Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

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Re: Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

Postby admin » Wed Jan 03, 2018 4:29 am

John Warner
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 1/2/18

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Image
John Warner
United States Senator
from Virginia
In office
January 2, 1979 – January 3, 2009
Preceded by William L. Scott
Succeeded by Mark Warner
Chair of the Senate Armed Services Committee
In office
January 3, 2003 – January 3, 2007
Preceded by Carl Levin
Succeeded by Carl Levin
In office
January 3, 1999 – June 6, 2001
Preceded by Strom Thurmond
Succeeded by Carl Levin
Chair of the Senate Rules Committee
In office
September 8, 1995 – January 3, 1999
Preceded by Ted Stevens
Succeeded by Mitch McConnell
61st United States Secretary of the Navy
In office
May 4, 1972 – April 8, 1974
President Richard Nixon
Preceded by John Chafee
Succeeded by J. William Middendorf
Under Secretary of the Navy
In office
February 11, 1969 – May 4, 1972
President Richard Nixon
Preceded by Charles F. Baird
Succeeded by Frank P. Sanders
Personal details
Born John William Warner
February 18, 1927 (age 90)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Catherine Mellon (m. 1957; div. 1973)
Elizabeth Taylor (m. 1976; div. 1982)

Jeanne Vander Myde (m. 2003)
Children 3
Education Washington and Lee University (BA)
University of Virginia (LLB)
Awards Knight of the Order of the British Empire
Signature
Military service
Allegiance United States
Service/branch United States Navy
U.S. Marine Corps

Years of service 1945–1946
1950–1953
Rank PO3 collar.png Petty Officer, Third Class (Navy)
US Marine O3 shoulderboard.svg Captain (Marines)
Unit 1st Marine Aircraft Wing
Battles/wars World War II
Korean War

John William Warner (born February 18, 1927) served as Secretary of the Navy from 1972 to 1974 and as a five-term Republican United States Senator from Virginia from January 2, 1979, to January 3, 2009. He did not seek reelection in 2008. He works for the law firm of Hogan Lovells, where he had previously worked before joining the United States Department of Defense.

Warner was the sixth husband of actress Elizabeth Taylor, whom he married before being elected to the Senate. He is a veteran of World War II, and was one of only five such veterans serving in the Senate at the time of his retirement.[1]

Early life and education

John William Warner was born on February 18, 1927, in Washington, D.C., to John W. and Martha Budd Warner. He grew up in Washington, where he attended the elite St. Albans School before graduating from Woodrow Wilson High School in February 1945.

He enlisted in the United States Navy during World War II in January 1945, shortly before his 18th birthday. He served until the following year, leaving as a Petty Officer 3rd Class. He went to college at Washington and Lee University, where he was a member of Beta Theta Pi, graduating in 1949; he then entered the University of Virginia Law School.

He joined the U.S. Marine Corps in October 1950, after the outbreak of the Korean War, and served in Korea as a ground aircraft maintenance officer with the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing. He continued in the Marine Corps Reserves after the war, eventually reaching the rank of captain. He then resumed his studies, taking courses at the George Washington University, before receiving his law degree from UVA in 1953. That year, he became a law clerk to Chief Judge E. Barrett Prettyman of the United States Court of Appeals. In 1956, he became an assistant U.S. attorney; in 1960 he entered private law practice and joined Hogan & Hartson (now Hogan Lovells).

Personal life

In 1957, Warner married banking heiress Catherine Conover Mellon, the daughter of art collector Paul Mellon and his first wife, Mary Conover, and the granddaughter of Andrew Mellon. By his marriage, Warner accrued substantial capital for investing and expanding his political contacts. The Warners, who divorced in 1973, have three children: Virginia, John Jr, and Mary. His former wife now uses the name Catherine Conover.[2]

John Warner married actress Elizabeth Taylor on December 4, 1976 at the Second Presbyterian Church in Richmond, Virginia. They divorced on November 7, 1982.
Warner and Larry Fortensky were the last living former spouses of Elizabeth Taylor at the time of her death in 2011. Warner is the last of Taylor's husbands to survive. Larry Fortensky died on July 7, 2016, at age 64.

On December 15, 2003, Warner married Jeanne Vander Myde, a real estate agent who specializes in Northern Virginia properties. She is also the widow of White House official Paul Vander Myde.[3]

Career

Image
John W. Warner as Secretary of the Navy

Image
From left: Secretary of the Navy Warner, LT Duke Cunningham, LT William P. Driscoll and the Chief of Naval Operations, ADM Elmo Zumwalt, 1972

Image
Warner and fellow Virginia Senator Chuck Robb at the commissioning ceremony for the USS Arleigh Burke with Arleigh Burke and wife present and Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney delivering the keynote address, July 4, 1991.

After giving substantial campaign funds and time to the Nixon Presidential election, on February 1969, Warner was appointed Undersecretary of the Navy under the Nixon administration. On May 4, 1972, he succeeded John H. Chafee as Secretary of the Navy. Thereafter Warner, was appointed by President Gerald Ford to be a participant in the Law of the Sea talks, and negotiated the Incidents at Sea Executive Agreement with the Soviet Union which became a cause célèbre of pro-Détente doves in Soviet-American relations. He was subsequently appointed by Gerald Ford to the post of Director of the American Revolution Bicentennial Administration.

Following Ford's defeat, Warner began to consider political office for himself. He entered politics in the 1978 Virginia election for U.S. Senate. Despite the publicity of being Elizabeth Taylor's husband and the large amounts of money Warner used in his campaign for the nomination, he finished second at the state Republican Party (GOP) convention to the far more conservative politician Richard D. Obenshain. Much of this loss was due to his perceived liberal political stances, especially his soft approach to Soviet relations. In contrast Obenshain was a noted anti-Soviet, a hardline anti-communist, and an opponent of other liberal policies including the Great Society and much of the Civil Rights Movement. However, fate intervened when Obenshain died two months later in a plane crash. Consequently, Warner was chosen to replace him and narrowly won the general election over Democrat Andrew P. Miller, former Attorney General of Virginia. He was in the Senate until January 3, 2009. Despite his less conservative policy stances, Warner managed to be the second longest-serving senator in Virginia's history, behind only Harry F. Byrd, Sr., and by far the longest-serving Republican Senator from the state. On August 31, 2007, Warner announced that he would not seek re-election in 2008.

His committee memberships included the Environment and Public Works Committee, the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, and the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. As the chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee, he protected and increased the flow of billions of dollars into the Virginia economy each year via the state's military installations and shipbuilding firms which served his reelection efforts in every cycle.

Warner was quite moderate, especially in comparison to most Republican Senators from the South. He was among the minority of Republicans to support gun control laws. He voted for the Brady Bill and, in 1999, was one of only five Republicans to vote to close the so-called gun show loophole. In 2004 Warner was one of three Republicans to sponsor an amendment by Senator Dianne Feinstein (D-CA) that sought to provide for a 10-year extension of the Federal Assault Weapons Ban.

