Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

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Re: Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

Postby admin » Wed Feb 14, 2018 9:19 pm

Revisiting the Military's Tailhook Scandal
by Michael Winerip
New York Times
May 13, 2013

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In 1992, a young Navy lieutenant named Paula Coughlin said she had been sexually assaulted at the 35th Annual Tailhook Symposium in Las Vegas.

Her complaints revealed an ugly side to the annual convention for “Top Gun” aviators: 83 women and 7 men were later found to have been assaulted during the raucous party weekend in September 1991. The resulting scandal forced the resignation of the secretary of the Navy, the censure of several admirals and the enactment of a reform agenda that stressed a “zero tolerance” policy.

Did it make a difference? More than two decades later the news remains extremely discouraging.

Last week the Pentagon released a report estimating that 26,000 people in the military were sexually assaulted in the 2012 fiscal year, up from 19,000 in 2010. Making matters worse, the officer in charge of sexual assault prevention programs for the Air Force was arrested in Arlington, Va., and charged with sexual battery.


This week’s developments make the Retro Report video documentary on the Tailhook scandal particularly timely for providing a historical context to a problem that will not go away. On the Retro Report video, Navy Petty Officer Jenny McClendon tells an interviewer of the abuse she faced years after the supposed Tailhook reforms were adopted: “I presumed that I was going to join a group of people who were my comrades. When I got to the ship, it was a while before – was probably a couple of months before we went from harassment to – to the groping, and the groping eventually culminated in several physical assaults and a cou — — a few rapes.”

The Tailhook report is the second in a weekly series that is re-examining the leading stories of decades past. Videos are typically 10 to 12 minutes long and are part of a collaboration between The Times and Retro Report, a documentary news organization formed last year.

The online project was conceived of by Christopher Buck, a former television editor whose father was a co-founder of the Subway restaurant chain. Started with a grant from Mr. Buck, Retro Report — which has a staff of 12 journalists and 6 contributors — is a nonprofit online video news organization that aims to provide a thoughtful counterweight to today’s 24/7 news cycle.

There is a tendency to think we’ve made social progress on so many fronts in recent decades, but watching the Tailhook video, you wonder.

While the Pentagon report released last week estimated there were 26,000 assaults, the military recorded only 3,374, suggesting that many victims continue not to report the crimes for fear of retribution or a lack of justice under the department’s system for prosecuting them.

Here is how in the Retro Report video Paula Coughlin describes what happened to her in 1991: “I squatted down to break his hold and bit him and somebody reached between my knees and tried to grab my panties.”

And here is how the news reports last week described the behavior of the officer in charge of sexual assault prevention programs for the Air Force: “The police say the colonel approached a woman in a parking lot in Arlington near the Pentagon and grabbed her breasts and buttocks before she fended him off and called 911.”
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Re: Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

Postby admin » Wed Feb 14, 2018 9:20 pm

Malcolm H. Kerr
by Wikipedia
Accessed 12/10/17

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Malcolm Kerr
Born Malcolm Hooper Kerr
October 8, 1931
Beirut, Lebanon
Died January 18, 1984 (aged 52)
Beirut, Lebanon
Nationality American
Alma mater Johns Hopkins University
Princeton University
Scientific career
Fields Middle Eastern studies
Institutions American University of Beirut

Malcolm Hooper Kerr (October 8, 1931 – January 18, 1984) was a university professor specializing in the Middle East and the Arab world. An American citizen, he was born, raised, and died in Beirut, Lebanon. He served as President of the American University of Beirut until he was killed by gunmen in 1984.

Early life and education

His youth was spent in Lebanon, on and near the campus of the American University of Beirut, where his parents taught for forty years.[1] His parents, Elsa Reckman and Stanley Kerr, were married in Marash, where they met while they were rescuing Armenian women and orphans after the Armenian Genocide. After the Marash Affair they moved to Beirut. There his father became the chairman of the Department of Biochemistry at AUB and his mother was Dean of Women.[2] During World War II the family relocated to Princeton University in New Jersey. Following the war they returned to Beirut where Malcolm attended the American Community School at Beirut. Shortly thereafter, Malcolm went back alone to the USA, where he graduated from high school at the Deerfield Academy in Massachusetts.

His undergraduate degree in 1953 came from Princeton University where he had studied with Professor Philip Hitti. An early onset of arthritis caused him to return to his family in Lebanon. He entered a masters program in Arabic studies,[3] completing it in 1955 at the American University of Beirut. Here he met his wife, Ann Zwicker Kerr, with whom he had four children. He commenced his doctorate work in Washington, D.C., at the School for Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, from where he received his Ph.D. in 1958. His dissertation was written under the guidance of Majid Khadduri and Sir Hamilton Gibb.[4]

Professor

Following his doctorate, Kerr returned to teach at the American University of Beirut for three years, becoming assistant professor at the Department of Political Science in 1962. The same year, he accepted a similar post, teaching at the University of California at Los Angeles.[5] There, he would become a full professor. He was appointed as chairman of the Department of Political Science and then Dean of the Division of Social Sciences (1973–1976).

In 1959, his first book was published, emerging from his master's thesis: Lebanon in the Last Years of Feudalism. Then, at Oxford University, he did post-doctorate work for a year with Professor Albert Hourani. While he was at Oxford, Professor Gustave von Grunebaum recruited Kerr for a teaching post at the University of California at Los Angeles; his career matured over the course of twenty years of teaching in Los Angeles, from 1962 to 1982.

Kerr and his family returned often to Beirut, during vacations and breaks from UCLA. In 1964–1965, an academic grant sent him to Cairo, where he worked on his most well-known book, The Arab Cold War, published in 1965. The next year he published Islamic Reform, a reworking of his doctorate dissertation. Following the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, Kerr sensed a drastic change for the worse in the tone of Arab politics, which became harsh and bitter. In 1970–1971, he accepted an academic grant to France and North Africa and worked on a third edition of The Arab Cold War. Kerr served as president of the Middle East Studies Association in 1972. Subsequently, an award of the Middle East Studies Association was named in his honor.[6]

His own scholarship was forthright and honest to the point of sometimes getting him into trouble. While he was often thought of as 'pro-Arab' in writing about the Israeli-Arab conflict, he could be as critical of the Arabs as he was of the Israelis. He spoke the truth as he saw it and was committed to the cause of Arab-Israeli peace and to building understanding between the Arab World and the West."[7]


The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990), which often severely disrupted all life in Beirut, also interrupted the Kerr family's yearly travels. Accordingly, in 1976–1977, Kerr was again in Egypt, serving as 'visiting distinguished professor' at the American University in Cairo. Eventually, he marshalled a Ford Foundation grant to fund a joint project of the Von Grunebaum Center at UCLA (which he then headed) and the Strategic Studies of the Al-Ahram Foundation in Egypt. He returned to Cairo in 1979, where he edited the results of this joint Egyptian-American academic effort, the book Rich and Poor States in the Middle East.

