His Holiness Grandmaster Professor Lin Yun 1932-2010

The impulse to believe the absurd when presented with the unknowable is called religion. Whether this is wise or unwise is the domain of doctrine. Once you understand someone's doctrine, you understand their rationale for believing the absurd. At that point, it may no longer seem absurd. You can get to both sides of this conondrum from here.

His Holiness Grandmaster Professor Lin Yun 1932-2010

Postby admin » Thu Jun 13, 2019 7:43 pm

His Holiness Grandmaster Professor Lin Yun 1932-2010
Black Sect Esoteric Buddhism Yun Lin Temple
Copyrighted ©2011-2014 Yun Lin Temple

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Image

His Holiness Grandmaster Professor Lin Yun was the founder and supreme leader of contemporary Black Sect Esoteric Buddhism at its Fourth Stage. His Holiness was not only revered as a religious leader, a scholar, but also the world’s most prominent authority on Feng Shui. He named his Feng Shui theories Black Sect Esoteric Buddhism Feng Shui. Highly regarded as the founding father of Feng Shui in the West, he has developed and transmitted the teachings of the Black Sect Esoteric Buddhism Feng Shui to the West since the early 1970s. It is due to H.H. Grandmaster Lin Yun’s efforts, the ancient wisdom of Feng Shui became known and popular to Westerners.

His Holiness Grandmaster Lin Yun was a native of Taichung, Taiwan. His parents were both descendants of the well-respected Lin Family of Taichung in Taiwan. During the Sino-Japanese War, his parents moved the family to Beijing. His Holiness Grandmaster Lin Yun was born and raised in Beijing, and began studying Black Sect Esoteric Buddhism with his first master, Lama Da-De at Yong-He Palace when he was six years old. At the age of seventeen, His Holiness Lin Yun left Beijing and returned to Taiwan, where he studied with two great masters of Black Sect Esoteric Buddhism, Master Hui Chieh-fu and Master Cheng Kwei-ying. His other teachers were distinguished philosophers, artists, and scholars, such as Professor Cheng Ti-hsuan. He also held a B.A. in Law from National Taiwan University and a B.A. in Urban Planning Administration from Cultural University.

After years of studying and practicing meditation, His Holiness Grandmaster Lin Yun developed extraordinary abilities and attained a high level of spiritual enlightenment. With his power, wisdom and compassion, he devoted his entire life to help people by resolving challenges in their daily lives via Ch’i adjustments, Feng Shui consultations, sacred transcendental cures, meditations, alternative healing methods, and bestowing his blessings upon those in need.

His Holiness Grandmaster Lin Yun was also well-known for his unique, valuable and comprehensive teachings. Through the integration of Buddhist teachings, Yin-Yang philosophy, the theory of Ch'i, Feng Shui, spirituality, holistic healing, transcendental cures, and Chinese folklore, His Holiness Lin Yun developed his own unique and efficacious teachings, also known as Black Sect Esoteric Buddhist teachings.

Furthermore, through the use of contemporary knowledge to interpret ancient Chinese wisdom, His Holiness was able to make his teachings much more receptive, adaptable and applicable to the modern world. He revived and reinvigorated the ancient Chinese wisdom of Feng Shui and folkloric culture and transmitted his teachings to the West.

His Holiness Lin Yun’s teachings not only help people to resolve the difficulties and challenges in their daily lives, but also enhance people's well-being, elevate their spiritual level, and transform their lives. Due to the clarity, comprehensibility and efficacy of His Holiness Grandmaster Lin Yun’s teachings, these are now being widely practiced both in the East and the West. The recent surge of interest in Black Sect Esoteric Buddhism Feng Shui in the West can be undoubtedly attributed to the influence of His Holiness Grandmaster Lin Yun.

In 1997, His Holiness Grandmaster was awarded an honorary degree in Humane Psychology by the Northern California Graduate University, in recognition of his achievements in the bridging of Eastern and Western cultures and to affirm his spiritual and mundane mentoring of numerous people.

In 1998, His Holiness Grandmaster Lin Yun was enthroned by His Holiness Lungtok Tenpai Nyima, the supreme leader of the Tibetan Bon tradition and the 33rd Abbot of the Bonpo Menri Monastery. The enthronement signified the recognition of the deep connection between H.H. Grandmaster Lin Yun, the Fourth Stage Black Sect Esoteric Buddhism and the Tibetan Bon tradition.

As a distinguished religious leader and the foremost leading authority on Feng Shui, His Holiness Grandmaster Lin Yun received numerous invitations from leading academic institutions and religious communities all over the world. He gave talks at prestigious venues, such as the Library of Congress, the Parapsychology Society of the United Nations, the Women's Guild of the United Nations, the Society of Enlightenment and Transformation of the United Nations [S.E.A.T.], and the American Institute of Architects. He lectured at Harvard, Yale, Princeton, MIT, Stanford, UC Berkeley, UCLA, Cornell, Duke, Johns Hopkins, University of Hawaii, University of Minnesota, California Institute of Technology, University of Pennsylvania, Wellesley College, Brandeis University, Dartmouth College, Williams College, University of Washington, New York Institute of Technology, Oxford University in England, University of Duisburg, Heine University, University of Munich in Germany, Beijing University, Qinhua University, and the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in China, etc.

His Holiness Lin Yun also conducted numerous lectures and workshops around the world, including the United States, Great Britain, France, Spain, Germany, Norway, Austria, Switzerland, Italy, Hong Kong, Taiwan, China, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, Japan, India, Australia, Brazil, Mexico, Nigeria, and South Africa. His Holiness Lin Yun was also frequently interviewed by the news media, including national and local television networks, such as CBS, NBC, ABC, PBS, FOX, the BBC of England, and major television networks in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Far East Asia. Interviews and articles on H.H. Grandmaster Lin Yun and his teachings often appear in newspapers, journals, and magazines throughout the Americas, Europe and Asia.

His Holiness Lin Yun acted as a trusted advisor and confidante for many political and business leaders around the world. He was a much sought after spiritual leader giving guidance and resolving difficulties and sufferings in many people’s lives.

His Holiness Professor Lin Yun was an Adjunct Professor of the School of Arts and Letters at San Diego State University since 1997. Previously, he was Lecturer at the Yale-in-China Program at Hong Kong Chinese University, Visiting Professor at University of San Francisco (1980-81), Visiting Professor at Stanford University (1981-82), and Research Professor at the Institute of Far Eastern Studies at Seton Hall University (1982-85).

In 1986, His Holiness Grandmaster Lin Yun founded the Yun Lin Temple in Berkeley, California, the first reformist Black Sect Esoteric Buddhist temple at its fourth stage in the West. In 1994, he established the Yun Lin Temple Cultural Center in Berkeley, California. In 1996, H.H. Grandmaster Lin Yun established the second official temple, Lin Yun Monastery, in Long Island, New York. In 2008, the Taipei Temple was inaugurated in Neihu, Taipei, Taiwan. Since the early 1980’s, numerous sanctuary shrines known as “Yun Shi Jing She” were also set up in different parts of the world.

In 2002, His Holiness Grandmaster Lin Yun appointed Khadro Crystal Chu Rinpoche as his successor. In 2007, he announced the appointment in public that H.H. Khadro Crystal Chu will carry on the lineage of Black Sect Esoteric Buddhism and transmit Black Sect Esoteric Buddhist teachings.

On August 11, 2010, His Holiness Grandmaster Lin Yun left the world in the San Francisco Bay Area at the age of seventy nine. His friends, disciples, students and godchildren around the world were overwhelmed with grief and mourning.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 27254
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: His Holiness Grandmaster Professor Lin Yun 1932-2010

Postby admin » Thu Jun 13, 2019 7:44 pm

His Holiness Grandmaster Professor Thomas Lin Yun, Berkeley, California -- Obituary
by Legacy.com

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


His Holiness Grandmaster Professor Thomas Lin-Yun is the founder and supreme leader of the contemporary Black Sect Tantric Buddhism at its fourth stage. His teachings are comprehensive, philosophical, and spiritual. It incorporates the essence of Confucianism, Taoism, Yin-Yang philosophy, Eclecticism, Exoteric Buddhism, Esoteric Buddhism, I-Ching, Theory of Ch'i, holistic healing, feng shui, and folkloric studies. Professor Lin-Yun is a native of Taichung, Taiwan. His parents, Mr. Lin, Tzu-chin and Mrs. Lin, Ah-chiao, were both descendents of the well-respected Lin Family in Taiwan. Mr. and Mrs. Lin both participated in the anti-Japanese invasion activities of the Taiwan Cultural Association, and because of this, they moved their family to Beijing. Therefore, Grandmaster Lin-Yun was born and raised in Beijing, and began studying Black Sect Tantric Buddhism with his first guru, Lama Da-De at Yong-He Palace when he was six years of age. At age seventeen Professor Lin-Yun left China and returned to Taiwan where he continued his studies under other gurus of Black Sect Tantric Buddhism, such as Master Hui, Chieh-fu and Master Cheng, Kuei-ying. He also studied with many other distinguished philosophers, artists, and Buddhist masters and scholars, such as Professor Cheng, Ti-hsuan. After years of study and meditation, Professor Lin-Yun has achieved profound spiritual insight and abilities, while helping numerous people solve their problems using "transcendental solutions." For more than three decades, Professor Lin-Yun has introduced his profound and insightful teachings, especially Feng Shui, to the West by lecturing at universities and institutions all over the world. His Black Sect Tantric Buddhist Feng Shui School has been practiced widely received wide acclaim and created a trend in America, Europe, and Asia. In 1997, Northern California Graduate University presented Professor Lin-Yun with an honorary doctorate degree in the study of humane psychology. This is to affirm Professor Lin-Yun's commitment to bridge Eastern and Western cultures, as well as the spiritual and mundane guidance Professor Lin has contributed and bestowed to mankind. In 1998, His Holiness Lungtok Tenpai Nyima Rinpoche, the supreme leader of the Bon religion, which is recognized by the Dalai Lama as one of the five Tantric traditions in Tibet, personally led four high lamas to the United States from India. Their purpose was to conduct enthronement ceremonies, one in Yun Lin Temple in Berkeley, California, and the other in Lin Yun Monastery in Long Island, New York, to officially present Professor Lin Yun the title of "His Holiness" of Black Sect Tantric Buddhism Fourth Stage. This is the first time in the history of Tibetan Bon religion to present such an honor to a Chinese. As a distinguished philosopher and foremost authority on feng shui, Professor Lin-Yun lectures extensively at the invitation of academic institutions and religious communities all over the world. His audience includes the Parapsychology Society of the United Nations, the Library of Congress, the American Institute of Architects, and leading academic institutions such as Harvard, Yale, Princeton, MIT, Stanford, UC Berkeley, UCLA, Cornell, Duke University, Johns Hopkins University, University of Hawaii, University of Minnesota, California Institute of Technology, University of Pennsylvania, Wellesley College, Brandeis University, New York Institute of Technology, Oxford University in England, University of Duisburg and University of Munich in Germany, Beijing University, Qinhua University, and Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in China, just to name a few. He has also been invited to conduct lectures in England, France, Spain, Germany, Norway, Switzerland, Italy, Hong Kong, Taiwan, China, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, Japan, India, Australia, Brazil, Mexico, West Africa, and South Africa, and so on. Professor Lin-Yun was Lecturer at the Yale-in-China Program of the Chinese University of Hong Kong; Visiting Professor at University of San Francisco (1980-81) and Stanford University (1981-82); and a Research Professor for three years at the Institute of Far Eastern Studies at Seton Hall University (1982-85). He has been interviewed by national and local television networks, including CBS, NBC, ABC, PBS, FOX, the BBC of England, and major television networks in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Southeast Asia. Interviews and articles on Professor Lin Yun and his teachings often appear in newspapers, journals, and magazines throughout the Americas, Europe and Asia. In 1986, Professor Lin-Yun founded the Yun Lin Temple in Berkeley, California. It is the first reformist Black Sect Tantric Buddhist temple at its fourth stage in the West. In 1993 the Cultural Center of the Yun Lin Temple was also set up in Berkeley. In 1994 Professor Lin-Yun established the second official temple - Lin Yun Monastery in Long Island, New York, which moved into its present eight-acre site in 1996. Over the years Professor Lin-Yun also set up many sanctuary shrines - Yun Shi Jing She - all over the world. In addition to promoting Buddhist teachings, Chinese philosophies and folkloric cultures, Professor Lin-Yun's temples and shrines also serve to provide blessings and guidance to meet the needs of disciples and people everywhere.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 27254
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: His Holiness Grandmaster Professor Lin Yun 1932-2010

Postby admin » Thu Jun 13, 2019 7:44 pm

Parapsychological Association
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 6/11/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


The Parapsychological Association (PA) was formed in 1957 as a professional society for parapsychologists following an initiative by Joseph B. Rhine. Its purpose has been "to advance parapsychology as a science, to disseminate knowledge of the field, and to integrate the findings with those of other branches of science." The work of the association is reported in the Journal of Parapsychology and the Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research.[1]

In 1969, the Parapsychological Association became affiliated with the American Association for the Advancement of Science.


History

The Association was created in Durham, North Carolina, on June 19, 1957. Its formation was proposed by Rhine, then Director of the Duke Parapsychology Laboratory at Duke University, at a Workshop in Parapsychology held there. Using the occasion afforded by this wide representation of the field, Rhine proposed that the group form itself into the nucleus of an international professional society in parapsychology.

Its first president was R. A. McConnell, then of the Biophysics Department, University of Pittsburgh, and the first vice-president was Gertrude R. Schmeidler of the Department of Psychology, City College of New York. Rhea White was named Secretary Treasurer. Four others were elected to the Council, bringing the total to seven: Margaret Anderson, Remi J. Cadoret, Karlis Osis, and W. G. Roll. One of the co-founding supporters of PA was anthropologist Margaret Mead.[2]

Activities

In 1969 the association became formally affiliated with the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).[3][4] The work of the association is reported in the Journal of Parapsychology and the Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research.[1]

The current president of the PA is American clinical psychologist James C. Carpenter.[5]

Criticism

The association has its critics, including physicist John Archibald Wheeler, who tried but failed to convince the AAAS to expel the organization in 1979.[6] During his presentation Wheeler incorrectly stated that J. B. Rhine had committed fraud as a student and retracted that statement in a letter to the Science journal.[7]

See also

• American Society for Psychical Research
• International Association for Near-Death Studies
Society for Psychical Research
• List of parapsychology topics

References

1. "Psi Journals & Publications". Parasychological Association. Retrieved 2010-05-20. (primary source)
2. Melton, J. G. (1996). Parapsychological Association. In Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology. Thomson Gale. ISBN 978-0-8103-9487-2.
3. Etzel Cardeña (Online Jan 27, 2014). "A call for an open, informed study of all aspects of consciousness". Frontiers of Human Neuroscience ( 8:17). 8: 17. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00017. PMC 3902298. PMID 24478682. Check date values in: |date= (help)
4. "AAAS Affiliates". American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved 2010-05-20.
5. "Board of Directors - The Parapsychological Association". http://www.parapsych.org.
6. Wheeler, John Archibald. "Drive the Pseudos out of the Workshop of Science".
7. Wheeler, J. A. (1979). "Parapsychology - A correction". Science. 205 (4402): 144.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 27254
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: His Holiness Grandmaster Professor Lin Yun 1932-2010

Postby admin » Thu Jun 13, 2019 7:45 pm

Part 1 of 3

Parapsychology
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 6/11/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Image
Photographs which purportedly depicted ghosts or spirits were popular during the 19th century.

Parapsychology is the study of paranormal and psychic phenomena, including telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, near-death experiences, synchronicity, reincarnation, apparitional experiences, and other paranormal claims. It is considered to be pseudoscience by a vast majority of mainstream scientists.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]

Parapsychology research is largely conducted by private institutions in several countries and funded through private donations,[8] and the subject almost never appears in mainstream science journals. Most papers about parapsychology are published in a small number of niche journals.[9] Parapsychology has been criticised for continuing investigation despite being unable to provide convincing evidence for the existence of any psychic phenomena after more than a century of research.[10][11]

Terminology

The term parapsychology was coined in 1889 by philosopher Max Dessoir as the German "parapsychologie."[12][13] It was adopted by J. B. Rhine in the 1930s as a replacement for the term psychical research in order to indicate a significant shift toward experimental methodology and academic discipline.[14] The term originates from the Greek: παρά para meaning "alongside", and psychology.

In parapsychology, psi is the unknown factor in extrasensory perception and psychokinesis experiences that is not explained by known physical or biological mechanisms.[15][16] The term is derived from the Greek ψ psi, 23rd letter of the Greek alphabet and the initial letter of the Greek ψυχή psyche, "mind, soul".[17][18] The term was coined by biologist Berthold P. Wiesner, and first used by psychologist Robert Thouless in a 1942 article published in the British Journal of Psychology.[19]

The Parapsychological Association divides psi into two main categories: psi-gamma for extrasensory perception and psi-kappa for psychokinesis.[18] In popular culture, "psi" has become more and more synonymous with special psychic, mental, and "psionic" abilities and powers.

History

Early psychical research


In 1853, the chemist Robert Hare conducted experiments with mediums and reported positive results.[20] Other researchers such as Frank Podmore highlighted flaws in his experiments, such as lack of controls to prevent trickery.[21][22] Agenor de Gasparin conducted early experiments into table-tipping. Over a period of five months in 1853 he declared the experiments a success being the result of an "ectenic force". Critics noted that the conditions were insufficient to prevent trickery. For example, the knees of the sitters may have been employed to move the table and no experimenter was watching above and below the table simultaneously.[23]

The German astrophysicist Johann Karl Friedrich Zöllner tested the medium Henry Slade in 1877. According to Zöllner some of the experiments were a success.[24] However, flaws in the experiments were discovered and critics have suggested that Slade was a fraud who performed trickery in the experiments.[25][26]

The Society for Psychical Research (SPR) was founded in London in 1882. Its formation was the first systematic effort to organize scientists and scholars to investigate paranormal phenomena. Early membership included philosophers, scholars, scientists, educators and politicians, such as Henry Sidgwick, Arthur Balfour, William Crookes, Rufus Osgood Mason and Nobel Laureate Charles Richet.[27] Presidents of the Society included, in addition to Richet, Eleanor Sidgwick and William James, and subsequently Nobel Laureates Henri Bergson and Lord Rayleigh, and philosopher C. D. Broad.[28]

Areas of study included telepathy, hypnotism, Reichenbach's phenomena, apparitions, hauntings, and the physical aspects of Spiritualism such as table-tilting, materialization and apportation.[29][30] In the 1880s, the Society investigated apparitional experiences and hallucinations in the sane. Among the first important works was the two-volume publication in 1886, Phantasms of the Living which was largely criticized by scholars.[31] In 1894, the Census of Hallucinations was published which sampled 17, 000 people. Out of these, 1, 684 persons admitted to having experienced a hallucination of an apparition.[32] The SPR became the model for similar societies in other European countries and the United States during the late 19th century.

Early clairvoyance experiments were reported in 1884 by Charles Richet. Playing cards were enclosed in envelopes and a subject put under hypnosis attempted to identify them. The subject was reported to have been successful in a series of 133 trials but the results dropped to chance level when performed before a group of scientists in Cambridge. J. M. Peirce and E. C. Pickering reported a similar experiment in which they tested 36 subjects over 23,384 trials which did not obtain above chance scores.[33]

In 1881, Eleanor Sidgwick revealed the fraudulent methods that spirit photographers such as Édouard Isidore Buguet, Frederic Hudson and William H. Mumler had utilized.[34] During the late nineteenth century many fraudulent mediums were exposed by SPR investigators.[35]

Largely due to the support of psychologist William James, the American Society for Psychical Research (ASPR) opened its doors in Boston in 1885, moving to New York City in 1905 under the leadership of James H. Hyslop.[36] Notable cases investigated by Walter Franklin Prince of the ASPR in the early 20th century included Pierre L. O. A. Keeler, the Great Amherst Mystery and Patience Worth.[37][38]

Rhine era

In 1911, Stanford University became the first academic institution in the United States to study extrasensory perception (ESP) and psychokinesis (PK) in a laboratory setting. The effort was headed by psychologist John Edgar Coover, and was supported by funds donated by Thomas Welton Stanford, brother of the university's founder. After conducting approximately 10,000 experiments, Coover concluded "statistical treatments of the data fail to reveal any cause beyond chance."[39]

In 1930, Duke University became the second major U.S. academic institution to engage in the critical study of ESP and psychokinesis in the laboratory. Under the guidance of psychologist William McDougall, and with the help of others in the department—including psychologists Karl Zener, Joseph B. Rhine, and Louisa E. Rhine—laboratory ESP experiments using volunteer subjects from the undergraduate student body began. As opposed to the approaches of psychical research, which generally sought qualitative evidence for paranormal phenomena, the experiments at Duke University proffered a quantitative, statistical approach using cards and dice. As a consequence of the ESP experiments at Duke, standard laboratory procedures for the testing of ESP developed and came to be adopted by interested researchers throughout the world.[36]

George Estabrooks conducted an ESP experiment using cards in 1927. Harvard students were used as the subjects. Estabrooks acted as the sender with the guesser in an adjoining room. In total 2,300 trials were conducted. When the subjects were sent to a distant room with insulation the scores dropped to chance level. Attempts to repeat the experiment also failed.[33]

The publication of J. B. Rhine's book, New Frontiers of the Mind (1937) brought the laboratory's findings to the general public. In his book, Rhine popularized the word "parapsychology", which psychologist Max Dessoir had coined over 40 years earlier, to describe the research conducted at Duke. Rhine also founded an autonomous Parapsychology Laboratory within Duke and started the Journal of Parapsychology, which he co-edited with McDougall.[36]

Image
Early parapsychological research employed the use of Zener cards in experiments designed to test for the existence of telepathic communication, or clairvoyant or precognitive perception.