Warner supported[4] the Roe v. Wade decision establishing abortion rights and supported embryonic stem cell research,[5] although he received high ratings from pro-life groups because he voted in favor of many abortion restrictions.[6] On June 15, 2004, Warner was among the minority of his party to vote to expand hate crime laws to include sexual orientation as a protected category. He supports a constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage, but he raised concerns about the most recent Federal Marriage Amendment as being too restrictive, as it would have potentially banned civil unions as well.

In 1987, Warner was one of the few Republicans who voted to reject the nomination of Robert Bork by President Ronald Reagan and the only Southerner to do so.[7]

Image
President George W. Bush signs into law H.R. 5122, the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007 in the Oval Office at the White House. Joining him are, from left: Vice President Dick Cheney, Rep. Duncan Hunter of California, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, Sen. John Warner of Virginia, and General Peter Pace, Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Warner was re-elected easily in 1984 and 1990, and faced his first real challenge for re-election in 1996 from political newcomer Democrat Mark Warner (no relation). Mark Warner was a millionaire who vastly outspent the incumbent and produced an unusually close election, but John Warner prevailed with 52% of the vote.

According to George Stephanopoulos, a former close aide to President Bill Clinton, Warner was among top choices to replace Les Aspin as the Secretary of Defense in the Clinton administration. However, President Clinton selected William Perry. During Clinton second term William Cohen of Maine, another moderate Republican Senator, held this position.[8]

During the 1996 United States Presidential election Warner served as a Senate teller (along with Democrat Wendell H. Ford) of electoral votes.[9] Warner was among ten GOP Senators who voted against the charge of perjury during Clinton's impeachment (the others were Richard Shelby of Alabama, Ted Stevens of Alaska, Susan Collins of Maine, Olympia Snowe of Maine, John Chafee of Rhode Island, Arlen Specter of Pennsylvania, Jim Jeffords of Vermont, Slade Gorton of Washington and Fred Thompson of Tennessee). Warner and others who voted against the article angered many Republicans by their position. However, unlike Snowe, Collins, Specter, Jeffords and Chafee, the rest of the Republicans voted guilty on the second article.

As was the case in 1990, Warner faced no Democratic opposition in 2002, winning re-election to a fifth term in the Senate by a landslide over an independent candidate.

On May 23, 2005, Warner was one of 14 centrist senators (Gang of 14) to forge a compromise on the Democrats' proposed use of the judicial filibuster, thus blocking the Republican leadership's attempt to implement the so-called nuclear option. Under the agreement, the Democrats would retain the power to filibuster a Bush judicial nominee only in an "extraordinary circumstance", and three Bush appellate court nominees (Janice Rogers Brown, Priscilla Owen and William Pryor) would receive a vote by the full Senate.

Image
Committee chairman Carl Levin (D-MI) and former ranking member John Warner (R-VA) listen to Admiral Mike Mullen's confirmation hearing before the Armed Services Committee to become Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, July 31, 2007.

On September 17, 2006, Warner said that U.S. military and intelligence personnel in future wars will suffer for abuses committed in 2006 by the US in the name of fighting terrorism. He feared that the administration’s civilian lawyers and a president who never saw combat were putting U.S. service personnel at risk of torture, summary executions and other atrocities by chipping away at Geneva Conventions’ standards that have protected them since 1949. Following the Supreme Court ruling on Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, which was adverse to the Bush Administration, Warner (with Senators Lindsey Graham and John McCain) negotiated with the White House the language of the Military Commissions Act of 2006, suspending habeas corpus provisions for anyone deemed by the Executive Branch an "unlawful combatant" and barring them from challenging their detentions in court. Warner's vote gave a retroactive, nine-year immunity to U.S. officials who authorized, ordered, or committed acts of torture and abuse, permitting the use of statements obtained through torture to be used in military tribunals so long as the abuse took place by December 30, 2005.[10] Warner's "compromise" (approved by a Republican majority) authorized the President to establish permissible interrogation techniques and to "interpret the meaning and application" of international Geneva Convention standards, so long as the coercion falls short of "serious" bodily or psychological injury.[11][12] Warner maintains that the new law holds true to "core principles" that the U.S. provide fair trials and not be seen as undermining Geneva Conventions.[13] The bill was signed into law on October 17, 2006, in Warner's presence.[14][15][16]

In March 2007, after Chairman of the Joint Chiefs Peter Pace spoke out about his views on homosexuality and the military, Sen. Warner said, "I respectfully, but strongly, disagree with the chairman's view that homosexuality is immoral."[17]

On August 23, 2007, he called on President Bush to begin bringing U.S. troops home from Iraq by Christmas in order to make it clear to the Iraqi leadership that the U.S. commitment is not indefinite.[18]

On August 31, 2007, he announced that he would not seek a sixth term in the Senate in 2008.[19]

Warner was a cosponsor of America's Climate Security Act of 2007, also more commonly referred to as the Cap and Trade Bill, that proposed to ration (cap) carbon emissions in the U.S., and tax or purchase (trade) Carbon credits on the global market for greater U.S. alignment with the Kyoto protocol standards and goals.

In September 2008, Warner joined the Gang of 20, a bipartisan coalition seeking comprehensive energy reform. The group is pushing for a bill that would encourage state-by-state decisions on offshore drilling and authorize billions of dollars for conservation and alternative energy.[20]

In October 2008, Warner voted in favor of the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008.[21][22]

Committee assignments

Committee on Environment and Public Works
Subcommittee on Private Sector and Consumer Solutions to Global Warming and Wildlife Protection (Ranking Member)
Subcommittee on Transportation and Infrastructure
Committee on Armed Services
Subcommittee on Airland
Subcommittee on Emerging Threats and Capabilities
Subcommittee on SeaPower
Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs
Ad Hoc Subcommittee on State, Local, and Private Sector Preparedness and Integration
Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations
Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, the Federal Workforce, and the District of Columbia
Select Committee on Intelligence
Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs

Post-Senate life

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Senator Jim Webb, Council on Foreign Relations President Richard N. Haass, former Deputy Secretary of State John Negroponte, former Senator John Warner, and journalist Andrea Mitchell at Ronald Reagan Centennial Roundtable in 2011

On December 12, 2008, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence awarded Warner the first ever National Intelligence Distinguished Public Service Medal.

