prophet, Seer, and Revelator."

The Prophet Wells served for years as general, or commander-in-chief, of the Mormon army; and has ever been Brigham's right-hand man in iniquity, fearlessly disposing of life and property in the name of the Lord, counselling his superior to deeds of blood without number, and then treating with the most consummate cruelty the very men who have assisted him in the carrying out of his atrocious plans. He is Mayor of Salt Lake City, and stands high among the dignitaries of the church, but he rules with an iron hand, and cruelty and oppression predominate in all he does.

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Orson Hyde


The "apostles" rank in church affairs next to the First Presidency. There are twelve of them, and Orson Hyde is their worthy President. This apostle is a practical polygamist, as are all the rest, but he has a convenient way of utilizing the system. He marries a cook, a laundress, a seamstress, a dairy-maid, or any servant he may happen to need. It is so much cheaper to marry domestics than to hire them. Under the latter arrangement he would be compelled to pay them for their services, while by the former he is only obliged to give them shelter, food, and clothing. His wives represent nearly every nationality, and when visitors come to the house, the first Mrs. Hyde introduces her husband's other wives, as "Mr. Hyde's German wife, Mr. Hyde's English wife, Mr. Hyde's Danish wife," and so on, until all are presented.

He apostatized in 1833, and made some remarkable revelations concerning Smith's polygamous practices, but he soon found his way back into the church, and has been one of the most stanch allies of the Prophet. He is supposed to have been connected with some of the most atrocious murders which have been committed in Utah. William Hickman implicated him most seriously in his confessions.


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Orson Pratt


Next to him comes Orson Pratt, who has six wives and several children, and is by far the most able man in the church.

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John Taylor


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Willard Woodruff


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Charles C. Rich


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Lorenzo Snow


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Erastus Snow


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Franklin D. Richards


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George Q. Cannon


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Brigham Young, Jr.


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Joseph F. Smith


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Albert Carrington


The other apostles are John Taylor, the happy husband of six wives; Willard Woodruff, whose kingdom numbers but four; Charles C. Rich, who has an indefinite number of wives and fifty children; Lorenzo Snow; Erastus Snow, whose kingdom is the size of Woodruff's; Franklin D. Richards, who has five wives of his own, and in addition has five "proxies," who, before becoming his wives, held the less responsible positions of aunts-in-law. On his uncle's death, Richards assumed the earthly care of them, and promoted them to be members of his own family; George Q. Cannon, the Mormon politician, who repudiates polygamy in Washington, but is one of its most ardent supporters, both theoretically and practically, at home, having four wives and thirteen children; Brigham Young, Jr., whose family has already been described; Joseph F. Smith, who has three wives; and Albert Carrington, who holds the office of Church Historian.

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The Old Mormon Tabernacle.

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The Old Mormon Tabernacle


The apostles have a general supervision of the Territory. They also go on missions, edit magazines, or take charge of the newly selected "stakes."

The working body of male Mormons is divided into seventy quorums, each having seventy members. Each quorum has a president, and these constitute the "Seventy." These presidents also have a president, who ranks next to the apostles. This body, the Quorum of Seventies, might with propriety be called the Mormon Missionary Board, as they attend to all matters connected with the propagation of the faith. The present president is Joseph Young, brother to Brigham.


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JosephYoung


In the year 1834, while the Saints were in Kirtland, Brigham's father expressed a desire to bless his children before he died, as did the patriarchs of old. On mentioning the subject to Joseph Smith, he, as usual, had a revelation that the Lord wished every father to bless his children, and that there should be Patriarchs set apart to bless those who had no father in the church. The first Patriarch was "Old Father Smith," Joseph's father, and his business was to bless all the fatherless who applied to him for blessing. At that time blessings were free for all who sought them; but when the first Patriarch died, and was succeeded by his son Hyrum, the business became so engrossing that it was thought best to charge one dollar for every person blessed. Hyrum was succeeded by "Uncle John Smith," his cousin, and he by William Smith, son of Hyrum. The only necessary qualification for this office is to be a Smith, and in some way a relative or descendant of the Prophet.

These "blessings" are rather wonderful affairs; they promise all sorts of things, in a vague, indefinite way, if only the recipient proves "faithful." Some are assured "they shall never taste death, but live until Christ comes, and be caught up to meet Him in the air;" others are assured that they are to have the privilege of redeeming their dead so far back, that there shall not be a broken link in the chain. Absurd as all this seems, there are hundreds of Saints who believe that "every word shall be fulfilled," as they are sometimes promised unconditionally, and the office of Patriarch is quite a profitable one, now that the price of blessings has been advanced to two dollars.

The bishops act at once as ecclesiasts, directors of municipal affairs, and judges of probate. Salt Lake City has twenty-one wards, each of which has a bishop over it. The entire Territory is also divided into wards, each with its governing bishop. Their duty is to settle disputes in the church, and to act as general spies and reporters, alike over Mormons and Gentiles.

In this last duty they are assisted by the Ward Teachers, whose duty it is to visit all the people in their ward, report all suspected persons, catechise every one, and discover all heresies, false doctrines, and schisms among the people, who are obliged to answer every question which is asked them, reserving nothing. Through these spies and informers, and their superiors the bishops, Brigham knows all the most private affairs connected with every individual, and this knowledge serves to render more binding his hold on this people.

Although the Ward Teachers are subordinate to the bishops, indeed, are the agents by which the latter do their work, they do not rank next to them. This position is held by the High Counsel. This body constitutes a sort of court of appeals, when the bishops do not give satisfaction to litigants. Appeal may be made from the High Counsel to the First Presidency.

In the early days of the church, the duty was strongly enjoined of consecrating all the possessions to the Lord; and this was not to be a figurative, but a real consecration; in which all the possessions were to be catalogued and consecrated in legal form, and the transaction authenticated by witnesses. The custodian of this property was to be a "Trustee in Trust," the community into which the faithful Saint thus entered was to be called "The United Order of Enoch," and the property was to be held for the benefit of this community.