Rhine, along with associate Karl Zener, had developed a statistical system of testing for ESP that involved subjects guessing what symbol, out of five possible symbols, would appear when going through a special deck of cards designed for this purpose. A percentage of correct guesses (or hits) significantly above 20% was perceived as higher than chance and indicative of psychic ability. Rhine stated in his first book, Extrasensory Perception (1934), that after 90,000 trials, he felt ESP is "an actual and demonstrable occurrence".[40]

Irish medium and parapsychologist, Eileen J. Garrett, was tested by Rhine at Duke University in 1933 with Zener cards. Certain symbols that were placed on the cards and sealed in an envelope, and she was asked to guess their contents. She performed poorly and later criticized the tests by claiming the cards lacked a psychic energy called "energy stimulus" and that she could not perform clairvoyance to order.[41] The parapsychologist Samuel Soal and his colleagues tested Garrett in May 1937. Most of the experiments were carried out in the Psychological Laboratory at University College London. A total of over 12,000 guesses were recorded but Garrett failed to produce above chance level.[42] In his report Soal wrote "In the case of Mrs. Eileen Garrett we fail to find the slightest confirmation of J. B. Rhine's remarkable claims relating to her alleged powers of extra-sensory perception. Not only did she fail when I took charge of the experiments, but she failed equally when four other carefully trained experimenters took my place."[43]

The parapsychology experiments at Duke evoked much criticism from academics and others who challenged the concepts and evidence of ESP. A number of psychological departments attempted to repeat Rhine's experiments with failure. W. S. Cox (1936) from Princeton University with 132 subjects produced 25,064 trials in a playing card ESP experiment. Cox concluded "There is no evidence of extrasensory perception either in the 'average man' or of the group investigated or in any particular individual of that group. The discrepancy between these results and those obtained by Rhine is due either to uncontrollable factors in experimental procedure or to the difference in the subjects."[44] Four other psychological departments failed to replicate Rhine's results.[45] After thousands of card runs, James Charles Crumbaugh failed to duplicate the results of Rhine.[46]

In 1938, the psychologist Joseph Jastrow wrote that much of the evidence for extrasensory perception collected by Rhine and other parapsychologists was anecdotal, biased, dubious and the result of "faulty observation and familiar human frailties".[47] Rhine's experiments were discredited due to the discovery that sensory leakage or cheating could account for all his results such as the subject being able to read the symbols from the back of the cards and being able to see and hear the experimenter to note subtle clues.[48][49][50][51]

Illusionist Milbourne Christopher wrote years later that he felt "there are at least a dozen ways a subject who wished to cheat under the conditions Rhine described could deceive the investigator". When Rhine took precautions in response to criticisms of his methods, he was unable to find any high-scoring subjects.[52] Another criticism, made by chemist Irving Langmuir, among others, was one of selective reporting. Langmuir stated that Rhine did not report scores of subjects that he suspected were intentionally guessing wrong, and that this, he felt, biased the statistical results higher than they should have been.[53]

Rhine and his colleagues attempted to address these criticisms through new experiments described in the book Extrasensory Perception After Sixty Years (1940).[54] Rhine described three experiments the Pearce-Pratt experiment, the Pratt-Woodruff experiment and the Ownbey-Zirkle series which he believed demonstrated ESP. However, C. E. M. Hansel wrote "it is now known that each experiment contained serious flaws that escaped notice in the examination made by the authors of Extra-Sensory Perception After Sixty Years".[33] Joseph Gaither Pratt was the co-experimenter in the Pearce-Pratt and Pratt-Woodruff experiments at the Duke campus. Hansel visited the campus where the experiments took place and discovered the results could have originated through the use of a trick so could not regarded as supplying evidence for ESP.[55]

In 1957, Rhine and Joseph Gaither Pratt wrote Parapsychology: Frontier Science of the Mind. Because of the methodological problems, parapsychologists no longer utilize card-guessing studies.[56] Rhine's experiments into psychokinesis (PK) were also criticized. John Sladek wrote:

His research used dice, with subjects 'willing' them to fall a certain way. Not only can dice be drilled, shaved, falsely numbered and manipulated, but even straight dice often show bias in the long run. Casinos for this reason retire dice often, but at Duke, subjects continued to try for the same effect on the same dice over long experimental runs. Not surprisingly, PK appeared at Duke and nowhere else.[57]


The Ownbey-Zirkle ESP experiment at Duke was criticized by parapsychologists and skeptics.[58] Ownbey would attempt to send ESP symbols to Zirkle who would guess what they were. The pair were placed in adjacent rooms unable to see each other and an electric fan was used to prevent the pair communicating by sensory cues. Ownbey tapped a telegraph key to Zirkle to inform him when she was trying to send him a symbol. The door separating the two rooms was open during the experiment, and after each guess Zirkle would call out his guess to Ownbey who recorded his choice. Critics pointed out the experiment was flawed as Ownbey acted as both the sender and the experimenter, nobody was controlling the experiment so Ownbey could have cheated by communicating with Zirkle or made recording mistakes.[58][59]

The Turner-Ownbey long distance telepathy experiment was discovered to contain flaws. May Frances Turner positioned herself in the Duke Parapsychology Laboratory whilst Sara Ownbey claimed to receive transmissions 250 miles away. For the experiment Turner would think of a symbol and write it down whilst Ownbey would write her guesses.[57] The scores were highly successful and both records were supposed to be sent to J. B. Rhine, however, Ownbey sent them to Turner. Critics pointed out this invalidated the results as she could have simply written her own record to agree with the other. When the experiment was repeated and the records were sent to Rhine the scores dropped to average.[57][60][61]

A famous ESP experiment at the Duke University was performed by Lucien Warner and Mildred Raible. The subject was locked in a room with a switch controlling a signal light elsewhere, which she could signal to guess the card. Ten runs with ESP packs of cards were used and she achieved 93 hits (43 more than chance). Weaknesses with the experiment were later discovered. The duration of the light signal could be varied so that the subject could call for specific symbols and certain symbols in the experiment came up far more often than others which indicated either poor shuffling or card manipulation. The experiment was not repeated.[57][62]

The administration of Duke grew less sympathetic to parapsychology, and after Rhine's retirement in 1965 parapsychological links with the university were broken. Rhine later established the Foundation for Research on the Nature of Man (FRNM) and the Institute for Parapsychology as a successor to the Duke laboratory.[36] In 1995, the centenary of Rhine's birth, the FRNM was renamed the Rhine Research Center. Today, the Rhine Research Center is a parapsychology research unit, stating that it "aims to improve the human condition by creating a scientific understanding of those abilities and sensitivities that appear to transcend the ordinary limits of space and time".[63]

Establishment of the Parapsychological Association

The Parapsychological Association (PA) was created in Durham, North Carolina, on June 19, 1957. Its formation was proposed by J. B. Rhine at a workshop on parapsychology which was held at the Parapsychology Laboratory of Duke University. Rhine proposed that the group form itself into the nucleus of an international professional society in parapsychology. The aim of the organization, as stated in its Constitution, became "to advance parapsychology as a science, to disseminate knowledge of the field, and to integrate the findings with those of other branches of science".[64]

In 1969, under the direction of anthropologist Margaret Mead, the Parapsychological Association became affiliated with the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the largest general scientific society in the world.[65] In 1979, physicist John A. Wheeler said that parapsychology is pseudoscientific, and that the affiliation of the PA to the AAAS needed to be reconsidered.[66][67]

His challenge to parapsychology's AAAS affiliation was unsuccessful.[67] Today, the PA consists of about three hundred full, associate, and affiliated members worldwide.[68]


Stargate Project

Beginning in the early 1950s, the CIA started extensive research into behavioral engineering. The findings from these experiments led to the formation of the Stargate Project, which handled ESP research for the U.S. federal government.

The Stargate Project was terminated in 1995 with the conclusion that it was never useful in any intelligence operation. The information was vague and included a lot of irrelevant and erroneous data. There was also reason to suspect that the research managers had adjusted their project reports to fit the known background cues.[69]

1970s and 1980s

The affiliation of the Parapsychological Association (PA) with the American Association for the Advancement of Science, along with a general openness to psychic and occult phenomena in the 1970s, led to a decade of increased parapsychological research. During this period, other related organizations were also formed, including the Academy of Parapsychology and Medicine (1970), the Institute of Parascience (1971), the Academy of Religion and Psychical Research, the Institute of Noetic Sciences (1973), the International Kirlian Research Association (1975), and the Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research Laboratory (1979). Parapsychological work was also conducted at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) during this time.[14]

The scope of parapsychology expanded during these years. Psychiatrist Ian Stevenson conducted much of his research into reincarnation during the 1970s, and the second edition of his Twenty Cases Suggestive of Reincarnation was published in 1974. Psychologist Thelma Moss devoted time to the study of Kirlian photography at UCLA's parapsychology laboratory. The influx of spiritual teachers from Asia, and their claims of abilities produced by meditation, led to research on altered states of consciousness. American Society for Psychical Research Director of Research, Karlis Osis, conducted experiments in out of body experiences. Physicist Russell Targ coined the term remote viewing for use in some of his work at SRI in 1974.[14]

The surge in paranormal research continued into the 1980s: the Parapsychological Association reported members working in more than 30 countries. For example, research was carried out and regular conferences held in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union[14] although the word parapsychology was discarded in favour of the term psychotronics.[70] The main promoter of psychotronics was Czech scientist Zdeněk Rejdák, who described it as a physical science, organizing conferences and presiding over the International Association for Psychotronic Research.[71]


In 1985 a Chair of Parapsychology was established within the Department of Psychology at the University of Edinburgh and was given to Robert Morris, an experimental parapsychologist from the United States. Morris and his research associates and PhD students pursued research on topics related to parapsychology.[72]

Modern era

Image
Bernard Carr (astronomer), one-time president of the Society for Psychical Research

Since the 1980s, contemporary parapsychological research has waned considerably in the United States.[73] Early research was considered inconclusive, and parapsychologists were faced with strong opposition from their academic colleagues.[14] Some effects thought to be paranormal, for example the effects of Kirlian photography (thought by some to represent a human aura), disappeared under more stringent controls, leaving those avenues of research at dead-ends.[14] The bulk of parapsychology research in the US is now confined to private institutions funded by private sources.[14] After 28 years of research, Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research Laboratory (PEAR), which studied psychokinesis, closed in 2007.[73]

Two universities in the United States currently have academic parapsychology laboratories. The Division of Perceptual Studies, a unit at the University of Virginia's Department of Psychiatric Medicine, studies the possibility of survival of consciousness after bodily death, near-death experiences, and out-of-body experiences.[74] Gary Schwartz at the University of Arizona's Veritas Laboratory conducted laboratory investigations of mediums, criticized by scientific skeptics. Several private institutions, including the Institute of Noetic Sciences, conduct and promote parapsychological research.[73]

Over the last two decades some new sources of funding for parapsychology in Europe have seen a "substantial increase in European parapsychological research so that the center of gravity for the field has swung from the United States to Europe".[75] Of all nations the United Kingdom has the largest number of active parapsychologists.[75] In the UK, researchers work in conventional psychology departments, and also do studies in mainstream psychology to "boost their credibility and show that their methods are sound". It is thought that this approach could account for the relative strength of parapsychology in Britain.[73]

As of 2007, parapsychology research is represented in some 30 different countries[75] and a number of universities worldwide continue academic parapsychology programs. Among these are the Koestler Parapsychology Unit at the University of Edinburgh;[76] the Parapsychology Research Group at Liverpool Hope University (this closed in April 2011);[77][78] the SOPHIA Project at the University of Arizona;[79] the Consciousness and Transpersonal Psychology Research Unit of Liverpool John Moores University;[80] the Center for the Study of Anomalous Psychological Processes at the University of Northampton;[81] and the Anomalistic Psychology Research Unit at Goldsmiths, University of London.[82]

Research and professional organizations include the Parapsychological Association;[83] the Society for Psychical Research, publisher of the Journal of Society for Psychical Research;[84] the American Society for Psychical Research, publisher of the Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research (last published in 2004);[85] the Rhine Research Center and Institute for Parapsychology, publisher of the Journal of Parapsychology;[86] the Parapsychology Foundation, which published the International Journal of Parapsychology (between 1959 and 1968 and 2000–2001)[87] and the Australian Institute of Parapsychological Research, publisher of the Australian Journal of Parapsychology.[88] The European Journal of Parapsychology ceased publishing in 2010.[89]

Parapsychological research has also included other sub-disciplines of psychology. These related fields include transpersonal psychology, which studies transcendent or spiritual aspects of the human mind, and anomalistic psychology, which examines paranormal beliefs and subjective anomalous experiences in traditional psychological terms.[73][90]

Research

Scope


Parapsychologists study a number of ostensible paranormal phenomena, including but not limited to:

• Telepathy: Transfer of information on thoughts or feelings between individuals by means other than the five classical senses.
• Precognition: Perception of information about future places or events before they occur.
• Clairvoyance: Obtaining information about places or events at remote locations, by means unknown to current science.
• Psychokinesis: The ability of the mind to influence matter, time, space, or energy by means unknown to current science.
• Near-death experiences: An experience reported by a person who nearly died, or who experienced clinical death and then revived.
• Reincarnation: The rebirth of a soul or other non-physical aspect of human consciousness in a new physical body after death.
• Apparitional experiences: Phenomena often attributed to ghosts and encountered in places a deceased individual is thought to have frequented, or in association with the person's former belongings.

The definitions for the terms above may not reflect their mainstream usage, nor the opinions of all parapsychologists and their critics.

According to the Parapsychological Association, parapsychologists do not study all paranormal phenomena, nor are they concerned with astrology, UFOs, cryptozoology, paganism, vampires, alchemy, or witchcraft.[91]

Journals dealing with parapsychology include the Journal of Parapsychology, Journal of Near-Death Studies, Journal of Consciousness Studies, Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, and Journal of Scientific Exploration.

Experimental research

Ganzfeld


The Ganzfeld (German for "whole field") is a technique used to test individuals for telepathy. The technique—a form of moderate sensory deprivation—was developed to quickly quiet mental "noise" by providing mild, unpatterned stimuli to the visual and auditory senses. The visual sense is usually isolated by creating a soft red glow which is diffused through half ping-pong balls placed over the recipient's eyes. The auditory sense is usually blocked by playing white noise, static, or similar sounds to the recipient. The subject is also seated in a reclined, comfortable position to minimize the sense of touch.[92]

In the typical Ganzfeld experiment, a "sender" and a "receiver" are isolated.[93] The receiver is put into the Ganzfeld state,[92] or Ganzfeld effect and the sender is shown a video clip or still picture and asked to mentally send that image to the receiver. The receiver, while in the Ganzfeld, is asked to continuously speak aloud all mental processes, including images, thoughts, and feelings. At the end of the sending period, typically about 20 to 40 minutes in length, the receiver is taken out of the Ganzfeld state and shown four images or videos, one of which is the true target and three of which are non-target decoys. The receiver attempts to select the true target, using perceptions experienced during the Ganzfeld state as clues to what the mentally "sent" image might have been.

Image
Participant of a Ganzfeld experiment. Proponents say such experiments have shown evidence of telepathy,[94] while critics like Ray Hyman have pointed out that they have not been independently replicated.[95]

The Ganzfeld experiment studies that were examined by Ray Hyman and Charles Honorton had methodological problems that were well documented. Honorton reported only 36% of the studies used duplicate target sets of pictures to avoid handling cues.[96] Hyman discovered flaws in all of the 42 Ganzfeld experiments and to assess each experiment, he devised a set of 12 categories of flaws. Six of these concerned statistical defects, the other six covered procedural flaws such as inadequate documentation, randomization and security as well as possibilities of sensory leakage.[97] Over half of the studies failed to safeguard against sensory leakage and all of the studies contained at least one of the 12 flaws. Because of the flaws, Honorton agreed with Hyman the 42 Ganzfeld studies could not support the claim for the existence of psi.[97]

Possibilities of sensory leakage in the Ganzfeld experiments included the receivers hearing what was going on in the sender's room next door as the rooms were not soundproof and the sender's fingerprints to be visible on the target object for the receiver to see.[98][99] Hyman reviewed the autoganzfeld experiments and discovered a pattern in the data that implied a visual cue may have taken place. Hyman wrote the autoganzfeld experiments were flawed because they did not preclude the possibility of sensory leakage.[97]

In 2010, Lance Storm, Patrizio Tressoldi, and Lorenzo Di Risio analyzed 29 Ganzfeld studies from 1997 to 2008. Of the 1,498 trials, 483 produced hits, corresponding to a hit rate of 32.2%. This hit rate is statistically significant with p < .001. Participants selected for personality traits and personal characteristics thought to be psi-conducive were found to perform significantly better than unselected participants in the Ganzfeld condition.[100] Hyman (2010) published a rebuttal to Storm et al. According to Hyman, "Reliance on meta-analysis as the sole basis for justifying the claim that an anomaly exists and that the evidence for it is consistent and replicable is fallacious. It distorts what scientists mean by confirmatory evidence." Hyman wrote that the Ganzfeld studies were not independently replicated and failed to produce evidence for psi.[95] Storm et al. published a response to Hyman stating that the Ganzfeld experimental design has proved to be consistent and reliable, that parapsychology is a struggling discipline that has not received much attention, and that therefore further research on the subject is necessary.[94] Rouder et al. 2013 wrote that critical evaluation of Storm et al.'s meta-analysis reveals no evidence for psi, no plausible mechanism and omitted replication failures.[101]

Remote viewing

Image
Russell Targ, co-founder of the Stargate Project

Remote viewing is the practice of seeking impressions about a distant or unseen target using subjective means, in particular, extrasensory perception. Typically a remote viewer is expected to give information about an object, event, person or location that is hidden from physical view and separated at some distance.[102] Several hundred such trials have been conducted by investigators over the past 25 years, including those by the Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research Laboratory (PEAR) and by scientists at SRI International and Science Applications International Corporation.[103][104] Many of these were under contract by the U.S. government as part of the espionage program Stargate Project, which terminated in 1995 having failed to document any practical intelligence value.[105]

The psychologists David Marks and Richard Kammann attempted to replicate Russell Targ and Harold Puthoff’s remote viewing experiments that were carried out in the 1970s at the Stanford Research Institute. In a series of 35 studies, they were unable to replicate the results, motivating them to investigate the procedure of the original experiments. Marks and Kammann discovered that the notes given to the judges in Targ and Puthoff's experiments contained clues as to the order in which they were carried out, such as referring to yesterday's two targets, or they had the date of the session written at the top of the page. They concluded that these clues were the reason for the experiment's high hit rates.[106][107] Marks was able to achieve 100 per cent accuracy without visiting any of the sites himself but by using cues.[108] James Randi wrote controlled tests in collaboration with several other researchers, eliminating several sources of cuing and extraneous evidence present in the original tests; Randi's controlled tests produced negative results. Students were also able to solve Puthoff and Targ's locations from the cues that had inadvertently been included in the transcripts.[109]

In 1980, Charles Tart claimed that a rejudging of the transcripts from one of Targ and Puthoff’s experiments revealed an above-chance result.[110] Targ and Puthoff again refused to provide copies of the transcripts and it was not until July 1985 that they were made available for study, when it was discovered they still contained sensory cues.[111] Marks and Christopher Scott (1986) wrote "considering the importance for the remote viewing hypothesis of adequate cue removal, Tart’s failure to perform this basic task seems beyond comprehension. As previously concluded, remote viewing has not been demonstrated in the experiments conducted by Puthoff and Targ, only the repeated failure of the investigators to remove sensory cues."[112]

PEAR closed its doors at the end of February 2007. Its founder, Robert G. Jahn, said of it that, "For 28 years, we’ve done what we wanted to do, and there’s no reason to stay and generate more of the same data."[113] Statistical flaws in his work have been proposed by others in the parapsychological community and within the general scientific community.[114][115] The physicist Robert L. Park said of PEAR, "It’s been an embarrassment to science, and I think an embarrassment for Princeton".[113]
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 27254
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: His Holiness Grandmaster Professor Lin Yun 1932-2010

Postby admin » Thu Jun 13, 2019 7:46 pm

Part 2 of 3

Psychokinesis on random number generators

The advent of powerful and inexpensive electronic and computer technologies has allowed the development of fully automated experiments studying possible interactions between mind and matter. In the most common experiment of this type, a random number generator (RNG), based on electronic or radioactive noise, produces a data stream that is recorded and analyzed by computer software. A subject attempts to mentally alter the distribution of the random numbers, usually in an experimental design that is functionally equivalent to getting more "heads" than "tails" while flipping a coin. In the RNG experiment, design flexibility can be combined with rigorous controls, while collecting a large amount of data in a very short period of time. This technique has been used both to test individuals for psychokinesis and to test the possible influence on RNGs of large groups of people.[116]

Major meta-analyses of the RNG database have been published every few years since appearing in the journal Foundations of Physics in 1986.[116] PEAR founder Robert G. Jahn and his colleague Brenda Dunne say that the experiments produced "a very small effect" not large enough to be observed over a brief experiment but over a large number of trials resulted in a tiny statistical deviation from chance.[117] According to Massimo Pigliucci the results from PEAR can be explained without invoking the paranormal because of two problems with the experiment "the difficulty of designing machines capable of generating truly random events and the fact that statistical "significance" is not at all a good measure of the importance or genuineness of a phenomenon."[118] Pigluicci has written the statistical analysis used by the Jahn and the PEAR group relied on a quantity called a "p-value" but a problem with p-values is that if the sample size (number of trials) is very large like PEAR then one is guaranteed to find artificially low p-values indicating a statistical "significant" result even though nothing was occurring other than small biases in the experimental apparatus.[118]

Two German independent scientific groups have failed to replicate the PEAR results.[118] Pigliucci has written this was "yet another indication that the simplest hypothesis is likely to be true: there was nothing to replicate."[118] The most recent meta-analysis on psychokinesis was published in Psychological Bulletin, along with several critical commentaries. It analyzed the results of 380 studies; the authors reported an overall positive effect size that was statistically significant but very small relative to the sample size and could, in principle, be explained by publication bias.[119][120][121]

Direct mental interactions with living systems

Formerly called bio-PK, "direct mental interactions with living systems" (DMILS) studies the effects of one person's intentions on a distant person's psychophysiological state.[122] One type of DMILS experiment looks at the commonly reported "feeling of being stared at." The "starer" and the "staree" are isolated in different locations, and the starer is periodically asked to simply gaze at the staree via closed circuit video links. Meanwhile, the staree's nervous system activity is automatically and continuously monitored.