On January 8, 2009, the Secretary of the Navy announced the Navy would name the next Virginia-class submarine after John Warner. USS John Warner (SSN-785) is the twelfth Virginia-class submarine[23] and was commissioned on August 1, 2015 at a ceremony at Naval Station Norfolk.[24][25]

On February 19, 2009 the British Embassy in Washington, D.C., announced that Queen Elizabeth II would name John Warner an honorary Knight Commander for his work strengthening the American-British military alliance.[26] As a person who is not a British citizen (or a citizen of a country which acknowledges the British monarch as their own monarch), the title of Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire only allows Warner to put the Post-nominal letters KBE after his name.[27]


The annual Senator John W. Warner Award is given to a third year undergraduate student at the University of Virginia who exhibits a serious, convincing ambition to seek future election to public office. This award honors an individual who strives for service in an elected office, whether it is a part-time city council position or a full-time legislative or executive office. Successful candidates demonstrate the required courage to stand up and ask fellow citizens for their valued vote. The award of up to $3,000 funds a research project in an area that will inform the recipient's future career as an elected official. Award recipients include: John Jacob Nay, Casey Enders, James Linville, and Sarah Buckley.[28]

On May 2, 2013, Warner and United States Marine Corps representatives broke ground for the Senator John W. Warner Center for Advanced Military Studies at Marine Corps University in Quantico, Virginia. The John Warner Center will accommodate the Marine Corps Command and Staff College, School of Advanced Warfighting and College of Distance Education and Training.[29] It will also be home for the Brigadier General Simmons Center for Marine Corps History, including the archives of the Marine Corps and the history division.[30]

On September 28, 2016, Warner announced that he was endorsing Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton in the presidential election, praising his former Senate colleague's record of bipartisan cooperation.[31]

References

1. "Veterans' defiance a nightmare for Bush". September 17, 2006.
2. Washington Life Magazine: May 2005
3. WEDDINGS/CELEBRATIONS: VOWS; Jeanne Vander Myde and John Warner – New York Times marriage announcement
4. U.S. Senate: Legislation & Records Home
5. U.S. Senate: Legislation & Records Home
6. Analysis of Warner's voting record re abortion
7. U.S. Senate website
8. George Stephanopoulos, All Too Human: A Political Education.
9. Our Campaigns – U.S. President Race, December 16, 1996
10. William Neikirk; Andrew Zajac; Mark Silva (September 29, 2006). "Tribunal bill OKd by Senate". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved September 29, 2006.[permanent dead link]
11. Zernike, Kate (September 28, 2006). "Senate Passes Broad New Detainee Rules". New York Times. Retrieved September 28, 2006.
12. Anne Plummer Flaherty (September 28, 2006). "Senate OKs detainee interrogation bill". Associated Press. Retrieved September 29, 2006.[dead link]
13. "Veterans' defiance a nightmare for Bush". September 17, 2006. Gulf Times[dead link]
14. "THE STRUGGLE FOR IRAQ; Bush Reassures Iraqi That There Is No Timetable for Withdrawal". New York Times. October 16, 2006. Retrieved February 8, 2007.
15. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 7, 2007. Retrieved 2006-10-24.
16. George Bush, John McCain and 'Torture' – HUMAN EVENTS
17. "Sen. Clinton dodges question on gays, immorality", CNN, March 15, 2007.
18. New York Times blogs, Ibid.
19. "Sen. Warner won't seek 6th term". MSNBC. August 31, 2007. Retrieved August 31, 2007.
20. Star Tribune article
21. "Vote Summary: Question: On the Amendment (Dodd Amdt. No. 5685 ) – In the nature of a substitute". U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 110th Congress – 2nd Session. Secretary of the United States Senate. October 1, 2008. Retrieved October 1, 2008.
22. "Vote Summary: On Passage of the Bill (H. R. 1424 As Amended )". U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 110th Congress – 2nd Session. Secretary of the United States Senate. October 1, 2008. Retrieved October 1, 2008.
23. Navy Names Virginia Class Submarine USS John Warner
24. Navy to Commission Submarine John Warner
25. New sub Navy's 'most lethal warship'
26. Queen to name John Warner honorary knight
27. A Most Excellent Honor For the Ex-Senator
28. University of Virginia Warner Award Archived May 15, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
29. "The Senator John W. Warner Center for Advanced Military Studies, May 2, 2013" (PDF). Foundation News. Marine Corps University Foundation (71): 6. Fall 2013. Archived(PDF) from the original on February 16, 2015. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
30. Baker, Eve A. (18 February 2015). "Marine Corps University construction project nearing the end of Phase II". Quantico Sentry. BH Media Group Holdings, Inc. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
31. Flores, Reena (September 28, 2016). "Former GOP Sen. John Warner endorses Hillary Clinton". CBS News. Retrieved September 28, 2016.

Warner hit the trail with McCain; Alexandria Times http://www.alextimes.com/article.asp?ar ... =1&cat=155[permanent dead link]
John Warner accepts Good Neighbor award; Alexandria Times http://www.alextimes.com/article.asp?ar ... =1&cat=155[permanent dead link]
The Virginia Primaries – John Warner’s McCain bet; Alexandria Times http://www.alextimes.com/article.asp?ar ... =1&cat=155[permanent dead link]
John Warner named William & Mary Fellow; Alexandria Times http://www.alextimes.com/article.asp?ar ... =1&cat=155[permanent dead link]
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Re: Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

Postby admin » Wed Jan 03, 2018 5:18 am

Dick Davis' Happiest Hurrah
by Tom Sherwood
Washington Post
March 28, 1985

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It is his third time before Virginia voters in five years.

But this time, Richard J. (Dick) Davis is finally running for what he's really wanted all along -- the governor's office.

Davis, a mortgage banker by profession, former mayor of Portsmouth and a former state Democratic Party chairman, won the lieutenant governor's office in 1981 on a ticket led and overshadowed by Gov. Charles S. Robb, the son-in-law of President Johnson. In 1982, Davis was back before the voters in a narrowly unsuccessful campaign for the U.S. Senate against Republican Paul S. Trible.

That campaign was marked by disarray in the Democratic Party and the fact that Davis had made no secret that he really wanted to be governor. He took on the campaign when no other candidate emerged, after initially rejecting the idea.

Now, at 63, Davis is seeking to cap a decade-long political career by winning his party's nomination for governor against state Attorney General Gerald L. Baliles. The hard-fought contest could well be decided during this weekend's crucial mass meetings to select delegates to the party's June 7 nominating convention in Richmond.

"This race is what he is doing on his own," said longtime friend, supporter and former employe Eva S. Teig, the state's commissioner of labor and industry, who said Davis talked about the possibility of running for governor even during his tenure as mayor. "This is his own imprint."

Davis has kept up a steady campaign pace for more than a year, in contrast to what some considered his meager schedule in the Senate race. His statewide push this time was to build his political base and to dilute criticisms from Robb and others, who had said during his 1982 race that he did not have "the fire in the belly" to run for public office.

Robb, despite his public neutrality, is widely perceived as favoring Baliles over Davis. Under Virginia law, Robb cannot succeed himself.

Despite the offices he has held, Davis the man is still not well known to Virginians, his top aides say.

An affable, low-key person in public, he is known to be a bear in private when things don't go his way or an aide fouls up an assignment.

"He's easygoing, he puts a lot of trust in people," says Watson, 29, who first worked for Davis as a teen-age supporter. "His management style is that he delegates authority. If you don't do the job, he certainly will let you know."

When Norfolk's Virginian-Pilot newspaper polled state legislators, politicians and reporters in January, Davis aides said he was privately furious that he was ranked ninth in a field of 22, while Baliles was second.

In public, Davis joked about the poll and said his position was pretty good since his job as lieutenant governor is officially considered part time.

"He has high name recognition," said Robert (Bobby) Watson, Davis' longtime political aide and campaign manager. "But a lot of people don't know the whole Dick Davis story."

