Act & Punishment: The Pussy Riot Trials

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Re: Act & Punishment: The Pussy Riot Trials

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Part 1 of 2

The Promise of Mikhail Lermontov
The Making of Modern Russia
by Denise M. Henderson
November, 2002

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Denise Marguerite Dempsey Henderson, a long-time associate of Lyndon H. LaRouche, Jr., was struck and killed in a hit-and-run accident in Washington, D.C. on Sept. 15, 2003. For over 20 years, Mrs. Henderson helped man the Russia/Eastern Europe desk of Executive Intelligence Review, as well as undertaking other editorial assignments, including Editorial Assistant of Fidelio magazine. This article, on the political and cultural significance of Russia’s Mikhail Lermontov, was drafted in November 2002. Preparation for publication has been aided by Denise’s colleague and friend Rachel Douglas, who provided assistance with the translations and editorial details, as well as supplying the boxed background material.

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Suppose you found yourself in a society where the accepted way of doing things was no longer sufficient? Suppose that, with the loss of key individuals in your society, a crisis which could affect the survival of your nation was fast approaching, and you were one among the few, willing to say that there had to be a change, as soon as possible, in how things got done?

Suppose also that many of your co-thinkers or potential collaborators had been assassinated or rendered ineffective by enemy operations? Could you then, still, not merely say what you knew to be true, but act on the ideas which you knew could move the existing context into a completely new and much more fruitful direction?

This was the situation in which the 23-year-old poet Mikhail Lermontov found himself in 1837, when Alexander Pushkin was murdered in a duel. For by then, not only Pushkin, but also Alexander Griboyedov, the Russian emissary to Iran and author of the play Woe from Wit, had been murdered: Pushkin in a duel he shouldn’t have fought, and Griboyedov along with the rest of the embassy staff at the Russian embassy in Iran (then Persia) by an enraged mob.

Lermontov, despite this, and under these conditions, in his poetry and essays wrote about the dearth of consistent, clear leadership in Russia under Tsar Nicholas I, echoing many of Pushkin’s themes and continuing the development of the Russian language and Russian poetry. Lermontov also reflected the influence of the German Classical tradition on Russia, through his study of the writings of Schiller and Heine, as well as by translating their works into Russian.

Mikhail Lermontov was born in 1814, fifteen years after Pushkin. He found himself in a Russia where the political situation had largely deteriorated, thanks to the rigidities of Nicholas I and many of the Tsar’s closest advisers, including the cruel Minister of War, General Alexei Arakcheyev, and the anti-republican Foreign Minister Nesselrode, along with the salon of Madame Nesselrode. The Russian Army in the Caucasus, where Lermontov was to spend most of his military service, found itself engaged in a brutal, protracted guerrilla war. On the one hand, the local population had been encouraged by various leaders to fight to the death, while on the other, the Russian Commander, General Yermolov, in response, had begun to pursue a slash-and-burn policy that demoralized the Russian officer corps that had hoped for liberalization and change after the defeat of Napoleon in 1815.

Lermontov was steeped in the Classics from an early age, and this led him to develop his ability to assimilate several languages, including Latin, Greek, French, German, and English. Lermontov also read everything by Pushkin that he could get his hands on. Although Lermontov and Pushkin attended many of the same theaters, ballets, and so forth, they never met. However, Pushkin, having received some unedited poems by Lermontov, told his friend, the musician Glinka, “These are the sparkling proofs of a very great talent!”

A striking example of Lermontov’s youthful creativity is his assimilation of the poetry of Friedrich Schiller. The 15-year-old Lermontov both translated Schiller’s “The Glove” and then, having read and understood the concept behind Schiller’s “The Diver”— that doing what is demanded of you by the powers-that-be, can be deadly—, transformed it into his own idea.

The Glove: A Tale
by Friedrich Schiller

Before his lion-court,
Impatient for the sport,
King Francis sat one day;
The peers of his realm sat around,
And in balcony high from the ground
Sat the ladies in beauteous array.

And when with his finger he beckoned,
The gate opened wide in a second,--
And in, with deliberate tread,
Enters a lion dread,
And looks around
Yet utters no sound;
Then long he yawns
And shakes his mane,
And, stretching each limb,
Down lies he again.

Again signs the king,--
The next gate open flies,
And, lo! with a wild spring,
A tiger out hies.
When the lion he sees, loudly roars he about,
And a terrible circle his tail traces out.
Protruding his tongue, past the lion he walks,
And, snarling with rage, round him warily stalks:
Then, growling anew,
On one side lies down too.

Again signs the king,--
And two gates open fly,
And, lo! with one spring,
Two leopards out hie.
On the tiger they rush, for the fight nothing loth,
But he with his paws seizes hold of them both.
And the lion, with roaring, gets up,--then all's still;
The fierce beasts stalk around, madly thirsting to kill.

From the balcony raised high above
A fair hand lets fall down a glove
Into the lists, where 'tis seen
The lion and tiger between.

To the knight, Sir Delorges, in tone of jest,
Then speaks young Cunigund fair;
"Sir Knight, if the love that thou feel'st in thy breast
Is as warm as thou'rt wont at each moment to swear,
Pick up, I pray thee, the glove that lies there!"

And the knight, in a moment, with dauntless tread,
Jumps into the lists, nor seeks to linger,
And, from out the midst of those monsters dread,
Picks up the glove with a daring finger.

And the knights and ladies of high degree
With wonder and horror the action see,
While he quietly brings in his hand the glove,
The praise of his courage each mouth employs;
Meanwhile, with a tender look of love,
The promise to him of coming joys,
Fair Cunigund welcomes him back to his place.
But he threw the glove point-blank in her face:
"Lady, no thanks from thee I'll receive!"
And that selfsame hour he took his leave.


Schiller’s “The Glove,” is about a would-be enchantress at the court, who is not successful in ensnaring the knight, her prey. Lermontov’s translation of “The Glove” is a full translation from German into Russian of Schiller’s original poem, which mocks those who would cater to the fashions of the court. In it, a knight risks his life by entering the cage of a tiger at a tournament to retrieve a lady’s glove.

“And from the monstrous middle racing,” writes Schiller, “Grabs he the glove now with finger daring. . . .”

What happens next, however, takes the court completely by surprise.

Then from every mouth his praises shower,
But to one the loving glance most dear—
Which promises him his bliss is near—
Receives he from Cunigund’s tower.
And he throws in her face the glove he’s got:
“Your thanks, Lady, I want that not.”
And he leaves her that very hour!
(translation by Marianna Wertz)


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View of Mt. Kreshora from the gorge near Kobi, the Caucasus. Drawing by M. Lermontov.

Will you, poet, who is mocked, reawake!
Or, will you never avenge against those who spurn—
From the golden scabbard unsheathe your blade,
Covered with the rust of scorn?

-- from ‘The Poet,’ 1838


In other words, the knight walks away from the established customs and the “way things are done,” without a second glance. He refuses to be a plaything of the oligarchy.

The Diver
by Friedrich von Schiller (1759–1805)
translated by J. C. Mangan

“BARON or vassal, is any so bold
As to plunge in yon gulf and follow
Through chamber and cave this beaker of gold,
Which already the waters whirlingly swallow?
Who retrieves the prize from the horrid abyss
Shall keep it: the gold and the glory be his!”

So spake the King, and incontinent flung
From the cliff that, gigantic and steep,
High over Charybdis’s whirlpool hung,
A glittering winecup down in the deep;
And again he asked, “Is there one so brave
As to plunge for the gold in the dangerous wave?”

And the knights and the knaves all answerless hear
The challenging words of the speaker;
And some glance downwards with looks of fear,
And none are ambitious of winning the beaker.
And a third time the King his question urges,—
“Dares none, then, breast the menacing surges?”

But the silence lasts unbroken and long;
When a Page, fair-featured and soft,
Steps forth from the shuddering vassal-throng,
And his mantle and girdle already are doffed,
And the groups of nobles and damosels nigh,
Envisage the youth with a wondering eye.

He dreadlessly moves to the gaunt crag’s brow,
And measures the drear depth under;
But the waters Charybdis had swallowed she now
Regurgitates bellowing back in thunder,
And the foam, with a stunning and horrible sound,
Breaks its hoar way through the waves around.

And it seethes and roars, it welters and boils,
As when water is showered upon fire;
And skyward the spray agonizingly toils,
And flood over flood sweeps higher and higher,
Upheaving, downrolling, tumultuously,
As though the abyss would bring forth a young sea.

But the terrible turmoil at last is over;
And down through the whirlpool’s well
A yawning blackness ye may discover,
Profound as the passage to central Hell;
And the waves, under many a struggle and spasm,
Are sucked in afresh by the gorge of the chasm.

And now, ere the din re-thunders, the youth
Invokes the great name of God;
And blended shrieks of horror and ruth
Burst forth as he plunges headlong unawed:
And down he descends through the watery bed,
And the waves boom over his sinking head.

But though for a while they have ceased their swell,
They roar in the hollows beneath,
And from mouth to mouth goes round the farewell,—
“Brave-spirited youth, good night in death!”
And louder and louder the roarings grow,
While with trembling all eyes are directed below.

Now, wert thou even, O monarch! to fling
Thy crown in the angry abyss,
And exclaim, “Who recovers the crown shall be king!”
The guerdon were powerless to tempt me, I wis;
For what in Charybdis’s caverns dwells
No chronicle penned of mortal tells.

Full many a vessel beyond repeal
Lies low in that gulf to-day,
And the shattered masts and the drifting keel
Alone tell the tale of the swooper’s prey.
But hark!—with a noise like the howling of storms,
Again the wild water the surface deforms!

And it hisses and rages, it welters and boils,
As when water is spurted on fire,
And skyward the spray agonizingly toils,
And wave over wave beats higher and higher,
While the foam, with a stunning and horrible sound,
Breaks its white way through the waters around.

When lo! ere as yet the billowy war
Loud raging beneath is o’er,
An arm and a neck are distinguished afar,
And a swimmer is seen to make for the shore,
And hardily buffeting surge and breaker,
He springs upon land with the golden beaker.

And lengthened and deep is the breath he draws
As he hails the bright face of the sun;
And a murmur goes round of delight and applause,—
He lives!—he is safe!—he has conquered and won!
He has mastered Charybdis’s perilous wave!
He has rescued his life and his prize from the grave!

Now, bearing the booty triumphantly,
At the foot of the throne he falls,
And he proffers his trophy on bended knee;
And the King to his beautiful daughter calls,
Who fills with red wine the golden cup,
While the gallant stripling again stands up.

“All hail to the King! Rejoice, ye who breathe
Wheresoever Earth’s gales are driven!
For ghastly and drear is the region beneath;
And let man beware how he tempts high Heaven!
Let him never essay to uncurtain to light
What destiny shrouds in horror and night!

“The maelstrom dragged me down in its course;
When, forth from the cleft of a rock,
A torrent outrushed with tremendous force,
And met me anew with deadening shock;
And I felt my brain swim and my senses reel
As the double-flood whirled me round like a wheel.

“But the God I had cried to answered me
When my destiny darkliest frowned,
And he showed me a reef of rocks in the sea,
Whereunto I clung, and there I found
On a coral jag the goblet of gold,
Which else to the lowermost crypt had rolled.

“And the gloom through measureless toises under
Was all as a purple haze;
And though sound was none in these realms of wonder,
I shuddered when under my shrinking gaze
That wilderness lay developed where wander
The dragon and dog-fish and sea-salamander.

“And I saw the huge kraken and magnified snake
And the thornback and ravening shark
Their way through the dismal waters take,
While the hammer-fish wallowed below in the dark,
And the river-horse rose from his lair beneath,
And grinned through the grate of his spiky teeth.

“And there I hung, aghast and dismayed,
Among skeleton larvæ, the only
Soul conscious of life—despairing of aid
In that vastness untrodden and lonely.
Not a human voice,—not an earthly sound,—
But silence, and water, and monsters around.

“Soon one of these monsters approached me, and plied
His hundred feelers to drag
Me down through the darkness; when, springing aside,
I abandoned my hold of the coral crag,
And the maelstrom grasped me with arms of strength,
And upwhirled and upbore me to daylight at length.”

Then spake to the Page the marvelling King,
“The golden cup is thine own,
But—I promise thee further this jewelled ring
That beams with a priceless hyacinth-stone,
Shouldst thou dive once more and discover for me
The mysteries shrined in the cells of the sea.”

Now the King’s fair daughter was touched and grieved,
And she fell at her father’s feet,—
“O father, enough what the youth has achieved!
Expose not his life anew, I entreat!
If this your heart’s longing you cannot well tame,
There are surely knights here who will rival his fame.”

But the King hurled downwards the golden cup,
And he spake, as it sank in the wave,
“Now, shouldst thou a second time bring it me up,
As my knight, and the bravest of all my brave,
Thou shall sit at my nuptial banquet, and she
Who pleads for thee thus thy wedded shall be!”

Then the blood to the youth’s hot temples rushes,
And his eyes on the maiden are cast,
And he sees her at first overspread with blushes,
And then growing pale and sinking aghast.
So, vowing to win so glorious a crown,
For Life or for Death he again plunges down.

The far-sounding din returns amain,
And the foam is alive as before,
And all eyes are bent downward. In vain, in vain,—
The billows indeed re-dash and re-roar.
But while ages shall roll and those billows shall thunder,
That youth shall sleep under!


In “Ballad,” Lermontov used Schiller’s “The Diver” as his source, but cut out the king as instigator of the diver’s ill-fated journey. Instead, he focusses on the idea of the enchantress who views her “dear friend” as a plaything. The poem was probably written in 1829, the same year Lermontov translated “The Glove.” In “Ballad,” Lermontov took further in Russian the rhymed couplet form which Pushkin had sometimes used, but which Heine to a greater degree had been developing in the German language [SEE Box, page 56].

Ballad

Sits a beauteous maiden above the sea,
And to her friend doth say, with a plea

“Deliver the necklet, it’s down in the drink,
Today into the whirlpool did it sink!

“And thus shalt thou show me thy love!”
Wildly boiled the young man’s blood,

And his mind, unwilling, the charge embracing,
At once into the foamy abyss he’s racing.

From the abyss doth fly the pearl spray,
And the waves course about, and swirl, and play,

And again they beat as the shore they near,
Here do they return the friend so dear.

O Fortune! He lives, to the cliff doth he cling,
In his hand is the necklet, but how sad doth he seem.

He is afraid to believe his tired legs,
The water streams from his locks down his neck.

“Say, whether I do not love thee or do,
For the beautiful pearls my life I spared not,

“As thou said, it had fallen into the black deep
It did lie down under the coral reef—

“Take it!” And he with a sad gaze turned
To the one for whom his own life he spurned.

Came the answer: “O my youth, O dear one!
If thou love, down to the coral go yet again.”

The daring youth, with hopeless soul,
To find coral, or his finish, down dove.

From the abyss doth fly the pearl spray,
And the waves course about, and swirl, and play,

And again do they beat o’er the shore,
But the dear one return not evermore.

(translation by the author)


Tragically, at the crucial moment, Lermontov himself failed to escape the trap which had been set for him. For, once he had written his poem, “Death of A Poet” about Pushkin’s murder, and its postscript, written with the knowledge of who was behind the calumnies that led to Pushkin’s duel and death, Lermontov allowed himself to be ensnared by those in the Russian court and establishment who did not want there to be any successor to the freedom-loving Pushkin, and as a result he was shot dead in a duel in the Caucasus in 1841—four years after Pushkin’s own death in a duel. [1]

Pushkin’s Russian Revolution

When Mikhail Lermontov came on the scene, Russian’s master poet, Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (1799-1837), was still alive to work his magic. As he composed the greatest works of Russian poetry and launched the development of literary prose, Pushkin transformed the Russian language, and Russia. His beautiful language is the core of literate Russian to this day.

A national hero and a universal genius, Pushkin embodied the Classical idea in Russia. He was the soul of the Classical movement in Russian culture, which he sparked and advanced and helped to organize. The subjects of Pushkin’s writing are the eternal ideas—truth, beauty, justice, mercy, love, freedom, commitment to a mission of doing good.
Employing Classical verse forms in combination with the spoken language of the people, Pushkin insisted that the “popular” (narodny) quality of a language will flower when it is elevated to express profound ideas.

Exploring the paradoxes of leadership in Russian history, Pushkin pioneered Classical tragedy in the Russian language, with his drama Boris Godunov and his studies of Tsar Peter the Great. He was a master of the acerbic epigram, aimed at political or cultural foes. He was one of the great story-tellers of all time.

Never far from politics, Pushkin had close friends among the young officers of the Decembrist movement, whose uprising was crushed in 1825. He was no mere rebel, however, but sought ways to influence Tsar Nicholas I (r. 1825-1854) in the direction of peaceful reform, centered on education. Pushkin’s murder by Georges d’Anthes in a duel was the project of a powerful clique of foreign-connected oligarchs, who ran much of Russian policy in the period after the 1815 Congress of Vienna.


Who Was Mikhail Lermontov?

Mikhail Lermontov, or “Mishka” as he was known as a child, was born in 1814, in Penza, a village to the southeast of Moscow. His grandmother, Elizabeth Alexeyevna Arsenyeva (née Stolypina), who was the major landholder in Pskov, had opposed the marriage of her daughter “beneath her station” to a Russian Army officer, Yuri Petrovich Lermontov, and did everything she could to break up the marriage by whispering in her daughter’s ear what a bad match Yuri was for her.

Mishka thus grew up in a household permeated by strife. At first, there was the growing conflict, incited by Elizabeth Alexeyevna, between his father, Yuri Petrovich, and Maria Mikhailovna, his mother, who suffered from tuberculosis. Mishka seems to have cared about both his parents, and actually wrote a poem to his deceased mother in 1834, which, according to an entry in his diary, is based on the remembrance he had of his mother singing to him when he was three years old.

“The Angel,” describes the individual who cannot forget the music of the heavenly spheres.

The Angel

An angel flew in the midnight sky,
And sang a lullaby;
And all around, the stars and the moon,
Heeded that holy song.

He sang of the blessedness of the innocent,
’Neath Eden’s tents,
About the great God he sang,
And his praise was unfeigned.

A young soul he held in his hands,
For the world of tears and sadness,
And the sound of his song in the young soul
Remained—without words, but whole.

And for a long time on earth that soul stayed,
But never could he trade
Heaven’s music, soaring,
For the songs of earth so boring.


With his parents estranged by the time he was three, Mikhail began suffering bouts of nerves. Maria Lermontova soon discovered that music, the playing of the old songs, the “ingenious cavalcade of notes,” as biographer Henri Troyat calls it, calmed her son’s nerves.

At his mother’s death, Lermontov’s grandmother took charge of Mishka’s person and education. The domineering Elizabeth Alexeyevna, taking advantage of Yuri’s grief and the fact that he was in debt, drove him out of his own son’s life. At the same time, Lermontov’s grandmother wound up getting him the best tutors and the best education she could afford, including music lessons, lessons in French, the language of the Russian aristocracy, as well as in Greek, and in painting.

Elizabeth Alexeyevna ensured that her grandson’s health, which was poor when he was a child, was looked after. He visited the Caucasus twice during his childhood, once when he was six and again at the age of 10. He and his grandmother, along with their retinue, went to his aunt’s estate in Georgia, where it was hoped the fresh air and the spas would improve Mishka’s condition.

Lermontov would later remember the excitement of the long trip from Pskov to the Georgian Caucasus, which has often been compared as a frontier to the Wild West of the United States.

At the age of 10, on the second visit, he also perused his aunt’s library, which contained the works of the French (Rousseau, Voltaire), as well as the German poets Schiller and Goethe.

In 1825, Lermontov’s family, like many Russian aristocratic families, was personally affected by the Decembrist uprising of officers in St. Petersburg [SEE Box, page 48]. The uprising, sparked by the accession of Nicholas I to the throne, was suppressed, and the officers who led it were arrested. Lermontov’s great uncle, General Dmitri Stolypin—the grandfather of the famous Russian reformer Pyotr A. Stolypin—was sympathetic to the Decembrists and a friend of Decembrist leader Pavel Pestel, who was hanged for his role in the plot.

Lermontov had been given a broad education, both in the Classics and in French Romantic ideas, by private tutors in his grandmother’s home. At the age of 15, he attended the Moscow University Boarding School for Young Men, also known as the Moscow Noble Pension, a private pension in Moscow that focussed on the Classics (a pension being the equivalent of a private preparatory school in the United States). Tsar Nicholas I, having personally visited the school with the head of the Third Department (the secret police), Count Alexander Benkendorf, pronounced the school too liberal. Its professors were ordered to curtail the curriculum.

Because the German Classical movement was radiating outward into Russia, even Moscow, the home of the more traditional Russian elites who were wedded to the landed aristocracy and serfdom, began to see a renaissance in its educational institutions and its cultural outlook. Lermontov benefited both from the Moscow Noble Pension, in which he was enrolled in 1829, and from public performances of Schiller and Shakespeare, even bad or truncated ones. In letters to his aunt, Lermontov roundly criticized a performance of Hamlet, explaining to her that key passages from the original had been consciously omitted.

Throughout his teens, Lermontov continued to compose original poetry and to translate. In 1831, he was enrolled at Moscow University. But, as the first semester proceeded, the cholera epidemic, which had spread from Asia into Russia and would sweep through Poland as well, hit Moscow. Students from the University were enlisted in the fight to stop the spread of the disease, in concert with students from the University’s Department of Medicine. Classes would not resume until the beginning of 1832.

Once classes resumed, Lermontov and his friends, who had participated in beating back the cholera, found it difficult to readjust to the stultified university life, in which anything that smacked of non-autocratic ideas was suppressed. Lermontov and his friends became known as the “Joyous Band.” The group was drawn to ideas of a constitutional state, in which serfdom would be abolished, and where there would be universal education.

Most of the faculty of Moscow University was steeped in a commitment to serfdom and all that this implied for economics, as well as in Tsar Nicholas’s doctrine—actually the doctrine of Nesselrode and the worst oligarchical elements of Imperial Russia in this period—of “Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality.” For Nicholas, nationality referred to the Russian as a Great Russian. This was the period when Russia played the role of gendarme of Europe, assigned to it by the masters of power politics— Capodistra, Metternich, Castlereagh—at the 1815 Congress of Vienna, as well as pursuing imperial designs of its own.

In 1831, Lermontov and his friends had already had one encounter with Malov, their professor of Roman law, described as extremely obtuse. On March 16, 1831, they shut down his lecture with hissing, refusing to allow him to continue.

While this incident almost got them sent into the army as common soldiers, Malov was dissuaded from pursuing charges. In a Professor Pobedenostsev’s class, Lermontov responded that his teachers knew nothing, and that rather, he was educating himself from his personal library, which contained much more recent materials in foreign languages. In class after class, Lermontov continued to challenge the authority of professors, who were teaching from outdated materials, and who were attempting to enforce Nicholas’s doctrine of Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality. While Lermontov and his Joyous Band may not have had a fully thought-out solution, they had before them the example of the Decembrists, the “first revolutionaries.” And they knew that their education was narrow and ideological.

The Turbulent Russian Army

The Russian Army, in which Lermontov served, and about which he wrote, policed the borders of an Empire in the period of the Holy Alliance. The troops were conscripted into virtually life-long service (terms of 25 years, and longer), but the officer corps was the locus of considerable free-thinking. From the ranks of Russian Army leaders came patriotic reforms, as well as a fair share of hotheads with Jacobin leanings. Both elements were present in the famous Decembrist uprising of 1825.

Tsar Alexander I died on Nov. 19 (Old Style), 1825 in Taganrog. It was not generally known that his next oldest brother, Governor-General of Warsaw Constantine, had renounced the throne, and a third brother, Nicholas, was the heir. Military units swore allegiance to Constantine, who, however, refused to come to St. Petersburg. On Dec. 14, the Northern Society of young noblemen and officers, veterans of the Great Patriotic War against Napoleon, took advantage of the interregnum to stage a revolt against the incoming Tsar Nicholas I. On the Senate Square in St. Petersburg, a day-long standoff, punctuated by the assassination of two government officials, ended in an hour of cannon fire. Scores of the soldiers summoned by the insurgents died, and the Decembrist leaders were arrested. Five ring-leaders were hanged in 1826, including the poet Kondrati Ryleyev. Others were exiled to Siberia for life.

The mission and the fate of the Decembrists preoccupied Russia’s intellectuals and writers, beginning with the friend of many of them, Alexander Pushkin. It loomed large for the generation of Lermontov, who was 10 years old in 1825. The youthful Lermontov took his army commission in 1834.
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Re: Act & Punishment: The Pussy Riot Trials

Postby admin » Fri Aug 17, 2018 8:59 am

Part 2 of 2

Lermontov’s continued confrontations with his professors finally led to his expulsion from the University. He planned to transfer to the University in St. Petersburg, but because the credits he had earned at Moscow were not transferrable, he decided instead to enroll in the Junkers Military School. Upon graduation in two years, as the scion of a noble family, he would be able to enroll in one of the regiments of the Guard. This he hoped would be easy duty, relatively speaking, in the vicinity of St. Petersburg.

Image
The Decembrist uprising, Senate Square, St. Petersburg, Dec. 14, 1825, was staged by young officers against the incoming Tsar Nicholas I.

Image
Decembrist A.I. Odoeyevsky, watercolor by M. Lermontov, 1837.

Lermontov’s enrollment began in November of 1832, in the Hussars of the Guard. At the school, where attempts at liberalism had been shut down by the Tsar, Lermontov was immersed in military studies, including strategy, ballistics, and fortifications. He graduated in 1834.

From 1835 to 1836, Lermontov spent time in St. Petersburg among the social circles of the aristocracy. He wrote much verse, and some of it was noted by the critic Vissarion Belinsky for its conflicting themes of fulfillment and despair.

In 1837, Lermontov, like all Russians, was stunned by the murder of Alexander Pushkin in a duel with the adopted son of the Dutch ambassador to Russia. His poem, “Death of A Poet,” on Pushkin’s murder, would get him imprisoned in the Fortress of Peter and Paul, then exiled to the Caucasus. Having gotten seriously ill with pneumonia and rheumatism on maneuvers, Lermontov, with the agreement of his commander, spent several months at the spa in Pyatigorsk, a rest and social resort for the military and aristocracy.

Finally rejoining his regiment in Tbilisi in October 1837, Lermontov was told that the Tsar had issued an order allowing him to return from exile, and to join a regiment at Pskov. Mikhail, who was writing verse based on tales about the Caucasus, took his time in returning north. He finally arrived in St. Petersburg on January 3, 1838. In April, spurred by his requests to his grandmother and her requests to Grand Duke Michael and Benkendorf, Lermontov was allowed to return to St. Petersburg. It was in this period that Lermontov wrote A Hero of Our Time. It was completed and published in 1839. Lermontov also wrote his long poem, or “Eastern tale,” as he called it, “The Demon.”

In 1840, Lermontov was again exiled to the Caucasus, this time over a duel that was planned between himself and the son of the French ambassador, Ernest de Barante. The duel took place in February. No one was hurt, but when the duel was discovered, Lermontov was arrested and exiled. This time, no appeal from Elizabeth Alexeyevna could prevent his exile.

On April 16, 1840, while Lermontov was in prison awaiting court-martial, the critic Belinsky (with whom he had had disagreements) visited him. Belinsky wrote after this meeting, “Oh, this will be a Russian poet on the scale of an Ivan the Great! Marvellous personality! . . . He reveres Pushkin and likes Onegin best of all. . . .”


Lermontov was found guilty of dueling, and exiled.

He arrived in Stavropol, military headquarters for the Caucasus, in mid-June of 1840, and presented himself to the commander-in-chief of the region, General Grabbe. In this second tour, Lermontov was involved in several military actions. In fact, Lermontov requested active duty, in the hope of receiving a pardon through his exploits, which would allow him to return to St. Petersburg, where he could socialize with the political and social circles that were trying to implement reform.

On July 6, 1840, he fought and acquitted himself well in the battle of Valerik. Then, on October 10, Lermontov took command of what was essentially a Russian Army guerrilla unit, attempting to fight the irregular war in the Caucasus through more flexible tactics.

In November of 1840, Lermontov was recommended for the Order of Saint Stanislas after the Valerik campaign. But in early 1841, Nicholas I denied him the Order because of his writings. Lermontov was given a two-month pass to St. Petersburg, which he hoped to make permanent.

But by March of 1841, Lermontov realized that he would not be permitted to remain in the capital, and went to rejoin his regiment. Once he arrived in Stavropol, he had himself placed on sick leave, and went to Pyatigorsk.

During this time, Lermontov was under surveillance by the secret police of the Third Department. On July 13, 1841, at a party arranged by Lermontov, Lermontov and “Monkey” Martynov, a former classmate and friend, had a minor argument. A duel was set for July 15.

Lermontov spent the next two days attempting to resolve the matter, and avoid the duel. But Martynov refused to come to any accommodation.

On July 15, the duel took place. Lermontov either refused to fire or fired into the air. Martynov, hesitating only a moment, shot the poet dead.


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Lermontov began writing poetry at age 16. A talented artist, he adorned his manuscripts with sketches. Dedication to the poet’s “Aul Bastundzhi” (“Bastundzhi Village”).

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Lermontov’s cousin and best friend, Alexei Stolypin, of the influential Stolypin family. Lermontov earned his Army commission in 1834, after graduating form the Junkers Military School shown below.

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Junkers Military School

Lermontov’s Poetry

Being able to be creative, and being able to be creative constantly, was an issue Lermontov addressed as early as 1830, at the age of 16, when he wrote “The Poet,” in which he expressed what the experience of creation was to him:

And when Raphael, so inspired,
The pure Virgin’s image, blessed,
Completed with his brush afire,
By his art enraptured
He before his painting fell!
But soon was this wonderment
In his youthful breast tamed
And, wearied and mute,
He forgot the celestial flame.

Thus the poet: a thought flashing,
As he, heart and soul, his pen dashing,
With the sound of his famed lyre
Charms the world; in quiet deep
It sings, forgetting in heavenly sleep
Thou, thou! The idol of his soul!
Suddenly, his fiery cheeks grow cold,
All his tend’rest passions
Are quiet, and flees the apparition!
But how long, how long the mind holds
The very first impression.

—M. Lermontov (approx. age 16)


In 1838, with Pushkin dead for about a year, the 24-year-old Lermontov wrote another poem titled “The Poet,” which was his reflection on what it meant to be a poet during the reign of Nicholas I.

This poem begins in the first person. A Cossack who has retired from fighting, has hung up his battle-worn kindjal (a type of knife/sword used in the Nineteenth century in the Caucasus), which now hangs as an ornament on his wall.

Lermontov uses this as a metaphor for how poetry, instead of being an instrument with which to rally the troops, and of truth/beauty, has become a party game, or an ornament for the court; therefore rusted, and of no use in the heat of battle. Here are the last five of its 11 stanzas.

from The Poet

In our age effeminate, is it not so, poet,
Lost is your intent,
Having exchanged gold for that portent,
Which the world heeded in reverence silent?

Once it was, the measured sound of your words bold and loud,
Inflamed for battle the warrior,
Like a cup for the feasts, ’twas needed for the crowd—
Like incense in the hour of prayer.

Your verse, like a holy spirit, floated above them,
Blessed thoughts recalling
That rang like the bell for meeting
In the Days of Troubles—and of national feasting.

But we are bored by your proud and simple words,
We are diverted by tinsel and clouds;
Like a worn-out beauty, is our worn-out world
Used to wrinkles hidden under rouge . . .

Will you, poet, who is mocked, reawake!
Or will you never avenge against those who spurn,
From the golden scabbard unsheathe your blade,
Covered with the rust of scorn?

—1838 (Pushkin dead for less than a year)

(translation by the author)


Thus, under Nicholas’s reign, Lermontov was faced with a paradox. How could he, as one individual, make a difference in an autocratic regime? Like all Russians, he was faced with the murder of Pushkin; with the irregular war in the Caucasus, which would turn into a full-blown war that, at the least, the British imperial faction was able to manipulate a decade or so later; and with the pettiness and contradictions of life under Tsar Nicholas I. It therefore appeared that to be a thinking, creative person, was to be put in the position of becoming an outcast—someone who, in the eyes of society, would be considered a beggar standing naked in the town square, attempting to tell the truth to an audience which was either too frightened, or too consumed with its own private games, to listen.

The Prophet

E’er since the judge eterne
The prophet’s omniscience gave me,
In people’s eyes do I discern
The pages of malice and enmity.

To proclaim love I came
And the pure truths of learning:
All my neighbors, enraged,
At me stones were hurling

With embers I strewed my head,
From the cities did I flee
And thus I live in the desert;
Like the birds, on food divine and free.

Earth’s obedient creature
Of the eternal preserver calls to me
And the stars do hear,
Their rays play joyfully.

And so in the noisy town, while
I hastily make my way,
With a self-satisfied smile,
Then the old men to the children say:

Look: Here’s an example for you!
He was proud, and did not dwell among us:
He wanted us to believe—the fool—
That God speaks with his lip!

And, children, upon him look:
How ill he is, and ashen,
Look how naked he is, and poor,

—1841


The turmoil Lermontov faced as a young man, both in his personal life and in the military, was reflected in the three-stanza poem “The Sail,” which uses the metaphor of a sailing ship steering into a storm, “as if in storms there is peace.” That is, as many a sailor knows, if you cannot outrun a storm, you must navigate through it, if you are to return home safely.

The Sail

Gleams white a solitary sail
In the haze of the light blue sea.—
What seeks it in countries far away?
What in its native land did leave?

The mast creaks and presses,
The wind whistles, the waves are playing;
Alas! It does not seek happiness,
Nor from happiness is fleeing!

Beneath, the azure current flows,
Above, the golden sunlight streaks:—
But restless, into the storm it goes,
As if in storms there is peace!