President of AUB

The Presidency of the American University of Beirut was offered to Kerr in 1982. Although the civil war was still being fiercely battled on occasion, with the recent exit of the Palestinian Liberation Organization, the Lebanese civil struggle for domestic change had been a more focused effort, which encouraged hope for resolution. "Betting on these chances and feeling a sense of calling to the job, the Kerrs decided to go to Beirut." He accepted the position, serving as President for seventeen months. Appointed president in March, effective July 1, the Israeli invasion of Lebanon and occupation of Beirut made him work first from the New York office. He arrived at his College Hall office at the University in September 1982.[8]

Death

On January 18, 1984, Kerr was shot and killed by two gunmen outside his office; he was 52. Years later, information regarding Kerr's assassins and their motives still remain uncertain, but an Islamic Jihadist took credit for the murder.[9][10] Yet some doubt remains as to the perpetrator.

News of his sudden death, which was yet another tragic event in the civil war, appeared in the media worldwide.[11]

[Pastor Strawcutter] Now, did he ever carry out some of these murders himself?

[Kay Griggs] Of, of course! In fact he told me about Malcolm Kerr’s murder. Malcolm Kerr was a British double agent who worked in California. He was one of these JOINT intelligence operatives who worked for both sides. And he had been in California. But he was doing intelligence work in Beirut, undercover. He was the head of the American University of Beirut, AUB, which is in Lebanon.

Now, my husband was the liaison between the White House and President Gemayel, the brother of the first president who was murdered. My husband was involved with assassinations and operations. He was very upset with Malcolm Kerr because Malcolm Kerr refused – although they were already there – the marine sniper assassins, who were under my husband and General Joy and Al Gray, of course, who were hiding in the dormitory at this university. And of course General Gray, General Krulak, General Wilhelm – Charlie Wilhelm was there -- he is my husband’s special boss, and they were undercover there. And they had Malcolm Kerr murdered simply because Malcolm Kerr would not allow the marines to stay in the dormitory. Had I been Malcolm Kerr, I wouldn’t have wanted rowdy marine assassins living in a dormitory with children, essentially, adolescent young children, having sex, with their perversion and some of their behaviors. So he was put away for that very reason, George told me. He told me that he had to be gotten rid of because of that.

He then said that – and this is interesting – Mary Clark Yost Hallab, my husband is handled by her. She is an American double agent who was put on my husband’s case, because she could handle him. They had an affair while my husband was first married. I found out about it because she called the house after we were married, and wanted to talk to him. And I found in his papers a photograph of her and her bio and all kinds of interesting information on her, and her address in his address book. And I want you all to see that in this movie, because I have a photograph of her. They had a long-term affair the whole time he was in Beirut while she was married to an Arab intelligence double-agent who was underneath Malcolm Kerr, and who took over when Malcolm Kerr was murdered by them.

So what you have here is a favor, essentially, done to Yost.

-- Interview with Kay Griggs, by Pastor Strawcutter


Personal life

Kerr had four children: Susan, John, Steve, and Andrew. Steve Kerr is a former NBA player and the current head coach of the Golden State Warriors [12] His brother-in-law, Hans van de Ven, is an expert on Chinese history at the University of Cambridge.

Selected publications

Malcolm H. Kerr, Lebanon in the Last Years of Feudalism 1840–1868. A contemporary account by Antun Dahir Al-Aqiqi (American University of Beirut 1959)
Malcolm H. Kerr, The Arab Cold War. Gamel Abd al-Nasr and his Rivals, 1958–1970 (Oxford University 1965, 3d ed. 1975)
Malcolm H. Kerr, Islamic Reform. The political and legal theories of Muhammad 'Abduh and Rashid Ridā (Princeton University 1966)
Malcolm H. Kerr, The Elusive Peace in the Middle East (SUNY 1975)
Abraham S. Becker, Bent Hudson, & Malcolm H. Kerr, editors, Economics and Politics of the Middle East (New York: Elsevier 1975)
Malcolm H. Kerr and al-Sayyid Yasin, editors, Rich and Poor States in the Middle East. Egypt and the New Arab Order (Westview 1982)
Samir Seikaly and Ramzi Ba'labakki, editors, Quest for Understanding. Arabic and Islamic studies in honor of Malcolm H. Kerr (American University of Beirut 1991)

References

1. His father taught as Professor of Biochemistry at the University; his mother served as Dean of Women for a term. "Malcolm H. Kerr" at American University of Beirut
2. "The Inside Story Of Steve Kerr And His Family's Little-Known History Of Altruism In The Middle East". UPROXX. 2016-05-25. Retrieved 2016-06-03.
3. Office of President AUB
4. Kerr, "Preface" to his Islamic Reform (1966).
5. UCLA
6. MESA's Malcolm H. Kerr Dissertation Awards
7. At MESA: "Malcolm H. Kerr biography" by Ann Z. Kerr
8. "Malcolm H. Kerr" at American University of Beirut
9. Winslow, Charles (1996). Lebanon: War and Politics in a fragmented Society. London and New York: Routledge. p. 246.
10. At MESA: "Malcolm H. Kerr biography" by Ann Z. Kerr Text and Beirut quotation.
11. American University of Beirut: newsletter 1999 "Malcolm H. Kerr Biography" [cached at Google]. Condolences and remembrance came from many respected sources.
12. Farid, Farid (June 16, 2016). "STEVE KERR AND HIS MOTHER TALK ABOUT THE LEGACY OF HIS FATHER'S ASSASSINATION". The New Yorker. The New Yorker. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
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Re: Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

Postby admin » Wed Feb 14, 2018 9:21 pm

The Death of Malcolm Kerr, AUB President and Father of a Future NBA Coach
by Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training
05/09/2016 12:05 pm ET

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He was a brilliant scholar who focused on the Middle East and whose books were widely read by Arabists. His son Steve would later play for the NBA champion Chicago Bulls and then become coach of the Golden State Warriors and lead them to a championship in 2015 and break the record for most wins in a regular season in 2016. Malcolm Kerr grew up in Lebanon, on and near the campus of the American University of Beirut (AUB), where his parents taught for forty years. He returned to the U.S. and went graduated from high school at the Deerfield Academy in Massachusetts and later got his Bachelor’s from Princeton.