That story includes his early years, growing up poor in Portsmouth, where his outlook on life was shaped by scrounging at odd jobs to help his family and a particularly ugly incident when he was 7 and Ku Klux Klan members burned a cross at his front porch because his family was Catholic.

"He was the victim of religious prejudice . . . and it built his character in how he viewed things from then on," said Watson. "He did live in poverty [and] there's no prejudice like poverty. People treat you different."

Davis, a former Marine colonel and University of Virginia law school graduate, is now a millionaire businessman whose ruddy face and often-present pipe is recognized across the state.

He entered politics late, running for the Portsmouth City Council and being elected mayor in 1974 only after a group of local businessmen drafted him to help save the deteriorating Tidewater city.

Although his present job as lieutenant governor is part time and has little legal power, Davis, like other lieutenant governors before him, has parlayed his number two job into a high-profile assignment, serving on a variety of state commissions and panels for Robb that have taken him across the state.


Davis has been a strong supporter of such issues as increased voting rights, the Equal Rights Amendment, the rights of employes and other progressive issues that have helped him draw support from blacks, organized labor and the state's activist teachers association.

It also has made him a ready target for the state's conservative Republican Party leaders, who are salivating at the chance to run against the man they say is more liberal than Baliles. Davis supporters are quick to refute the label in a state where liberal is not considered a helpful political tag, saying his career has been built on concern for social issues combined with "fiscal conservatism."

"I have never really seen a liberal mortgage banker," said 4th District Rep. Norman Sisisky of Petersburg, a personal friend of Davis. "He has a very keen sense of social responsibility. If that's liberalism, so be it."

Davis' "easy manner hides a mind like a steel trap" and belies an ambition seen more easily in others, Teig said.

She noted that Davis is at peace with his world, no matter how the race -- which she expects him to win -- turns out. "He's a successful businessman who has kept the same friends for 30 years," Teig said, a man who enjoys a close relationship with his two teen-age children and his wife, Martha, who is fighting bone cancer.

It is, Teig said, a respect and compassion for people that transcends politics. "He's not a bitter man. He's not bitter about Paul Trible and he won't be bitter if this doesn't work out . . . ," Teig said.
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Re: Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

Postby admin » Wed Jan 03, 2018 6:48 am

Peter Jay (diplomat)
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 1/2/18

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

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The Honourable
Peter Jay
British Ambassador to the
United States
In office
1977–1979
Monarch Elizabeth II
President Jimmy Carter
Prime Minister James Callaghan
Preceded by Peter Ramsbotham
Succeeded by Nicholas Henderson
Personal details
Born 7 February 1937 (age 80)
London, England
Spouse(s) Margaret Jay (m. 1961–div. 1986)
Children 7
Alma mater Christ Church, Oxford

Peter Jay (born 7 February 1937) is an English economist, broadcaster and diplomat.

Life

Peter Jay is the son of Douglas Jay, Baron Jay, and Peggy Jay, both of whom were Labour Party politicians. He was educated at The Dragon School, Oxford (the alma mater of several senior Labour politicians, including Hugh Gaitskell), followed by Winchester College[1] (where he was Senior Commoner Prefect) and Christ Church, Oxford, where he graduated with a first class honours degree in PPE.[1] He was commissioned in the Royal Navy, then worked as a civil servant at HM Treasury before becoming a journalist and, for 10 years, economics editor with The Times.

Jay married Margaret Callaghan, the daughter of Labour politician James Callaghan, in 1961. In 1977, when his father-in-law had become Prime Minister, Jay was appointed to the post of Ambassador to the United States by the Foreign Secretary, his friend David Owen. As Jay was just 40 years old, was not a diplomat and had never held any public office, this appointment caused some controversy and accusations of nepotism.[1]

Career

In the early 1970s, Jay became the principal presenter of the London Weekend Television Sunday news analysis programme Weekend World. He co-authored, with his friend John Birt, a series of articles for The Times in 1972, in which they criticised standard television journalism and developed what came to be called their "mission to explain".

As leader of a consortium of high-profile media figures, including Angela Rippon, David Frost, Michael Parkinson and Anna Ford, he won the franchise and became the founding chairman of TV-am, a breakfast TV station launched by the consortium. When the initial focus on news and current affairs did not yield economic success, he was fired by his friend and co-director Jonathan Aitken.[1]

Jay's career took a surprising turn when he became Chief of Staff to Robert Maxwell during his most high-profile years. His wife Margaret led Maxwell's Aids Foundation around the same time, where she met her present husband Professor Mike Adler.

Peter Jay later returned to broadcast journalism; John Birt appointed him Economics Editor of the BBC, and he presented editions of The Money Programme.

He wrote The Road to Riches or the Wealth of Man (2000, Weidenfeld & Nicolson) and presented a related BBC TV documentary series.

Jay is a supporter of Keynesian economics. He has debated with economists Milton Friedman and Thomas Sowell, including two episodes of Friedman's TV series Free to Choose (1980). He was also the moderator of the discussions in the British version of Free to Choose.[2]

He was a non-executive director of the Bank of England from June 2003 to May 2009.[3] He has been a governor of the Ditchley Foundation since 1982, and is a councillor on Woodstock Town Council.

References

1. "Jay talking". The Observer. 18 June 2000. Retrieved 11 January 2011.
2. Milton & Rose Friedman, Two Lucky People. Memoirs, Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press, 1998, p. 499;L Borders, Max (25 January 2011) Who is Francis Fox Piven?, Washington Examiner
3. Peter Jay. "Peter Jay: Executive Profile & Biography - Businessweek". Investing.businessweek.com. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
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Re: Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

Postby admin » Wed Jan 03, 2018 6:52 am

The second coming of Peter Jay
by Richard Kay
UPDATED: 19:00 EST, 8 June 2009

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Not since Time magazine called him 'the cleverest young man in England' and a future world leader has Peter Jay been presented with such an opportunity for prominence.

A former Ambassador to Washington who made more headlines from his private life than in the diplomatic world, Jay, now 72, is preparing for a second coming - as chairman of the Garrick, one of the smartest gentlemen's clubs in London.

Image
Controversial past: Peter Jay

Next month, the sitting chairman, writer Dr Barry Turner, is retiring and Jay, who stays at the club at least once a week, has been nominated as a candidate to replace him.

He faces only one opponent for the job, QC and recorder Jonathan Acton Davis, 56.

Jay, a father of seven, tells me: 'I think it is fair to say that I have actively put my hat in the ring, so to speak. The other candidate is a very nice man and the vote will take place early next month.'

So how does he stand on the contentious issue of admitting women to the all-male club?

'Actually, there is no rule that women cannot be members,' says Jay, who was proposed for membership 33 years ago by former Times editor William Rees-Mogg. 'It just so happens that no woman has ever been elected. And as far as I am aware no woman has ever been proposed.'

He is keeping his own plans for the Garrick under wraps. However, his elevation to the prestigious post of chairman of the club, which numbers distinguished actors and men of letters among its 1,300 members, represents an intriguing twist in the Jay story.