—1832 (18 years old)

(translation by the author)


Lermontov became quite visible—and a target of both international and Russian political forces which were behind Pushkin’s murder—with “Death of A Poet,” a passionate eulogy on Pushkin’s death. Lermontov had read many handwritten copies of Pushkin’s poems, passed from person to person, during these years. As his writings attest, Lermontov certainly understood what Pushkin’s groundbreaking work in the Russian language meant for Russia. Lermontov also attended balls and gatherings among the officer corps stationed in St. Petersburg, at which Pushkin was present. But he wanted any meeting with Pushkin to be peer to peer, poet to poet, and so stayed in the background whenever Pushkin was present.

Death of A Poet

The poet’s murd’red!—slave of honor,
He fell, by rumor defamed,
With lead in the breast, and his proud head bowed
By a thirst for vengeance!
The poet’s soul had not withstood
The disgrace of petty-minded insults.
He rose against the opinion of the world
Alone, as formerly . . . and he’s murdered!
Murdered! . . . Now to what purpose is sobbing,
A useless chorus of empty praises,
And the pitiful prattle of excuses?
Fate’s sentence has been imposed!
Was it not you who first thus persecuted
So cruelly his free, bold gift,
And for amusement fanned
The fire that had somewhat abated?
So? Be happy. . . . He could not
Bear the final torments.
Extinguished, like a lamp, is the
Marvellous genius,
Withered the ceremonial crown.

His murderer, coldblooded,
Took aim . . . There was no salvation:
That empty heart beat steadily,
In the hand the pistol did not tremble
And how is that strange? From afar,
Like a thousand fugitives,
He, hunting for fortune and rank,
Thrown among us by the will of fate
Laughing, impudently despised
The language and customs of this alien land;
He could not spare our glory,
He could not understand in that bloody instant,
Against what he raised his hand!
And he is slain—and taken to the grave,
Like that bard, unknown but dear,
The prey of dull envy,
Whom he praised with such wonderful force,
Struck down, like him, by a pitiless hand.*
Why from peaceful delights and open-hearted friendship
Did he enter into this envious world—stifling
For a free heart and fiery passions?
Why did he extend a hand to petty slanderers,
Why did he believe the false words and caresses,
He, who from his youthful years understood people?

They removed the former garland, and a crown of thorns
Entwined with laurel put they on him:
But the secret spines harshly
Wounded the famous brow;
His last moments were poisoned
By the insidious whispers of derisive fools,
And he died—thirsting in vain for vengeance,
Secretly besieged by false hopes.
The sounds of his wonderful songs fell silent,
They will not ring out again:
The bard’s refuge is cramped and sullen,
And his lips are sealed.


(translation by the author)


Lermontov might have been considered a minor irritation and been reprimanded had he left his poem there. But he decided to go all the way in a postscript written several weeks later, and attack the court itself for its organized role in Pushkin’s death. The postscript was then surreptitiously circulated to trusted friends. At the time, Benkendorf took it as “seditious” and a “call to revolution.”

Postscript to ‘Death of A Poet’

And you, stubborn heirs
Of fathers renowned for meanness,
Who with servile heel trod underfoot the shards Of families by Fortune frowned upon!
You, greedy crowd standing near the throne,
Of Freedom, Genius and Glory the hangman!
You hide behind the protection of law,
Before you, the court and truth—all is silent!
But there is also divine judgment, you cronies of corruption!
There is a terrible judge: he waits;
He is not swayed by tinkling gold,
And knows your thoughts and affairs beforehand.
Then in vain will you resort to slander:
It will not help you again,
And with all your black blood you shall not wash away
The righteous blood of the poet!


One of Lermontov’s cousins, Nicholas Stolypin, described by one Lermontov biographer as “a smart young diplomat serving in the Foreign Ministry of von Nesselrode”—i.e., the same Nesselrode whose wife’s salon had been at the center of the operation against Pushkin—visited Lermontov to harangue him and tell him he had gone too far, and that he should cease and desist attacking the Tsar and the court immediately. Lermontov angrily replied: “You, sir, are the antithesis of Pushkin, and if you do not leave this second, I will not answer for my actions.”

Even with the limited circulation of the postscript, Lermontov had sealed his fate. He and his friend Svyatoslav Rayevsky, who had circulated the postscript to various people, were immediately arrested. Rayevsky attempted to send a letter to Lermontov warning him to make sure that their stories were the same. But the letter was intercepted. Each was interrogated individually, and made to admit the role of the other in the circulation of the postscript.

Lermontov and Rayevsky wound up being imprisoned at the Fortress of Peter and Paul for six months. Lermontov was made to write a statement of contrition, addressed to Nicholas I, in which he praised Nicholas’s generosity to Pushkin’s widow and children. At the end of the statement, however, Lermontov proved himself to be committed to what he had previously written.

“As far as concerns me personally,” he wrote, “I have not sent this poem out to anyone, but in acknowledging my inconsequence, I do not want to disavow it. The truth has always been sacred to me and now in offering my guilty head for judgment, I have recourse to the truth with firmness as the only protector of an honest man before the Tsar and before God.”


Because of pleas on his behalf by his grandmother, given her position in society, and by the court poet Zhukovsky, Lermontov did not wind up in Siberia. Instead, he was exiled to the Caucasus as a member of the Nizhny Novgorod Dragoons. Thus, at the age of 23, Lermontov was to return to the region where he had spent several summers of his youth on his aunt’s estate. There, Lermontov was to meet and become re-acquainted with members of the Caucasian Officer Corps, made up almost entirely of those officers exiled by Nicholas I for their role in the Decembrist uprising of 1825, and many of whom he knew or had been friends of Pushkin.

The Caucasus

In 1840, Lermontov, while in St. Petersburg, was challenged to a duel. While some in the court tried to claim that the duel was personal, those closer to Lermontov asserted that Lermontov was challenged over his blunt, public stance on the de facto murder of Pushkin. When it was “discovered” that Lermontov had been duelling, he was thrown in prison, and exiled again to the Caucasus.

One of Lermontov’s most poignant poems, written upon his second exile, reflects the conditions to which Russians knew themselves to be subject, i.e., that there were police spies everywhere. Lermontov called Russia, the land of “all-hearing ears.”

Farewell, unwashed Russia,
Land of slaves, land of lords,
And you,* blue uniforms,
And thou, a people devoted to them.

Perhaps, beyond the wall of the Caucasus,
I will be concealed from your pashas,
From their eyes all-seeing,
And ears all-hearing.

—1841

(translation by the author)


Thus, Lermontov spent most of the years 1837 to 1841—the remainder of his short life—as an officer in the Caucasus, with a short return to the capital, St. Petersburg, engineered by his grandmother in 1839. And upon his return to St. Petersburg, Lermontov wrote A Hero of Our Time.

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Attempts by reformers like Pushkin and Lermontov to influence the policies of Tsar Nicholas I, challenged the worst oligarchical elements of Imperial Russia, represented by Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs Count Karl Robert Nesselrode (below).

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Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs Count Karl Robert Nesselrode

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Nesselrode’s views were shaped by the 1815 Congress of Vienna, and its Habsburg and British Empire spokesmen Prince Klemens Metternich and Viscount Castlereagh (below).

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Viscount Castlereagh

A Hero of Our Time

The final straw for those among Russia’s ruling elite who were committed to an anti-republican outlook, and thus determined to be rid of Lermontov, was Lermontov’s novella, A Hero of Our Time, often classified simply as “the first modern Russian psychological novel.”

But, although Lermontov does describe the psychological ills of his fellow Russian officers stationed in the Caucasus, that is not the only purpose of Hero. A Hero of Our Time is an example of why it is not enough to read the text of an author literally. The analysis situs—that is, the historical time and place—in which Lermontov wrote Hero, is crucial to an understanding of why Lermontov addressed the question of the state of mind of the Russian officer corps so harshly.

Lermontov saw military action in the Caucasus. Additionally, he had had not only access, but opportunity to talk to some of the battle-tested generals in the Caucasus about the guerrilla war there. Thus, Hero’s larger purpose, based on Lermontov’s own experience in and knowledge of the Caucasus, as well as these discussions with experienced military leaders, was to attempt to convey to Nicholas I the conditions festering among the officer corps on Russia’s crucial “southern flank,” who were forced to fight a brutal irregular war on difficult terrain, in a tropical climate where disease killed as many men as the fighting did. Additionally, this guerrilla war was being supported with money and materiel from outside Russia and the Caucasus.

Lermontov’s introduction to the second edition of Hero is rather direct and blunt. He writes: “It is a pity, especially in our country, where the reading public is still so naive and immature that it cannot understand a fable unless the moral is given at the end, fails to see jokes, has no sense of irony, and is simply badly educated,” that the reading public ignores the preface to books.

 
Lermontov’s Caucasus: Battlefield of the ‘Great Game’

At a crossroads of Eurasia between the Black Sea and the Caspian, lies the Caucasus mountain range. Topped by the highest peak in Europe, 18,841-foot Mt. Elbrus, the terrain is rugged. Mt. Kazbek in the Caucasus is where Prometheus, in legend, was chained to a rock for eternity. To the south, in Transcaucasia, lie the ancient Christian nations of Armenia and Georgia. The gorges between the mountains have been inhabited by scores of peoples, with diverse religions and loyalties, over the centuries: Chechens, Circassians, and many others.

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Aerial view of the Caucasus Mountains
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Satellite image of the Caucasus Mountains
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Aishkho Pass, Caucasus Nature Reserve
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Mount Elbrus viewed from the south in Russia
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General map of Russia, showing Southern Russia in color (the Southern Federal District in blue and the North Caucasian Federal District in red).


The Caucasus and Transcaucasia came under Russian rule over a period of several centuries, and eventually were part of the Soviet Union from 1922 until 1991. King Irakli II of Georgia began the process of Georgia’s annexation to Russia in 1784, seeking protection from the Caucasus mountain fighters, often directed by the Turkish Sultan—or his European controllers in a given era—in their raids against Georgia. In the late Eighteenth century and throughout the Nineteenth, the Russian Empire faced insurgencies in the Caucasus. The Russian military class known as the Cossacks, who had traditional home bases in the plains just to the north of the mountains, were primary combatants in Russian clashes with Caucasus bands, but regular Army troops were also stationed along a string of mountain forts. In 1829, under General Yermolov, Russia secured relative control of the Caucasus.

The Caucasus was Russia’s southern frontier, a zone of contest not only with the Ottoman Empire and the Shahs of Persia, but also with the upper reaches of Britain’s Imperial power, radiating up from India: the battle for power in Eurasia, known as “The Great Game.” Accordingly, the area was—and still is—a battleground for the intrigues of intelligence services, where things are rarely what they seem to be at first glance. The notorious case in point in the late Eighteenth century was Sheikh Mansur, leader of Chechen Muslim fighters against Russia under Catherine the Great: he was a former Dominican monk named Giovanni Battista Boetti, who hailed from Italy via the Levant. In the 1990’s, foreign involvement in Chechnya’s secession from Russia provided many echoes of such Caucasus traditions.


Written with a red-hot sense of irony, on the heels of Pushkin’s murder and his own exile, Lermontov continues:

Our country “still doesn’t realize that open abuse is impossible in respectable society or in respectable books, and that modern culture has found a far keener weapon than abuse. Though practically invisible it is nonetheless deadly, and under the cloak of flattery strikes surely and irresistibly.” And what is the reaction of the “reading public”? Writes Lermontov, again ironically, it “is like some country bumpkin who hears a conversation between two diplomats from opposing courts and goes away convinced that each is betraying his government for the sake of an intimate mutual friendship.”

Nicholas I, as he did with Pushkin’s writings, personally read and censored Lermontov’s Hero. The Tsar complained that the main character, Pechorin, was a poor representative of what a Russian officer should be.

Thus, writes Lermontov, “The present book, recently had the misfortune to be taken literally by some readers and even by some journals. Some were terribly offended that anyone as immoral as the Hero of Our Time should be held up as an example, while others very subtly remarked that the author had portrayed himself and his acquaintances. Again that feeble old joke! Russia seems to be made in such a way that everything can change, except absurdities like this, and even the most fantastic fairy-tale can hardly escape being criticized for attempted libel.


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Episode from the Caucasian War, watercolor by M. Lermontov and G.G. Gagarin.

“The Hero of Our Time is certainly a portrait,” explains Lermontov, “but not of a single person. It is a portrait of the vices of our whole generation in their ultimate development. You will say that no man can be so bad, and I will ask you why, after accepting all the villains of tragedy and romance, you refuse to believe in Pechorin,” at whose portrayal as a cynical, self-absorbed, disgruntled Russian officer Nicholas I took extreme umbrage. It may be that Lermontov is asking Nicholas to look in the mirror: “You have admired far more terrible and monstrous characters than he is, so why are you so merciless towards him, even as a fictitious character? Perhaps he comes too close to the bone?”

Finally, writes Lermontov in this introduction, “you may say that morality will not benefit from this book. I’m sorry, but people have been fed on sweets too long and it has ruined their digestion. Bitter medicines and harsh truths are needed now, though please don’t imagine that the present author was ever vain enough to dream of correcting human vices. Heaven preserve him from being so naive! It simply amused him to draw a picture of contemporary man as he understands him and as he has, to his own and your misfortune, too often found him. Let it suffice that the malady has been diagnosed—heaven alone knows how to cure it!” (In fact, it would take Russia’s near-defeat in the Crimean War under Nicholas I, the ascension of Alexander II to the throne, and the resulting upswing in Russian scientific and economic development—as well as the freeing of the serfs—to begin to cure the malady.)

Hero portrays a young officer just arrived in the Caucasus, who is regaled by an older officer with tales of the cynical, self-absorbed Pechorin, who has “gone native,” taken a local princess as his mistress, and then left her. Additionally, the new arrival describes the Caucasus for us, and his journey along the Georgian Military Road to his new post. One of the stories that comprise the novella, “Taman,” about Pechorin’s travels, describes how Pechorin is forced to take shelter in a hut where nothing is as it seems. Seduced by the young woman of the household, Pechorin comes to realize that he has entered a den of smugglers, consisting of the woman, a blind boy, and an old man. Pechorin barely escapes with his life.

The final story in Hero, “The Fatalist,” is as telling as its introduction. Seemingly just a tale of officers playing cards and “Russian Roulette” (possibly the first mention ever made) in a small, isolated village in the Caucasus, who are discussing whether there is such a thing as predestination, the irony of the tale could not have been missed by any Russian soldier or officer who had served any time at all in the Caucasus.

In the story, the officer who draws the round with the bullet in it fires, but the gun misfires, harming no one. He then leaves the card game and gets into a brawl with two drunken Cossacks, who kill him. The protagonist of this story proceeds to capture one of the Cossacks and hold him until the authorities can arrive.

Any Russian who had served in that area would understand immediately what Lermontov was writing about. While you could never be sure if your Russian-made weapon would fire properly, you could be sure that an encounter with a Cossack could be deadly, whether on the town streets or in combat. Many of the guerrillas were armed with Cossack or similar sabers. It was also the preferred weapon of Russians stationed in the Caucasus for more than a few months, since they knew it was swift, sure, and reliable.

During his brief return to St. Petersburg, Lermontov discussed and wrote about how he would like to write a novel based on the history of Russia from the time of the Pugachov rebellion of 1771 to the Napoleonic Wars (1805 and 1812-1815), and Russia’s victory (with significant military-strategic help from certain key Prussian officers) over Napoleon’s army. This project, which would have taken up where Pushkin left off with his History of Pugachov, was never completed, owing to Lermontov’s death in 1841. Lermontov also wanted to write a biography of Griboyedov, the exiled playwright who, along with the rest of the mission, was tragically murdered in Teheran.

During Lermontov’s stay in St. Petersburg, forces behind the scenes had determined to remove him from the environs of the court. Lermontov was headstrong, and still angered by Pushkin’s murder. Because of his knowledge of the role of the Nesselrode salon in Pushkin’s murder, he had never succumbed to the official story, that the duel was over a “private matter.” He was often seen at the balls and parties of Pushkin’s friends.

In 1841, four years after the death of Pushkin and two years after Lermontov’s exile to the Caucasus, Lermontov, taking a cure at the spa in Pyatigorsk, found himself facing off in a duel against Major Martynov, whom he had in fact tried to placate after a minor quarrel. But Martynov demanded satisfaction (there is some evidence he was being directed by agents of Russia’s secret service, the Third Department).

A housemate of Martynov’s, a prince named Vasilchikov, whom Lermontov had known since 1837, told Lermontov that he had arranged a compromise. The parties would meet for the duel as scheduled, and each party would fire into the air. They would then shake hands and part.


 
A Note on Lermontov’s ‘Ballada’

Russian original, Cyrillic alphabet:


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Roman alphabet transliteration:

Ballada


Nad morem krasavitsa-deva sidit;
I k drugu, laskayasya, tak govorit:

“Dostan ozherelye, spustisya na dno;
Sevodnya v puchinu upalo ono!

Ty etim dokazhesh svoyu mne lyubov!”
Vskipela likhaya u yunoshi krov,

I um yevo obnyal nevolny nedug,
On v pennuyu bezdnu kidayetsya vdrug.

English translation:

Ballad


Sits a beauteous maiden above the sea,
And to her friend doth say, with a plea,

“Deliver the necklet, it’s down in the drink,
Today into the whirlpool did it sink!

“And thus shalt thou show me your love!”
Wildly boiled the young man’s blood,

And his mind, unwilling, the charge embracing,
At once into the foamy abyss he’s racing.

THE POEM IS in amphibrachic tetrameter, which has a very strong “sing-song” quality in English:

- ′ - / - ′ - / - ′ - / - ′ .

It is used in Russian ballads; Alexander Pushkin used it in some poems. The meter of the first two couplets is shown in transliteration, divided into syllables, as:

Nad mó - rem / kra - sá - vi - / tsa-dé - va / si - dít;
I k drú - gu, / la - ská - ya - / sya, ták go - / vo - rít:

“Do - stán o - / zhe - ré - lye, / spu - stí - sya / na dnó;
Se - vó - dnya / v pu - chí - nu / u - pá - lo / o - nó!


Which can be translated in the same meter into English as:

A maiden / most beauti- / ful sits by / the shore; And tender- / ly speaks to / her friend in / these words: “Go fetch me / my necklace, / it’s down in / the drink, Today ’neath / the turbu- / lent waves did / it sink!


But, whether Vasilchikov was a witting or unwitting accomplice, that is not what happened. Lermontov fired first, firing his shot into the air, as had been worked out, he believed, with Vasilchikov. Martynov hesitated, then, claiming that Lermontov had insulted him yet again, shot Lermontov dead.

Thus Mikhail Lermontov, who, at 26 years of age was seen by most of Russia’s intelligentsia as Pushkin’s immediate heir, went to his death on July 15, 1841.

Upon hearing the news, Nicholas I was reported to have said, “Gentlemen, the man who could have replaced Pushkin for us is dead.” Given that the streets outside Pushkin’s home had been lined with ordinary Russians who loved his poetry and were hoping he would recover after his duel, Nicholas must have known the effect his remark would have.

But Lermontov’s poetry, like Pushkin’s, lived on, both by itself, and also through music. It is reported that Lermontov set his own poems to music, most of which settings have unfortunately not survived. However, the Russian composer Glinka set to music many of Pushkin’s poems, and several of Lermontov’s, in the first half of the Nineteenth century, in the tradition of the German Classical lieder. Glinka set a poem by Lermontov called “Prayer,” as well as setting many of Zhukovsky’s Russian translations of Schiller poems. Thus, there is a direct transmission belt from German Classical poetry, to German Lieder, to the transmission of that by Glinka into the equivalent of Russian Lieder. (It should also be noted that Glinka also set the poetry of Pushkin’s good friend Baron Delvig. Delvig was second-in-command on the first railroad building project in Russia.)

What we have available to us today of Lermontov’s body of work, indicates a great potential cut short by his early death. Pushkin himself recognized Lermontov’s “sparkling” talent. It is clear that Lermontov was beginning to mature, and that he would have been able to continue to develop the tradition of Pushkin. As with Pushkin, Lermontov wanted to write for Russia a portion of its universal history, with an eye toward transforming the way Russians saw themselves.

After Lermontov, there would be others. There was Gogol, whose Dead Souls was explicitly conceived to be a Russian Divine Comedy, although never completed. There was also to be Goncharov, author of Oblomov, a novel which satirized the do-nothing, lying-in-bed-all-day, would-be reformers among the Russian oligarchy. There was the biting satire of Saltykov-Shchedrin, as well as What Is To Be Done? by Chernyshevsky, from which Vladimir Lenin would take the title for one of his key political tracts. Similarly, in Ukraine, there were to be a number of significant Ukrainian poets and translators of Heine and Schiller.

Thus, the cultural and literary movement created by Pushkin and his friends, of which Lermontov was a part, lived on through several generations. And through the spirit of a new renaissance today, it can continue to live on in the work of a new generation of poets and musicians.

_______________

Notes:

* Reference to Eugene Onegin, Pushkin’s novel in verse, the duel between Onegin and the poet Lensky, whom Onegin murders.–DMH

* Lermontov uses the polite form of “you” in Russian in the first instance, and the familiar form of “thou” in the second instance. The blue uniforms are those of the Third Department secret police.–DMH

1. The political circumstances surrounding Pushkin’s death are reviewed by Vadim V. Kozhinov in “The Mystery of Pushkin’s Death,” in “Symposium: Alexander Pushkin, Russia’s Poet of Universal Genius,” Fidelio, Fall 1999 (Vol. VII, No. 3). The Symposium presents further discussion of Pushkin’s life and work in “The Living Memory of Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin” (Rachel B. Douglas), “Pushkin and Schiller” (Helga Zepp LaRouche), and “Pushkin Was a Live Volcano . . .’ ” (E.S. Lebedeva).
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Re: Act & Punishment: The Pussy Riot Trials

Postby admin » Fri Aug 17, 2018 10:21 pm

Giambattista Boetti
by Wikipedia
[Translated from Italian Google translate]
Accessed: 8/17/18

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Biography

Born into a family of the upper middle class of Monferrato, an orphan of a mother and uninhibited to his father, he was very young to be sent to Turin to study medicine. In 1760, he escaped to Milan where he was employed as a scribe in the Clerici regiment of the Habsburg army, but he bought his leave after a few months. In the following two years he travels between Prague, Regensburg and Strasbourg, becoming known as a libertine and accumulating a good fortune, the result of relationships and love affairs. After a rapid return to Piedmont and various pilgrimages to Italy, the desire to enter the Dominican Order makes its way. For five years he devoted himself to theology studies at Ferrara.

In 1769 he was sent on an apostolic mission to Mosul in present-day Iraq. Here he established himself as head of the Dominican Order, while practicing the medical profession that guaranteed him the protection of the Pasha. This protection, however, does not save him from responsibility for the death of a Turk entrusted to his care: he is sentenced to fifty strokes of a stick on the soles of his feet and exiled. Find shelter not far from Amadiya, near a Nestorian nobleman. From here he solicits for a long time an intervention by the Turkish central government, which finally re-enacts him in Mosul. The new stay in the city is disturbed by the continuous contrasts with the confreres, who accuse him of immoral conduct and of irregularities in the management of the mission. Forced to return to Italy where he retires to Ferrara.

In 1772 Boetti decided to resume, without any authorization from the superiors, the way of the East. In Urfa on the southeastern border of Turkey, he joined the local Pasha, still as a doctor. He knows how to secure the trust of the powerful character, becoming also a secretary and treasurer. And he obtains administrative authority over the Christian churches from the pasha, he is also elected bishop by the community of Jacobite Christians of the city.

In 1775 the Pasha of Urfa was deposed and Boetti returned to Istanbul where he obtained the protection of the French consul, the Latin bishop and the Dominicans themselves. Remains in Istanbul two years, at this time he finally learns Turkish but also the Persian and manages to put together a small fortune with his earnings as a doctor. Visit Georgia, Persia and Syria. In 1778 he was surprised, disguised as an Armenian, while he was writing down the Damascus fortifications plan in a notebook. Accused of espionage on behalf of the Russians (an episode never fully clarified of his biography), he is arrested and brought back to Istanbul. Return free later also to a direct intervention by Vittorio Amedeo III of Savoy, paying a substantial deposit.


Vittorio Amedeo III of Savoia ( Turin , 26 June 1726 - Moncalieri, 16 October 1796 ) was king of Sardinia and duke of Savoy, Piedmont and Aosta from 1773 to 1796.

Son of Charles Emmanuel III and of Polissena d'Hesse-Rheinfels-Rotenburg, he married in 1750 Marie Antoinette of Spain (1729-1785), the youngest daughter of Philip V of Spain and Elisabetta Farnese. He ascended the throne in 1773.

-- Vittorio Amedeo III of Savoy, by Wikipedia


Back in Italy he stayed in Naples and then in Vienna where he received forgiveness from the Superior General of his Order. In 1781 he was always welcomed under the protection of Vittorio Amedeo III in the convent of Trino Vercellese, where he remained for more than a year, acting as an exemplary friar.

Then suddenly it starts again. At the end of 1782 he was in Berlin, then in Poland and in Moscow. After a failed attempt to enter the service of Prince Potemkin, he resumed his travels. Apparently without a purpose back in Persia, Georgia and Crimea. At the beginning of 1784, on the eve of his most glaring adventure, he returned to Istanbul, from where he sent large quantities of weapons to Iraqi Kurdistan. His maneuvers catalyzed the curiosity of the Western diplomatic community residing in the Levant. The European ambassadors report in their reports the activities of the Boetti, but without discovering on behalf of those who act. At the end of the year he leaves Istanbul with the Persian merchant's caravan, and when he arrives in Iraqi Kurdistan, he settles in a small village near Amadiya.


Here after closing in the house for ninety six days, absorbed -- according to legend -- in deep meditations and prayers, begins the preaching of a new syncretic religion between Christianity and Islam. He proclaims that he wants to restore the cult of a unique God, to be worshiped "in hearts and with hearts". Christ is a prophet, Paradise is the eternal absence of evil, Hell a "temporary damnation". To this he adds some precise and original moral norms: "fornication and incest do not constitute sin, provided that the woman is consenting, and suicide on certain occasions". Complete this personal theology a simple social program: "the cowards, the poltrons, the misers must be deprived of wealth and sent to work in the fields". The first followers are recruited to Amadiya among the Jacobite Christians and the same Khan of the city is a propagator of Boetti's message that begins to be called "prophet Manṣūr" (The Victorious [by God's work]) and to gather around him a small army. His preaching and the flowery legends about his alleged supernatural abilities exalt the myth of his invincibility.

The initial victorious clashes with the Turkish army and the intolerance of the populations towards Ottoman rule feed the ranks of his army of enthusiastic followers. Tatars, Circassians, Russian deserters increase its contingents. Boetti / al-Manṣūr sets fire to dust throughout the Caucasus, awakens yearnings of freedom and enthusiasm, preaches gazavat, in the Turkish meaning of war jihad. After having taxed the city of Erzurum close to the Armenian border, Boetti marched against Georgia, a territory under the protection of the Russian Empire. It has a contingent of only 8000 men exalted by the new creed and framed with ferocious discipline.

The king of Georgia Heraclius II, is forced to capitulate, loses between fallen and prisoners, more than thirty thousand men. In this period Boetti also takes on the name of Sheik Oghan Oolò. Georgia is conquered. Forty of 30,000 men, the Piedmontese leader threatens to march on Istanbul against the Ottoman sultan Selim III "unsuitable for the times". Received about 500,000 gold plates as a gift from the sultan, a huge figure, agree to postpone the conquest of the Ottoman capital. On the contrary, he turns his army against the Russians, who come to the rescue of the Georgian ally: conquers Bitlis in Turkey, then Gori in Georgia, where he defeats the Russian army under the command of General Apraksin. Meanwhile, the fame of the companies of Sheik Oghan, alias Mansur, aka Boetti da Piazzano, is growing in the European courts. The most fanciful news concerns his biography: some refer both to an envoy of the Tibetan "Grand Lama", others to an apostate Brahmin, a renegade Piedmontese grenadier from Algiers. There is also a rumor that he is a Dominican sent on a mission to Persia. Meanwhile, in the Caucasian area, the clan chiefs are multiplying at the helm of small armed groups who give themselves the appellation of Mansur, which confuses the Russian observers and perpetrates however the myth of an omnipresent and impregnable leader.

At the end of 1786 with the outbreak of the Russo-Turkish war, the fortunes of Sheik Mansur began to run out. Sheik Mansur supports the operations of the Turks but the defeats inflicted by the Russian army force him to take refuge in the mountains of the Caucasus with the survivors of the army still loyal to him and to start an incessant guerrilla warfare in the territory of today's Chechnya, giving way to someone to identify him with Shaykh Mansur Ushurma. After the Iassy Treaty of 1792 , between Russians and Turks, Boetti still occupies Anapa on the shores of the Black Sea, hoping to establish his own kingdom, but here he is finally defeated and captured by the troops of the Russian general Gudowitz. Conducted in St. Petersburg in the presence of the empress, perhaps in memory of the ancient services, he is spared his life and is imprisoned in the monastery-fortress of Soloveck on the White Sea, not far from the Arctic polar circle. From here he wrote a last letter to his family, shortly before his death, in September 1798, where he asked "pardon of the parents, of the brothers, of the sorrows of the sorrows they had procured and strongly recommended their prayers, as close to death.


Assumptions about its identity

One wonders about who Giambattista Boetti really was. According to historians Alexandre Bennigsen, T. Kutlu and Alberto Zuliani, it was a sort of secret agent, first adventurer in the pay of the Russians and then passed to that of the Turks. The Italian historian Serena Vitale claims that in those years there were three Sheik Mansur and that Boetti was one of the three, a sort of military adviser who probably held relations with Istanbul.

In 1991, when Chechnya proclaimed its independence, Lenin Square, in the center of the capital Grozny, became "Al Mansur Square" because the national hero was Shaykh Mansur Ushurma (a character that many believe to coincide with Boetti himself). However, Chechen nationalism and its historiography deny the very existence of Giambattista Boetti, a figure too cumbersome and not very exciting as a spy, secret agent and adventurer on which to base his national identity.

Sources

• Robert C. Melzi; with the translation of Boetti's "Report" (Turin, State Archives ) and the "Manuscript Biography" (Turin, Biblioteca Reale)
• E. Ottino, Oghan-Oolò, Sceik Mansour, or Father G. Battista Boetti , in Curiosity and researches of subalpine history published by a society of scholars of homeland memories , Volume II, Roma Torino Fireze, Fratelli Bocca, Pagg 329-350, 1876 ( Read on the Internet Archive )
• Francesco Picco, The Prophet Mansùr (GB Boetti) 1743-1798 , Genoa, AF Formiggini, 1915 ( Read on Internet Archive )
• Serena Vitale, Turban's imbroglio , Milan, 2007 ISBN 88-04-51219-9
Bibliography
• Giambattista Boetti , in the Biographical Dictionary of Italians, Rome, Institute of the Italian Encyclopaedia.

Related items

• Shaykh Mansur Ushurma

Other projects

• Wikisource contains a page dedicated to Giovanni Battista Boetti
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Re: Act & Punishment: The Pussy Riot Trials

Postby admin » Fri Aug 17, 2018 10:37 pm

Alexander Griboyedov
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 8/17/18

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Image
Alexander Griboyedov

Portrait by Ivan Kramskoi
Russian Ambassador to Iran
In office
1828[1] – 1829
Monarch Nicholas I of Russia
Personal details
Born Alexander Sergeyevich Griboyedov
15 January 1795
Moscow, Russian Empire
Died 11 February 1829 (aged 34)
Tehran, Qajar Iran
Resting place Tiflis, Russian Empire (present-day Georgia)
Nationality Russian
Alma mater Imperial Moscow University (1808)
Occupation Diplomat, Playwright, Poet, and Composer
Signature

Alexander Sergeyevich Griboyedov (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Грибое́дов, Aleksándr Sergeyevich Griboyedov or Sergéevich Griboédov; 15 January 1795 – 11 February 1829), formerly romanized as Alexander Sergueevich Griboyedoff,[2] was a Russian diplomat, playwright, poet, and composer. He is recognized as homo unius libri, a writer of one book, whose fame rests on the verse comedy Woe from Wit or The Woes of Wit. He was Russia's ambassador to Qajar Persia, where he and all the embassy staff were massacred by an angry mob as a result of the rampant anti-Russian sentiment that existed through Russia's imposing of the Treaty of Gulistan (1813) and Treaty of Turkmenchay (1828), which had forcefully ratified for Persia's ceding of its northern territories comprising Transcaucasia and parts of the North Caucasus. Griboyedov had played a pivotal role in the ratification of the latter treaty.