ENOCH

The living channels of the Secret Tradition in Israel -- otherwise the successive mouthpieces -- according to the Tradition itself, are Enoch, Abraham, Moses, Solomon, and then -- after long ages -- one born far after due time, Rabbi Simeon ben Yochai at the beginning of the Christian Dispensation, a Greater Exile for Jewry. The romance-writers -- who passed as historians of Masonry before and after the formation of the UNITED GRAND LODGE -- knew nothing whatever of the last, for Kabalism was reflected into their reveries at second and third hand. But they knew -- confusedly and vaguely -- that there was a Secret Tradition in Israel, and some gleams concerning it were splintered on their glass of vision from people not themselves, and not of the Masonic Brotherhood, who derived certain rumours at a distance from yet others, being those who had dipped into Picus de Mirandula, Reuchlin, Archangelus de Burgo Nuovo and Baron Knorr von Rosenroth. The manner in which it was reflected revealed to them Masonry everywhere, or if any of the goods and chattels in which they and their authorities dealt could not be called Masonry by any stretch of a Georgian cum William IV imagination, it was then a debased substitute. Of Enoch who walked with God till he was not for God took him there are strange theosophical reminiscences in the SEPHER HA ZOHAH and its adjuncts; there are also Talmudic stories. Their final reflection into the annals of Masonry was summarised as follows in the year 1764.

"Enoch, the fifth from Seth, who prophesied of the deluge and conflagration, lest arts and sciences should slip out of the knowledge of men, raised two columns, one of brick, the other of stone, and inscribed their inventions upon them, that, if the pillar of brick happened to be overthrown by the Flood, that of stone might remain; which Josephus tells us was to be seen, in his time, in the land of Siriad."


Enochian Initiation. -- The significance of the name Enoch, otherwise Henoch -- Image -- connects in Hebrew with instruction, which offered to Masonic minds of the past a path of easy transition to the notion of initiation. To him therefore is referred the first institution of Mysteries, or alternatively their specific development and direction. Such a notion is of course implied by the attribution of the Secret Tradition to which I have referred. It is current in two forms, being that according to which he was the recipient of heavenly wisdom sent down from heaven itself, in the shape of arch -- natural books, and that which represents him as taught by earlier patriarchs, who were taught themselves by Adam, that mournful custodian of Divine Science reflected from the lost estate of Paradise. The approximate source of both is the SEPHER HA ZOHAR, behind which lies a mass of oriental tradition, a part only of which has been gathered into the Talmuds.

Enoch in the Zohar. -- The heads of tradition in the ZOHAR may be summarised shortly thus: (1) THE BOOK OF THE GENESIS OF MAN, containing the Mystery of the Name of God, was communicated to the first man, and it taught him the Supreme Wisdom. (2) It came down from heaven, being carried by a Master-Angel. (3) When Adam was driven out of Eden he held it close to his breast, which notwithstanding it vanished out of his keeping, but was restored afterwards because of his tears and prayers. (4) The Angel by whom it was brought originally is he who is called Raziel, and he is the Chief of Supreme Mysteries. (5) The Angel by whom it was returned is named Raphael. (6) The contents were to be kept secret, for Hadraniel -- another angel -- informed Adam, that, none of the heavenly choirs were permitted to know the central secret therein. (7) It related to the foundation of the world in wisdom. (8) Before he left this life, it would appear that Adam had authority for the transmission of the book to his Son Seth, its later custodians being Enoch, Noah and Abraham. (9) The most favoured of all was Enoch, for to him were confided "all treasures of the celestial world," and his place was in the superior heaven. (10) He beheld the Tree of Life in the midst of the Garden. (11) This was presumably after his translation, when it is even said that he became Metatron, the Great Angel of the Presence, the vesture of Al Shaddai and the Chief of the Heavenly Legions. (12) After God took him it is said that the Book of Adam was known as the Book of Enoch. These extracts are derived from Section Bereshith and from the Appendix entitled Tossafoth at the end of the Commentary on EXODUS.

The Magical Tradition. -- There is extant a BOOK OF RAZIEL, which belongs to the magical side of Kabalism, and it represents the Secret Tradition as descending from Adam to Enoch, but that tradition is presented under aspects by which it calls to be distinguished from the sacred storehouse of Zoharic theosophy. There is also the BOOK OF ENOCH, to which a place of importance is assigned among Old Testament Apocrypha. It has been referred to various dates and among others to the beginning of the Christian era. As it contains the supposed visions of the patriarch, there is no need to say that it does not pretend to be "the book sent down from heaven." It is of the class of apocalyptic writings, and Augustus Le Plongeon supposes that under this form the author delineated the circumstances and experience of his initiation into the Mysteries -- whether those of Eleusis, Isis or Mithras does not appear. There is as much and as little reason to adopt this scheme of interpretation in the case of the BOOK OF ENOCH as there is in that of REVELATION. Indeed the great dramatic pageant which unfolded for him who was "in the spirit on the Lord's Day" -- were there a choice between two impossibilities -- might be less intolerably regarded as a Rite reserved to epopts under the regis of a Secret Church in Christ. Those who are concerned can make a comparison of the texts on their own part, and I leave it in their hands. Be there added as an obiter dictum that in its true understanding the life of vision is an ordered life of initiation, and this is the sense in which Novalis said that our life is not a dream but that it ought to become one. Is there any initiation in the wide and age-long world of Instituted Mysteries to compare with that vision which was granted in Dominica suprema to the Seer of Patmos?

-- The Ancient and Primitive Rite of Memphis and Misraim, Extracts from "A New Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry," by Arthur Edward Waite


The Saints did not take kindly to the Order, and it existed in theory merely. Within a year or two Brigham has been making the most arduous efforts to bring his followers into this community, meeting, however, with very little better success than its founders. When he first proposed its re-establishment, it was decidedly opposed in the Tabernacle, by the apostles Orson Pratt, John Taylor, and George Q. Cannon, and a regular quarrel took place; the Prophet and his dissenting followers parting, each with a firm determination not to yield to the other side. The next week the four went north on a preaching tour, and labored harmoniously together in the attempt to build up the Order.

