Former teacher at Boulder's Shambhala accused of sexually as

The impulse to believe the absurd when presented with the unknowable is called religion. Whether this is wise or unwise is the domain of doctrine. Once you understand someone's doctrine, you understand their rationale for believing the absurd. At that point, it may no longer seem absurd. You can get to both sides of this conondrum from here.

Re: Former teacher at Boulder's Shambhala accused of sexuall

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A Report on Trungpa Rinpoche’s Class at CU Boulder, Winter 1971
The Three Bodies of the Buddha

by John Baker
November 1, 2014
Copyright John J. Baker 2014

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A recreation of Trungpa Rinpoche's blackboard sketch

In the fall of 1970 Bob Lester, then Chairman of the Religious Studies Department at the University of Colorado, invited Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche, a highly ranked, Tibetan Buddhist lama, to teach a course on Buddhism to undergraduates. Rinpoche had arrived in the U.S. that spring from Scotland, landing at Tail of the Tiger (now Karme Chöling) in Barnet, Vermont, where he gave summer seminars on the teachings of Milarepa and other subjects. In August some CU professors had invited Rinpoche, then about 31 years old, to come to Boulder, and I and another student, Marvin Casper, both in our mid-twenties, had asked him if we could accompany him. So in October of 1970 the three of us moved to Colorado, initially living together in a stone cabin with a pot-bellied stove and outhouse at 10,000 feet in Gold Hill, but later moving to a modern duplex in Four-Mile Canyon just outside of town. Rinpoche’s wife, Diana, joined us after a couple of months, and they lived together in the first-floor apartment, while Marvin and I inhabited the upstairs.

The CU course was to run in the winter semester of 1971. Rinpoche appointed Marvin and me his teaching assistants, which meant helping him select readings, construct the syllabus, run the class, and conduct discussion groups. He, of course, determined the content and delivered the lectures.

At Tail of the Tiger Rinpoche had given Marvin and me pointing-out-instruction and forged a bond stronger than any I had known in my relatively short lifetime. He had recently asked us to start teaching the students who were coming to him from the coasts and elsewhere, hippies mostly, without much money, adventurous and inspired by the dharma, in general, and Rinpoche, in particular. We knew very little doctrine, but Rinpoche had introduced us to the heart of the teachings. He felt it important for Westerners to connect to the essence of Buddhism first so that they would not be dazzled and seduced by the many exotic forms promising spectacular results, a problem he considered pandemic in America at the time.

The university had a population of about 25,000, including staff and students; this in a town whose total population was about 100,000. In addition, the town had a prominent population of Seventh Day Adventists (no alcohol sold within city limits), there were no malls, and hippies were arriving from the coasts to live in the town and in the communes that constellated around it.

CU in those days had the reputation of being a second-tier school with a few stand-out departments, such as engineering. It was known to be popular with undergraduates who wanted proximity to Colorado’s ski areas, as well as the overall opportunity to play and party. So our expectations for the class were not high, and we were not disappointed. My memory was that 40 or so students sat slumped in their chairs (the kind with an enlarged arm for notepads), giving the impression of sleepiness and apathy. In fact, a few of them later became devoted students of Rinpoche. You just never know.

The room was large, stark, bare, and brightly lit, both by the overhead fluorescents and the Colorado sunlight streaming in through out-sized windows. Rinpoche wore a sport coat and tie, portly with tousled hair. He stood before the class, blackboard behind him, the Flatirons visible through the windows, rising 1,800 feet into the clear blue sky. Marvin and I sat in the front row, to the side.

Rinpoche presented basic Buddhist doctrine, but with an emphasis on the teaching of “spiritual materialism,” which he felt was particularly relevant to his audiences at that time. America was in the throes of the counter-culture revolution, protests against the Vietnam War, and the invasion of Eastern religions from India, Tibet, Southeast Asia and Japan. Think Satguru, Maharishi and the Beatles, Yogi Bhajan, Hare Krishna on street corners and in airports, Zen Beats, macrobiotic diets, of course yoga and meditation and kundalini energy and much more. We were all so naïve, ready to ape the cultures of these imports, hoping that, by adopting their to-us-exotic forms, we would enjoy some benefit or release from unhappiness. Rinpoche spent a lot of his time debunking that notion: he once told an audience, almost apologetically, “If I told you to stand on your heads 24 hours-a-day, you would do it!” A lot of the Hindu teachers preached happiness/bliss/love, etc. Rinpoche called that “love and light.”

The lecture that most stands out in my memory—because it was so revelatory for me personally and so brilliant—was the one he gave on the trikaya, a Sanskrit term that refers to the three (tri) bodies (kaya) of the buddha: the dharmakaya, sambhogakaya, and nirmanakaya, which are to be understood at various levels. This was not a lecture on spiritual materialism.

Most basically, the term nirmanakaya refers to the actual, physical and mental manifestation of Shakyamuni Buddha, as well as other enlightened individuals. Nirmana is usually translated as “manifestation” or “apparition” or “incarnation.” It is the idea that one has taken rebirth many times—died and been reborn over and over again—and that this current birth is the “nirmana” or current manifestation/incarnation. The Tibetan for this term is tulku, a word applied to reincarnate lamas, so the Dalai Lama is the 14th tulku (or nirmanakaya) in his line, and Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche was the 11th Trungpa tulku.

In one sense we are all nirmanakayas (tulkus), because we all have been reborn many times, however the term is usually reserved for enlightened teachers who take rebirth deliberately, out of compassion and because they have taken a vow to work for the benefit of confused, sentient beings until there are no more. The rest of us unenlightened individuals take rebirth not deliberately but out of the force of our karma: habit and desire drive us forward in life and in death to continual and uncontrolled rebirth in various realms of suffering. We are fortunate to be human beings in this life—the human realm is the only one in which a being may traverse the path to enlightenment and freedom—but we may not be so fortunate in future lives. Sooner or later we will be reborn in all the realms: god realms, animal, hungry ghost, and hell realms. In fact, we experience this psychologically even during the course of a day, in which we experience the anger and panic of the hell realms, the pride and pleasure of the god realms, the hunger and sense of deprivation of the hungry ghost realms, or the stupidity, sloth, and fear of the animal realms.

Dharma is a Sanskrit word which has a number of different meanings, but here it refers first to the Buddhist teachings: the “truth” about who we are and what confusion and wisdom are, the path to realize enlightenment and release from suffering. In addition, “dharma” refers to the true action of an enlightened individual, a buddha. Dharmakaya, then, from the earliest teachings refers to the “teachings” body of the buddha: the instructions he gave to his students to help them see what is real and tread the path. Additionally, it refers to the buddha’s capacity to act in accord with what is true and real.

Sambhogakaya is a term that appeared in a later period of history and which is usually translated “enjoyment body” of the buddha. It refers to the idea that, when one has the eyes to see, there is a world of celestial beings, buddhas and bodhisattvas, dharma protectors, teachers, and embodiments of energy, enlightened and not. This world is present here, and in truth we are in the midst of the Akanistha (Above All) Heaven, but the Sambhogakaya realm is hidden in plain sight from the unenlightened, who may become aware of it only in glimpses, if at all. It is a world of beauty, power, and meaningfulness and, it is completely available to individuals who have left confusion behind, bodhisattvas on the “grounds” or stages of the path and enlightened beings or “buddhas.”

But there is another subtler way to understand the trikaya, and it is this understanding that Trungpa Rinpoche taught to us that winter day in 1971. He did it in this way.

Stepping to the blackboard, he picked up a piece of chalk and drew the figure on the right: Then he stepped back and asked:

“What is this a picture of?”

Of course, no one wanted to say the obvious, and there was an extended silence, until finally some fellow raised his hand and said, “It’s a picture of a bird.” Rinpoche replied,

“It’s a picture of the sky,”

and in those six words he taught the entire trikaya.

Rinpoche was introducing us to the most profound Buddhist description of reality, as it arises in the only place and time it ever arises: here and now. It is not a metaphysical explanation of reality; it is simply a description of what arises in the moment, now, the only time we ever have.

The past and future are mental constructs. Even the present can be conceptualized, but it can also be experienced. In fact, we choicelessly experience it all the time. It is merely a matter of whether we emerge from our dreams about the past, present, and future long enough to notice and see it clearly, truly.

And in the present the six types of phenomena—sights, sounds, smells, tastes, tactile sensations, and mental events—the six knowables—arise and pass away, a constantly appearing and disappearing display, like a movie, like images passing through a mirror. These “things” do not endure, even for an instant, in the present moment, as we turn our head, as our attention shifts, as the light changes and things move, the display is constantly in motion, changing so completely and continuously that we cannot even point to something that has changed. It is a continual “presencing” as they say in the dzogchen texts, a presencing of what we call phenomena. And this display has three aspects.

First, the dharmakaya aspect. All phenomena seem to arise from and pass back into nothing. Where did that sound go? That precise visual experience with the light and the angle of view? That thought? That odor? They arose from nowhere, appeared in the midst of a concatenation of conditions, and finally disappeared into nowhere. That fertile “nowhere” is, in this first pass at a definition, a meaning of the dharmakaya, absolute reality and the “womb” from which all appearances arise and the charnel ground into which they pass away.

And yet, some thing seems to appear and pass away. This “thing” aspect is the nirmanakaya. There is a “presencing” of phenomena (the six knowables appear). That presencing is the fact of seeming appearance, the “thingness” of appearances, and it is all that confused sentient beings know, because they are not paying attention to the present moment, not noticing that nothing truly exists but is a mere “presencing.”

Confused sentient beings see the phenomenal world through the veil of static thought: one sees a chair, a person, hears a piece of music, and one is consumed with the pastness and futureness of it all, one is in relationship to it, an I/other proposition, fraught with past and future significance for “my” well being. As long as we (literally) think that other things and I exist, life must be experienced as a series of I/other problematic relationships. If the other is antipathetic to us, causes us pain and unhappiness, then we want to push it away from us: hatred. If it promises pleasure, happiness, security, etc., then we wish to pull it to us: desire. And if the other promises neither benefit nor harm, then we don’t care about it: indifference. In Buddhist doctrine, these are called “the three poisons,” and you can find them depicted at the center of the Wheel of Life, a heuristic depiction of confusion, as a snake, rooster, and pig, respectively.

But seen stripped of concept, nakedly in the present moment, in reality beyond even the present moment which can be a concept in itself, then the nirmanakaya is an aspect of the presencing, of the display, its seeming “thingness,” and it is described as the display of compassion, because it can communicate with us in the form of a teacher (an actual human being or simply life experiences which move us along our path).

And finally, there is the sambhogakaya, which refers to the aspect that, as these “things” arise and pass away, they communicate to us what they are: the redness of red, the sweetness of sugar, the cold of ice, the sadness of sorrow. It is precisely because all phenomena are arising out of nowhere and passing away into it again, because they are utterly transitory, that they can and must express their qualities, so vividly and beautifully and meaningfully. This is the sambhogakaya, and it is the realm of magic: not magic in the sense of walking through walls or reading minds (although there may be that, too), but magic in the sense of the extraordinary beauty and meaningfulness and value of this world seen nakedly, stripped of the false, ego-centered and emotion-laden thoughts/dreams through which confused sentient beings see their lives. Sambhogakaya is the world of deity — sacred world. In confused world things are of greater or lesser value in terms of what they can do for or to me. In sacred world things are of value for no reason at all; this life has intrinsic worth.