After teaching at UCLA, he moved to Cairo and in 1965 published his book The Arab Cold War. He became President of AUB in 1982, in the midst of the Lebanon Civil War. U.S. Ambassador Frank Meloy and Economic Counselor Robert Waring were assassinated in 1976. U.S. Embassy Beirut was bombed in 1983 and the Marine Corps barracks were attacked just a few months later. Sadly, Kerr would also become a victim to the violence: On January 18, 1984, he was shot and killed by two gunmen outside his office. He was 52.

William A. Rugh was in Beirut doing Arabic language study; he later served as Ambassador to Yemen from 1984-87. Philip C. Brown was Cultural Affairs Officer in Algiers, Algeria in 1970-1972 when he first met the Kerr family. George Q. Lumsden was Ambassador to the United Arab Emirates (UAE) from 1982-1986 and went to school with Kerr. He recounts the events that led to Kerr’s assassination. All were interviewed by Charles Stuart Kennedy, beginning in March 1996, January 2012, and January 2000, respectively.

You can read about other Moments on the Middle East.

“He was one of the best friends the Arab world could ever had had”
-- William A. Rugh, Arabic language study, Beirut, 1964


RUGH: Relations with the United States were excellent. That was what we believed at the time. Maybe it was a bit starry-eyed in the sense that we were talking to friendly factions and we weren’t sensitive enough to the discontent of Shiite groups and others who were becoming more and more disaffected. But as far as we knew, Lebanon was a successful experiment in pluralism.

I remember very distinguished scholars such as Malcolm Kerr writing that Lebanon was a model for harmony among different social groups and we believed that. It was a society that was very friendly to the United States. The 1958 crisis with the American intervention, direct military intervention, seemed to have been a successful use of American military power to help stabilize the situation. Of course, we found out later that doesn’t always work.

But at that time, in 1964, the American University, AUB, was a very positive factor. Later it became faction-ridden and had a lot of political difficulties. The American University Hospital was considered the best in the Middle East. The American official presence was considered benign and benevolent by most people. Of course, in those years there was a wave of Arab nationalism led primarily by Nasser, in Egypt, and to some extent people in Lebanon were reflecting that and feeling that.

Philip Brown, Branch Cultural Affairs Officer, Algiers, 1970-1972

BROWN: One of the most interesting American families we met during our stay in Algiers was the Malcolm Kerr family. He and his wife I think were on a Fulbright scholarship traveling through North Africa when they stayed with us. Malcolm Kerr eventually became President of the American University of Beirut; he was a very astute student of the Arab world and one of the best friends the Arab world could ever had had...

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(The Kerr family in the mid-1970s at their home in Pacific Palisades, Calif., from left to right: Steve, Andrew, mother Ann, dog Hoagie, father Malcolm, John and Susan. Photo: Ann Kerr)

Among their children was a son named Steve, who went on to become a National Basketball Association star with the San Antonio Spurs....We knew him when he was just a little kid, running around that big house we had in Algiers.

“Coming to grips with this took me quite some time”
-- George Lumsden, Ambassador to The United Arab Emirates (UAE), 1982-1986


LUMSDEN: I will now embark on an interesting story. 1983. The Christmas-New Year’s season arrived. The intelligence community in Washington, through Mossad, the Israeli intelligence service, and their good infiltration into Lebanon immediately following the Kuwait embassy bombing, noted the first rising of Shia radicalism because the Shias had been fairly lethargic up to the point.

Under the aegis of the Iranian ambassador in Damascus, a hardliner named Hashi Mupoor, the southern Lebanese Shia were being organized away from the Islamic Jihad group to form a new, pure Shia group which is known as Hezbollah. This would have been in ‘83. We know how that has developed.

They picked up that the Kuwait embassy bombing was step one. Step two was to be the assassination of a major American figure in the Gulf, an ambassador. Not only that, they were going to get a French ambassador, too. France for obvious reasons of its own interest was very happy that the Iraq tilt was being worked out. France had flown [Ayatollah] Khomeini back to Tehran and didn’t get anything for it. Plus, they had a lot of interest in Iraq and still do.

I didn’t know anything. I find that armored limousines are being flown from Washington to Abu Dhabi (I didn’t have an armored car) and that special American bodyguard details from the State Department are coming to live with us because the intelligence said that the best target was Abu Dhabi and the French and American ambassadors there were the targets. They knew the weapons that they had, the serial numbers, the silencers. The whole smear came through the intelligence community.

So, wow! Here we are. Christmastime. My kids are visiting from college. The American security moves in. The halftrack [a civilian or military vehicle with regular wheels at the front for steering and continuous tracks at the back to propel the vehicle and carry most of the load] gets parked in the driveway. A platoon of UAE infantry digs in around the residence. My ability to move about the country becomes very, very inhibited.

The Foreign Minister is terribly worried. The Kuwaiti ambassador picks this up because it was our embassy in his country. He is terribly worried. So, everybody is sweating.

We get the kids out as quickly as we can. Helen and I have to go out to be trained on how to use an Uzi and a .38 caliber, the whole smear. We have that in our room and we have U.S. security agents sleeping outside our door. It’s not so much fun with these kinds of things.

[The French ambassador] got the same thing. They made him wear a bulletproof vest everywhere and he looked ridiculous. I had it on once and said, “I just can’t do this.”

They all packed around me when we went in a building for a meeting.

This is a bittersweet story. Nothing happened. New Year came. New Year went. We were now into January 1984. All this tension was still there. About the 10th of January, the signal came through and they left. The local government knew the group was there. However, they hadn’t done anything.