Whoever joins this community gives all his earthly possessions into the keeping of Brigham Young. His children, too, are required to sign away all claim or title to the property; if any are too young to write, the pen is given them, and their hands guided by their elders, and they are thus deprived of their rightful patrimony; and in return for all this, the family is to be furnished with what food and clothing the officers think they require.

As Brigham and his co-workers journeyed northward, he telegraphed to the bishops of the various settlements through which he would pass, informing them what time he would visit them, and requesting them to call special meetings of the residents of their wards before his arrival, and read to them the following telegram: "I am coming north, organizing branches of the Order of Enoch; how many of you are willing to join the Order without knowing anything about it?"

In the little town of Fillmore seventy-five men responded to the call for a meeting, and, strange as it may seem, fifty of those men voted to join the "Order." They fully understood that all on becoming members were required to deed their property to the "Trustee in Trust," otherwise, "Brigham Young, his heirs, executors, and assigns," yet they decided, with full knowledge of this, to make a blind investment of all their "worldly gear," and upon the arrival of the religious Autocrat, one half of the remaining twenty-five accepted the situation, and signed their names to an agreement binding themselves to obey "Enoch's" requirements. The following were the unanswerable arguments which Brigham used to secure their conversion: "I want you to understand that the car (meaning Enoch) is rolling on. The set time of the Lord has come, and no man can stay its progress. If you do not want to be run over, jump on, or get out of the way. I do not want a part of your property, I want it all. If there are any of you who cannot abide the requirements of the Lord, I do not want you to come near me, or to speak to me. I feel as far above you as the heavens are above the earth."

Those who became members of this branch of Enoch worked well, determined to make it a success. All labored together for the interest of the Order, and were credited a certain sum, I think fifteen cents an hour. They were economical, hoping to make the books show a balance in their favor, after deducting expenses of sustaining their families. But there were so many sinecures, and so much mismanagement, that after the lapse of one single summer an investigation of affairs became necessary, and the fact became known that their divinely directed labors had not paid the running expenses of the institution. Many who had expected that the records would exhibit a balance in their favor, awoke to the disagreeable fact that they, as co-partners in the United Order, the grand scheme that was to reconcile "the irrepressible conflict between capital and labor," must discount the sum stipulated as payment for their services. And they are at present in debt for the commonest necessaries of life consumed during their short-lived experiment.

A similar condition of affairs exists wherever this gigantic swindle has been in operation. And while Brigham has been gloating over his ill-gotten gains, he has bound these poor victims more firmly to himself by the terrible bondage of debt. The wildest dissatisfaction exists, and in nearly every county the Order may be regarded as dead, and beyond even the power of Brigham Young to restore.

The Tithing System is a direct outgrowth of "Enoch." When Joseph saw that the people did not take kindly to his community plan, he found it necessary to adopt some other means of raising a permanent fund for the church, and Orson Pratt proposed that every member should every year be obliged to pay one tenth of his income, out of which the church should be supported. This plan met with the approval of the officers, and it has been continued ever since. Every town has its tithing-house, which is in charge of the local bishop. He takes charge of all the goods that are brought in, usually paying himself a handsome commission, and sees, when any quantity has been gathered, that it is transported to the large tithing-house in Salt Lake City.

This tithing-house is under the direct control of Brigham Young, and he, his counsellors and clerks, have the first choice of all the goods that are brought in; the remaining stores are dealt out as payment to the poor men who are employed by Brigham as laborers. I have seen the tithing-store beseiged by a crowd of tired, care-worn women, wives of these men, waiting for their turn to be served. Sometimes a poor woman will stand all day waiting for a sack of flour, a basket of potatoes, or a quart of molasses. Let the day be ever so cold or stormy, there she must wait, until the clerks see fit to attend to her wants.

Everything is received here in payment for tithing: hay, grain, vegetables, butter, cheese, wool, or any other product. If a man has not money, he must give one tenth of what he has. It matters little whether he can afford it; the church demands it, and "the church" gets it.


The nearest approach to the practical realization of the Order of Enoch was what is called Zion's Co-operative Mercantile Institution. This was a great commercial corporation, engaged in buying and selling the produce of the people, and supplying them with every kind of merchandise needed in a new country. The stock was held by the people of the Territory, and branches of the parent concern were scattered throughout all the leading settlements; so that all the commercial exchanges of the country might be made through this establishment. It was designed to destroy the business of Gentile merchants in Zion, and accordingly all were commanded to patronize it; but the completion of the Pacific Railroad, and the influx of Gentiles, came to the relief of the proscribed merchants; their goods, too, were of a better class, and there was a greater opportunity for selection, so that Mormons and Gentiles alike patronized them; and at the present time, while the Co-operative Institution seems tottering to its fall, in spite of the frantic attempts of Brigham and his assistants to prop it up and make it secure, the Gentile houses are rapidly gaining in wealth and credit.

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Mormon Tithing Store and Office of Deseret News.

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Mormon Tithing Store and Office of Deseret News.


Most of Brigham's "revelations" have met with about the same degree of success in their attempted carrying out. His project of making silk, and another equally wild scheme of producing sugar from beet-roots, were gigantic failures, although he will not acknowledge it. Two more of his "inspirations" are kept in the minds of the Saints, by being so constantly before their eyes. The unfinished mud wall, which was to protect the city from invasion, and the divinely projected canal, which was to bring the stone for the new Temple from the quarries to Salt Lake City, and which Brigham announced that he had seen just as distinctly in a "vision" as he "ever should with his natural eyes." A large amount of money, and a great deal of hard labor was expended on these enterprises; all of which is a total loss.

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Brigham's Canal.