And so, seen in the present moment, a bird is utterly insubstantial: a constantly changing presentation, a presencing from the ground of nothingness, coming into being and passing away so totally every instant that we cannot even find any “thing” that is coming into being or passing away. In fact, we cannot distinguish between the bird and the nothing (symbolized here by the sky), which is its womb and grave. So when Trungpa Rinpoche said that he had drawn a picture of the sky, there were two ways to take his assertion:

First pass: We are so focused on the thing that we do not pay attention to the background (temporal as well as spatial) from which it arises. Look! The bird is also a picture of the sky! Lost in concept, seeing the world through the veil of discursive thought, we have been ignoring the ground from which phenomena arise and into which they disappear. In fact, this is one meaning of the Sanskrit word avidya (usually translated as “ignorance”), the fundamental error which produces unenlightenment or confusion. Trungpa Rinpoche said that avidya means “ignoring” or not seeing (the literal meaning of a-vidya) the ground, focusing only on the figure and its significance for or against me.

Second pass: the bird and sky seem different and yet we cannot find the dividing line between them. They create each other and are each other. The bird, as it moves through the sky, is merely a recoloring of the sky in an infinite number of locations. The difference between them is merely seeming, just like an image in a mirror. In the highest tantric teachings the word “sky” is often a code word for and interchangeable with “space,” which signifies the unity of the three kayas.

In vajrayana (tantric Buddhist) practice one often recites this two-line formula, or some variation on it: “Things arise, and yet they do not exist; they do not exist, and yet they arise!” The first is what Buddhists call the “absolute truth”; the second is what Buddhists call the “relative truth.”

Finally and always, the three kayas are merely different aspects of the same thing, which is what is meant when in the texts we find the assertion that the three kayas are one. The nirmanakaya and sambhogakaya, often lumped together and called the “rupakaya” or “form body of the buddha,” are in union with the dharmakaya, the absolute body, from which — in the present moment, here and now — everything seems to arise and pass away.

Things arise from and pass back into nothingness: dharmakaya. Things arise from and pass back into nothingness: nirmanakaya. And as those things arise and pass away, they communicate their unique, brilliant, emotionally moving individuality: sambhogakaya.

To quote a line from Trungpa Rinpoche’s Sadhana of Mahamudra, “Good and bad, happy and sad, all thoughts vanish into emptiness like the imprint of a bird in the sky.”

“It’s a picture of the sky.”

This article is presented in celebration of a collaboration between Naropa University and the University of Colorado on a Buddhist Studies Lecture Series in honor of Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche. The annual lecture brings scholars of alternating years by Naropa and CU Boulder.

John Makransky of Boston College delivered the second annual Chögyam Trungpa Lecture in Buddhist Studies at Naropa on September 12, 2014.

John Baker

John Baker has been a student Buddhism since July 1970. A close disciple of Chögyam Trungpa, Rinpoche, he co-founded Naropa University in Boulder, Colorado, serving as its CEO for the first three years of its existence, teaching Buddhism there for five and later serving on its board of directors. He also co-founded and co-directed the Karma Dzong Meditation Center in Boulder for the first five years of its existence. He is the co-editor of Cutting Through Spiritual Materialism and The Myth of Freedom and author numerous articles. After 23 years in private business, he retired in 2000. During this time he continued teaching Buddhist thought and meditation practice throughout North America, delivering lectures, weekend programs, and multi-month courses. Today he is a senior teacher in the North American Buddhist community at the Westchester Buddhist Center and New York Buddha Dharma in Manhattan, both of which he co-founded. Between 1999 and 2007 he led month-long meditation programs at Shambhala Mountain Center in Colorado and Karme Chöling Meditation Center in Vermont and taught at the Vajradhatu Seminary. He is currently on the boards of directors of Light of Berotsana Translation Group, New York Buddha Dharma, and the Westchester Buddhist Center. He has practiced psychotherapy and led Buddhist/Modern Analytic psychotherapy groups for fifteen years in Manhattan. He currently enjoys working as a life and executive coach. You can see his complete bio at http://www.johnbakercoaching.com. John lives in Manhattan where he has a daughter, Olivia, age 13. He also has a grown daughter Cara, son-in-law Vajra Rich, and a granddaughter Stella who live in Boulder, CO.
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Re: Former teacher at Boulder's Shambhala accused of sexuall

Postby admin » Mon Jul 22, 2019 1:08 am

In Memoriam: Professor Emeritus Robert Lester
by University of Colorado Boulder Religious Studies
Accessed: 7/21/19

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Robert C. Lester

The Department of Religious Studies is saddened to report the passing of Professor Emeritus Robert Lester on December 13, 2013. Founder, former chair and colleague, benefactor, and lifelong friend of the Department, Professor Lester was responsible for the founding and shaping of religious studies as an academic discipline at the University of Colorado Boulder. A specialist in the religions of India, he conducted fieldwork, published and taught widely in these areas, authoring several books including Ramanuja on Yoga, Theravada Buddhism in Southeast Asia, and Buddhism: The Path to Nirvana. He taught at CU for nearly 30 years, during which he served two terms as chair of the department and sagely guided its formation during its first three decades, and profoundly influenced countless students. Upon his retirement from CU in 1998, the department established an annual lectureship in his honor, the Lester Lecture, which provides a prestigious venue for leading scholars in religious studies to report on current issues in the field. The Lester Lecture, now in its second decade and including a long list of accomplished scholars, remains a lasting legacy of his commitment to excellence in scholarship in the field of religious studies. Professor Lester will be deeply missed but his impact on his students, colleagues, and the department will be long remembered.

Details of his obituary and one of his final poems, a mature statement of his philosophy of life, are provided below.

In Memoriam Robert C. Lester
February 1, 1933 - December 13, 2013


Robert Lester died in Santa Barbara, CA, following a fall that resulted in a severe spinal injury. An astute student of the religions of India, Professor Lester received his Ph.D. from Yale University in 1963 and taught at Cornell and American universities before joining the faculty of the University of Colorado, Boulder in 1970 with a mandate to establish a program in the study of religion. The program became a Department in 1980 and he served as chair from 1980-82 and 1988-91. He taught in the area of Southeast Asian religions and was highly regarded by his students. At his retirement party students who had studied with him gathered from across the country to pay him tribute. For his contributions to the University he received the University Medal in 1982. His contributions to the discipline of religious studies were focused on the study of the religions of India, including publications on Ramanuja and Sri Vaishnavism, Theravada Buddhism, and an introduction to the study of Buddhism. His social scientific approach to the study of religion led him to make several extended research trips to India under the sponsorship of NEH, Univ. of Colorado, Fulbright-Hays, and Ford Foundation grants to provide the foundation for his work. At his retirement in 1998 the Department established the Lester Lectureship in his honor which continues to provide an annual assessment of current issues in the academic study of religion by a leading scholar in the field. Professor Lester will be remembered with the greatest appreciation by his colleagues and students. Memorial contributions in his name may be made to the Robert C. Lester Lectureship, Dept. of Religious Studies, University of Colorado, Boulder CO 80309-0292 or to the Arboretum, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064.
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Re: Former teacher at Boulder's Shambhala accused of sexuall

Postby admin » Mon Jul 22, 2019 1:13 am

Fulbright-Hays Program
by Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs: Promoting Mutual Understanding
United States Department of State
Accessed: 7/21/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

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The Fulbright-Hays Program -- a Fulbright Program funded by a Congressional appropriation to the United States Department of Education-- awards grants to individual U.S. K-14 pre-teachers, teachers and administrators, pre-doctoral students and postdoctoral faculty, as well as to U.S. institutions and organizations. Funding supports research and training efforts overseas, which focus on non-Western foreign languages and area studies.
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Re: Former teacher at Boulder's Shambhala accused of sexuall

Postby admin » Mon Jul 22, 2019 1:20 am

Fulbright Program
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/21/19

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The Fulbright Program, including the Fulbright–Hays Program, is one of several United States Cultural Exchange Programs whose goal is to improve intercultural relations, cultural diplomacy, and intercultural competence between the people of the United States and other countries through the exchange of persons, knowledge, and skills. It is one of the most prestigious and competitive fellowship programs in the world. Via the program, competitively-selected American citizens including students, scholars, teachers, professionals, scientists and artists may receive scholarships or grants to study, conduct research, teach, or exercise their talents abroad; and citizens of other countries may qualify to do the same in the United States of America. The program was founded by United States Senator J. William Fulbright in 1946 and is considered to be one of the most widely recognized and prestigious scholarships in the world.[1] The program provides 8,000 grants annually.[2]

The Fulbright Program is administered by cooperating organizations such as the Institute of International Education and operates in over 160 countries around the world.[3] The Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs of the U.S. Department of State sponsors the Fulbright Program and receives funding from the United States Congress via annual appropriation bills. Additional direct and in-kind support comes from partner governments, foundations, corporations, and host institutions both in and outside the U.S.[4] In 49 countries, a bi-national Fulbright Commission administers and oversees the Fulbright Program. In countries without a Fulbright Commission but that have an active program, the Public Affairs Section of the U.S. Embassy oversees the Fulbright Program. More than 370,000 people have participated in the program since it began; 59 Fulbright alumni have won Nobel Prizes; 82 have won Pulitzer Prizes.[5][6]

History

The Fulbright Program aims to bring a little more knowledge, a little more reason, and a little more compassion into world affairs and thereby increase the chance that nations will learn at last to live in peace and friendship.[7]

— Senator J. William Fulbright


In 1945, Senator J. William Fulbright proposed a bill to use the proceeds from selling surplus U.S. government war property to fund international exchange between the U.S. and other countries. With the crucial timing of the aftermath of the Second World War and with the pressing establishment of the United Nations, the Fulbright Program was an attempt to promote peace and understanding through educational exchange. The bill devised a plan to forgo the debts foreign countries amassed during the war and in return for funding an international educational program. It was through the belief that this program would be an essential vehicle to promote peace and mutual understanding between individuals, institutions and future leaders wherever they may be.[8]

On August 1, 1946, President Harry S. Truman signed the bill into law, and Congress created the Fulbright Program in what became the largest education exchange program in history.

Since it began, the program has operated on a bi-national basis; each country active in the Fulbright Program has entered into an agreement with the U.S. government. The first countries to sign agreements were China in 1947 and Burma, the Philippines, and Greece in 1948.[8]

Program

Educational exchange can turn nations into people, contributing as no other form of communication can to the humanizing of international relations.[9]

— Senator J. William Fulbright


The Fulbright Program works two ways: U.S. citizens may receive funding to go to a foreign country (U.S. Student Program, U.S. Scholar Program, Teacher Exchange Program, etc.) and non-U.S. citizens may come to the U.S. (Foreign Student Program, Visiting Scholar Program, Teacher Exchange Program, etc.).

Candidates recommended for Fulbright grants have high academic achievement, a compelling project proposal or statement of purpose, demonstrated leadership potential, and flexibility and adaptability to interact successfully with the host community abroad.