Early life

Born in Moscow, Griboyedov studied at Moscow University from 1810 to 1812. He then obtained a commission in a hussar regiment, which he resigned in 1816. The next year, he entered the civil service. In 1818 he was appointed secretary of the Russian legation in Persia, and transferred to Georgia.[3]

His verse comedy The Young Spouses (Russian: Молодые супруги, Molodye Suprugi), which he staged in St. Petersburg in 1816, was followed by other similar works. Neither these nor his essays and poetry would have been long remembered but for the success of his verse comedy Woe from Wit (Russian: Горе от ума, Gore ot Uma), a satire on Russian aristocratic society.[3]

As a high official in the play puts it, this work is "a pasquinade on Moscow". The play depicts certain social and official stereotypes in the characters of Famusov, who hates reform; his secretary, Molchalin, who fawns over officials; and the aristocratic young liberal and Anglomaniac, Repetilov. By contrast the hero of the piece, Chatsky, an ironic satirist just returned from western Europe, exposes and ridicules the weaknesses of the rest. His words echo the outcry of the young generation in the lead-up to the armed insurrection of 1825.[3]


In Russia for the summer of 1823, Griboyedov completed the play and took it to St. Petersburg. It was rejected by the censors. Many copies were made and privately circulated, but Griboyedov never saw it published.[3] After his death the manuscript was jointly owned by his wife Nina Alexandrovna Griboyedova and his sister Maria Sergeyevna Durnovo (Griboyedova).[4] The first edition was not published until 1833, four years after his death. Only once did he see it on the stage, when it was performed by the officers of the garrison at Yerevan. Soured by disappointment, he returned to Georgia. During the Russo-Persian War of 1826–1828, he put his linguistic expertise at the service of general Ivan Paskevich, a relative; after which he was sent to St. Petersburg where he worked on the Treaty of Turkmenchay negotiations. There, thinking to devote himself to literature, he started work on a romantic drama, A Georgian Night (Russian: Грузинская ночь, Gruzinskaya noch), based on Georgian legends.[3]

Death

Image
Monument erected in Soviet times in Dilijan, Armenia commemorating the location where Alexander Pushkin (on his way to meet his brother) stopped the carriage with Alexander Griboyedov's body being transported to Tiflis. An inscription in Russian and Armenian says: "Here A. S. Pushkin saw the body of A. S. Griboyedov".

Several months after his wedding to Nino, 16-year-old daughter of his friend Prince Chavchavadze, Griboyedov was suddenly sent to Persia as Minister Plenipotentiary.[5] In the aftermath of the war and the humiliating Treaty of Turkmenchay, there was strong anti-Russian sentiment in Persia. Soon after Griboyedov's arrival in Tehran, a mob stormed the Russian embassy.

The incident began when an Armenian eunuch escaped from the harem of the Persian shah, and at the same time two enslaved Armenian women escaped from the harem of the Shah's son-in-law. All three sought refuge at the Russian legation. As agreed in the Treaty of Turkmenchay, Georgians and Armenians living in Persia at that time were permitted to return to Georgia and Eastern Armenia.[6] However, the Shah demanded that Griboyedov returned the three escapees. Griboyedov refused. His decision caused an uproar throughout the city and several thousand Persians encircled the Russian compound demanding their release.

When Griboyedov decided to return the escaped eunuch and two Armenian women, it was too late. Soon after, urged on by the mullahs, the mob stormed the building. A high-ranking Muslim scholar with the title of Mojtahed, Mirza Masih Astarabadi known as Mirza Masih Mojtahed, issued a fatwa saying freeing Muslim women from the claws of unbelievers is allowed.[7]

Griboyedov and other members of his mission had prepared for a siege and sealed all the windows and doors. Armed and in full uniform, they were resolved to defend to the last drop of blood. Although small in number, the Cossack detachment assigned to protect the legation held off the mob for over an hour until finally being driven back to Griboyedov's office. There, Griboyedov and the Cossacks resisted until the mob broke through the roof of the building, and then through the ceiling, to slaughter them. The escaped eunuch and Griboyedov, who fought with his sword, were among the first to be shot to death; the fate of the two Armenian women remains unknown.[6][8] Second secretary of the mission Karl Adelung and, in particular, a young doctor whose name is not known, fought hard, but soon the scene was one of butchered, decapitated corpses.

Griboyedov's body, thrown from a window, was decapitated by a kebab vendor who displayed the head on his stall.[7] The mob dragged the uniformed corpse through the city's streets and bazaars, to cries of celebration. It was eventually abandoned on a garbage heap after three days of ill-treatment by the mob, such that in the end it could be identified only by a duelling injury to a finger. The following June, Griboyedov's friend Alexander Pushkin, travelling through the southern Caucasus, encountered some men from Tehran leading an oxcart. The men told Pushkin they were conveying the ambassador's remains to Tiflis (now Tbilisi). Griboyedov was buried there, in the monastery of St. David (Mtatsminda Pantheon).[7]

When Nino, Griboyedov's widow, received news of his death she gave premature birth to a child who died a few hours later. Nino lived another thirty years, rejecting all suitors and winning universal admiration for her fidelity to her husband's memory.

In a move to compensate Russia for the attack and the death of its ambassador, the Shah sent his grandson Khosrow Mirza to St. Petersburg to avoid another war with Tsar Nicholas I.[7][9] and also gifted to him the Shah Diamond.[10]

Russian sources claim that[11] British agents, who feared Russian influence in Tehran, and Persian reactionaries, who were not satisfied with the Torkamānčāy treaty, were responsible for inciting the mob.[11] The death of Griboedov, who was a liberal and who advocated regional autonomy for the Christians in Transcaucasia, was probably not a great loss for Tsar Nicholas or General Paskevich, both of whom wished to Russianize the minorities in the Caucasus. The Russo-Turkish War (1828–29) might have been another reason for the Russian inaction.[11] His wife had written on his tombstone in Tiflis: “Your mind and works are immortal in Russian memory, but why has my love outlived you?”.[12]

Legacy

Image
Monument in Moscow

Image
Griboyedov's statue in Yerevan, Armenia

Author Angela Brintlinger has said that "not only did Griboyedov's contemporaries conceive of his life as the life of a literary hero—ultimately writing a number of narratives featuring him as an essential character—but indeed Griboedov saw himself as a hero and his life as a narrative. Although there is not a literary artifact to prove this, by examining Griboedov's letters and dispatches, one is able to build a historical narrative that fits the literary and behavioural paradigms of his time and that reads like a real adventure novel set in the wild, wild East."

One of the main settings for Mikhail Bulgakov's satirical novel The Master and Margarita is named after Griboyedov, as is the Griboyedov Canal in Central Saint Petersburg. One of the central streets of Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, is named after Griboyedov. This street is crossed by Alexander Chavchavadze street, named after Griboyedov's father-in-law, famous Georgian poet, Alexander Chavchavadze.

On 17 April 1944 Pravda ran a lengthy feature on the commemoration of Griboyedov's 150th birthday when high-ranking officials, military leaders, diplomats, writers, and artists had attended a celebration in the Bolshoi Theatre. Novelist and Stalin deputy Leonid Leonov eulogized Griboyedov, mentioning especially his love of his fatherland.

The reception to the Shah's grandson Khosrow Mirza in the Winter Palace, and Tsar Nicholas receiving from him the Shah Diamond, are featured in the 2002 Russian film Russian Ark.

See also

• Vatslav Vorovsky, Soviet envoy at the Conference of Lausanne, assassinated in 1923
• Pyotr Voykov, Soviet ambassador to Poland, assassinated in 1927
• Andrei Karlov, Russian ambassador to Turkey, assassinated in 2016

References

1. Borrero, Mauricio (2009). Russia: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. Infobase Publishing. p. 169. ISBN 978-0816074754.
2. "Griboyedoff, Alexander Sergueevich" in the Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed., Vol. XI1880.
3. One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Griboyedov, Alexander Sergueevich". Encyclopædia FBritannica. 12 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 593.
4. Записка Об А. С. Грибоедове [A note about A. S. Griboyedov]. Russian Messenger(in Russian). No. 8 (reprint ed.). 1892. pp. 335–347. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
5. Chisholm 1911.
6. Hopkirk, Peter. The Great Game: The Struggle for Empire in Central Asia. New York: Kodansha Globe, 1997 p. 122 ISBN 1-56836-022-3
7. Hopkirk, Peter (2006). The Great Game. London: John Murray. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-7195-6447-5.
8. Baron K. K. Bode. "Griboyedov's Death". http://www.feb-web.ru.
9. George Bournoutian (2014) From Tabriz to St. Petersburg: Iran's Mission of Apology to Russia in 1829
10. Tharoor, Ishaan (22 December 2016). "A Russian ambassador was murdered: The apology came in the shape of a huge diamond". The Washington Post. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
11. Bournoutian, George. "Griboedov, Alexander Sergeevich". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2016-02-02.
12. Tharoor, Ishaan (22 December 2016). "A Russian ambassador was murdered: The apology came in the shape of a huge diamond". The Washington Post. Retrieved 29 January 2017.

Sources

• Brintlinger, Angela. "The Persian Frontier: Griboedov as Orientalist and Literary Hero". Canadian Slavonic Papers 45, no. 3 (2003): 371–393.
• This article incorporates text from D.S. Mirsky's "A History of Russian Literature" (1926-27), a publication now in the public domain.
• Kelly, Laurence. Diplomacy and Murder in Tehran.
• Pravda, April 17, 1944, page 4

Further reading

• Yuri Tynyanov: Смерть Вазир-Мухтара, 1928
• A. S. Griboyedov: Woe from Wit (A Four-Act Comedy). Translated from the Russian by A. S. Vagapov.
• El mal de la razón ("Горе от ума"), comedia en cuatro actos, traducción en verso y notas de Oleg Shatrov (incluye una biografía detallada de A. Griboiédov), Madrid, 2010
• Mary Hobson; Aleksandr Sergeyevich Griboyedov. Aleksandr Griboedov's Woe from wit: a commentary and translation. Edwin Mellen Press; 2005. ISBN 978-0-7734-6146-8.

External links

• Works by or about Alexander Griboyedov at Internet Archive
• Works by Alexander Griboyedov at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
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Re: Act & Punishment: The Pussy Riot Trials

Postby admin » Fri Aug 31, 2018 11:51 pm

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PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch, FU Berlin (Ret.), UNU-EHS, Bonn; AFES-PRESS chairman; Editor, Hexagon Book Series (HESP), Springer Briefs on Pioneers in Science and Practice (PSP) and SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace (ESDP), Springer Publishers

Since 1987 chairman of Peace Re¬search and European Security Studies (AFES-PRESS), since 2005 fellow at the Institute on Environment and Human Security of the United Nations University (UNU-EHS), he was Adj. Prof. (Privatdozent) at the Faculty of Political Science and Social Sciences, Free University of Berlin (Ret. since 2012). He was guest professor of international relations at the universities of Frankfurt on Main, Leipzig and Greifswald and at the teachers training college in Erfurt and since 2012 visiting professor at the National University of Malaysia (2010, 2012) and at Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand (2012, 2013-2014). From 1976-1989 he was research associate at Heidelberg and Stuttgart universities, a research fellow at Harvard and Stanford University and he was also teaching at the universities of Darmstadt, Tübingen, Stuttgart and Heidelberg. He also taught at SciencePo, Paris (2010-2012), at the European Peace University(EPU) in Austria (1999-2001, 2009-2012) and at the University of Arhus (2012)
He is coeditor of: Security and Environment in the Mediterranean (2003); Globa­lization and Environmental Challenges (2008); Facing Global Environmental C Change (2009); Coping with Global Environmental Change, Disasters and Security (2010); Climate Change,Human Security and Violent Conflict: Challenges for Societal Stability (2012), Expanding Peace Ecology: Security, Sustainability, Equity and Peace: Perspectives of IPRA’s Ecology and Peace Commission and of Handbook on Sustainability Transition and Sustainable Peace (2015).

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New publications during 2016 as the Editor of

Hexagon Book Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace (HESP)

Vol. 10: Hans Günter Brauch, Úrsula Oswald Spring, John Grin, Jürgen Scheffran (Eds.): Handbook on Sustainability Transition and Sustainable Peace (Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer-Verlag, 2016).

Vol. 12: Charlène Cabot: Climate Change, Security Risks, and Conflict Reduction in Africa: A Case Study of Farmer-Herder Conflicts over Natural Resources in Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, and Burkina Faso (Berlin – Heidelberg – New York: Springer, 2016).

Vol. 13: Jeroen Kool: Sustainable Development in the Jordan River Valley: Final Report of the Regional NGO Master Plan (Berlin – Heidelberg – New York: Springer, 2016).

Springer Briefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace (ESDP)

Vol. 5: Mansoureh Ebrahimi: The British Role in Iranian Domestic Politics (1951-1953) (Heidelberg – Dordrecht – London – New York: Springer-Verlag, 2016).

Vol. 22: Cecilia Ng (Ed.): Gender Responsive and Participatory Budgeting: Imperatives for Equitable Public Expenditure (Cham– New York – Heidelberg – Dordrecht – London: Springer International Publishing, 2016).

Vol. 23: Rosario H. Pérez-Espejo, Roberto M. Constantino-Toto, Hilda R. Dávila-Ibáñez (Eds.): Water, Food and Welfare: Water Footprint as a Complementary Approach to Water (Cham– New York – Heidelberg – Dordrecht – London: Springer International Publishing, 2016).

Vol. 24: Thanh-Dam Truong, Karim Knio: The South China Sea and Asian Regionalism - A Critical Realist Perspective (Cham – New York – Heidelberg – Dordrecht – London: Springer International Publishing, 2016).

Vol: 25: Hayashi, Y., Yasunari, T., Kanzawa, H., Katoh, H. (Eds.): Climate Change, Energy Use, and Sustainability Diagnosis and Prescription after the Great East Japan Earthquake (Cham – Tokyo - Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer-Verlag, 2016).

Vol: 26: Liana Ricci: Reinterpreting Sub-Saharan Cities through the Concept of Adaptive Capacity: An Analysis of Autonomous Adaptation in Response to Environmental Changes in Peri-Urban Areas (Cham– New York – Heidelberg – Dordrecht – London: Springer International Publishing, 2016).

Vol: 27: Ana Elizabeth Jardón Hernández: International Migration and Crisis: Transition toward a New Migratory Phase (Cham– New York – Heidelberg – Dordrecht – London: Springer International Publishing, 2016).

Vol: 28: Supang Chantavanich, Aungkana Kamonpech (Eds.): Refugee and Return: Displacement along the Thai-Myanmar Border (Cham– New York – Heidelberg – Dordrecht – London: Springer International Publishing, 2016).

Vol: 30: Su Bin, Elspeth Thomson (Eds.): Opportunities and Challenges in China’s Energy Development (Cham – New York – Heidelberg – Dordrecht – London: Springer International Publishing, 2016).

Vol: 31: Su Bin, Elspeth Thomson (Eds.): China's Energy Efficiency and Conservation: Household Behaviour, Legislation, Regional Analysis and Impacts (Cham – New York – Heidelberg – Dordrecht – London: Springer International Publishing, 2016).

Springer Briefs on Pioneers in Science and Practice (PSP)

Vol. 29: Nils Petter Gleditsch: Nils Petter Gleditsch: Pioneer in the Analysis of War and Peace (Cham – Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer, 2016).

Vol. 50: Paul J. Crutzen, Hans Günter Brauch (Eds.): Paul J. Crutzen: A Pioneer on Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Change in the Anthropocene (Cham – Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer International Publishing, 2016).

Vol. 52 Richard D. Knowles, Céline Rozenblat (Eds.): Sir Peter Hall: Pioneer in Regional Planning, Transport and Urban Geography (Cham – Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer International Publishing, 2016).

Two New Book Series Launched in 2016

The Anthropocene Politik – Economics – Society – Science (APESS)

Vol. 2: Maja Göpel: The Great Mindshift: How a New Economic Paradigm and Sustainability Transformations go Hand in Hand (Cham – Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer International Publishing, 2016).

Vol. 3: Audley Genus (Editor): Sustainable Consumption: Design, Innovation and Practice (Cham – Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer International Publishing, 2016).

Vol. 4: Hans Günter Brauch, Úrsula Oswald Spring, Juliet Bennett, Serena Eréndira Serrano Oswald (Eds.): Addressing Global Environmental Challenges from a Peace Ecology Perspective (Cham – Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer International Publishing, 2016).

Vol. 5: Úrsula Oswald Spring, Hans Günter Brauch, Serena Eréndira Serrano Oswald, Juliet Bennett (Eds.): Regional Ecological Challenges for Peace in Africa, the Middle East, Latin America and Asia Pacific (Cham – Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer International Publishing, 2016).

Vol. 8: David Curran: More than Fighting for Peace? The Role of Conflict Resolution in Training Programmes for Military Peacekeepers (Cham – Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer International Publishing, 2016).

Vol. 9: Heather Devere - Kelli Te Maihāroa - John Synott (Eds.): Peacebuilding and the Rights of Indigenous Peoples Experiences and Strategies for the 21st Century (Cham – Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer International Publishing, 2016).

Pioneers in Arts, Humanities, Science, Engineering, Practice (PAHSEP)

Vol. 1: Louis Kriesberg: Louis Kriesberg: Pioneer in Peace and Constructive Conflict Resolution Studies (Cham – Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer International Publishing, 2016).

Vol. 2: Richard Ned Lebow (Ed.): Richard Ned Lebow: A Pioneer in International Relations Theory, History, Political Philosophy and Psychology (Cham – Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer International Publishing, 2016).

Vol. 3: Richard Ned Lebow (Ed.): Richard Ned Lebow: Major Texts on Methods and Philosophy of Science (Cham – Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer International Publishing, 2016).

Vol. 4: Richard Ned Lebow (Ed.): Richard Ned Lebow: Key Texts in Political Psychology and International Relations Theory (Cham – Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer International Publishing, 2016). Richard Ned Lebow: Essential Texts on Classics and History and Ethics and International Relations

Vol. 5: Richard Ned Lebow (Ed.): Richard Ned Lebow: Essential Texts on Classics and History and Ethics and International Relations (Cham – Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer International Publishing, 2016).

Vol. 8: J. Russell Boulding (Ed.): Elise Boulding: Writings on Feminism, the Family and Quakerism (Cham – Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer International Publishing, 2016).

Vol. 13: Herbert C. Kelman and Ronald J. Fisher (Eds.): Herbert C. Kelman: Pioneer in the Social Psychology of Conflict Analysis and Resolution (Cham – Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer International Publishing, 2016).

Vol. 14: Ronald J. Fisher: Ronald J. Fisher: A North American Pioneer in Interactive Conflict Resolution (Cham – Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer International Publishing, 2016).

New Books by Hans Günter Brauch published with several co-editors in 2016

HEXA-GON Series Vol 10: Hans Günter Brauch, Úrsula Oswald Spring, John Grin, Jürgen Scheffran (Eds.): Handbook on Sustainability Transition and Sustainable Peace. Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace 10 (Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer-Verlag, 2016).

ISBN: 978-3-319-43882-5 (Print)
ISBN: 978-3-319-43884-9 (Online)
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-43884-9

APESS Vol 4 " Hans Günter Brauch, Úrsula Oswald Spring, Juliet Bennett, Serena Eréndira Serrano Oswald (Eds.): Addressing Global Environmental Challenges from a Peace Ecology Perspective (Cham–Heidelberg– New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer-Verlag, 2017).

ISBN: 978-319- (Softcover)
ISBN: 978-319- (EBook)
Doi: 10.1007/978-319-_ (add chapter no.)

APESS Vol 5: Úrsula Oswald Spring, Hans Günter Brauch, Serena Eréndira Serrano Oswald, Juliet Bennett (Eds.): Regional Ecological Challenges for Peace in Africa, the Middle East, Latin America and Asia Pacific (Cham– New York – Heidelberg – Dordrecht – London: Springer International Publishing, 2017).

ISBN: 978-319- (Softcover)
ISBN: 978-319- (EBook)
Doi: 10.1007/978-319-_ (add chapter no.)

Latest published Books

Chinese Edition of Selected Chapters published by Nanjing Press Company
With the financial support for the translation of the Nanjing Peace Museum in Nanjing

Hans Günter Brauch, Úrsula Oswald Spring, Czeslaw Mesjasz, John Grin, Liu Cheng (Eds.): Globalization and
Environmental Challenges: Reconceptualizing Security in the 21st Century

ISBN: 978-7-5533-0731-2
Nanjing Press Company,
Nanjing, China,
February 2015,
348 pages

Hans Günter Brauch, Úrsula Oswald Spring, Czeslaw Mesjasz, John Grin, Liu Cheng (Eds.): Facing Global
Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concepts

ISBN: 978-7-5533-0652-0
Nanjing Press Company,
Nanjing, China,
February 2015,
364 pages

Hans Günter Brauch, Úrsula Oswald Spring, Czeslaw Mesjasz, John Grin, Liu Cheng (Eds.): Coping with Global
Environmental Change, Disasters and Security Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilities and Risks

ISBN: 978-7-5533-0656-8
Nanjing Press Company,
Nanjing, China,
February 2015,
406 pages

In Spanish

Úrsula,Oswald Spring, Serena Eréndira Serrano Oswald, Fátima Flores Palacios, Maribel Ríos Everado, Hans Günter Brauch, Teresita Ruiz Pantoja, Carlos Lemus Ramírez, Mónica Cruz Rivera (2013). Vulnerabilidad Social y Género entre Migrantes Ambientales, CRIM-DGAPA-UNAM Cuernavaca. ISBN: 978-607-02-5890-9.

Reseña: La migración inducida ambientalmente (MIA) es un proceso complejo que está influido por factores económicos, sociales, culturales, demográficos, políticos y ambientales. Este libro analiza teórica y empíricamente la MIA en el transecto desde el Popocatépetl, pasando por los valles centrales hasta la Sierra Madre del Sur, en la parte central de México. Generalmente, las teorías sobre la migración enfatizan en los aspectos económicos, sociales y demográficos en el lugar de origen o destino y pocas veces incluyen elementos ambientales.

El libro examina de manera multidisciplinaria los factores de expulsión, de atracción y de mediación que llevan a una persona, familia o comunidad a emprender el camino hacia otro destino y su punto nodal se centra en la interrelación entre los aspectos ambientales, agroproductivos, comunitarios y psicosociales.

La discusión teórica de la MIA se ordenó a partir de tres ejes centrales: migración y desarrollo; migración y ambiente; y migración y seguridad. La MIA está sujeta a componentes temporales de largo alcance, como los impactos del cambio ambiental global y del cambio climático, a situaciones y políticas de mediano plazo, en las que predominan las políticas económicas de apertura comercial mediante el Tratado de Libre Comercio con América del Norte, y a coyunturas, entre las que destacan los eventos hidrometeorológicos extremos, las cíclicas crisis económicas y los cambios en la política social y rural sexenal. Al conjuntar los factores interactuantes de la MIA, se encontró una doble vulnerabilidad: la ambiental y la social.

Este libro colectivo hace ver que una política compleja que integre factores estructurales de largo, mediano y corto plazo podría reducir la migración ambientalmente inducida y crear condiciones de seguridad humana, de género y ambiental en el medio rural, no sólo en Morelos, sino en México y más allá.

In English


Hans Günter Brauch – Teri Grimwood: Jonathan Dean: Pioneer in Détente in Europe, Global Cooperative Security Arms Control and Disarmament – Presented by Hans Günter Brauch. SpringerBriefs on Pioneers in Science and Practice No. 19 (Cham – Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer-Verlag, 2015).

ISBN (Print): 978-3-642
ISBN (Online/eBook): 978-3-642
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-

Republication of a book chapter as chapter 1 in the following Handbook

Úrsula Oswald Spring and Hans Günter Brauch: “Securitizing Water”, in: H. G. Brauch, Ú. Oswald Spring, J. Grin, C. Mesjasz, P. Kameri-Mbote, N. Chadha Behera, B. Chourou, H.Krummenacher (Eds.): Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concepts (Berlin – Heidelberg – New York: Springer-Verlag, 2009): 175-202

Úrsula Oswald Spring and Hans Günter Brauch: “Securitizing Water”, in: Anders Jägerskog, Ashok Swain, Joakim Öjendal (Eds.): Water Security (4 vol. set), vol. 1: Water Security - Origin and Foundations (London: SAGE Publications, November 2014): 1-44

Latest own Book

Ursula Oswald Spring; Hans Günter Brauch; Keith G. Tidball (Eds.): Expanding Peace Ecology: Security, Sustainability, Equity and Peace: Perspectives of IPRA’s Ecology and Peace Commission 1. SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace, vol. 12. Peace and Security Studies No. 2 (Cham – Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer-Verlag, 2014).

ISBN (Print): 978-3-319-00728-1
ISBN (Online/eBook): 978-3-319-00729-8
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-00729-8

Topical Comments on International Issues

Topical Interviews


Hans Guenter Brauch: Interview with Washington Profile, 2 April 2004, Center for Defense Information, Washington, D.C., on Climate Change and Conflicts, in English and in Russian (distributed to major media in the Russia)

Hans Günter Brauch: Interview with Thüringer Allgemeine, Erfurt, 20 March 2003 on the U.S. debate on the costs of the Iraq war (pdf-file, 97 KB)

Reports

European Institute of the Mediterranean, Barcelona, April 2010


Hans Günter Brauch, Úrsula Oswald Spring
UNCCD, May 2009
Securitizing the Ground-Grounding Security

Download English version (United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification: 404 Page not found)

Úrsula Oswald Spring , Hans Günter Brauch
UNCCD, May 2009
Seguritizar la Tierra Aterrizar la Seguridad

World in Transition – Climate Change as a Security Risk
German Advisory Council on Global Change, Earthscan, London 2008

Summary:

Commissioned Expert's Studies . For this Report, the Council has commissioned expert's studies, which are available for download (in German only): Expert Study by AFES-PRESS written by: Hans Günter Brauch: Regional expert study: Destabilising and Conflict Potential of projected Environmental Changes in the Region of Southern Europe and North Africa [In German: Regionalexpertise: Destabilisierungs- und Konfliktpotential prognostizierter Umweltveränderungen in der Region Südeuropa und Nordafrika bis 2020/2050.

Ben Wisner, Maureen Fordham, Ilan Kelman, Barbara Rose Johnston, David Simon, Allan Lavell, Hans Günter Brauch, Ursula Oswald Spring, Gustavo Wilches-Chaux, Marcus Moench, and Daniel Weiner: Policy Memorandum by Scientists regarding the UN Security Council’s first discussion on Climate Change : Climate Change and Human Security]

The first issue of "Studies Of University: Research, Counsel, Education" (SOURCE) of UNU-EHS: "Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilites and Risks in Environmental and Human Security" by Hans Günter Brauch is available for download here (United Nations University, Institute for Environment and Human Security: Latvia. ProSUM: Prospecting secondary raw materials in the urban mine and mining waste) Orders and inquires of the printed version, please address to Roberts@ehs.unu.edu

Second issue of "InterSecTions. Interdisciplinary Security Connections" is now available. No. 2/ 2005: Environment and Human Security.. Towards Freedom from Hazard Impacts. Hans Günter Brauch. February 2005. ISBN: 3-9810200-3-0 (PDF version) Download (United Nations University, Institute for Environment and Human Security: Pakistan. PMCII: Developing a Disaster Risk Insurance Framework for Pakistan) Intersections are distributed free of charge. For a printed version (ISBN: 3-9810200-2-2), please contact: Ilona Roberts, Information Assistant, United Nations University, Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS), Görresstr. 15 Phone: (0049)(0) (228) 422855-02, D-53113 Bonn Fax: (0049)(0) (228) 422855-99, E-mail: roberts@ehs.unu.edu

Hans Günter Brauch: "Climate Change, Environmental Stress and Conflict - AFES-PRESS Report for the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety", in: Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Ed.): Climate Change and Conflict. Can climate change impacts increase conflict potentials? What is the relevance of this issue for the international process on climate change? (Berlin: Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, 2002): 9-112.

Keynote Addresses and Presentations
2017
31 May 2017
Mittwoch, den 31.5.2017,
Empfang ab 19:00 und Vorträge ab 19:30-21:00
Rathaussaal der Stadt Mosbach
Buchvorstellung und Buchübergabe
Handbuch zum Übergang zur Nachhaltigkeit
und zum nachhaltigen Frieden

Book Launch of the

Handbook on Sustainability Transition and Sustainable Peace
Programme (access to podcasts)
Programm und Zugang zu den Podcasts
and Book Donation
on the Occasion of the
70th Birthday of Hans Günter Brauch
Heiko Schattauer, RNZ, 1 June 2017>
for the
Mediathek Mosbach
and Search
and Library of the
Nicolaus-Kistner Gymnasium in Mosbach (Germany)
Report in Frank Heuß, RNZ, 7 June 2017
31 May 2017
Nobel Laureate Prof. Dr. Paul Crutzen
Signing into the Golden Book of the town of Mosbach (in German)
Photos
Heiko Schattauer, RNZ, 1 June 2017

February, 2017
22-24 February, 2017, Strasbourg, France
European Science Foundation
Participation at a Reviewers’ Meeting in the Social Sciences

January, 2017
11-14 January, Mexico City, Mexico
10th International Congress of the Latin American Council of Peace Research
Website with Background documentation
Programme of the CLAIP Congress
Scientific Committee

[x]
Photo after the Opening Session (from left to right), Profesores Nielsen de Paula Pires (Brazil), Miguel Concha (Mexico), Luis Alberto Padilla (Guatemala), María Tresa Muñoz (Argentina), Margarita Veláquez (Mexico), Francisco Rojas (Chile), Diana de la Rúa (Argentina), Úrsula Oswald Spring (Mexico), Alberto Vital (Mexico), Hans Günter Brauch (Germany), Howard Richards (USA), S. Eréndira Serrano (Mexico), Azril Bacal (Peru/ Sweden).

[x]
Private Dinner of Key Conference Participants in Coyoacan, Mexico City, 15 January 2017 (showing from left to right): Luis Alberto Padilla (Guatemala), Hans Günter Brauch (Germany), Francisco Rojas (Chile), Úrsula Oswald Spring (Mexico), María Tresa Muñoz (Argentina), Nielsen de Paula Pires (Brazil), Daniel and Diana de la Rúa (Argentina), Luis Medina and S. Eréndira Serrano (Mexico), Laura Balbuena (Peru).

2-8 January, 2017
Archaeological visit to Maya sites in Campeche and Quintana Roo
(Campeche, Calakmul, Becan, Kohunlich, Muyil)

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Map of the Mexican states of Campeche and Quintana Roo

[x] [x] [x] [x] [x] [x]
7 January 2017, Visit of a Biospheric reservation south of the Playa del Carmen near Muyil and Tulum, Quintana Roo, Mexico.

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7 January 2017, Archaeological Site in Muyil, Quintana Roo, Mexico.

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5 January 2017, Archaeological site, Kohunlich, Quintana Ro, Mexico

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5 January 2017, Archaeological site, Becan, Quintana Roo, Mexico

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4 January 2017, Archaeological site, Calakmul, Campeche

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3 January 2017, Hans Günter Brauch climbing a temple at Edzna, Campeche, Mexico

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3 January 2017, Archaeological Site, Edzna, Campeche, Mexico

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Our travel group from Mexico, Argentina, Germany and Switzerland on 2 January 2017 which started the tour of archaeological sites in Campeche, Campeche, Mexico

2016
27 November - 3 December 2016
IPRA, Freetown, Sierra Leone
26th IPRA General Conference
On AGENDA FOR PEACE AND DEVELOPMENT
Conflict Prevention, Post-Conflict Transformation, and
the Conflict, Disaster Risk and Sustainable Development Debate
Report on the conference in: IPRA Newsletter, 2016, vol 6, no. 4
27th November – 1st December 2016
Freetown, Sierra Leone
THERE IS SO MUCH IN US THAT UNITES US THAN DIVIDES US AS SIERRA LEONEANS. WE MUST RECOGNIZE THIS FACT AND LEARN TO LIVE WITH ONE ANOTHER. -- MAJOR GENERAL ALFRED NELSON-WILLIAMS
UNIVERSITY OF SIERRA LEONE

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28 November 2016

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Opening session of the IPRA Conference, 28 November 2016 with the Vice President and high representatives of the University of Sierra Leone.

IPRA’s Ecology and Peace Commission

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View from the meeting room of the Ecology and Peace Commission on parts of Freetown, Sierra Leone.

Monday, 28 November 2016, Session 1: Opening Session: IPRA Book Launches

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Photo from the IPRA conference dinner in Sierra Leone, 29 November 2016.

Session 2: Sustainability Transition and Sustainable Peace as Transformative Science:
A Peace Ecology Perspective


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The two new Secretary Generals of IPRA, Prof. Dr. Katsuya Kodama (Japan) and Prof. Dr. Úrsula Oswald Spring (Mexico).

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Members of the new Governing Council of IPRA for 2016-2018, 1 December 2016.

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The new IPRA Secretary General Generals of IPRA, Prof. Dr. Úrsula Oswald Spring talking with school girls on the streets of Freetown, Sierra Leone.

24 October – 15 November 2016
Lecture Tour to Malaysia and Bangkok (Thailand)
Bangkok, 12-15 November 2016
Monday, 14 November 2016,
Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand)
Chulalongkorn University: Pillar of the Kingdom
Asian Research Center for Migration
Book Launch on
‘Refugee and Return: Displacement Along Thai-Myanmar Border’
Asian Research Center for Migration (ARCM),
Institute of Asian Studies, Chulalongkorn University
With support from Chula Cluster
Monday 14 November 2016
10.00 -12.00 a.m.
09:30 – 10:00 Registration, Moderator: Assistant Professor Dr. Naruemon Thapchumpon
10:00 – 10:15 Welcome Address: Associated Professor Dr. Nualnoi Trirat Director of Institute of Asian Studies, Chulalongkorn University
10:15 – 11:00 Invited Speaker on ‘Successful Approach to Publish the Research Work with an International Publishing House’. By PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch, Editor of the SprigerBriefs Series on Environmental, Security, Development and Peace - ESDP
11.00 – 11.30 Background and contexts of the book . Professor Emeritus Dr. Supang Chantavanich and Dr. Aungkana Kmonpetch (Editors)
11.30 – 12.00 Launch of the book and online purchase

Thailand’s Sustainability Transition Forum
Social Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University
4th Floor, Wisit Prachuabmoh building
14 November 2016, 13.00 – 16.00
13.15 Background of the Forum: Prapas Pintobtaeng, Director, Social Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University
13.30 Handbook on Sustainability Transition and Sustainable Peace: Perspectives of sustainability seen from outside the Euro-Atlantic mainstream [2017-19] H.G. Brauch, Series Editor, Springe
14.00 Sustainable Electricity Transition in Thailand and the Role of Civil Society
Carl Middleton, M.A in International Development Studies Program, Chulalongkorn Univ
14.15 Dilemmas or Myths in the Transition toward Sustainable Food and Agriculture
Chantana Banpasirichote, Social Research Institute
14.30 Discussion: Surichai Wungaeo with participants from GSEI, BioThai, School for Wellbeing, SDF, SEI, AIN, TERRA, CSDS
16.00 Conclusion: Plan for Actions

Lecture Tour to 7 Universities in Malaysia
(25 October – 12 November 2016)
Wednesday-Friday, 9-11 November 2016
Kuching, Sarawak, Borneo, Malaysia
UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SARAWAK UNIMAS

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Meeting with a college from the Social Sciences at UMAS, and my former student (UKM, 2012) and friend, Dr. Mohd Daud (Kuala Lumpur) who were both born and raised in Sarawak.