After returning from Washington, Jay, who was married to former Labour prime minister Jim Callaghan's daughter, Margaret, helped start TV-am. In 1974, he was voted the Royal Television Society's personality of the year.

Twice-married Jay, a former economics editor of the BBC, always managed to keep his name on everyone's lips, not because of his brilliant career but due to his chaotic personal life.

When Margaret began an affair with Watergate reporter Carl Bernstein, Bernstein's author wife Nora Ephron turned the story into a book, and later a film called Heartburn, starring Jack Nicholson and Meryl Streep.


But, perhaps more significantly, Paisley also crossed paths with former Washington Post reporter Carl Bernstein at several parties. In the opinion of some people interviewed for this book, the fact that Paisley was serving as CIA liaison to the White House Plumbers at the time of his meeting Bernstein at sex parties raises many interesting questions. Could Bernstein's sexual activities, they ask, have made him vulnerable to pressure from a man like Paisley who may have wanted to get specific news stories slanted in a certain way? Bernstein denies even knowing Paisley. In a December 1979 telephone interview, Bernstein denied having attended any such parties. A few days later he called back to say, "I may have attended the parties, but I never met anyone named John Paisley."

Half a dozen Paisley intimates place Bernstein and Paisley at the same sex parties beginning as early as 1971. Donald Burton recalls: "Carl Bernstein, when I first met him, was going to the parties about 1971. I didn't know who he was .... One day he says to me or my wife Nancy he is on to something big. He said he is working on something and something is going to come out. You know all we knew was here was this guy with long hair and I saw him at two or four of these parties and then he disappeared." [35]

In a more recent interview, Bernstein confirmed that he attended swinging parties, but claimed he did not know Paisley and "Paisley wasn't Deep Throat." "I gotta tell you off the bat, I don't even know who the guy is," Bernstein said. [36]

But the behavior of his reporting partner on the Watergate affair, Bob Woodward, in the aftermath of Paisley's disappearance, raises questions. Woodward, by 1978, was an editor at the Washington Post. After Paisley disappeared, Woodward assigned two reporters to investigate Carl Bernstein. When asked if he was aware of the investigation into his activities, Bernstein said, "Oh that's crazy, Jesus ... I think you got something very wrong there. I don't think there was such a thing." Bernstein said the question should be put to Woodward.

Woodward confirms that he and other Post editors authorized the investigation into Bernstein's activities. Woodward explained that two reporters came to him with "allegations about Carl and Paisley and he felt obliged to follow up." [37]

One of the reporters who did the follow-up, Timothy Robinson, enjoyed a reputation for being very careful. He was so concerned about the assignment at the time that he requested a meeting with the reporter from the Wilmington News-Journal who first broke the Paisley story to discuss what he said was an assignment Woodward had given him. Robinson was so nervous about meeting the reporter that it was arranged by a mutual source for the meeting to take place in the basement of the Federal Courthouse in Washington where the Watergate trials took place. [38]

"Deep Throat" was described, in Woodward and Bernstein's famed book All the President's Men, as Woodward's source in the Executive Branch. The authors say that it was the Post's managing editor at that time, Howard Simmons, who dubbed Woodward's source "Deep Throat" because of the source's desire for secrecy and the pornographic movie in vogue at the time.

Was the fact that Bernstein was attending sex parties with the CIA's liaison with the White House Plumbers just a coincidence, or was that how the source really obtained his name? Both Bernstein and Woodward deny it.

Another bizarre connection of Paisley with the persona of "Deep Throat" is his possession of a Washington Post newspaper delivery agent's identification number in his own name. The number and ID turned out to be fraudulent. But why would a spy like Paisley need or even want such identification? If it was not to meet secretly with a reporter, one possibility might be that he simply wanted to have access to the Washington Post complex itself, on 15th Street in Washington. The newspaper's loading dock shares a common alley with the Soviet Embassy. Paisley would eventually move to an apartment two blocks from the embassy. Another possibility is that Paisley was using the newspaper's delivery system for dead drops and communication with agents to set up meetings.

Another point made in All the President's Men is that "if Deep Throat wanted a meeting -- which was rare -- there was a different procedure. Each morning, Woodward would check page 20 of his New York Times, delivered to his apartment house before 7:00 A.M. If a meeting was requested, the page number would be circled and the hands of a clock indicating the time of the rendezvous would appear in a lower corner of the page. Woodward did not know how Deep Throat got to his paper."

Woodward said flatly that Paisley was not Deep Throat. He then said: "You know, if Deep Throat were someone who was dead, we would name him." The problem is that there is no conclusive evidence that Paisley is dead.

What worries counterintelligence officials is not simply the aspect of Paisley meeting Bernstein or even giving him information. The haunting possibility that Paisley may have been working for Soviet intelligence and may have been under instruction to leak embarrassing material about the Nixon administration looms over the entire episode. It is also possible that Paisley may have been attending the parties to collect potentially damaging information on reporters like Bernstein or on other intelligence officials. Was Paisley collecting this information for David Young and the Plumbers -- or for the KGB?

-- Widows [EXCERPT], by William R. Corson, Susan B. Trento, and Joseph J. Trento


Jay, meanwhile, famously had a fling with his children's nanny, fathering a son, Nicholas, now aged 28.
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Re: Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

Postby admin » Wed Jan 03, 2018 7:27 am

Sir Tom Devine: The historian telling Scotland’s story
by Chris McCall
scotsman.com
4:06 pm February 10, 2017

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He is the country’s preeminent historian, whose presentation of Scottish history captured the public’s imagination through several bestselling books.

The teaching career of Professor Sir Tom Devine spanned 45 years at the universities of Edinburgh, Glasgow and Aberdeen. Although now retired from university life, he continues to produce new books shedding light on Scotland’s past.


One of his central interests has been exploring the remarkable story of Scotland’s diaspora, stretching back to the medieval era.

“My interest in Scottish people overseas started way back with my doctoral thesis in the early 1970s,” he told The Scotsman. “I was researching the tobacco connection between Glasgow, the Clyde, Virginia and Maryland. Then I moved into other areas of Scottish history, including urbanisation, sectarianism and society in the Highlands and Lowlands.

“That culminated in a book I published in 1998 called The Scottish Nation, which for two weeks outsold Harry Potter. It was the right time for such a book to be published – it was the year before the Scottish Parliament opened.

“One of my intentions with the book was to bring the treasures of 30 years’ worth of research, from many different scholars, into the public domain. I was absolutely convinced there was demand for a book that was both readable and scholarly.”

Born in Motherwell, Devine has long been fascinated by Scots’ ancient tendencies to travel abroad in search of educational or business opportunities.

“The big issue was the remarkable migration of the Scots – not simply in the last 300 years, but going right back to the medieval period,” he said. “I remember being intrigued by a 12th century French proverb which said: “Rats, lice and Scotchmen – you find them the world over”.

“In relation to the basic population size, which was around one million in 1700, the impact Scots have made globally is remarkable – for good and for ill.”