Fulbright grants are offered in almost all academic disciplines except clinical medical research involving patient contact. Fulbright grantees' fields of study span the fine arts, humanities, social sciences, mathematics, natural and physical sciences, and professional and applied sciences.[10]

Student grants

• The Fulbright U.S. Student Program offers fellowships for U.S. graduating seniors, graduate students, young professionals and artists to research, study, or teach English abroad for one academic year.
• The Fulbright Foreign Student Program enables graduate students, young professionals and artists from abroad to conduct research and study in the United States. Some scholarships are renewed after the initial year of study.
• The Fulbright Foreign Language Teaching Assistant Program provides opportunities for young English teachers from overseas to refine their teaching skills and broaden their knowledge of American culture and society while strengthening the instruction of foreign languages at colleges and universities in the United States.
• The International Fulbright Science and Technology Award, a component of the Fulbright Foreign Student Program, supports doctoral study at leading U.S. institutions in science, technology, engineering or related fields for outstanding foreign students. This program is currently on hiatus.
• The Fulbright-mtvU Fellowships award up to four U.S. students the opportunity to study the power of music as a cultural force abroad. Fellows conduct research for one academic year on projects of their own design about a chosen musical aspect. They share their experiences during their Fulbright year via video reports, blogs and podcasts.
The Fulbright-Clinton Fellowship provides the opportunity for U.S. students to serve in professional placements in foreign government ministries or institutions to gain hands-on public sector experience in participating foreign countries.[11]

Scholar grants

• The Fulbright Distinguished Chair Awards comprise approximately forty distinguished lecturing, distinguished research and distinguished lecturing/research awards ranging from three to 12 months. Fulbright Distinguished Chair Awards are viewed as among the most prestigious appointments in the U.S. Fulbright Scholar Program. Candidates should be eminent scholars and have a significant publication and teaching record.
• The Fulbright Bicentennial Chair in American Studies at the University of Helsinki brings scholars of various disciplines to Finland.
• The Fulbright U.S. Scholar Program sends American faculty members, scholars and professionals abroad to lecture or conduct research for up to a year.
• The Fulbright Specialist Program sends U.S. academics and professionals to serve as expert consultants on curriculum, faculty development, institutional planning, and related subjects at overseas institutions for a period of two to six weeks.
• The Fulbright Visiting Scholar Program and Fulbright Scholar-in-Residence Program bring foreign scholars to lecture or conduct post-doctoral research for up to a year at U.S. colleges and universities.[11]
• The Fulbright Regional Network for Applied Research (NEXUS) Program is a network of junior scholars, professionals and mid-career applied researchers from the United States, Brazil, Canada, and other Western Hemisphere nations in a year-long program that includes multi-disciplinary, team-based research, a series of three seminar meetings, and a Fulbright exchange experience.

Teacher grants

• The Fulbright Teacher Exchange Program supports one-to-one exchanges of teachers from K–12 schools and a small number of post-secondary institutions.
• The Distinguished Fulbright Awards in Teaching Program sends teachers abroad for a semester to pursue individual projects, conduct research, and lead master classes or seminars.[11]

Grants for professionals

• The Hubert H. Humphrey Program brings outstanding mid-career professionals from the developing world and societies in transition to the United States for one year. Fellows participate in a non-degree program of academic study and gain professional experience.
• The Fulbright U.S. Scholar Program sends American scholars and professionals abroad to lecture or conduct research for up to a year.
• The Fulbright Specialist Program sends U.S. faculty and professionals to serve as expert consultants on curriculum, faculty development, institutional planning, and related subjects at overseas academic institutions for a period of two to six weeks.
• The Fulbright U.S. Student Program offers fellowships for U.S. graduating seniors, graduate students, young professionals and artists to study abroad for one academic year. The Program also includes an English Teaching Assistant component.
• The Fulbright Foreign Student Program enables graduate students, young professionals and artists from abroad to conduct research and study in the United States. Some scholarships are renewed after the initial year of study.[11]

Fulbright–Hays Program

• A portion of the Fulbright Program is a Congressional appropriation to the United States Department of Education for the Fulbright–Hays Program.
• These grants are awarded to individual U.S. K through 14 pre-teachers, teachers and administrators, pre-doctoral students and post-doctoral faculty, as well as to U.S. institutions and organizations. Funding supports research and training efforts overseas, which focus on non-western foreign languages and area studies.[12]

Administration

The program is coordinated by the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) of the U.S. Department of State under policy guidelines established by the Fulbright Foreign Scholarship Board (FSB), with the help of 50 bi-national Fulbright commissions, U.S. embassies, and cooperating organizations in the U.S.[4]

The United States Department of State is responsible for managing, coordinating and overseeing the Fulbright program. Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs is the bureau in the Department of State that has primary responsibility for the administration of the program.

The Fulbright Foreign Scholarship Board is a twelve-member board of educational and public leaders appointed by the President of the United States that determines general policy and direction for the Fulbright Program and approves all candidates nominated for Fulbright Scholarships.


Bi-national Fulbright commissions and foundations, most of which are funded jointly by the U.S. and partner governments, develop priorities for the program, including the numbers and categories of grants. More specifically, they plan and implement educational exchanges, recruit and nominate candidates for fellowships; designate qualified local educational institutions to host Fulbrighters; fundraise; engage alumni; support incoming U.S. Fulbrighters; and, in many countries, operate an information service for the public on educational opportunities in the United States.[13]

In a country active in the program without a Fulbright commission, the Public Affairs Section of the U.S. Embassy administers the Fulbright Program, including recruiting and nominating candidates for grants to the U.S., overseeing U.S. Fulbrighters on their grant in the country, and engaging alumni.

Established in 1919 in the aftermath of World War I, the Institute of International Education was created to catalyze educational exchange. In 1946, the U.S. Department of State invited IIE to administer the graduate student component and CIES to administer the faculty component of the Fulbright Program—IIE's largest program to date.[14]

The Council for International Exchange of Scholars is a division of IIE that administers the Fulbright Scholar Program.

AMIDEAST administers Fulbright Foreign Student grants for grantees from the Middle East and North Africa (except Israel).

LASPAU: Affiliated with Harvard University[15] LASPAU brings together a valuable network of individuals, institutions, leaders and organizations devoted to building knowledge-based societies across the Americas. Among other functions, LASPAU administers the Junior Faculty Development Program, a part of the Fulbright Foreign Student Program, for grantees from Central and South America and the Caribbean.

World Learning administers the Fulbright Specialist Program.[16]

American Councils for International Education (ACTR/ACCELS) administers the Junior Faculty Development Program (JFDP), a special academic exchange for grantees from the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Southeast Europe.

The Academy for Educational Development administers the Fulbright Classroom Teacher Exchange Program and the Distinguished Fulbright Awards in Teaching Program.

Related organizations

The Fulbright Association is an organization independent of the Fulbright Program and not associated with the U.S. Department of State. The Fulbright Association was established on Feb. 27, 1977, as a private nonprofit, membership organization with over 9,000 members. The late Arthur Power Dudden was its founding president. He wanted alumni to educate members of the U.S. Congress and the public about the benefits of advancing increased mutual understanding between the people of the United States and those of other countries. In addition to the Fulbright Association in the U.S., independent Fulbright Alumni associations exist in over 75 countries around the world.

The Fulbright Academy is an organization independent of the Fulbright Program and not associated with the U.S. Department of State. A non-partisan, non-profit organization with members worldwide, the Fulbright Academy focuses on the professional advancement and collaboration needs among the 100,000+ Fulbright alumni in science, technology and related fields. The Fulbright Academy works with individual and institutional members, Fulbright alumni associations and other organizations interested in leveraging the unique knowledge and skills of Fulbright alumni.

Notable alumni

Fulbright alumni have occupied key roles in government, academia, and industry. Of the 325,000+ alumni:

• 84 have received the Pulitzer Prize[5]
• 72 have been MacArthur Fellows[5]
• 59 have received a Nobel Prize[5]
• 37 have served as head of state or government[5]
• 10 have been elected to US Congress
• 1 has served as secretary general of the United Nations

The following list is a selected group of notable Fulbright grant recipients:

• William D. "Bro" Adams, university administrator and NEH Chair (2014–2017)
• Edward Albee, recipient (three times) of the Pulitzer Prize for Drama
• Karim Alrawi, recipient of the Samuel Beckett Award for the Performing Arts
• Francis Andersen, Australian Hebrew and biblical studies scholar
• John Ashbery, American poet[17]
Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Egyptian politician and Secretary-General of the United Nations, 1992-1996
• Kyle Carey, Celtic American musician[18]
• Bob Carr, Australian politician[19]
• Ron Castan, Australian Constitutional law barrister[20]
• Lenora Champagne, playwright, performance artist and director[21]
• Dante R. Chialvo, scientist.[22]
• Dale Chihuly, glass sculptor and entrepreneur.[23]
• Nathan Collett, filmmaker[24]
• Aaron Copland, recipient of the Pulitzer Prize for Music
• Leah Curtis, Australian composer[25]
• Myanna Dellinger, Danish-American law professor
• Arthur Deshaies, artist, printmaker, professor and head of the graphic workshop, Florida State University [26]
• Rita Dove, U.S. Poet Laureate and recipient of the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry
• Eugenia Del Pino, developmental biologist, Ecuadorian
• Eric Foner, recipient of the Pulitzer Prize for History
• John Hope Franklin, historian
• Gabrielle Giffords, United States Representative for Arizona's 8th congressional district
• Wendy Greengross (1925–2012), general practitioner and broadcaster[27]
• Nigel Healey, Vice Chancellor, Fiji National University
• Robert Hess (1938-1994), President of Brooklyn College
• John Honnold (1915-2011), American law professor at the University of Pennsylvania Law School
• Rahul M. Jindal, Indian-American transplant surgeon at Uniformed Services University.
• Suzanne Klotz, painter and sculptor[28]
• John Lithgow, actor
• Dolph Lundgren, actor
• Robert Nozick,[29] American political philosopher
• Linus Pauling, awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry and the Nobel Peace Prize
• Sylvia Plath, poet, recipient of the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry in 1982
• Ian Rankin, author
• Theodore Roethke, poet, recipient of the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry in 1954 and the National Book Award for Poetry in 1959 and 1965
• Philip Schultz poet[30]
• Jane Smiley, recipient of the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction
• Robert S. Summers, law professor
• Eudora Welty, recipient of the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction
• C. Vann Woodward, recipient of the Pulitzer Prize for History
• Charles Wright, American poet[30]
• James Wright, American poet[31]
• Muhammad Yunus, awarded the Nobel Peace Prize

J. William Fulbright Prize for International Understanding

The J. William Fulbright Prize for International Understanding, established in 1993, is awarded by the Fulbright Association to recognize individuals or organisations which have made extraordinary contributions toward bringing peoples, cultures, or nations to greater understanding of others.

The recipients are listed below.