Monday-Tuesday, 7-8 November 2016
University of Malaysia Sabah (UMS)
Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia
UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA SABAH

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PROF. HANS

UMS: TOWARDS GLOBAL PUBLISHING. SPRING PUBLISHING WORKSHOP 2016. INVITED SPEAKER FROM SPRINGER: ADJ. PROF. PD DR. HANS GUNTER BRAUCH
DATE: 7-8 NOVEMBER 2016
VENUE: GALERI MAJLIS, BANGUNAN CANSELORI

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Monday 7 November, 1: 10:00-12:00 First session: Workshop on Scientific Publishing: Lecture and Discussion Part 1: 10.00-11.00: Context for Global Publishing: Global Trends: Research, University Ranking, The Global Book Market 11.00-12.00: My Publisher, Role and Global Mission

[x] [x]
A group photo participants at the publication workshop at UMS.

Monday 7 November, 14:00-17.00: Second Session: Workshop on Scientific Publishing: Lecture and Discussion
Part II: Getting published Globally: From a Book Idea to a Publication Agreement
14:00-15:15: Book Idea, Book Proposal Form, Decision-making Process on the Manuscript, Acceptance Text: Book Proposal Form (Exercise, homework for next morning),
15:45-17:00: Language Editing, Style and Formal Editing, Permissions Request, Revised Manuscript ad the Audience

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Conversation on co-publishing with the lawyer of UMS, director and a colleague of UMS Press and a prospective author.

Tuesday, 8 November: 9:00-12:00: Third lecture/workshop session, lunch follows (includes an open forum)
9.00-9.45: Discussion of selected book proposal forms: Blurb, major marketing instruments of the book globally
9.45-10.15: Typesetting, Proofreading and Book production
10.45-11:15: Marketing the Book
11:15-11:30: Recognition of the Book
11:30-12:00: Aiming at a win-win situation: Advantage of Co-publishing: Global recognition and local prices

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Book donation to the director of the University Library of UMS in Kota Kinabalu, a colleague from UMS University Press and an author from UMS.

Tuesday, 8 November, 13:30-16:30: Fourth Session: Experience of Publishing with Springer Nature
13.30-14:00: Assoc. Prof. Mikio Oishi (who published with Springer) to talk about his own experience in publishing);
14:00-14:30: Prof. from the Natural Sciences—this session will also include open forum
15:00-16:00: Hans Günter Brauch: Looking at the Product: Introducing three peer reviewed Book Series and Launching my three recent peer reviewed coedited books on Ecology and Peace:
– Handbook on Sustainability Transitions and Sustainable Peace
– Addressing Global Environmental Challenges from a Peace Ecology Perspective
– Regional Ecological Challenges for Peace in Africa, the Middle East, Latin America and Asia Pacific

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Farewell dinner with colleagues from Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Japan

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A cultural show after the farewell dinner with colleagues at UMS in Kota Kinabalu.

Friday, 4 November 2016
UNIVERSITI SAINS ISLAM MALAYSIA: ISLAMIC SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF MALAYSIA

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Signing of the guest book with the Vice Chancellor (Rector) and members of USIM Press.

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A group photo with selected participants of the Publishing workshop at USIM.

Thursday, 3 November 2016,
National University of Malaysia (UKM)
UNIVERSITI KEBANGSAAN MALAYSIA: NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MALAYSIA

[x]
A group photo with participants of the publishing workshop at UKM during my third visit
after 2010, 2012 that was arranged by Prof. Dr. Zarina Othman.


Wednesday, 2 November 2016,
University of Malaysia
UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA: The Leader in Research & Innovation
PUBLICATION WORKSHOP: "TOWARDS GLOBAL PUBLISHING" By: Prof Hans Gunter Brauch, Free University of Berlin
Scientific Editor, five English Book series (Springer)
DATE: 3 November 2016 (Thursday)
VENUE: THE CUBE, ACADEMY OF ISLAMIC STUDIES, UNIVERSITY OF MALAYA
Contact: Research and Development Office, Academy of Islamic Studies, University of Malaya, Tel.: 03-79676012 (Mrs. Fiza)

Monday, 31 October 2016
MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY

[X]

MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
Workshop on Publishing with Global English Language Publishers
Date: 31 Oct 2016 (Monday_
Venue: CCU seminar Room, Chancellery Building, MMU Cyberjaya
Time: 9:00 am - 5:00 pm
Name: Dr. Hans Gunter Brauch
Nationality: Germany
PD Dr. Hans Gunter Brauch, FU Berlin, UNU-EHS; AFES=PRESS chair; Editor, Hexagon Book Series, Springer Publishers; Adj. Prof. (Privatdozent) at the Faculty of Political and Social Sciences, Free University of Berlin; since 2005 fellow at the Institute on Environment and Human Security of the United Nations Unviersity (UNU-EMS); since 1987 chairman of Peace Research and European Security Studies (AFES-PRESS).

He was guest professor of international relations at the universities of Frankfurt on Main, Leipzig, Greifswald and in Erfurt. From 1976-1989 he was research associate at Heidelberg and Stuttgart universities, a research fellow at Harvard and Stanford University and he was teaching at the universities of Darmstadt, Tubingen, Stuttgart, Heidelberg, Science Po, and since 2010 at Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok and the National University of Malaysia (UKM). He is editor of two peer reviewed book series by Springer-Verlag (Heidelberg-New York) o the Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace (HESP) and of Springer Briefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace (ESOP) and of the Pioneers in Science and Practice (PSP).

Topic:
1) Publishing with Global Scientific Publishers
2) Interactive part where the participants should raise practical experiences and questions on publishing.
Open to all MMU Staff & Student. Limited number of seats. Please contact rmc@mmu.edu.my for any inquiries
Organized by Research Management Centre

[x]

Friday, 28 October 2016
UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA
Lecture on: Sustainability Transitions and Sustainable Peace as Transformative Science

Wednesday 26-Thursday, 27 October 2016
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA
Technical University of Malaysia, Johor Bahru
26 October, UTM Workshop on Scientific Publishing

[X]
A group photo after the lecture in the Prayer Room of the Department on Islamic culture.

27 October, Public Lecture on Scientific Publishing with
Global English Language Publisher

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Photo after lunch with Dr Suri Ebrahmi, an author and Senior lecturer on Islamic Civilization, who had organized and coordinated my lecture tour to seven universities in Malaysia, Prof. Kamaruzaman Yusoff, Faculty of Islamic Civilization, and Dr. Mohd Fauzi Abu Hussin, junior lecturer and prospective author.

9 September 2016, 10:30 – 12:00
Wuppertal Institute, Bergische Universität Wuppertal
Maja Göpel: The Great Mindshift: Why We Need a New Economic Paradigm for Sustainability Transformations
Hans Günter Brauch, Úrsula Oswald Spring, John Grin, Jürgen Scheffran (Eds.): Handbook on Sustainability Transitions and Sustainable Peace

Speakers: (Invitation Flyer)

Prof. Dr. Uwe Schneidewind, Wuppertal Institut, President
Dr. Maja Göpel,Wuppertal Institut, Head, Berlin Office
Prof. Dr. Jürgen Scheffran, Hamburg University, CLISEC
PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch, FU Berlin & AFES-PRESS
Prof. Dr. Derk Loorbach, Erasmus University Rotterdam, DRIFT, Discussant

In the Sustainability Transition and Sustainable Peace Handbook 60 authors from many disciplines and from 18 countries examine in ten parts: Moving towards Sustainability Transition; Aiming at Sustainable Peace; Meeting Challenges of the 21st Century: Demographic Imba¬lances, Temperature Rise and the Climate–Conflict Nexus; Initiating Research on Global Environmental Change, Li¬mits to Growth, Decoupling of Growth and Resource Needs; Developing Theoretical Approaches on Sustainability and Transitions; Analysing National Debates on Sustainability in North America; Preparing Transitions towards a Sustainable Economy and Society, Production and Consumption and Urbanization; Examining Sustainability Transitions in the Water, Food and Health Sectors from Latin American and European Perspectives; Preparing Sustainability Transitions in the Energy Sector; and Relying on Transnational, International, Regional and National Governance for Strategies and Policies Towards Sustainability Transition.

Sustainable development is the 21st Century’s wicked problem. For over 40 years, the world has known about ecological limits to economic growth and social limits to economic inequality.

Yet, our attempted solutions – mostly more efficient technologies – have reversed few unsustainable trends. So sustainability advocates now call for a paradigm shift, Great Transformation, radical change or system innovations - changes which evolve the current design of incentives, policies and institutions.

This book describes the path ahead. It combines system transformation research with political economy and change leadership insights when discussing the need for a great mindshift in how human wellbeing, economic prosperity and healthy ecosystems are understood, illustrating its nature through mapping pioneering practices and their commonalities.

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Prof: Dr. Uwe Schneidewind, President, Wuppertal Institut, Wuppertal and Dr. Maja Göpel, Head of the Berlin Office, Wuppertal Institut. © Photo by Andreas Fischer, Wuppertal

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PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch, Chairman, AFES- PRESS, Mosbach, Prof. Dr. Jürgen Scheffran, Universität Hamburg and Dr. Maja Göpel, Head of the Berlin Office, Wuppertal Institut. © Photo by Andreas Fischer, Wuppertal

29-30 July 2016
CESNASV, Mexico City
10 Hours of Teaching in the PhD Programme of
ARMADA DE MEXICO CENTRO DE ESTUDIOS SUPERIORES NAVALES

29 July 2016:
Changes in the Security Concept: From the Peace of Versailles to the End of the Cold War: Emergence of International and National Security

30 July 2016:
The Reconceptualization of Security since the End of the Cold War Three Reasons

ISA, Atlanta
16-19 of March 2016
ISA
International Studies Association, Atlanta, United States of America
16 March, 8.15-10.00
WA63: Enhancing Dialogue between Environmental and Peace Studies:
Towards Sustainability Transition and Sustainable Peace
Hans Günter Brauch
Introduction to the Panel

2015
16 November 2015, Mosbach
Contribution to the European Week
of the Federal Parliament Dr. Dorothee Schlegel

[X]
Dr. Brauch gives his German book on Climate Change to Dr. Dorothee Schlegel
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Part 2 of 2

29-30 October 2015, Munich,
Academic Memorial for Prof. Dr. Ulrich Beck, University of München
Academic Symposium for Prof. Dr. Ulrich Beck, University of München

September 2015, South Africa
World Social Science Forum, ICC Durban, South Africa, 13-16 September 2015
Participation as a press observer on behalf of Springer Nature as a contact person for publication projects of African scholars in the social sciences

Humboldt Foundation
German – Israeli Roundtable Sustainability and Peace-Building
July 13 – 14, 2015
Freie Universität Berlin

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Photo: © Humboldt-Stiftung/Svea Pietschmann

Report in German on the website of the Humboldt Foundation
Monday, July 13. Senate Assembly Hall, Henry Ford Building,
Garystraße 35, 14195 Berlin-Dahlem
16:30: Synopsis Day 1: Regional Resilience and Peace
Chair: Hans Gunter Brauch
17:30: End of Day 1

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Photo: © Humboldt-Stiftung/Svea Pietschmann. Prof. Dr. Dan Rabinowitch, director of the Potter School on the Environment, Tel Aviv University (Israel); Prof. Dr. Miranda Schreurs, director, FFU, Free University of Berlin (USA) and PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch, AFES-PRESS chairman, Mosbach (Germany).

Tuesday, July 14. Senate Assembly Hall, Henry Ford Building, Garystrasse 35, 14195 Berlin-Dahlem
12:00 Session 4: Sustainability and peace-building: the Middle East and Beyond
Chairs: Hans Gunter Brauch, Peace Research and European Security Studies, Sustainability and peacebuilding in the Anthropocene
Mirana Schreurs, Freie Universitat Berlin, Environmental Peace Building: Comparative Perspectives

Presentation 1 by Hans Günter Brauch (14 July 2015)
Humboldt German – Israeli Scientific Panel
Sustainability and Peace-Building in the Middle East

July 15, 2015
Venue: Freie Universität Berlin, Botanisches Museum
Großer Hörsaal, Königin-Luise-Straße 6-8, 14195 Berlin

17:00 Greetings and Welcome: Avraham Nir-Feldklein, Minister of the Israeli Embassy in Germany. Volker Beck, Chair, German-Israeli Group of Parliamentarians. Professor Klaus Muhlhahn, Vice President, Freie Universitat Berlin.

17:30 Opening Remarks: Professor Avi Gottlieb, Department of Sociology and Anthropology and Porter School of Environmental Studies, Tel Aviv University, Israel. Sustainable Peace-Building in the Middle East

Panel Speakers

17:50: Professor Stuart Schoenfeld, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, York University, Canada. Sustainability and Peace-Building in the Eastern Mediterranean: Deadlock and Opportunities

18:30 Gidom Bromberg & Nader Khateeb, Israeli and Palestinian Co-Directors, EcoPeace Middle East (FoEME). The Water and Energy Nexus as a Catalyst for Middle East Peace

18:50 Professor Hans Gunter Brauch, Chair, Peace Research and European Security Studies, Germany. Sustainability and Peacebuilding in the Anthropocene

19:20 Discussion and Closing Remarks
Chair: Professor Miranda Schreurs, Director, Environmental Policy Research Centre, Freie Unviersitat Berlin

20:00 End of Conference

Presentation 2 by Hans Günter Brauch (15 July 2015)

28 - 29 May 2015
Bilkent University, Ankara
Bilkent Universitesi
ISTANBUL POLICY CENTER, SABANCI UNIVERSITY, STIFTUNG MERCATOR INITIATIVE
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR MIGRATION (IOM)

Climate Change and Security in Turkey: Challenges and Opportunities
Turkish-German Expert Roundtable Draft Agenda
Co-organized by Istanbul Policy Center, Sabancı University
Department of International Relations, Bilkent University

Roundtable conveners:
Dr. Ethemcan Turhan (Mercator-IPC fellow, Istanbul Policy Center, Sabancı University)
Asst. Prof. Clemens Hoffmann (Bilkent University, Department of International Relations)
International Organisation for Migration (IOM) (Turkey Country Office)
Discussions were off the record (Chatham House rules)

2nd Day: 29 May 2015, Friday
17:00-17:30 Wrap-up session. Discussant: Prof. Hans Günter Brauch . Dr. (Adj. Prof.), Free University of Berlin, Otto-Suhr Institute for Political Science (Ret.), Peace Research and European Security Studies (AFES-PRESS), Chairman. Scientific Editor of Hexagon Series on Human, Environmental Security and Peace (HESP), Springer.

Ankara, Turkey
Thursday, 28 May, 9-12 o‘clock
Bilkent Universitesi
Faculty of Economics, Administrative and Social Sciences
Hans Günter Brauch
Training Workshop Publishing with Global Scientific Publishers

21 April
Mosbach-Neckarelz, 21. April 2015
KZ Gedenkstätte Neckarelz
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100 Jahre Giftgas als Waffe-Vom 1. Weltkrieg bis heute
RNZ, 20 April 2015 and 24 April 2015

April 2015, Abuja, Nigeria
AFRICA PEACE RESEARCH AND EDUCATION ASSOCIATION: AFPREA
AFPREA Conference,
Abuja, Nigeria, 13-15 April 2015
At the
ECOWAS PARLIAMENT
The Quest for Peace and Security in Africa: Socio-cultural, Economic, Political and Legal Considerations

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Ladies at the opening session of the AFPREA conference in Abuja

Presentations by Hans Günter Brauch
at the ECOWAS Parliament in Abuja
Monday, 13 April
Commission 6: Regional Integration and Resource Control for Equity
Climate Change Impacts on Security for (West) Africa:
Are there Sustainable Alternatives?

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Former IPRA President Prof. Dr. Úrsula Oswald Spring (Mexico) with the Co-Secretary Generals of IPRA, Dr. Ibrahim Shaw (Sierra Leone/UK) and Dr. Nerine Kenar (Turkey)

Wednesday, 15 April 2015
Plenary Session: Training Workshop
Publishing with Global Scientific Publishers

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Fairwell dinner with the Co-Secretary Generals of IPRA, Dr. Ibrahim Shaw (Sierra Leone/UK) and Dr. Nerine Kenar (Turkey)

March 2015, Cancun, Mexico
Fourth Special Session of the Committee on
Science and Technology (CST S-4) and
UNCCD 3rd Scientific Conference
9-12 March 2015, Cancun, Mexico
Workshop 2.5: Desertification, land degradation and restoration
Poster 2 (with Hans Guenter Brauch)
Towards a Proactive Soil Security: A Strategy for a Sustainability Transition by combating desertification, land degradation and drought for poverty reduction and sustainable development

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Hans Günter Brauch, Peace Research and European Security (AFES-PRESS). Photo © ENB, Canada

2014
THOMSON REUTERS FOUNDATION
THE STANLEY FOUNDATION
GERDA HENKEL STIFTUNG
Global Security Seminar 2014
London, 22 October - 24 October
Session: Our New, Hotter World
Climate Change, Security & Conflict:
Dr. Hans Günter Brauch, Chairman, AFES-PRESS
Searching for Sustainable Alternatives

Lübeck, 22-24 September 2014
Max-Planck-Institut fur Meteorologie
Universitat Hamburg
clisap
Climate, Land use and Conflict in Northern Africa
Workshop of the Excellence Cluster CliSAP and the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology at KlimaCampus Hamburg
22-24 September 2014

Climate, Land Use, and Conflict in Northern Africa MPIM
CLISAP
Wednesday, 24 September 2014
Conflict – Synthesis (2/2):
9:00 10:00 session chair: Hans Günter Brauch
9:00 9:20 Jürgen Scheffran, Jasmin Link, Michael Link, Tobias Ide, and Grace Ngaruiya Climate Change, Water, Land Use and Conflict in Northern Africa
9:20 9:40 Janpeter Schilling: Climate Change, Vulnerability and Conflict in Northern Africa
9:40 10:00 9:40 10:00 Short Discussion chair: Hans Günter Brauch

25th IPRA General Conference on the Occasion of 50th Anniversary of IPRA
Uniting for Peace: Building Sustainable Peace Through Universal Values
in cooperation with
SAKARYA UNIVERSITY

Istanbul, Turkey
August 10-14 2014
Ecology and Peace Commission (Programme)
Co-convenors: Úrsula Oswald Spring (Mexico) & Hans Günter Brauch (Germany)
Tuesday 12 August: 14h00-15h30
Session 2: Sustainability Transition and Peacebuilding
PD Dr. Hans Guenter Brauch, Chairman, Peace Research and European Security Studies, Germany: Building sustainable peace by moving towards sustainable transition
Wednesday, 13 August 2014, 11:30-13:00
Joint Session 4: with Gender, Global Political Economy, Human Rights, and Ecology & Peace Commissions
Betty Reardon: A Pioneer in Education for Peace, Gender Equality, Ecology and Human Rights
PD Dr. Hans Guenter Brauch, Chairman, Peace Research and European Security Studies, Germany:
Honouring the Scientific Excellence of Pioneers in Science and Practice, especially of Peace Scholars: Betty Reardon

Frankfurt, Germany
World International Studies Conference (WISC), 4th Global International Studies Conference 2014
Frankfurt on Main, 6-9 August 2014
Session WA05: Climate Change, Migration and Conflict
Time: Wednesday, 06 Aug 2014: 2:00 pm-3:45 pm
Session Chair: Tobias Ide, University of Hamburg
Discussant: Hans Guenter Brauch, AFES-PRESS
Panel Programme with Abstracts

International Congress, Adaptation Futures 2014
Third International Conference on Climate Change & Adaptation in Fortaleza (Ceará), Brazil, 12-16 May 2014

Panel C-3, Topic 22:
The nexus of development & security particularly in arid and semi-arid conflict-prone regions: Climate change is likely to be a stress multiplier in areas subject to conflict – is this emerging and what can be done to ameliorate it?
PD Dr. Hans Guenter Brauch, Chairman, Peace Research and European Security Studies, Germany
Securitizing Land Degradation by Moving towards A Proactive Soil Security Concept

ISA Annual Convention
8 April 2014
ISA
ISA Annual Convention
ISA Toronto, 25-29 March 2014
Thursday, March 27, 2014. 4:00 PM - 5:45 PM
TD14: Workshop Panel – Sustainable Transition and Roundtable: Sustainable Peace - Policy Initiatives of Governments and International Organizations
© Hans Günter Brauch, Chairman, Peace Research and European Security Studies (AFES-PRESS)
Editor, Hexagon Series on Human, Environmental Security and Peace
Editor, SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development & Peace
Introduction to the Roundtable

February 2014
New Publications
(Summer 2013- January 2014)
Springer Briefs on Pioneer in Science and Practice (PSP)

Vol. 5: Johan Galtung [Norway]: Pioneer of Peace Research. Springer Briefs on Pioneers in Science and Practice No. 5 – presented by Dietrich Fischer [Switzerland] (Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer-Verlag, 2013).

Vol. 7: Chadwick Alger [USA]: Pioneer in the Study of the Political Process and on NGO Participation in the United Nations. Springer Briefs on Pioneers in Science and Practice No. 7 – presented by Carolyn Stephenson [USA] (Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer-Verlag, 2014).

Vol. 8: Chadwick F. Alger: The UN System and Cities in Global Governance. Springer Briefs on Pioneers in Science and Practice No. 8. Subseries Texts and Protocols No. 3 (Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer-Verlag, 2014).

Vol. 9: Chadwick F. Alger: Peace Research and Peacebuilding. Springer Briefs on Pioneers in Science and Practice No. 9. Subseries Texts and Protocols No. 4 (Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer-Verlag, 2014).

Vol. 10: Lourdes Arizpe Schlosser: A Mexican Pioneer in the Study of Anthropology. Springer Briefs on Pioneers in Science and Practice No. 10 – presented by x (Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer-Verlag, 2014).

Vol. 13: Arthur H. Westing [USA]: Texts on Environmental and Comprehensive Security SpringerBriefs on Pioneers in Science and Practice No. 13 – Subseries Texts and Protocols No. 7 (Cham – Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer-Verlag, 2014).

Vol. 14: Klaus von Beyme: Pioneer in the Study of Political Theory and Comparative Politics. SpringerBriefs on Pioneers in Science and Practice No. 14 – Presented by Rainer Eisfeld (Cham – Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer-Verlag, 2014).

Vol. 15: Klaus von Beyme: On Political Culture, Cultural Policy, Art and Politics. SpringerBriefs on Pioneers in Science and Practice Vol. 15 – Subseries Texts and Protocols No. 8 (Cham – Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer-Verlag, 2014).

Vol. 16: Samir Amin: Pioneer on the Rise of the South SpringerBriefs on Pioneers in Science and Practice No. 16 – presented by Dieter Senghaas (Heidelberg – Dordrecht – London – New York: Springer, 2013).

Vol. 17: Samir Amin: Theory is History. SpringerBriefs on Pioneers in Science and Practice No. 17. Texts and Protocols No. 9 (Cham – Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer-Verlag, 2014).

Vol. 20: Hartmut Soell [Germany] (ed.): Helmut Schmidt: Pioneer of the Reform of the International Economic and Financial System – presented by Hartmut Soell. SpringerBriefs on Pioneers in Science and Practice No. 20. Policy-makers Subseries No. 1 (Cham – Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer-Verlag, 2014).

SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace (ESDP)

Vol. 4: Gamal M. Selim: Euro-American Approaches to Arms Control and Confidence-Building Measures in the Middle East: A Critical Assessment from the South. SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace, vol. 4 – Mediterranean Studies Subseries No. 1 (Heidelberg – Dordrecht – London – New York: Springer-Verlag, 2013).

Vol. 6: Lourdes Arizpe, Cristina Amescua (Eds.): Anthropological Perspectives on Intangible Cultural Heritage. SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace, vol. 6 (Heidelberg – Dordrecht – London – New York: Springer-Verlag, 2013).

Vol. 7: Ebru Gencer: Natural Disasters and Risk Management in Urban Areas: A Case Study of the Istanbul Metropolitan Area. SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace, vol. 7 Mediterranean Studies Subseries No. 2 (Heidelberg – Dordrecht – London – New York: Springer-Verlag, 2013).

Vol. 8: Selim Kapur, Sabit Erşahin (Eds.): Soil Security for Eco-system Management. Mediterranean Soil Ecosystems 1. SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace, vol. 8 - Mediterranean Studies Subseries No. 3 (Heidelberg – Dordrecht – London – New York: Springer-Verlag, 2013).

Vol. 10: Nur Azha Putra, Aulalia Han (Eds.): Governments Responses to Climate Change: Selected Examples from Asia-Pacific. SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace, vol. 10 - ASEAN Studies Subseries No. 1 (Heidelberg – Dordrecht – London – New York: Springer-Verlag, 2014).

Vol. 11: Sara Hellmüller, Martina Santschi (Eds.): Is Local Beautiful? Peacebuilding between International Interventions and Locally Led Initiatives. – SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace, vol. 10 – Peace and Security Studies Subseries No. 1. (Heidelberg – Dordrecht – London – New York: Springer-Verlag, 2014).

Vol. 12: Úrsula Oswald Spring, Hans Günter Brauch, Keith G. Tidball (Eds.): Expanding Peace Ecology: Security, Sustainability, Equity and Peace: Perspectives of IPRA’s Ecology and Peace Commission. SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace, vol. 12 - Peace and Security Studies Subseries No. 2 (Heidelberg – Dordrecht – London – New York: Springer-Verlag, 2014).

Vol. 14: Liliana Rivera-Sánchez, Fernando Lozano-Ascencio (Eds.): The Practice of Research on Migration and Mobilities. SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace, vol. 14 – Migration Studies Subseries No. 1 (Heidelberg – Dordrecht – London – New York: Springer-Verlag, 2014).

Vol. 15: Yongyuth Chalamwong - Naruemon Thabchumpon, Supang Chantavanich (Eds.): Temporary Sheltered and Surrounding Communities. Livelihood Opportunities, the Labour Market, Social Welfare and Social Security. SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace, vol. 15 – Migration Studies Subseries No. 2 (Heidelberg – Dordrecht – London – New York: Springer-Verlag, 2014).

Vol. 16 Suwattana Thadaniti, Supang Chantavanich (Ed.): The Impact of Displaced People’s Temporary Shelters on Their Surrounding Environmen Security. SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace, vol. 16 – Migration Studies Subseries No. 3 (Heidelberg – Dordrecht – London – New York: Springer-Verlag, 2014).

Vol. 17: Premjai Vungsiriphisal, Dares Chusri, Supang Chantavanich (Eds.): Humanitarian Assistance for Displaced Persons from Myanmar. Royal Thai Government Policy and Donor, INGO/NGO and UN Agency Delivery. SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace, vol. 17 – Migration Studies Subseries No. 4 (Heidelberg – Dordrecht – London – New York: Springer-Verlag, 2014).

Vol. 18: Benjamin Harkins, Supang Chantavanich (Eds.): Resettlement of Displaced Persons on the Thai-Myanmar Border. SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace, vol. 18 – Migration Studies Subseries No. 5 (Heidelberg – Dordrecht – London – New York: Springer-Verlag, 2014).

Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace

Truong, Thanh-Dam; Gasper, Des; Handmaker, J., Bergh, S.I. (Eds.): Migration, Gender and Social Justice – Perspectives on Human Insecurity. Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace, vol. 9 (Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer, 2013).

This open access book is for free download here

(October 2013 - January 2014
Guest Professorship
Bangkok, Thailand
Chulalongkorn University
Faculty of Political Science

Workshop on Publishing:
Peer-reviewed Publishing in English with International Publishers in peer-reviewed indexed social science journals and in peer-reviewed books with major social science publishers

2013
18 December 2013
Bangkok, Thailand
Chulalongkorn University
Asian Research Center for Migration (ARCM);
Institute of Asian Studies (IAS),
Consortium for Southeast Asian Studies in Asia (SEASIA)
International Labour Organization (ILO);
International Organization for Migration (IOM)
Labour Rights Promotion Network (LPN)
Annual Conference on the International Migrant Day

Book Launch by Hans Günter Brauch of four Springer Books
Temporary Shelters and Surrounding Communities: Livelihood Opportunities, the Labour Market, Social Welfare and Social Security
The Impact of Displaced People's Temporary Shelters on Their Surrounding Environment
Humanitarian Assistance for Displaced Persons from Myanmar: Royal Thai Government Policy and Donor, INGO, NGO and UN Agency Delivery
Resettlement of Displaced Persons on the Thai-Myanmar Border

9-13 December 2013
Bangkok, Thailand
Chulalongkorn University
Social Research Institute (CUSRI),
Winter School: Transformative Social Sciences for Sustainability and
Social Justice
9 December 2013: Sustainability Transition: Introduction to
a New Research Area in the Social Sciences
11 December 2013: Systemic Approach to Sustainability Transition:
From Top-down and Bottom-up:
System & Technology Innovation & Societal Transformation
11 December 2013: The Dual Focus of Sustainability Transition:
The Supply vs. the Demand Side
13 December 2013: Diffusion and Publications of Research Results

2 December 2013
Mahasarakham University, Khamriang Sub-District, Kantarawichai District
Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences,
Lecture on PEISOR Model and Perspectives of Human Security & Peace Ecology

25 October, 2013
Kasetsart University and Koh Kret, Nonthaburi
Faculty of Architecture
Chulalongkorn University,
Social Research Institute (CUSRI)
International Workshop on “Urban Climate Change and Community Resilience”
Lecture on Analyzing Urban Climate Change and Community Resilience. The PEISOR Model and Perspectives of Human Security & Peace Ecology
Teaching in the Political Science Faculty of Chulalongkorn University
in the English language programme of the
Master in International Development Studies (MAIDS)
Lecture 1: Reconceptualization of security and the evolution of the human security debate: policy and science
Lecture 2: Evolution of the human security debate: policy and science Freedom from want and to live in dignity
Lecture 3: Security in (South East) Asia Regional Debate on Human Security in Asia
Lecture 4: Environmental Security
Lecture 5: Climate Change and Human Security
Lecture 6: Global Change, Natural & Environmental Disaster: Migration, Conflicts and Policy Response

1 July 2013
ISA
Annual Convention
The Politics of International Diffusion: Regional and Global Dimensions
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIFORNIA, USA
APRIL 3-6, 2013 ISA
ISA Sponsored Catalytic Workshop
organized by
AFES-PRESS
2 April 2013, ISA Workshop (Programme)
Sustainability Transition and Sustainable Peace: Policy Initiatives of Governments and International Organizations
This workshop with all abstracts, powerpoints and audio podcasts is documented here:
Presentations by Hans Günter Brauch
2 April 2013, ISA workshop
Seven Dimensions of ‘Sustainability Transition’: Temporal, Spatial, Scientific,Societal, Economic, Political and Cultural
Abstract,powerpoint, paper, audio podcast
4 April 2013: Chair of a panel on: Sustainability Transition: theories, approaches and perspectives from Europe, North and Latin America
Abstract, powerpoint, audio podcast [SF_02]
Programme, abstracts, powerpoint presentations and podcasts are here:
5 April 2013: presentation of two papers by Hans Günter Brauch on:
FB63: Friday 10:30 AM - 12:15 PM:
Panel, Migration Theories and Approaches: Bringing the Environment in
Bringing the environment into migration theory: Theoretical approaches, sectoral debates and controversies on migration, the environment and climate change
Abstract, powerpoint, paper
FC62: Friday 1:45 PM - 3:30 PM: Climate Change Security Nexus: Achievements and Shortcomings
Contextualizing and assessing the climate change and security discourses and policy debate (2000-2012): stages, schools and qualitative approaches
Abstract, powerpoint,paper

4 February 2013
New Coedited Book in Turkish
Publication during 2012 by
Hans Günter Brauch as Editor of three Book Series with
Springer Publishers (Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London)
Springer Briefs on Pioneer in Science and Practice (PSP)

Vol. 1: Arthur H. Westing [USA]: Arthur H. Westing: Pioneer on the Environmental Impact of War. SpringerBriefs on Pioneers in Science and Practice No. 1– presented by Hans Günter Brauch (Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer-Verlag, 2013).

Vol. 2: Rodolfo Stavenhagen [Mexico]: Pioneer on Indigenous Rights. Springer Briefs in Pioneers in Science and Practice No. 2– presented by Ursula Oswald Spring (Heidelberg – Dordrecht – London – New York: Springer-Verlag, 2013).

Vol. 3: Rodolfo Stavenhagen [Mexico]: The Emergence of Indigenous Peoples. Springer Briefs on Pioneers in Science and Practice, vol. 3, Subseries with Texts and Protocols, vol. 1 (Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer-Verlag, 2013).

Vol. 4: Rodolfo Stavenhagen [Mexico]: Peasants, Culture and Indigenous Peoples: Critical Issues. Springer Briefs on Pioneers in Science and Practice, vol. 4, Subseries with Texts and Protocols, vol. 2 (Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer-Verlag, 2013).

Vol.6: Dieter Senghaas [Germany]: Pioneer of Peace and Development Research. SpringerBriefs on Pioneers in Science and Practice No. 6 – presented by Michael Zürn (Heidelberg – New York – Dordrecht – London: Springer-Verlag, 2013).

SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace (ESDP)

Vol. 1: Mely Caballero-Anthony, Youngho Chang and Nur Azha Putra (Eds.) [Singapore]: Energy and Non-Traditional Security (NTS) in Asia. SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace [ESDP] vol. 1 (Heidelberg – Dordrecht – London – New York: Springer-Verlag, 2012).

Vol. 2: Mely Caballero-Anthony, Youngho Chang and Nur Azha Putra (Eds.) [Singapore]: Rethinking Energy Security in Asia: A Non-Traditional View of Human Security. SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace, vol. 2 (Heidelberg – Dordrecht – London – New York: Springer-Verlag, 2012).

Vol. 3: Philip Jan Schäfer [Germany]: Human and Water Security in Israel and Jordan. SpringerBriefs in Environment, Security, Development and Peace, vol. 3 (Heidelberg – Dordrecht – London – New York: Springer-Verlag, 2012).

Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace

Scheffran, Jürgen; Brzoska, Michael; Brauch, Hans Günter; Link, Peter Michael; Schilling, Janpeter (Eds.): Climate Change, Human Security and Violent Conflict: Challenges for Societal Stability. Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace, vol. 8 (Heidelberg – Dordrecht – London – New York: Springer-Verlag, 2012).

2012
December
Thailand
Conversation with the Dean of Political Science at Thammasat University in Bangkok, 8 December 2012

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(from left to right): Prof. Dr. Siriporn Wajjwalku (Dean, Faculty of Political Sciences, Thammasat University, Bangkok), Prof. Dr. Zarina Othman, UKM, Malaysia; Mr. Max (Thammasat Univ.), PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch (Free University of Berlin, AFES-PRESS)

Lectures and Conferences
Teaching in Thailand at
Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok
11 - 14 December 2012
Tuesday, 11 December 2012
13.30-15.00
Book launch: Climate Change, Human Security and Violent Conflict
Roundtable Panel: Dr. Chantana Banpasrichote / Prof. Dr. Kingkarn Thepkanjana / Dr. Taweewong Sriburi/ Dr. Saengchan Limjrakarn/ Jacques-Chai Chomthongdee, FOCUS / Pongtip Somranjit, Local Act, Dr. Bantoon Setsiroj (GSEI) and Human Security National Strategy Working Group (CU and MSDHS) / Prof. Surichai / Dr. Prapaporn / Dr. Surangrut at Center for Peace and Conflict Studies
Wednesday, 12 December 2012
9.00 – 12.00 Teach at MAIDS. Coping with Global Environmental Change in the Anthropocene
13.30 – 15.00 Workshop on Publication. (organized by Human Security Cluster (CU)) Prof. Dr. Kingkarn Thepkanjana, Coordinator, Human Security Cluster (CU) Prof. Dr. Vira Somboon, etc.
15.00 – 16.00 Book launch : Climate Change, Human Security and Violent Conflict: Challenges for Social Stability. Chair: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Suthipand Chirathiwat, Director, Chula Global Network Room 148, Maha Chukrisirintorn Building)
Thursday, 13 December 2012
9.30 – 12.00 Reconceptualizing Security and Securitization of Climate Change
13.00-15.00 Teach at A Ph.D. in Political Science Class: Climate Change, Human Security and Violence: Challenges for Democracy

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16.00-17.00
Consultation on Human Security Research
Dr. Naruemon Thabchumpol and Dr. Chantana Banpasrichote
Friday, 13 December 2012
9.30 – 12.00
Join First Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Lecture on Sustainable Development (2012) Dr. Vandana Shiva, Soil Not Oil: Environmental Justice in an Age of Climate Crisis

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Written comments by Hans Günter Brauch
15.00 –18.00 Teach at EDS (Environment Development and Sustainability) Ph.D. Program. Environment, Development and Sustainability. (Dr. Sangchan Limjirakarn at the Institute of Environmental Research)

National University of Malaysia (UKM)
3-7 December 2012
Visiting Professor
Professor Hans Günter Brauch (PhD)
School Of History, Politics and Strategic Studies & Ikon
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Bangi, Selangor
3 December 2012
8.30 am - 11.30 pm (3 hours):
Graduates Seminar, Lecture Hall: 3F-201
Politics and International Relations Students
Reconceptualizing Security in the 21st Century: End of the Cold War, Globalization and Global Environmental Change

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12.00 pm - 01.30 pm: Meeting/Lunch with Deputy Vice Chancellor-Chancellery
(Professor Dato’ Dr. Noor Azlan Ghazali - Academic and International Affairs)
2.00 pm - 04.30 pm
Publication Workshop with Professor Gunter Brauch: Peace, Security, Environment and Development in ASEAN
(Eds.: Zarina Othman, Sity Daud and Nor Azizan Idris), Meeting Room, Block A (Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences)

06:00 pm – 09:00 pm (3 hours)
Graduates Seminar - SKSS 6023-Contemporary International Relations, Meeting Room, Level 6
School of History, Politics and Strategic Studies
Coping with Global Environmental Change-Sustainability Revolution & Sustainable Peace

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4 December 2012
9.00 am - 12.45 pm
Roundtable Discussion and Book Launch
Globalization, Peace and Human Security in SE Asia
Auditorium, Faculty of Science and Technology (FST)

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Speakers: 1. Professor Gunter Brauch, Free University, Berlin, Germany

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2. Associate Professor Dr. Rashila Ramli, Director, IKON, UKM

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3. Dr. Sharifah Munirah Syed Hussein Alatas, Senior Lecturer (Strategic Studies and International Relations) & Principal Fellow, UKM-Southeast Asia Disaster, Prevention Research Institute (SEADPRI)

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Moderator: Emeritus Professor Dato’ Dr. Abdul Samad Hadi, Principal Fellow, UKM-Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI)

Book Review: Professor Datuk Paduka Mohamad Abu Bakar, Department of Strategic Studies and International Relations, University Malaya

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Book Launch: Emeritus Professor Dato’ Dr. Abdul Rahman Embong, Principal Fellow, Institute of Malaysian and International Studies (IKMAS)

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02.00 pm - 4.00 pm (2 hours)
Graduates Seminar- SKSU 6253: International Security Issues
School of History, Politics and Strategic Studies, Meeting Room, Level 6, Block E
Studies, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, UKM
Security Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilities and Risks in US National Security Documents (1990-2010)

5 December 2012
09.00 am - 12.00 pm (3 hours) Graduates Seminar - SKSS 6033: Globalization and International Security Issues
Meeting Room, Level 6, Block E. School of History, Politics and Strategic Studies, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, UKM
Climate Policy of the G8 Countries or Climate Policy of the G20 Countries
02.00 pm - 04.30 pm PhD Students’ Workshop with Professor Gunter Brauch .
Writing and Publishing: Why, When, and How?
Meeting Room, Level 6, Block E, School of History, Politics and Strategic Studies, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, UKM

6 December 2012
09.00 am - 12.00 pm
Visitation of Institute for Occidental Studies (IKON)
oral discussion without presentation
Afternoon: Counseling of individual Ph.D candidates

7 December 2012
3.00-4.30 pm Publication Workshop with Hans Günter Brauch, Editor, Faculty of Humanities and Social Science

8.00-10.00 pm Dinner in Honour of the Nobel Laureate Mohamad Yunus (Bangladesh). Launching of the New UKM Chair on Social Business

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Photo (from right to left): Son of the present King of Malaysia, Prof. Dr. Mohamad Yunus, Nobel Peace Laureate, PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch (Free University of Berlin, AFES-PRESS)

CENTRE FOR NON-TRADITIONAL SECURITY STUDIES: A Centre of the S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies at Nanyang Technological University

Book Launch in Singapore, Nanyang Technical University (NTU)
30 November 2012
Sustainable Development and the Nexus between Climate Change and Energy Security
Meeting Documentation (NTS website)

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Hans Günter Brauch

Business-as-Usual vs. Sustainability Transition in the Context of the Nexus between Climate Change and Energy Security

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Part 3 of 4

Book Launch
Hans Günter Brauch
Springer Briefs in Environment, Security, Development & Peace, vol. 1-2
SpringerBriefs on Pioneers in Science & Practice, vol. 1
Hexagon Series on Human, Environmental Security and Peace, vol. 8

IPRA: International Peace Research Association
IPRA Global Conference
‘Peace and Justice in a Globalized World: Opportunities & Challenges’
Tsu City, Mie University, Japan,
24-28 November 2012

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IPRA Secretary Generals (2010-2012) Prof. Dr. Jake Lynch (UK, Australia), Prof. Dr. Katsuya Kodama (Japan) in July 2010 in Sydney

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IPRA Secretary Generals (2010-2012) Prof. Dr. Jake Lynch (UK, Australia). Prof. Dr. Katsuya Kodama (Japan) at Mie City, Japan (Nov. 2012)

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Prof. Dr. Katsuya Kodama (Japan) receives the Inter-national Award of Non-Violence from S.L. Gandhi (President of Anuvrat Global Organisation

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Plenary 1: ‘A better world is possible: Prof. Dr Ursula Oswald Spring (Mexico), former President José Ramos-Horta (East Timor, Nobel Peace Laureate, 1995)

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Bernadette Muthien (South Africa), Prof. Dr. Ursula Oswald Spring (Mexico), Prof. Dr. Vidya Jain (India)

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Former IPRA Secretary General Chad Alger at the Reception during the IPRA Conference (2012)

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Japanese Cultural performance at the Reception during the IPRA Conference in Mie-City on 24 November 2012

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IPRA Secretary Generals (2012-2014):. Dr. Nesrin Kenar, University of Sakarya (Turkey), Dr. Ibrahim Seaga Shaw (University of the West of England) (Sierra Leone/UK)

Ecology and Peace Commission (EPC)
Saturday, 24 November 2012, 16:20-18:20
Session 2: Sustainability Transition and Sustainable Pe

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Photo: (Co-chairs of the Ecology and Peace Commission, 2012-2014): Prof. Dr. Úrsula Oswald Spring (Mexico); PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch (Germany), without Prof. Dr. Keith Tidballs (USA)
Hans Günter Brauch: From Rio 1 to Rio 2: Climate Change Implementation Gap
Ecology and Peace Commission
Saturday, 24 November 2012, 16:20-18:20
Session 2: Sustainability Transition and Sustainable Peace
Hans Günter Brauch: Security and Peace Impacts of the Climate Paradox: Assessing the Hobbesian Climate Change & Security Discourse

2 November 2012
ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY OF THE EUROPEAN CROSS-BORDER ENERGY SUPPLY INFRASTRUCTURE
30-31 October 2012, Moscow, Russia
The Workshop will be hosted by Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience RAS
ORGANISERS: Russian Academy of Sciences, Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience (IEG RAS_
This workshop is supported by "The Science for Peace and Security Programme", indicating that the meeting is funded by NATO

Tuesday, 30 October 2012, 16:20 – 16:40
Hans Günter Brauch
Environmental and Energy Security: Conceptual Evolution and Potential Applications to European Cross-boundary Energy Supply Infrastructure

Wednesday, 24 October 2012, 14:00-16:00
AARHUS UNIVERSITY, DEPARTMENT OF CULTURE AND SOCIETY
HUMAN SECURITY
MASTER IN HUMAN SECURITY
Aarhus University Humans Security
Hans Günter Brauch
Poster announcement
Securitizing Global Environmental Change & Climate Change, International, National & Human Security & Violent Conflicts? Two Discourses Posing Challenges for Research and Policy in the 21st Century

10-13 September 2012
First Sustainability Transition and Sustainable Peace Workshop
UNAM/CRIM and AFES-PRESS
Sponsored by the German Foundation on Peace Research (DSF) and UNAM/CRIM, Cuernavaca, Mor., Mexico
Towards a Fourth Sustainability Revolution and Sustainable Peace: Visions and Strategies for Long Term Transformative Change to Sustainable Development in the 21st Century
10-13 September 2012, in Yautepec, Morelos, Mexico
Monday, 10 September 2012

1. PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch, Free University of Berlin and AFES-PRESS, Mosbach, Germany: The Climate Paradox: Policy Declarations and Lack of Implementation: The Political Context for the Fourth Sustainability Revolution

Abstract
Presentation
Podcast

This paper has been accepted after peer review by the Special English issue of Revista Brasileira de Política Internacional - Brazilian Journal of International Politics on Global Climate Governance and Transition to a Low Carbon Economy, November 2012 that is coedited by Eduardo Viola, Full Professor of the Institute of International Relations of the University of Brasília, and Prof. Antônio Carlos Lessa, Editor, Revista Brasileira de Política Internacional - Brazilian Journal of International Politics and Associate Professor - Institute of International Relations - University of Brasília.

2. PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch, Free University of Berlin and AFES-PRESS, Mosbach, Germany: Seven Dimensions of ‘Sustainability Transition’: Temporal, Spatial, Scientific, Societal, Economic, Political and Cultural

Abstract
Presentation
Podcast

Wednesday, 12 September 2012

3. PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch, Free University of Berlin: From DESERTEC to NAFSOLTEC: Macro Projects for a transition towards renewable energies in Europe, the MENA Region and in North America

Abstract
Presentation
Podcast

16.30-19.00 Twelfth Final Session: Roundtable Discussions on Visions and Strategies for a Fourth Sustainability Revolution moderated by Prof. Dr. Margarita Velázquez Gutierréz, Director, UNAM/CRIM

4. Roundtable Discussion Part B: Prof. Dr. Czeslaw Mesjasz, Prof. Dr. Jürgen Scheffran, PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch: Impact Research on the Linkages between Transformations towards Sustainability and Sustainable Peace at the local, regional and global levels Podcast

1-4 April 2012
ISA
ISA’s 53rd Annual Convention
San Diego, USA, 1-4 April 2012
Global Governance: Political Authority in Transition
All papers my be downloaded by ISA members at ISA archives for San Diego Conference in 2012
Panel SD 54: Sunday, 1 April 2012, 4:00 PM - 5:45 PM
Climate Change, Environmental Stress, and
Conflict Sponsor: Environmental Section
Chair: Salehyan, Idean: University of North Texas
Disc.: Levy, Marc A.: Columbia University

The PEISOR Model: Global Environmental Change – A Human, Gender and Environmental (HUGE) Security Perspective Focusing on Mexico
Brauch, Hans Günter: AFES-PRESS
Oswald Spring, Ursula: National University of Mexico
paper
presentation

Climate Wars Redux? On Climate Variability and Armed Conflict in Asia
Buhaug, Halvard: Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO)
Wischnath, Gerdis: Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO)

Explaining the Strength of Rainfall Shock: Social Conflict Links in Asia
Hendrix, Cullen: The College of William & Mary

Climate Change, Migration, and Conflict
Koubi, Vally: Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich), University of Bern

Panel: MA26: Monday 8:15 AM - 10:00 AM
Climate Change, Environmental Migration,
Sustainable Energy and Security Theory

Chair: Brauch, Hans Günter: AFES-PRESS
Disc.: Schreurs, Miranda: Free University of Berlin
Dalby, Simon: Carleton University

Confronting NAFTA's Climate Paradox: A Sustainable Energy Perspective for the Post-Kyoto Regime and Rio+20
Brauch, Hans Günter: AFES-PRESS
paper
presentation

Climate Risks and Security Providers
Brzoska, Michael: University of Hamburg
presentation

Uncertainty, Complexity and Prediction in Theories of Security
Mesjasz, Czeslaw: Cracow University of Economics
presentation

Global Environmental Change and Environmental-Induced Migration
Oswald Spring, Ursula: National University of Mexico
paper
presentation

6 February 2012 (Book in print)
Climate Change, Human Security and Violent Conflict
Scheffran, Jürgen;Brzoska, Michael; Brauch, Hans Günter; Link, Peter Michael; Schilling, Janpeter (Eds.): Climate Change,Human Security and Violent Conflict: Challenges for Societal Stability Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace, vol. 8 (Heidelberg – Dordrecht – London – New York: Springer, 2012).
ISBN: 978-3-642-28625-4 (Print)

2011
Germany
2 December 2011
French-German Excellence Prize for Charlène Cabot (Montpellier), SciencePo (Paris) and Free University of Berlin
Engagement für nachhaltige Entwicklungsarbeit
Press Release 377/2011 Free University of Berlin
Press Release of the Otto-Suhr Institute for Political Science (25 November 2011)

Thesis adviser was PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch, tto Suhr Institute for Political Science, Free University of Berlin and Master of Public Administration, ScienePo (Paris)

universite franco allemande

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Charlène Cabot and Paul Scheebeli of Rotary Club Paris in Straßburg on 18 November 2011

Report of the Informationsdienst Wissenschaft (21 November 2011)
See report on the website of French-German University
Press folder on the 2011 prize recipients

28 November 2011
NATO OTAN: EMERGING SECURITY CHALLENGES DIVISION
CARNEGIE EUROPE
CARNEGIE ENDOWMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL PEACE
The New Challenges to Global Security
NATO's Response
Monday, 28 November 2011
The Stanhope Hotel
Brussels, Belgium
Conference Programme
NATO and Partner Countries discuss
New Challenges to Global Security
About 200 experts from NATO and partner countries gathered in Brussels on 28 November 2011 for the first conference on “New Challenges to Global Security” organised by NATO’s new Emerging Security Challenges Division.


“Many of these challenges cannot be kept at bay by the mere threat of military retaliation; and many require a much stronger focus on prevention and on enhancing the resilience of our infrastructure”, said the head Emerging Security Challenges Division, Assistant Secretary General Gabor Iklódy, welcoming participants from NATO and partner countries and from academic institutions.


Talking Notes by Dr. Hans Günter Brauch
Links to reports on the websites of the organizers:
NATO

NATO and Partner Countries discuss New Challenges to Global Security
by NATO OTAN North Atlantic Treaty Organization
28 Nov. 2011 - | Last updated: 29 Nov. 2011 17:23

About 200 experts from NATO and partner countries gathered in Brussels on 28 November 2011 for the first conference on “New Challenges to Global Security” organised by NATO’s new Emerging Security Challenges Division.

“Many of these challenges cannot be kept at bay by the mere threat of military retaliation; and many require a much stronger focus on prevention and on enhancing the resilience of our infrastructure”, said the head Emerging Security Challenges Division, Assistant Secretary General Gabor Iklódy, welcoming participants from NATO and partner countries and from academic institutions.

The conference was an opportunity for security matter experts to look closely at the new Division’s agenda, ranging from threats to cyber networks and international terrorism to securing energy supplies and preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. During the discussions, participants encouraged NATO’s Emerging Security Challenges Division to expand partnerships and enhance capabilities in dealing with modern threats. Assistant Secretary General Iklódy noted the importance of working together with partners and said that with regard to emerging challenges, “NATO will either be a team player, or it will be no player at all”.

The conference was sponsored by the Alliance’s “Science for Peace and Security” Programme and Carnegie Europe.


and

Carnegie Europe

The New Challenges to Global Security: NATO's Response
by Pierre Goldschmidt, Jan Techau
November 28, 2011
Brussels

Summary: Global Security in the 21st century is an ever elusive goal and NATO must face emerging security challenges in counter terrorism, cyber defense, energy security, and non-proliferation.

This one day conference, initiated by NATO in partnership with Carnegie Europe, brought together a trans-Atlantic pool of experts to tackle the emerging security challenges facing the Alliance and its partners. Part of NATO’s response to the changing dynamics of this environment has been the strategic development of its Emerging Security Challenges (ESC) Division, and more specifically the inclusion of the Science for Peace and Security (SPS) Programme. This conference provided a good opportunity to learn about, as well as challenge, this response to the emerging security threats of the 21st Century.

Through the day, adjacent sessions on pertinent issues such as counter terrorism, cyber defense, energy security, the non-proliferation of WMDs and the role of nuclear deterrence were tackled by speakers and participants from key stakeholder audiences as well as the Alliance itself.


DGVN
DEUTSCHE GESELLSCHAFT FUR DIE VEREINTEN NATIONEN e.V.
Stuttgart, Friday, 28 October 2011, 7pm
Global Environmental and Climate Change (in German)
PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch: Book presentation: Coping with Global Environmental Change, Disasters and Security: Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilities & Risks (in German)

Mosbach, Thursday, 27 October 2011
Announcement, Rhein-Neckar-Zeitung, 19 October 2011 (in German)
Mosbach
Joint Presentation by Prof. Oswald Spring and Dr. Brauch (in German)
Photo of Book transfer ceremony (Photo by Ursula Brinkmann, RNZ Mosbach)

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Mr. Horst Hertel, representative of the Sparkasse Neckartal-Odenwald (sponsor), Mr. Wiegand, director of the municipal public library of Mosbach (recipient of two book gifts), Prof. Dr. Albrecht Dinkelacker (DHBW, recipient of two book gifts), Prof. Dr. Úrsula Oswald Spring (UNAM, CRIM, co-editor and author), Dr. Hans Günter Brauch (FU Berlin, co-editor and author) and Mayor Michael Keilbach (host of the book transfer ceremony)

Report in Rhein-Neckar-Zeitung (31 October 2011, in German)
Photo Gallery with photos by Carmen Oesterreich and Ursula Brinkmann
Invitation
DHBW Mosbach
Duale Hochschule Baden-Württemberg, 19:00 Uhr
Studium Generale
Global Environmental and Climate Change and Sustainability (in German)
PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch (Mosbach):Global climate change, political changes in the Arab world and change in energy policy in Germany: perspective for a sustainable development in the Mediterranean (in German)
Globaler Klimawandel, Umbruch in der Arabischen Welt und Energiewende in Deutschland: Perspektive für eine nachhaltige Entwicklung des Mittelmeerraumes
Report: DHBW Website (in German)
Announcement on the Website of the Organizer

Poland
Tuesday, 25 October 2011, 5pm
Warsaw, Warsaw School of Economics
Participants: Prof. dr hab. Katarzyna Żukrowska, Head, International Security Department, Introduction
PD Dr. habil. Hans Günter Brauch, Reconceptualization of Security in the Early 21st Century
Prof. Dr. Úrsula Oswald Spring, Water and Food Security in the 21st Century

Monday, 24 October 2011, 2pm Cracow,
Cracow University of Economics
Participants: Assoc. Prof. dr hab. Czesław Mesjasz, Management Process Departmnent, CUE. PD
Dr. habil. Hans Günter Brauch, Free University of Berlin: Reconceptualization of Security in the Early 21st Century, Prof. Dr. Úrsula Oswald Spring, National Autonomous University of Mexico: (UNAM): Water and Food Security in the 21st Century

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Opening session with the Vice Rector for Scientific Research of the Cracow University of Economics, Prof. Dr. hab. Andrzej Malawski and Prof. Dr. hab. Czeslaw Mesjasz (moderator), PD Dr. hab. Hans Günter Brauch, Free University of Berlin and Prof. Dr. Úrsula Oswald Spring, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Centre for Regional Multidisciplinary Studies (CRIM), Cuernavaca.

Photo Gallery

Germany
Thursday, 20 October 2011, 6 pm,
Berlin, Foreign Ministry of Germany
Programme (in German)
PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch, Free University Berlin, UNU-EHS, AFES-PRESS

Mexico City, 27 September, 19:00-23:00
Book Launch and Reception at the German Embassy,
Mexico City, 27 September 2011 of
Coping with Global Environmental Change, Disasters and Security Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilities and Risks
Presentations by:
Dra. Estela Morales, Coordinadora de Humanidades [Vice Rector], UNAM
Dr. Rodolfo Stavenhagen, Prof. Em., El Colegio de México
Dra. Úrsula Oswald Spring, CRIM-UNAM, editor
Dr. Hans Günter Brauch, Universidad Libre de Berlin, editor

WISC
Presentations by
Third World International Studies Conference,
Porto, Portugal from 17-20 August 2011

The World in Crisis: Revolution or Evolution in the International Community?

Panel: Responding to Climate Change in the Anthropocene: Security Impacts and a Needed Fourth Sustainable Revolution

Powerpoint by Hans Günter Brauch: Implementing Climate Change Commitments: Sustainability Revolution, Changes in Worldviews and Mindsets

Other papers by:

Úrsula Oswald Spring: Cultural Change and Fourth Sustainable (Green) Revolution

Paul J. Smith: Geopolitical and security challenges of climate change for US national security

Book Launch of

Reconceptualizaiton la seguridad en el sigio xxi
Coping with Global Environmental Change, Disasters and Security
Mexico City, 28 April, 11:00
Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico
Facultad de Ciencias Politícas
Sala Fernanda Benitez
Poster
Speakers/Ponentes
Prof. Dr. Ignacio Carriquiriborde, UNAM, Facultad de Ciencias Politícas
Dr. Clemente Rueda, UNAM, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera
Prof. Dr. Ursula Oswald Spring
Adj. Prof. Hans Günter Brauch (version Español, English version)
Moderatora: Prof. Dr. Bodek Stavenhagen

New York, United Nations
United States of America
14 April 2011
Informal Thematic Debate of the 65th Session of the United Nations General Assembly on Human Security

Informal Thematic Debate on Human Security
by General Assembly of the United Nations
President of the 65th Session

Background

Today, millions of men, women and children continue to find themselves in extreme and vulnerable circumstances. Threatened by intra-state conflicts, organised crime, chronic poverty, environmental degradation, deadly infectious diseases, and risks posed by natural hazards, the human, economic and social capital lost to these situations continue to exert a devastating toll on the survival, livelihood and dignity of large numbers of citizens around the globe.

Whereas in the past, the concept of security was equated primarily with territorial security, today cross-border military threats are only one, and often not the most significant challenge confronting people’s lives. As a result, the guarantee of security no longer rests on military responses alone. Essential to its advancement is also healthy political, social, environmental, economic and cultural systems that together strengthen the inter-linkages between security, development and human rights and help advance human freedoms for all. Similarly, the shift towards a global environment has meant that national borders are permeable and insecurities in one area have the potential to pose grave threats not only to the immediate victims but also to the collective security of the international community.

In response to these developments, the United Nations General Assembly agreed at the 2005 World Summit to further discuss and define the notion of human security. Paragraph 143 of the World Summit Outcome (A/RES/60/1) recognizes that “all individuals, in particular vulnerable people, are entitled to freedom from fear and freedom from want, with an equal opportunity to enjoy all their rights and fully develop their human potential.”

Drawing input from a number of governments as well as intergovernmental organisations, civil society groups, scholars and other prominent individuals, human security is gaining support not only at the United Nations but also in other forums. Subsequently, the notion of human security is increasingly reflected in the agendas of intergovernmental organizations such as the African Union, the European Union, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the League of Arab States (LAS) and the Organization of American States (OAS).

At the United Nations, in addition to human security related activities undertaken by UN agencies, funds and programmes (A/62/695, annex), the General Assembly, in May 2008, held an informal thematic debate on human security. During the course of deliberations, consensus was reached by Member States on the need for a new culture of international relations that goes beyond fragmented responses and calls for comprehensive, integrated and people-centred approaches that help prevent or mitigate the growing instances of human insecurity around the world.

To this end, in March 2010, the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon issued his report on human security (A/64/701). A formal debate on human security was subsequently held at the General Assembly on 20 and 21 May 2010, and in July 2010, the General Assembly adopted by consensus its resolution on human security entitled Follow-up to paragraph 143 on human security of the 2005 World Summit Outcome (A/RES/64/291).

Objective and Expected Outcomes

The Informal Thematic Debate of the General Assembly on Human Security aims to support the goals set out in General Assembly Resolution 64/291 and to contribute to discussions on a notion of human security. It is envisioned that the debate will provide an opportunity for experts and Member States to share ideas and attempt to forge a common understanding on the core elements of human security, its added value, and a possible definition thereof.

Programme

The informal thematic debate took place on 14 April 2011 at UN Headquarters in New York. The debate, which consisted of two moderated panel discussions with high-level experts, focused on a possible approach to defining human security and its added value as a practical approach to addressing the growing interdependence of threats to peace and development for the people on the ground. The floor was opened to delegates for questions to the panellists as well as interventions.

Time / Programme

10 – 10:30 a.m. Opening Remarks. H.E. Mr. Joseph Deiss, President of the General Assembly. H.E. Ms. Asha-Rose Migiro, United Nations Deputy Secretary-General

10:30 a.m. – 12:30 p.m. Interactive Panel Debate 1: A Possible Approach for Defining Human Security
Moderator. Ms. Margareta Wahlström, Special Representative to the Secretary-General for Disaster Risk Reduction. Panelists: H.E. Mr. Olusegun Obasanjo, Former President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and Founder of the Centre for Human Security; Dr. Frene Ginwala, Former Speaker of the National Assembly, Republic of South Africa and Member of the Commission on Human Security; Dr. Jennifer Leaning, Professor of the Practice of Health and Human Rights at Harvard School of Public Health; Dr. Amitav Acharya, Professor of International Relations and Chair of the ASEAN Studies Center at American University

3 – 5:45 p.m. Interactive Panel Debate 2: Human Security - its application and added-value. Moderator:
Ms. Valerie Amos, Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator. Panelists: H.E. Ms. Sonia Picado, President of the Inter-American Institute of Human Rights and Member of the Commission and Advisory Board on Human Security; Mr. Cheick Sidi Diarra, Special Adviser on Africa and High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States; Dr. Andrew Mack, Director of the Human Security Report Project at Simon Fraser University and Former Director of the Strategic Planning Office in the Executive Office of United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan; Dr. Hans-Günter Brauch, Chairman of Peace Research and European Security Studies (AFES-PRESS) and Fellow at the United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security
5:45 – 6 p.m. Closing Remarks. Mr. Yukio Takasu, Special Advisor to the Secretary-General on Human Security; H.E. Mr. Joseph Deiss, President of the General Assembly


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Photo (from left to right): President of the 65th Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations, Dr. Joseph Deiss (Switzerland) and Dr. Hans Günter Brauch, Chairman of AFES-PRESS

Report of the Secretary-General Ban-Ki Moon on Human Security (8 March 2010)

Resolution adopted by the General Assembly, 64/291 (27 July 2010).
Follow-up to paragraph 143 on human security of the 2005 World Summit Outcome

Background and Programme
Press Release (15 April 2011)
Contributions of Hans Günter Brauch
Background Paper
Talking Notes

New York, United Nations
23 March 2011
United States of America
UNITED NATIONS UNIVERSITY, Office at the UN, New York
Book Launch, 1:15 - 2:45
United Nations Headquarters,
44th and 1st Avenue, Conference Room 8
Website of UNU-ONY for additional information
Website of AFES-PRESS for full event documentation and background texts
Text of Speeches and TV Podcasts
Speech by Hans Günter Brauch and Podcast
Speech by Úrsula Oswald Spring and Podcast
Photo Gallery
Interview of Kamma Thordarson, Staff Correspondent MediaGlobal, Voice of the Global South, United Nations Secretariat 15 April 2011
with Ursula Oswald Spring and Hans Günter Brauch

Montreal, Canada
ISA Annual Convention 2011
Montreal, Quebec, Canada, March 16-19,
2011 Global Governance: Political Authority In Transition
Panel with a Book Launch
WB63: Wednesday, 16 March, 10:30 AM - 12:15 PM
Panel: Coping with Global Environmental Change, Disasters and Security:
Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilities and Risks
Hans Günter Brauch: Introduction (Powerpoint)
Hans Günter Brauch: AFES-PRESS: Political Geoecology for the Anthropocene
Powerpoint – Paper on ISA website – Book chapter at SpringerLink – Bibliography
Photo Gallery
Website of AFES-PRESS for full event documentation and background texts

15 March 2011
Programme for ISA workshop at Montreal
Sheraton Le Centre Hotel, Salon 3, 8:30 AM – 5:00 PM
Gendered Peace: The Problematique of Gender Analyses in Peace Research
Hans Günter Brauch
Security in peace research and security studies: Deficits on gender issues?
PaperPowerpoint Presentation

Ottawa, Canada
14 March 2011
British High Commission Ottawa
Department of Geography & Environmental Studies
CENTRE FOR EUROPEAN STUDIES
The Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, the Centre for European Studies (European Union Centre of Excellence) at Carleton University, and the British High Commission in Ottawa
Monday, March 14th, 2011, 5:00 pm - 6:30 pm
British High Commission, 80 Elgin Street, Ottawa
Book Launch & Reception
Powerpoint Presentation by
Hans Günter Brauch, Free University of Berlin, Co-editor
Website of AFES-PRESS for full event documentation and background texts

14 March, 1:30 – 3:00 p.m.l, A220 Loeb
Department of Geography & Environmental Studies
Department of Geography and Environmental Studies and Centre for European Studies (European Union Centre of Excellence)
Invitation Flyer
Seminar on
Environmental Change, Security and Migration: Towards Sustainable Transformation
Presented By Dr. Hans Günter Brauch, Chairman, Peace Research and European Security Studies (AFES-PRESS)
Mosbach, Germany; Editor, Hexagon Series on Human, Environmental Security and Peace

Global Environmental Change: Environmental Hotspots in North Africa and in Mexico Proactive Policies towards a Sustainabe Transformation: A DESERTEC Vision for North America & NAFTA

Dr. Úrsula Oswald Spring, Research Professor, Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidisciplinarias CRIM - UNAM, Cuernavaca, Mor. 62210 México

Migration: A Complex Analytical Process

26 January
Lecture by Hans Günter Brauch
at UNAM, CIE, Cuernavaca
CENTRO DE INVESTIGACION EN ENERGIA
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
on:
Coping with the Causes of Climate Change: Renewable Energy Policies in Germany and the European Union:
Moving towards a gradual decarbonization of the energy economy by 2050 with a fourth green sustainability revolution
Conference announcement
Powerpoint presentation

2010
Brussels, 18-19 November 2010
ASEAN REGIONAL FORUM
Seminar on International Security Implications of Climate Change
Programme and Agenda