Scots themselves still underestimate the global reach of the diaspora, Devine believes. “They think in terms of Canada, England, and Australasia,” he said. “But what that leaves out is the period before 1700 and the huge movements to Europe, and the movement to Ulster throughout the 17th century.

“Then there’s the small-scale immigration of people like engineers, physicians, merchants, they’re every where – across Latin America and Asia. Scots engineers and academics were at the very heart of Japan’s industrialisation in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

“I’ve always regarded Scots as being historically illiterate – not through their own fault, but because there was a whole generation who didn’t learn about country’s past through education. That has changed, of course, but I think the experience of the diaspora provides a very context for where we go now in the post-Brexit period.

“Scots were very powerful in imperial armies of the time as their reputation as soldiers was second to none. One remarkable statistic I pulled up in my research was that between the foundation of the University of Paris in the 12th century and the Reformation, it had no less 19 Scottish rectors. Paris was the Harvard of its day, the leading university in Europe.

“One of the reasons Scots were so successful in developing trade connections was because they cut their teeth in Europe. They used techniques developed through the 12th to 17th centuries to then exploit opportunities in the British Empire thereafter. There is an umbilical chord linking the old migrations to Europe and Ireland to the transatlantic connections.”
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Re: Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

Postby admin » Wed Jan 03, 2018 5:07 pm

MTP at 70: Martha Rountree Blazes a Trail
by nbcnews.com
November 6 2017, 11:25 AM ET

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Martha Rountree was a broadcasting pioneer. She co-created Meet the Press with Lawrence Spivak, sold the Mutual Broadcasting System on the idea, and was the moderator when the program began its Mutual radio run on October 5, 1945. At the same time, she was producing Mutual’s more lighthearted Leave It to the Girls, a Saturday evening program advertised as “a roundtable of romance featuring glamorous career girls” who discussed problems sent in by listeners, stimulating “a series of ad-lib crackers” (Time, July 29, 1946). Leave It to the Girls came out of Radio House, the New York production company set up in 1940 by Rountree and her sister Ann to supply musical commercials for radio stations. Leave It to the Girls was taken up by the NBC television network in April 1949.

Meet the Press debuted on the NBC television network on November 6, 1947, with Martha Rountree continuing as moderator until November 1, 1953. Throughout that time, she was producing separate versions of the show each week for radio and television, and both versions were creating headlines.

On December 2, Martha Rountree was the moderator when young Massachusetts Congressman John F. Kennedy made his first appearance on Meet the Press and spoke about the problems of defeating Communism in Indochina. Communists closer to home were the concern of Sen. Joseph McCarthy, who was her guest on August 7, 1951.

One of Meet the Press’s most dramatic moments went unseen by viewers. Senator McCarthy was concerned about rumors that an armed member of the audience planned to shoot him if he revealed the names of Communists in the State Department, as he had threatened to do. He arrived in the studio and sat at the moderator’s table next to Martha Rountree. She was startled to see him take a gun from his briefcase and put it in his lap, where it stayed, unraised, throughout the show.

Five foot six and photogenic, Rountree spoke with restraint and with a trace of her South Carolina home. She was introduced on air as “the genial and attractive producer of Meet the Press,” but in spite of her air of genteel grace, she had always shown herself fearless about invading male-dominated territory—before moving to New York in 1938, she wrote a sports column for the Tampa Tribune newspaper under the gender-neutral name “M. J. Rountree.” In 1951, Mrs. William Randolph Hearst Jr. warned people about taking her too lightly: “Don’t let her glamorous appearance fool you. Martha’s a diesel engine under a lace handkerchief.” Rountree described herself less colorfully as “a blunt-speaking, down-to-earth television news reporter—and I’m proud of it.”

Rountree was an enthusiastic and gifted moderator, “the most politically influential of capital hostesses,” according to LIFE magazine. “In Washington political circles an invitation to a Rountree party is practically a command,” LIFE said in a March 1952 photo feature—titled “Life Goes to a ‘Meet the Press’ Garden Party”—showing some of the 350 “movers and shakers of the U.S. political scene” at a Rountree housewarming party. They included four presidential candidates and congressional leaders Sam Rayburn and Joe Martin. Hamburgers and plain potato salad were served.
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Re: Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

Postby admin » Wed Jan 03, 2018 5:10 pm

G.W.S. Barrow
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 1/3/18

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Geoffrey Wallis Steuart Barrow FBA, FRSE, (28 November 1924 – 14 December 2013), was a Scottish historian and academic.

The son of Charles Embleton Barrow and Marjorie née Stuart, he was born on 28 November 1924, at Headingley near Leeds. Barrow attended St Edward's School, Oxford, and Inverness Royal Academy, moving onto the University of St Andrews and Pembroke College, Oxford.

He became lecturer in history at University College, London in 1950, remaining there until 1961 when he became professor of medieval history at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, and then in 1974, professor of Scottish history at the University of St Andrews. He was Sir William Fraser Professor of Scottish History and Palaeography at the University of Edinburgh from 1979 to 1992.

He began his work by studying the nature of feudalism in Anglo-Norman Britain, but moved on to specialize more thoroughly on Scottish feudalism. His work tended to focus on Normanisation in High Medieval Scotland, especially in reference to governmental institutions.

Personal life

He married, in 1951, Heather Elizabeth née Lownie, with whom he had one son and one daughter.[1] His daughter is Julia Barrow, who also became an historian and academic.[2]

Publications

Barrow's more notable publications include:

Books

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Feudal Britain, (London, 1956).
Robert Bruce and the Community of the Realm of Scotland, (Edinburgh, 1965; 4th edn., 2005).
The Kingdom of the Scots, (London, 1973), a collection of his scholarly articles.
Editor of The Scottish Tradition, (Edinburgh, 1974).
The Anglo-Norman Era in Scottish History, (Oxford, 1980).
Kingship and Unity: Scotland, 1000–1306, (London, 1981).
Scotland and its Neighbours in the Middle Ages, (London, 1992) - another collection of his scholarly articles.

Editions of texts

Editor of Acts of Malcolm IV, 1153–1165, (Edinburgh, 1960) - Regesta Regum Scottorum, vol. i.
Co-editor (with W.W. Scott) of Acts of William I, 1165–1214 (Edinburgh, 1971) Regesta Regum Scottorum, vol. ii.
Editor of The Charters of King David I, (Woodbridge, 1999).

Papers

Barrow, G.W.S. 'Earls of Fife in the 12th Century', (Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 1952–53), pp. 51–61.
Barrow, G.W.S. 'Religion in Scotland on the eve of Christianity' in Forschungen zur Reichs-, Papst- und Landesgeschichte, ed. Borchardt and Bunz (Stuttgart 1998) 25-32.