Person / Year / Country

Nelson Mandela 1993 South Africa
Jimmy Carter 1994 United States
Franz Vranitzky 1995 Austria
Corazon Aquino 1996 Philippines
Václav Havel 1997 Czech Republic
Patricio Aylwin 1998 Chile
Mary Robinson 1999 Ireland
Martti Ahtisaari 2000 Finland
Kofi Annan 2001 Ghana
Sadako Ogata 2002 Japan
Fernando Henrique Cardoso 2003 Brazil
Colin Powell 2004 United States
Bill Clinton 2006 United States
Desmond Tutu 2008 South Africa
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 2010 United States
Médecins Sans Frontières 2012 France
Hans Blix 2014 Sweden
Richard Lugar 2016 United States
Angela Merkel 2018 Germany

See also

• Academic mobility
• Belgian American Educational Foundation (BAEF)
• Chevening Scholarship
• Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation
• EducationUSA
• Erasmus Programme
• Fulbright Austria
• German Academic Exchange Service (Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst)
• Goodwill Scholarships
• Harkness Fellowship
• ITT International Fellowship Program
• Jürgen Mulert
• Marshall Scholarship
• Monbukagakusho Scholarship
• Rhodes Scholarship
• Yenching Scholarship
• Jardine Scholarship

References

1. "Get Noticed Through Prestigious Scholarships". U.S. News & World Report. November 25, 2011.
2. "Fulbright Scholar Program: About Us". Comparative and International Education Society.
3. "IIE Programs". Institute of International Education.
4. "Fulbright Program Fact Sheet" (PDF). U.S. Department of State.
5. "Notable Fulbrighters". U.S. Department of State.
6. Morello, Carol (June 8, 2017). "That knock on a congressman's door could be a Fulbright scholar with a tin cup". The Washington Post.
7. "J. William Fulbright Quotes". Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs.
8. "Fulbright: The Early Years". U.S. Department of State.
9. "Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs: About Fulbright". U.S. Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs.
10. "Fields of Study/Project Topics". U.S. Department of State.
11. "Which Grant Is Right For Me? – Fulbright – International Educational Exchange Program". eca.state.gov. 2008-01-31. Retrieved 2012-06-11.
12. "Archived: International Education Programs Service – Fulbright–Hays Programs: The World is Our Classroom". ed.gov. Retrieved 2012-06-11.
13. "Fulbright Commissions". U.S. Department of State.
14. "History | Who We Are | Institute of International Education". Iie.org. Retrieved 2012-06-11.
15. "LASPAU". Harvard University.
16. fulbrightspecialist.worldlearning.org/
17. Piccinnini, Douglas (2009). "Ashbery in Paris: Out of School". Jacket 2. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
18. "Featured Fulbrighter – Kyle Carey". Fulbright Canada.
19. Adams, Vanessa (August 29, 2017). "Announcing our Inaugural Conference Keynote - Professor the Hon Bob Carr". Fulbright Australia.
20. "ADJOURNMENT".
21. "Traps by Lenora Champagne". Old Stone House.
22. "CHIALVO NAMED FELLOW OF THE AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY". Northwestern University.
23. Lewis, Jo Ann (February 23, 1996). "GLASS THAT'LL BOWL YOU OVER". The Washington Post.
24. "2006 Fellowship Recipients". University of Southern California.
25. "'New' alumnus wins prestigious Fulbright postgraduate award". New College, University of New South Wales. New College, University of New South Wales. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
26. "Arthur Emillien Deshaies". Spartanburg Herald-Journal. Spartanburg, South Carolina. 2011-08-03. p. 4.
27. Bayfield, Tony. "Greengross [married name Katz, later Kates], Wendy Elsa (1925–2012)". ONDB. OUP. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
28. Klotz, Suzanne. "Fulbright Scholar". Fulbright Scholar Program. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
29. Juntin Wintle, Makers of modern culture, Routledge 2002.
30. "Fulbrighters & Pulitzer Prize Winners". U.S. Department of State.
31. Gray, Jeffrey (2005). Mastery's End: Travel and Postwar American Poetry. Athens, GA: UGA Press. p. 145. Retrieved 12 October 2015.

External links

• U.S. Department of State Fulbright Website, the program's sponsor
• Fulbright–Hays information, U.S. Department of Education
• Fulbright Student Program Homepage
• Fulbright Scholar Program, grants for university and college faculty, administrators and professionals
• Fulbright Teacher Exchange Programs, K–12 Teacher Exchange
Directories of past grantees
• Fulbright Scholar Directory
• US Student Program
• Foreign Student Program
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Re: Former teacher at Boulder's Shambhala accused of sexuall

Postby admin » Mon Jul 22, 2019 1:37 am

National Endowment for the Humanities
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/21/19

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National Endowment for the Humanities
Agency overview
Formed September 29, 1965
Jurisdiction Federal government of the United States
Headquarters Constitution Center (400 7th St SW, Washington, D.C.), Washington, D.C.
Employees 159 (2010)
Annual budget $153 million (0.004% total federal budget) USD (2008)
Agency executive
Jon Parrish Peede, Chairman
Website http://www.neh.gov

The National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) is an independent federal agency of the U.S. government, established by the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965 (Pub.L. 89–209), dedicated to supporting research, education, preservation, and public programs in the humanities. The NEH is housed at 400 7th St SW, Washington, D.C.[1] From 1979 to 2014, NEH was at 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. in the Nancy Hanks Center at the Old Post Office.

History and overview

The NEH provides grants for high-quality humanities projects to cultural institutions such as museums, archives, libraries, colleges, universities, public television, and radio stations, and to individual scholars.

NEH was created in 1965 under the National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities, which included the National Endowment for the Arts and later the Institute for Museum Services, as a move to provide greater investment in culture by the federal government.[2] NEH was based upon recommendation of the National Commission on the Humanities, convened in 1963 with representatives from three US scholarly and educational associations, the Phi Beta Kappa Society, the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS), and the Council of Graduate Schools.[2][3]

The agency creates incentives for excellent work in the humanities by awarding grants that strengthen teaching and learning in the humanities in schools and colleges across the nation, facilitate research and original scholarship, provide opportunities for lifelong learning, preserve and provide access to cultural and educational resources and to strengthen the institutional base of the humanities. As part of its mandate to support humanities programs in every US state and territory, the agency supports a network of private, nonprofit affiliates, the 56 humanities councils in the states and territories of the United States.

The ninth NEH Chair was Jim Leach. President Obama nominated the former Iowa congressman, a Republican, to chair the NEH on June 3, 2009;[4] the Senate confirmed his appointment in August 2009.[5] Leach began his term as the NEH Chair on August 12, 2009 and stepped down in May 2013. Between November 2009 and May 2011, Leach conducted the American "Civility Tour" to call attention to the need to restore reason and civility back into politics, a goal that in his words was "central to the humanities." Leach visited each of the 50 states, speaking at venues ranging from university and museum lecture halls to hospitals for veterans, to support the return of non-emotive, civil exchange and rational consideration of other viewpoints. According to Leach, "Little is more important...than establishing an ethos of thoughtfulness and decency of expression in the public square. Words reflect emotion as well as meaning. They clarify—or cloud—thought and energize action, sometimes bringing out the better angels in our nature, sometimes lesser instincts."[6] Since the completion of Leach's Civility Tour, rallies for reasoning politics like Jon Stewart's Rally to Restore Sanity and grassroots initiatives for pluralistic rationalism in public discourse, have reflected Leach's call for civil, non-emotive and reasoning language between those with disparate religious or political ideologies.[7]

The tenth Chair of the NEH was William 'Bro' Adams, who served from 2014 to 2017. President Obama nominated Adams on April 4, 2014;[8][9][10] Adams was confirmed by the Senate in a voice vote on July 9, 2014.[11] Adams appointed Margaret (Peggy) Plympton as the Deputy NEH Chair in January 2015.[12]

Before Adams's appointment, the NEH was headed by Acting Chair Carole M. Watson. Adams resigned his appointment on May 23, 2017, when he cited accomplishments under the "Common Good" initiative and the appointment of new administration officials.[13]

Structure

The Endowment is directed by the NEH Chair. Advising the Chair is the National Council on the Humanities, a board of 26 distinguished private citizens who are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate.[14] The National Council members serve staggered six-year terms.

The NEH Chair

The Endowment is directed by a Chair, who has legal authority to approve all recommendations and award grants and cooperative agreements. The Chair is nominated by the President and confirmed with the advice and consent of the U.S. Senate. The Chair's decisions are informed by recommendations from the National Council on the Humanities, peer-reviewers who are selected to read each project proposal submitted to the Endowment, as well as by the Endowment's staff.

Major program offices

The NEH has six grant-making divisions and offices:[15]

• The Division of Preservation and Access awards grants to preserve, maintain, and improve access to primary sources in the humanities, in both digital and analog form.
• The Division of Public Programs supports projects that bring the humanities to large audiences through libraries and museums, television and radio, historic sites, and digital media.
• The Division of Research makes awards to support the publication of books in and outside the humanities.
• The Division of Education works to support and strengthen teaching of the humanities.
• The Office of Federal/State Partnership collaborates with 56 state and territory humanities councils to strengthen local programs.
• The Office of Digital Humanities advises on use of technology in the humanities and coordinates.

The Office of Challenge Grants, dissolved in 2017, administered grants intended to support capacity building and encourage fundraising in humanities institutions. The Division of Preservation and Access now offers a grant program that is similar to previous programs in the Challenge Grants office.

Special initiatives

These are special priorities of the endowment that indicate critical areas of the humanities as identified by the NEH Chair. They differ from the divisions of the endowment in that they do not sponsor or coordinate specific grant programs.

Bridging Cultures initiative

Bridging Cultures was an NEH initiative that explored ways the humanities promote understanding and mutual respect for people with diverse histories, cultures, and perspectives. Projects supported through this initiative focused on cultures globally as well as within the United States.[16]

Standing Together

This initiative, launched in 2014, marks a priority to make awards that promote understanding of the military experience and to support returning veterans.[17]

We the People

We the People was an NEH special funding stream initiated by NEH Chair Coles, using dedicated funds available to each Chair of the NEH, which was designed to encourage and enhance the teaching, study, and understanding of American history, culture, and democratic principles.[18] The initiative supports projects and programs that explore significant events and themes in American nation's history, which advance knowledge of the principles that define America.[19]

According to NEH, the initiative led a renaissance in knowledge about American history and principles among all US citizens. The initiative was launched on Constitution Day, September 17, 2002 and active through 2009.[20]

Noteworthy projects

Since 1965, the NEH has sponsored many projects, including:

• "Treasures of Tutankhamen," the blockbuster exhibition seen by more than 1.5 million people.[21]
The Civil War, the landmark 1990 documentary by Ken Burns seen by 38 million Americans.[22]
• Library of America, editions of novels, essays, and poems celebrating America's literary heritage.[23]
• United States Newspaper Project, an effort to catalog and microfilm 63.3 million pages of newspapers dating from the early Republic. The program is now digitizing newspapers and making them freely available online as part of Chronicling America.[24]
• Fifteen Pulitzer Prize–winning books, including those by James M. McPherson, Louis Menand, Joan D. Hedrick, and Bernard Bailyn.[25]
• EDSITEment, a Web project bringing the "best of the humanities on the web" to teachers and students, started in 1997.[26]
• Reference archives, in Athens and Boston, of archaeological photographs taken by Eleanor Emlen Myers.[27]
The Valley of the Shadow, an innovative digital history website created by Edward L. Ayers and William G. Thomas III on the experience of Confederate Civil War soldiers in the United States.[28]
• What's on the Menu, digitization and community-sourced transcription of New York Public Library's historic restaurant menu collection.[29]

Awards

Jefferson Lecture


Main article: Jefferson Lecture

Since 1972 the NEH has sponsored the Jefferson Lecture in the Humanities, which it describes as "the highest honor the federal government confers for distinguished intellectual achievement in the humanities." The Jefferson Lecturer is selected each year by the National Council on the Humanities. The honoree delivers a lecture in Washington, D.C., during the spring, and receives an honorarium of $10,000. The stated purpose of the honor is to recognize "an individual who has made significant scholarly contributions in the humanities and who has the ability to communicate the knowledge and wisdom of the humanities in a broadly appealing way."[30]

National Humanities Medal and Charles Frankel Prize

Main article: National Humanities Medal

The National Humanities Medal, inaugurated in 1997, honors individuals or groups whose work has deepened the nation's understanding of the humanities, broadened citizens' engagement with the humanities, or helped preserve and expand Americans' access to important resources in the humanities. Up to 12 medals can be awarded each year. From 1989 to 1996 the NEH awarded a similar prize known as the Charles Frankel Prize.[31] The new award, a bronze medallion, was designed by David Macaulay, the 1995 winner of the Frankel Prize. Lists of the winners of the National Humanities Medal[32] and the Frankel Prize[33] are available at the NEH website.