Interventions by Hans Günter Brauch on 19 November 2010 Session 2.1:Challenges, Threats, Risks related to Climate Change
Presentation: Potential Societal Impacts of the Physical Effects of Climate Change

Session 3.2: The Way Forward: A View From Civil Society Oral Intervention
This event has been documented at the ARF Website

EUROPEAN PEACE UNIVERSITY (EPU) PRIVATE UNIVERSITY
20 Years of Peace Studies in a Medieval Environment
EPU, Rochusplatz
8-12 November 2010, Schlaining, Burgenland, Austria
Lectures and Seminar: Resource and Environmental Conflicts

A World Without Walls 2010: An International Conference on Peace building, Reconciliation and Globalization in an Interdependent World
(Berlin, 6th – 10th November 2010)
Programme
Timetable
Speakers
Conference Report

6 November 2010
Opening Lecture by Hans Günter Brauch: Tensions, Conflicts and Peace Agreements: Historical Macrostructures and Turning Points since 1945 (Podcast)

Panel Discussion with Prof. Dr. Johan Galtung, Prof. Dr. Anthony Giddens, The Rt. Hon. Dr. Alfredo Palacios, former President of Ecuador, Dr. Miomir Zuzul, former foreign Minister of Croatia

Moderator: Lord Jack McConnell, former first minister of Scotland

Podcast
Photo gallery of Panel discussion
A Panel Debate
with
President Dr. Alfredo Palacio, Ecuador
Prof. Dr. Anthony Giddens, UK
Prof. Dr. Johan Galtung, Norway
Iannis Kasoulides
Dr. Hans Günter Brauch, Germany
Moderator, Jack McConnell
Institute for Cultural Diplomacy
icdchannel
93 Minutes

8 November 2010
Second Lecture by Hans Günter Brauch: A Response to the Fall of the Berlin Wall: Reconceptualization of Security: Global Human and Environmental Security Handbook for the Anthropocene

Panel Discussion on the Future of Anti-Nuclear Proliferation and the Arms Trade with Dr. Luc Reychler, Dr. Hans Guenter Brauch, Dr. Jan Oberg (Podcast)

Interview with Dr. Hans Günter Brauch (Berlin, 6. November 2010) conducted by Ana Lucas-Palomares and Joel MacMillan

Freie Universitat Berlin
5 November 2010
Opening Lecture by Hans Günter Brauch
Graduate Seminar at the Free University of Berlin
Climate Change Impacts for International, European, National and Human Security: Causal, Discourse, Scenario and Empirical Analyses of Hotspots

THE UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY: Centre for Peace & Conflict Studies
International Peace Research Association
6-10 July 2010, in Sydney, Australia
Communicating Peace
Lectures by
Prof. Dr. Ursula Oswald Spring (Mexico)
PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch (Germany)
Wednesday, 7 July 2010
Presentation in the Ecology and Peace Commission: Human Security: Policy Debates and Scientific Discourses
Friday, 9 July 2010 (morning session)
IPRA Plenary
Securitizing Global Climate Change: Discourses on International, national and human security [doc. 19]
Friday, 9 July 2010 (evening session)
IPRA Book launch: Hexagon book series and the Global Environmental and Human Security Handbook for the Anthropocene (GEHSHA)

Announcement of Speakers:

Professor Johan Galtung, founder of the TRANSCEND network
Irene Khan, former Secretary General of Amnesty International, Sydney Peace Prize Laureate
Patrick Dodson, ‘father of reconciliation’ in Australia
Oliver Richmond, University of St Andrews, author, Peace in International Relations
David Kinley, Professor of Human Rights Law, University of Sydney, author, Civilising Globalisation
George Kent, University of Hawai’i, author, Freedom from Want: the Human Right to Adequate Food
Michael Intriligator, UCLA & Vice Chair, Board of Directors of Economists for Peace and Security
Carolyn Arguillas, founding editor, Mindanews (Philippines)
Lawrence Wittner, author, Confronting the Bomb
Ursula Oswald Spring and Hans Guenter Brauch, co-editors,
Hexagon Series on Human, Environmental Security and Peace: HESP

Malaysia
30 June – 2 July 2010
Guest professorship at the Science University of Malaysia (USM), Penang Center for Global Sustainability Studies (CGSS)
Lectures by
Prof. Dr. Ursula Oswald Spring (Mexico)
PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch (Germany)
Public Seminar - Coping with Global Environment Change in the Anthropocene [doc 17]
Roundtable Discussion – CGSS – Human Security Concepts in Policy and Science

28 June – 30 June 2010
Guest professorship at the
[Various]
28 June
UKM: Roundtable Discussion: Globalisation and Environmental Challenges: Reconceptualising Security in the 21st Century
Programme
Speakers:
PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch, FU Berlin, AFES-PRESS, Mosbach, Germany
Prof. Dr. Ursula Oswald Spring, UNAM-CRIM, Cuernavaca, Mor., Mexico
UKM (IKON) Book Launch: Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concepts

Moderator: Emeritus Prof. Dato’ Dr. Abdul Rahman Embong, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia IKMAS Principal Research Fellow

Speakers: PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch, FU Berlin, AFES-PRESS, Mosbach, Germany
Prof. Dr. Ursula Oswald Spring, UNAM-CRIM, Cuernavaca, Mor., Mexico

Laudator: Prof. Dr. K.S. Nathan, Institute für USA Studies, IKON, UKM

Book Launch (Animation)
Photo Gallery
29 June (Announcement)
UKM - SSIR: Seminar- Strategic Studies and International Relations Program Security in Peace Research and Security Studies
30 June (Announcement)
UKM- IGMAS Seminar-Institute of Malaysian and International Studies: Globalization, Security and Its Linkages with Peace, Development and Environment

Paris , 31 March –1 April 2010
SciencesPo.
THE MASTER OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS
Book launch
Thursday, 1 April 2010, 15.00 – 16.30
Room 711 A/B, 117 Blvd Saint Germain
Master of Public Affairs, Sciences Po, 75007 Paris, 1 st floor
Flyer of Invitation in English

Moderator: Chris Brooks, Associate Director for Community Relations

Speakers:
PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch, FU Berlin, UNU-EHS, Bonn; AFES-PRESS, Mosbach
Prof. Dr. Ursula Oswald Spring, UNAM-CRIM, Cuernavaca, Mor., Mexico, UNU-EHS

Lectures in the The Master of Public Affairs (MPA)

Shahrbanou Tadjbakhsh and Hitomi Kubo
Human Security Concentration Overview Course

Wednesday, 31 March 2010, 10.15 – 12.15 and 12.30-14.30
Part 1: Environmental Security
Part 2: Securitization of Global Environmental Change

Brussels, 24 March 2010
The UNITED NATIONS ASSOCIATION BELGIUM/FLANDERS
Wednesday 24 March 2010, 12:30 - 15.00
UNRIC, the UN Regional Information Centre, rue de la Loi 155, 1000 Brussels, 7th floor
Book Launch
Facing Global Environmental Change
Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concepts
Presentation by Hans Günter Brauch

24 March 2010, 17.00-18.30
Lecture by Hans Günter Brauch
Water and Security: A European Perspective
Royal High Institute for Defence
Brussels, Campus Renaissance
Av. De la Renaissance 30, 1000 Brussels

ISA Annual Convention 2010
NEW ORLEANS , LA, USA , FEBRUARY 17-20, 2010
THEORY VS. POLICY? CONNECTING SCHOLARS AND PRACTITIONERS
Panel, Wednesday, 17 February WA 5, 8.30-10.15
Peace and Security in the Anthropocene
Sponsor(s): Theory vs. Policy? Connecting Scholars and Practitioners

Chair Hans Günter Brauch, Free University of Berlin and AFES-PRESS
Discussant: Ronnie Lipschutz, University of California, Los Angeles

8.30-8.35: Chair Hans Günter Brauch, AFES-PRESS:. Introduction and presentation of the speakers

Impacts of Desertification, Land Degradation and Drought (DLDD) on Security Policy in the Anthropocene
8.35-8.50: Hans Günter Brauch , Free University of Berlin and AFES-PRESS

Assessing and Preventing Climate Conflicts and Security Risks
8.50-9.05: Jürgen Scheffran: University of Hamburg, Geography/KlimaCampus

The Bottom Billion and Climate Change
9.05-9.20: Nils Petter Gleditsch: International Peace Research Institute,
Oslo , Halvard Buhaug: International Peace Research Institute, Oslo,
Åshild Falk: International Peace Research Institute, Oslo.

Towards Sustainable Peace in the Anthropocene
9.20-9.35: Ursula Oswald Spring: National University of Mexico

9.35-9.50: Discussant: Ronnie Lipschutz, University of California, Los Angeles
9.50-10.15: Discussion

The four powerpoint presentations may be viewed and downloaded here.

The academic papers are available for ISA members only at the ISA paper archives website at: by going to this website of Allacademic.
You must login with your Email address registered by ISA.

2009
Thursday, 10 December, Bern, Switzerland
swisspeace
Donnerstag, 10. Dezember 2009 [in German]
11:00-13:00 Uhr mit Referaten, Laudatio, Diskussion und Apero
Swisspeace, Sonnenbergstrasse 17, Bern
11:15 Vorstellung der Buchreihe und des Bandes (Hans Günter Brauch)
11:30 Umgang mit globalem Umwelt- und Klimawandel (Ursula Oswald Spring)
Photos von Lukas Krienbühl, Swisspeace, Bern

Thursday, 19 November, Hamburg University: Climate Change, Social Stress and Violent Conflict
State of the Art and Research Needs
International Conference, KlimaCampus, Hamburg University,
November 19 & 20, 2009
13:30 – 15:00 Parallel session 2 (IFSH/ZNF Seminar Room, Beim Schlump 83)
A. Water scarcity and flood disasters as conflict constellations
Hans Günter Brauch: Policy response to climate change in the Middle East and North Africa

18:15 – 19:15 Book presentation (ZMAW, Bundesstr. 53, seminar room)
Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health &
WaterSecurity Concepts (Springer Hexagon Book Series, 2009s)
Contributions by: Hans Günter Brauch and Úrsula Oswald Spring (Editors),
Heinz-Dieter Jopp (Commentator, Laudator, Critic)
Photos by Felix Bayode Olorunfemi, Ibadan, Nigeria

Monday, 26 October
Freie Universitat Berlin
Berlin, 16.00-18.00
Introductory Powerpoint Presentation for the graduate seminar
Otto-Suhr-Institut für Politikwissenschaft, WS 2009/20010
HS 15332 Climate Change Impacts: Securitization of Water, Food, Soil, Health, Energy and Migration

Wednesday, 14 October
Miércoles 14 de Octubre de 10:00 a 13:00 horas
SALÓN 1 DEL POSGRADO FCPS
UNAM
El Programa de Posgrado en Ciencias Políticas y Sociales y el
Seminario Permanente de Estudios Prospectivos a través del
Proyecto PAPIME Inteligencia Prospectiva.
CONFERENCIA Y PRESENTACIÓN DEL LIBRO
“RECONCEPTUALIZAR LA SEGURIDAD EN EL SIGLO XXI”
CON LA PRESENCIA DE
Dr. Hans Günter Branch
de la Universidad Libre de Berlín
Dra. Ursula Oswald Spring
del CRIM UNAM UNU-EHS
Presentación

Tuesday, 13 October
Conferencia Magistral
13 de Octubre 2009, 12.00 a 14:00, Auditorio del CRIM
Seguridad y su Reconceptualización
Long version of the Presentation in English – Presentación (Spanish)
Podcast in Spanish on You Tube

Parte/ Part / Presentación/Presentation

1. Introduction: Prof. Dr. Ursula Oswald-Spring, UNAM-CRIM
PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch, Free University of Berlin
2. PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch, Free University of Berlin
3. PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch, Free University of Berlin
4. PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch, Free University of Berlin
5. PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch, Free University of Berlin
6. PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch, Free University of Berlin
7. PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch, Free University of Berlin
8. PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch, Free University of Berlin

Inofficial Audio Podcast of a Mexican participant
Reconceptualizando la seguridad en el siglo XXI
Autor Revista Digital Independiente Voz Universitaria
Tuesday, 20 de October de 2009
Modificado el Tuesday, 20 de October de 2009
Conferencia Magistral Audio de la conferencia magistral "Reconceptualizar la Seguridad en el Siglo XXI"
Dr. Hans Gunter Brauch.
Introducción de la Dra. Ursula Oswald.
13 de Octubre 2009. CRIM-UNAM.
Cuernavaca-México.
Grabación
realizada por la Revista Digital Independiente Voz Universitaria http://www.vozuniversitaria.org.mx
Revista Digital Independiente Voz Universitaria
The session may be listened at:

1 September 2009
Cuernavaca, Mexico – Mosbach, Germany
Publication of this Spanish Book
Press Release (70th Anniversary of the Outbreak of World War II)
Reconceptualization of Security in the 21st Century
Úrsula Oswald Spring y Hans Günter Brauch
Reconceptualizar la Seguridad en el Siglo XXI
(Mexico D.F., Cuernavaca, Mexico: UNAM/CRIM/CEIICH/CCA
— Mosbach, Germany: AFES-PRESS, 2009)
ISBN 878-392-69-7578-0 888 pages
Book Launch in Mexico

1 September 2009
Cuernavaca, Morelos, México
Sala Manuel M. Ponce, Jardín Borda, Cuernavaca, Morelos
Reconceptualizar la seguridad en el siglo XXI
Úrsula Oswald Spring y Hans Günter Brauch (Editores )

Germany
Munich , 29 July 2009, 7-10 pm [in German only]
Climate Change, Water Scarcity and Combating Desertification: A Huge Challenge for Human, Gender and Envronmental Security

Presentation by Hans Günter Brauch:
Einführung zum Buch: Facing Global Environmental Change - Der globale Umweltwandel als Sicherheitsfrage
Globaler Klimawandel – Eine Herausforderung für die internationale und menschliche Sicherheit: 2 Diskurse
(mit Ursula Oswald Spring): Desertifikation, Bodenerosion und Dürre: Herausforderungen für die menschliche, nationale und internationale Sicherheit

Stuttgart, 24 July 2009, 6-8pm [in Germany only]
Climate Change, Water Scarcity and Combating Desertification: A Threat to Human Security and Electricity from the Sahara

Presentation by Hans Günter Brauch:
Zum Buch Facing Global Environmental Change - Der globale Umweltwandel als Sicherheitsfrage. Podcast
(mit Prof. Dr. Ursula Oswald Spring):: Desertifikation, Bodenerosion und Dürre: Herausforderungen für die menschliche, nationale und internationale Sicherheit: UNCCD-Studie. Podcast
Radio interview by Utku Pazarkaya, Südwestrundfunk, © SWR International, 27.09.09. This podcast is made available with the kind permission of SWR Stuttgart. Podcast

(23 June 2009)
DESERTEC Project: Solar Energy from the Sahara
15 Publications (1994-2009) by Hans Günter Brauch and of AFES-PRESS on technical, economic and security aspects in English, German and French
These publications may here be ordered from AFES-PRESS

19-20 June 2009
University of Vienna
Dialogue with Iranian Experts on a Peaceful World Order
Castle of Schlaining, Burgenland, Austria
Background paper by Hans Günter Brauch

Security in Peace Research and Security Studies
that is based on this copy-righted book chapter:
Albrecht, Ulrich; Brauch, Hans Günter, 2008: “Security in Peace Research and Security Studies” , in: Brauch, Hans Günter; Oswald Spring, Úr­sula; Mesjasz, Czeslaw; Grin, John; Dunay, Pal; Behera, Navnita Chadha; Chou­rou, Bé­chir; Kameri-Mbote, Pa­tricia;Liotta, P.H. (Eds.): Globalization and En­vi­ronmen­tal Challen­ges: Recon­cep­tualizing Security in the 21 st Century. Hexagon Series on Hu­man and Envi­ronmental Security and Peace, vol. 3 ( Berlin – Heidelberg – New York: Springer-Verlag): 503-525.
This original book chapter may be purchased here.

Security in Peace Research and Security Studies

Abstract

In the Covenant of the League of Nations (1919) and in the United Nations Charter (1945), ‘international peace and security’ have been used together as the key purposes of both international organizations to be achieved by global (chap. VI and VII of UN Charter) and regional systems (chap. VIII of UN Charter) of collective security, as well as by collective and national self defence (Art. 51 UN Charter; chap. 4 by Wæver; chap. 35 by Bothe).

Security in Peace Research and Security Studies
by Ulrich Albrecht and Hans Günter Brauch

38.1 Introduction1

In the Covenant of the League of Nations (1919) and in the United Nations Charter (1945), ‘international peace and security’ have been used together as the key purposes of both international organizations to be achieved by global (chap. VI and VII of UN Charter) and regional systems (chap. VIII of UN Charter) of collective security, as well as by collective and national self defence (Art. 51 UN Charter; chap. 4 by Wæver; chap. 35 by Bothe).

International relations as a social science discipline (chap. 37 by Baylis) has emerged after the Peace Conference in Versailles (1919), relying on knowledge in political philosophy, diplomatic and military history and international law, and it was influenced by the three ideal type traditions the English school has identified with realism (Hobbes), rationalism or pragmatism (Grotius 1625, 1975), and idealism (Kant), that have also existed in other intellectual traditions (Chinese, Indian, Arabic, pre-Columbian) and may be associated with many other thinkers unknown to the Western debate (chap. 3 by Brauch; chap. 10 by Oswald; and chap. 11–21).

Peace research and security studies are two distinct research programmes within the sub-discipline of international relations (IR) and also beyond, due to their multidisciplinary approaches that combine knowledge from philosophy, sociology, psychology, anthropology, and law. Both research programmes are identified with one of the two common goals and purposes of the League of Nations and of the United Nations. While peace research has evolved primarily in the idealist and security studies in the realist tradition, the Grotian tradition has offered a common middle ground for both programmes.

This chapter addresses two questions: How have the concepts of security evolved in both schools during the 20th century? Did the three global changes: a) the global contextual change in 1990, b) globalization, and c) the emerging ‘anthropocene’ (Crutzen/Stoermer 2000; Crutzen 2000) trigger a reconceptualization of security? To answer these questions, books surveying the evolution and results in both schools will be reviewed in the next five parts.

However, much of the conceptual debate on security and on its reconceptualization has taken place in scientific journals: for peace research especially in the Journal of Peace Research and Security Dialogue published by the International Peace Research Institute in Oslo (PRIO), and for security studies in Survival (IISS) that has been interested more in issues of the changing security agenda and International Security (Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University), the leading journal in the US, where many of the new global dangers for US national security have been addressed.2

The evolution of both schools since 1919 will be reviewed (38.2) and the key conceptual disputes between both schools prior to, during, and after the Cold War will be listed (38.3) that provided the framework for the evolution of the security concept in security, strategic, and war studies (38.4) as well as in peace research (38.5) and for the post Cold War dispute between those who adhere to a narrow primarily military and diplomatic security concept and the ‘widerners’ who have combined five dimensions and sectors with five different referent objects and levels of analysis (38.6).

38.2 The Two Schools and Three Traditions

The discipline of international relations was born on 30 May 1919 at the Peace Conference in Versailles (Paris) when policy advisers of US President W. Wilson and British Prime Minister L. George agreed to establish scientific institutes for the study of international relations in their countries that should focus on the causes, conditions, and forms of war and peace, and on the approaches and results of international conflict resolution as its conceptual core (Meyers 1979, 1984, 1993, 1994, 1994a). Meyers (2000) saw this new discipline as a science interpreting and resolving crises. According to this interpretation the study of international relations may be understood as an answer of the scientific community to extra-scientific, socioeconomic, and political crises that could not be satisfied by the traditional approaches of diplomatic history, political philosophy, and international law (Meyers 1994a: 231).

In the two decades between the World Wars (1919–1939), in the new discipline of international relations an idealist approach focusing on international organizations and institutions prevailed that was being challenged from a realist perspective (e.g. by Carr 1939; Spykman 1942; Morgenthau 1948, 1960; Waltz 1959, 1979).

During the Cold War period (1947–1989) international relations in the West was dominated by theoretical approaches and concepts developed by and disputes among different schools of American scholars that influenced this emerging field in Europe, in the Asia Pacific, as well as in many Third World countries in Africa, Latin America, and in the Arab world whose IR experts were primarily trained in American, British, Canadian, and French universities and graduate schools. During the period of state socialism (1917– 1991), the theoretical and conceptual debate in the East was influenced by the Marxist-Leninist ideology, and in China by Maoist thinking that was gradually revised by Deng Xia Ping during the 1980’s. In the Socialist world many scholars and political leaders from liberation movements and progressive governments were trained in Marxist approaches to international politics. In the South, in Asia, Africa, and Latin America different regional and national traditions prevailed that were often inspired by the political leaders of liberation movements (Nasser, Nkruma, Nyere) and by third world intellectuals (e.g. Abdel Malek, Samir Amin). From the 1960’s to the 1980’s, in Latin America, the school of ‘dependencia’ influenced the thinking on international relations and on development.

With the end of the Cold War the US intellectual dominance in the IR discipline has declined, and the Soviet influence disappeared with the implosion of the USSR. Since then an increasing theoretical and conceptual diversity has emerged and many new centres of conceptual innovation are blossoming in all parts of the world (Albrecht 1987, 1997, 1999; Crawford/Jarvis 2001). Despite the many schemes and approaches in IR, three scientific traditions are crucial.

38.2.1 Scientific Traditions and Schools of International Relations

Three intellectual traditions of thought, macro theories, or images of the world on IR have been distinguished by the English school (Wight 1991; Bull 1977; Buzan 2001, 2004, 2006):

• the Hobbesian or Machiavellian pessimist or realist with the primary focus on power politics and with a specific emphasis on military strategy (Malnes 1993);

• the Kantian optimist or idealist focusing on international law and human rights (Covell 1998);

• the Grotian pragmatic internationalist or rationalist pursuing opportunities for cooperation irrespective of the power difference and the democratic deficit (Bull/Kingsbury/Roberts 1992; Onuma 1993).


While in the early years of international relations during the inter-war period, legal perspectives in the Wilsonian tradition prevailed in the UK and US (Alger 1968; Meyers 1979, 1994a), since 1945 scholars working in the US have dominated and influenced the thinking and writing on international relations. Since then, at least five debates (Maghoori 1982; Baldwin 1993) between two opposite schools of thought occurred first in the US and later within the ‘OECD world’:

• 1st debate in the late 1940’s and 1950’s between supporters of realism (Carr 1939; Morgenthau 1948, 1969; Herz 1959; Niebuhr 1949) that called for power politics and the so-called idealists in the Wilsonian tradition who stressed international law and institutions (Claude 1962; Clark/Sohn 1966). Realist notions and concepts dominated the teaching of undergraduates, in graduate schools, and in ...

_______________

Notes:

1. The authors appreciate the critical and constructive comments and stimulating suggestions by Úrsula Oswald Spring (Mexico) who commented on two text versions, and by Czesaw Mesjasz (Poland) and Pál Dunay (Hungary) who reviewed the second revised text. Their comments are reflected in this text.

2. See: Lynn-Jones/Miller 1995; Ullman 1983, HomerDixon 1991, 1994; Lowi 1993, 1995, 1998; Lowi/Shaw 2000; Gleick 1990, 1991, 1993, 1993a, 1994, 1998, 2000.
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Part 4 of 4

This chapter has been translated into Spanish: Albrecht, Ulrich; Brauch, Hans Günter, 2009: “Seguridad en la Investigación para la Paz y los Estudios de Seguridad”, in : Oswald Spring, Úrsula; Brauch, Hans Günter (Eds.) :Reconceptualizar la Seguridad en el Siglo XXI(Mexico D.F. – Cuernavaca : UNAM/CRIM): 329-382.

The Spanish book may be ordered in August 2009: here

A new text will be published in 2010 in a book edited by Prof. Dr. Rüdiger Lohlker, University of Vienna

Observance of the World Day to Combat Desertification
17 June 2009
Old City Hall, Markt, Bonn
Agenda
18:00-18:30 Observance ceremony; Welcome Statement by Bürgermeister Ulrich Hauschild , City of Bonn;
Opening Statement by Luc Gnacadja, Executive Secretary, UNCCD; Statement by Reza Ardakanian, Representative of the Heads of the United Nations Agencies in Germany, Director of the UN-Water Decade Programme on Capacity Development (UNW-DPC). Moderator: Arnt Diener, BIMUN/SINUB e.V.
18:30- 20:00 Lectures: Hans Günter Brauch, P eace R esearch and E uropean S ecurity S tudies: Securitizing the ground, grounding security

Marc Paganini, European Space Agency: Combating land degradation from space

Ulrich Kindermann, Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH: Down to earth: Desertification challenges in the Pamir, Tajikistan

Additional information
Background Note in English
Message from the Secretary-General of the UN, Ban Ki-Moon
Press Release
Report in English
Report in Spanish
Video
Event Documentation

[x]
The panel of presenters, from left to right: Dr. Hans Günter Brauch, Reza Ardakanian, Ulrich Hauschild, Luc Gnacadja, Arnt Diener, Ulrich Kindermann and Marc Paganini

United States of America
United Nations, New York, Friday, 15 May 2009

[x]
PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch at the Entrance of the UN Headquarters
Second Side Event at the 17 th Session of UN-CSD
United Nations, New York, Thursday, 14 May, 6.15-7.45
United Nations Headquarters, 46 th Street and 1 st Avenue, Conference Room 2

Launching of the UNCCD Report
Grounding Security – Securitizing the Ground
Hans Günter Brauch
Úrsula Oswald Spring
UNCCD, May 2009
Securitizing the Ground-Grounding Security
Download English version

Úrsula Oswald Spring
Hans Günter Brauch
UNCCD, May 2009
Seguritizar la Tierra Aterrizar la Seguridad
Download Spanish version

Powerpoint Presentation by Hans Günter Brauch and Úrsula Oswald Spring

[x]
From left to right: Dr. Hans Günter Brauch (Germany), chairman, AFES-PRESS; Free University of Berlin, UNU-EHS, Bonn; Prof. Dr. Úrsula Oswald Spring (Mexico), UNAM-CRIM, Cuernavaca; UNU-EHS, Bonn; Dª. Alicia Villauriz Iglesias ( Spain), Secretary General of Rural Affairs, Ministry of Environment and Rural Affairs, Madrid; Mr. Luc Gnacadja (Benin), Executive Director, UNCCD, Bonn; Mr. Marcos Montoiro (Spain), Awareness Raising, Communication and Education Unit , UNCCD, Bonn. Photo by: Mr. Sergio Zelaya (Honduras), Policy and Advocacy on Global Issues and Platforms, UNCCD, Bonn.

Podcast
Photo Gallery of UNCCD Events in New York

First Side Event at the 17th Session of UN-CSD
New York , Monday, 11 May, 1.15-2.45
United Nations Headquarters, 44th and 1st Avenue, Conference Room 7
Presentation by Hans Günter Brauch
Event documentation of UNU-ONY
Event page of AFES-PRESS
Podcast of the whole event
By clicking below the photo on any name you can listen to this speaker

[x]
From right to left : H.E. Amb. Prof. Dr. Joy Ogwu ( Nigeria), Permanent Representative of Nigeria at the UN; H.E. Amb. Thomas Matussek ( Germany), Permanent Representative of Germany at the UN; Dr. Jean-Marc Coicaud (France), director, UNO-ONY, New York

[x]
From right to left: Mr. Achim Steiner (Germany), Under Secretary General of the United Nations, Executive Director of UNEP, Nairobi; Dr. Hans Günter Brauch (Germany), chairman, AFES-PRESS; Free University of Berlin, UNU-EHS, Bonn; Prof. Dr. Úrsula Oswald Spring (Mexico), UNAM-CRIM, Cuernavaca; UNU-EHS, Bonn

Interview of Dr. Jean-Marc Coicaud, director, UNU-ONY, with Úrsula Oswald Spring and Hans Günter Brauch

Interviews of Ms. Sydney Kinnear, UNU-ONY with Úrsula Oswald Spring and Hans Günter Brauch

[x]
From left to right: Ms. Sydney Kinnear ( USA), Junior Professional, UNU-ONY, New York interviewing Dr. Hans Günter Brauch ( Germany), chairman, AFES-PRESS; Free University of Berlin, UNU-EHS, Bonn

Podcast at the book launch event with USTREAM
Photo Gallery of the Event at UNU-ONY Website
Photo Gallery of the Event at the AFES-PRESS Website

Bonn , Wednesday, 29 April 2009, 14.00-15.30
World Conference Centre, 53113 Bonn , Görresstr. 15,
Room “Süßmuth” at TNT (formerly UNU-EHS)
Springer: the language of science, DUETSCHE WELL, UNITED NATIONS UNIVERSITY
Book Launch of
Facing Global Environmental Change: Environ­men­tal, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concepts
Editors : Hans Günter Brauch, Úrsula Oswald Spring, John Grin, Czeslaw Mesjasz, Patricia Kameri-Mbote, Navnita Chadha Behera, Béchir Chourou, Heinz Krummenacher (Berlin/ Heidelberg/New York : Springer, 2009)
Presentation by Hans Günter Brauch

29 April 2009, 4.00-5.30 pm
Panel: Responding to Social Challenges of Global Change : Role of Knowledge
Presentation by Hans Günter Brauch
Responding to Social Challenges Posed by Global Change: Knowledge and State, Societal and Business Actors

Berlin , Mittwoch, 22 April 2009, 18.00-19.30
im Besucherzentrum des Auswärtigen Amts

Book Launch
Facing Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Human, Energy, Food, Health and Water Security Concepts
Editors : Hans Günter Brauch, Úrsula Oswald Spring, John Grin, Czeslaw Mesjasz, Patricia Kameri-Mbote, Navnita Chadha Behera, Béchir Chourou, Heinz Krummenacher (Berlin/ Heidelberg/New York : Springer, 2009)
Presentation by Hans Günter Brauch

Thursday, 12 March 2009, Session 56
Human Migration – Geopolitical Conflicts - Climate Security
CLIMATE CHANGE: Global Risks, Challenges & Decisions
COPENHAGEN 2009
10-12 March
Presentation by Hans Günter Brauch: Climate Change Impacts on Migration: Conflict and Cooperation in the Mediterranean

50th ISA Annual Convention, New York, 15-18 February, 2008
Panel, Tuesday, 17 February, 2.15-4.00 pm
Facing Global Environmental Change:
Climate Change, Food Sovereignty and Security in the AnthropoceneCo-sponsorsed by ISA Peace Studies Section with Environmental Studies Section
Presentation by Hans Günter Brauch: Securitizing Climate Change

2008
17 October 2008
India
On the Vardhaman Mahaveer Open University in Kota, Rajasthan, India
Jaipur, Rajasthan, India, 14-15 October 2008
Reconceptualising Security in the 21st Century :
The South Asian Context

[x]

Presentation by Hans Günter Brauch: Securitzing Global Environmental Change: The Environmental Dimension of Human Security

[x]
Amb. Prof. Dr. S.D. Muni, JNU, New Delhi, Prof. Dr. Naresh Dadhich, Vice Chancellor Vardhaman Mahaveer Open University (VMOU). with PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch ( Germany)

13 October 2008
Website on this conference
Session: Climate Change and Migration
Paper presentations:
International Relocation from Pacific Island Countries : Adaptation Failure? by Dr. John R. CAMPBELL
Economic Policies and Design Strategies Related to Mitigation and Adaptation to Climatic Changes in Argentina. Their Importance in the Determination of Migration Scenarios by Dr. Ana Maria FERNÁNDEZ EQUIZA
Rising Sea-Levels, Kingtides and the Modern Subject : Local Dialogue on an Environmental Crisis in Coastal Papua New Guineaby Dr. David LIPSET
Climate Change, Desertification and Environmentally-Induced Migration in the Western Mediterranean: Possible Scenarios for Southern Europe and North Africa by 2020 and 2050by Dr. Hans Günter BRAUCH

Presentation by Hans Günter Brauch: Climate Change, Desertification and Environmentally-Induced Migration
in the Western Mediterranean: Possible Scenarios for Southern Europe and North Africa by 2020 and 2050


[x]
Dr. Brauch explains his PEISOR model on the linkage between security challenges posed by global environmental change and their potentially extreme outcomes leading to environmentally-induced migration, crises, disasters and conflicts.

Interview (in German) with Julia Grimminger (KNA), 27.10.2008
[The bomb is ticking, Climate change triggering migration]
Die Bombe tickt
Der Klimawandel lässt die Flüchtlingsströme anschwellen

8 October 2008
EuroMesaco and
Al-Ahram Center for Political and Strategic Studies (ACPSS)
Third Preparatory Meeting of the 2008 EuroMeSCo Annual Conference
Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt, 6 & 7 October 2008

Strengthening Euro-Mediterranean Relations. Emerging Dynamics, Challenges and their Potential Implications for the Mashreq

[x]

Presentation by Hans Günter Brauch: Soft Security Risks in the Euro-Mediterranean Area: What Justification for Increased Securitization?