Parapsychologists have interpreted the cumulative data on this and similar DMILS experiments to suggest that one person's attention directed towards a remote, isolated person can significantly activate or calm that person's nervous system. In a meta-analysis of these experiments published in the British Journal of Psychology in 2004, researchers found that there was a small but significant overall DMILS effect. However, the study also found that when a small number of the highest-quality studies from one laboratory were analyzed, the effect size was not significant. The authors concluded that although the existence of some anomaly related to distant intentions cannot be ruled out, there was also a shortage of independent replications and theoretical concepts.[122]

Dream telepathy

Parapsychological studies into dream telepathy were carried out at the Maimonides Medical Center in Brooklyn, New York led by Stanley Krippner and Montague Ullman. They concluded the results from some of their experiments supported dream telepathy.[123] However, the results have not been independently replicated.[124][125][126][127]

The picture target experiments that were conducted by Krippner and Ullman were criticized by C. E. M. Hansel. According to Hansel there were weaknesses in the design of the experiments in the way in which the agent became aware of their target picture. Only the agent should have known the target and no other person until the judging of targets had been completed; however, an experimenter was with the agent when the target envelope was opened. Hansel also wrote there had been poor controls in the experiment as the main experimenter could communicate with the subject.[128] In 2002, Krippner denied Hansel's accusations, claiming the agent did not communicate with the experimenter.[129]

An attempt to replicate the experiments that used picture targets was carried out by Edward Belvedere and David Foulkes. The finding was that neither the subject nor the judges matched the targets with dreams above chance level.[130] Results from other experiments by Belvedere and Foulkes were also negative.[131]

In 2003, Simon Sherwood and Chris Roe wrote a review that claimed support for dream telepathy at Maimonides.[132] However, James Alcock noted that their review was based on "extreme messiness" of data. Alcock concluded the dream telepathy experiments at Maimonides have failed to provide evidence for telepathy and "lack of replication is rampant."[133]

Near-death experiences

Image
Ascent of the Blessed by Hieronymus Bosch (after 1490) depicts a tunnel of light and spiritual figures similar to those reported by near-death experiencers.[134][135]

A near-death experience (NDE) is an experience reported by a person who nearly died, or who experienced clinical death and then revived. NDEs include one or more of the following experiences: a sense of being dead; an out-of-body experience; a sensation of floating above one's body and seeing the surrounding area; a sense of overwhelming love and peace; a sensation of moving upwards through a tunnel or narrow passageway; meeting deceased relatives or spiritual figures; encountering a being of light, or a light; experiencing a life review; reaching a border or boundary; and a feeling of being returned to the body, often accompanied by reluctance.[136]

Interest in the NDE was originally spurred by the research of psychiatrists Elisabeth Kübler-Ross, George G. Ritchie, and Raymond Moody. In 1975, Moody wrote the best-selling book Life After Life and in 1977 he wrote a second book, Reflections on Life After Life.[137] In 1998 Moody was appointed chair in "consciousness studies" at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. The International Association for Near-death Studies (IANDS) was founded in 1978 to meet the needs of early researchers and experiencers within this field of research. Later researchers, such as psychiatrist Bruce Greyson, psychologist Kenneth Ring, and cardiologist Michael Sabom, introduced the study of near-death experiences to the academic setting.[136]

Reincarnation research

Psychiatrist Ian Stevenson, from the University of Virginia, conducted more than 2,500 case studies over a period of 40 years and published twelve books. He wrote that childhood memories ostensibly related to reincarnation normally occurred between the ages of three and seven years then fade shortly afterwards. He compared the memories with reports of people known to the deceased, attempting to do so before any contact between the child and the deceased's family had occurred,[138] and searched for disconfirming evidence that could provide alternative explanations for the reports aside from reincarnation.[139]

Some 35 per cent of the subjects examined by Stevenson had birthmarks or birth defects. Stevenson believed that the existence of birth marks and deformities on children, when they occurred at the location of fatal wounds in the deceased, provided the best evidence for reincarnation.[140] However, Stevenson has never claimed that he had proved the existence of reincarnation, and cautiously referred to his cases as being "of the reincarnation type" or "suggestive of reincarnation".[141] Researchers who believe in the evidence for reincarnation have been unsuccessful in getting the scientific community to consider it a serious possibility.[142]

Ian Wilson argued that a large number of Stevenson’s cases consisted of poor children remembering wealthy lives or belonging to a higher caste. He speculated that such cases may represent a scheme to obtain money from the family of the alleged former incarnation.[143] Philosopher Keith Augustine has written "the vast majority of Stevenson's cases come from countries where a religious belief in reincarnation is strong, and rarely elsewhere, seems to indicate that cultural conditioning (rather than reincarnation) generates claims of spontaneous past-life memories."[144] According to the research of Robert Baker many of the alleged past-life experiences investigated by Stevenson and other parapsychologists can be explained in terms of known psychological factors. Baker has written the recalling of past lives is a mixture of cryptomnesia and confabulation.[145] Philosopher Paul Edwards noted that reincarnation invokes assumptions and is inconsistent with modern science.[146]

Scientific reception

Image
James Alcock is a notable critic of parapsychology.

Evaluation

The scientific consensus is that there is insufficient evidence to support the existence of psi phenomena.[147][148][149][150][151][152][153][154]

Scientists critical of parapsychology state that its extraordinary claims demand extraordinary evidence if they are to be taken seriously.[155] Scientists who have evaluated parapsychology have written the entire body of evidence is of poor quality and not adequately controlled.[156] In support of this view, critics cite instances of fraud, flawed studies, and cognitive biases (such as clustering illusion, availability error, confirmation bias, illusion of control, magical thinking, and the bias blind spot) as ways to explain parapsychological results.[157][158] Research has also shown that people's desire to believe in paranormal phenomena causes them to discount strong evidence that it does not exist.[159]

The psychologists Donovan Rawcliffe (1952), C. E. M. Hansel (1980), Ray Hyman (1989) and Andrew Neher (2011) have studied the history of psi experiments from the late 19th century up until the 1980s. In every experiment investigated, flaws and weaknesses were discovered so the possibility of sensory leakage and trickery were not ruled out. The data from the Creery sister and the Soal-Goldney experiments were proven to be fraudulent, one of the subjects from the Smith-Blackburn experiments confessed to fraud, the Brugmans experiment, the experiments by John Edgar Coover and those conducted by Joseph Gaither Pratt and Helmut Schmidt had flaws in the design of the experiments, did not rule out the possibility of sensory cues or trickery and have not been replicated.[160][161][162][163]

According to critics, psi is negatively defined as any effect that cannot be currently explained in terms of chance or normal causes and this is a fallacy as it encourages parapsychologists into using any peculiarity in the data as a characteristic of psi.[97][164] Parapsychologists have admitted it is impossible to eliminate the possibility of non-paranormal causes in their experiments. There is no independent method to indicate the presence or absence of psi.[97] Persi Diaconis has written that the controls in parapsychological experiments are often loose with possibilities of subject cheating and unconscious sensory cues.[165]

The existence of parapsychological phenomena and the scientific validity of parapsychological research is disputed by independent evaluators and researchers. In 1988, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences published a report on the subject that concluded that "no scientific justification from research conducted over a period of 130 years for the existence of parapsychological phenomena."[166] No accepted theory of parapsychology currently exists, and many competing and often conflicting models have been advocated by different parapsychologists in an attempt to explain reported paranormal phenomena.[167] Terence Hines in his book Pseudoscience and the Paranormal (2003) wrote "Many theories have been proposed by parapsychologists to explain how psi takes place. To skeptics, such theory building seems premature, as the phenomena to be explained by the theories have yet to be demonstrated convincingly."[168] Skeptics such as Antony Flew have cited the lack of such a theory as their reason for rejecting parapsychology.[169]

In 1998, physics professor Michael W. Friedlander noted that parapsychology has "failed to produce any clear evidence for the existence of anomalous effects that require us to go beyond the known region of science."[170] Philosopher and skeptic Robert Todd Carroll has written research in parapsychology has been characterized by "deception, fraud, and incompetence in setting up properly controlled experiments and evaluating statistical data."[171] The psychologist Ray Hyman has pointed out that some parapsychologists such as Dick Bierman, Walter Lucadou, J. E. Kennedy, and Robert Jahn have admitted the evidence for psi is "inconsistent, irreproducible, and fails to meet acceptable scientific standards."[172] Richard Wiseman has criticized the parapsychological community for widespread errors in research methods including cherry-picking new procedures which may produce preferred results, explaining away unsuccessful attempted replications with claims of an "experimenter effect", data mining, and retrospective data selection.[173]

In a review of parapsychological reports Hyman wrote "randomization is often inadequate, multiple statistical testing without adjustment for significance levels is prevalent, possibilities for sensory leakage are not uniformly prevented, errors in use of statistical tests are much too common, and documentation is typically inadequate".[174] Parapsychology has been criticized for making no precise predictions.[175]

Image
Ray Hyman (standing), Lee Ross, Daryl Bem and Victor Benassi at the 1983 CSICOP Conference in Buffalo, New York

In 2003, James Alcock Professor of Psychology at York University published Give the Null Hypothesis a Chance: Reasons to Remain Doubtful about the Existence of Psi, where he claimed that parapsychologists never seem to take seriously the possibility that psi does not exist. Because of that, they interpret null results as indicating only that they were unable to observe psi in a particular experiment, rather than taking it as support for the possibility that there is no psi. The failure to take the null hypothesis as a serious alternative to their psi hypotheses leads them to rely upon a number of arbitrary "effects" to excuse failures to find predicted effects, excuse the lack of consistency in outcomes, and to excuse failures to replicate.[164]

Basic endemic problems in parapsychological research include amongst others: insufficient definition of the subject matter, total reliance on negative definitions of their phenomena (E.g.- psi is said to occur only when all known normal influences are ruled out); failure to produce a single phenomenon that can be independently replicated by neutral researchers; the invention of "effects" such as the psi-experimenter effect to explain away inconsistencies in the data and failures to achieve predicted outcomes; unfalsifiability of claims; unpredictability of effects; lack of progress in over a century of formal research; methodological weaknesses; reliance on statistical procedures to determine when psi has supposedly occurred, even though statistical analysis does not in itself justify a claim that psi has occurred; and failure to jibe with other areas of science. Overall, he argues that there is nothing in parapsychological research that would ever lead parapsychologists to conclude that psi does not exist, and so, even if it does not, the search is likely to continue for a long time to come. "I continue to believe that parapsychology is, at bottom, motivated by belief in search of data, rather than data in search of explanation."[164]

Richard Land has written that from what is known about human biology it is highly unlikely that evolution has provided humans with ESP as research has shown the recognized five senses are adequate for the evolution and survival of the species.[176] Michael Shermer in an article Psychic Drift: Why most scientists do not believe in ESP and psi phenomena for Scientific American wrote "the reason for skepticism is that we need replicable data and a viable theory, both of which are missing in psi research."[177]

In January 2008 the results of a study using neuroimaging were published. To provide what are purported to be the most favorable experimental conditions, the study included appropriate emotional stimuli and had participants who are biologically or emotionally related, such as twins. The experiment was designed to produce positive results if telepathy, clairvoyance or precognition occurred, but despite this no distinguishable neuronal responses were found between psychic stimuli and non-psychic stimuli, while variations in the same stimuli showed anticipated effects on patterns of brain activation. The researchers concluded that "These findings are the strongest evidence yet obtained against the existence of paranormal mental phenomena."[178] Other studies have attempted to test the psi hypothesis by using functional neuroimaging. A neuroscience review of the studies (Acunzo et al. 2013) discovered methodological weaknesses that could account for the reported psi effects.[179]

A 2014 study discovered that schizophrenic patients have more belief in psi than healthy adults.[180]

Some researchers have become skeptical of parapsychology such as Susan Blackmore and John Taylor after years of study and no progress in demonstrating the existence of psi by the scientific method.[181][182]

Physics

The ideas of psi (precognition, psychokinesis and telepathy) violate well-established laws of physics.[183] Psychokinesis violates the inverse-square law, the second law of thermodynamics, and the conservation of momentum.[184][185] There is no known mechanism for psi.[186]

On the subject of psychokinesis, the physicist Sean M. Carroll has written that both human brains and the spoons they try to bend are made, like all matter, of quarks and leptons; everything else they do emerges as properties of the behavior of quarks and leptons. And the quarks and leptons interact through the four forces: strong, weak, electromagnetic and gravitational. Thus either it's one of the four known forces or it's a new force, and any new force with range over 1 millimetre must be at most a billionth the strength of gravity or it will have been captured in experiments already done. This leaves no physical force that could possibly account for psychokinesis.[187]

Physicist John G. Taylor who investigated parapsychological claims has written an unknown fifth force causing psychokinesis would have to transmit a great deal of energy. The energy would have to overcome the electromagnetic forces binding the atoms together. The atoms would need to respond more strongly to the fifth force while it is operative than to electric forces. Such an additional force between atoms should therefore exist all the time and not during only alleged paranormal occurrences. Taylor wrote there is no scientific trace of such a force in physics, down to many orders of magnitude; thus if a scientific viewpoint is to be preserved the idea of any fifth force must be discarded. Taylor concluded there is no possible physical mechanism for psychokinesis and it is in complete contradiction to established science.[188]

Felix Planer, a professor of electrical engineering, has written that if psychokinesis was real then it would be easy to demonstrate by getting subjects to depress a scale on a sensitive balance, raise the temperature of a water bath which could be measured with an accuracy of a hundredth of a degree Celsius or affect an element in an electrical circuit such as a resistor which could be monitored to better than a millionth of an ampere.[189] Planer writes that such experiments are extremely sensitive and easy to monitor but are not utilized by parapsychologists as they "do not hold out the remotest hope of demonstrating even a minute trace of PK" because the alleged phenomenon is non-existent. Planer has written parapsychologists have to fall back on studies that involve only statistics that are unrepeatable, owing their results to poor experimental methods, recording mistakes and faulty statistical mathematics.[189]

According to Planer, "all research in medicine and other sciences would become illusionary, if the existence of PK had to be taken seriously; for no experiment could be relied upon to furnish objective results, since all measurements would become falsified to a greater or lesser degree, according to his PK ability, by the experimenter's wishes." Planer concluded the concept of psychokinesis is absurd and has no scientific basis.[190]

Philosopher and physicist Mario Bunge has written that "psychokinesis, or PK, violates the principle that mind cannot act directly on matter. (If it did, no experimenter could trust his readings of measuring instruments.) It also violates the principles of conservation of energy and momentum. The claim that quantum mechanics allows for the possibility of mental power influencing randomizers—an alleged case of micro-PK—is ludicrous since that theory respects the said conservation principles, and it deals exclusively with physical things."[191]

The physicist Robert L. Park questioned if mind really could influence matter then it would be easy for parapsychologists to measure such a phenomenon by using the alleged psychokinetic power to deflect a microbalance which would not require any dubious statistics but "the reason, of course, is that the microbalance stubbornly refuses to budge."[117] Park has suggested the reason statistical studies are so popular in parapsychology is because they introduce opportunities for uncertainty and error which are used to support the biases of the experimenter. Park wrote "No proof of psychic phenomena is ever found. In spite of all the tests devised by parapsychologists like Jahn and Radin, and huge amounts of data collected over a period of many years, the results are no more convincing today than when they began their experiments."[117]

Pseudoscience

Image
Mario Bunge has described parapsychology as a "pseudoscience paragon".[192]

Parapsychological theories are viewed as pseudoscientific by the scientific community as they are incompatible with well established laws of science. As there is no repeatable evidence for psi, the field is often regarded as a pseudoscience.[193][194][195][196]

The philosopher Raimo Tuomela summarized why the majority of scientists consider parapsychology to be a pseudoscience in his essay "Science, Protoscience, and Pseudoscience".[197]

• Parapsychology relies on an ill-defined ontology and typically shuns exact thinking.
• The hypotheses and theories of parapsychology have not been proven and are in bad shape.
• Extremely little progress has taken place in parapsychology on the whole and parapsychology conflicts with established science.
• Parapsychology has poor research problems, being concerned with establishing the existence of its subject matter and having practically no theories to create proper research problems.
• While in parts of parapsychology there are attempts to use the methods of science there are also unscientific areas; and in any case parapsychological research can at best qualify as prescientific because of its poor theoretical foundation.
• Parapsychology is a largely isolated research area.

The methods of parapsychologists are regarded by critics, including those who wrote the science standards for the California State Board of Education,[198] to be pseudoscientific.[199] Some of the more specific criticisms state that parapsychology does not have a clearly defined subject matter, an easily repeatable experiment that can demonstrate a psi effect on demand, nor an underlying theory to explain the paranormal transfer of information.[200] James Alcock has stated that few of parapsychology's experimental results have prompted interdisciplinary research with more mainstream sciences such as physics or biology, and that parapsychology remains an isolated science to such an extent that its very legitimacy is questionable,[201] and as a whole is not justified in being labeled "scientific".[202] Alcock has written "Parapsychology is indistinguishable from pseudo-science, and its ideas are essentially those of magic... There is no evidence that would lead the cautious observer to believe that parapsychologists and paraphysicists are on the track of a real phenomenon, a real energy or power that has so far escaped the attention of those people engaged in "normal" science."[203]

The scientific community considers parapsychology a pseudoscience because it continues to explore the hypothesis that psychic abilities exist despite a century of experimental results that fail to conclusively demonstrate that hypothesis.[10] A panel commissioned by the United States National Research Council to study paranormal claims concluded that "despite a 130-year record of scientific research on such matters, our committee could find no scientific justification for the existence of phenomena such as extrasensory perception, mental telepathy or ‘mind over matter’ exercises... Evaluation of a large body of the best available evidence simply does not support the contention that these phenomena exist."[204]

There is also an issue of non-falsifiability associated with psi. On this subject Terence Hines has written:

The most common rationale offered by parapsychologists to explain the lack of a repeatable demonstration of ESP or other psi phenomena is to say that ESP in particular and psi phenomena in general are elusive or jealous phenomena. This means the phenomena go away when a skeptic is present or when skeptical “vibrations” are present. This argument seems nicely to explain away some of the major problems facing parapsychology until it is realized that it is nothing more than a classic nonfalsifiable hypothesis... The use of the nonfalsifiable hypothesis is permitted in parapsychology to a degree unheard of in any scientific discipline. To the extent that investigators accept this type of hypothesis, they will be immune to having their belief in psi disproved. No matter how many experiments fail to provide evidence for psi and no matter how good those experiments are, the nonfalsifiable hypothesis will always protect the belief.[205]


Mario Bunge has written that research in parapsychology for over a hundred years has produced no single firm finding and no testable predictions. All parapsychologists can do is claim alleged data is anomalous and lying beyond the reach of ordinary science. The aim of parapsychologists "is not that of finding laws and systematizing them into theories in order to understand and forecast" but to "buttress ancient spiritualist myths or to serve as a surrogate for lost religions."[192] In response to Bunge's position, Eberhard Bauer and Walter von Lucadou have argued that "there is not one single argument used by Bunge which has not been extensively discussed in the relevant literature for decades".[206]

The psychologist David Marks has written that parapsychologists have failed to produce a single repeatable demonstration of the paranormal and described psychical research as a pseudoscience, an "incoherent collection of belief systems steeped in fantasy, illusion and error."[207] However, Chris French who is not convinced that parapsychology has demonstrated evidence for psi, has argued that parapsychological experiments still adhere to the scientific method, and should not be completely dismissed as pseudoscience. French has noted his position is "the minority view among critics of parapsychology".[208]

Philosopher Bradley Dowden characterized parapsychology as a pseudoscience as parapsychologists have no valid theories to test and no reproducible data from their experiments.[209]

Fraud

Image
Stage magician and skeptic James Randi has demonstrated that magic tricks can simulate or duplicate some supposedly psychic phenomena.

There have been instances of fraud in the history of parapsychology research.[210] In the late 19th century the Creery Sisters (Mary, Alice, Maud, Kathleen, and Emily) were tested by the Society for Psychical Research and believed them to have genuine psychic ability; however, during a later experiment they were caught utilizing signal codes and they confessed to fraud.[211][212] George Albert Smith and Douglas Blackburn were claimed to be genuine psychics by the Society for Psychical Research but Blackburn confessed to fraud:

For nearly thirty years the telepathic experiments conducted by Mr. G. A. Smith and myself have been accepted and cited as the basic evidence of the truth of thought transference...

...the whole of those alleged experiments were bogus, and originated in the honest desire of two youths to show how easily men of scientific mind and training could be deceived when seeking for evidence in support of a theory they were wishful to establish.[213]


The experiments of Samuel Soal and K. M. Goldney of 1941–1943 (suggesting precognitive ability of a single participant) were long regarded as some of the best in the field because they relied upon independent checking and witnesses to prevent fraud. However, many years later, statistical evidence, uncovered and published by other parapsychologists in the field, suggested that Soal had cheated by altering some of the raw data.[201]:140–141[214][215]

In 1974, a number of experiments by Walter J. Levy, J. B. Rhine's successor as director of the Institute for Parapsychology, were exposed as fraudulent.[216] Levy had reported on a series of successful ESP experiments involving computer-controlled manipulation of non-human subjects, including rats. His experiments showed very high positive results. However, Levy's fellow researchers became suspicious about his methods. They found that Levy interfered with data-recording equipment, manually creating fraudulent strings of positive results. Levy confessed to the fraud and resigned.[216][217]

In 1974 Rhine published the paper Security versus Deception in Parapsychology in the Journal of Parapsychology which documented 12 cases of fraud that he had detected from 1940 to 1950 but refused to give the names of the participants in the studies.[218] Massimo Pigliucci has written:

Most damning of all, Rhine admitted publicly that he had uncovered at least twelve instances of dishonesty among his researchers in a single decade, from 1940 to 1950. However, he flaunted standard academic protocol by refusing to divulge the names of the fraudsters, which means that there is unknown number of published papers in the literature that claim paranormal effects while in fact they were the result of conscious deception.[219]


Martin Gardner claimed to have inside information that files in Rhine's laboratory contain material suggesting fraud on the part of Hubert Pearce.[220] Pearce was never able to obtain above-chance results when persons other than the experimenter were present during an experiment, making it more likely that he was cheating in some way. Rhine's other subjects were only able to obtain non-chance levels when they were able to shuffle the cards, which has suggested they used tricks to arrange the order of the Zener cards before the experiments started.[221]

A researcher from Tarkio College in Missouri, James D. MacFarland, was suspected of falsifying data to achieve positive psi results.[220] Before the fraud was discovered, MacFarland published 2 articles in the Journal of Parapsychology (1937 & 1938) supporting the existence of ESP.[222][223] Presumably speaking about MacFarland, Louisa Rhine wrote that in reviewing the data submitted to the lab in 1938, the researchers at the Duke Parapsychology Lab recognized the fraud. "...before long they were all certain that Jim had consistently falsified his records... To produce extra hits, Jim had to resort to erasures and transpositions in the records of his call series."[224] MacFarland never published another article in the Journal of Parapsychology after the fraud was discovered.