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John Willard Young


Brigham is shrewd enough to see that "revelation" is not one of his strong points, and he rarely attempts it; less frequently now than formerly, even. The catch-words, "Thus saith the Lord," are not nearly so potent as they were before the Saints came so much in contact with the Gentile world, and unconsciously lost some of their superstition. They do not openly laugh at Brigham's prophecies, but a few of the more honest and far-seeing venture to criticise him very quietly, although they submit to his rule, and are seemingly as good Saints as ever. They are not ready to apostatize; their interests and associations bind them to the church, and they do not wish to leave it. Some cling to it, like George Q. Cannon, through ambition; for that young apostle dares to cast his eyes toward Brigham's position, and has expressed the belief that he might ultimately succeed him. Others, like Orson Pratt, are so closely identified with it, that they cannot and would not cut themselves adrift from it. The church is their life, and they will only leave one when they are compelled to give up the other. Another class, to which Brigham's sons notably belong, stay because their pecuniary interests demand it. It "pays" to be a Mormon. But when once the present ruler is taken, they will have nothing to hold them, and they will do openly what they have long since done in their hearts, repudiate Mormonism, and all its superstitions and practices. And I am morally certain that the first one to take advantage of his newly-obtained liberty will be John W. Young, who is even now known as "the Prophet's Apostate Son," and who yet, in spite of his apostasy, holds the position of "President of the Salt Lake State of Zion," with the rank of bishop.

John Willard Young (October 1, 1844 – February 12, 1924) was a leader in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). He is one of the few individuals to have been an apostle of the LDS Church and a member of the First Presidency without ever having been a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles.

Early life and apostolic ordination

Young was born in Nauvoo, Illinois to Latter Day Saint apostle Brigham Young and Mary Ann Angell. As a young boy, John traveled with the Mormon pioneers from Illinois to the Salt Lake Valley.

Young was privately ordained an apostle by his father on November 22, 1855, when he was eleven, without a public announcement or adding them to the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles.[5] Young's ordination was reconfirmed on February 4, 1864, when his brothers Brigham Young, Jr. and Joseph Angell Young were ordained apostles by their father. However, none of them became members of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles upon their ordination because the Quorum already had twelve members. Although Brigham Jr. eventually became a member of the Quorum of the Twelve, John and Joseph never did.

Activity in western territories

In 1869, Young opened the "Salt Lake City Museum and Menagerie", which was the predecessor of the Deseret Museum.[6] He was also involved with the construction of a railroad in Arizona Territory.

LDS Church service

First Presidency


On April 8, 1873, Brigham Young added John, Brigham Jr., George Q. Cannon, Lorenzo Snow, and Albert Carrington as additional counselors to him in the First Presidency. After Young's First Counselor George A. Smith died in September 1875, John Willard Young was called as First Counselor to his father on October 8, 1876. Young served in this capacity until the First Presidency was dissolved by Brigham Young's death less than a year later on August 29, 1877. During his time in the First Presidency, John Willard Young never spent much time in Salt Lake City attending to church leadership duties; since 1863 he had preferred living in New York City, where he was engaged in a number of business ventures that ultimately failed and resulted in him assuming a large amount of debt.[7]

Counselor to the Twelve Apostles

Having never been a member of the Quorum of the Twelve but holding the priesthood office of apostle, Young was called as a counselor to the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles on October 6, 1877. However, Young's business practices and practice of living in New York City soon brought him into conflict with other church authorities. At a general conference of the church on April 6, 1881, Young's name was withheld from the names of general authorities who were presented for "sustaining".[4] Between 1881 and 1885, he was tried before the Quorum of the Twelve on three separate occasions; each time he was reconciled with the Twelve and he retained his position.[4] In 1888, Joseph F. Smith accused Young of unethically using church funds to maintain a lavish lifestyle, and by April 1889 the First Presidency and Quorum of the Twelve were discussing removing Young from his position.[1]

Young resigned from his position on October 3, 1891; Young was aware that on that date the First Presidency and Quorum of the Twelve Apostles were again discussing his possible release from his position.[1] After Young's resignation, he was formally released as a counselor to the Twelve at a conference of the church October 6, 1891.[1]

Denial of church presidency

Although he lived another 33 years, Young never again served as a general authority of the LDS Church, though he remained a church apostle for the rest of his life. On December 9, 1899, apostle Franklin D. Richards died. Richards had been the President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles and the second-most senior apostle in the church. Richards's death left Young as the second-most senior apostle in the church. Although Young did not become the President of the Twelve, under the then-existing rules of presidential succession in the church, Young would become the President of the Church when Lorenzo Snow died, since Snow was the only living person who had been ordained an apostle prior to Young.[8] Snow was 85 years old and in poor health, while Young was only 55 years old; it therefore appeared to many that Young would be the next president of the church.

However, many of the general authorities of the church disliked Young and felt that his succession to the presidency would be a disaster for the church.[8] On March 31, 1900, the First Presidency—which consisted of Lorenzo Snow, George Q. Cannon, and Joseph F. Smith—changed the policy of presidential succession.[9] The new president of the church would no longer be the person who had been an ordained apostle the longest; rather, the new president of the church would be the person who had been a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles for the longest period of time.[9] Since Young had never been a member of the Quorum of the Twelve, he could not become the president of the church if Snow died. On April 5, 1900, the First Presidency and the Quorum of the Twelve unanimously approved the new policy.[10]

On October 10, 1901, Snow died. Five days later, Young arrived in Salt Lake City from New York City, possibly with the intent of assuming the presidency of the church.[11] However, due to the new policy, Joseph F. Smith was ordained the new president of the church on October 17, 1901.[11] Young returned to New York City, where he lived for the rest of his life. After he died in New York City, Young was buried at Salt Lake City Cemetery.