Humanities magazine

Starting in 1969, the NEH published a periodical called Humanities; that original incarnation was discontinued in 1978. In 1980, Humanities magazine was relaunched (ISSN 0018-7526). It is published six times per year, with one cover article each year dedicated to profiling that year's Jefferson Lecturer. Most of its articles have some connection to NEH activities. The magazine's editor since 2007 has been journalist and author David Skinner.[34] From 1990 until her death in 2007, Humanities was edited by Mary Lou Beatty (who had previously been a high-ranking editor at the Washington Post).[35][36]

See also

• United States portal
• Chair of the National Endowment for the Humanities
• List of state humanities councils
• Institute of Museum and Library Services
• National Endowment for the Arts
• National Science Foundation
• Smithsonian Institution
• National Gallery of Art

References

1. "Visiting NEH". National Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
2. "How NEH Got Its Start". National Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
3. https://www.neh.gov/about/history/timeline
4. Robin Pogrebin, "Obama Names a Republican to Lead the Humanities Endowment", New York Times, June 4, 2009.
5. Robin Pogrebin, "Rocco Landesman Confirmed as Chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts", New York Times, August 7, 2009.
6. "E.J. Dionne Welcomes Jim Leach's Call for Civility". The Washington Post. 30 November 2009. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
7. "St. Paul's atheists are coming out of the closet," Bob Shaw, St. Paul Pioneer Press, August 4, 2014. Retrieved August 5, 2014.
8. "President Obama Announces his Intent to Nominate Dr. William "Bro" Adams as Chairman of the National Endowment for the Humanities". Retrieved 11 April 2014.
9. "Obama nominates William 'Bro' Adams to be next head of National Endowment for the Humanities". Minneapolis Star Tribune. 10 April 2014. Retrieved 11 April2014.
10. "Adams Tapped by President Obama". Colby College. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
11. "Senate confirms head of US Humanities Endowment". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
12. "Deputy Chair". National Endowment for the Humanities. Archived from the original on 14 March 2015. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
13. "NEH Chairman William D. Adams Announces Resignation". Washington, D.C.: National Endowment for the Humanities. May 22, 2017. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
14. "National Council on the Humanities". National Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
15. "Information about the Divisions and Offices that Administer NEH Grant Programs". National Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
16. "About the Bridging Cultures Initiative". Retrieved 25 July 2014.
17. "NEH Veterans Initiative". Retrieved 2 August 2014.
18. "We the People". Retrieved 13 July 2014.
19. "The Writings of Henry D. Thoreau". March 2, 2010. Archived from the originalon 2010-03-02.
20. "About We the People". Archived from the original on 2016-04-03.
21. "King Tut Comes to America". Archived from the original on 2017-01-24. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
22. "Ken Burns The Civil War". Archived from the original on 2017-01-24. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
23. "Library of America". National Endowment for the Humanities. Archived from the original on 2017-01-24. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
24. "Newspapers: The First Draft of History". National Endowment for the Humanities. Archived from the original on 2017-01-24. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
25. "NEH & Books". Archived from the original on 2016-09-26. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
26. "Edsitement". National Endowment for the Humanities. Archived from the original on 2017-01-24. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
27. Myers, J. Wilson. "Eleanor Emlen Myers, 1925–1996" (PDF). Breaking Ground: Women in Old World Archaeology. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 February 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
28. "Valley of the Shadow". National Endowment for the Humanities. Archived from the original on 2017-01-24. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
29. "What's on the menu?". National Endowment for the Humanities. Archived from the original on 2017-01-24. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
30. Jefferson Lecturers at NEH Website (retrieved January 22, 2009).
31. Awards and Honors at NEH Website (retrieved January 23, 2009).
32. National Humanities Medals Archived 2011-07-21 at the Wayback Machine at the NEH website (retrieved January 23, 2009).
33. Winners of the Charles Frankel Prize at NEH Website (retrieved January 23, 2009).
34. "Editor's Note, September/October 2007". National Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved 2016-08-21.
35. "Editor's Note, March/April 2007". National Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved 2016-08-21.
36. Sullivan, Patricia (2007-02-09). "Mary Lou Beatty; Editor at NEH, Post". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2016-08-21.

External links

• Official website
• National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities in the Federal Register
• NEH EDSITEment: The Best of the Humanities on the Web
• GrantSocial: NEH Grant Browser 1970-present
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Re: Former teacher at Boulder's Shambhala accused of sexuall

Postby admin » Mon Jul 22, 2019 1:50 am

Rāmānuja on the yoga (Adyar Library series)
by Robert C Lester (Author)
Amazon.com
Accessed: 7/21/19

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Product details

Series: Adyar Library series
Unknown Binding: 185 pages
Publisher: Agents, Theosophical Pub. House (1976)
Language: English
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Re: Former teacher at Boulder's Shambhala accused of sexuall

Postby admin » Mon Jul 22, 2019 4:05 am

Osel Tendzin [Thomas Rich]
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/21/19

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The end of 1971 was also an important time for another dharmic relationship in Rinpoche's life. In December, he spent another week at Tail teaching while I remained in Boulder. At that time, he met privately with Narayana and asked him to become his Vajra Regent and dharma heir, the primary inheritor of his spiritual lineage. In Rinpoche's tradition, the continuity of the teachings from one generation to the next is expressed through the teacher's handing down the oral teachings and the responsibility for maintaining the purity of the teachings to one or more dharma heirs. There is usually a primary dharma heir, as well as potentially many secondary heirs. In some situations, usually when a teacher has an established organization, he gives the position of regent to one student, who is expected to act on behalf of the teacher and the lineage after the teacher's death, until, in the case of many tulku lineages in Tibet, the teacher's next incarnation is old enough to assume his or her position. This idea of a regent who assumes power between one generation and the next has also been used in many monarchies, so regency is not purely an Asian concept.

For Rinpoche, it was extremely important to give the complete teachings of his lineage to a Westerner. In fact, I think he felt that he was giving many unique transmissions to his Western students, and he did not want them to feel that they were playing second fiddle to the Tibetans. So this appointment was a very important step. It showed that a Westerner could be trusted with the complete teachings and with the responsibility for the future of those teachings.

Rinpoche told Narayana to make plans to move to Boulder, so that Rinpoche could work closely with him, observing him and giving him proper training. Rinpoche had already told me that he was planning to do this. He often shared these kinds of plans and decisions with me. He would say, "This is a great person. I've brought him (or her) in. This is what he can do, and this is where we're going with it." Rinpoche asked Narayana to keep this future appointment secret for the time being. Rinpoche did not feel it was time yet to make this appointment public. With Rinpoche's permission, however, Narayana told his wife, his heart friend Krishna, and Helen. Indeed, this choice would have many implications for the future. I felt that Narayana was an excellent choice, although I didn't have Rinpoche's insight into his character. I thought he was quite charismatic and he had a special quality, a kind of intensity and brightness that were unique.

-- Dragon Thunder: My Life with Chogyam Trungpa, by Diana J. Mukpo with Carolyn Rose Gimian


Image

Ösel Tendzin (Tibetan: འོད་གསལ་བསྟན་འཛིན་, Wylie: ‘od gsal bstan ‘dzin) (1943–1990) was a western Buddhist. He was Chögyam Trungpa's principal student. On August 22, 1976, Chögyam Trungpa empowered Ösel Tendzin as his Vajra Regent and first Western lineage holder in the Karma Kagyu and Nyingma schools of Tibetan Buddhism.[1] On August 25, 1990, Ösel Tendzin died of HIV/AIDS in San Francisco, California.[2] His wife, Lila Rich, and a group of his students continue to live in Ojai, California.

History

Early life


Tendzin was born Thomas Frederick Rich, Jr. on June 28, 1943 in Passaic, New Jersey. He graduated in 1965 from Fordham University, initially working as a physical therapist in New York and Los Angeles. Before joining Vajradhatu he studied with Satchidananda Saraswati, who gave him the name Narayana.[1][3]

Vajradhatu

Tendzin first met Trungpa in February 1971 in Boulder, Colorado.[4] According to Tendzin, Trungpa revealed his intention to make Tendzin his successor not long after their initial meeting.[5] Starting in 1973 Tendzin held various roles in the management of Vajradhatu. He served on the initial board of directors and as an executive vice-president of the organization. In April 1976, Tendzin's Regency was announced to the community for the first time. Trungpa recounted the moment in a later edition of his memoir, writing "to ensure that everything will not stop at my death, it is necessary to have one person as an inheritor, someone whom I can train and observe over a period of many years. For a long time it was in my mind to appoint Narayana to this role, and in the summer of 1976 I did so, empowering him as Dorje Gyaltsap, Vajra Regent."[6]

In his foreword to the Tendzin's 1987 book Buddha in the Palm of Your Hand, Trungpa elaborated on his decision:

As a student and child of mine, Ösel Tendzin has developed his natural ability to respond to the teachings of egolessness. He not only intellectually comprehends these teachings, but he has actually practiced and trained himself in this way. Although I would not say Ösel Tendzin is an enlightened person, he is one of the greatest examples of a practitioner who has followed the command of the Buddha and his guru and the tradition of the Practice Lineage.