The UAE government was very afraid to apprehend all these people that had the Iranians’ backing when they hadn’t done anything or demonstrated any malicious intent. But the security wall apparently convinced whoever was orchestrating this thing — probably Hashi Mupoor — that it wasn’t such a soft target after all.

What happened? On the 1[8]th of January, the President of the American University in Beirut, Malcolm Kerr, was assassinated. The bullet markings jived with this group. We became a hardened target.

They said, “We’ve got to get a prominent American who’s gettable.” They got Malcolm Kerr, who I had seen in Abu Dhabi fundraising for the American University of Beirut about three months before.

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Now, it gets really bittersweet. Malcolm Kerr I had known since he was 13 years old. He was a class behind me at Deerfield Academy and was a class behind me at Princeton University.

Coming to grips with this took me quite some time. I have only recently begun to speak about this situation. Through roommates and things I have just tried to figure out when, if ever, I should talk to his wife and son about this particular incident. Maybe somebody has told them.

As an extra added postscript, the son involved is a young man named Steve Kerr. Steve was substitute point guard for the Chicago Bulls-Michael Jordan dynasty. You may have seen him on television. I think he’s out of the League now, but that is just apropos of nothing except my interest in sports...

I haven’t told many people this story. Actually, it’s sort of a catharsis for me to get rid of some of this stuff.
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Re: Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

Postby admin » Wed Feb 14, 2018 9:23 pm

Paul R. Chesebro H'14 Inducted as Headmaster
The Hun School of Princeton
History
Accessed: 12/8/17

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Paul Chesebro graduated from Amherst College in 1927 and from Princeton university with a Master of Arts in 1929, the same year he married his wife, Florence. Together, they had two daughters. In 1951, the Lawrence Institute of Technology honored him with an honorary doctorate. It was while he was a student at Princeton that Dr. Chesebro first worked at The Hun School as a part-time proctor. He had a varied career, which included serving as a Hun School math and science teacher and assistant principal. After teaching at Princeton High School, he once again returned to The Hun School in 1951 to serve as headmaster and continued to do so for the next 25 years. Dr. Chesebro’s ability to revitalize the School caused many to see him as a second founder.

Class of 1951 Graduates; Mr. Chesebro Inducted as Headmaster
The Mall
Published by the Students of the Hun School of Princeton
Vo. VIII, Princeton, N.J.
June, 1951

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On the morning of Jun 1, the inauguration of Mr. Paul R. Chesebro as Headmaster of the Hun School of Princeton took place. The ceremony was very impressive. Chairman of the Hun School Board of Trustees, Mr. John P. Poe, conducted the inauguration. Mr. Chesebro followed his induction with a short talk. This event was the climax of Mr. Chesebro's long and faithful devotion to Hun.

Soon after the inauguration was completed, the graduation of the Class of 1951 took place, followed by the customary awards. For the first time in several years, every senior received a diploma. The commencement proceedings were followed by the commencement address, delivered by the Honorable Alfred E. Driscoll, Governor of New Jersey. Other speakers in ...
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Re: Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

Postby admin » Sat Mar 31, 2018 10:08 pm

A Trust Betrayed: The Untold Story of Camp Lejeune and the Poisoning of Generations of Marines and Their Families [EXCERPT]
by Mike Magner
Copyright 2014 by Mike Magner

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The NACIP process in the early 1980s required three steps: an initial assessment study, a confirmation study, and remedial measures. At Camp Lejeune, the Marine Corps hired Grainger Laboratories, a state-certified environmental lab based in Raleigh, North Carolina, to conduct a NACIP study in 1982.

The effort was barely under way when Grainger engineer Mike Hargett called base chemist Elizabeth Betz on May 6, 1982, to report that in tests for THMs at both the Tarawa Terrace and Hadnot Point water systems, "peaks" of the cleaning solvents TCE and PCE had been found. It was essentially a repeat of the findings by the Army lab eighteen months earlier.

Betz immediately notified her supervisor, Danny Sharpe, who sent the results "up the chain of command" to the base maintenance officer and the utilities director. About a week later, Betz was asked to brief Colonel Kenneth Millice and one of his assistants at base headquarters. But when she met with Millice and a lieutenant colonel on May 14, 1982, neither seems to have been informed about the test results; Millice simply requested that Betz prepare a report for him to read later on the status of testing for THMs. "No mention was made of extra peaks [of the other contaminants, TCE and PCE] that Grainger found in the Tarawa Terrace and Hadnot Point systems samples," Betz wrote in a memo summarizing the meeting. Betz also noted that she didn't bring up the solvents issue because the meeting was focused on the contaminants that were being regulated.
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Re: Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

Postby admin » Sat Mar 31, 2018 10:21 pm

Millice Jr, Kenneth, Col, Deceased
by Pamela Jeans (Pam)-Historian to remember Marine Col Kenneth Millice Jr.
marines.togetherweserved.com
April 18, 2013

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Name: Col Kenneth Paul Millice Jr
Birth Date: 12 May 1934
Birth Place: Seven Mile, Butler County, Ohio, United States of America
Death Date: 2006
Death Place: Virginia Beach, Virginia Beach City, Virginia, United States of America
Has Bio?: Y
Father: Kenneth P. Millice
Mother: Florence Millice
US Marine Corps Vietnam Veteran: He served from 1957 to 1988
-- findagrave.com


Last Rank: Colonel
Last Primary MOS: 1302-Combat Engineer Officer
Last MOSGroup: Engineer, Construction And Equipment
Primary Unit: 1982-1984, Engineer School, Camp Le Jeune
Service Years: 1957 - 1988
Year of Birth: 1934
Home Town: Seven Mile
Last Address: 1060 Commodore Drive, VA Beach, VA 23454
Date of Passing: Not Specified
Military Association Memberships: 1993, Marine Corps Engineer Association (MCEA) [Verified]
Last Known Activity: He passed away in 20006 no further info is available.
Unit Assignments: II MEF/2nd Marine Division
3rd Combat Engineer BnMARDET Fort Belvoir VAUSMC (United States Marine Corps)
3rd Marine Regiment/3rd Bn, 3rd Marine Regiment (3/3)
4th Combat Engineer BnMCB Camp Lejeune, NCEngineer School, Camp Le Jeune
1957-1958, 1302, 2nd Marine Division/2nd Pioneer Bn
1958-1960, 1302, 2nd Marine Division/2nd FSR Force Troops
1964-1965, 3rd Combat Engineer Bn/Engineer Support Co
1965-1968, MARDET Fort Belvoir VA
1969-1972, MCB, MCAS, Facilities etc
1976-1977, 3rd Marine Regiment/3rd Bn, 3rd Marine Regiment (3/3)
1977-1980, 4th Combat Engineer Bn/Engineer Support Co, Baltimore, MD
1980-1982, MCB Camp Lejeune, NC
1982-1984, Engineer School, Camp Le Jeune
Combat and Non-Combat Operations: 1990-1991 Gulf War
Colleges Attended: 1953-1957, Ohio State University1
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Re: Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