Later life

After returning to New York City, Young was employed as an elevator operator in an exclusive hotel where he had once lived.[11] In 1902 and 1903, his son Hooper Young was involved in a sensational murder investigation and trial after it was determined that a woman had died in John Willard Young's apartment while he was in France on business. The "Pulitzer Murder" case ultimately resulted in Hooper pleading guilty to second degree murder and being sentenced to life imprisonment in Sing Sing prison.[12] Hooper's conviction had a devastating effect on John Willard, who had initially believed that his son was innocent.[12] John Willard Young continued to attend a branch of the LDS Church in the city for the rest of his life,[13] and he died of cancer in New York City at the age of 79.[12]

Brigham Young had always expected that his son Brigham Jr. would be his successor. But scandals enveloped the career of the Mormon Dauphin. According to John D. Lee of the Danite intelligence, Brigham Jr. had been put in jail in England, and $26,000 was misdirected from the perpetual emigration fund to secure a cover up of his activities. Then, in Februar 1876, one of the crown prince’s daughters fled with a Gentile. Brigham Jr. had to go to court to get her returned to him. (Hirshson, p. 321)

Brigham Young’s grandson was William Hooper Young. In 1902, this grandson was sentenced to life in prison in Sing Sing by a New York city court. He was convicted of stabbing a woman to death, and then dumping her body in the Jersey Meadows. The Mormon theory that polygamy produced superior individuals seemed to be in trouble. (Hrishson, p. 325)

-- Just Too Weird: Bishop Romney and the Mormon Takeover of America: Polygamy, Theocracy, and Subversion, by Webster Griffin Tarpley, Ph.D.


Notes

1. Compton 2002, p. 125 2. Compton 2002, pp. 111–12 3. ^Since Young was not a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles or the First Presidency at the time of his death, no one was called to the apostleship as a replacement after he died. 4. Compton, "John Willard Young", p. 124. 5. Compton 2002, pp. 111–112 6. Jenson, Andrew. Encyclopedic History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret News Press, 1941) p. 185. 7. Compton 2002, p. 121 8. Compton 2002, p. 126 9. Compton 2002, p. 127 10. Compton 2002, pp. 128–129 11. Compton 2002, p. 129 12. Compton 2002, p. 130 13. Compton 2002, pp. 129–130

References

• Adkins, Marlow C., Jr. (1978), A History of John W. Young's Utah Railroads, 1884-1894(M.S. Thesis), Department of History and Geography, Utah State University, OCLC 4100857. • Bishop, M. Guy (2001), "John W. Young: Counselor to Brigham Young (1873-1877)", in Michael K. Winder, Counselors to the Prophets, Roy, Utah: Eborn Books, pp. 182–189, ISBN 1890718041. • Bishop, M. Guy (Winter 1980), "Building Railroads For the Kingdom: The Career of John W. Young, 1867-91", Utah Historical Quarterly, 48 (1): 66–80. • Compton, Todd (Winter 2002), "John Willard Young, Brigham Young, and the Development of Presidential Succession in the LDS Church" (PDF), Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, 35 (4): 111–134. • Keller, Charles L. (Summer 1977), "Promoting Railroads and Statehood: John W. Young", Utah Historical Quarterly, 45 (3): 289–308. • Watson, Charles W. (1984), John Willard Young and the 1887 Movement for Utah Statehood (Ph.D. Thesis), Department of History, Brigham Young University, OCLC 16777831.

-- John Willard Young, by Wikipedia (accessed: 6/22/18)
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Re: Wife No. 19, the Story of a Life in Bondage, Being a Com

Postby admin » Sat Jun 23, 2018 8:30 am

CHAPTER XL. THE CONDITION OF MORMON WOMEN. HIGH AND LOW LIFE IN POLYGAMY.

Increasing Light. The Equality of the Sexes. Exaggeration Impossible. Likely Saviours. The Present Condition of Mormon Women. The Prospects for the Future. Polygamy Bad for Rich and Poor. A Happy Family. The Happiness Marred. Sealed for Time Only. Building on Another Man's Foundation. The New Wife. How the Old One Fared. The Husband's Death a Relief. As a Calkins's English Mission. What Came of It. How to Get Rich. Two Sermons from One Text. Dividing the Spoil. No Woman Happy in Polygamy.

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Polygamy in High and Low Life.

ALL this while I was gaining knowledge of the domestic customs and relations of the "Gentiles." At nearly every place that I visited I was entertained in some private family, and my eyes were constantly being opened to the enormities of the wicked system from which I had escaped.

I had felt its misery; I had known the abject wretchedness of the condition to which it reduced women, but I did not fully realize the extent of its depravity, the depths of the woes in which it plunged women, until I saw the contrasted lives of monogamic wives.

I had seen women neglected, or, worse than that, cruelly wronged, every attribute of womanhood outraged and insulted. I now saw other women, holding the same relation, cared for tenderly, cherished, protected, loved, and honored. I had been taught to believe that my sex was inferior to the other; that the curse pronounced upon the race in the Garden of Eden was woman's curse alone, and that it was to man that she must look for salvation. No road lay open for her to the throne of grace; no gate of eternal life swinging wide to the knockings of her weary hands; no loving Father listened to the wails of sorrow and supplication wrung by a worse than death-agony from her broken heart. Heaven was inaccessible to her, except as she might win it through some man's will. I found, to my surprise, that woman was made the companion and not the subject of man. She was the sharer alike of his joys and his sorrows. Morally, she was a free agent. Her husband's God was her God as well, and she could seek Him for herself, asking no mortal intercession. Motherhood took on a new sacredness, and the fatherly care and tenderness, brooding over a family, strengthening and defending it, seemed sadly sweet to me, used as I was to see children ignored by their fathers.

Seeing this, I began to comprehend a little why it was so difficult to make the state of affairs in Utah understood. The contrast was so very great that, unless it was seen, it could not be realized, even ever so faintly. I feel sometimes, both in speaking to audiences, and in private conversations, the thrill of shocked surprise which runs through my listeners' veins as I relate some particular atrocity, or narrate some fearful wrong, which has been suffered either by myself or some person known to me; but even then I know the enormity of the system which permits such things to be possible is but vaguely understood.

I am accused sometimes of exaggeration. In reply to that accusation I would say, that is simply impossible, I could not exaggerate, since language is inadequate to even half unveil the horrors. There are events of daily occurrence which decency and womanly modesty forbid my even hinting at. No one can, even if they would, quite tear the covering away from the foul, loathsome object, called "Celestial Marriage," reeking as it is with filth and moral poison; rotten to the very core; a leprous spot on the body politic; a defilement to our fair fame as a nation. I am compelled to silence on points that would make what I have already said seem tame in comparison. Not a word of all my story is exaggerated or embellished. The difficulty has been rather to suppress and tone down.