Many Oriental advisors have said to me, 'Do not make an Occidental your successor; they are not trustworthy.' With the blessings of His Holiness the 16th Gyalwa Karmapa, and through working with Ösel Tendzin as my Regent, I have come to the conclusion that anybody who possesses tathagatagarbha is worthy of experiencing enlightenment. Moreover, Ösel Tendzin is my prime student. He has been able to commit himself and learn thoroughly the teachings of vajrayana. I have worked arduously in training him as my best student and foremost leader, and His Holiness Karmapa has confirmed his Regency. With His Holiness' blessing, Ösel Tendzin should hold his title and the sanity of the enlightened lineage. He is absolutely capable of imparting the message of buddhadharma to the rest of the world.[7]


Tendzin assumed leadership of the organization in 1987 with the death of Chögyam Trungpa.[1][3]

Satdharma

In 1989 Tendzin moved to Ojai, California with some of his students. After his death, those students led by Patrick Sweeney — whom Tendzin had chosen as his lineage holder and successor[1] — created an organization called Satdharma. It was formally incorporated in 1992 to continue Tendzin's lineage, separate from Vajradhatu.[8]

Controversy

Among the controversial actions of Tendzin was his rejection of the recommendation of senior Kagyu lineage holder the Tai Situpa that he take over leadership of Vajradhatu in conjunction with Chögyam Trungpa's half brother, Damchu Tenphel, who resided in Tibet.[9] This was "regarded by members as a serious slight to lineage authorities and was construed as the Regent's attempt to secure his position of control."[9]

Also controversial was the fact that Tendzin "took further action to buttress his centrality by denying students permission to seek teachings from other Kagyu Tibetan teachers, claiming that only he possessed the special transmission, materials and knowledge unique to the Trungpa lineage. Students were told that if they wanted to practice within the community, they would have to take spiritual instruction from the Regent."[10]

Other behavior was troubling as well. As one scholar who has studied the community noted, Tendzin was "bisexual and known to be very promiscuous" and "enjoyed seducing straight men" but the community "did not find [this behavior] particularly troublesome."[11] Not all his partners were unwilling; one scholar noted "it became a mark of prestige for a man, gay or straight, to have sex with the Regent, just as it had been for a woman to have sex with [Trungpa] Rinpoche."[12] However, at least one student reported that Tendzin had raped him.[13] As a former Vajradhatu member attested, "a chilling story had recently been reported by one of . . . [the] teachers at the Buddhist private school [for the Vajradhatu community]. This straight, married male was pinned face-down across Rich's desk by the guards [the Dorje Kasung] while Rich forcibly raped him."[14]

It was revealed in 1989 that Ösel Tendzin had contracted HIV and for nearly three years knew it, yet continued to have unsafe sex with his students without informing them.[15][16] He transmitted it to a student who later died of AIDS.[17][18][19] Others close to Tendzin, including the board of directors of Vajradhatu, knew for two years that Tendzin was HIV-positive and sexually active but kept silent.[20] As one student reported at the time,

I was very distressed that he and his entourage had lied to us for so long, always saying he did not have AIDS. I was even more distressed over the stories of how the Regent used his position as a dharma teacher to induce "straight" students to have unprotected sex with him, while he claimed he had been tested for AIDS but the result was negative.[11]


Stephen Butterfield, a former student, recounted in a memoir:

Tenzin offered to explain his behavior at a meeting which I attended. Like all of his talks, this was considered a teaching of dharma, and donations were solicited and expected. So I paid him $35.00 to hear his explanation. In response to close questioning by students, he first swore us to secrecy (family secrets again), and then said that Trungpa had requested him to be tested for HIV in the early 1980s and told him to keep quiet about the positive result. Tendzin had asked Trungpa what he should do if students wanted to have sex with him, and Trungpa's reply was that as long as he did his Vajrayana purification practices, it did not matter, because they would not get the disease. Tendzin's answer, in short, was that he had obeyed the guru.[21]


To prepare for the birth of our child, just like any other young couple, Rinpoche and I went to Denver together to take birthing classes. Rinpoche was very supportive and involved. He came to almost all the classes. We had decided that we wanted to use natural childbirth, which was a relatively new, progressive trend in those days. Dr. Robert Bradley, who founded the Bradley method of natural childbirth, was in Denver, so we signed up for his course. Dr. Bradley preached that childbirth should be painless. He said that if you had the proper training, you wouldn’t have any pain at all. Rinpoche and I were convinced that this must be true.

My son was due at the end of February, but he came almost two weeks late. On the night of March 8, Rinpoche returned after giving a lecture at the Wesley Foundation, and we both went to bed. I was awakened by pain, and after lying in bed awake for some time, I woke Rinpoche up and I said, “There’s something wrong with me. I’m having a lot of pains. Do you think I’m in labor?” He responded, “Oh no, Dr. Bradley said that childbirth isn’t painful. I’m sure it will pass.” I sat up for a while waiting for the pains to subside, but in fact they were growing more and more intense. For some reason, we were convinced that I wasn’t in labor. We were both so naïve about this, Rinpoche with his monastic background and me with my alienated English upbringing. Finally, I got into a hot bath, which I thought might alleviate the pain. I never drank at this point in my life, but I had a couple of shots of Johnnie Walker that night, hoping it might help.

Very early in the morning, around six o’clock, I went upstairs to John Baker’s room and knocked on his door. I said, “John, I think there’s something wrong with me. I think something’s terribly the matter.” He said, “What do you mean?” I said, “Well, I’m getting these pains, and they’re coming every five minutes.” Within three minutes, I would say, he was up and had his clothes on and the car keys in his hand, and he told me, “Okay, we’re going to the hospital.”
He drove me as fast as he could to Dr. Bradley’s office in Denver. I was already six centimeters dilated at that point. They took me over to Porter Memorial Hospital which was a Seventh-day Adventist hospital and put me in the labor room there. After John got me checked in, he phoned the house and asked someone to bring Rinpoche down right away. While I was lying there alone, I remember feeling quite afraid. During the latter phases of my pregnancy, it had been haunting me that I had no idea what to do with a baby. There was a forty-year-old woman in one of my childbirth classes who was having her fifth child. I asked her, “What do you do with a baby?” She answered, “You, you just change them when they’re dirty, feed them when they’re hungry, and hold them when they cry.”....

Rinpoche was surprised that our first child was a son. There's a rather chauvinistic Tibetan tradition that if a lama marries and the first child is a daughter, this proves that he made a mistake in disrobing. If the first child is a son, it was the right decision. Rinpoche was convinced we were having a daughter. He didn't think our marriage was a mistake, but he didn't expect to get any breaks, as far as these beliefs were concerned. We hadn't even picked out a name for a boy. We were going to call our daughter Dechen, which means "Great Bliss."....

As a baby, Gesar slept in the room with us. Rinpoche said that Tibetans would never have a separate bed for the baby, but I always thought we should have the baby in a bassinette or a crib. When Gesar was just a few days old, I put him to bed in his crib with a windup mobile. Whenever the mobile stopped moving, Gesar would start screaming. This continued until around two A.M., when Rinpoche insisted that we put him in bed with us. He said that if Gesar were in the middle, between us, he would be content and fall asleep. I told Rinpoche that I was afraid one of us would roll over on him in our sleep. Rinpoche said, "A father's instinct would never allow this." I gave in. About two hours later, I awoke to small muffled cries. In his sleep, Rinpoche had rolled on top of Gesar and was basically suffocating him. I started screaming to wake Rinpoche up, "Get off him! Get off him!" After that, if I put Gesar in bed with us, he slept on my side of the bed.

-- Dragon Thunder: My Life with Chogyam Trungpa, by Diana J. Mukpo, with Carolyn Rose Gimian


For about half a year in 1980, I went to live in Rajpur, across the street from Sakya Trinzin. I asked him for teachings on my meditation practice and he convinced me he had a vision of him and me yab yum and that it was important for him to act on it with me. Not only was it the most pathetic sex act of my entire life, it was such a total farce. It was about as enlightening as a mosquito bite, less even, if that's possible. And when it seemed impossible that he could get beyond his Ganesh sized belly to have sex, I offered him oral gratification. He was worried that would get me pregnant.

-- Randy Sogyal Rinpoche, Best-Selling Lecher, The Writings of Am Learning


Butterfield noted,

Tendzin's account of his conversations with Trungpa was challenged by other senior disciples, who claimed Trungpa would never have led anyone to believe that the laws of nature could be suspended by practice."[22] Butterfield also wrote, "it was a difficult dilemma: if you chose to believe Tendzin, then Trungpa had simply been wrong in telling him he could not transmit the disease . . but what then became of the axiom that the guru cannot make a mistake? But if you chose to disbelieve Tendzin, then Trungpa may have been wrong in allowing him to remain Regent, or perhaps in choosing him at all...[22] I heard Tendzin's illness explained by his servants in this way: it was not a consequence of any folly or self-indulgence on his part, but the karma of his infected partners, that he had deliberately imbibed for them. In what way they benefitted was never made clear to me, although one could safely assume the benefits did not include physical cure.[23]


According to Diana Mukpo, wife and widow of Trungpa, he ultimately became disillusioned with Tendzin as his heir, and during his final illness he called Tendzin "terrible" and "dreadful", and indicated that he would have gotten rid of Tendzin had he a suitable candidate with whom to replace him.[24] Rick Fields, the editor of Vajradhatu's publication the Vajradhatu Sun, wrote that he resigned from his editorial position after Ösel Tendzin and the Board of Directors stopped him from publishing news of the events.[25]

Bibliography

• Buddha in the Palm of Your Hand, Shambhala Publications. Boston, 1982. 0-87773-223-X
• Space, Time and Energy, Vajra Regent Ösel Tendzin, Satdharma Publications, 2000.
• Like Water Poured into Water, Vajra Regent Ösel Tendzin, Foreword by Lady Lila Rich; Introduction by Patrick Sweeney, Satdharma Publications, 2006.

Notes

1. "Satdharma biography of Tendzin".
2. Dewitte Lindsey (2003). Tibet to Texas: A Grassroots History of Karma Kagyu Buddhism in the Lone Star State. Sunbelt Eakin. ISBN 978-1-57168-691-6. Thomas Rich would die three years later from HIV, a disaster for both his unsuspecting partners and the entire Vajradhatu community.
3. "Shambhala teachers biography for Tendzin". Archived from the original on 2009-10-11.
4. Midal, Fabrice. Chögyam Trungpa: His Life and Vision. Shambhala, 2004. ISBN 1-59030-098-X pg 437
5. Midal, Fabrice. Chögyam Trungpa: His Life and Vision. Shambhala, 2004. ISBN 1-59030-098-X pg 440
6. Born in Tibet, 4th edition, by Chogyam Trungpa. Shambhala Publications: 2000. pg 263
7. Buddha in the Palm of Your Hand by Osel Tendzin, Shambhala Publications: 1987. ISBN 0-87773-223-X pgs xii-xiii
8. "Sweeney biography on Satdharma".
9. Eldershaw 2004, p. 229
10. Eldershaw 2004, p. 230
11. Eldershaw 2004, p. 226
12. Kane, Stephanie. AIDS Alibis: Sex, Drugs, and Crime in the Americas. Temple University Press, 1998. p. 154
13. Eldershaw 2004, pp. 228, 230
14. Steinbeck 2001, p. 311
15. New York Times (1989)
16. Hayward (2007) p. 407-409
17. Butterfield (1994)
18. Dart (1989)
19. Steinbeck 2001, pp. 279, 311
20. Coleman 2001, p. 170
21. Butterfield p. 183
22. Jump up to:a b Butterfield p. 184
23. Butterfield p. 186
24. Mukpo p. 378
25. Fields (1992) p. 366

References

• Butterfield, Stephen T. (1994). The Double Mirror: A Skeptical Journey into Buddhist Tantra. ISBN 1-55643-176-7
• Coleman, James William. The New Buddhism: The Western Transformation of an Ancient Tradition (2001) Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513162-2
• Dart, John (1989). "Buddhist Sect Alarmed by Reports that Leader Kept his AIDS a Secret", The Los Angeles Times, March 3, 1989 link
• Eldershaw, Lynn P. "Collective identity and the post-charismatic fate of Shambhala International", 2004 Ph. D. thesis, University of Waterloo; also, "Collective Identity and the Postcharismatic Fate of Shambhala International", an article drawn from this thesis published in Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions, (2007) Vol. 10 No. 4, pp. 72–102, doi:10.1525/nr.2007.10.4.72, ISSN 1092-6690
• Fields, Rick (1992). How the Swans Came to the Lake. ISBN 0-87773-631-6
• Hayward, Jeremy (2007). Warrior-King of Shambhala: Remembering Chogyam Trungpa ISBN 0-86171-546-2
• Mukpo, Diana (2006). Dragon Thunder: My Life with Chogyam Trungpa, ISBN 978-1-59030-256-9
• John Steinbeck IV and Nancy Steinbeck (2001). The Other Side of Eden: Life with John Steinbeck, Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-858-5
• Week in Review Desk, "HEADLINERS; A Church's Turmoil," The New York Times, February 26, 1989

External links

• Homepage of Satdharma, the organization founded by Ösel Tenzin's dharma heir Patrick Sweeney
• NY Times article on conflict in Trungpa's community due to Ösel Tendzin's transmission of AIDS to his students.
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Re: Former teacher at Boulder's Shambhala accused of sexuall

Postby admin » Thu Jul 25, 2019 8:09 am

Lex Hixon
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 7/25/19

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Suzuki Roshi had been quite ill and jaundiced that fall, but the cause, of his symptoms had not been diagnosed. Rinpoche always wanted to have news of what was happening with Roshi. One of Rinpoche's close students at this time, Bob Halpern, had been a student at San Francisco Zen Center for a long time before he joined us in Boulder. Bob went with Rinpoche on the trip to Canada, and Fran and Kesang also traveled with him. The night that Kalu Rinpoche visited, after he left, Kesang came to Rinpoche with the news that Roshi had been diagnosed with liver cancer, which was a terminal condition.