References

1. "BARROW - Deaths Announcements". Announcements.telegraph.co.uk. 2013-12-14. Retrieved 2013-12-18.
2. 'BARROW, Prof. Julia Steuart', Who's Who 2017, A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 2017; online edn, Oxford University Press, 2016; online edn, Nov 2016 accessed 27 Sept 2017
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Re: Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

Postby admin » Wed Jan 03, 2018 5:23 pm

The Renaissance in Scotland: Studies in Literature, Religion, History and Culture
A.A. MacDonald, Michael Lynch and Ian B. Cowan
by John Durkan
brill.com

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The Renaissance in Scotland is a collection of original essays on a wide range of topics concerning the cultural history of Scotland. The period concerned extends from the late fifteenth through to the early seventeenth century.

The individual studies take various aspects of culture as their starting-points: literature; the history of manuscripts and printed books; libraries; the law; the universities; music; education; social, political and ecclesiastical history. The essays, however, all take full account of the larger context provided by the age of humanism and reform, as this was manifested in Scotland.

The Renaissance in Scotland contains an abundance of new information and offers many challenging new insights and interpretations. It will be of interest to all those concerned with the cultural and intellectual history of Scotland and of northern Europe in general.

Contributors include: Peter W. Asplin, Priscilla Bawcutt, T.A. Birrell, Alexander Broadie, Ian B. Cowan, I.C. Cunningham, Mark Dilworth, Robert Donaldson, Kenneth Elliott, William Gillies, Theo van Heijnsbergen, Brian Hillyard, James Kirk, Mark Loughlin, Michael Lynch, A.A. MacDonald, Leslie J. Macfarlane, Hector MacQueen, Sally Mapstone, Stephen Rawles, Allan White, and Michael Yellowlees.

Biographical note

Alasdair A. MacDonald, Ph.D. (1978) in English, University of Edinburgh, is Professor of Medieval English Language and Literature at the University of Groningen. He has published widely on the Medieval and Renaissance literature and culture of Scotland and England.

Michael Lynch, Ph.D. (1977) in History, University of London, is Sir William Fraser Professor of Scottish History and Paleography (alternatively Professor of Scottish History) at Edinburgh University. He has published widely on the history of early modern Scotland.

Ian B. Cowan, Ph.D. (1961) in Scottish History, Edinburgh University, was until his death in 1990 Professor of Scottish History at Glasgow University. He published extensively on the medieval church.

Reviews

"The approaches of the 21 contributors, both clergymen and laity, mostly from Glasgow and Edinburgh, are various but the results are uniformly interesting. Students of literature and history, social and political and cultural trends, manuscripts and librarianship, etc., should see this highly informative contribution to Scottish studies."

-- Bibliothèque d'humanisme et renaissance, 1995.


"...a real goldmine of a volume, utterly indispensable to any scholar whose range takes him right through fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Scotland; there are gems of analysis and information in every article, and it is a book to return to again and again."

-- Jenny Wormald, EHR, 1997.


Table of contents

Contributors
Abbreviations and Conventions
Illustrations
Foreword

1. The Scots Buke of Phisnomy and Sir Gilbert Hay, Sally Mapstone
2. The Latin Original of Robert Henryson's Annunciation Lyric, A.A. MacDonald
3. William Elphinstone's Library Revisited, Leslie J. Macfarlane
4. James Liddell on Concepts and Signs, Alexander Broadie
5. New Light on Gavin Douglas, Priscilla Bawcutt
6. The Asloan Manuscript, I.C. Cunningham
7. The Cathedral Clergy of Dunkeld in the Early Sixteenth Century, Ian B. Cowan with Michael
Yellowlees
8. The Invention of Tradition, Highland-Style, William Gillies
9. Glasgow University's Copy of Robert Richardson's Exegesis in canonem divi Augustini, Stephen Rawles
10. Canons Regular and the Reformation, Mark Dilworth
11. The Interaction between Literature and History in Queen Mary's Edinburgh, Theo van Heijnsbergen
12. The Dialogue of the Twa Wyfeis”, Mark Loughlin
13. The Regent Morton's Visitation: the Reformation of Aberdeen, 1574, Allan White
14. Some helpes for young Schollers: a New Source of Early Scottish Psalmody, Kenneth Elliott
15. Melvillian” Reform in the Scottish Universities, James Kirk
16. Preaching to the Converted? Perspectives on the Scottish Reformation, Michael Lynch
17. M. Alex: Boyde.” The Authorship of “Fra banc to banc', Robert Donaldson
18. Durkan & Ross” and Beyond, Brian Hillyard
19. Glanville Resarcinate: Sir John Skene and the Regiam Majestatem, Hector MacQueen
20. Some Rare Scottish Books in the Old Royal Library, T.A. Birrell
21. Writings of John Durkan, 1931-1994, T.A. Birrell
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Re: Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

Postby admin » Wed Jan 03, 2018 6:20 pm

Social Change Expert: Susan Parenti, Ph.D.
by patchadamsspeaks.com
Accessed: 1/3/18

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Susan Parenti is a touring performer, writer, and collaborator with Dr. Patch Adams. She was one of the founding organizers of the School for Designing a Society, a grassroots school for social change in Urbana, IL. The relationship between the School for Designing a Society and the Gesundheit Institute owes much of its existence to Susan.

Susan has authored three books: "The Politics of the Adjective 'Political'", and "'I' and My Mouth and Their Irresistible Life in Language," and "Playing Attention to Language." Susan is currently co-writing a book with Patch Adams called "The Politics of Care."

Susan received her masters and doctorate degree in musical arts (DMA) from the University of Illinois, and her bachelors degree from Northwestern University. After studying for two years in Rome, Italy at the l'Academia di Santa Cecilia she became a composer as a profession.

However, Susan does not only compose music. In collaboration with Herbert Brun, Susan composes in the medium of language and of society. This means that in addition to proposing pieces for chamber ensembles, she also composes schools, projects, and approaches to thinking.

Susan is currently an organizer of the School for Designing a Society in Urbana, Illinois, a two year program where composition is applied to social change. She has been a guest teacher at some of the most progressive schools in the United States and Europe: Evergreen College in Washington, Bard, Bennington, Oberlin, New College in Florida, Virginia Beach, Oklahoma State as well as on the faculty of the University of Illinois, teaching the innovative freshmen "Discovery" course. Susan has taught at Schumacher College in England, and at the Gesammtehochschule in Kassel, Germany.

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-- Patch Adams and Susan Parenti
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Re: Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

Postby admin » Wed Jan 03, 2018 6:41 pm

Flat-panel display market prepares to take off
by D. Carney
The Business of Federal Technology, fcw.com
May 10, 1998

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After years on the market fringe, flat-panel displays quickly are becoming an affordable option for PC buyers who are tired of dedicating half their desk space to their monitors.

Until recently, buyers who demanded the small, lightweight screens paid a hefty price. LCD monitors cost 10 times as much as conventional cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors, and they were small, low-resolution devices. But that is no longer the case.

Improved technology has provided desktop flat-panel displays that are the same viewing size as the 15-inch monitors but have a clarity that lets them run at the same resolution as 17-inch desktop monitors.

More importantly, prices of these 14-inch displays have fallen dramatically. The street price recently has slipped to less than $1,000— still considerably more than a conventional monitor, but the difference now is a factor of three, instead of a factor of four or five, as it was not long ago.