Women are the greatest sufferers. The moral natures of the men must necessarily suffer also; but to them comes no such agony of soul as comes to women. Their sensibilities are blunted; their spiritual natures deadened; their animal natures quickened; they lose manliness, and descend to the level of brutes; and these dull-witted, intellectually-dwarfed moral corpses, the women are told, are their only saviours.

What wonder that they, too, become dull and apathetic? Who wonders at the immovable mouths, expressionless eyes, and gray, hopeless faces, which tourists mark always as the characteristics of the Mormon women? What does life offer to make them otherwise than dull and hopeless? Or what even does eternity promise? A continuation merely of the sufferings which have already crushed the womanhood out of them. A cheering prospect, is it not? Yet it is what every poor Mormon woman has to look forward to. Just that, and nothing more.


Rich or poor alike suffer. Polygamy bears no more lightly on the one than the other. If they are poor, they have to work for themselves and their children, suffer every deprivation, submit to every indignity. If they are in more affluent circumstances, they have more time for brooding over their sorrows, more leisure for the exercise of the natural jealousy which they cannot help feeling for the other wives. Happiness and contentment are utterly unknown to Mormon women; they are impossible conditions, either to dwellers in poverty or plenty.

A few years ago, a man and wife of the name of Painter, decided to cast in their lot with the Saints, and enroll themselves among the Lord's chosen people. The woman had been previously married, and her husband had died shortly after his conversion to the Mormon faith. The elders urged her marrying again, and, after a time, she found her heart adding its persuasions to the "counsel" of the brethren, and she married William Painter, an honest, kind-hearted fellow, who made her a good husband, and with whom she lived very happily.

As soon as possible they came to America, but that was not until their family had been increased by two or three children, who were alike the objects of the mother's care and the father's pride. Although they were poor, hard-working people, I have never known a happier family than this when they first came to Utah.

Like all new arrivals they were anxious to receive their Endowments, and it was shortly arranged for them to go through the rites. When they presented themselves at the Endowment House, Heber C. Kimball told the wife that she could only be sealed to her present husband for time. She must belong to her first husband in eternity, he having died in the faith. She was not at liberty to deprive him of his privileges, or to rob him of his kingdom.

The poor woman felt very badly, for this man was the father of her children, and she felt that her claim on him should be the strongest; but the authorities refused to see the matter as she did, and insisted that the sealing should be only for time. There was no help for it, and the poor woman was obliged to submit. Neither was the husband satisfied. It did not suit him to "build a kingdom on another man's foundation;" he must commence one for himself; and, in obedience to counsel, he looked about diligently for a wife "all his own." He was not long in finding one, and, greatly to his wife's distress, he brought home an ignorant young girl, who turned the house topsy-turvy in her endeavors to exercise the authority which she arrogated to herself. The first wife considered that she had some rights still remaining, and that, certainly, she might dictate somewhat concerning household affairs, as she had been so long the ruling power, and understood the manner of regulating and running the domestic machinery; but the new-comer claimed entire supremacy, declaring that she was "the only wife William had," her rival belonging to another man.

Strange as it may seem, the husband took sides instantly with the new-comer against the woman who had been a faithful wife for years, and was the mother of his children. She ruled the household affairs, the first wife, and even the husband and all were compelled to submit to her decision. She heaped every indignity upon the poor wife, even resorting to personal violence, and the victim could obtain neither sympathy nor redress. She was compelled to live under the same roof with her rival, as her husband's means would not admit of two establishments, and for several years she endured the misery silently. We all knew her to be very unhappy, and we pitied her extremely. She was our near neighbor, and the nearest approach to confidences which she ever made was given to my mother. But we did not know for a long time how very much she had to bear.

One cold day, in the midst of a dreary storm, the poor woman came rushing into our house, with her babe in her arms, crying bitterly. She sank into a chair, which my mother placed for her near the fire; and in answer to the anxious inquiries, she sobbed out, "O, sister Webb, I have left my home and my husband. I have been compelled to do it. I can endure no more. If you knew all, I am sure you would not blame me!"

Mother inquired what it was that had occasioned this new rupture, and brought her to this final decision.

The poor, distressed creature replied, that her husband had taken Emma, the second wife, and gone on a visit of several days to some relatives, leaving her and the children utterly unprovided either with food or fire, and they were nearly perishing with cold and hunger. She had sent the other children to another neighbor's to get warm, and she and the younger ones had taken refuge with us.

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DRIVEN FROM HOME.

In two or three days the husband returned, and finding where his wife was, compelled her to come back to him, by threats of taking the children from her unless she did. After a few years he died, and what little property there was the young wife claimed. The first wife appealed to the church authorities, but they upheld the last wife's claims, and she was driven penniless away with her children. She had to support herself and them; but she used frankly to say, that she was happier than she had been for years, and that her husband's death was a positive relief to her. I knew this woman well, and I knew that no more worthy woman lived than she. Polygamy blighted her life, and made a miserable dependent of one who would have been, in other circumstances, a happy wife.

About fifteen years since, a man by the name of Asa Calkins was sent by Brigham Young to preside over the Saints in the British Isles. He left two wives in Salt Lake, but on his arrival in England, he met with a young lady who completely fascinated him, and having obtained the permission of his Prophet to marry while on the mission, began paying her the most devoted attention.

He met with no difficulty in his wooing, and no obstacle was placed in the way of his speedy marriage. After the marriage, he informed his wives in Utah of the event, and they received the news with resignation, as they expected, nothing different. But he was not so frank with the new wife. Brigham had told him, when he gave him permission to marry, to say nothing about his other wives, so the young English lady supposed herself to be the only Mrs. Calkins. About two years after the marriage, the first went to some of the Eastern states on a visit to some relatives. While there her health became impaired, and on being advised that a sea-voyage would benefit her, wrote at once to her husband in Liverpool, asking permission to join him in England.

He said, in reply, that she might come, if she was willing to pass as his sister, as he had all the wife there that the English law would allow. As she felt obliged to take the voyage on account of her failing health, she agreed to do as he desired.