Before she finished telling him the news, he started weeping. Later, Bob told me that Rinpoche was screaming in agony, as though he were in the midst of death throes. Bob said that his tears actually turned red with blood, which fell on Beverly's snow-white carpet. After a long time, when he finally stopped, he said to Bob, "Go out first thing in the morning. I'll be there in a few days." He had his last visit with Roshi at San Francisco Zen Center a short time before Roshi's death; Rinpoche returned there for Roshi's funeral in December. During the ceremony, he went up to offer a khata, a Tibetan ceremonial white scarf. With one hand, he unfurled the scarf and it hung in the air and then draped perfectly, beautifully, over the casket at the same time that he uttered a piercing cry. After the funeral, he was asked to give a talk to everyone assembled at the Zen center, and during his remarks, he broke down in tears. Some people said that it helped them to recognize and express their own grief.

Rinpoche was so moved by Roshi's life and example and so saddened by his death. I believe that it spurred him on to implement the plans that they had made. He pushed forward the Maitri Project, which involved starting a therapeutic community for people with mental problems. Maitri means "loving kindness" in Sanskrit. The Maitri facility opened in Elizabethtown, New York, in the fall of I973, and moved to land in Wingdale, New York, donated by Lex and Sheila Hixon in early 1974. The Naropa Institute, based on another of their joint inspirations, was inaugurated in the summer of 1974.

-- Dragon Thunder: My Life with Chogyam Trungpa, by Diana J. Mukpo with Carolyn Rose Gimian


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Lex Hixon
Born December 25, 1941
Pasadena, California
Died November 1, 1995
Riverdale, New York
Cause of death Cancer
Era 20th-century philosophy

Lex Hixon (1941–1995) (born Alexander Paul Hixon Junior, also known as Nur al-Anwar al-Jerrahi in the Sufi community) was an American Sufi author, poet, and spiritual teacher. He practiced and held membership in several of the world's major great religious traditions, and documented his spiritual explorations in nine books and many articles and teachings given to various groups. His passionate conviction that all of the great religions are true was sparked by his study of the life and teachings of Sri Ramakrishna, and he made his life a witness to this belief by fully immersing himself in multiple religious practices and studies, not as a research project but as an act of faith.

Life and education

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Hixon was born on December 25, 1941 in Pasadena, California, one of three sons of Alexander and Adelaide Hixon. He married his second wife, Sheila, in 1965; they had two daughters and one son: Shanti, India, and Dylan. Hixon also had a daughter, Alexandra, from a previous marriage with Margaret Taylor. He graduated from Yale University in 1963, where he majored in philosophy, and received a PhD in comparative religion from Columbia University in 1976. His doctoral thesis was on the Gaudapada Karika, a Sanskrit scripture of the very early Advaita Vedanta school of Hindu philosophy, bringing out Buddhist influences.

Early spiritual training

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Hixon first studied prayer and meditation at the age of nineteen with Vine Deloria, Senior, a Lakota Sioux elder and Episcopal priest in Pierre, South Dakota. In 1966 he began his discipleship with Swami Nikhilananda of the Ramakrishna Mission, who headed the Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Center of New York. The study with Swami Nikhilananda formed the basis for all of his latter spiritual quest. He simultaneously remained involved in various religions, or as he called them, "parallel sacred worlds". His experience of being "orthodox in five different spiritual traditions" produced a unique philosophy, a "theory of relativity for religions". He touched thousands of lives with his warm, joyful manner of teaching, celebrating, and encouraging spiritual seekers of all kinds.

Radio

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From 1971 to 1984 Lex Hixon hosted in New York City a weekly 2-hour interview show "In The Spirit". On this long running program on listener-supported WBAI radio, he interviewed hundreds of spiritual leaders and teachers from different traditions, including: Buddhism — the Dalai Lama, the 16th Karmapa, Kalu Rinpoche, Lama Ole Nydahl, Zen teacher Maezumi Roshi and Sensei Bernie Glassman; Ch'an Master, Ven. Sheng Yen; Christianity — Brother David Steindl-Rast, Father Thomas Keating, Mother Theresa of Calcutta; Hinduism —Hilda Charlton, J. Krishnamurti, Swami Satchidananda, Swami Muktananda; Islam — Sheikh Muzaffer Ozak, Pir Vilayat Inayat Khan, Bawa Muhaiyaddeen; Judaism — Rabbi Shlomo Carlebach, Rabbi Gedaliah Kenig, Rabbi Dovid Din, and Rabbi Meyer Fund.

Islam and Sufism

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Hixon became known as Nur al-Anwar al-Jerrahi, and became a teacher in a traditional Sufi lineage, the Jerrahi Order of Dervishes.[1] He co-founded with Fariha al Jerrahi the Nur Ashki Jerrahi Sufi Order in the United States, named for his teacher Sheikh Muzaffer Ozak (Ashki).[2]

Christianity

Hixon and his wife Sheila entered the Eastern Orthodox Church, through the inspiration of Father Alexander Schmemann, and studied at St. Vladimir's Seminary in Crestwood, New York, for three years. He traveled to Mount Athos.

Buddhism

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They received guidance in meditation from Venerable Lama Domo Geshe Rimpoche. Hixon studied Zen koans with Tetsugen Bernard Glassman, and Glassman posthumously ordained him as a Zen sensei.

Hinduism

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He also studied meditation with Swamis Prabhavananda and Aseshananda

Arts

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Hixon studied flamenco guitar with Carlos Montoya, and studied classical Indian music with Vasant Rai, the sarod master.

Books

Lex Hixon's literary works came about from direct experience in the field of spirituality combined with intellectual refinement and human sensitivity. Being intensely involved in both the cultures and religions of the world, his was a view of universal acceptance honed by discrimination and dedicated to harmony based on unity.

• Coming Home: The Experience of Enlightenment in Sacred Traditions, 1978, 1989, 1995. ISBN 0-943914-74-4
• The Heart of the Qur'an: An Introduction to Islamic Spirituality, 1988, 2003. ISBN 0-8356-0822-0
• Recolección de la Miel (Gathering Honey), 1989. ISBN
• Great Swan: Meetings with Ramakrishna, 1992, 2002. ISBN 81-208-1297-2
• Atom from the Sun of Knowledge, 1993. ISBN 978-1-879708-05-1
• Illahis of Shaykh Nur al-Jerrahi, 1993. ISBN
• Mother of the Buddhas: Meditation on the Prajnaparamita Sutra, 1993. ISBN 0-8356-0689-9
• Mother of the Universe: Visions of the Goddess and Tantric Hymns of Enlightenment, 1994. ISBN 0-8356-0702-X
• Living Buddha Zen, 1995. ISBN 0-943914-75-2
• Sufi Meditation, 1997. ISBN 1-879708-10-8
• 101 Diamonds: From the Oral Tradition of the Glorious Messenger Muhammad (translator, with Fariha al-Jerrahi), 2001. ISBN 1-879708-17-5

Death

Hixon died at his home in Riverdale, New York, on November 1, 1995, age 53. He had cancer.

References

1. Corbett, Rosemary R. (2016). Making Moderate Islam: Sufism, Service, and the "Ground Zero Mosque" Controversy. Stanford University Press.
2. Sufi Review (Pir Publications, Spring 1997), p. 5–8

Sources

• New York Times obituary, November 9, 1995
• Yoga Journal Interview, Jan/Feb 1991
• Zen Peacemakers website
• Coming Home, 1989 & 1995 (2nd & 3rd Editions) biographical note (note differs in each edition).
• Free Spirit Journal, April & May 1996: Article by Cassia Berman. (reproduced online here)

External links

• Nurashkijerrahi.org
• LexScape:A cyberspace memorial to Lex Hixon
• Interviewed on public radio's Kindred Spirits
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Re: Former teacher at Boulder's Shambhala accused of sexuall

Postby admin » Thu Jul 25, 2019 8:33 am

Lex Hixon (December 25, 1941 - November 1, 1995)
by SRV Associations
Accessed: 7/25/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

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Lex Hixon on Himself

"I grew up in the cultural openness and wild sacred energy of Southern California. I was not raised conventionally or religiously. Freedom was the keynote of my parent's philosophy. At thirteen I went to a conservative Boy's Academy in Connecticut. These were four years of blessed discipline. The effect of this almost monastic atmosphere was a great intensification of my awareness. Here, under the guidance of wonderful minds and spirits, I became a practicing poet, philosopher, musician, and spiritual seeker. These four strands have interwoven in my life ever since then.

"Rather than returning to the cultural comforts of California, I remained in the more challenging context of the east coast, attending Yale University for four years, then moving to New York City. I graduated in Philosophy, with an honors paper on Soren Kierkegaard, my first formal spiritual guide. Kierkegaard opened wide for me the dimension of the spiritual, which he clearly demonstrated to lie beyond what he called the aesthetic and the ethical or logical.

"At age 19, I became consciously Christian, under the guidance of the father of a college roommate, Vine Deloria Senior, a Lakota Sioux Episcopal priest. The rich, non-European Christianity of Father Deloria, subtly based in his Native American heritage of vision-quest, blended into the intense, existential Christianity of Kierkegaard, with its sharp critique of Hegelian rationalism, the tendency of European expansionist thinking. Thus, my spiritual life began as a confluence of European and non-European currents. "During college, I encountered traditional Zen through Alan Watts as well as the non-tradition of Krishnamurti. I also discovered The Gospel of Ramakrishna, which I began reading after graduation in 1963. I met the author of this extraordinary book, Swami Nikhilananda, by visiting the address of the publisher, printed on the back cover. My wife Sheila and I studied, traveled and meditated with the Swami for the last seven years of his life. He became the God-father of our four children. Following his guidance, I began studies for the Ph.D. at Columbia University, finally completing my dissertation on the Gaudapadakarika in 1976. My gratitude to him knows no bounds.