Postby admin » Sat Mar 31, 2018 10:35 pm

Opening arguments in the court-martial of accused Marine turncoat...
by Bruce Douglas
upi.com
November 13, 1980

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CAMP LEJEUNE, N.C. -- Opening arguments in the court-martial of accused Marine turncoat Robert Garwood were postponed again today when defense attorneys challenged trial procedures.

The military judge, Col. R.E. Switzer, said the opening arguments would begin Friday.

At issue today was the judge's instructions to the five-member jury that will hear the case against Garwood, the only Vietnam veteran accused of desertion and collaboration with the enemy.

The defense asked Switzer to emphasize the 'terrorization' that occurred in Vietnamese prison camps and its effect on Garwood.

Defense attorney John Lowe said the life of a prisoner of war was similar to someone living with 'a gun to their head.'

'We are referring to the uniqueness in this case to distinquish the real terrorization which caused prison camp activities to be involuntary in any sense of the word,' Lowe said.

Garwood's lawyers again indicated the 34-year-old Marine may not testify because of psychiatric problems.

Attorney Vaughan Taylor said Garwood has flashbacks when subjected to strenuous questioning.

'It's a problem that occurs whenever anything is likely to appear as an interrogation,' Taylor said. 'That makes his testifying accurately as to these matters impossible.'

Garwood, of Adams, Ind., is charged with desertion, collaboration with the enemy and two counts of verbal and physical assault on Americans held captive by the communists.

He returned to the United States in March 1979 after nearly 14 years with the Vietnamese. A young jeep driver with only 10 days left on his Vietnam tour, Garwood was one of the first Americans to fall into enemy hands when he disappeared near Danang in 1965.

He claims he was a prisoner, captured in a gunbattle with the Viet Cong, and was held in North Vietnam against his will during the mass repatriation of American POWs in 1973.

But when testimony begins, a handful of former POWs will give a different account of Garwood's years with the enemy.

In a pre-trial hearing that began last November, former POWs told of encountering Garwood in the jungles of South Vietnam, dressed in the uniform of the enemy and carrying a rifle. They also accused him of joining the Viet Cong in the indoctrination and interrogation of POWs.

He faces a possible life sentence if convicted.

The case has been beset by repeated delays brought on by changes in attorneys and lengthy pre-trial hearings in which the defense sought to have the charges dropped, or to have the scope of the case widened to include an examination of all POW conduct.

While awaiting his military trial, Garwood was arrested in September on two felony sex charges, alleging he molested a 7-year-old girl from the Jacksonville area. He has denied those charges; the case is not scheduled to come to trial until his court-martial is over.

One juror, Col. K.P. Millice [Colonel Kenneth P. Millice], was excused from the case during a hearing Wednesday because defense attorneys were not convinced he had not been prejudiced by his exposure to publicity about the sex charges.
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Re: Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

Postby admin » Sun Apr 01, 2018 1:07 am

John J. Sheehan
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Accessed: 3/31/18

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John J. "Jack" Sheehan (born August 23, 1940) is a retired United States Marine Corps general. His final active duty commands, culminating 35 years of service in the Marine Corps, were as the Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (SACLANT) for NATO and as Commander-in-Chief for the U.S. Atlantic Command (CINCUSACOM) (1994–1997).

Life and career

Sheehan was born on August 23, 1940, in Somerville, Massachusetts.[1] The son of Irish immigrants, he is one of seven children. He graduated with a B.A. degree in English from Boston College in June 1962. After graduation, he was commissioned a second lieutenant in the U.S. Marine Corps. He holds an M.S. degree from Georgetown University in Government. His professional military education includes the Amphibious Warfare School, Naval Command and Staff College, and National War College.[2]

He served in various command positions ranging from company commander to brigade commander in both the Atlantic and Pacific theater of operations. General Sheehan’s combat tours include duty in Vietnam and Desert Shield/Desert Storm.[2]

His staff positions included duties as regimental, division, and service headquarters staff officer as well as joint duty with the United States Army, the Office of the Secretary of Defense, and the U.S. Atlantic Command.[2]

Before assuming his final duties as Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic and Commander in Chief, U.S. Atlantic Command on October 31, 1994, General Sheehan served as Director for Operations, J-3, Joint Staff, Washington, D.C. General Sheehan retired from the Marine Corps on September 24, 1997.[2]

In 1998, Sheehan joined Bechtel International as a senior vice president.[2] While remaining with Bechtel, Sheehan joined the Military Officers Association of America board of directors in 2012. He became chairman of the board in 2016.[3]

Controversy

In March 2010 he testified to the US Congress that according to the chief of staff of the Dutch Army at the time of the incident, the fall of Srebrenica was caused by lack of readiness related to the Dutch being more concerned with internal 'socialisation' of the military than fighting capacity. Sheehan stated it was in part due to homosexual men serving in the military. During the same testimony, Sheehan stated that gays weakened the army, while attraction between men and women in gender-integrated units would not.[4][5][6][7] Speculation has it that Sheehan meant General Henk van den Breemen, Dutch chief of staff at the time of the Srebrenica genocide. General van den Breemen denied having said such a thing and called Sheehan's comments "total nonsense".[5] Dutch Minister of Defense Eimert van Middelkoop stated that Sheehan's statement was "disgraceful," "unworthy of anyone in the military".[8] Prime-Minister Jan Peter Balkenende of the Netherlands stated that Sheehan's words are "shameful", "outrageous", "beneath contempt" and "disrespectful towards all troops involved".[9][10] Dutch advocates of gay rights, organized in the "Pink Army" (foundation) and the Stichting Homosexualiteit en Krijgsmacht ("Foundation Homosexuality and Armed Forces"), announced a libel lawsuit against Sheehan, demanded public apologies, and for Sheehan to follow sensitivity training.[11] The majority of the Dutch parliament voiced their support for the class action.[12]