"In eight months, prices have dropped 60 percent," said Matthew Red, senior analyst for ARS Inc., an Irving, Texas, research firm. "When you see that kind of price drop, you expect to see the market expand dramatically."

Feds in Front

Federal buyers have led the way in adopting flat-panel displays, joined by medical customers and financial analysts. The military, in particular, appreciates nearly every aspect of the flat panel's advantages over those of CRTs.

For starters, the displays not only do not generate magnetic fields, but they also are not harmed by them, unlike CRTs, which can be damaged by magnets. This is important in submarines because the subs are regularly "degaussed," or demagnetized, to reduce the potential for magnetic detection, he said.

And flat panels are solid-state devices, which are much less fragile than CRTs, so they are better-suited to rough treatment than the old screens. "We have a flat panel that has passed the light hammer-blow test for shock without resilient mounting," said Gary Lufriw, assistant vice president at Science Applications International Corp. "It is the standard for all 688 [Los Angeles]-class attack subs."

"They are used where you have a lot of vibration and impact," said Ron Jarmuth, chief of automation technology and security at the Pentagon. "There is no mechanical thing to get out of alignment," such as the "yoke'' on a CRT, which guides electrons from the emitter to the screen.

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PC Magazine


In mobile applications, the panel weighs dramatically less and uses less space, said Neville Wilkinson, president of Thin Display Technology, a Westford, Mass., integrator. His company developed a flat-panel replacement for computers that used several bulky 21-inch CRTs in Army vehicles. "We've gotten rid of 500 pounds and 10- to 12-cubic feet," Wilkinson said.

"More than 50 percent of the government market last year purchased 17-inch screens," said Bennett Norell, marketing manager for the Information System Products Division for LG Electronics Inc. "When you are talking about those kinds of sizes, you're talking about a lot of heat."

Size certainly is most important for many flat-panel users, especially in the Defense Department. "Right now we use a lot of 19-inch color [CRT] monitors," said Will Fitzgerald, head of hardware design for the Navy's Space and Naval Warfare Command. "The trend is going to be 20-inch LCD color panels," he said. "We have space issues, and in submarines we are going to hide equipment behind them." Fitzgerald said that uninterruptible power supplies are likely to reside behind the panels.

For now, most buyers will opt for the 14-inch size, said Ed Buckingham, an industry analyst with International Data Corp., Framingham, Mass. "You can run 1,024-by-768 [dots per inch] resolution on a 14-inch flat panel," he said. "You still get fairly crisp definition."

SAIC put a 13-inch CRT tactical display in a B-52 bomber and found that it gave the user headaches, Lufriw said. But with a 15-inch flat panel, the user "was able to operate with some comfort," he said.

The ideal solution will be 16-inch flat panels running at 1,280-by-1,024 dpi, he said. "The image world is going to be centered around 1,280-by-1,024 until high-definition TV comes out, so that is what my customers want me to do— especially the tactical customers."

"There is no such thing as too big a flat-panel monitor," said P.J. Johnston, marketing communication manager for Panasonic Computer Peripheral Co., at least for purposes of viewability, if not affordability.

Performance Trade-offs

However, while flat panels have some obvious advantages in some environments, users must make trade-offs.

One aspect of flat-panel technology that makes it more user-friendly is the fact that they do not flicker; CRTs flicker 30 times a second. Instead of refreshing an analog image, flat-panel displays just update the pixels on the screen as they change, which is easier on the eyes. But those pixels do not change as quickly as the phosphors on a CRT, and the lag is noticeable when running full-motion video applications.

Another downside of LCDs is an intolerance for temperature extremes, said Capt. Marc Ohmer, program manager for airborne broadcast intelligence at Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass. "What has not improved is their sensitivity to temperature," he said. "If it gets down below 32 degrees they crystallize, and that ruins them; and if it gets too hot, the display blanks out."

A long-standing problem with LCD panels has been the limited viewing angle. If viewed other than straight-on, they can darken or distort colors. In a display that shows green for good and red for bad, having red look green when viewed from the side is unacceptable.

NEC Technologies Inc. has developed a technology called XtraView for some of its displays that widens the viewing angle to 160 degrees. "NEC does have a very good viewing angle," Lufriw said. "But the display sacrifices other attributes for that viewing angle," including a slower response time, which makes it even less suitable for full-motion video applications, he said.

Falling Prices: Deep Impact?

Despite the advances in technology, interest in flat panels for desktop purposes has not taken off yet, according to Randy O'Bruba, manager of the Navy's PC LAN+ contract for Electronic Data Systems Corp.

"For PC LAN+, we currently do not have any demand," he said. "If demand was there, we could very rapidly respond." The Air Force does buy flat panels from EDS on other EDS contracts, however, he said.

But prices are still falling, and the market is waiting to see how customers respond. In particular, vendors believe the new price points finally should increase the potential for business in the civilian agencies.

"Everyone is watching to see what happens when you get under $1,000," said Rhoda Alexander, senior market analyst at Stanford Resources Inc., a San Jose, Calif., consulting firm.

Increased competition among vendors is driving prices down, Alexander said. "Two years ago there were five or fewer serious contenders in the market," she said. "Now I find it almost impossible to keep up with the number of new companies and new displays entering the market on a daily basis."

Also, manufacturing techniques have improved, providing a much better yield of acceptable panels from each production run, which drives the unit price down, said James Chan, flat-panel product manager for Viewsonic Corp. "When we began manufacturing 14-inch displays three years ago, the rejection rate was as high as 50 percent."

Nokia Display Products Inc. recently did research to find out what impact pricing has on the flat-panel market.

The company found that if flat panels cost four times as much as comparable CRT displays, very few customers will choose the flat panel, said John Grundy, Nokia's vice president of marketing. And at three times the price, fewer than half of his customers would consider a flat panel. But for twice the price, most customers would be interested, and for a 20 percent price difference, virtually everyone will buy one, according to Nokia's survey.

Other market observers have found similar results. "The price needs to drop in half again, to 20 to 30 percent over standard monitors for flat panels to become mainstream," said ARS' Red.

"As prices come down, it opens new doors," said Jeff Geis, national marketing manager for displays for Samsung Electronics America Inc. "In the past, the market for flat panels was driven by need-to-have-it applications," he said. IDC forecasts that 8 percent of the 110 million monitors sold in 2001 will be flat panels, and that percentage will grow to 10 to 12 percent the next year. "Price has been the primary barrier in the mainstream segment," Buckingham said. "When the 15-inch and 16-inch monitors get under $1,000, then we've got something."

By the height of the summer buying season, prices for 12.1-inch displays could fall as low as $500, and the popular 14-inch models could be in the $700 to $800 range, said Charles Root, vice president and general manager of displays at Hyundai Electronics America Inc. "We think it is going to take off," he said.

"There is a high interest in the product, but because of budgets, not a lot of purchases," said Ed Schrader, government and corporate sales manager for Samsung. "We'll probably see a lot more purchases of flat panels toward the end of the fiscal year."

-- Carney is a free-lance writer based in Herndon, Va.
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