"During my ten years as a graduate student, I became a radio journalist, broadcasting a weekly, two hour interview show called "In the Spirit," over New York radio (WBAI), from 1971 to 1984. This endeavor involved a tremendous amount of fieldwork in newly emerging American spiritual consciousness, as well as an opportunity to meet the finest representatives of world-traditions who visited New York City. I met literally hundreds of teachers and students - both unknown and well-known, both authentic and not-so-authentic-observing the interesting dynamics of cultural interaction and spiritual growth. At this time I also began to study classical Indian music under the master sarodist, Vasant Rai.

"In 1975 I offered a course at the new School for Social Research. These well- attended spring term lectures were recorded, transcribed, and painstakingly edited. They became Coming Home: The Experience of Enlightenment in Sacred Traditions, published by Doubleday in 1978. Some twenty thousand copies were sold before the book went out of print. In 1988, Jeremy Tarcher reprinted Coming Home, and it has become a classic in its field.

"In 1980, I accepted the formal responsibility as a spiritual guide, or Sheikh, in the seven hundred year old Khalwati-Jerrahi Order from Egypt and Istanbul. My duty included care and guidance for four communities of Sufis. I was privileged to make the traditional Hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina, with my Sheikh in 1980, at the pivotal age of forty. Three books emerged from this Islamic experience: Heart of the Koran published in 1988, Recollecion de la Miel (Gathering Honey) published in 1989, and Atom from the Sun of Knowledge. These books are well regarded by Muslims and non-Muslims alike and they represent a kind of informal peace initiative.

"Beginning with Zen, under the Japanese master Eido Roshi during the late sixties, and moving into Tibetan Tantric Buddhism in the mid seventies, my study and practice of Buddhist meditation has been ongoing. A book, Mother of the Buddhas, has emerged from this experience as well. My wife and I were privileged to make the pilgrimage to Bodhgaya and Sarnath in India with our Lama, Tomo Geshe Rinpoche, in 1981. In 1983, Sheila and I entered a formal, three year study of the mystical theology of the Eastern Church at Saint Vladamir's Seminary. We sacramentally joined the Orthodox Church, attending for a period of several years, and we still attend the chapel there as parishioners. None of these spiritual studies and practices have become outmoded in my life, and I try to remain current in four sacred traditions - Ramakrishna Vedanta, Vajrayana Buddhism, the Jerrahi Dervish Order, and Eastern Orthodox Christianity.

"In 1992, came the publication of Great Swan: Meetings With Ramakrishna. This book holds the key to unlock all my life experiences. It provides a bridge between East and West, a bridge which I have crossed in both directions and which many people will be able to cross comfortably, maintaining their intellectual, cultural and spiritual integrity. Essential secrets for the unfolding of cultural interaction and spiritual growth in the 21st century are encoded in this vibrant portrait. With Ramakrishna as our inspiration, our subtle task is to create a global society based on the intuitive sense of the Sacred, a society with rich diversity yet without boundaries."

lex hixonLex "entered" final liberation on November 1st, 1995, which was also, fittingly enough, both All-Saints Day and Jagaddhatri Puja, the holy day dedicated to Sri Sarada Devi's chosen ideal. He remained conscious and light-hearted right up to the moment of leaving the body, despite dealing with cancer. Lex Hixon "passed away" as he had lived, consciously, happily, and spiritually. His final book entitled "Living Buddha Zen" was released just prior to his passing.

In the Spirit Radio on WBAI New York City

From the early 1970's through the late 1980's, Lex Hixon hosted a radio program at WBAI in New York City that was unprecedented in its depth, scope, insight and creativity. Entitled "In The Spirit," it appeared as both "Body/Mind/Spirit" for a time and "Spirit/Mind/Body" as well. On this long running inspirational program that spanned two decades and which was sponsored in listener supported fashion on WBAI Radio, Lex interviewed educators, healers, clergy, authors, artists, psychics, spiritual leaders, teachers and a host of others.

As a list, the fruit of this selfless work reads like a comprehensive Who's Who of the spiritual, artistic and intellectual heart and mind of both eastern and western cultures. With subtle tenderness and insight, though never lacking the penetrating edge which makes for excellent broadcasting, Lex welcomed the orthodox and the unorthodox, the conservative and the radical, the famous and the obscure, the popular and the controversial, the powerful and the humble, the aggressive and the retiring. He interviewed swamis, priests, rabbis, roshis, sheikhs, rinpoches, yogis, gurus, poets, musicians, psychics, occultists, authors, writers, teachers, politicians, businessmen and more-a collection which also includes such guests as the Dalai Lama and Mother Teresa, to name a few.

This set of programs, which numbers over 300 titles, is now offered on CD in individual recordings ranging from the half-hour interview to the ninety-minute program. Special rates are available for those who are interested in the entire set of 331 programs or for orders exceeding 10 programs.

The Books of Lex Hixon

Lex Hixon's literary works came about from direct experience in the field of spirituality combined with intellectual refinement and human sensitivity. Being intensely involved in both the cultures and religions of the world, his was a view of universal acceptance honed by discrimination and dedicated to harmony based on unity.

These living books are for all who take their spiritual path seriously as also for those who desire to intensify their commitment to and expand their understanding of religion, philosophy and spiritual life. Additionally, novices and newcomers to the path will find in these works a timeless message of hope and inspiration which will facilitate a transformation of the human mind and a spiritualization of everyday life.

• Coming Home, The Experience of Enlightenment in Sacred Traditions
• Mother of the Universe, Tantric Hymns of Enlightenment
• Great Swan, Meetings with Ramakrishna
• Mother of the Buddhas - Meditations of the Prajnaparamita Sutra
• Living Buddha Zen
• Atom from the Sun of Knowledge
• The Heart of the Qur'an
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Lex Hixon: “In the Spirit”: Remembering the host of WBAI’s influential radio show
by Tricycle
FALL 2001

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Image
Lex Hixon during a WBAI studio session, early 1970s, courtesy of Sheila Hixon

Lex Hixon affected many lives in different ways. In the course of his own studies, he became an accomplished adept in (among other traditions) Zen, Vedanta, Sufism, and Russian Orthodoxy. His house in the Riverdale section of the Bronx often functioned as a haven for people who represented religion at the crossroads. A robed Tibetan high lama would be coming in one door as a disgruntled runaway from a Zen community would be entering through another, and Lex’s magnanimity extended equally to each. Of all the roles that Lex played, none surpasses in significance the post he held at WBAI, the public radio station in New York City where, from 1971 to 1984, he conducted a weekly radio show called “In the Spirit.” He interviewed rabbis, sheiks, priests, ministers and representatives from an impressive range of religious traditions. Provided here is a partial list of the programs that featured Buddhist teachers. Using the medium of radio technology to transmit the dharma, Lex Hixon introduced virtually thousands of listeners to their spiritual guides. Even in abridged form, this list of programs suggests how ahead of the curve Lex was and how open-ended his interests were. The tapes are currently being archived for public use.

1974

• Lex Hixon invites Robert Thurman, then professor at Amherst and Harvard, to discuss his experiences with Buddhist teachings. At a later date Thurman and Hixon undertake a broad philosophical discussion about Buddhism.

• Interview with Kalu Rinpoche on Tibetan Buddhist teachings with the help of a translator. A taped refuge ceremony is included.

• During a subsequent program Lex reads Milarepa and again interviews Kalu Rinpoche, a lineage holder in Milarepa’s line.

• Lex speaks with His Holiness Sakya Trizin, the fortieth preceptor in a line of lineage holders of the Sakya order, about initiation, taking refuge, and various Buddhist teachings and deities.

• In a separate program Lex hosts a show with Sakya Trizin, with a particular emphasis on the feminine principle of the Divine.

• Lex meets again with Sakya Trizin, who shares his knowledge of the tantric practices of Tibetan Buddhism, particularly the Kalachakra initiation.

1975

• Lex interviews Tarthang Tulku Rinpoche, a lama of the Nyingma sect of Tibetan Buddhism who had already taken up residence in California, and converses with several of the Rinpoche’s students.

• Lex interviews Joseph Goldstein, an American teacher of Vipassana (who had just co-founded the Insight Meditation Society) about his interests in Western and Eastern philosophy.

• Eido Tai Shimano Roshi of the Zen Studies Society in New York is interviewed and a tape is aired of Lex discussing Zen with Eido Roshi’s teacher, Soen Roshi.

1976

• On July 4, the bicentennial of the United States, Lex interviews His Holiness Dudjom Rinpoche about Guru Padmasambhava. The translator is Sogyal Rinpoche.

1977

• Lex hosts Jamgon Kongtrul Rinpoche, a Tibetan Buddhist adept, who speaks on various teachings with the help of a translator.

• Lex’s guest is Master Sheng-yen, a Chinese Ch’an (Zen) teacher who immigrated to Taiwan and who spends part of each year in New York, teaching and giving retreats. In two following programs Lex interviews Master Sheng-yen about Ch’an practice. In a fourth program, Master Sheng-yen chants the Three Refuges.

1978

• Guest host Judy Frank speaks with Khenpo Karthar Rinpoche, a Tibetan Buddhist teacher who has been teaching in the United States since the mid-seventies and who has centers in New York, Chicago, Ann Arbor, and several other cities.

• Bernie Glassman talks to Lex Hixon shortly before he opens the Zen Center of New York.

1979

• Lex presents a three-hour special about His Holiness the Dalai Lama through readings and interviews with a Tibetan diplomat, a professor, and several high lamas. A tape of His Holiness speaking is also aired during the show.

• Guest host Eve Quinn talks with John Daido Loori, Zen practitioner and photographer from the Los Angeles Zen Center. (In 1980 he founded Zen Mountain Monastery in Mount Tremper, New York.)

1980

• Lex talks to John Daido Loori about photography as a means of spiritual expression. In a separate program, Eve Quinn talks to Loori about his new practice oriented arts community.

• In another interview with Khenpo Karthar Rinpoche, Judy Frank asks the Tibetan teacher about the Four Noble Truths and their relevance in daily life.

• Jack Kornfield, co-founder of the Insight Meditation Society, discusses his practice with Lex.

The following programs with Buddhist practitioners and teachers are not dated:

• Lex interviews Allen Ginsberg, poet and Buddhist practitioner.

• Ruth Dennison, Vipassana teacher and founder of the Desert Vipassana Center, speaks with Lex.

• Lex interviews Seung Sahn, the Korean Zen teacher who founded the Providence Zen Center and established the Kwan Um School of Zen.

• Lex presents a show dedicated to Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche, a contemporary Tibetan master, with excerpts from his writings, a taped interview, discussions with two of his students, and a live interview.

• Louise Berle, a student of Zen master Yasutani Roshi, speaks with Lex about her spiritual experiences. Philip Kapleau, a Zen disciple and compiler of Three Pillars of Zen, is interviewed by Lex.

• Lex interviews Delancey Kapleau, a Canadian-born spiritual practitioner who speaks about Zen, Hindu practices, and astrology.

• Lex reads from Zen master Hakuin’s writings about enlightenment experiences, and the New York Zen Community presents a program with Zen instructions and various Zen teachings.

• Lex discusses the Buddhist teachings of non-self and the principle of impermanence with Lou Nordstrom, a Westerner who left Columbia University to become a Zen Buddhist monk.
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