Some instances of fraud amongst spiritualist mediums were exposed by early psychical researchers such as Richard Hodgson[225] and Harry Price.[226] In the 1920s, magician and escapologist Harry Houdini said that researchers and observers had not created experimental procedures which absolutely preclude fraud.[227]

Criticism of experimental results

Critical analysts, including some parapsychologists, are not satisfied with experimental parapsychology studies.[200][228] Some reviewers, such as psychologist Ray Hyman, contend that apparently successful experimental results in psi research are more likely due to sloppy procedures, poorly trained researchers, or methodological flaws rather than to genuine psi effects.[229][230][231][232] Fellow psychologist Stuart Vyse hearkens back to a time of data manipulation, now recognized as "p-hacking," as part of the issue.[233] Within parapsychology there are disagreements over the results and methodology as well. For example, the experiments at the PEAR laboratory were criticized in a paper published by the Journal of Parapsychology in which parapsychologists independent from the PEAR laboratory concluded that these experiments "depart[ed] from criteria usually expected in formal scientific experimentation" due to "[p]roblems with regard to randomization, statistical baselines, application of statistical models, agent coding of descriptor lists, feedback to percipients, sensory cues, and precautions against cheating." They felt that the originally stated significance values were "meaningless".[114]

A typical measure of psi phenomena is statistical deviation from chance expectation. However, critics point out that statistical deviation is, strictly speaking, only evidence of a statistical anomaly, and the cause of the deviation is not known. Hyman contends that even if psi experiments could be designed that would regularly reproduce similar deviations from chance, they would not necessarily prove psychic functioning.[234] Critics have coined the term The Psi Assumption to describe "the assumption that any significant departure from the laws of chance in a test of psychic ability is evidence that something anomalous or paranormal has occurred...[in other words] assuming what they should be proving." These critics hold that concluding the existence of psychic phenomena based on chance deviation in inadequately designed experiments is affirming the consequent or begging the question.[235]

In 1979, magician and debunker James Randi engineered a hoax, now referred to as Project Alpha to encourage a tightening of standards within the parapsychology community. Randi recruited two young magicians and sent them undercover to Washington University's McDonnell Laboratory where they " fooled researchers ... into believing they had paranormal powers." The aim was to expose poor experimental methods and the credulity thought to be common in parapsychology.[236] Randi has stated that both of his recruits deceived experimenters over a period of three years with demonstrations of supposedly psychic abilities: blowing electric fuses sealed in a box, causing a lightweight paper rotor perched atop a needle to turn inside a bell jar, bending metal spoons sealed in a glass bottle, etc.[237] The hoax by Randi raised ethical concerns in the scientific and parapsychology communities, eliciting criticism even among skeptical communities such as the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal (CSICOP), which he helped found, but also positive responses from the President of the Parapsychological Association Stanley Krippner. Psychologist Ray Hyman, a CSICOP member, called the results "counterproductive".[236]

Selection bias and meta-analysis

Selective reporting has been offered by critics as an explanation for the positive results reported by parapsychologists. Selective reporting is sometimes referred to as a "file drawer" problem, which arises when only positive study results are made public, while studies with negative or null results are not made public.[120] Selective reporting has a compounded effect on meta-analysis, which is a statistical technique that aggregates the results of many studies in order to generate sufficient statistical power to demonstrate a result that the individual studies themselves could not demonstrate at a statistically significant level. For example, a recent meta-analysis combined 380 studies on psychokinesis,[119] including data from the PEAR lab. It concluded that, although there is a statistically significant overall effect, it is not consistent and relatively few negative studies would cancel it out. Consequently, biased publication of positive results could be the cause.[73]

The popularity of meta-analysis in parapsychology has been criticized by numerous researchers,[238] and is often seen as troublesome even within parapsychology itself.[238] Critics have said that parapsychologists misuse meta-analysis to create the incorrect impression that statistically significant results have been obtained that indicate the existence of psi phenomena.[239] Physicist Robert Park states that parapsychology's reported positive results are problematic because most such findings are invariably at the margin of statistical significance and that might be explained by a number of confounding effects; Park states that such marginal results are a typical symptom of pathological science as described by Irving Langmuir.[117]

Researcher J. E. Kennedy has said that concerns over the use of meta-analysis in science and medicine apply as well to problems present in parapsychological meta-analysis. As a post-hoc analysis, critics emphasize the opportunity the method presents to produce biased outcomes via the selection of cases chosen for study, methods employed, and other key criteria. Critics say that analogous problems with meta-analysis have been documented in medicine, where it has been shown different investigators performing meta-analyses of the same set of studies have reached contradictory conclusions.[240]

Anomalistic psychology

In anomalistic psychology, paranormal phenomena have naturalistic explanations resulting from psychological and physical factors which have sometimes given the impression of paranormal activity to some people when, in fact, there have been none.[90][241] According to the psychologist Chris French:

The difference between anomalistic psychology and parapsychology is in terms of the aims of what each discipline is about. Parapsychologists typically are actually searching for evidence to prove the reality of paranormal forces, to prove they really do exist. So the starting assumption is that paranormal things do happen, whereas anomalistic psychologists tend to start from the position that paranormal forces probably don't exist and that therefore we should be looking for other kinds of explanations, in particular the psychological explanations for those experiences that people typically label as paranormal.[242]


Whilst parapsychology has been said to be in decline, anomalistic psychology has been reported to be on the rise. It is now offered as an option on many psychology degree programmes and is also an option on the A2 psychology syllabus in the UK.[243]

Skeptics organizations

Organizations that encourage a critical examination of parapsychology and parapsychological research include the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, publisher of the Skeptical Inquirer;[244] the James Randi Educational Foundation, founded by illusionist and skeptic James Randi,[245] and the Occult Investigative Committee of the Society of American Magicians[246] a society for professional magicians/illusionists that seeks "the promotion of harmony among magicians, and the opposition of the unnecessary public exposure of magical effects."[247]

See also

• List of topics characterized as pseudoscience

References

1. Gross, Paul R.; Levitt, Norman; Lewis, Martin W. (1996). The Flight from Science and Reason. New York City: New York Academy of Sciences. p. 565. ISBN 978-0801856761. The overwhelming majority of scientists consider parapsychology, by whatever name, to be pseudoscience.
2. Friedlander, Michael W. (1998). At the Fringes of Science. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-8133-2200-1. Parapsychology has failed to gain general scientific acceptance even for its improved methods and claimed successes, and it is still treated with a lopsided ambivalence among the scientific community. Most scientists write it off as pseudoscience unworthy of their time.
3. Pigliucci, Massimo; Boudry, Maarten (2013). Philosophy of Pseudoscience: Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem. Chicago, Illinois: University Of Chicago Press. p. 158. hdl:1854/LU-3161824. ISBN 978-0-226-05196-3. Many observers refer to the field as a 'pseudoscience'. When mainstream scientists say that the field of parapsychology is not scientific, they mean that no satisfying naturalistic cause-and-effect explanation for these supposed effects has yet been proposed and that the field's experiments cannot be consistently replicated.
4. Alcock, James (1981). Parapsychology-Science Or Magic?: A Psychological Perspective. Oxford, England: Pergamon Press. pp. 194–196. ISBN 978-0080257730.
5. Hacking, Ian (1993). "Some reasons for not taking parapsychology very seriously". Dialogue: Canadian Philosophical Review. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. 32 (3): 587–594. doi:10.1017/s0012217300012361.
6. Bierman, DJ; Spottiswoode, JP; Bijl, A (2016). "Testing for Questionable Research Practices in a Meta-Analysis: An Example from Experimental Parapsychology". PLoS ONE. San Francisco, California: Public Library of Science. 11 (5): 1. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1153049B. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0153049. PMC 4856278. PMID 27144889. We consider [questionable research practices] in the context of a meta-analysis database of Ganzfeld–telepathy experiments from the field of experimental parapsychology. The Ganzfeld database is particularly suitable for this study, because the parapsychological phenomenon it investigates is widely believed to be nonexistent ... results are still significant (p = 0.003) with QRPs.
7. Carroll, Sean (May 11, 2016). "Thinking About Psychic Powers Helps Us Think About Science". WIRED. New York City: Condé Nast. Today, parapsychology is not taken seriously by most academics.
8. "Koestler Parapsychology Unit". University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 2009-03-09.
Odling-Smee, Lucy (2007-03-01). "The lab that asked the wrong questions". Nature. 446 (7131): 10–11. Bibcode:2007Natur.446...10O. doi:10.1038/446010a. PMID 17330012. Retrieved 2007-06-29. [Outside the US] the field is livelier. Britain is a lead player, with privately funded labs at the universities of Edinburgh, Northampton and Liverpool Hope, among others."..."The status of paranormal research in the United States is now at an all-time low, after a relative surge of interest in the 1970s. Money continues to pour from philanthropic sources to private institutions, but any chance of credibility depends on ties with universities, and only a trickle of research now persists in university labs.
9. (Pigliucci, Boudry 2013) "Parapsychological research almost never appears in mainstream science journals."
(Odling-Smee 2007) "But parapsychologists are still limited to publishing in a small number of niche journals."
10. Cordón, Luis A. (2005). Popular Psychology: An Encyclopedia. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. p. 182. ISBN 978-0-313-32457-4. The essential problem is that a large portion of the scientific community, including most research psychologists, regards parapsychology as a pseudoscience, due largely to its failure to move beyond null results in the way science usually does. Ordinarily, when experimental evidence fails repeatedly to support a hypothesis, that hypothesis is abandoned. Within parapsychology, however, more than a century of experimentation has failed even to conclusively demonstrate the mere existence of paranormal phenomenon, yet parapsychologists continue to pursue that elusive goal.
11. Hyman, R. (1986). "Parapsychological research: A tutorial review and critical appraisal" (PDF). Proceedings of the IEEE. 74 (6): 823–849. doi:10.1109/PROC.1986.13557. Retrieved 20 September 2008.
Kurtz, Paul (1981), "Is Parapsychology a Science?", in Kendrick Frazier (ed.), Paranormal Borderlands of Science, Prometheus Books, pp. 5–23, ISBN 978-0-87975-148-7, If parapsychologists can convince the skeptics, then they will have satisfied an essential criterion of a genuine science: the ability to replicate hypotheses in any and all laboratories and under standard experimental conditions. Until they can do that, their claims will continue to be held suspect by a large body of scientists.
Flew, Antony (1982). Grim, Patrick (ed.). Parapsychology: Science or Pseudoscience? in Philosophy of Science and the Occult. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0873955720.
Bunge, Mario (1991). "A skeptic's beliefs and disbeliefs". New Ideas in Psychology. 9 (2): 131–149. doi:10.1016/0732-118X(91)90017-G.
Blitz, David (1991). "The line of demarcation between science and nonscience: The case of psychoanalysis and parapsychology". New Ideas in Psychology. 9 (2): 163–170. doi:10.1016/0732-118X(91)90020-M.
Stein, Gordon (1996), The Encyclopedia of the Paranormal, Prometheus Books, p. 249, ISBN 978-1-57392-021-6, Mainstream science is on the whole very dubious about ESP, and the only way that most scientists will be persuaded is by a demonstration that can be generally reproduced by neutral or even skeptical scientists. This is something that parapsychology has never succeeded in producing.
12. Bringmann, Wolfgang G.; Lück, Helmut E. (15 June 1997). A Pictorial History of Psychology. Quintessence Pub. ISBN 978-0-86715-292-0.
13. Dessoir, Max (June 1889). "Die Parapsychologie" [Parapsychology] (PDF). Sphinx (in German). 7 (42): 341 – via IAPSOP.
14. Melton, J. G. (1996). Parapsychology. In Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology. Farmington Hills, Michigan: Thomson Gale. ISBN 978-0-8103-9487-2.
15. Irwin, Harvey J.; Watt, Caroline A. (2007). An Introduction to Parapsychology(5th ed.). Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. p. 6. ISBN 978-0786430598.
16. Wynn, Charles M.; Wiggins, Arthur W. (2001). Quantum Leaps in the Wrong Direction: Where Real Science Ends...and Pseudoscience Begins. Joseph Henry Press. p. 152. ISBN 978-0309073097.
17. "Parapsychology FAQ Page 1". Parapsych.org. 2008-02-28. Archived from the original on 2007-06-26. Retrieved 2014-04-11.
18. "Glossary of Psi (Parapsychological) Terms (L-R)". Parapsych.org. Archived from the original on 2010-08-24. Retrieved 2014-04-11.
19. Thouless, R. H. (1942). "Experiments on paranormal guessing". British Journal of Psychology. London, England: Wiley-Blackwell. 33: 15–27. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1942.tb01036.x.
20. Hines, Terence (2003). Pseudoscience and the Paranormal. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. pp. 50–52. ISBN 1-57392-979-4.
21. Podmore, Frank. (1897). Studies in Psychical Research. G. P. Putnam's Sons. pp. 48-49
22. Podmore, Frank. (1902). Modern Spiritualism: A History and a Criticism. Methuen Publishing. pp. 234-235
23. Podmore, Frank. (1897). Studies in Psychical Research. New York: Putnam. p. 47
24. Stein, Gordon. (1996). The Encyclopedia of the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. p. 703. ISBN 1-57392-021-5 "Slade succeeded only on tests that allowed easy trickery, such of producing knots in cords that had their ends tied together and the knot sealed, putting wooden rings on a table leg, and removing coins from sealed boxes. He failed utterly on tests that did not permit deception. He was unable to reverse the spirals of snail shells. He could not link two wooden rings, one of oak, the other of alder. He could not knot an endless ring cut from a bladder, or put a piece of candle inside a closed glass bulb. He failed to change the optical handedness of tartaric dex-tro to levo. These tests would have been easy to pass if Slade 's spirit controls had been able to take an object into the fourth dimension, then return it after making the required manipulations. Such successes would have created marvelous PPOs (permanent paranormal objects), difficult for skeptics to explain. Zöllner wrote an entire book in praise of Slade. Titled Transcendental Physics (1878), it was partly translated into English in 1880 by spiritualist Charles Carleton Massey. The book is a classic of childlike gullibility by a scientist incapable of devising adequate controls for testing paranormal powers."
25. Mulholland, John. (1938). Beware Familiar Spirits. C. Scribner's Sons. pp. 111-112. ISBN 978-1111354879
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 27254
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: His Holiness Grandmaster Professor Lin Yun 1932-2010