On her arrival at Liverpool, she found her husband so infatuated with his new wife that he scarcely noticed her at all, and she almost regretted having crossed the sea; yet she saw no way of escape from the trial, as she was to remain there until her husband's mission was ended, which would not be for two years at least.

Mr. Calkins almost entirely ignored the existence of his first wife, and, taking Agnes, travelled all over Europe, introducing her everywhere as Mrs. Calkins, while the poor "sifter" remained in Liverpool. He lavished every luxury of dress and ornament upon his idol, while the poor, neglected wife was supplied with the merest necessities of life.

In course of time, they all returned to Zion; but Agnes still remained the favorite wife. Calkins had always been one of the most prosperous Saints, but he returned from his mission a rich man. About the time of his return we often heard rumors concerning his manner of obtaining this wealth, which were not altogether creditable to him, and, consequently, no one was surprised to hear brother Brigham apply the lash to the delinquent missionary the Sabbath after his arrival at Salt Lake, for what he was pleased to term a species of highway robbery. The Saints universally believed that the man merited the rebuke. But the surprise came the Sabbath following. Brigham changed his tactics, and put in a warm plea in the missionary's defence. He said that he had not distinctly understood all about Brother Calkins's course in England until some time during the previous week, when he had visited him, and explained matters to his entire satisfaction. He omitted to state that "Brother Calkins" not only visited him, but divided the spoils with him, his own share amounting to several thousand dollars.

Mr. Calkins was restored to favor. The English Mrs. Calkins was recognized as the chosen wife, and the other two were merely tolerated, and were obliged to see their husband's devotion and wealth lavished on her, while they starved for love and lacked for comforts.

These two cases show the workings of the polygamic system in the families of the rich and the poor. It is as hateful in the one case as in the other, and equally productive of misery in both.

I have yet to learn of one woman who is happy in it. Like Zina Young, they say, "The system must be right, I suppose; we are taught that it is. But if that is the case, we must live it wrongly; there is fault somewhere."

There is worse than that. There is positive sin; and in her heart of hearts, no woman of them all believes it to be right, although she may try, with all the sophistry at her command, to convince herself that it is. Her heart and her reason both give her arguments the lie, and she cannot help but heed them, even when she counts herself a sinner for so doing.
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Re: Wife No. 19, the Story of a Life in Bondage, Being a Com

Postby admin » Sat Jun 23, 2018 8:33 am

CHAPTER XLI. MY RETURN TO UTAH. SECRET OF BRIGHAM'S POWER. UTAH'S FUTURE.

I Return to Utah. Reception at the Walker House. Greeting old Friends. My Love for the Place. Six Lectures in the Territory. Brigham's Daughters make Faces at me. My Father and Mother in the Audience. The Half not told. Multitudes Pleading for Freedom. Eastern Newspaper Reports. Indiscretion. The Poland Bill. Increase of Polygamy. The Secrets of Brigham's Power. The Pulpit and Press on Mormonism. The Salt Lake City Tribune. A Word to the Sufferers. Calls for Help. The Future of Utah.

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Receiving my Friends at the Walker House.

IN August, 1874, I returned to Salt Lake City; but not in the secret way in which I had left it months before. I was met with every expression of good will, and congratulations and welcomes poured in upon me from every side. A reception was held for me at the Walker House, and I had the opportunity of greeting again the friends who had so nobly assisted me in my struggles for freedom. Foremost of all, Judge McKean, the truest, most upright, and inflexible chief justice who had ever presided over the Utah courts; the man who could neither be bribed nor cajoled; who did right for the right's sake, and who consequently had gained the enmity of Brigham Young and his followers, but who was implicitly trusted by all lovers of justice; General Maxwell, too, who was so kindly acting for me in my suit; Colonel Wickizer, who lent his room for my trunk to be taken to, and otherwise assisted me in my flight from Utah; and Mr. and Mrs. Stratton, the dearly beloved friends who had first shown me the possibilities of an escape from bondage and a life outside.

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My Reception at Salt Lake City.

This welcome, hearty and spontaneous, touched me deeply, and I felt then that however much my interests might be drawn away from Salt Lake City, and my work lead me away from there personally, yet it was my home, its people were my people, and my heart would always turn lovingly toward it to the day of my death.

And why should I not love it? I had grown with it, and there is not a building in it that I have not watched as it arose, not an improvement that I have not rejoiced in. I have seen a lovely city spring up in an alkali desert as if by magic. True, I have suffered there. Many of its associations are bitter. But that is the city as it has been the Salt Lake of the past, not the Salt Lake of the future, as I hope its future will be.

During the summer, I lectured six times in the city, and several times in other towns in the Territory. Brigham did not attend any of my lectures, but he sent his daughters and daughters-in-law, and bade them sit on the front seats, and make faces at me. They filled the two rows nearest the platform, and, as I saw them there, my heart went out in pity toward them. I knew all of them; many of them had been my dear friends from girlhood, and I had known how unhappy they had been under the cruel system which I was fighting against. I had been in the confidence of several, and more than one had commiserated me upon my unhappy situation while I was their father's wife. Instead of annoying me, and causing me to falter and break down completely, as the prophet hoped, it only lent new strength to my purpose, new fire to my words. I knew that these women sympathized with me in every word I uttered, and that in their hearts they earnestly wished me success.

My father and mother were in my audience, too. It had required a great deal of persuasion to induce the latter to be present, but she finally yielded to us all, and went. Long before this she had lost her faith in Mormonism, and was ranked among the apostates. Brigham's attempts to ruin me had opened her eyes, and she at last saw him as he really was.
I think no one rejoiced in my success more than she did, and certainly no one else has had power to imbue me with such fresh courage and strength. And now that she has abandoned Mormonism, when I think of her, away from all the old associations, united in her old age to the friends of her childhood, happy in a home safe from the intrusion of polygamy, every shade of bigotry blotted out, her reason unfettered, her will free, I am happier than I ever can say; and if this result only were reached in the cases of the other women of the Territory, I should feel that my suffering and my labors had not been in vain.