On March 29, 2010, Dutch media reported that Sheehan had sent an e-mail[13] to his Dutch colleague General Henk van den Breemen in which he apologized for his comments. He stated that his memory of the conversation was inaccurate.[14]

Awards and decorations

His decorations and medals include:

1st Row Defense Distinguished Service Medal w/ 1 oak leaf cluster
2nd Row Silver Star Defense Superior Service Medal Bronze Star w/ 1 award star & valor device Purple Heart w/ 1 award star
3rd Row Defense Meritorious Service Medal Meritorious Service Medal Army Commendation Medal Navy and Marine Corps Achievement Medal
4th Row Combat Action Ribbon Navy Presidential Unit Citation Navy Unit Commendation Marine Corps Expeditionary Medal
5th Row National Defense Service Medal w/ 1 service star Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal Vietnam Service Medal w/ 5 service stars Southwest Asia Service Medal w/ 2 service stars
6th Row Humanitarian Service Medal Navy Sea Service Deployment Ribbon Arctic Service Ribbon Vietnam Gallantry Cross w/ 2 silver stars
7th Row Vietnam Armed Forces Honor Medal, 2nd class National Order of Merit (France), Officer Order of Merit (Portugal), Grand Cross Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary, Commander's Cross with Star (Military)
8th Row Royal Norwegian Order of Merit, Grand Cross Vietnam Gallantry Cross Unit Citation Vietnam Campaign Medal Kuwait Liberation Medal (Saudi Arabia)
Badge Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic

References

1. [1]
2. "History Division". Tecom.usmc.mil. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
3. "Board of Directors", Military Officers Association of America, Alexandria, Virginia, accessed 3 December 2017.
4. "General Sheehan: gays responsible for Srebrenica massacre" on YouTube
5. "Dutch fuming at retired US general's gays comment". washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2010-03-19.[dead link]
6. Sheehan: Gays weakened European militaries
7. Retired U.S. general links gays in army to genocide Archived 2010-03-23 at the Wayback Machine.
8. "'Anti-homo uitspraken Sheehan militair onwaardig' [Blik op Nieuws.nl - Zuid Holland]". Blikopnieuws.nl. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
9. "Balkenende: uitlating generaal over homoseksuele militairen schandelijk - Trouw" (in Dutch). Trouw.nl. 2010-03-19. Retrieved 2010-03-19.
10. Ben Berkowitz (2010-03-19). "Dutch lash out at gay link in Srebrenica massacre". Reuters. Retrieved 2010-03-22.
11. (in Dutch)"Homostichtingen willen excuses van Sheehan"
12. (in Dutch) "Kamer steunts excuuseis general Sheehan"
13. "Email Sheehan to Van den Breemen"[permanent dead link]
14. (in Dutch)"VS-general Sheehan apologizes."
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Re: Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

Postby admin » Sun Apr 01, 2018 1:30 am

Charles C. Krulak
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 3/31/18

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Charles Chandler Krulak (born March 4, 1942) served as the 31st Commandant of the Marine Corps from July 1, 1995 to June 30, 1999. He is the son of Lieutenant General Victor H. "Brute" Krulak, who served in World War II, Korea, and Vietnam. He was the 13th President of Birmingham-Southern College after his stint as a non-executive director of English association football club Aston Villa.

Early life and education

Krulak was born in 1942 in Quantico, Virginia, the son of Amy (Chandler) and Victor H. Krulak. He graduated from Phillips Exeter Academy in Exeter, New Hampshire in 1960, where he was classmates with novelist John Irving. Krulak then attended the United States Naval Academy, graduating in 1964 with a bachelor's degree. Krulak also holds a master's degree in labor relations from George Washington University (1973). He is a graduate of the Amphibious Warfare School (1968); the Army Command and General Staff College (1976); and the National War College (1982).

Career

After his commissioning and graduation from The Basic School at Marine Corps Base Quantico, Krulak held a variety of command and staff positions. His command positions included: commanding officer of a platoon and two rifle companies during two tours of duty in Vietnam; commanding officer of Special Training Branch and Recruit Series at Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego, California (1966–1968); commanding officer of Counter-Guerilla Warfare School, Northern Training Area on Okinawa (1970), Company officer at the United States Naval Academy (1970–1973); commanding officer of the Marine Barracks at Naval Air Station North Island, California (1973–1976), and commanding officer, 3rd Battalion 3rd Marines (1983–1985).

Krulak's staff assignments included: operations officer, 2nd Battalion 9th Marines (1977–1978); chief of the Combat Arms Monitor Section at Headquarters Marine Corps, Washington, D.C. (1978–1979); executive assistant to the Director of Personnel Management, Headquarters Marine Corps (1979–1981); Plans Office, Fleet Marine Forces Pacific, Camp H.M. Smith, Hawaii (1982–1983); executive officer, 3rd Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Expeditionary Brigade; assistant chief of staff, maritime pre-positioning ships, 1st MEB; assistant chief of staff for operations, 1st Marine Expeditionary Brigade; and the military assistant to the assistant secretary of defense for command, control, communications and intelligence, Office of the Secretary of Defense.

He was assigned duty as the deputy director of the White House Military Office in September 1987. While serving in this capacity, he was selected for promotion to brigadier general in November 1988. He was advanced to that grade on June 5, 1989, and assigned duties as the commanding general, 10th MEB/Assistant division commander, 2nd Marine Division, Fleet Marine Force Atlantic, at Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina on July 10, 1989. On June 1, 1990, he assumed duties as the commanding general, 2nd Force Service Support Group Group/Commanding general, 6th Marine Expeditionary Brigade, Fleet Marine Force Atlantic and commanded the 2d FSSG during the Gulf War. He served in this capacity until July 12, 1991, and was assigned duty as assistant deputy chief of staff for manpower and reserve affairs (personnel Management/Personnel Procurement), Headquarters Marine Corps on August 5, 1991. He was advanced to major general on March 20, 1992. General Krulak was assigned as commanding general, Marine Corps Combat Development Command, Quantico, on August 24, 1992, and was promoted to lieutenant general on September 1, 1992. On July 22, 1994, he was assigned as commander of Marine Forces Pacific/commanding general, Fleet Marine Force Pacific, and in March 1995 he was nominated to serve as the Commandant of the Marine Corps. On June, 29, he was promoted to general and assumed duties as the 31st commandant on June 30, 1995. He was relieved on June 30, 1999, by General James L. Jones.