Postby admin » Thu Jun 13, 2019 7:46 pm

Part 3 of 3

26. Hyman, Ray. (1989). The Elusive Quarry: A Scientific Appraisal of Psychical Research. Prometheus Books. p. 209. ISBN 0-87975-504-0 "In the case of Zöllner's investigations of Slade, not only do we know that Slade was exposed before and after his sessions with Zöllner, but also there is ample reason to raise questions about the adequacy of the investigation. Carrington (1907), Podmore (1963), and Mrs. Sidgwick (1886-87) are among a number of critics who have uncovered flaws and loopholes in Zöllner's sittings with Slade."
27. Beloff, John (1977). Handbook of parapsychology. Van Nostrand Reinhold. ISBN 978-0-442-29576-9.
28. "Past Presidents". Society for Psychical Research. Archived from the original on 23 February 2015. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
29. Thurschwell, Pamela. (2004). Literature, Technology and Magical Thinking, 1880–1920. Cambridge University Press. p. 16. ISBN 0-521-80168-0
30. McCorristine, Shane. (2010). Spectres of the Self: Thinking about Ghosts and Ghost-Seeing in England, 1750-1920. Cambridge University Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-521-76798-9
31. Douglas, Alfred. (1982). Extra-Sensory Powers: A Century of Psychical Research. Overlook Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-0879511609 "Phantasms of the Living was criticized by a number of scholars when it appeared, one ground for the attack being the lack of written testimony regarding the apparitions composed shortly after they had been seen. In many instances several years had elapsed between the occurrence and a report of it being made to the investigators from the SPR."
32. Williams, William F. (2000). Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience: From Alien Abductions to Zone Therapy. Routledge. p. 49. ISBN 1-57958-207-9
33. C. E. M. Hansel. The Search for a Demonstration of ESP. In Paul Kurtz. (1985). A Skeptic's Handbook of Parapsychology. Prometheus Books. pp. 97-127. ISBN 0-87975-300-5
34. Edmunds, Simeon. (1966). Spiritualism: A Critical Survey. Aquarian Press. p. 115. ISBN 978-0850300130 "The early history of spirit photography was reviewed by Mrs Henry Sidgwick in the Proceedings of the SPR in 1891. She showed clearly not only that Mumler, Hudson, Buguet and their ilk were fraudulent, but the way in which those who believed in them were deceived."
35. Moreman, Christopher M. (2010). Beyond the Threshold: Afterlife Beliefs and Experiences in World Religions. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-7425-6228-8 "SPR investigators quickly found that many mediums were indeed, as skeptics had alleged, operating under cover of darkness in order to perpetrate scams. They used a number of tricks facilitated by darkness: sleight of hand was used to manipulate objects and touch people eager to make contact with deceased loved ones; flour or white lines would give the illusion of spectral white hands or faces; accomplices were even stashed under tables or in secret rooms to lent support in the plot... As the investigations of the SPR, and other skeptics, were made public, many fraudulent mediums saw their careers ruined and many unsuspecting clients were enraged at the deception perpetrated."
36. Berger, Arthur S.; Berger, Joyce (1991). The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. Paragon House Publishers. ISBN 978-1-55778-043-0.
37. Larsen, Egon. (1966). The Deceivers: Lives of the Great Imposters. Roy Publishers. pp. 130-132
38. Berger, Arthur S. (1988). Lives and Letters in American Parapsychology: A Biographical History, 1850-1987. McFarland. pp. 75-107. ISBN 978-0899503455
39. Asprem, Egil (2014). The Problem of Disenchantment: Scientific Naturalism and Esoteric Discourse, 1900-1939. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers. pp. 355–360. ISBN 978-9004251922.
40. J. B. Rhine (1934). Extra-Sensory Perception. (4th ed.) Branden Publishing Company 1997. ISBN 0-8283-1464-0
41. Hazelgrove, Jenny (2000). Spiritualism and British Society Between the Wars. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press. p. 204. ISBN 978-0719055591.
42. Russell, A. S.; Benn, John Andrews. "A New Discovery". Discovery: the Popular Journal of Knowledge. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. 13: 305–306.
43. Samuel Soal. A Repetition of Dr. Rhine's work with Mrs. Eileen Garrett. Proc. S.P.R. Vol. XLII. pp. 84-85. Also quoted in Antony Flew. (1955). A New Approach To Psychical Research. Watts & Co. pp. 90-92.
44. Cox, W. S. (1936). "An experiment in ESP". Journal of Experimental Psychology. 19 (4): 437. doi:10.1037/h0054630.
45. Cited in C. E. M. Hansel The Search for a Demonstration of ESP in Paul Kurtz. (1985). A Skeptic's Handbook of Parapsychology. Prometheus Books. pp. 105-127. ISBN 0-87975-300-5
Adam, E. T. (1938). "A summary of some negative experiments". Journal of Parapsychology. 2: 232–236.
Crumbaugh, J. C. (1938). An experimental study of extra-sensory perception. Masters thesis. Southern Methodist University.
Heinlein, C. P; Heinlein, J. H. (1938). "Critique of the premises of statistical methodology of parapsychology". Journal of Parapsychology. 5: 135–148. doi:10.1080/00223980.1938.9917558.
Willoughby, R. R. (1938). Further card-guessing experiments. Journal of Psychology 18: 3-13.
46. Alcock, James. (1981). Parapsychology-Science Or Magic?: A Psychological Perspective. Pergamon Press. 136. ISBN 978-0080257730
47. Joseph Jastrow. (1938). ESP, House of Cards. The American Scholar 8: 13-22.
48. Harold Gulliksen. (1938). Extra-Sensory Perception: What Is It?. American Journal of Sociology. Vol. 43, No. 4. pp. 623-634. "Investigating Rhine's methods, we find that his mathematical methods are wrong and that the effect of this error would in some cases be negligible and in others very marked. We find that many of his experiments were set up in a manner which would tend to increase, instead of to diminish, the possibility of systematic clerical errors; and lastly, that the ESP cards can be read from the back."
49. Charles M. Wynn, Arthur W. Wiggins. (2001). Quantum Leaps in the Wrong Direction: Where Real Science Ends...and Pseudoscience Begins. Joseph Henry Press. p. 156. ISBN 978-0-309-07309-7 "In 1940, Rhine coauthored a book, Extrasensory Perception After Sixty Years in which he suggested that something more than mere guess work was involved in his experiments. He was right! It is now known that the experiments conducted in his laboratory contained serious methodological flaws. Tests often took place with minimal or no screening between the subject and the person administering the test. Subjects could see the backs of cards that were later discovered to be so cheaply printed that a faint outline of the symbol could be seen. Furthermore, in face-to-face tests, subjects could see card faces reflected in the tester’s eyeglasses or cornea. They were even able to (consciously or unconsciously) pick up clues from the tester’s facial expression and voice inflection. In addition, an observant subject could identify the cards by certain irregularities like warped edges, spots on the backs, or design imperfections."
50. Terence Hines. (2003). Pseudoscience and the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. p. 122. ISBN 1-57392-979-4 "The procedural errors in the Rhine experiments have been extremely damaging to his claims to have demonstrated the existence of ESP. Equally damaging has been the fact that the results have not replicated when the experiments have been conducted in other laboratories."
51. Jonathan C. Smith. (2009). Pseudoscience and Extraordinary Claims of the Paranormal: A Critical Thinker's Toolkit. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1405181228. "Today, researchers discount the first decade of Rhine's work with Zener cards. Stimulus leakage or cheating could account for all his findings. Slight indentations on the backs of cards revealed the symbols embossed on card faces. Subjects could see and hear the experimenter, and note subtle but revealing facial expressions or changes in breathing."
52. Milbourne Christopher. (1970). ESP, Seers & Psychics. Thomas Y. Crowell Co. pp. 24-28
53. Robert L. Park. (2000). Voodoo Science: The Road from Foolishness to Fraud. Oxford University Press. pp. 40-43. ISBN 0-19-860443-2
54. Rhine, J.B. (1966). Foreword. In Pratt, J.G., Rhine, J.B., Smith, B.M., Stuart, C.E., & Greenwood, J.A. (eds.). Extrasensory Perception After Sixty Years. 2nd ed. Boston, US: Humphries.
55. C. E. M. Hansel. (1980). ESP and Parapsychology: A Critical Re-Evaluation. Prometheus Books. pp. 125-140
56. Back from the Future: Parapsychology and the Bem Affair. Skeptical Inquirer. "Despite Rhine’s confidence that he had established the reality of extrasensory perception, he had not done so. Methodological problems with his experiments eventually came to light, and as a result parapsychologists no longer run card-guessing studies and rarely even refer to Rhine’s work."
57. John Sladek. (1974). The New Apocrypha: A Guide to Strange Sciences and Occult Beliefs. Panther. pp. 172-174
58. Peter Lamont. (2013). Extraordinary Beliefs: A Historical Approach to a Psychological Problem. Cambridge University Press. pp. 206-208. ISBN 978-1-107-01933-1
59. C. E. M. Hansel. (1989). The Search for Psychic Power: ESP and Parapsychology Revisited. Prometheus Books. p. 46. ISBN 0-87975-516-4
60. Bergen Evans. (1954). The Spoor of Spooks: And Other Nonsense. Knopf. p. 24
61. C. E. M. Hansel. (1989). The Search for Psychic Power: ESP and Parapsychology Revisited. Prometheus Books. pp. 56-58. ISBN 0-87975-516-4
62. C. E. M. Hansel. (1989). The Search for Psychic Power: ESP and Parapsychology Revisited. Prometheus Books. p. 53. ISBN 0-87975-516-4"First, the recording was not completely independent, since the flash of light in the experimenters' room could be varied in duration by the subject and thus provide a possible cue. Second, there were five different symbols in the target series, but the experimental record showed that two of these arose more frequently than the other three."
63. "The History of the Rhine Research Center". Rhine Research Center. Archived from the original on 2007-05-29. Retrieved 2007-06-29.
64. "History of the Parapsychological Association". The Parapsychological Association. Archived from the original on 2008-12-21. Retrieved 2007-06-29.
65. Melton, J. G. (1996). Parapsychological Association. In Encyclopedia of Occultism & Parapsychology. Thomson Gale. ISBN 978-0-8103-9487-2.
66. Wheeler, John Archibald (January 8, 1979). "Drive the Pseudos Out of the Workshop of Science". New York Review of Books (published May 17, 1980).
67. Wheeler, John Archibald (1998). Geons, Black Holes, and Quantum Foam: A Life in Physics. W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-04642-7.
68. Irwin, Harvey J. (2007). An Introduction to Parapsychology, Fourth Edition. McFarland & Company. ISBN 978-0-7864-1833-6. Retrieved 2007-07-31.
69. An Evaluation of Remote Viewing: Research and Applications by Mumford, Rose and Goslin "remote viewings have never provided an adequate basis for ‘actionable’ intelligence operations-that is, information sufficiently valuable or compelling so that action was taken as a result (...) a large amount of irrelevant, erroneous information is provided and little agreement is observed among viewers' reports. (...) remote viewers and project managers reported that remote viewing reports were changed to make them consistent with known background cues (...) Also, it raises some doubts about some well-publicized cases of dramatic hits, which, if taken at face value, could not easily be attributed to background cues. In at least some of these cases, there is a reason to suspect, based on both subsequent investigations and the viewers' statement that reports had been "changed" by previous program managers, that substantially more background information was available than one might at first assume."
70. Beloff, John (1993). Parapsychology: A Concise History. St Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-17376-0.
71. German, Erik (July 5, 2000). "Is Czech Mind Control Equipment Science-Fiction or Science-Fact?". The Prague Post. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
72. Beloff, John (1997-06-15). Parapsychology: A Concise History - John Beloff - Google Books. ISBN 9780312173760. Retrieved 2014-04-11.
73. (Odling-Smee 2007)
74. "The Division of Perceptual Studies — School of Medicine at the University of Virginia". Medicine.virginia.edu. Retrieved 2014-04-11.
75. Harvey J. Irwin and Caroline Watt. An introduction to parapsychologyMcFarland, 2007, pp. 248-249.
76. "Koestler Parapsychology Unit". University of Edinburgh. Retrieved 2008-04-10.
77. "Parapsychology Research Group". Liverpool Hope University. Retrieved 2009-08-18.
78. "Studying Parapsychology". Liverpool Hope University. Retrieved 2009-08-18.
79. "The VERITAS Research Program". University of Arizona. Archived from the original on 2011-03-26. Retrieved 2007-11-14.
80. "Consciousness and Transpersonal Psychology". Research Unit of Liverpool John Moores University. 2007-09-17. Archived from the original on 2010-12-17. Retrieved 2007-11-14.
81. "Center for the Study of Anomalous Psychological Processes". University of Northampton. Archived from the original on 2013-11-16. Retrieved 2007-11-14.
82. "Anomalistic Psychology Research Unit". Goldsmiths, University of London. Retrieved 2007-11-14.
83. "Parapsychological Association". Nature. 181 (4613): 884. 1958. Bibcode:1958Natur.181Q.884.. doi:10.1038/181884a0. Retrieved 2007-11-14.
84. "Society for Psychical Research". spr.ac.uk. Retrieved 2007-11-14.
85. "American Society for Psychical Research". aspr.com. Retrieved 2007-11-14.
86. "Rhine Research Center and Institute for Parapsychology". Rhine.org. Retrieved 2007-11-14.
87. "Parapsychology Foundation". parapsychology.org. Retrieved 2007-11-14.
88. "Australian Institute of Parapsychological Research". aiprinc.org. Retrieved 2007-11-14.
89. Stevens, Paul. Baker, Ian (ed.). "European Journal of Parapsychology". Bournemouth University, BH12 5BB, UK: Poole House. ISSN 0168-7263. Retrieved 2007-11-14.
90. Leonard Zusne, Warren H. Jones (1989). Anomalistic Psychology: A Study of Magical Thinking. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 0-8058-0508-7
91. "Parapsychological Association FAQ". Parapsychological Association. 1995. Archived from the original on 2007-06-26. Retrieved 2007-07-02.
92. Dean I. Radin (1997). The Conscious Universe: The Scientific Truth of Psychic Phenomena. HarperOne. ISBN 978-0-06-251502-5.
93. Hyman, Ray (1985). "The Ganzfeld Psi Experiments: A Critical Appraisal". Journal of Parapsychology. 49.
94. Storm, L.; Tressoldi, P. E.; Di Risio, L. (2010). "A meta-analysis with nothing to hide: Reply to Hyman (2010)". Psychological Bulletin. 136 (4): 491–494. doi:10.1037/a0019840. PMID 20565166.
95. Hyman, R (2010). "Meta-analysis that conceals more than it reveals: Comment on Storm et al" (PDF). Psychological Bulletin. 136 (4): 486–490. doi:10.1037/a0019676. PMID 20565165. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2013-11-03.
96. Julie Milton, Richard Wiseman. (2002). A Response to Storm and Ertel (2002). The Journal of Parapsychology. Volume 66: 183-186.
97. Ray Hyman. Evaluating Parapsychological Claims in Robert J. Sternberg, Henry L. Roediger, Diane F. Halpern. (2007). Critical Thinking in Psychology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 216-231. ISBN 978-0521608343
98. Richard Wiseman, Matthew Smith, Diana Kornbrot. (1996). Assessing possible sender-to-experimenter acoustic leakage in the PRL autoganzfeld. Journal of Parapsychology. Volume 60: 97-128.
99. "ganzfeld - The Skeptic's Dictionary". Skepdic.com. 2011-12-27. Retrieved 2014-04-11.
100. Lance Storm; Patrizio E. Tressoldi; Lorenzo Di Risio (July 2010). "Meta-Analysis of Free-Response Studies, 1992–2008: Assessing the Noise Reduction Model in Parapsychology" (PDF). Psychological Bulletin. 136 (4): 471–85. doi:10.1037/a0019457. PMID 20565164. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2011-01-24. Retrieved 2010-08-18.
101. Rouder, J. N.; Morey, R. D.; Province, J. M. (2013). "A Bayes factor meta-analysis of recent extrasensory perception experiments: Comment on Storm, Tressoldi, and Di Risio (2010)". Psychological Bulletin. 139 (1): 241–247. doi:10.1037/a0029008. PMID 23294092.
102. Leonard Zusne, Warren H. Jones (1989). Anomalistic Psychology: A Study of Magical Thinking. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. p. 167. ISBN 0-8058-0508-7
103. Druckman, Daniel; Swets, John A., eds. (1988). Enhancing Human Performance: Issues, Theories, and Techniques. National Academy Press. p. 176.
104. Dossey, Larry (1999). Reinventing Medicine. HarperCollins. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-06-251622-0.
105. Waller, Douglas (1995-12-11). "The Vision Thing". TIME. Retrieved 2014-04-11.
106. Marks, David; Kammann, Richard (1978). "Information transmission in remote viewing experiments". Nature. 274 (5672): 680–81. Bibcode:1978Natur.274..680M. doi:10.1038/274680a0.
107. Marks, David (1981). "Sensory cues invalidate remote viewing experiments". Nature. 292 (5819): 177. Bibcode:1981Natur.292..177M. doi:10.1038/292177a0.
108. Martin Bridgstock. (2009). Beyond Belief: Skepticism, Science and the Paranormal. Cambridge University Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0521758932 "The explanation used by Marks and Kammann clearly involves the use of Occam's razor. Marks and Kammann argued that the 'cues' - clues to the order in which sites had been visited—provided sufficient information for the results, without any recourse to extrasensory perception. Indeed Marks himself was able to achieve 100 percent accuracy in allocating some transcripts to sites without visiting any of the sites himself, purely on the ground basis of the cues. From Occam's razor, it follows that if a straightforward natural explanation exists, there is no need for the spectacular paranormal explanation: Targ and Puthoff's claims are not justified".
109. "James Randi Educational Foundation — An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural". Randi.org. Retrieved 2014-04-11.
110. Tart, Charles; Puthoff, Harold; Targ, Russell (1980). "Information Transmission in Remote Viewing Experiments". Nature. 284 (5752): 191. Bibcode:1980Natur.284..191T. doi:10.1038/284191a0. PMID 7360248.
111. Terence Hines. (2003). Pseudoscience and the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. p. 136. ISBN 1-57392-979-4
112. Marks, David; Scott, Christopher (1986). "Remote Viewing Exposed". Nature. 319 (6053): 444. Bibcode:1986Natur.319..444M. doi:10.1038/319444a0. PMID 3945330.
113. Carey, Benedict (2007-02-06). "A Princeton Lab on ESP Plans to Close Its Doors". New York Times. Retrieved 2007-08-03.
114. George P. Hansen. "Princeton [PEAR] Remote-Viewing Experiments - A Critique". Tricksterbook.com. Retrieved 2014-04-06.
115. Stanley Jeffers (May–June 2006). "The PEAR proposition: Fact or fallacy?". Skeptical Inquirer. 30.3. Retrieved 2014-01-24.
116. Dunne, Brenda J.; Jahn, Robert G. (1985). "On the quantum mechanics of consciousness, with application to anomalous phenomena". Foundations of Physics. 16 (8): 721–772. Bibcode:1986FoPh...16..721J. doi:10.1007/BF00735378. Retrieved 2007-07-31.
117. Robert L. Park. (2000). Voodoo Science: The Road from Foolishness to Fraud. Oxford University Press. pp. 198-200. ISBN 0-19-860443-2
118. Massimo Pigliucci. (2010). Nonsense on Stilts: How to Tell Science from Bunk. University of Chicago Press. pp. 77-80. ISBN 978-0-226-66786-7
119. Bösch H, Steinkamp F, Boller E (2006). "Examining psychokinesis: the interaction of human intention with random number generators—a meta-analysis". Psychological Bulletin. 132 (4): 497–523. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.132.4.497. PMID 16822162. The study effect sizes were strongly and inversely related to sample size and were extremely heterogeneous. A Monte Carlo simulation showed that the very small effect size relative to the large, heterogenous sample size could in principle be a result of publication bias.
120. Radin, D.; Nelson, R.; Dobyns, Y.; Houtkooper, J. (2006). "Reexamining psychokinesis: comment on Bösch, Steinkamp, and Boller". Psychological Bulletin. 132 (4): 529–32, discussion 533–37. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.132.4.529. PMID 16822164.
121. Wilson, David B.; Shadish, William R. (2006). "On blowing trumpets to the tulips: To prove or not to prove the null hypothesis--Comment on Bösch, Steinkamp, and Boller (2006)". Psychological Bulletin. 132 (4): 524–528. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.132.4.524. PMID 16822163.
122. Schmidt, S.; Schneider, R.; Utts, J.; Walach, H. (2004). "Distant intentionality and the feeling of being stared at: two meta-analyses". British Journal of Psychology (London, England : 1953). 95 (Pt 2): 235–47. doi:10.1348/000712604773952449. PMID 15142304.
123. Ullman, Montague (2003). "Dream telepathy: experimental and clinical findings". In Totton, Nick (ed.). Psychoanalysis and the paranormal: lands of darkness. Reference, Information and Interdisciplinary Subjects Series. Karnac Books. pp. 14–46. ISBN 978-1-85575-985-5.
124. Parker, Adrian. (1975). States of Mind: ESP and Altered States of Consciousness. Taplinger. p. 90. ISBN 0-8008-7374-2
125. Clemmer, E. J. (1986). "Not so anomalous observations question ESP in dreams". American Psychologist. 41 (10): 1173–1174. doi:10.1037/0003-066x.41.10.1173.b.
126. Hyman, Ray. (1986). Maimonides dream-telepathy experiments. Skeptical Inquirer 11: 91-92.
127. Neher, Andrew. (2011). Paranormal and Transcendental Experience: A Psychological Examination. Dover Publications. p. 145. ISBN 0-486-26167-0
128. Hansel, C. E. M. The Search for a Demonstration of ESP. In Kurtz, Paul. (1985). A Skeptic's Handbook of Parapsychology. Prometheus Books. pp. 97-127. ISBN 0-87975-300-5
129. Ramakrishna Rao, K, Gowri Rammohan, V. (2002). New Frontiers of Human Science: A Festschrift for K. Ramakrishna Rao. McFarland. p. 135. ISBN 0-7864-1453-7
130. Belvedere, E.; Foulkes, D. (1971). "Telepathy and Dreams: A Failure to Replicate". Perceptual and Motor Skills. 33 (3): 783–789. doi:10.2466/pms.1971.33.3.783. PMID 4331356.
131. Hansel, C. E. M. (1989). The Search for Psychic Power: ESP and Parapsychology Revisited. Prometheus Books. pp. 141-152. ISBN 0-87975-516-4
132. Sherwood, S. J; Roe, C. A. (2003). "A Review of Dream ESP Studies Conducted Since the Maimonides Dream ESP Programme". Journal of Consciousness Studies. 10: 85–109.
133. Alcock, James (2003). "Give the Null Hypothesis a Chance: Reasons to Remain Doubtful about the Existence of Psi". Journal of Consciousness Studies. 10: 29–50. "In their article, Sherwood and Roe examine attempts to replicate the well-known Maimonides dream studies that began in the 1960s. They provide a good review of these studies of dream telepathy and clairvoyance, but if one thing emerges for me from their review, it is the extreme messiness of the data adduced. Lack of replication is rampant. While one would normally expect that continuing scientific scrutiny of a phenomenon should lead to stronger effect sizes as one learns more about the subject matter and refines the methodology, this is apparently not the case with this research."
134. Pim van Lommel (2010). Consciousness Beyond Life: The science of the near-death experience. HarperOne. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-06-177725-7.
135. Evelyn Elsaesser Valarino (1997). On the Other Side of Life: Exploring the phenomenon of the near-death experience. Perseus Publishing. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-7382-0625-7.
136. Mauro, James (1992). "Bright lights, big mystery". Psychology Today. Retrieved 2007-07-31.
137. Lee Worth Bailey and Jenny L. Yates (1996). The near-death experience: a reader Routledge, p. 26.
138. Tucker, Jim (2005). Life before life: a scientific investigation of children's memories of previous lives. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-32137-6.
139. Shroder, T (2007-02-11). "Ian Stevenson; Sought To Document Memories Of Past Lives in Children". The Washington Post.
140. Cadoret, R (2005). "Book Forum: Ethics, Values, and Religion - European Cases of the Reincarnation Type". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 162(4): 823–4. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.162.4.823. Archived from the original on 2009-07-17.
141. Harvey J. Irwin (2004). An Introduction to Parapsychology. McFarland, p. 218.
142. Shroder, Tom (2007-02-11). "Ian Stevenson; Sought To Document Memories Of Past Lives in Children". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2014-04-11.
143. Ian Wilson. (1981). Mind Out of Time: Reincarnation Investigated. Gollancz. ISBN 0-575-02968-4
144. "The Case Against Immortality". Infidels.org. Retrieved 2014-04-11.
145. Robert Baker. (1996). Hidden Memories: Voices and Visions from Within. Prometheus Books. ISBN 0-87975-576-8
146. Robert Cogan. (1998). Critical Thinking: Step by Step. University Press of America. pp. 202-203. ISBN 0-7618-1067-6 "Edwards catalogs common sense objections which have been made against reincarnation. 1) How does a soul exist between bodies? 2) Tertullian's objection: If there is reincarnation, why are not babies born with the mental abilities of adults? 3) Reincarnation claims an infinite series of prior incarnations. Evolution teaches that there was a time when humans did not yet exist. So reincarnation is inconsistent with modern science. 4) If there is reincarnation, then what is happening when the population increases? 5) If there is reincarnation, then why do so few, if any people, remember past lives?... To answer these objections believers in reincarnation must accept additional assumptions... Acceptance of these silly assumptions, Edwards says, amounts to a crucifixion of one's intellect."
Paul Edwards. (1996, reprinted in 2001). Reincarnation: A Critical Examination. Prometheus books. ISBN 1-57392-921-2
147. Simon Hoggart, Mike Hutchinson. (1995). Bizarre Beliefs. Richard Cohen Books. p. 145. ISBN 978-1573921565 "The trouble is that the history of research into psi is littered with failed experiments, ambiguous experiments, and experiments which are claimed as great successes but are quickly rejected by conventional scientists. There has also been some spectacular cheating."
148. Robert Cogan. (1998). Critical Thinking: Step by Step. University Press of America. p. 227. ISBN 978-0761810674 "When an experiment can't be repeated and get the same result, this tends to show that the result was due to some error in experimental procedure, rather than some real causal process. ESP experiments simply have not turned up any repeatable paranormal phenomena."
149. Charles M. Wynn, Arthur W. Wiggins. (2001). Quantum Leaps in the Wrong Direction: Where Real Science Ends...and Pseudoscience Begins. Joseph Henry Press. p. 165. ISBN 978-0309073097 "Extrasensory perception and psychokinesis fail to fulfill the requirements of the scientific method. They therefore must remain pseudoscientific concepts until methodological flaws in their study are eliminated, and repeatable data supporting their existence are obtained."
150. Terence Hines. (2003). Pseudoscience and the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. p. 144. ISBN 1-57392-979-4 "It is important to realize that, in one hundred years of parapsychological investigations, there has never been a single adequate demonstration of the reality of any psi phenomenon."
151. Jan Dalkvist (1994). Telepathic Group Communication of Emotions as a Function of Belief in Telepathy. Dept. of Psychology, Stockholm University. Within the scientific community however, the claim that psi anomalies exist or may exist is in general regarded with skepticism. One reason for this difference between the scientist and the non scientist is that the former [sic] relies on his own experiences and anecdotal reports of psi phenomena, whereas the scientist at least officially requires replicable results from well controlled experiments to believe in such phenomena - results which according to the prevailing view among scientists, do not exist.
152. Willem B. Drees (28 November 1998). Religion, Science and Naturalism. Cambridge University Press. pp. 242–. ISBN 978-0-521-64562-1. Retrieved 5 October 2011. Let me take the example of claims in parapsychology regarding telepathy across spatial or temporal distances, apparently without a mediating physical process. Such claims are at odds with the scientific consensus.
153. Victor Stenger. (1990). Physics and Psychics: The Search for a World Beyond the Senses. Prometheus Books. p. 166. ISBN 0-87975-575-X "The bottom line is simple: science is based on consensus, and at present a scientific consensus that psychic phenomena exist is still not established."
154. Eugene B. Zechmeister, James E. Johnson. (1992). Critical Thinking: A Functional Approach. Brooks/Cole Pub. Co. p. 115. ISBN 0534165966 "There exists no good scientific evidence for the existence of paranormal phenomena such as ESP. To be acceptable to the scientific community, evidence must be both valid and reliable."
155. Gracely, Ph.D., Ed J. (1998). "Why Extraordinary Claims Demand Extraordinary Proof". PhACT. Retrieved 2007-07-31.
156.
Jastrow, Joseph (1938). "ESP, House of Cards". The American Scholar. 8: 13–22.
Price, George (1955). "Science and the Supernatural". Science. 122 (3165): 359–367. Bibcode:1955Sci...122..359P. doi:10.1126/science.122.3165.359.
Girden, Edward (1962). "A Review of Psychokinesis (PK)". Psychological Bulletin. 59 (5): 353–388. doi:10.1037/h0048209.
Crumbaugh, James (1966). "A Scientific Critique of Parapsychology". International Journal of Neuropsychiatry. 5: 521–29.
Moss, Samuel; Butler, Donald (1978). "The Scientific Credibility Of ESP". Perceptual and Motor Skills. 46 (3_suppl): 1063–1079. doi:10.2466/pms.1978.46.3c.1063.
Michael Shermer. (2003). Psychic drift. Why most scientists do not believe in ESP and psi phenomena. Scientific American 288: 2.
157. Graham Reed. (1988). The Psychology of Anomalous Experience: A Cognitive Approach. Prometheus Books. ISBN 0-87975-435-4 Leonard Zusne, Warren H. Jones (1989). Anomalistic Psychology: A Study of Magical Thinking. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 0-8058-0508-7
158. Willard, AK; Norenzayan, A (2013). "Cognitive biases explain religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in life's purpose". Cognition. 129 (2): 379–91. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2013.07.016. PMID 23974049.
159. Myers, David G; Blackmore, Susan. "Putting ESP to the Experimental Test". Hope College. Archived from the original on 2008-10-05. Retrieved 2007-07-31.
160. Donovan Rawcliffe. (1952). The Psychology of the Occult. Derricke Ridgway, London.
161. C. E. M. Hansel. (1980). ESP and Parapsychology: A Critical Reevaluation. Prometheus Books.
162. Ray Hyman. (1989). The Elusive Quarry: A Scientific Appraisal of Psychical Research. Prometheus Books. ISBN 0-87975-504-0
163. Andrew Neher. (2011). Paranormal and Transcendental Experience: A Psychological Examination. Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-26167-0
164. Alcock, James (2003). "Give the Null Hypothesis a Chance: Reasons to Remain Doubtful about the Existence of Psi" (PDF). Journal of Consciousness Studies. 10: 29–50. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-08-10. "Parapsychology is the only realm of objective inquiry in which the phenomena are all negatively defined, defined in terms of ruling out normal explanations. Of course, ruling out all normal explanations is not an easy task. We may not be aware of all possible normal explanations, or we may be deceived by our subjects, or we may deceive ourselves. If all normal explanations actually could be ruled out, just what is it that is at play? What is psi? Unfortunately, it is just a label. It has no substantive definition that goes beyond saying that all normal explanations have apparently been eliminated. Of course, parapsychologists generally presume that it has something to do with some ability of the mind to transcend the laws of nature as we know them, but all that is so vague as to be unhelpful in any scientific exploration."
165. Diaconis, Persi (1978). "Statistical Problems in ESP Research". Science. 201(4351): 131–136. Bibcode:1978Sci...201..131D. doi:10.1126/science.663642. PMID 663642.
166. Druckman, D.; Swets, J. A., eds. (1988). Enhancing Human Performance: Issues, Theories and Techniques. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-309-07465-0.
167. James Alcock, Jean Burns, Anthony Freeman. (2003). Psi Wars: Getting to Grips with the Paranormal. Imprint Academic. p. 25. ISBN 978-0907845485
168. Terence Hines. (2003). Pseudoscience and the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. p. 146. ISBN 1-57392-979-4
169. Antony Flew. (1989). The problem of evidencing the improbable and the impossible. In G. K. Zollschan, J. F. Schumaker & G. F. Walsh (eds.). Exploring the paranormal. pp. 313–327. Dorset, England: Prism Press.
170. Michael W. Friedlander. (1998). At the Fringes of Science. Westview Press. p. 122. ISBN 0-8133-2200-6
171. "parapsychology - The Skeptic's Dictionary". Skepdic.com. 2013-12-22. Retrieved 2014-04-11.
172. Ray Hyman. (2008). "Anomalous Cognition? A Second Perspective". Skeptical Inquirer. Volume 32. Retrieved May 22, 2014.
173. Wiseman, Richard (2009). "Heads I Win, Tails You Lose". Skeptical Inquirer. 34 (1): 36–40.
174. Hyman, R (1988). "Psi experiments: Do the best parapsychological experiments justify the claims for psi?". Experientia. 44 (4): 315–322. doi:10.1007/bf01961269.
175. Mario Bunge. (1983). Treatise on Basic Philosophy: Volume 6: Epistemology & Methodology II: Understanding the World. Springer. p. 56. ISBN 978-9027716347
176. Land, Richard I. (1976). "Comments on Hypothetical Extrasensory Perception (ESP)". Leonardo. 9 (4): 306–307. doi:10.2307/1573360. JSTOR 1573360.
177. Shermer, Michael (2003). "Psychic drift. Why most scientists do not believe in ESP and psi phenomena". Scientific American. 288: 2.
178. Moulton, S. T.; Kosslyn, S. M. (2008). "Using Neuroimaging to Resolve the Psi Debate" (PDF). Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 20 (1): 182–192. doi:10.1162/jocn.2008.20.1.182. PMID 18095790. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-08-12. Retrieved 2017-10-25.
179. Acunzo, D.J.; Evrard, R.; Rabeyron, T. (2013). "Anomalous Experiences, Psi, and Functional Neuroimaging". Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 7: 893. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2013.00893. PMC 3870293. PMID 24427128.
180. Shiah, YJ; Wu, YZ; Chen, YH; Chiang, SK (2014). "Schizophrenia and the paranormal: More psi belief and superstition, and less déjà vu in medicated schizophrenic patients". Comprehensive Psychiatry. 55 (3): 688–92. doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.11.003. PMID 24355706.
181. John Taylor. (1980). Science and the Supernatural: An Investigation of Paranormal Phenomena Including Psychic Healing, Clairvoyance, Telepathy, and Precognition by a Distinguished Physicist and Mathematician. Temple Smith. ISBN 0-85117-191-5
182. Susan Blackmore. (2001). Why I Have Given Up in Paul Kurtz. Skeptical Odysseys: Personal Accounts by the World’s Leading Paranormal Inquirers. Prometheus Books. pp. 85-94. ISBN 1-57392-884-4
183. Mario Bunge. (1983). Treatise on Basic Philosophy: Volume 6: Epistemology & Methodology II: Understanding the World. Springer. pp. 225-226. ISBN 978-9027716347
"Precognition violates the principle of antecedence ("causality"), according to which the effect does not happen before the cause. Psychokinesis violates the principle of conservation of energy as well as the postulate that mind cannot act directly on matter. (If it did no experimenter could trust his own readings of his instruments.) Telepathy and precognition are incompatible with the epistemological principle according to which the gaining of factual knowledge requires sense perception at some point."
"Parapsychology makes no use of any knowledge gained in other fields, such as physics and physiological psychology. Moreover, its hypotheses are inconsistent with some basic assumptions of factual science. In particular, the very idea of a disembodied mental entity is incompatible with physiological psychology; and the claim that signals can be transmitted across space without fading with distance is inconsistent with physics."
184. Gardner, Martin (September 1981). "Einstein and ESP". In Kendrick Frazier (ed.). Paranormal Borderlands of Science. Prometheus. pp. 60–65. ISBN 978-0-87975-148-7. Gilovich, Thomas (1993). How We Know What Isn't So: The Fallibility of Human Reason in Everyday Life. Simon & Schuster. pp. 160, 169, 174, 175. ISBN 978-0-02-911706-4.
185. Milton A. Rothman. (1988). A Physicist's Guide to Skepticism. Prometheus Books. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-87975-440-2 "Transmission of information through space requires transfer of energy from one place to another. Telepathy requires transmission of an energy-carrying signal directly from one mind to another. All descriptions of ESP imply violations of conservation of energy in one way or another, as well as violations of all the principles of information theory and even of the principle of causality. Strict application of physical principles requires us to say that ESP is impossible."
186. Charles M. Wynn, Arthur W. Wiggins. (2001). Quantum Leaps in the Wrong Direction: Where Real Science Ends...and Pseudoscience Begins. Joseph Henry Press. p. 165. ISBN 978-0309073097 "One of the reasons scientists have difficulty believing that psi effects are real is that there is no known mechanism by which they could occur. PK action-at-a-distance would presumably employ an action-at-a-distance force that is as yet unknown to science... Similarly, there is no known sense (stimulation and receptor) by which thoughts could travel from one person to another by which the mind could project itself elsewhere in the present, future, or past."
187. "Telekinesis and Quantum Field Theory : Cosmic Variance". Blogs.discovermagazine.com. 2008-02-18. Retrieved 2014-04-11.
188. John Taylor. (1980). Science and the Supernatural: An Investigation of Paranormal Phenomena Including Psychic Healing, Clairvoyance, Telepathy, and Precognition by a Distinguished Physicist and Mathematician. Temple Smith. pp. 27-30. ISBN 0-85117-191-5
189. Felix Planer. (1980). Superstition. Cassell. p. 242. ISBN 0-304-30691-6
190. Felix Planer. (1980). Superstition. Cassell. p. 254. ISBN 0-304-30691-6
191. ^ Bunge, Mario (2001). Philosophy in Crisis :The Need for Reconstruction. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books. p. 176. ISBN 978-1-57392-843-4.
192. Mario Bunge. (1983). Treatise on Basic Philosophy: Volume 6: Epistemology & Methodology II: Understanding the World. Springer. pp. 225-227. ISBN 978-9027716347
193. Mario Bunge. (1984). What is Pseudoscience?. The Skeptical Inquirer. Volume 9: 36-46.
194. Bunge, Mario (1987). "Why Parapsychology Cannot Become a Science". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 10 (4): 576–577. doi:10.1017/s0140525x00054595.
195. Arthur Newell Strahler. (1992). Understanding Science: An Introduction to Concepts and Issues. Prometheus Books. pp. 168-212. ISBN 978-0-87975-724-3
196. Terence Hines. (2003). Pseudoscience and the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. pp. 113-150. ISBN 1-57392-979-4
197. Raimo Tuomela Science, Protoscience, and Pseudoscience in Joseph C. Pitt, Marcello Pera (1987). Rational Changes in Science: Essays on Scientific Reasoning. Springer. pp. 83-102. ISBN 9401081816
198. Science Framework for California Public Schools. California State Board of Education. 1990.
199. Beyerstein, Barry L. (1995). "Distinguishing Science from Pseudoscience"(PDF). Simon Fraser University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-07-11. Retrieved 2007-07-31.
200. Hyman, Ray (1995). "Evaluation of the program on anomalous mental phenomena". The Journal of Parapsychology. 59 (1). Archived from the original on 2007-10-12. Retrieved 2007-07-30.
201. Alcock, J. E. (1981). Parapsychology, Science or Magic?. Pergamon Press. ISBN 978-0-08-025772-3.
202. Alcock, J. E. (1998). "Science, pseudoscience, and anomaly". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 21 (2). doi:10.1017/S0140525X98231189.
203. James Alcock. (1981). Parapsychology-Science Or Magic?: A Psychological Perspective. Pergamon Press. p. 196. ISBN 978-0080257730
204. Thomas Gilovich. (1993). How We Know What Isn't So: The Fallibility of Human Reason in Everyday Life. Free Press. p. 160
205. Terence Hines. (2003). Pseudoscience and the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. pp. 117-145. ISBN 1-57392-979-4
206. Bauer, Eberhard; von Loucadou, Walter (1991). "A STRAWMAN CALLED "PSI"-OR: WHAT IS PROFESSOR BUNGE AFRAID OF?*". New Ideas in Psychology. 9 (2): 157–162. doi:10.1016/0732-118x(91)90019-i.
207. David Marks. (1986). Investigating the Paranormal. Nature. Volume 320: 119-124.
208. French, Chris; Stone, Anna. (2014). Anomalistic Psychology: Exploring Paranormal Belief and Experience. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 252-255. ISBN 978-1-4039-9571-1
209. Dowden, Bradley. (1993). Logical Reasoning. Wadsworth Publishing Company. p. 392. ISBN 978-0534176884
210. Henry Gordon. (1988). Extrasensory Deception: ESP, Psychics, Shirley MacLaine, Ghosts, UFOs. Macmillan of Canada. p. 13. ISBN 0-7715-9539-5"The history of parapsychology, of psychic phenomena, has been studded with fraud and experimental error."
211. Hyman, Ray. (1989). The Elusive Quarry: A Scientific Appraisal of Psychical Research. Prometheus Books. pp. 99-106. ISBN 0-87975-504-0
212. Stein, Gordon. (1996). The Encyclopedia of the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. p. 688. ISBN 1-57392-021-5]
213. Andrew Neher. (2011). Paranormal and Transcendental Experience: A Psychological Examination Dover Publications. p. 220. ISBN 0-486-26167-0
214. Scott, C.; Haskell, P. (1973). ""Normal" Explanation of the Soal-Goldney Experiments in Extrasensory Perception". Nature. 245 (5419): 52–54. Bibcode:1973Natur.245...52S. doi:10.1038/245052a0.
215. Betty Markwick. (1985). The establishment of data manipulation in the Soal-Shackleton experiments. In Paul Kurtz. A Skeptic’s Handbook of Parapsychology. Prometheus Books. pp. 287-312. ISBN 0-87975-300-5
216. McBurney, Donald H; White, Theresa L. (2009). Research Methods. Wadsworth Publishing. p. 60. ISBN 0-495-60219-1
217. Neher, Andrew. (2011). Paranormal and Transcendental Experience: A Psychological Examination. Dover Publications. p. 144. ISBN 0-486-26167-0
218. Philip John Tyson, Dai Jones, Jonathan Elcock. (2011). Psychology in Social Context: Issues and Debates. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 199. ISBN 978-1405168236
219. Massimo Pigliucci. (2010). Nonsense on Stilts: How to Tell Science from Bunk. University Of Chicago Press. p. 82. ISBN 978-0226667867
220. Kendrick Frazier. (1991). The Hundredth Monkey: And Other Paradigms of the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. pp. 168-170. ISBN 978-0879756550
221. Lawrie Reznek. (2010). Delusions and the Madness of the Masses. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 54. ISBN 978-1442206052
222. McFarland, J.D. (June 1937). "Extra-sensory perception of normal and distorted symbols". Journal of Parapsychology (2): 93–101.
223. McFarland, James D. (September 1938). "Discrimination shown between experimenters by subjects". Journal of Parapsychology (3): 160–170.
224. Louisa Rhine. (1983). Something Hidden. McFarland & Company. p. 226. ISBN 978-0786467549
225. "Hodgson, Richard (1855–1905)". Hodgson, Richard (1855 - 1905) Biographical Entry. Australian Dictionary of Biography, Online Edition. Retrieved 2007-08-03.
226. Mary Roach. (2010). Spook: Science Tackles the Afterlife. Canongate Books Ltd. pp. 122-130. ISBN 978-1847670809
227. Houdini, Harry (1987). A Magician Among the Spirits. Arno Press. ISBN 978-0-8094-8070-8.
228. Alcock, James E.; Jahn, Robert G. (2003). "Give the Null Hypothesis a Chance" (PDF). Journal of Consciousness Studies. 10 (6–7): 29–50. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-08-10. Retrieved 2007-07-30.
229. Akers, C. (1986). "Methodological Criticisms of Parapsychology, Advances in Parapsychological Research 4". PesquisaPSI. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-07-30.
230. Child, I.L. (1987). "Criticism in Experimental Parapsychology, Advances in Parapsychological Research 5". Pesq uisaPSI. Archived from the originalon 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-07-30.
231. Wiseman, Richard; Smith, Matthew; et al. (1996). "Exploring possible sender-to-experimenter acoustic leakage in the PRL autoganzfeld experiments - Psychophysical Research Laboratories". The Journal of Parapsychology. Archived from the original on 2007-10-12. Retrieved 2007-07-30.
232. Lobach, E.; Bierman, D. (2004). "The Invisible Gaze: Three Attempts to Replicate Sheldrake's Staring Effects" (PDF). Proceedings of the 47th PA Convention. pp. 77–90. Retrieved 2007-07-30.
233. Vyse, Stuart (2017). "P-Hacking Confessions: Daryl Bem and Me". Skeptical Inquirer. 41 (5): 25–27. Archived from the original on 2018-08-05. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
234. Hyman, Ray (1996). "The Evidence for Psychic Functioning: Claims vs. Reality". CSICOP. Archived from the original on 2007-05-19. Retrieved 2007-07-02.
235. Carroll, Robert Todd (2005). "psi assumption". Skepdic.com. The Skeptics Dictionary. Retrieved 2007-07-30.
236. Broad, William J. (1983-02-15). "Magician's Effort To Debunk Scientists Raises Ethical Issues". NYTimes.com. Retrieved 2014-04-11.
237. Randi, J. (1983) The Project Alpha experiment: Part one: the first two years. Skeptical Inquirer, Summer issue, Pages 24-33 and Randi, J. (1983)The Project Alpha Experiment: Part two: Beyond the Laboratory,” Skeptical Inquirer Fall issue, Pages 36-45
238. Utts, Jessica (1991). "Replication and Meta-Analysis in Parapsychology". Statistical Science. 6 (4): 363–403. doi:10.1214/ss/1177011577.
239. Stenger, Victor J. (2002). "Meta-Analysis and the Filedrawer Effect". Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Retrieved 2007-07-30.
240. Kennedy, J.E. (2005). "A Proposal and Challenge for Proponents and Skeptics of Psi". Journal of Parapsychology. 68: 157–167. Retrieved 2007-07-29.
241. Nicola Holt, Christine Simmonds-Moore, David Luke, Christopher French. (2012). Anomalistic Psychology (Palgrave Insights in Psychology). Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0230301504
242. Chris French. "Anomalistic Psychology". videojug (Interview). Archived from the original on 2013-05-20.
243. "The rise of anomalistic psychology – and the fall of parapsychology? : Soapbox Science". blogs.nature.com.
244. "Committee for Skeptical Inquiry". csicop.org. Retrieved 2007-11-14.
245. "James Randi Educational Foundation". randi.org. Retrieved 2007-11-14.
246. "About the Occult Investigative Committee of The Society of American Magicians". www.tophatprod.com. Retrieved 2009-08-18.
247. "The Society Of American Magicians". www.magicsam.com. Archived from the original on 2012-09-01. Retrieved 2009-08-18.