Next to these lectures in Salt Lake, my most successful appearance was made at Provo, where I spoke under the auspices of the Rev. C. P. Lyford, the pastor of the Methodist church in that place, and one of the most inveterate foes of Polygamy and Brigham Young. Three years ago Provo was one of the most powerful of all the Mormon strongholds in Utah. Many deeds of violence had been committed there, and bigotry in its worst form ruled the people. Mr. Lyford, young, brave, and enthusiastic, determined to build a Gentile church there. He went into the work cheerfully and determinedly, although he was warned to leave the county, his life threatened, and every possible insult and indignity offered him. But he could not be intimidated, and flatly refused to leave; and now he has a society fully organized, a church built, and a free school established. He has been one of my strongest allies and warmest defenders, and I owe to no one more gratitude than to him.

I have told my story as simply as I could. I have added nothing, but I have left much untold. Another volume, as large as this, would not contain all I could write on this subject. My life is but the life of one; while thousands are suffering, as I suffered, and are powerless even to plead for themselves, so I plead for them. The voices of twenty thousand women speak in mine, begging for freedom both from social and religious tyranny.

I take up papers, and I read letters from eastern correspondents who have visited Utah; and while I do not wonder at the enthusiasm which they display concerning the outward beauty of this city of the desert, I marvel at the blindness which fails to see the misery of the majority of its people. "Polygamy is on the decrease," they almost unanimously exclaim; "the ballot and education are its foes, and it cannot stand before them; the young people will not enter the system, and while polygamous marriages diminish in number, monogamic ones steadily increase."

This is not so. I have no doubt it is the story which is told to these strangers by Mormons. But that is an old trick. They have been accustomed, in other days, to repudiate polygamy while practising it most extensively. They are only following "Brother Joseph's" example. He denied it, to save the reputation of himself and his followers; and they do it still, when they wish to blind the Gentiles' eyes, and escape their criticism.

Last year, as the records will show, there were more polygamous marriages in Utah than there have been any previous year since the "Reformation." The Order of Enoch and Polygamy are, to-day, Brigham's two strongest holds on the people. By the first, he holds the men through sheer necessity; for all who have entered the Order have given themselves and their possessions so entirely to him, that they cannot, by any possibility, get free. By the other system, he holds the women in a crueller bondage still. He and Cannon may repudiate the "Celestial Marriage" as strongly as they choose, but they cannot change the facts. They are more shrewd, but not so honest as the fellow who was seen reeling through the streets of Salt Lake City, with a bottle under each arm, shouting, "I've taken a new wife to-day, and I'm not afraid of the Poland Bill." They do care for "the Poland Bill," or, rather, they care about public opinion very much, and they like the positions which they might be obliged to resign if they ventured to claim the legality of Polygamy.


There is a strong working-power against it in its very midst, however, and it seems to me that it is a power which must prevail. The pulpit and press combined are dealing some heavy blows upon it, and it cannot always stand under it. Instead of the Mormon church being the only church in Utah, nearly every denomination is represented there now, and the most of these churches have schools connected with them, -- such superior schools, some of them, that a few of the more liberal and intelligent Mormons venture to send their children to them.

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"Not Afraid of the Poland Bill."

But the strongest power in the Territory against Polygamy, -- the most implacable and relentless foe to Brigham Young and his pet institution, -- is the Salt Lake City Tribune, the leading Gentile paper in Utah. It is owned by a stock company, composed of the leading Gentiles in the Territory; is ably conducted, and is hated and dreaded by the Mormons, although they all read it. It has been my constant friend, and has stood bravely by me ever since I turned my back on my false faith, and sought shelter and friends in "Babylon."

It is a power in politics. When Governor Woods -- although a loyal and brave officer of the government -- was removed to make place for Axtell, who was a mere tool in the Prophet's hands, the indignant utterances of the paper made themselves felt all over the country; and the supporters of the new governor in Washington grew ashamed, and he was removed to make room for Governor Emory, the present governor, who, as yet, has shown no disposition to assimilate with the saintly portion of his subjects.

Now, as I approach the end of my story, I turn longing eyes toward my old home, and my heart goes out in pitying tenderness to it and the women there. To them I want to say, Your cause is my cause, your wrongs have been my wrongs; and while you are still bearing them patiently, because you know there is no redress; hopelessly, because while your hearts are breaking, you see no avenue of escape, I am trying the best I know to make the way easy and plain to your eyes, dimmed with tears, and your feet, tired of wandering in broken paths. Many of you, I know, think that I am wrong; you believe, as I once did, that to fight against Brigham Young, and his will, is certain damnation. You mourn for me as one lost; you regard me with pity; but yet, in your hearts, you wish to believe that I am right; you would like to be convinced that I am. Some of you are certain of it, but you do not see your own way out. The darkness closes around you thicker and heavier, and, tired of groping about, you fold your hands and sit in an apathy worse than death, waiting until the dawn of eternity shall throw light upon your path. God help you, sisters, one and all, and bring you out of the spiritual bondage in which you are held.

And you, happier women, -- you to whom life has given of its best, and has crowned royally, -- can you not help me? The cry of my suffering and sorrowing sisters sweeps over the broad prairies, and asks you, as I ask you now, "Can you do nothing for us?" Women's pens, and women's voices pleaded earnestly and pathetically for the abolition of slavery. Thousands of women, some of them your country-women, and your social and intellectual equals, are held in a more revolting slavery to-day. Something must be done for them. This system that blights every woman's life who enters it, ought not to remain a curse and a stain upon this nation any longer. It should be blotted out so completely that even its foul memory would die.

Yet, how is it to be done? I confess myself discouraged when I ask that question. Legislation will do no good, unless the laws can be enforced after they are once made. But if laws are to be framed, and the men who enforce them are to be removed as a punishment for their faithfulness, they are better not made.

But one thing is certain. If one voice, or one pen, can exert any influence, the pen will never be laid aside, the voice never be silenced. I have given myself to this work, and I have promised before God never to withdraw from it. It is my life-mission; and I have faith to believe that my work will not be in vain, and that I shall live to see the foul curse removed, and Utah -- my beloved Utah -- free from the unholy rule of the religious tyrant, -- Brigham Young.

THE END.  
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