In 1997, Krulak became a Life Member of the Sons of the Revolution in the State of California.[1]

General Krulak attracted some attention during his tenure as Commandant by his custom of delivering Christmas cookies to each Marine duty post in the Washington area.[2]

Personal life

Krulak joined MBNA America in September 1999 as chief administrative officer, responsible for personnel, benefits, compensation, education, and other administrative services. Krulak has served as the Senior Vice Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of MBNA Europe (2001–2005) and was based at the Chester campus in the UK. He was the executive vice chairman and chief administration officer of MBNA Corporation (2004–2005). He retired from MBNA in 2005.

Following the takeover of English football club Aston Villa by MBNA Chairman Randy Lerner in August 2006 and as of September 19, 2006, General Krulak joined the board of Aston Villa as non-executive director where he posted on several fans forums. Krulak was generally referred to as "The General" by fans on these boards.

Krulak also serves on the boards of ConocoPhillips, Freeport-McMoran (formerly known as Phelps Dodge Corporation) and Union Pacific Corporation.[3][4][5] In addition, he serves on the advisory council of Hope For The Warriors, a national non-profit dedicated to provide a full cycle of non-medical care to combat wounded service members, their families, and families of the fallen from each military branch.[6]

He was elected as the 13th President of Birmingham–Southern College in Birmingham, Alabama on March 21, 2011, and retired in the summer of 2015.

General Krulak is the Vice Chair of the Sweet Briar College Board of Directors. He joined the Board in the Summer of 2015.[7]

Awards and decorations

General Krulak's decorations and medals include:

Silver Star Bronze Star w/ valor device & 2 award stars Purple Heart with gold star Meritorious Service Medal
Navy Commendation Medal Combat Action Ribbon Presidential Unit Citation w/ 1 service star Navy Unit Commendation
Meritorious Unit Commendation National Defense Service Medal w/ 1 service star Vietnam Service Medal w/ 6 service stars Southwest Asia Service Medal w/ 3 service stars
Sea Service Deployment Ribbon w/ 2 service stars Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with palm, silver star, & bronze star French Legion of Honor, Commander Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross Unit Citation
Republic of Vietnam Civil Actions Unit Citation Republic of Vietnam Campaign Medal Kuwait Liberation Medal (Saudi Arabia) Kuwait Liberation Medal (Kuwait)
Presidential Service Badge Office of the Secretary of Defense Identification Badge Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Identification Badge

Legacy

General Krulak famously referred to the "Strategic Corporal" and the Three Block War as two of the key lessons identified from the deployments in Somalia, Haiti and Bosnia. These concepts are still considered vital in understanding the increasing complexity of modern battlefields.

General Krulak explained some of his warfighting philosophy in an interview with Tom Clancy in Clancy's nonfiction book Marine. Clancy referred to General Krulak as "Warrior Prince of the Corps."

General Krulak also rewrote the Marine Corps' basic combat study text, MCDP 1: Warfighting, incorporating his theories on operations in the modern battlefield.

Family

General Krulak is married to Zandi Meyers from Annapolis. They have two sons: Captain Dr. David C. Krulak, a surgeon with the US Marine Corps Forces, Pacific[8] and Todd; and five grandchildren: Brian, Katie, Mary, Matthew and Charles. He is the son of Lieutenant General Victor H. Krulak, Sr., and the younger brother of Commander Victor H. Krulak Jr, Navy Chaplain Corps and Colonel William Krulak, USMCR.[9] General Krulak stated in an interview that his godfather was Holland M. "Howling Mad" Smith.

Notes

1. http://www.srcalifornia.com/archive/397/397-1.htm
2. http://www.stripes.com/blogs/the-rumor- ... y-1.134995
3. "Charles C. Krulak". ConocoPhilips. Archived from the original on 2006-05-21. Retrieved 2006-09-19.
4. "Phelps Dodge Elects Charles C. Krulak to Board of Directors". Phelps Dodge. December 7, 2005. Retrieved 2006-09-19.[permanent dead link]
5. "General Charles C. Krulak Elected to Board of Directors of Union Pacific Corporation". Union Pacific. January 26, 2006. Retrieved 2006-09-19.
6. Board of Directors, Hope for the Warriors, archived from the original on 2011-11-13, retrieved 2011-11-04
7. Board of Directors, Sweet Briar College, retrieved 2015-07-16
8. https://www.dvidshub.net/image/1535107/ ... ed-captain
9. Coram, Robert (2010). Brute: The Life of Victor Krulak, U.S. Marine. Little, Brown & Co.

References

• "General Charles C. Krulak, USMC (Retired)". Who's Who in Marine Corps History. History Division, United States Marine Corps. Retrieved 2010-12-29.

External links

• Appearances on C-SPAN
• Krulak, Charles C. and Joseph P. Hoar (2007-05-17). "It's Our Cage, Too" Torture Betrays Us and Breeds New Enemies". Washington Post. p. A17. Retrieved 2007-12-10. Editorial on the use of torture.
• Krulak, General Charles C. (USMC Commandant of the Marine Corps) (1998-05-16). ""Legacy of Valor: FMF Corpsmen and Medical Personnel", Commencement Remarks for the Uniformed Services University at the DAR Constitution Hall". Archived from the original on 2008-01-06. Retrieved 2007-12-10.
• Krulak, Gen. Charles C. (January 1999). "The Strategic Corporal: Leadership in the Three Block War". Marines Magazine.
• Interview on April 2007 Discusses about leadership
• Works by or about Charles C. Krulak in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
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Re: Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