Further reading

• Allison, Paul D. (1979). "Experimental Parapsychology as a Rejected Science". The Sociological Review. 27 (suppl): 271–291. doi:10.1111/j.1467-954X.1979.tb00065.x.
• Alcock, James (1981). Parapsychology-Science Or Magic?: A Psychological Perspective. Pergamon Press.
• Bunge, Mario (1987). "Why Parapsychology Cannot Become a Science". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 10 (4): 576–577. doi:10.1017/s0140525x00054595.
• Hines, Terence (2003). Pseudoscience and the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-979-4
• Irwin, Harvey J.; Watt, Caroline. (2007). An Introduction to Parapsychology. McFarland & Company. p. 320. ISBN 978-0-7864-3059-8.
• Marks, David (2000). The Psychology of the Psychic (2nd Edition). New York: Prometheus Books. p. 336. ISBN 978-1-57392-798-7.
• Moore, E. Garth (1977). Believe It or Not: Christianity and Psychical Research. London: Mowbray. ISBN 0-264-66010-2
• Neher, Andrew (2011). Paranormal and Transcendental Experience: A Psychological Examination. Dover Publications.
• Randi, James (June 1982). Flim-Flam! Psychics, ESP, Unicorns, and Other Delusions. Prometheus Books. p. 342. ISBN 978-0-345-40946-1.
• Randi, James; Arthur C. Clarke (1997). An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural. St. Martin's Griffin. p. 336. ISBN 978-0-312-15119-5.
• Sagan, Carl; Ann Druyan (1997). The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark. Ballantine Books. p. 349. ISBN 978-0-345-40946-1.
• Shepard, Leslie (2000). Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology. Thomson Gale. p. 1939. ISBN 978-0-8103-8570-2.
• Shermer, Michael (2003). "Psychic drift. Why most scientists do not believe in ESP and psi phenomena". Scientific American. 288: 2.
• Wiseman, Richard; Watt, Caroline (2005). Parapsychology (International Library of Psychology). Ashgate Publishing. pp. 501 pages. ISBN 978-0-7546-2450-9.

External links

• The Division of Perceptual Studies at the University of Virginia School of Medicine.
• Institute of Noetic Sciences A nonprofit organization that sponsors research in parapsychology.
• Parapsychological Association An organization of scientists and scholars engaged in the study of psychic phenomena, affiliated with the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1969.
• Rhine Research Center A historical parapsychological research center featuring the first building ever made for experimental work in parapsychology. The Rhine Research Center is a hub for research and education in Parapsychology.
• Society for Psychical Research Founded in 1882, the SPR was the first society to conduct organised scholarly research into parapsychology and other human experiences that challenge contemporary scientific models. It continues its work today.
• Committee for Skeptical Inquiry Organization formed in 1976 to promote scientific skepticism and encourage the critical investigation of paranormal claims and parapsychology.
• James Randi Educational Foundation The James Randi Education Foundation(JREF) was founded to promote critical thinking in the areas of the supernatural and paranormal. The JREF has provided skeptical views in the area of parapsychology.
• FindArticles.com Index Large number of articles about parapsychology, from publications such as the Journal of Parapsychology and the Skeptical Inquirer.
• Parapsychology at Curlie
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 27254
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: His Holiness Grandmaster Professor Lin Yun 1932-2010

Postby admin » Thu Jun 13, 2019 7:47 pm

UFOs, THE U.N. AND GA 33/426
by John F. Schuessler, M.S.
HUFON REPORT Newsletter
December 1992
This article originally appeared in the Dec.'92 edition of HUFON REPORT, the newsletter of the Houston UFO Network. For more information call (71) 850-152.

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Late in 1978, prominent UFO researchers approached the United Nations with the suggestion to set up some type of international clearing house whereby investigators and researchers would be able to coordinate on an international level scientific research into unidentified flying objects, and to inform the Secretary-General of the observations, research, and evaluation of such activities. The UN General Assembly responded favorably by adopting Decision GA /426. Unfortunately, nothing was done to bring the decision to fruition and it lies dormant to this very day.

Early in 1992 Mohammad Ahmad Ramadan, President of the United Nations Parapsychology Society, suggested it was time to reacquaint the United Nations with Decision GA /426 with the intent of forming the agency called for in the Decision. In order to make this happen, he felt it necessary to have a series of presentations aimed at providing an update on the UFO situation. He then proceeded, with the strong support of MUFON's Robert Bletchman, to organize the United Nations Symposium on Extraterrestrial Intelligence and Human Future which occurred on October 2, 1992, just ten days before NASA was to begin it's SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) program.

The symposium was not aimed at traditional academia or the media. It was felt that traditional academia has proved to be insufficient in solving problems of this magnitude and needs help itself in having credibility for the future. As far as the media is concerned, it is saturated with UFO data and all of those concerned have already made up their minds - for or against. No UFO witness will make them change their minds, unless they see for themselves. The mission of the symposium, then was not to change people but to network with those who already are willing to listen, especially among the United Nations non-governmental organizations (NGOs) such as Amnesty International, Red Cross, Greenpeace, B'nai Brith, etc. The organizations are the greatest catalyst of change in modern times.

For instance, they fought very hard to force President Bush to attend the Earth Summit in Rio. It was noted that the "old guards" of politics and science would be apprehensive, fearful we were pulling the carpet from under their feet. Therefore, the tone of the symposium was to present the data and leave the audience to decide for themselves, the way I believe it should always be done.

Hundreds of representatives of the United Nations NGOs meet weekly to investigate problems having a worldwide scope. Many of these representatives did attend the symposium and responded favorably. The Dag Hammarskjold Auditorium was filled to capacity.

We were fortunate in having Linda Howe available for a special noon program prior to the symposium, but held in the same auditorium. She provided a Crop Circle Mystery Update in a special hour and a half program.


Symposium speakers were each given one hour to present their message. After a brief introduction by Mr. Ramadan, Stanton Friedman gave an energetic and entertaining presentation entitled "The Cosmic Watergate." I followed with the "Medical and Scientific Evidence." After a short break, the program resumed with a presentation on "The Human Evidence," by Dr. Rauni Leena Kilde, MD. of Norway. Dr. Kilde revealed her own personal abduction experience. The final presenter was Dr. Norma Milanovich, speaking on the "Cosmic-Spiritual Evidence and Experience," using material channeled through her computer.

After a question and answer period by the panel of speakers, an open letter to the Secretary-General, from the panel of speakers, was read aloud to the audience. The letter was to be hand delivered to the Secretary-General on the following Monday.

The UFO mystery is not limited to the United States. It is a worldwide problem. Therefore, it was appropriate to bring this strong message to the United Nations, with the expectation that the UN will proceed to form the UFO agency called for by Decision GA /426. There is hope that it will be done correctly this time.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 27254
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: His Holiness Grandmaster Professor Lin Yun 1932-2010

Postby admin » Thu Jun 13, 2019 7:47 pm

United Nations and the New World Order
by Smelling the Coffee
January, 2009

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


The "United Nations Parapsychology Society" changed its name in 1993 to the "Society for Enlightenment and Transformation - S.E.A.T."

According to Mr Mohammad A. Ramadan, the president of "S.E.A.T." in 1993, their objectives are "to research and stimulate interest in the processes of human transformation now taking place worldwide."

To this end, the Parapsychology Society/S.E.A.T. organized several after-hours get-togethers for U.N. employees and like-minded members of the public in U.N. conference rooms. S.E.A.T. was overseen by the UNSRC, the United Nations Staff Recreation Council, as were all other staff-based activities of the U.N.

The topics and invited speakers were many and varied: "Developing Your Five Unknown Senses," (Nancy Anne Clark, M.T.C.),;"Children of Star Women" (Parisha); "The New Image of Man: A Look at Paranormal Strategies (Dr James Hurtak), channelled "Kryon's Special Message to the United Nations" (Lee Carroll); "Second Symposium on Extraterrestrial Intelligence and Human Future," and so on.


What better way to cover up direct alien channel contact than by with a 'recreational council', much like the USA military 'study' of alien contact and artifacts. Nothing formally released EVER bluntly states what they are doing but it is 'official'. And of course nothing published ever actually amounts up to any 'evidence'.... perhaps with NGO's.

Non-governmental organisations (NGOs) with ascensionist [one of a group of 19th century Christians that prepared for the coming of Christ, the end of the world, and the ascension of the faithful, specifically: MILLERITE] links:

Patricia Jepson is the founder of the Sanctuary school. She is also the founder of the Center of International Cooperation (Sept 1987). The CIC is "a non governmental organisation (NGO) on the roster of the United Nations Economic and Social Council" and "a non-profit, 501(c)(3) organisation".

Patricia Jepson is also the founder of the Melchizedek University, which describes her current assignment as including "a much needed focus on children and youth, their soul education and general welfare." And goes on to describe the Sanctuary School as an online program for children and youth focussing on heart-based education".

"Ascended Master" Melchizedek is multi-cloned individual and one of the derrah diig n'eh. The original individual was a member of the ruling Calreisan Oligarchy over 8000 years ago. And here on earth is a United Nations recognised re-education program.

The University of Melchizedek
An Online Ascension School and Retreat Center
by melchizedeklearning.com

About the University

Melchizedek is a divine order of consciousness. It is the presence of our Creator through every individual on earth.


The University of Melchizedek Center, located in Grants Pass, Oregon, offers a safe and supportive study program for students to realize their God potential. Whether you are new to the spiritual journey or a seasoned traveler on "the path," this school will encourage and reinforce the divine identity within. Courses, books and audio recordings open you to Higher Mind and enable you to understand more fully your place in the Universe. The primary function of the University is to prepare the serious student for initiation, to present the sacred mysteries of Melchizedek, and to furnish those who have been called Priest after the Order of Melchizedek with the necesary tools that will enable him or her to be that priest in active service. This is the time of great initiation when the seven veils of creation are to be lifted. It is the time of opening to a new world of creative power and brand new identity. The Priesthood removes the curtain or veil from the outer world that man might see himself as divine.

An international school with a global outreach, the University affords students the opportunity to expand consciousness and make new and interesting friendships from varying cultures and areas of this earth. Study groups are offered throughout the year in various locations, providing the opportunity for University students and teachers to convene together as a focal point for the new world of of light. Online and local study offer a balanced presentation and active experience of the Christ presence or Divine (I AM) presence that indwells all peoples alike. Accent is always on the unique identity of the individual as well as the broadening awareness of the Absolute.

The Christ Church of Melchizedek (CCM) is the nonsectarian, nonprofit corporation, a tax-exempt organization for the University of Melchizedek, the Melchizedek School of Consciousness. The University of Melchizedek is the teaching extension of the Melchizedek Order. CCM therefore is not a church but an educational facility that imparts the ageless wisdom of the Great Ones from many disciplines and religions. The term "Christ" within the corporation title indicates the God Seed or the presence of deity within each one of us. It is the presence of the Sun, the causal stream of enlightenment and does not denote any preference to religious or philosophical practice.

Words such as "Christ" or "Buddha" or "I AM Presence" mean essentially the Divine One or Creative Principle within us all. At no time does the University of Melchizedek place a preference on one name of Deity. Respect and honor are afforded to all who have tread the path of enlightenment and soul discovery.

The Christian-like language frequently used within the lesson materials is open to your interpretation and revelatory experience. Melchizedek encourages individual soul enlightenment and new idea forms from each active participant of the University. Consciousness reveals. It is not static nor is it imprisoned in rituals and guru-like worship. You are the light of your own awareness, the Christ of your own soul.