1 October 2008
IFRI Website
Impacting health, the environment and global governance
The challenges of taking a security approach
Paris, 26 September 2008
Programme
Presentation by Hans Günter Brauch: Environment and Security: A Historic Link

Slovenia
Second World Conference on International Studies
Ljubljana, Slovenia , 23-26 July 2008
Friday, 25 July 2008, 4:30-6:00 pm, FD 02
132 Reconceptualising Security in the 21st Century: First Scientific Results

Introduction by Hans Guenter Brauch, Free University of Berlin: Introduction: Goals and Achievements of the Mental Mapping on Reconceptualising Security in the 21 st Century: The Security Handbook for the Anthropocene

Paper and Presentation by Hans Guenter Brauch, Free University of Berlin; editor of the Hexagon Book Series: From a State-centred Security Dilemma Towards a Human-centred Survival Dilemma

Belgium
ipra
BUILDING SUSTAINABLE FUTURES: Enacting Peace and Development
2008 GLOBAL CONFERENCE
UNIVERSITY OF LEUVEN, BELGIUM
15-19 JULY
Wednesday, 16 July 2008, 20:00-21:30
Sint-Michielskerk, Peace Church, Leuven,
Book Launch
Presentation by Hans Günter Brauch
Thursday, 17 July 2008, 14:00-15:30
Ecology and Peace Commission, Panel 5: Conceptual Quartet
Introduction by Hans Guenter Brauch: Reconceptualizing Security in the 21st Century: A Global Scientifíc Mapping Project
Paper and Presentation by Hans Guenter Brauch: Conceptual Quartet of Security, Peace, Develop-ment and Environment

Brussels, 14 July 2008, 18.00-19.30
EGMONT, EASTWEST INSTITUTE, INSTITUTE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY, THE CENTRE
Co-organized by the Institute for Environmental Security (IES), EGMONT – The Royal Institute for International Relations , and the EastWest Institute and hosted by The Centre
Presentation by Hans Günter Brauch

Switzerland
Geneva, 26 June 2008 at 12th EADI General Conference
Thursday, 26 June 2008, 13.30-16.30 Book launch during the 12 th EADI Conference
Presentation by Hans Günter Brauch

Germany
Berlin, 23 June 2008, 18.00-20.00 (followed by a reception)
23 June 2008: Book Launch in the German Foreign Ministry [in German only]
Presentation by Hans Günter Brauch

April 2008
22 April 2008, New York, USA, 3 - 6pm
United Nations University Office at the United Nations
New York, 2 UN Plaza, DC2-2060, New York, New York 10017
Hans Günter Brauch
Book Launch, 22 April 2008
Globalization and Environmental Challenges: Reconceptualizing Security in the 21st Century

21 April 2008, Washington, D.C., USA
Union of Concerned Scientists, Monday, 21 April 2008, 11.30-1pm
Hans Günter Brauch
Climate Change an International and Human Security Challenge and Opportunity for Multilateral Cooperation and Book Launch of Globalization and Environmental Challenges: Reconceptualizing Security in the 21st Century

11 April 2008, Cuernavaca, Mexico
Seminario Intedisciplinario Cultura y Sociedad
El hombre y su medioambiente
Secondo ciclo, coordinador : Dr. Luis Tamayo
Hans Günter Brauch
Global Environmental Change and Security Impacts for Mexico

1 April 2008, Berkeley, California, USA
University of California, Berkeley,
International and Area Studies, Peace and Conflict Studies
Hans Günter Brauch
Morning: Reconceptualizing Security: Global Environmental Change and Security Impacts for Society
Afternoon: Securitization of Climate Change: Impacts for the Mediterranean

March 2008
26 March 2008, San Francisco, California, USA
Hans Günter Brauch
Paper presented at the 49 th ISA Annual Convention,
San Francisco, March 26th-29th, 2008
Reconceptualizing Security: Global Environmental and Climate Change as new Security Dangers and Concerns
Abstract, Paper, Bibliography (to be added in May 2008 )

2007
December 2007
6-8 December 2007, Montpellier, France
Hans Günter Brauch: Projected Climate Change Impacts for Mediterranean Security by 2020 and 2050
Vulnerability of Mediterranean Urban Centres –
Energy Vision of Montpellier: Mediterranean Renewable Partnership
Presented at the Plan Bleu round table /Energaïa
(powerpoint presentation in English and in French)
(scientific paper: English and in French)
Conference programme
Friday, 7 December, 14.30 – 17.30
Mediterranean countries and economical activities : energy and climate stakes

President of the session: Pierre ICARD – Plan Bleu – Directeur de l’Unité Thématique
Urban planning and tourism in Mediterranean countries : current situation and prospects

Round table 1 : Mediterranean urban spaces’ vulnerability and adaptation facing climate change effects -- Les enjeux énergétiques des programmes de l’Habitat au Maroc - Morocco Building programmes’ Energetic stakes

Animateurs : Mohamed BERDAI - CDER – Directeur de la Coopération Internationale (Maroc) / Ali GUERIDA - Ministère de l’Habitat et de l’Aménagement de l’Espace – Directeur Technique de l’Habitat (Maroc)

Projected climate change impacts for Mediterranean by 2020 and 2050
Key speaker : Hans Guenter BRAUCH - Professeur à Berlin (Allemagne)

Euro Mediterranean collectivities and ecodistricts’ stakes : the Montpellier «Communauté d’Agglomération» example Speaker :Jean-Pierre MOURE - Premier Vice Président de la Communauté d’Agglomération de Montpellier - Conseiller Général du Département de l’Hérault - Maire de la commune de Cournonsec (France)

Impacts and adaptation in the costal zone of Egypt. Speaker :Mohamed EL RAEY - Professeur à l’Université d’Alexandrie (Egypte)

Maroc, l’exemple d’Agadir, Morocco : Agadir example. Speaker :Tariq KABBAGE - Président du Conseil Communal – Mairie d’Agadir (Maroc)

November 2007
HEINRICH BOLL FOUNDATION
Green Wars?
Hans Günter Brauch: Climate Change Scenarios and Possible Impact for the MENA Region: Hazards, Migration and Conflicts
Abstract
Conference Report and Discussion on the Presentation
Beirut, Lebanon, 2-3 November 2007

July 2007
Hans Günter Brauch: Global Change and Desertification: Scenarios and Social and Eco­logical Impact
Abstract
Keynote speech at the meeting of the Spanish Environment Ministry and the Fundacion Biodiversidad on:
Global Change and Desertification
June 2007
Opening Lecture by
Hans Günter Brauch
Global Environmental Change and Security for the People
Ipogea and ITKNET (International Traditional Knowledge Network Conference)
Hans Günter Brauch
Free University of Berlin; UNU-EHS, Fellow, Bonn; AFES-PRESS
Climate Change and Reconceptualization of Security

2006
December 2006
PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch
Free University of Berlin; UNU-EHS, Fellow, Bonn; AFES-PRESS
Impact of Global Environmental Change on National, Environmental and Human Security in the Mediterranean Region by 2020 and 2050
presentation at the
WORKSHOP: NATO Collaborative Linkage Grant
“Combating Desertification with Traditional Knowledge – A Contribution to Euro-Mediterranean Security”
Rome (Italy), 5-6 December, 2006
Organised by Prof. Dr. Pietro Laureano
President of IPOGEA
Italian Research Centre on Local and Traditional Knowledge

November 2006
PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch
Panel Discussion on the Role of Genebanks in Promoting the Use of Agricultural Biodiversity to Combat Desertification
Desert Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt
27 November 2006, 10:00-13:00

[X]
Prof. Dr. Ismail Abd El-Galil Hussein, President, DRC, Cairo, Egypt;
Dr. Wagdi George Ayad, Regional Director, International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Regional office for Central West Asia and North Africa (CWANA), Aleppo, Syria
Dr. Emile A. Frison, Director General, Biodiversity International, Rome,Italy
PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch, AFES-PRESS Chairman, Mosbach, Germany
Prof. Dr. Ismail H. El-Bagouri, Head of Dept. of Soil and Water Conservation,
Desert Research Center, Cairo, Egypt


Training Course on the Role of Genebanks in Promoting the Use of Agricultural Biodiversity to Combat Desertification from 27 November – 7 December 2006 in Cairo, and El Arish, Sinai, Egypt
27 November – 7 December 2006

Organised by the Desert Research Centre (DRC), Cairo, Egypt in cooperation with Biodiversity International, Rome

Sponsored by the Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation and the Egyptian Ministry of Foreign Affairs

[x]
Prof. Oswald and Dr. Brauch with participants from the Training Course from Egypt and Sub-Saharan Africa in El Arish

PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch
Free University of Berlin, UNU-EHS, Fellow, Bonn, AFES-PRESS

Desertification and Climate Change: Challenges, Impacts and Policy Responses in the 21st Century for North African, Sahelian, Horn and Nile Basin Countries

[x]
Prof. Oswald and Dr. Brauch and a colleague from the DRC in Cairo at the entrance the Cheops pyramid in Giza, Cairo, Egypt

Prof. Dr. Úrsula Oswald Spring: Hazard Prone Regions due to Desertification and New Security Concepts Combining Top-down and bottom-up Response Strategies

An Experiment in Food Sovereignty: Learning from Indigenous Knowledge in Mexico. Introducing the Cactus as a new Source of Food to Egypt

[x]

October 2006

[x]

Her Majesty the Queen of Spain and the speaker, 25 October 2006, Almeria
Hans Günter Brauch:
Member of the Scientific Committee
Desertification and Migration
From Almeria I to Almeria II: Achievements and Policy Tasks
International Symposium Desertification and Migration
Almeria, Spain, 25-27 October 2006
Conclusions and Lectures
Official Conclusions of the Symposium (English)
Oral Presentation
Text of Scientific Paper
Policy Conclusions (English) and (Spanish) will be added later
Website of Organisers
English, Spanish, French
Press Reaction to this Symposium
Press Release of the Royal Palace, October 2006
Press release of the Spanish Ministry of the Environment, 25 October 2006

Press Reaction collected by Universidad of Almeria:
ABC, 26 October 2006
El Mundo, 26 October 2006
Ideal, 26 October 2006
Expansion, 26 October 2006
Diario de Almeria, 26 October 2006
La Voz de Almeria, 26 October 2006
Noticias Television, RT1, 25 October 2006

Spanish Press Reaction on the proposal for the Creation of a Centre of Research on Desertification and Migration in Almeria:
Ideal de Almeria, 26 October 2006
Noticias Ya.Com, 26 October
Ideal, 26 October
La Voz de Almeria, 26 October
La Andalucia Investiga, 3 November 2006

Spanish and Mexican press reaction on the proposal of a Spanish-Mexican-German cooperation in the fight against Desertification:
El Periodico de Mexico, 27 October 2006
Almeria Verde
Terra Actualidad, 27 October 2006

German Press Reaction:
Abschluss des Internationalen Jahres der Wüstenbekämpfung
The International Year to Combat Desertification Ends

UNU-EHS and Munich Re Foundation
Summer Academy on Social Vulnerability
23-29 July 2006, Castle Hohenkammer, Germany

[x]

PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch UNU-EHS, Fellow, Member of the College of Associated Scientists and Advisors (CASA)

The Conceptual Security Context: Human, Environmental and Water Security. Do Water-related Social Vulnerabilities Create Human Security Threats, Challenges Vulnerabilities and Risks?
For a shorter version of this keynote speech please press here:
Access to all presentations at the Summer Academy:

Bangkok, Thailand, 30 May 2006 and 5 June 2006

[x]

Human Security Network
International Symposium On Building and Synergizing Partnership for Global Human Security and Development
Bangkok, Thailand, 30-31 May 2006
Scientific Presentation by Hans Günter Brauch to Panel II
Towards a Fourth Pillar of Human Security: "Freedom from Hazard Impacts". Addressing Global Environmental Change, Environmental Stress and Natural Hazards

Recommendations from the HSN International Symposium on Building and Synergizing Partnership for Global Human Security and Development

8th Ministerial Meeting of the Human Security Network
Bangkok, Thailand, 30-31 May 2006
Chairman's Summary
List of participants
List of activities of HSN countries:
Address by H.E. Dr. Kantathi Suphamongkhon, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Thailand, at the Opening Ceremony of The 8th HSN Ministerial, 1 June 2006
Press Conference
Photo: 8th Ministerial Meeting, Bangkok, Thailand, 1-2 June 2006
Slovenia has taken over the chairmanship of the HSN on 2 June 2006, for details
Report on transfer of chairmanship
Slovenia's work programme

H.E. Yukio Takasu, Ambassador of Japan in charge of Human Security: "Towards Forming Friends of Human Security"

on the occasion of 8th Ministerial meeting of the Human Security Network, Bangkok, 2.6.2006
Human Security Speeches by Prime Minister, Foreign Minister and Japanese Representatives

Luncheon Lecture by Hans Günter Brauch: Environment and Human Security
Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 5 June 2006

Between Globalization and Civil Literacy: A Human Security Course Planning and Applied Research Strategies Workshop

The notion "freedom from hazard impact" was first suggested by Hans Günter Brauch in two UNU-EHS publications during 2005 that may be downloaded as:
Intersection 2/2005:
Source 1/2005:

Joint poster presentation with Ursula Oswald Spring
Third International Conference on Early Warning (EWC III): From Concept to Action, Bonn, Germany, 27-29 March 2006

[url]Mainstreaming Early Warning of Hazards and Conflics[/url]

Fourth World Water Forum in Mexico: Local Action for Global Change
Mexico City, México, 16-22 March 2006
Programme of two sessions:
Water Scarcity and Degradation - Posing a Survival Dilemma - Policy tasks for an integrated water and conflict management, prevention and avoidance

UNU-EHS Workshop, Yautepec, Morelos, México
13-15 March 2006
Social Vulnerability and Resilience
Hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and the Tsunami in the Indian Ocean:
Case Studies on USA, Mexico, Cuba and in Central America
Survival Dilemma, Hazards, and Human Security

4 Public Lectures at the invitation of El Colegio de Tlaxcala
Tlaxcala, State Tlaxcala, México, 8-9 March 2006
Poster Programme

[x]

Los Quatros Pilares de la Seguridad Humana: Libertad de temores, Libertad de pobreza, Libertad de impactos de desastres y Libertad de vivir con dignidad

Four Pillars of Human Security: Freedom from Fear, Freedom from Want, Freedom from Hazards Impacts and Freedom to Live in Dignity

Reunion con investigadores de El Colegio de Tlaxcala
Proyectos de Investigacion

Meeting with researchers of El Colegio de Tlaxcala

Cambio ambiental global: Retos de la seguridad ecológica y ambiental por los cambios de clima y la desertificación

Global Environmental Change: Ecological Security Challenges due to Climate Change and Desertification

Conferencia magistral: Perspectivas de la Seguridad Multilateral Europea: La estrategia de seguridad de la Unión Europea.

Multilateral European Security Perspective: The European Security Strategy of the EU of 2003

Public Lecture at the
Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidisciplinarias
de la UNAM (CRIM), Cuernavaca, Morelos, México
Monday, 6 March 2006:
Poster Invitation for the Public Lecture at UNAM-CRIM
Global Environmental Change and Extreme Outcomes: Implications for Human and Environmental Security

6-17 February 2006,
NATO Advanced Study Institute,
Arrava Institute for Environmental Studies, Israel
Joint lecture programme with Ursula Oswald on 7 February 2006


[x]

Reconceptualising Security: Concepts and PEISOR Model on Global Environmental Change, Effects & Impacts

Environmental Challenges to Security & Survival in the Mediterranean and Middle East. Environmental Change, Effects & Impacts

Cooperative Opportunities: Addressing Environmental Security Challenges on Water, Soil, Food and Energy. Environmental Change, Effects & Impacts

Lectures by Úrsula Oswald Spring

[x]

Water Security and Desertification

Globalization, Hydro-Diplomacy, Cooperation and Peace

27-29 January 2006, Iserlohn
Ver-Wüstungen und Tsunamis
Politik und Praxis für einen nachhaltigen Umgang mit unseren Lebensgrundlagen

[x]

2005
October 2005
Fifth AFES-PRESS Workshop on Reconceptualising Security
at the Sixth Open Meeting of the Global Environmental Change Research Community
Bonn, Germany, October 9-13, 2005
"Gobal Environmental Change, Globalization and International Security"
Panel 3: Monday, 10 October, Early Warning of Natural Hazards and Disasters
Towards a mainstreaming of early warning of hazards and Conflicts (Abstract)

August 2005
Fourth AFES-PRESS Workshop on Reconceptualising Security: "Security Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilities and Risks", First World International Studies Conference (WISC) at Bilgi University, Istanbul, Turkey, 24- 27 August 2005.

Hans Günter Brauch: "Reconceptualising of Security: Stages and Goals"

Hans Günter Brauch: "Concepts of Security Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilities and Risks" (UNU-EHS report).

Download the 100 page report: "Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilites and Risks in Environmental and Human Security" by Hans Günter Brauch

Hans Günter Brauch: "Learning from Mitrany, Marshall, Monnet, Gorbachev: 60 Years of Peace in Europe".

July 2005
Hans Günter Brauch with Janos Bogardi, short presentation on 21 July 2005 (in German) at the Wissenschaftszentrum, Berlin, during a book presentation of Andreas Rechkemmer (Ed.): UNEO: Towards an International Environment Organization: Approaches to a sustainable reform of global environmental governance (Baden-Baden: Nomos, 2005).

10 May 2005, Bonn, Bundestag Conference Centre
UNCCD Third Session of the Committee for the Review of the Implementation of the Convention (CRIC 3): Global Interactive Dialogue (GID)

Chairman: Amb. Mohamed M. El Ghaouth, Representative of Mauritania at the United Nations, New York
Moderator PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch, Free University of Berlin & AFES-PRESS

Moderator Dr. Hans Günter Brauch: From Almeria, Valencia to Bonn: Introduction of the theme and the panellists(19 slides)

Prof. Dr. Ursula Oswald, PD Dr. Hans Günter Brauch: Desertification and Migration: Case Study on Mexico, short version. (39 slides) and long version (84 slides)

Panellists: Prof. Dr. Jose L. Rubio, European Society for Soil Conservation, Spain; (English text; Spanish text)
Prof. Dr. Janos Bogardi, United Nations University UNU-EHS Institute for Environment and Human Security;
Mr. Sisir Ratho, Focal Point of the Government of India; Mr. Issa Martin Bikienga, Deputy Executive Secretary of CILSS;
Mr. Marc Baltes, Deputy Co-ordinator of OSCE Economic and Environmental Activities.

Moderator's summary report: and UNCCD-Version:

Report: © IISD: "CRIC-3, Final", in: Earth Negotiations Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 175, p. 14-15.
Background on UNCCD,
CRIC-3,
UNCCD Journal on 10 May 2005 (announcement);
Journal on 11 May 2005 (brief report);
Interview mit Ursula Oswald und Hans Günter Brauch

February 2005
Hans Günter Brauch: Reconceptualising Security in the 21st Century. Facing the Challenges of Global Environmental Change and Globalisation
Opening remarks to Seminar, 21.-23.2.2005

Hans Günter Brauch: Reconceptualising Security: Relevance for GMOSS?, GMOSS Meeting Consolidated Security ConceptGoldegg / Salzburg February 17.2. - 18.2.2005

2004
October 2004
Hans Günter Brauch: Impact of Global Warming and Non-Conventional Water Resources: Potential of solar thermal desalination to defuse water as a conflict issue - A conceptual contribution to conflict resolution and long-term conflict avoidance, Scientific Paper and Powerpoint Presentation at the Second International Israeli Palestinian Conference: Water for Life in the Middle East, 10th - 14th October 2004, Porto Bello Hotel, Antalya, Turkey.
Website of Organisers
Conference Programme
Conference Abstracts
IPCRI
Final Statement

September 2004

Hans Günter Brauch: Introducing the book project, especially of part II on philosophical, ethical and religious contexts, Introduction of Keynote Speaker at the Third AFES-PRESS-GMOSS workshop, 5th Pan-European Conference on International Relations, The Hague, The Netherlands, 10 September 2004.

Hans Günter Brauch: Conceptual quartet: Security linkages with peace, development and environment, Presentation at the Third AFES-PRESS-GMOSS workshop, 5th Pan-European Conference on International Relations, The Hague, The Netherlands, 9 September 2004.

Hans Günter Brauch: Introduction: Global Monitoring for Stability & Security (GMOSS) Contributing to GMES, Third AFES-PRESS-GMOSS workshop, 5th Pan-European Conference on International Relations, The Hague, The Netherlands, 9 September 2004.

Hans Günter Brauch: The Three Worldviews of Hobbes, Grotius and Kant: Foundations of Modern Thinking on Peace and Security - Contextual Change and Reconceptualisation of Security, Opening speech at the Third AFES-PRESS-GMOSS workshop, 5th Pan-European Conference on International Relations, The Hague, The Netherlands, 8 September 2004.

Hans Günter Brauch: Landscape Ecology and Environmental Security, Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilities and Risks - Common and Differentiated Trends in the Mediterranean During the 21st Century, Keynote speech at the NATO CCMS Pilot Study, Use of Landscape Sciences for Environmental Assessment, Pilot Study Meeting at Lecce (Italy), 5-9 September 2004, Linkages among Landscape Assessment, Quality of Life and Environmental Security.

Hans Günter Brauch: "Climate Change and Long-term Impacts in the Mediterranean Region. Environmental Security, Conflicts and Conflict Avoidance", Speech in Session VII: Commitments, Mechanisms and Political Challenge of UNFCCC, Ankara Climate Change Conference, 1-3 September 2004, The Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Environment and Forestry, UNDP.

July 2004

Hans Günter Brauch: Global Monitoring for Stability & Security (GMOSS)
Contributing to GMES, Book Project: Reconceptualising Security, 40th Anniversary Conference of IPRA, Peace and Conflict in a Time of Globalisation, Sopron, Hungary, 5-9 July 2004, 6 July 2004, 14:00 - 15:30: Water and Security, Joint Session of the IPRA Commissions on Environment, Security and Global Political Economy

Hans Günter Brauch: From Sussex to Sopron IPRA Security Commission: (1986-2004), 40th Anniversary Conference of IPRA, Peace and Conflict in a Time of Globalisation, Sopron, Hungary, 5-9 July 2004, 6 July 2004, 16:00 - 17:30: Reconceptualising Security, Survival Dilemma and Alternative Security Strategies, Joint Session of the Commissions on Environment, Security and Global Political Economy

Hans Günter Brauch: From a Hobbesian Security to a Grotian Survival Dilemma, 40th Anniversary Conference of IPRA, Peace and Conflict in a Time of Globalisation, Sopron, Hungary, 5-9 July 2004, 6 July 2004, 16:00 - 17:30: Reconceptualising Security, Survival Dilemma and Alternative Security Strategies, Joint Session of the Commissions on Environment, Security and Global Political Economy

Hans Günter Brauch: Global Environmental and Climate Change and Conflicts: Towards a Peace Research Agenda for Environmental Conflict Avoidance in the 21st Century, 40th Anniversary Conference of IPRA, Peace and Conflict in a Time of Globalisation, Sopron, Hungary, 5-9 July 2004, Friday, 9 July 2004, 11:00 - 12:30 Plenary: Peace and Ecology
May 2004

Hans Günter Brauch: "Global Change and Environmental Conflict Avoidance Towards a Research and Policy Agenda", The Hague Conference on Environment, Security and Sustainable Development, 9-12 May 2004, The Peace Palace, The Hague, Netherlands.

For more information; see programme overview, detailed programme, other conference papers, and background material.

March 2004
Four talks in Washington, D.C., USA

Hans Günter Brauch: "Climate Change, Natural Disasters and Conflicts in the Mediterranean", Global Disaster Information Network, GDIN Conference 2004, Washington, D.C., 26-29 March 26 2004, U.S. Department of State and Hilton Hotel, Alexandria, SESSION 23c: Regional Cooperation - A comparative View, Latin America, the Caribbean, Europe and the Mediterranean, Saturday, 27 March, 3.45-6.00 pm.

Abrupt Climate Change Workshop, Paris, 30 September- 1 October Draft papers Working Papers Library

Hans Günter Brauch: Abrupt Climate Change and Conflicts: Security Implications from a European Perspective - Hobbesian vs. Grotian Analyses, Talk & discussion organized by the Washington Office of the Friedrich Ebert Foundation,29 March 2004, 12-2pm, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, The Choate Room, 1779 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC. (Invitation text)

Background information by the PEW Center on the film: The Day After Tomorrow: Could it Really Happen?

On the Scientific basis: U.S. National Research Council's Report in Brief on Abrupt Climate Change:and on the book

The Study by Randall and Schwartz for the Pentagon on: "An Abrupt Climate Change Scenario and Its Implications for United States National Security,"

For the report by Hans Günter Brauch: Climate Change and Conflicts

Hans Günter Brauch: Book Presentation: Security and Environment in the Mediterranean - Conceptualisation Security and Environmental Conflicts hosted by the Henry Stimson Center, Washington, DC, 30 March 2004, 2-4 pm

Hans Günter Brauch: Security and Environment in the Mediterranean. Long-term Human and Environmental Security Challenges for the Eastern Mediterranean during the 21st Century at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Environmental Change and Security Project Washington, D.C, 31 March, 10-11.30, Event Summary by Shannon Green and Meaghan Parker

Montreal, Canada, ISA Conference, 17-20 March
Friday, 19 March 2004, Reconceptualising Security I: Environmental Security

Chair: Hans Günter Brauch, Free University Berlin, AFES-PRESS, GMOSS: Introduction: EU-Network of excellence on security: Global Monitoring for Stability and Security (GMOSS) - AFES-PRESS contribution on Reconceptualising of security

Speaker 1: Hans Günter Brauch (Free University of Berlin; AFES-PRESS & GMOSS):
Reconceptualsing Security: A Contribution to the Fourth Phase of Research on Human and Environmental Security and Peace (HESP)

Additional nine papers by other speakers

January 2004

Hans Günter Brauch: Introductory Presentation to a Meeting of GlobalEurope 2020, Session 2 on North America on 28 January 2004 at Institute of International Relations Clingendael, The Hague, Netherlands on: Nonmilitary environmental security challenges for Europe and North America from the MENA region

On the second session focusing on North America in The Hague
Programme
Participants
Report [coming soon]

On GlobalEurope 2020, seven anticipation seminars with high-level diplomats and European decision-makers

On the first session focusing on the Arab world in Paris

On the second session focusing on North America in The Hague

On the third session focusing on Russia in Warsaw [with Czeslaw Mesjasz]

2003
December 2003
Two lectures in Amman, Jordan, 18 December 2003
Seminar at the Sheraton Amman Al Nabil Hotel & Towers
Hans Günter Brauch: Environment and Development in the Middle East
Part 1: Environmental Challenges to Security and Survival
Part 2: Development Opportunities: Addressing Non-Military Environmental Challenges by Functional Cooperation for Sustainability: Water, Soil, Food and Energy

December 2003

Hans Günter Brauch: Introductory Invited Lecture at the NATO-Workshop. Security issues of desertification in the Mediterranean region in Valencia, Spain, 2.-5.12.2003 on this subject: Desertification - A New Security Challenge for the Mediterranean? Policy agenda for recognising and coping with fatal outcomes of global environmental change and potentially violent societal consequences

[url]NATO Conference Report[/url]

Security issues of desertification in the Mediterranean region debated at NATO workshop
2-5 December 2003

Security issues related to desertification in the Mediterranean region was the subject of a workshop, which took place in Valencia, Spain, on 2-5 December. Desertification is an issue widely debated among specialists, particularly within the framework of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). However, this NATO workshop presented the first opportunity for desertification in the Mediterranean region to be discussed in connection with security, and this novel approach attracted a large attendance, with 225 participants, and a correspondingly large number of contributed papers.
The opening address was given by Mr. Jean Fournet, NATO Assistant Secretary General for Public Diplomacy, in which he stressed the importance of combined action by scientists, policy-makers, members of governments and international organisations for a better understanding of the consequences of desertification for stability and security in the Mediterranean region.

Official delegations from all the Mediterranean Dialogue countries attended, and experts participated from the following NATO or NATO Partner countries - Albania, Armenia, France, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Spain, Turkey and the United States. International organisations were also represented, including OSCE, European Union and FAO. Sponsored jointly by the NATO Science Committee and the Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society (CCMS), workshop organizers included the US Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Valencia, the UNCCD and the Desert Research Institute of the University of Nevada. The co-directors were Dr. Jose Rubio of the University of Valencia, Spain, and Dr. William Kepner of the US Environmental Protection Agency.

Dr. Kepner gave a presentation in which he posed the question – How is desertification related to security? - and slides from this opening presentation are provided here, together with those from his closing presentation. Also provided are the extensive slides of Prof. Hans Guenther Brauch of Germany, whose presentation focused on possible security-related, pro-active strategies to prevent desertification issues posing security challenges.

Other contributions which were particularly relevant to the security issue came from Dr. Peter Liotta (US Naval War College) on the subject of Environmental and Human Security, which highlighted the “trigger mechanisms” that can unleash conflicts and create socio-economic disparity; and from Prof. Uriel Safriel of the University of Jerusalem who spoke about dryland development, desertification and security in the Mediterranean. The Executive Secretary of UNCCD, Ambassador H. A. Diallo also participated in the workshop and gave a far-reaching presentation on the social and economic consequences of desertification in different regions of the world.

The main points raised during a full three days of discussions were as follows:

Desertification is a common threat to the Mediterranean region. There is a need for a common understanding of the causes of desertification so that opportunities to develop international trans-boundary solutions to confront the desertification challenges can be found;

Desertification is not only a biophysical phenomenon but also has socio-economic and political implications. The concept of desertification is associated with land degradation, water scarcity and loss of productivity due to natural and human-induced causes;

Although countries of the Mediterranean region face similar desertification challenges, nevertheless differences exist, and particularly between the northern and southern parts of the region;

The main implications of desertification identified in Mediterranean countries were:

Water crises in terms of quantity and quality of resources;

Loss of fertile areas and reduction in food production;

Drop in rural incomes and lack of opportunities.

Greater pressure on productive land causes an increase in migration of people within their own countries and to foreign countries, which eventually produces an imbalance between more populated urban areas and desertified areas;

Desertification can be seen as a break in the equilibrium between natural resources and the demands of a society.


In addition:

Economic damage from land degradation is very high;

Desertification is progressing in the Mediterranean region and is creating social conflict;

Droughts aggravate the situation and induce destabilisation in populations;

Farmers and herders thus compete for limited land and water resources;

Desertification increases conflict between grazing rights and ownership rights.


The experts who gathered in Valencia were among the leading authorities in this field, and the high-level discussions allowed for the direct involvement of experts and policy-makers of the Mediterranean Dialogue countries. The workshop was able to provide a better view and understanding of an environmental phenomenon that is likely to have serious consequences for human dynamics and security of societies. In addition, this network of experts on desertification is now available to assist NATO and other potentially interested parties, and it is hoped that they will provide a tool for future assessment of the situation and for further initiatives, which will contribute to a more stable and peaceful Mediterranean region.


Introduction by William R. Kepner, U.S.-EPA, Las Vegas, Nevada and David Mouat, Desert Research Center, Reno, Nevada on: Desertification and Security: Perspectives for the Mediterranean Region

Conference Conclusions by William R. Kepner, U.S.-EPA, Las Vegas, Nevada on: Desertification in the Mediterranean Region: A Security Issue

Book Announcement: Kepner - Rubio - Mouat - Pedrazzini (Eds.): Desertification in the Mediterranean Region. A Security Issue (2005)

October 2003

Hans Günter Brauch: Presentation at the Vienna Conference 2003 on: Mediterranean Security, Stability and Cooperation: An Issue for all of Europe - The Eastern Mediterranean Region, in Vienna, Austria, 18-20 October 2003, organised by the Bureau for Security Policy at the Austrian Federal Ministry for Defence, Lecture 3: "The Political and Security-political Partnership and its Influence on Stability in the Region" on: "Long-term Security Challenges for the Eastern Mediterranean" (pdf file, 1,9 MB)

Hans Günter Brauch: Presentation at the Vienna Conference 2003 on: Mediterranean Security, Stability and Cooperation: An Issue for all of Europe - The Eastern Mediterranean Region, in Vienna, Austria, 18-20 October 2003, organised by the Bureau for Security Policy at the Austrian Federal Ministry for Defence, Working Group 3: Conflict Dimensions in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Factors of Risk and Instability on: "The Human and Environmental Dimension: Coping with Water and Food Insecurity: Instruments for Long-term Conflict Avoidance" (pdf file, 470 KB)

Hans Günter Brauch: Presentation at the Second International Conference on Early Warning (EWC 2 organised by the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) and German Federal Foreign Office (AA), in Bonn, 16 - 18 October 2003, in Section 13.1: Emergent Issues on: "Mainstreaming Early Warning of Natural Disasters and Conflicts" (pdf file, 773 KB)

Abstract of this talk by H. G. Brauch
Abstracts of all talks
Opening Speech by Federal Environment Minister Juergen Trittin
Major Policy Speeches
Press Releases
18.10.2003: Early Warning Can Save Lives! Leaders Learn How
16.10.2003: International Conference Calls Upon International, National and Local Leaders to Integrate Early Warning of Disasters into Policies
Photos of the Opening Ceremony
Summary Report in html, pdf, text formats

June 2003

Hans Günter Brauch: Presentation in the security section of the Third GMES Forum in Athens, Greece, 5-6 June 2003 organised by the EU Commission and ESA (5 June 2003) on: "Security Linkages Among Fatal Outcomes of Global Environmental Change: Natural Disasters, Environmentally-induced Migration, Crises and Conflicts - GMES Contribution to EU Policies for Conflict Prevention"

More details on GMES (Global Monitoring on Environment and Security)

Hans Günter Brauch: Keynote Address on: Environment and Security Challenges in the Mediterranean until 2050 - Potential Contributions of GMES to Reducing Natural Disasters, Environmental Migration and Avoiding Conflicts for a Eurisy Workshop in Matera (Italy) on Security: Services and Benefits from GMES, supported by the Italian Space Agency, Telespazio, the Council of Europe, EC/Joint Research Centre and the European Space Agency (28 January 2003)

2002

Hans Günter Brauch: Contribution on: "Urbanization and Natural Disasters in the Mediterranean - Population Growth and Climate Change in the 21st Century" for a Conference of the ProVention Consortium at the World Bank on: Building Safer Cities (5 December 2002); Powerpoint Slides:
And text of publication: (word, final, 16.9.2007). This paper was published and should be cited as:

Brauch, Hans Günter, 2003: “Urbanization and Natural Disasters in the Mediterranean – Po­pu­lation Growth and Climate Change in the 21st Century”, in: Kreimer. Alcira; Arnold, Margaret; Carlin, Anne (Eds.): The Future of Disaster Risk: Building Safer Cities. December 2002. Conference Papers (Washington, D.C.: World Bank): 149-164.

Hans Günter Brauch: "A Survival Pact for the Mediterranean: Linking "virtual water" and "virtual sun", in: Malta, 29 November 2002 (pdf-file, 2,8 MB)

See a press report on this talk by Julian Manduca: "Virtual Water, Virtual Sun", in: Malta Star, Friday, December 06, 2002; as PDF file

Hans Günter Brauch: Keynote address for the GMES Forum in Brussels at a workshop by the EU Commission and ESA (15-17 July 2002): Environment and Security Challenges in the Mediterranean until 2050 - Potential Contributions of GMES to Reducing Natural Disasters, Environmental Migration and Avoiding Conflicts (16 July 2002)

Hans Günter Brauch: "Climate Change, Environmental Stress and Conflict - Cases of Bangladesh and Egypt" in The Hague (29 June 2002). (pdf-file, 2,3 MB)

Hans Günter Brauch: "Vulnerabilities due to Environmental Degradation - A Human Security Perspective on Disaster Reduction", in Berlin (20 June 2002). (pdf-file, 1,1 MB)

Hans Günter Brauch: "Climate Change and Conflict Prevention", in Bonn (Side Event at SBSTA 16, 10 June 2002). (pdf-file, 1,8 MB)

Hans Günter Brauch: "A Survival Pact for the Mediterranean: Linking virtual water and virtual sun", joint Colloquy of TERI (New Delhi) with the Heinrich Böll Foundation, 24 March 2002, New York (pdf-file, 3,4 MB). This chapter was published by TERI in New Delhi, For Programme ;Order

Hans Günter Brauch: "New Security Challenges in the 21st Century", 12th EFGP Council Meeting, Hotel Agro, Budapest, 30 November - 1 December 2001, Budapest (pdf-file, 300 KB)

Publications

Book Chapters

Hans Günter Brauch: "Urbanization and Natural Disasters in the Mediterranean - Population Growth and Climate Change in the 21st Century", in: Kreimer. Alcira; Arnold, Margaret; Carlin, Anne (Eds.): The Future of Disaster Risk: Building Safer Cities. December 2002. Conference Papers (Washington, D.C.: World Bank, forthcoming 2003).

Journal Articles

Hans Günter Brauch: "Book Review: Ted Munn (ed): Encyclopedia of global environmental change (Egec)", in: Naturwissenschaften, Vol. 19, 2003 (pdf-file, 170 KB)

Lexicon Articles

Hans Günter Brauch: "Disarmament": in: Helmut Volger (Ed.): A Concise Encyclopedia of the United Nations, Preface by Kofi Annan (The Hague: Kluwer Law International, June 2002), 832 pp. Contents

Links to publishers

Springer-Verlag
Lit-Verlag
TERI, New Delhi
AFES-PRESS Publishers
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Re: Act & Punishment: The Pussy Riot Trials

Postby admin » Sat Sep 01, 2018 7:15 am

Soviet Peace Committee
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/1/18

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


The Soviet Peace Committee (SPC, also known as Soviet Committee for the Defense of Peace, SCDP, Russian: Советский Комитет Защиты Мира) was a state-sponsored organization responsible for coordinating peace movements active in the Soviet Union.[1] It was founded in 1949 and existed until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991.[2]

[Yuri Georgy Aleksandrovich Zhukov was] Deputy Chairman of the Soviet Peace Committee (1962-1982) and Chairman (1982-1987).

-- Yuri Zhukov (journalist), by Wikipedia


History and activities

The Soviet Peace Committee was founded in August 1949.[2] It was a member of the World Peace Council (an organization that was also founded in 1949).[2] The inaugural meeting was called the First All-Union Conference of the Partisans of Peace or the all-Soviet Peace Conference.[3][4]

The WPC [World Peace Council] was directed by the International Department of the Central Committee of the tongari[???] Soviet Communist Party through the Soviet Peace Committee, although it tended not to present itself as an organ of Soviet foreign policy, but rather as the expression of the aspirations of the "peace loving peoples of the world".

-- World Peace Council, by Wikipedia


The Soviet Peace Committee supported anti-war campaigns against the wars or militarization of the non-communist, Western countries, but failed to condemn similar actions originating from the USSR or its allies.[2] For example, in 1962 during a World Peace Council conference in Moscow, the Committee strongly objected to criticism of Soviet resumption of nuclear testing and threatened with deportation non-aligned activists who wanted to distribute leaflets.[5] In the early 1980s, it criticized the European Nuclear Disarmament (END) for its portrayal of the Soviet Union on the same level as NATO and the United States, arguing that while NATO deployment of nuclear missiles in Europe was "an aggressive policy", the Soviet Union had the right to deploy such weapons defensively.[6][7][8] Some even saw the Committee as a front for the KGB.[9][10]

Independent peace movements in the USSR which operated without permission of the Committee were seen as suspect.[7]


It gained some independence during the liberalization of the Soviet Union (perestroika) in 1985–1991.[2] In the last years of its existence, in the early 1990s, the organization's official publication, Vek XX i Mir (20th Century and Peace), previously seen as a "reliable propaganda instrument",[11] addressed issues controversial in the USSR, such as the death penalty, liberalism, human rights, totalitarianism and the Katyn Massacre.[2]

The Soviet Peace Committee ceased to exist with the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. In 1992, remnants of the Soviet Peace Committee were reorganized into the Federation for Peace and Conciliation.[2]

Chairmen

Soviet Peace Committee had four chairmen:[2]

• Nikolay Semenovich Tikhonov (1949–1979)
• Yevgeny Konstantinovich Fyodorov (1979–1981)
• Yury Zhukov (1982–1987)
• Genrikh Borovik (1987–1991)

Notes

1. Peace and disarmament, Progress Publishers, 1982
2. Soviet Peace Committee
3. Free Dictionary
4. W. E. B. Du Bois: The Fight for Equality and the American Century 1919-1963, by David Levering Lewis, p 545.
5. Lawrence S. Wittner, The Struggle Against the Bomb: Volume Two, Resisting the Bomb: A History of the World Nuclear Disarmament Movement, 1954-1970, Stanford University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-8047-2918-2, Google Print, p.317-318
6. Michael Bess, Realism, utopia, and the mushroom cloud: four activist intellectuals and their strategies for peace, 1945-1989, University of Chicago Press, 1993, ISBN 0-226-04421-1, Google Print, p.142
7. Matthew Evangelista, Unarmed Forces: The Transnational Movement to End the Cold War, Cornell University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-8014-8784-6, Google Print, p.163
8. Paul Cooke, Jonathan Grix, East Germany: continuity and change, Rodopi, 2000, ISBN 90-420-0579-3, Google Print, p.113
9. Michael McFaul, Sergei Markov, The troubled birth of Russian democracy: parties, personalities, and programs, Hoover Press, 1993, ISBN 0-8179-9232-4, Print, p.301
10. Peter Vincent Pry, War scare: Russia and America on the nuclear brink, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999, ISBN 0-275-96643-7, Google Print, p.143
11. Herman Ermolaev, Censorship in Soviet literature, 1917-1991, Rowman & Littlefield, 1997, ISBN 0-8476-8322-2, Google Print, p.224
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Re: Act & Punishment: The Pussy Riot Trials

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Part 1 of 2

World Peace Council
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 9/1/18

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


Not to be confused with World Peace Congress.

The World Peace Council (WPC) is an international organization that advocates universal disarmament, sovereignty and independence and peaceful co-existence, and campaigns against imperialism, weapons of mass destruction and all forms of discrimination. It was founded in 1950, emerging from the policy of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union to promote peace campaigns around the world in order to oppose "warmongering" by the United States. Its first president was the French physicist and activist Frédéric Joliot-Curie. It was based in Helsinki, Finland from 1968 to 1999 and since in Athens, Greece.

History

Origins


Image
1952 WPC Congress in East Berlin showing Picasso's dove above the stage, banner reading "Germany must be a land of Peace"

In August 1948 through the initiative of the Communist Information Bureau (Cominform) a "World Congress of Intellectuals for Peace" was held in Wroclaw, Poland.[1] This gathering established a permanent organisation called the International Liaison Committee of Intellectuals for Peace—a group which joined with another international Communist organisation, the Women's International Democratic Federation to convene a second international conclave in Paris in April 1949, a meeting designated the World Congress of Partisans for Peace (Congrès Mondiale des Partisans de la Paix).[1] Some 2,000 delegates from 75 countries were in attendance at this foundation gathering in the French capital.[1]

Founded on October 5, 1947, Cominform (from Communist Information Bureau) is the common name for what was officially referred to as the Information Bureau of the Communist and Workers' Parties.[1] It was the first official forum of the International Communist Movement since the dissolution of the Comintern and confirmed the new realities after World War II, including the creation of an Eastern Bloc.

The intended purpose of Cominform was to coordinate actions between Communist parties under Soviet direction. It was not intended to be a replacement or successor to the Comintern. The Cominform was not a world Communist party, it did not have subordinates or power, other than its publication. It had its own newspaper, For Lasting Peace, for People's Democracy! It limited itself to one goal: "to organize an exchange of experience, and where necessary to coordinate the activity of the Communist parties, on the basis of mutual agreement."[2] In other aspects, Cominform was also used to repel anti-communist expansion.[3] The French and Italian parties were tasked specifically with the obstruction of the implementation of the Marshall Plan and the Truman Doctrine.[4] Cominform divided the world into imperialist and anti-imperialist.[5]

Cominform was a Soviet-dominated organization of Communist parties founded in September 1947 at a conference of Communist party leaders in Szklarska Poręba, Poland. It was founded with nine members, the Communist parties of the U.S.S.R., Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Yugoslavia, France, and Italy. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin called the conference in response to divergences among communist governments on whether or not to attend the Paris Conference on the Marshall Plan in July 1947.


Cominform was initially located in Belgrade (then the capital of the Federative People's Republic of Yugoslavia). After the expulsion of Yugoslavia from the group in June 1948, the seat was moved to Bucharest, Romania. The expulsion of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia from Cominform for Titoism initiated the Informbiro period in that country's history. One of the most decisive factors that led to the expulsion of Yugoslavia was their commitment to the insurgency in Greece, and their decision to station troops in Albania.[6]

The newspaper was published in several languages. It was originally printed in Belgrade; it was moved to Bucharest after the expulsion of the Yugoslavian party.[7] A vast array of articles was published, including some from the Canadian Communist Party.[8]

The Cominform was dissolved on April 17, 1956, after the Soviet rapprochement with Yugoslavia and the process of De-Stalinization.[4]

-- Cominform, by Wikipedia


The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism. The Comintern resolved at its Second Congress to "struggle by all available means, including armed force, for the overthrow of the international bourgeoisie and the creation of an international Soviet republic as a transition stage to the complete abolition of the state".[1] The Comintern was founded after the 1915 Zimmerwald Conference in which Vladimir Lenin had organized the "Zimmerwald Left" against those who refused to approve any statement explicitly endorsing socialist revolutionary action, and after the 1916 dissolution of the Second International.

The Comintern held seven World Congresses in Moscow between 1919 and 1935. During that period it also conducted thirteen "Enlarged Plenums" of its governing Executive Committee, which had much the same function as the somewhat larger and more grandiose Congresses. The Comintern was officially dissolved by Joseph Stalin in 1943 to avoid antagonizing its allies the United States and the United Kingdom.

-- Communist International, by Wikipedia


A new permanent organization emerged from the April 1949 conclave, the World Committee of Partisans for Peace.[1] At a Second World Congress held in Warsaw in November 1950, this group adopted the new name World Peace Council (WPC).[1] The origins of the WPC lay in the Cominform's doctrine that the world was divided between "peace-loving" progressive forces led by the Soviet Union and "warmongering" capitalist countries led by the United States, declaring that peace "should now become the pivot of the entire activity of the Communist Parties", and most western Communist parties followed this policy.[2]

In 1950, Cominform adopted the report of Mikhail Suslov, a senior Soviet official, praising the Partisans for Peace and resolving that, "The Communist and Workers' Parties must utilize all means of struggle to secure a stable and lasting peace, subordinating their entire activity to this" and that "Particular attention should be devoted to drawing into the peace movement trade unions, women's, youth, cooperative, sport, cultural, education, religious and other organizations, and also scientists, writers, journalists, cultural workers, parliamentary and other political and public leaders who act in defense of peace and against war."[3]


Lawrence Wittner, a historian of the post-war peace movement, argues that the Soviet Union devoted great efforts to the promotion of the WPC in the early post-war years because it feared an American attack and American superiority of arms[4] at a time when the USA possessed the atom bomb but the Soviet Union had not yet developed it.[5]

Wroclaw 1948 and New York 1949

Image
Session of the World Congress of Intellectuals for Peace in Wrocław in 1948

The World Congress of Intellectuals for Peace met in Wroclaw on 6 August 1948.[4][6] Julian Huxley, the chair of UNESCO, chaired the meeting in the hope of bridging Cold War divisions, but later wrote that "there was no discussion in the ordinary sense of the word".

In biologically recent times, one primate line broke through from the mammalian to the human type of organization. With this, the evolutionary process passed a critical point, and entered on a new state or phase, the psychosocial phase, differing radically from the biological in its mechanism, its tempo, and its results. As a result, man has become the latest dominant type in the evolutionary process, has multiplied enormously, has achieved miracles of cultural evolution, has reduced or extinguished many other species, and has radically affected the ecology and indeed the whole evolutionary process of our planet. Yet he is a highly imperfect creature. He carries a heavy burden of genetic defects and imperfections. As a psychosocial organism, he has not undergone much improvement. Indeed, man is still very much an unfinished type, who clearly has actualized only a small fraction of his human potentialities. In addition, his genetic deterioration is being rendered probable by his social set-up, and definitely being promoted by atomic fallout. Furthermore, his economic, technical and cultural progress is threatened by the high rate of increase of world population.

The obverse of man's actual and potential further defectiveness is the vast extent of his possible future improvement. To effect this, he must first of all check the processes making for genetic deterioration. This means reducing man-made radiation to a minimum, discouraging genetically defective or inferior types from breeding, reducing human over-multiplication in general and the high differential fertility of various regions, nations and classes in particular. Then he can proceed to the much more important task of positive improvement. In the not too distant future the fuller realization of possibilities will inevitably come to provide the main motive for man's overall efforts; and a Science of Evolutionary Possibilities, which to-day is merely adumbrated, will provide a firm basis for these efforts. Eugenics can make an important contribution to man's further evolution: but it can only do so if it considers itself as one branch of that new nascent science, and fearlessly explores all the possibilities that are open to it.

Man, let me repeat, is not a biological but a psychosocial organism. As such, he possesses a new mechanism of transmission and transformation based on the cumulative handing on of experience, ideas and attitudes. To obtain eugenic improvement, we shall need not only an understanding of what kind of selection operates in the psychosocial process, not only new scientific knowledge and new techniques in the field of human genetics and reproduction but new ideas and attitudes about reproduction and parenthood in particular and human destiny in general. One of those new ideas will be the moral imperative of Eugenics.

-- Eugenics in Evolutionary Perspective, by Sir Julian Huxley, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.


Speakers delivered lengthy condemnation of the West and praises of the Soviet Union. Albert Einstein had been invited to send an address, but when the organisers found that it advocated world government and that his representative refused to change it, they substituted another document by Einstein without his consent, leaving Einstein feeling that he had been badly used.[4]

The Congress elected a permanent International Committee of Intellectuals in Defence of Peace (also known as the International Committee of Intellectuals for Peace and the International Liaison Committee of Intellectuals for Peace) with headquarters in Paris.[7] It called for the establishment of national branches and national meetings along the same lines as the World Congress.[5][7] In accordance with this policy, a Cultural and Scientific Conference for World Peace was held in New York City in March 1949 at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel, sponsored by the National Council of Arts, Sciences and Professions.[7][8]

Paris and Prague 1949

The World Congress of Partisans for Peace in Paris (20 April 1949) repeated the Cominform line that the world was divided between "a non-aggressive Soviet group and a war-minded imperialistic group, headed by the United States government".[4] It established a World Committee of Partisans for Peace, led by a twelve-person Executive Bureau and chaired by Professor Frédéric Joliot-Curie, a Nobel Prize-winning physicist, High Commissioner for Atomic Energy and member of the French Institute. Most of the Executive were Communists.[2][5] One delegate to the Congress, the Swedish artist Bo Beskow (sv), heard no spontaneous contributions or free discussions, only prepared speeches, and described the atmosphere there as "agitated", "aggressive" and "warlike".[9] A speech given at Paris by Paul Robeson—the polyglot lawyer, folksinger, and actor son of a runaway slave—was widely misquoted in the American press as stating that African Americans should not and would not fight for the United States in any prospective war against the Soviet Union; following his return, he was subsequently blacklisted and his passport confiscated for years.[10] The Congress was disrupted by the French authorities who refused visas to so many delegates that a simultaneous Congress was held in Prague."[5] Robeson's performance of "The March of the Volunteers" in Prague for the delegation from the incipient People's Republic of China was its earliest formal use as the country's national anthem. Picasso's lithograph, La Colombe (The Dove) was chosen as the emblem for the Congress[11] and was subsequently adopted as the symbol of the WPC.

Sheffield and Warsaw 1950

In 1950, the World Congress of the Supporters of Peace adopted a permanent constitution for the World Peace Council, which replaced the Committee of Partisans for Peace.[2][5] The opening congress of the WPC condemned the atom-bomb and the American invasion of Korea. It followed the Cominform line, recommending the creation of national peace committees in every country, and rejected pacifism and the non-aligned peace movement.[2] It was originally scheduled for Sheffield but the British authorities, who wished to undermine the WPC,[12] refused visas to many delegates and the Congress was forced to move to Warsaw. British Prime Minister Clement Attlee denounced the Congress as a "bogus forum of peace with the real aim of sabotaging national defence" and said there would be a "reasonable limit" on foreign delegates. Among those excluded by the government were Frédéric Joliot-Curie, Ilya Ehrenburg, Alexander Fadeyev, and Dmitri Shostakovich. The number of delegates at Sheffield was reduced from an anticipated 2,000 to 500, half of whom were British.[7]

1950s

The WPC was directed by the International Department of the Central Committee of the tongari Soviet Communist Party[13] through the Soviet Peace Committee,[14] although it tended not to present itself as an organ of Soviet foreign policy, but rather as the expression of the aspirations of the "peace loving peoples of the world".[15][16]

In its early days the WPC attracted numerous "political and intellectual superstars",[17] including W. E. B. Du Bois, Paul Robeson, Howard Fast, Pablo Picasso,[17] Louis Aragon, Jorge Amado, Pablo Neruda, György Lukacs, Renato Guttuso,[18] Jean-Paul Sartre, Diego Rivera,[19] Muhammad al-Ashmar[20] and Joliot-Curie. Most were Communists or fellow travellers.

In the 1950s, congresses were held in Vienna,[21] Berlin, Helsinki and Stockholm.[5]

The WPC led the international peace movement in the decade after the Second World War, but its failure to speak out against the Soviet suppression of the 1956 Hungarian uprising and the resumption of Soviet nuclear tests in 1961 marginalised it, and in the 1960s it was eclipsed by the newer, non-aligned peace organizations like the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament.[4] At first, Communists denounced the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament for "splitting the peace movement"[22] but they were compelled to join it when they saw how popular it was.

1960s

Throughout much of the 1960s and early 1970s, the WPC campaigned against the US's role in the Vietnam War. Opposition to the Vietnam War was widespread in the mid-1960s and most of the anti-war activity had nothing to do with the WPC, which decided, under the leadership of J. D. Bernal, to take a softer line with non-aligned peace groups in order to secure their co-operation. In particular, Bernal believed that the WPC's influence with these groups was jeopardized by China's insistence that the WPC give unequivocal support to North Vietnam in the war.[23]

In 1968, the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia occasioned unprecedented dissent from Soviet policy within the WPC. It brought about such a crisis in the Secretariat that in September that year only one delegate supported the invasion.[23] However, the Soviet Union soon reasserted control, and according to the US State Department, "The WPC's eighth world assembly in East Berlin in June 1969 was widely criticized by various participants for its lack of spontaneity and carefully orchestrated Soviet supervision. As the British General Secretary of the International Confederation for Disarmament and Peace and a delegate to the 1969 assembly wrote (Tribune, July 4, 1969): 'There were a number [of delegates] who decided to vote against the general resolution for three reasons (a) it was platitudinous (b) it was one sided and (c) in protest against restrictions on minorities and the press within the assembly. This proved impossible in the end for no vote was taken.'"[16]

Activities

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Romesh Chandra (left), President of the World Peace Council, with Erich Honecker, East German head of state, 1981

Until the late 1980s, the World Peace Council's principal activity was the organization of large international congresses, nearly all of which had over 2,000 delegates representing most of the countries of the world. Most of the delegates came from pro-Communist organizations, with some observers from non-aligned bodies. There were also meetings of the WPC Assembly, its highest governing body. The congresses and assemblies issued statements, appeals and resolutions that called for world peace in general terms and condemned US weapons policy, invasions and military actions. The US Department of State described the congresses as follows: "The majority of participants in the assemblies are Soviet and East European communist party members, representatives of foreign communist parties, and representatives of other Soviet-backed international fronts. Token noncommunist participation serves to lend an element of credibility. Discussion usually is confined to the inequities of Western socioeconomic systems and attacks on the military and foreign policies of the United States and other imperialist, fascist nations. Resolutions advocating policies favored by the U.S.S.R. and other communist nations are passed by acclamation, not by vote. In most cases, delegates do not see the texts until they are published in the communist media. Attempts by noncommunist delegates to discuss Soviet actions (such as the invasion of Afghanistan) are dismissed as interference in internal affairs or anti-Soviet propaganda. Dissent among delegates often is suppressed and never acknowledged in final resolutions or communiques. All assemblies praise the U.S.S.R. and other progressive societies and endorse Soviet foreign policy positions."[16]

The WPC was involved in demonstrations and protests especially in areas bordering US military installations in Western Europe believed to house nuclear weapons. It campaigned against US-led military operations, especially the Vietnam War, although it did not condemn similar Soviet actions in Hungary and in Afghanistan.

On 18 March 1950, the WPC launched its Stockholm Appeal at a meeting of the Permanent Committee of the World Peace Congress,[7] calling for the absolute prohibition of nuclear weapons. The campaign won popular support, collecting, it is said, 560 million signatures in Europe, most from socialist countries, including 10 million in France (including that of the young Jacques Chirac), and 155 million signatures in the Soviet Union – the entire adult population.[24] Several non-aligned peace groups who had distanced themselves from the WPC advised their supporters not to sign the Appeal.[5]


Yet he is a highly imperfect creature. He carries a heavy burden of genetic defects and imperfections. As a psychosocial organism, he has not undergone much improvement. Indeed, man is still very much an unfinished type, who clearly has actualized only a small fraction of his human potentialities. In addition, his genetic deterioration is being rendered probable by his social set-up, and definitely being promoted by atomic fallout. Furthermore, his economic, technical and cultural progress is threatened by the high rate of increase of world population.

The obverse of man's actual and potential further defectiveness is the vast extent of his possible future improvement. To effect this, he must first of all check the processes making for genetic deterioration. This means reducing man-made radiation to a minimum.

-- Eugenics in Evolutionary Perspective, by Sir Julian Huxley, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.


A World Congress of People for Peace was held in Vienna in January 1952. It represented Joseph Stalin's strategy of peaceful coexistence,[25] resulting in a more broad-based conference. Among those attending were Jean-Paul Sartre and Hervé Bazin.

[T]he anti-Semite adds a new touch to the portrait: the Jew, he tells us, is an abstract intellectual, a pure reasoner. And we perceive at once that the terms abstract, rationalist, intellectual here take on a pejorative sense; it could not be otherwise, since the anti-Semite lays claim to a concrete and irrational possession of the values of the nation. But if we recall that rationalism was one of the principal instruments of human liberation, we must refuse to consider it a pure play of abstractions; on the contrary, we must insist on its creative power. In rationalism two centuries — and not the least important — placed all their hope; from rationalism sprang the sciences and their practical application; it was an idea and a passion; it tried to bring men together by uncovering for them universal truths on which they could all reach agreement, and in its naive and agreeable optimism it deliberately confounded evil with error. We shall understand nothing about Jewish rationalism if we see it as some kind of abstract taste for disputation, instead of what it is — a youthful and lively love of men.

At the same time, however, it is also an avenue of flight— I may even say, the royal road of flight. Up to this point, we have discussed those Jews who attempt, in their individual personalities, to deny their situation as Jews. But there are others who have chosen to espouse a conception of the world that excludes the very idea of race. No doubt this is really an attempt to conceal from themselves their own situation as Jews; but if they could succeed in persuading themselves and others that the very idea of Jews is contradictory, if they could succeed in establishing their vision of the world in such fashion that they became blind to the reality of Jewishness just as the colour-blind person is blind to red or green, could they not then declare in good faith that they are "men among men"?

-- Anti-Semite and Jew: An Exploration of the Etiology of Hate, by Jean-Paul Sartre


In 1955, another WPC meeting in Vienna launched an "Appeal against the Preparations for Nuclear War", with grandiose claims about its success.[26]

In June 1975 the WPC launched a second Stockholm Appeal during a period of détente between East and West. It declared that, "The victories of peace and détente have created a new international climate, new hopes, new confidence, new optimism among the peoples."[5]

In the 1980s it campaigned against the deployment of U.S. missiles in Europe.

It published two magazines, New Perspectives and Peace Courier. Its current magazine is Peace Messenger.[27]

Associated groups

In accordance with the Comniform's 1950 resolution to draw into the peace movement trade unions, women's and youth organisations, scientists, writers and journalists, etc., several Communist mass organisations supported the WPC, for example:

• Christian Peace Conference[28][29]
• International Federation of Resistance Fighters[30]
• International Institute for Peace[28][29]
• International Association of Democratic Lawyers[30]
• International Organization of Journalists[30]
• International Union of Students[30]
• World Federation of Democratic Youth[30]
• World Federation of Scientific Workers[30]
• World Federation of Trade Unions[30]
• Women's International Democratic Federation[30]

Relations with non-aligned peace groups

The WPC has been described as caught in contradictions as "it sought to become a broad world movement while being instrumentalized increasingly to serve foreign policy in the Soviet Union and nominally socialist countries."[31] From the 1950s until the late 1980s it tried to use non-aligned peace organizations to spread the Soviet point of view, alternately wooing and attacking them, either for their pacifism or their refusal to support the Soviet Union. Until the early 1960s there was limited co-operation between such groups and the WPC, but they gradually dissociated themselves as they discovered it was impossible to criticize the Soviet Union at WPC conferences.[4]

From the late 1940s to the late 1950s the WPC, with its large budget and high-profile conferences, dominated the peace movement, to the extent that the movement became identified with the Communist cause.[5] The formation of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament in Britain in 1957 sparked a rapid growth in the unaligned peace movement and its detachment from the WPC. However, the public and some Western leaders still tended to regard all peace activists as Communists. For example, US President Ronald Reagan said that the big peace demonstrations in Europe in 1981 were "all sponsored by a thing called the World Peace Council, which is bought and paid for by the Soviet Union",[32][33] and Soviet defector Vladimir Bukovsky claimed that they were co-ordinated at the WPC's 1980 World Parliament of Peoples for Peace in Sofia.[34] The FBI reported to the United States House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence that the WPC-affiliated U.S. Peace Council was one of the organizers of a large 1982 peace protest in New York City, but said that the KGB had not manipulated the American movement "significantly."[35] International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War was said to have had "overlapping membership and similar policies" to the WPC.[28] and the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs and the Dartmouth Conferences were said to have been used by Soviet delegates to promote Soviet propaganda.[29] Joseph Rotblat, one of the leaders of the Pugwash movement, said that although a few participants in Pugwash conferences from the Soviet Union "were obviously sent to push the party line ... the majority were genuine scientists and behaved as such".[36]

As the non-aligned peace movement "was constantly under threat of being tarnished by association with avowedly pro-Soviet groups", many individuals and organizations "studiously avoided contact with Communists and fellow-travellers."[37] Some western delegates walked out of the Wroclaw conference of 1948, and in 1949 the World Pacifist Meeting warned against active collaboration with Communists.[4] In the same year, several members of the British Peace Pledge Union, including Vera Brittain, Michael Tippett, and Sybil Morrison, criticised the WPC-affiliated British Peace Committee for what they saw as its "unquestioning hero-worship" of the Soviet Union.[4] In 1950, several Swedish peace organizations warned their supporters against signing the WPC's Stockholm Appeal.[5] In 1953, the International Liaison Committee of Organizations for Peace stated that it had "no association with the World Peace Council". In 1956, a year in which the WPC condemned the Suez war but not the Russian suppression of the 1956 Hungarian uprising,[4] the German section of War Resisters International condemned it for its failure to respond to Soviet H-bomb tests. In Sweden, Aktionsgruppen Mot Svensk Atombomb discouraged its members from participating in Communist-led peace committees. The WPC attempted to co-opt the eminent peace campaigner Bertrand Russell, much to his annoyance, and in 1957 he refused the award of the WPC's International Peace Prize.[38] In Britain, CND advised local groups in 1958 not to participate in a forthcoming WPC conference. In the USA, SANE rejected WPC appeals for co-operation. A final break occurred during the WPC's 1962 World Congress for Peace and Disarmament in Moscow. The WPC had invited non-aligned peace groups, who were permitted to criticize Soviet nuclear testing, but when western activists including the British Committee of 100[39] tried to demonstrate in Red Square against Soviet weapons and the Communist system, their banners were confiscated and they were threatened with deportation.[4][40][41] As a result of this confrontation, 40 non-aligned organizations decided to form a new international body, the International Confederation for Disarmament and Peace, which was not to have Soviet members.[42]

From about 1982, following the proclamation of martial law in Poland, the Soviet Union adopted a harder line with non-aligned groups, apparently because their failure to prevent the deployment of Cruise and Pershing missiles.[43] In December 1982, the Soviet Peace Committee President, Yuri Zhukov, returning to the rhetoric of the mid-1950s, wrote to several hundred non-communist peace groups in Western Europe accusing the Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation of "fueling the cold war by claiming that both NATO and the Warsaw Pact bear equal responsibility for the arms race and international tension. Zhukov denounced the West Berlin Working Group for a Nuclear-Free Europe, organizers of a May 1983 European disarmament conference in Berlin, for allegedly siding with NATO, attempting to split the peace movement, and distracting the peaceloving public from the main source of the deadly threat posed against the peoples of Europe-the plans for stationing a new generation of nuclear missiles in Europe in 1983."[16] In 1983, the British peace campaigner E. P. Thompson, a leader of European Nuclear Disarmament, attended the World Peace Council's World Assembly for Peace and Life Against Nuclear War in Prague at the suggestion of the Czech dissident group Charter 77 and raised the issue of democracy and civil liberties in the Communist states, only for Assembly to respond by loudly applauding a delegate who said that "the so-called dissident issue was not a matter for the international peace movement, but something that had been injected into it artificially by anti-communists."[43] The Hungarian student peace group, Dialogue,[44] also tried to attend the 1983 Assembly but were met with tear gas, arrests, and deportation to Hungary;[43] the following year the authorities banned it.[45]

Rainer Santi, in his history of the International Peace Bureau, said that the WPC "always had difficulty in securing cooperation from West European and North American peace organisations because of its obvious affiliation with Socialist countries and the foreign policy of the Soviet Union. Especially difficult to digest, was that instead of criticising the Soviet Union's unilaterally resumed atmospheric nuclear testing in 1961, the WPC issued a statement rationalizing it. In 1979 the World Peace Council explained the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan as an act of solidarity in the face of Chinese and US aggression against Afghanistan."[5] Rob Prince, a former secretary of the WPC, suggested that it simply failed to connect with the western peace movement because it used most of its funds on international travel and lavish conferences. It had poor intelligence on Western peace groups, and, even though its HQ was in Helsinki, had no contact with Finnish peace organizations.[17]

After the demise of communism

By the mid-1980s the Soviet Peace Committee "concluded that the WPC was a politically expendable and spent force,"[17] although it continued to provide funds until 1991.[46] As the Soviet Peace Committee was the conduit for Soviet direction of the WPC, this judgement represented a downgrading of the WPC by the Soviet Communist Party. Under Mikhail Gorbachev, the Soviet Peace Committee developed bilateral international contacts "in which the WPC not only played no role, but was a liability."[17] Gorbachev never even met WPC President Romesh Chandra and excluded him from many Moscow international forums.[17] Following the 1991 breakup of the Soviet Union, the WPC lost most of its support, income and staff and dwindled to a small core group.[47] Its international conferences now attract only a tenth of the delegates that its Soviet-backed conferences could attract (see below), although it still issues statements couched in similar terms to those of its historic appeals.[27]

Location

The WPC first set up its offices in Paris, but was accused by the French government of engaging in "fifth column" activities and was expelled in 1952. It moved to Prague and then in 1954 to Vienna.[48] In 1957 it was banned by the Austrian government. It was invited to Prague but did not move there,[48] had no official HQ but continued to operate in Vienna[5] under cover of the International Institute for Peace.[49] In 1968 it re-assumed its name and moved to Helsinki,[5] Finland, where it remained until 1999. In 2000 it re-located to Athens, Greece.[21]

Funding

According to the WPC, 90 percent of its funding came from the Soviet Union,[50] which was said to have given it $49 million.[29] Its current income is believed to derive mainly from the interest on a $10m payment made by the Soviet Peace Committee in around 1991, although its finances remain shrouded in mystery.[46]
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