You are encouraged within the Order of Melchizedek to remember the Universe Creator every moment and to continually relate to God Intelligence as your enlightened mind. This coordinates your thinking process into the higher levels or degrees of consciousness. Communication with God is emphasized as well as integrating the present wandering mind into the personality of divine soul consciousness.

Contact with the University of Melchizedek opens one to the Order of Melchizedek. This is the Christ Order of the Universe Creator and it is the power structure of our Universe. Thus this University is very much concerned with the alignment with The Son as the God-Center of our Universe. It also unfolds records of Higher Mind that move the student into revelation and Christ understanding.

About the Founder, Patricia Jepsen (Crystal)

Image
Patricia Jepsen

The University of Melchizedek was founded and directed by Patricia Jepsen (Crystal), a pioneer in the expanding spiritual and environmental movements. Writer, lecturer and seminar leader, she served for over thirty years as a teacher and scribe for the Order of Melchizedek and initiated individuals into higher mind consciousness and fusion with the Inner Voice. She addressed many religious/spiritual organizations in the name of the Order and planted the seed of Melchizedek in many parts of the earth.

Her assignment included vibrating or revealing the World Mother Office to earth. This entailed a much-needed focus on children and youth, their soul education and general welfare. She was founder and director of The Sanctuary School, an online program for children and youth focusing on heart-based education.

Patricia Jepsen made her transition into the Light in September 2009. Read a tribute to her here.


The Sanctuary School News
by thesanctuaryschool.org

Did You Know ...

The Sanctuary School is an educational outreach of the Center for International Cooperation (CIC), a Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) on the Roster of the United Nations Economic and Social Council. Founded by Patricia Jepsen in September 1987, CIC's programs have addressed many of the critical issues of our time, including the rights of indigenous peoples and of planet Earth, international peace and conflict resolution, and global education. The Sanctuary School continues this tradition of peace-making, creative thinking and environmental leadership with its offering of online courses and resource materials for children, teens and adults. Our students come from many countries and several continents. CIC is a non-profit, 501(c)(3) organization.


Center for International Cooperation
by cic-ngo.org

The Pink Ribbon Project came about as a result of "circle of life" classes that Patricia Jepsen (President, Center for International Cooperation) hosted with her golden retriever, Delphi. The classes were the inspiration for her book "Six Lessons with Delphi" which is an educational program that fosters kindness, partnership and respect for all life.
The lessons are at the center of Community Stepping Stones programs in Tucson, Arizona.

Children's Peace Gardens Project

Theme: Building trust and cross-cultural communication through environmental and peace education.

The Children's Peace Gardens Project is envisioned as a vehicle for reconciliation and a pronounced shift in perspective in areas of daily or deep-seated conflict.

The Center for International Cooperation (CIC) is incorporated as a 501(c)(3) non-profit educational, charitable organization.


Guest 'speakers' to various offices of the United Nations Recreational Council:

1992 - kuthumi
1995 - kyron
1996 - kyron
1998 - kyron
1999 - maitreya
2004 - kuthumi
2005 - kyron
2006 - kyron
2007 - kyron

[Excerpt from "threads of silk - bands of steel" by gyeorgos ceres hatonn, being a collection of commentary written by him n 1992. Copyright 1992. ISBN 0-9222356-81-5.]

Now, as to THE TEMPLAR IN THE SEVENTH GOLDEN AGE, by Dr. Milanovich, I would share the comments of the one who sent me the information: "This looks like covert Satanic stuff. Is it? - signed AFS." "AFS-Anonymous For Safety."

For $60.00 you can get THE TEMPLAR IN THE SEVENTH GOLDEN AGE and Master Kuthumi's message to the United Nations Parapsychology Society from the source in Albuquerque, NM.

Chelas, I don't wish to comment on these things. Dr. Milanovich and crew had some working interchange with America West but refused to even listen to Greens on the subject of Hosts, Hatonn or God -- after having been the ones to make the invitation for a special visit to that group. I suggest you find out for yourselves if your curiosity regarding TRUTH is lacking fulfillment. I will say, however, that as stated, "Ascended Master Kuthumi has told us that this structure (a "great structure, in the form of a pyramid, that must be built to assist planet Earth in moving into the Fifth Dimension....") will be the rebuilt Solomon's Temple. We believe it is called the Templar after ...


KRYON - UN Channelling Intro
by kryon.com

Kryon at the United Nations? YES!

In 1995, 1996, 1998, 2005, 2006 and 2007, Kryon was invited to come to New York and channel for the Society of Enlightenment and Transformation, S.E.A.T., ... a member of the United Nations Staff Recreation Council.

The six selections below are the full stories and transcribed channellings of these six New York meetings, given in the committee rooms and auditoriums of the United Nations building in New York, not too far away from the General Assembly. These events were attended by United Nations staff, delegates, S.E.A.T. members and guests (not open to the public, except the one in 2997).

See what Kryon had to say ...


Maitreya Educational Foundation - United Nations - SEAT Speech
by Maitreya-edu.org

Maitreya Teachings

United Nations - SEAT Speech

SEAT stands for the "Society for Enlightenment and Transformation." It is a group within the United Nations that comes under the United Nations staff Recreational Council. Seat is involved in prayer groups and other activities that help a positive outcome in the work of the UN around the World.

The Master was invited by the President of SEAT "Jennifer Borchers" to speak to their group at the United Nations on the 8th June, 1999. The talk began at 1:15 pm and lasted for 40 minutes. Around 40 people were present. English transcription below by Pablo Romero.


Messages from Kuthumi/Center
by athenactr.com

By invitation, Dr. Norma Milanovich spoke to the Friendship Club at the United Nations on Columbus Day, October 11, 2004. Kuthumi send through the following powerful message for the event. This message was read by Dr. Milanovich to those in attendance.

Kuthumi Provides a Plan for Earth
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 27254
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: His Holiness Grandmaster Professor Lin Yun 1932-2010

Postby admin » Thu Jun 13, 2019 7:48 pm

Part 1 of 4

Steve, Barbara Rother, and the group are five time presenters at the United Nations on two continents
by espavo.org/united nations/
Accessed: 6/11/19

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Stories and the Channels presented at the United Nations

We are proud to say that we have presented the material from the group five times at the United Nations. We offer you here the articles and messages from the group that was presented at the United Nations. The part of the UN that hosted these talks were two separate and different organizations with the same purpose: one in Vienna, Austria, and the other at the United Nations Headquarters in New York. The interesting part is that neither of these charters knew the other one existed until we told them.

In Vienna, it was the Esoteric Society who is made up of employees of the United Nations Vienna International Community. This is a home for the United Nations, UNIDO United Nations Industrial Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency, UNOV, and UCBDO. (The United Nations is into acronyms.) The New York Headquarters organization is the Enlightenment Society, previously and since known as the SEAT, Society for Enlightenment and Transformation. Both of these organizations are charters under the UNSRC United Nations Staff Re-creation Council. They are open to employees of the United Nations and we found in attendance Delegates, Department and Program heads, Secretaries to Engineers, and Scientist from the Atomic Energy Agency. It was quite a diverse crowd.

Underneath you can find the messages and articles presented.

ESPAVO!
Steve and Barbara Rother

Stories and the Channels presented at the United Nations

Article: “The group goes to the UN” – Vienna, Austria, May 1999

Article: “The group goes to the UN”
Vienna, Austria, May 1999

Lightworkers at the United Nations

Steve, Barbara Rother and the group are five time presenters at the United Nations on two continents.

The Group Goes to the UN

We arrived in Vienna at 9 am after 13 hours of flight time from San Diego. Vienna is a beautiful city with rich heritage. This was the first time that Barbara and I had been to Europe and we were quite excited about this trip. Then came the difficult part: explaining the sword to many customs officials. Our Host, Lourdes Resperger, met us at the airport with a bouquet of flowers that set the tone for what was to come. She is the president of the Vienna International City Esoteric Society that hosted this event. Our Hotel was very near a canal off the Blue Danube River. We decided to check into our hotel and get some rest before attending the channel at the United Nations at 4 pm.

Eva Reinerman from Brussels and her mother Helen met us at our hotel, later that afternoon. Together we traveled to something called the Vienna International Center, on the “underground”. This was kind of strange for me because when I looked around I became acutely aware that I was the only one on the subway wearing a hat and carrying a sword. No problem, I have found myself in stranger situations before. We arrived at the entrance to the Vienna International Center. We had to present our ID and go through security and customs because we were entering a country within a country they explained. Everyone lined up and they checked our passports and gave us badges. Then the moment of truth came as the security guard asked all of us to place our belongings on the x-ray machine. I really didn’t want him to go into panic when he saw the sword show up on his screen, so I told him ahead of time that there was a sword in the case I was carrying. He responded but I could tell he wasn't really listening. Then his eyes got really big as he saw the sword.. This is a look I have seen several times before. Then came the usual question: “Why are you carrying a sword?” You would think that after being asked that same question time and again that I would have a well versed answer ready and waiting. Not so, I stumbled out something to the effect that it was a ceremonial sword. Now his eyes got very big as the visions of human sacrifice shot through his brain. Then he spoke the all too familiar words: “I think I’d better get my supervisor.” The funny part is, when the case actually opens, I watch as highly trained security guards of the United Nations turn into little wide eyed boys at first sight of the sword. His supervisor kindly asked me if we were going to cut off anyone's head with this and when I responded with a firm no, and several other people who were in high positions at the UN vouched for us, we were admitted to the UN.

After passing inspection we proceeded into this city. We were invited by the VIC Esoteric Society at the UN compound to speak and do a live channel for the members and guests of this group. The Esoteric Society is a group of like minded individuals most of whom work at the various organizations, including the UN, although membership is open. This group meets at the UN compound in the Vienna International Center regularly. Upon entering the compound we realized that this was in fact a self contained city. This place was huge and there were many buildings that make up the Vienna International Center. This is a home for the United Nations, UNIDO United Nations Industrial Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency, UNOV and UCBDO. Upon entering the main lobby area all the international flags could be seen hanging from the ceiling. We went up several floors to the room where the channel was to be held.

There were about twenty people now in the room and we began meeting people prior to the talk. At 5:30 there was a big influx of people entering the room as members of the various organizations ended their workday. Many were there from the United Nations, UNIDO and the Atomic Energy Agency. When the introductions were made and I began the talk, there were about 70 people in attendance.

I shared with them how this whole thing got started and how the Group first came to me. I spoke about the messages from the Group and the basis of the work we were doing. I was surprised to find that most of the people in the room had been reading the Beacons of Light Meditations for some time. They were ready for the information and very anxious to see us. It turned out that we were a validation for them as well. We were a little anxious about meeting Lightworkers from different countries but after about five minutes of talking and looking into the smiling, eager eyes in the audience, I realized that we were Home and this was family.

I shared the Sword, Scepter and Quill with everyone and explained how we used each tool in the seminars to illustrate the information that the Group has given us. It was very special to see some of the special warriors of the Light holding the Sword again.
I had been very concerned about jet lag and having to present something so important to me only a few hours after getting off a plane, but the moment I stepped up in front of the crowd the Group came in and I became energized.

After a short break I began the channel from the Group. They had decided to not let me in on what we were going to talk about. Normally I would have been very nervous about them not telling me the subject of the channel but I was simply too busy to worry about it. I’m really beginning to get very comfortable with the live channeling. Writing was my first form of channeling so this is relative new for me. I am now getting very comfortable with speaking in a collective voice and live channeling. Now I just open to the flow.

The timing of our trip put us in Vienna during the Kosovo crisis, which was only a few hundred miles from our location. Several people asked for answers as to why this was happening. They also wanted information about the role of the refugees. There was a real sadness in the air caused by this situation. This was the first information contained in the channel from the Group. They spoke of the role these wonderful people were playing and how their sacrifice would facilitate the further advancement of humanity. They spoke of the fact that it was appropriate to speak your truth in all situations including this one. Many of those in Vienna still have scar tissue from the last time this was attempted in the days of the holocaust. Once again, the Group said that our awakening on this planet began in earnest the day that Hitler left. It was our collective raise in vibration that said we would never give our power away like that again.


In the initiation, AMORC makes the claim that their order is empowered by an egregore, or group consciousness, consisting of both incarnated beings and non-incarnate spiritual masters. The sincere members, who study and practice the teachings of the monographs, receive a spiritual energy or influx from the egregore, which provides the student with regenerative energy and a sense of direction.

-- The Prisoner of San Jose: How I Escaped From Rosicrucian Mind Control, by Pierre S. Freeman


The Group began to speak about the Universal energy, and how it was all about blending. They used the illustration of tides in the Ocean that actually balance the rotation of the Earth. This constant movement of energy (water) is always seeking balance. To seek balance and blending is the way of the Universal energy. To support that blending will place you in the Universal flow. To oppose that energy would be against the Universal flow and would not be supported. They gave illustrations about how all actions should be compared to the flow of Universal Energy. They said that action supporting blending and the removal of imaginary lines of separation would help us make the shift as humanity moved forward. Those actions that resisted blending and encouraged segregation would not be supported. They spoke of how all things begin as a single heart. If there is a misdirection of energy that goes against the Universal flow then it would find resistance.

If the resistance was ignored then the misdirection would attract others with similar misdirections and soon there would be a community misdirecting energy. If that continues, like attracts like, and soon you have an entire country misdirecting energy. They did also say that if ever the majority of the planet began misdirecting energy then the Mother would end the Game and the cataclysmic end times would be visited upon the Earth. They also said to keep in mind that the events of Kosovo were a chance to shine Light where Light had not been for some time. They were not talking about a geographical location but rather, an idea of ethnic cleansing. They made it clear that we were in the higher vibrations and these actions would now meet abrupt opposition. They said that the words “fight” and “war” would not be in our vocabulary long, but it was also very important that we took a stand and spoke our truth and created our own reality. In many ways it was like having a chance to re-affirm the direction of the new Earth. They greatly honored those who accepted the role of victim. They said that they played very important roles that would not go unnoticed, and that we all owe them a real debt of gratitude.

From the warrior's valor,
From the blood of battles,
From the pain of the bereaved.
From a people's sacrifice
Will the spirit fruit arise —
Will the souls embrace the spirit
Consciously, with inner eyes.

-- Christ in Relation to Lucifer and Ahriman, A Lecture by Rudolf Steiner


Although the subject was prompted by the situation in Kosovo, it was about a much higher subject. It was about the flow of Universal Energy and how that is a guide for everything in all our lives and actions on the planet. They said that even our little decisions in everyday life can be compared to the flow to see if it is a misdirection of energy. They said that on government levels it is easy to see how all actions and policies are either in the flow, or against it. They said there is no judgement about which one we choose, except that some actions get the desired results and others do not.

They pointed to the euro-dollar as a perfect example of blending and erasing imaginary lines that we call borders. They said we strengthen the bonds between us as we encourage becoming citizens of the Earth. They said once we get that in place we can start working on becoming citizens of the Universe. They talked about those who will be coming soon to help us understand our true heritage. And they said when that happens we will very quickly drop our imaginary boundaries and become citizens of the new Planet Earth. They spoke of our galactic neighbors and how varied they are from one another. They said that when they begin to show themselves, we will then see how very much alike we really are here on Earth, and we will bond as citizens of the planet.

The other points they spoke of were related to taking and holding our true power while still in biology. They spoke of the planetary alignments that have caused so much turmoil in recent times and spoke of the role of humanity on the Gameboard. They spoke of the physical changes that were to be expected, and the awakening of humanity. All in all, they gave a basic message that firmly placed the choices, as well as the responsibility for those choices, in the hands of those in attendance. They gently but firmly re-minded us that through our choices we hold the power of creating our own future.

At the end of the channel there was time for all to ask question of the Group. There were many interesting questions that ranged from asking about the 23rd Universe to how we can better re-member who we are. One question that produced an interesting response from the Group, was asked by a scientist from the Atomic Energy Agency. He asked about the nature of synchronicity as it related to the three dimensional representation of the sparks of God that I had placed on the board. The basis of their answer was that he was making things more complicated than they really were. The concept of God was too simple to fit in three dimensions. The questions came from Lightworkers in all walks of life.

At the end of the channel I opened my eyes to find that I had sat a little too close to the front row as everyone was in tears. I know that there is a proximity issue with this and have learned to tell people so they can choose if they wish to be in the flow of tears or not. At the very end as we all shared long overdue hugs and a wonderful Lightworker came up to me beaming from ear to ear. She was there to greet us, and had brought her friend along to translate because she did not speak English. She told her translator to tell me that after about five minutes of translating she had told her stop. She was getting the message just fine, and as she wiped the tears from her eyes she pointed to her heart. The translator told me she “heard” every word.

One of the most wonderful experiences at the United Nations was what happened several days later. Our host Lourdes asked us back to the UN for lunch. We got to really take a look around during the working hours and saw more than we imagined. The Vienna International City houses a lot of Lightwork, and it was really great to have the opportunity to be taken on a private tour of this vast place. Just before we left we had coffee and desert in one of the café’s. During the short time we sat at the table, about five people came by who had been either at the channel or that had attended the seminar, and we were greeted with hugs from family. This was more than I could have hoped for, and for the first time I realized that Barbara, the Group and I had a wonderful role of re-connecting family all over the world.

We did a two day seminar in the heart of Vienna, at which the Group shared more about the family of Michael in this very special place. They said the energy of Michael was very strong in that geographical location, and this was the reason we were finding each other now. In more ways than one we really had re-membered Home. We were deeply honored to have been asked to share this message with these important Lightworkers at this critical time on our planet. We have been asked to return in April 2000 and have gratefully accepted the invitation.

Barbara and I are so honored to be able to carry this message and connect Lightworkers worldwide. We thank all of you for holding the energy to make this possible. Together we are changing the world and creating Heaven here on Earth…one heart at a time.

Steve, Barbara and the Group.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 27254
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: His Holiness Grandmaster Professor Lin Yun 1932-2010

Postby admin » Thu Jun 13, 2019 7:49 pm

Part 2 of 4

Channel # 1 – The Universal Energy – Vienna, Austria, May 1999

Channel # 1 – The Universal Energy
Vienna, Austria, May 1999
Lightworkers
at the United Nations
Channel #1

Steve, Barbara Rother and the group are five time presenters at the United Nations on two continents

We arrived in Vienna just 5 hours prior to this presentation at the UN. I had been very concerned about jet lag and having to present something so important to me only a few hours after getting off a plane. To my surprise, the moment I stepped up in front of the crowd the Group came in and I felt the familiar energy filling my being. Jet lag cannot compete with that.

After a short break I began the channel from the Group. They had decided not to let me in on what we were going to talk about. Normally I would have been very nervous about not knowing the subject of the channel, but on this occasion I was simply too busy to worry about it.

The timing of our trip put us in Vienna during the Kosovo crisis, which was only a few hundred miles from our location. Several people asked for answers about why this was happening. They also wanted information about the role of the refugees. There was a real sadness in the air caused by this situation. The Group seemed very anxious and could not wait for me to start the channel.

As we began, a lady in the front row had tears in her eyes from the moment the Group said “Greetings from Home.” She had brought her friend to translate, but shortly after the channel commenced the translator stopped speaking. Afterwards, they both approached me. It turns out that this dear Master Healer did not speak a word of English. With tears in both our eyes she made a gesture of putting her hand over her heart. Her friend, the translator, then told me that she understood every word on a much higher level.

The Group:

Greetings from Home.

We have waited a long time to say that. We have waited a very long time to visit with you. We have waited for you to find each other and re-unite. We thank you for reaching out. We thank you for being who you are. We thank you for stepping into your power and finding the expression of the God within each of you. We are so pleased that you have chosen to walk firmly into plan B and what you are calling Ascension.

From our perspective, we see the turmoil, we see what you consider to be difficult times. We ask you to be very careful where you place your focus, for as you observe difficult times, if you linger too long you create them. There are many events on the Gameboard at this time that do not receive the same attention as the ones that trouble you so. But in order to chase out the dark with the Light one must first shine Light into the darkness. This is now in progress and this is what is being seen in the events unfolding on the Gameboard. Many of you have held the Light in your own various ways. We express a deep gratitude to those who are now playing the role of victim, for they do so in the highest possible manner for the good of all that is. These are contracts they have chosen and agreed to play. These are contracts that were scripted a very long time ago. They are not easy contracts and we honor those fulfilling them.

The Nature of Contracts

We wish to help you understand the events as they are unfolding on the Gameboard. To do this we will first re-mind you about the nature of contracts. Contracts are agreements that you make before you enter the game. You asked this person to come and play the Mother, and this person to come and play Father, and this person to play the part of Uncle Harry. You ask a beloved brother if he will play the part of your business partner. You then ask him if he will love you enough to play the role of the villain. You ask him if he would love you enough to help you learn the lesson and settle the Karma you have chosen for your experience. From a larger perspective, when these contracts are exercised en masse they can easily pull the pendulum of humanity to one side and create possibilities of advancement for the whole. Even so, these contracts are only potential scripts that you have written for yourself. All contracts are contingent upon acceptance. When you come face to face with the contract you are still on the planet of Free Choice and you have choice about whether you wish to carry out that contract. We tell you that there are many on the planet that have chosen to carry out some very important contracts. Our love is so deep for all of you who have chosen this path. The results reach far beyond what you can see in your third-dimensional existence. The new paradigms you are creating through your own evolutionary advances will show in the Universe for a long time to come. The colors that you will wear from being a player on the Gameboard will place you among the highest and you will wear them with pride. You are of this family and we are honored to be here with you.

The Flow of Universal Energy

We are here with information to help you live and move more comfortably into the higher vibrations of the new planet Earth, which you have begun creating. We re-mind you that it is only information that we offer and we offer it with a deep respect towards your own power. We offer it with the deepest of love. We ask you to take only that which resonates within your own heart and leave the rest, for this is at the base of your power. We also tell you a little bit more about the perspective from afar. Many sub-routines are playing out on the Gameboard. You see the difficulties. You see the dark spots as the Light is shined upon them for perhaps the first time. Your technological advances are bringing communication in ways that you have never had before. With the help of these advances, you are able to shine Light that has never been able to be shined before. We know this is difficult for you, as your perspective is limited to the tragedy and suffering that you see. We thank you for walking forward into these contracts. Please understand that you are not alone in your experiences and contracts. The same connection that we have with you also unites you with all other things. Strengthening those connections and strengthening those energy strands will bring balance and opportunities as you move forward into your own advancement.

We tell you this evening of the reflection as it looks from the Universal energy. For on the planet of Free Choice you not only have choices about which contracts you wish to complete, but you also have choice as to whether you choose to be in the Universal flow of energy or against it. We tell you that from the higher perspective, there is no judgment about your choices. They are simply choices and all choices are honored. There are no good or bad choices. What we tell you is that either you accomplish what you set out to do, or you do not. If you are not accomplishing the creation of your version of Heaven on Earth and experiencing your own passion, then most likely it is simply a basic misdirection of energy. Energy is simply energy, and there is no good or bad energy. It is possible, however, to misdirect energy and to prevent it from completing the natural cycle. This often results in events that you perceive as difficult. We see them simply as misdirected energy that does not emulate the natural flow of Universal Energy.

Erasing the Imaginary Lines

These events happen on an individual basis. They also happen on a community-wide, country-wide and even global basis. You have seen entire countries misdirecting energy. The result is the events you see happening now. We will tell you from our perspective how this process relates to the Universal energy flow. We sincerely hope that this is not too simple for you to grasp. To explain Universal Energy we give you the analogy of the water in your oceans. You may see much of your life on the Gameboard reflected in this water. Observe the movement of the waves as they crash upon the shores and the movement of the tides as they flow in and out. For as the water rises and falls it is balancing the Earth’s rotation. View the rising and falling of these tides as simply an act of balance, for the water is balancing the rotation of the Earth. Much the way the waters rise and fall, and the waves come into the shore and retreat, such is the flow of Universal Energy. On the Gameboard of Free Choice you can either place yourself within that flow and ride those waves comfortably, or you can fight that flow and swim against the waves and the tide. Once again, your choices are honored and there is no judgment about these choices. They simply yield different results. Understanding the process can help you make informed choices.

On an individual basis, if energy is directed in accordance with the Universal Energy it will flourish and complete the cycle of creation. If the energy is misdirected, then it will build until it is corrected. If it is not corrected, then it builds and attracts similar energies to form similar misdirections on a community wide basis. If this energy continues to be replicated, it will not be long before it finds expression on a country-wide basis. Similar results will continue occurring and spreading until these misdirections of energy are corrected on an individual basis in significant numbers of people in that country. A full global expression in this manner would result in the destruction of the Earth. This is a conclusion to which you were heading. The misdirections of energy are very basic ones, as energy itself is very basic. The Universal energy is always seeking balance. This is done through blending. Make space for a blending of energies in your co-creations and you will place yourself in the natural flow of Universal Energy. Attempt to segregate or restrict the blending of energies and you will create misdirections of this energy.

(At this point the Group paused in silence. After a few moments they explained why with the following.)

Someone in the room has asked for a healing. We pause in this moment and ask that you also reflect your energies towards this person and allow that to be. (Pause)

And so it is.

The Universal flow is predominantly reflected in many of the things that you call nature. Placing yourself within the Universal flow allows you to achieve your balance very quickly. Yet many resist this balance. Much like the waves we have spoken of, if you were to take a drop of dye and place it in the water at the ocean’s edge you might be able to look into the water for a moment and see the color of that dye and enjoy the vibration of that color in its purest sense. And yet, it would not be long before the waves would come crashing in and mix the dye with the rest of the colors in the ocean. From your perspective, the beautiful color is now forever lost to the vastness of the ocean. From a higher perspective, we tell you that the color of the ocean, as viewed from other planets, has a rich vibrant hue. This beauty is only possible because of the many drops that make up the whole. We tell you that this blending is appropriate, for it truly is the Universe seeking balance. Understand that your perspective determines the reality.

Blending Emulates the Universal Energy

The blending of energies is the natural order of the Universe. For this reason, you see that people, governments, organizations and businesses that oppose the blending process are destined to experience misdirections of energy. It is these same misdirections of energy that are causing so much turmoil on your Gameboard at this time. There are leaders on the Gameboard now who are choosing to segregate the dye and to keep it within a confined area. To prevent the colored water from blending is against the natural flow of Universal Energy. In truth, all water is energetically connected to itself, just as all of you are connected with each other. Holding these waters apart is only done at great effort and causes great strife on the Gameboard.

A part of the Game now in progress is only possible because of the choices made by the players. Even though the scripts have been written the players have a choice as to what roles they will accept. To accomplish this lesson of humanity on a global scale many have chosen to accept the role of victim. We tell you that the colors of honor they will wear for accepting those roles will remain with them forever. They will always be known as the Precursors of the Light. For they are able to shine Light in a fashion that very few can. And for this we are thankful.

Walking in your power is equivalent to placing yourself within the natural flow and ebb of the Universal current. You are beginning to see glimpses of who you are and how to use this power. You have come here and agreed to play the game behind veils that keep you from knowing your true magnificence and it is difficult to see how powerful you are. We deeply honor you for this. For by going within and clearing the paths to Light within yourselves, you also set the energy on a much larger scale. We ask you to keep in mind that you are making headway. Much progress has been made in the last few months. Although headlines speak of turmoil, please understand that in your field of contrast it is necessary to have dark times to truly see the light. For this is when the greatest Lightwork can be done.

The Cutting Edge of Change

These opportunities lie at your own doorstep now. You have done well, you have chosen, it is in motion. This family that has reunited this evening has been here many times before. We tell you that in this room many have chosen contracts that have been very difficult. Those at the cutting edge always experience the most friction. And we thank you for taking that role. Your choices in this area have facilitated opportunities to change the paradigm of all that is to come. You see yourselves as citizens of an area, citizens of a community, citizens of a country. We tell you that it will not be long before you view yourselves as citizens of the Grand Planet Earth. Beyond that, there will be a time when you see yourselves as Universal citizens, much the way we see you. Right now, you look to your neighbors and you see the differences between you as cause for war. Yet we tell you that your perspective will change once you see that you are not alone in the Universe. As more is known, as some of your own heritage is starting to be revealed, you will understand more about your own nature. You will truly become citizens of the new planet Earth.

Why Global War is Impossible

This blending has begun in many ways already. We wish to point to some of these, for we tell you that a global war is not possible. You are simply too intertwined and, in many ways, you would be bombing yourselves. Part of the way that this is reflected on your Gameboard is through your own economic structures, even where you have chosen to combine your economic structures in the form of what you call a “euro-dollar.” And although there is typical resistance to such changes, we tell you that these are the co-creations that are clearly aligned with the Universal Energy. They encourage blending, they encourage moving from a field of polarity, or segregation, into a field of unity. We have spent much time in our writings telling you to please learn how to center your own energy, for it is important to understand that each one of you is the center of your own universe. It is important that you check your own motivations within yourself and that you use your own discernment as it resonates with your own heart, rather than those around you. These actions, together with learning to speak your truth, are important tools that you will be using more and more. Yet this confuses some of you because you appear to have the notion that this is selfish. Let us illustrate the difference between selfish and self-first. Once you place yourself first in the flow of energy, it is then possible to connect with all other things. Upon connecting to these other things within your field you will achieve balance. You will find that you are all one. Much the way you have defined your territories, your governments, your religions, and your belief systems on the planet, we tell you that these are imaginary lines that do not exist. What really exists is the gradual flow of energy emulating the waves crashing upon the shore. We ask you to open the barriers between these imaginary lines. Allow the energy to flow and seek its own balance.

Strengthening your connection to all that is allows you to be nurtured by the Universal Energy as it passes through you. This can only be accomplished by placing yourself first in line to receive this flow. This takes courage, for you were taught always to put others first. There is an important distinction that we wish to make here. Placing yourself first in the flow of energy and cutting others off is what you would term selfish. Placing yourself first in the flow of energy and then using that energy to feed others is self-first. You have nothing to give from an empty cup. By placing yourself in the Universal Flow you have much more to give other people because you fill your own cup first. As in all actions on the Gameboard, if you can place yourself in the natural flow of Universal Energy your ride through life will be smooth and effortless. Placing yourself in opposition to this energy will attract resistance to your every move.

This applies on more levels than you are aware of. It is in your nature to create sub-routines that materialize as your governments and organizations. These sub-routines are a collection of the overall vibration of the individuals that make up the organization. Seek to direct the purpose of these organizations through your own intent and thereby align that intent with the Universal Flow of Energy. Take responsibility for creating your own environment, and if the environment is not to your liking have the courage to choose again. We know this is difficult. We know the veils are firmly in place. We know that you cannot see who you really are. We ask you to look into each other’s eyes, for this is where you will see us. This is how you will most easily re-member who you are. Have the courage to stand firmly in your truth.

We are with you always. You are never alone. You have far more guidance than you can perceive. The power of the eyes that watch your every move is far beyond your understanding. We know there are times ahead when you will experience difficulties. If you find yourself losing balance, please remember to reach out and offer a hand to the one next to you, for in doing so you will be strengthening your connection to All That Is. Do this often.

Because of the choices you have made your Game has now moved fully into Plan B. We honor you for these choices and we love you beyond your understanding. For eons to come there will be many who visit the planet to see how the Gameboard of Free Choice came to its highest conclusion. We are honored to have you represent us in this fashion. The seeds that you have planted are good seeds. You have done well. You do not always see the fruit of these seeds, for they rarely make the headlines. But we tell you that none of this would have been possible had you not accepted your contracts to play this Game. If you look around you, you will see the evidence. Globally, your crime rates are decreasing. You have becoming a gentler people. You are moving from a motivation of survival to a motivation of unity. As you move toward that Unity your highest purpose will become apparent. Please do not be discouraged as the steps are right in front of you. Know that we love you and are with you always. We respect your choices and we honor your Game.

And now we will take questions.

Live Questions for the Group II

After the live channel, the Group loves to answer direct questions. Here are just a few from this seminar:

How Long will it Take to Re-member?

Question: How long will it take to find out who we are?

Answer: You are beginning to see glimpses of this now. You will begin to understand more of your true heritage in the near future. It is very difficult for us to give you time lines, for you are constantly changing these. Your own advances create the future as a moving target. We will tell you that, as it now stands, you will become more comfortable within the next six months. You will be personally visited by spirit. This visitation will bring many answers to the questions that you have. You have done much to earn them.

When are our Contracts Complete?

Question: How do we know that our contracts are fulfilled?

Answer: That is a very good question, for you do not always know that your contracts are fulfilled. Contracts are choices. All contracts are simply contingent choices; contingent upon your choosing to accept them. Sometimes contracts are very simple and consist of only a well-placed word. Sometimes they are a simple pat on the back or an encouraging smile. Sometimes they involve a lifetime of support.

Changes within your DNA have made you extremely sensitive to Universal Energy. Use that sensitivity to discern if your contracts are complete. If there’s more to do, be about it. Also, have the courage to align your energy with the Universal flow, for when you are centered in this manner your contracts will continue to add to your life. If what you are doing is constantly pulling you out of balance, chances are you are hanging on after that contract has been completed. Imagine yourself as a spinning top that is seeking to find its balance. If the weight of your contracts is evenly distributed then your top will spin smoothly and evenly. Too often you refuse to let go and hang on to your contracts long after they have been fulfilled, causing your top to spin out of control. If you check your balance often it will be your best indicator of when to let go.

What about Kosovo?

Question: With regard to the events currently taking place in Kosovo, you say that they are all playing a game. Does this mean we should just stand by and let the game play out?

Answer: No, it does not mean that. Your courage has surfaced because you have chosen to not allow the pendulum to be pulled any further. To stand by and let it play out would be to not play the game at all and let it unfold by default. Your purposeful step is to create your own reality and all actions should reflect that.

You are moving very quickly into an environment in which the word “fight” will no longer be used. It will simply no longer be necessary. Yet that is very difficult for you to understand at this point. When you are connected completely to your higher self you will also be connected to each other. When each one of you understands that you are all the same, then it will be easier to act as neighbors and support each other, even allowing for your differences.

When you speak of your contracts, your greatest contract is to center your own energy and learn to create your own reality. In the third-dimensional world there may be times when it is important to speak your truth forcefully. This is part of the pendulum that is in motion. It would not be moving if you allowed it to simply be held to one side. We ask you to create your own reality by choice, rather than by default. Center your energy within yourself, for that is when you make the most effective choices. Fear not of making the wrong choice for that is not possible. Consider all feedback, and keep in mind that if you do not like your reality you may choose again. Did that answer your question?

– Yes, thank you for clarifying it for us.

How can I follow my Heart’s Desire when I have Bills to Pay? If my true work is my heart’s desire, then how do I do it when I still have to pay my bills?

Answer: Difficulties arise quite often in the areas that you call work. Our perspective of what your work is, is probably quite a bit different than yours. For the sake of semantics, let us say that what you term is what you do for a living. Quite often, a healer like yourself will take a job or a career to achieve balance and find expression in other areas. This works well for the most part, unless that job consistently drains your energy. On the Gameboard, you have written the rules by which you play the game. In the higher vibrations, we now ask you to find the courage to rewrite the rules. So many people are finding that they are no longer a match for what they do for a living. And it is not the job that has changed, it is them.

As you advance to higher vibrations your work must also advance. If it is possible to change the work you do to fulfill your contracts then you have scripted your roles well. If you find that you are no longer a match for your work you have options. One option is to find balance by finding groups of like vibration and connecting with spiritual families. By balancing in these areas it helps the higher vibrational person to balance and find expression in their hours away from work. If your work is not a match for you it will only be a short time before you must part ways. In the higher vibrations to which you are ascending, your success will be directly proportional to the amount of passion and joy you experience on a daily basis. If your job does not provide for that passion and joy, then you would be wise to change to one that does. Your path will never be found in a job that you tolerate just to pay your bills. Find your passion and go after it fearlessly, for that is when you will be able to find your true path.

For now, we ask you to keep your balance as best you can. If what you do for a living is a constant drain on your energy then you have only two choices. You may change your job or it will change you. Most of the time this will show in your own biology revolting, causing illness to tell you that it is time to remove that energy drain and move on. If, however, you are still somewhat of a match, or you are still fed by some parts of your job, there may still be contracts to work through here, in which case balance can be attained in other areas of your life. There may be important things still to be accomplished. Ask that these be shown to you. Know that you are the most important person in that environment and that you must receive compensation, you must receive an opportunity to express the God within you at all times, in all relationships. If you are unable to do so at work, find other places to express this until you can find other places to work.

Becoming Comfortable with Energy Sensitivity

Question: I have a question regarding Reiki. I’m finding it sometimes difficult to manage my energy from turning on or off at certain times.

Answer: The energy movements that you are personally experiencing have to do with your own DNA changing. You are extremely sensitive to energy and are what we call an empathic sensitive. You pick up emotional energy and are sometimes not aware that it is not your own. This condition is commonplace as you move into the vibrational advances, as you move into your next evolutionary step.

The next thing that we ask you to keep in mind is that so many of you are in the process of re-membering. There are many master healers in this room. A master healer is simply a person who has mastered the art of healing in this or a previous lifetime. The art of healing itself is about creating space for other people to feel comfortable enough to heal themselves. This is the only type of healing that is available Universally. Your expression of it should not be limited to one modality. The cosmic humor here is that you have created modalities of your own that you have not fully re-membered. Allow yourself to stretch. When your teachers say to place your hands in these locations and run the energy between them, and your heart says “no, it’s going to work better if I move my other hand over here,” allow yourself the freedom to speak your own truth. Allow yourself to find what you know to be true and you will find balance.

As a sensitive, we ask you to not be alarmed at the seemingly uncontrolled energy. There are many vibrational areas that are moving all at once. Your own vibrational advances, the advances of the planet, the advances of your own community, all make it difficult for you to tell what is your problem and what is theirs. The challenge that each one faces sometimes gets blurred by the challenges of the others. Be patient with yourself. Ask for guidance. You know within your heart. Follow it. Your heart knows the way. Did we answer your question?

– Yes thank you very much, and thank you for being here with us.

Synchronicity Explained

Question: Will you explain synchronicity?

Answer: Synchronicity can be explained on many levels. First, let us say that we often speak of it as a lifestyle to which you are learning to become more accustomed. We have described it as walking down the linear hallway of time. You are moving from a linear hallway to a circular hallway, or a ‘now’ time frame. Part of this is encouraging a synchronistic lifestyle, because to create the type of lifestyle that has worked for you in the past simply no longer works the way it used to. It is simply no longer being supported. It is you that have changed, it is you that has raised your vibration. A synchronistic life style has to do with following your path, pushing gently at the doors and seeing which ones open, and having the courage to walk past the fears and push on them in the first place. Then, once they open, having the courage to walk in. About the synchronistic lifestyles, the best that we can tell you is that it takes practice. Begin at small, comfortable levels. Begin with small easy things instead of trying to adopt all at once. Resist your human urge to change everything in one blink of an eye. Allow us to work with you.

There is one anomaly we wish to speak of, for this will affect many in the room. That is what we have termed as side doors. Quite often, you walk down the hallway and push on the doors and the doors don’t open. After you become discouraged at beating on them for a time, you sometimes move on to find other doors. Pushing against another door, it flies open and you look inside and you say, “this is not where I’m going, this is not the door that I have chosen for myself.” You think about moving on down the hall and pushing on other doors. We ask you that when the synchronicities line up, take these as a sign from your higher self. When you open a door to a room, and say, “this is not where I’m going,” at least have the courage to step into it, for as you take the singular step into the room you will often look to your right or your left and see doors that lead into other rooms that you would not have been able to see had you not had the courage to take that first step through the door.

We often talk about co-incidence and synchronicity as one. When you set about a co-creation, ask spirit to bring you the highest and best, ask spirit to put you in your contract, and then release spirit to work in your life. This is what we call co-creation, for you are working together with spirit to create your environment and your version of heaven on Earth. Once your co-creation is released, spirit then begins to line things up for you. Spirit moves this person over here, they line up this job, these opportunities. They reach a hand into your three-dimensional world and move things around. This quite often appears to you as coincidence. Please keep in mind that there are no coincidences. Synchronicity is a way for your higher self to speak to you directly in your daily life. Have we answered your question?

– Yes, and thank you so much for validating my thoughts.

Simplifying Science

[This next question was asked by a scientist from the Atomic Energy Agency. Most of us in the room did not understand either the question or the answer on a conscious level, but I include it here because the Group feels there are several who will. The illustration referred to can be found in chapter 7 on Co-Creation.]

Question: If you take the illustration of God that you have just shown us, and extrude it three- dimensionally, can you then explain the relation of synchronicity to the three dimensional representation of the illustration?

Answer: There is no direct answer to your question as it is not as complicated as your question would make it seem. Understand that you are more than can be contained within your bubble of biology. The remainder is what we call your higher self, and synchronicity is simply the means by which this higher self now speaks to you. We can explain it in terms that you will understand, and yet to do so would not be for the highest good. The easiest way to explain this is to reiterate that, by adopting a synchronistic life style and leaving room for spirit to work in your life, you will most easily create your highest good. That is the way it is. You are honored, we do not mean to demean you in any way, for the scientists are very important. We will say that there are some very basic misunderstandings at the base of your question. To answer the question, let us simply say that there is order in what you call chaos. Soon, the architects of the energy, whom you have called aliens, will be returning to visit this planet. They will have a very important role to play in redesigning the energy to support the higher vibrations on the Gameboard. You will understand our answer more fully as this unfolds.

Scientist: Does that mean that the illustration that you have put on the board does not equate to three dimensions?

Answer: That is correct. The illustration is a simple one, and yet, even this is more complicated than the concept it represents. Understand this, for us to reach into your vibration, we must produce something that is easily understood by your minds. However, in order to accomplish this we must complexify the concept enough for you to understand. It is not possible for us to draw in three dimensions on a pad. Please keep in mind also that there are many more than three of what you call dimensions.

What about the Fourth Dimension?

Question: Can you give some information on the fourth dimension?

Answer: It is easier for us to explain the fifth dimension to you than it is to explain the fourth. This is because the fourth dimension is not clearly definable in your reality. Let us explain it in this fashion. The third dimension, in which you currently reside, is a resting place wherein you play your Game. The fourth dimension is a place to travel through; It is an interim between the third and the fifth. The sixth and eighth dimensions have similar attributes. These are the dimensional levels that allow you to move from one to another. As you travel through these, they imbue you with impressions, or attributes, which you carry forward into the next resting dimension. Beyond the eighth dimension this pattern changes.

Much the way it would be very difficult to teach a high school class in kindergarten, so too is it very difficult for us to use terms that would be easily understood. Let us explain it in this fashion. Your senses are beginning to attune to other dimensions. Your eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and your sense of touch are the manner in which you interact with the third-dimension. You are starting to assimilate energy in ways that you never have before. This growth is now happening at an exponential rate right at this moment. These changes are causing some stress within your emotional bodies. Part of what is happening is that you are beginning to understand and see beyond the ranges of vibration that you have previously been able to perceive. So, much like a dog would be able to smell things that you would not be able to smell and see things in ranges of vibration that you would not be able to see, your own senses also are beginning to expand.

As you accept this, you will be able very clearly to see the fourth-dimension as a place to simply travel through. The illustration that we have used prior is that of the bridge. The fourth dimension is a bridge that you are building with your own vibrations between the third and the fifth dimensions. The interesting part is that there are some that will be skipping ahead. There are many that are coming to the planet very soon that will be working in multiple dimensions at one time. Although this is possible, there are very few that are doing this at this time. The children of crystal vibration will be bringing the seeds of a new humanity that will make it possible to walk every step. For even now, you often walk in the first dimension, totally unaware that there are tools in that first dimension that you can be using to affect your third. Please be patient with yourselves, and we ask you not to reach too far for the answers, for they are closer than you think. They are simpler than you think. Allow them to find you naturally and experience them, and do not be afraid to reach out and explore those other dimensions. The rules of your game will appear differently in each one, yet you will adapt very quickly. Did that answer your question?

– Yes, and I wish to thank you all for this talk, it has answered a lot of questions for me.

Speeding up the Process of Re-membering

Question: What can we do to speed up the process of taking our power and re-membering?

Answer: The best way to speed up the process of re-membering is to reach out and connect with spiritual family. Connect with others of like vibration. Look through their eyes. Experience who they are, and re-member parts of yourself. In doing so, they will reflect ways that will help you to re-member and accept your own heritage. The ego has been an important part of the biological process. As the Earth cooled you had to take on denser bodies so that you were able to interact with the Mother as she gained density. At that point, it was necessary to incorporate the ego as a survival mechanism. You are now at the point of releasing the need for the ego. And although you are certainly not there yet, you are moving in that direction for the first time. As the ego releases more, you will be seeing more, you will be seeing more of yourself. If we were to show you exactly who you are, and what you had done in previous times to set up these contracts, and how many lives you had moved towards the Light, your ego would not let you accept that information. We are working in an area where the ego is beginning to release. It is difficult for you to accept your own magnificence, yet if you will look through the eyes of your spiritual family you will have no choice, for the truth can easily be found there. And as you look through the eyes of your spiritual family you will see your magnificence, not as a singular event within you, but as part of the whole and part of the connection that connects all. So for now, seek them out. Find groups of like vibration and similar beliefs and discuss and interact. Stay with these people and reach out to them. In this fashion you will clear your own emotional restrictions to carry more light through your own biology. This is what we call Lightwork.

We honor your process on the Gameboard. You have no idea what it looks like from our perspective. If you could only see yourself for a moment as we see you, you would never again doubt yourself. You would move into joy and stay there. You would move fully into your own passion and enjoy every moment of the Game. We tell you that this passion is the same passion that we experience all the time on this side of the veil. When you find your passion and allow it to be a part of daily existence, you are, in fact, creating Home on your side of the veil. When you create Home on your side of the veil, like vibrations attract and the separation between the worlds diminishes.

Interaction is beginning to be possible in more ways than you have ever thought. Stretch your limits. Find your power. Open your own channels. Ask, and it shall be given. Speak your truth. There are times when we do not know how you stand it. We see the dichotomies that you face on a daily basis, the things that you have to view, the atrocities that you have to endure. Yet we tell you that it is only possible to move energy from this position and you are loved beyond your imagination for having the courage to walk within these bubbles of biology. We ask you to reach out and look into the eyes of those around you, to draw your spiritual family together, and re-member who you are. For this is what connects us all. It is our greatest expression to bring information to help you to re-member. It is with the greatest of honor that we ask you to treat each other with respect, nurture one another and play well together.

We are complete.

(This was the way the group used to end the channel before the message about ESPAVO)
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 27254
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Next

Return to Religion and Cults

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 6 guests

cron