Postby admin » Sun Apr 01, 2018 1:47 am

Victor H. Krulak
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 3/31/18

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Victor H. Krulak
Nickname(s) "Brute"
Born January 7, 1913
Denver, Colorado
Died December 29, 2008 (aged 95)
San Diego, California
Buried Fort Rosecrans National Cemetery, San Diego
Allegiance United States United States of America
Service/branch Seal of the United States Marine Corps.svg United States Marine Corps
Years of service 1934–1968
Rank US-O9 insignia.svg Lieutenant General
Service number 0-4990
Commands held 2nd Parachute Battalion
5th Marine Regiment
Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego
Fleet Marine Force, Pacific
Battles/wars
World War II
Naval Battle of Vella Lavella
Raid on Choiseul
Battle of Okinawa
Korean War
Vietnam War
Awards Navy Cross
Navy Distinguished Service Medal
Legion of Merit (3)
Bronze Star Medal (with "V")
Purple Heart
Air Medal
Spouse(s) Amy Chandler (1936–2004; her death; 3 children)[1]
Relations General Charles C. Krulak (son)
Other work Newspaper columnist[2]

Victor Harold Krulak (January 7, 1913 – December 29, 2008) was a decorated United States Marine Corps officer who saw action in World War II, Korea and Vietnam. Krulak, considered a visionary by fellow Marines,[3] was the author of First to Fight: An Inside View of the U.S. Marine Corps and the father of the 31st Commandant of the Marine Corps, Charles C. Krulak.

Personal life

Krulak was born in Denver, Colorado, to Jewish parents, Bessie (Zall) and Morris Krulak. He later denied Jewish ancestry and claimed to have been raised Episcopalian.[4] He was married to Amy Chandler from 1936 until her death in 2004. The couple had three children.

Marine Corps career

Krulak was commissioned a U.S. Marine Corps second lieutenant upon graduation from the U.S. Naval Academy on May 31, 1934. His early Marine Corps service included: sea duty aboard USS Arizona, an assignment at the U.S. Naval Academy; duty with the 6th Marines in San Diego and the 4th Marines in China (1937–39); completion of the Junior School, Quantico, Virginia (1940); and an assignment with the 1st Marine Brigade, FMF, later the 1st Marine Division.

While stationed as an observer in Shanghai during the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937, Krulak took photographs with a telephoto lens of a ramp-bowed landing boat that the Japanese had been using. Recognizing the potential use of such a craft by the U.S. armed forces, Krulak sent details and photographs back to Washington, but discovered years later that they had been filed away as having come from "some nut out in China". Krulak built a model of the Japanese boat design and discussed the retractable ramp approach with boat builder Andrew Higgins who incorporated elements of Krulak's input into the Landing Craft, Vehicle, Personnel (LCVP) or "Higgins boat", which played critical roles in the Normandy Landings and amphibious assaults in the Pacific.[5]

World War II

At the outbreak of World War II, Krulak was a captain serving as aide to General Holland M. Smith, the Commanding General, Amphibious Corps, Atlantic Fleet. He volunteered for parachute training and on completion of training, he was ordered to the Pacific area as commander of the 2nd Parachute Battalion, 1st Marine Amphibious Corps. He went into action at Vella Lavella with the 2nd New Zealand Brigade.

As a lieutenant colonel in the fall of 1943, he earned the Navy Cross and the Purple Heart on Choiseul Island, where his battalion staged a week-long diversionary raid to cover the Bougainville invasion.[5] Later, he joined the newly formed 6th Marine Division and took part in the Okinawa campaign and the surrender of Japanese forces in the China area, earning the Legion of Merit with "V" device for valor and the Bronze Star.

The Navy Cross is presented to Victor H. Krulak, Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps, for extraordinary heroism as Commanding Officer of the Second Battalion, First Marine Parachute Regiment, during operations on Choiseul Island, Solomon Islands, October 28 to November 3, 1943. Assigned the task of diverting hostile attention from the movements of our main attack force en route to Empress Augusta Bay, Bougainville Island, Lieutenant Colonel Krulak landed at Choiseul and daringly directed the attack of his battalion against the Japanese, destroying hundreds of tons of supplies and burning camps and landing barges. Although wounded during the assault on October 30, he repeatedly refused to relinquish his command and with dauntless courage and tenacious devotion to duty, continued to lead his battalion against the numerically superior Japanese forces. His brilliant leadership and indomitable fighting spirit assured the success of this vital mission and were in keeping with the highest traditions of the United States Naval Service.

— Navy Cross citation[6]


The navy PT boat, PT-59, captained by John F. Kennedy helped evacuate Krulak's force from Choiseul at the end of the operation. In response, Krulak promised Kennedy a bottle of whiskey which he delivered almost 20 years later when Kennedy was serving as President of the United States.[7]

After the war, Krulak returned to the United States and served as Assistant Director of the Senior School at Marine Corps Base Quantico, and, later, as Regimental Commander of the 5th Marines at Camp Pendleton.

Korean War

He was serving as Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, when the Korean War erupted, and subsequently served in Korea as Chief of Staff, 1st Marine Division, earning a second Legion of Merit with Combat "V" and Air Medal.

From 1951 to 1955, Krulak served at Headquarters Marine Corps as Secretary of the General Staff, then rejoined Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, as Chief of Staff.

1956 to 1959

In July 1956, he was promoted to brigadier general and designated assistant commander, 3rd Marine Division on Okinawa. From 1957 to 1959, he served as director, Marine Corps Educational Center, Quantico. He was promoted to major general in November 1959, and the following month assumed command of the Marine Corps Recruit Depot, San Diego.

Vietnam War

Image
Lt. Gen Krulak in a training exercise at Camp Pendleton, May 7, 1964

From 1962 to 1964, Krulak served as Special Assistant for Counter Insurgency Activities, Organization of the Joint Chiefs of Staff; for which he was presented a third Legion of Merit for exceptional meritorious service by General Maxwell D. Taylor, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. During this period, American military advisors were providing assistance to the South Vietnamese in their war against the Viet Cong. In September 1963, then Major General Krulak and Joseph Mendenhall, a senior Foreign Service officer, led a fact-finding mission to learn about the progress of the war. Krulak said that the situation was very good and supported President Ngo Dinh Diem, while Mendenhall claimed the opposite, leading Kennedy to famously ask the pair if they had visited the same country. In late December 1963, the new president, Lyndon B. Johnson, ordered an interdepartmental group to be headed by Krulak with the purpose of studying OPLAN 34A and selecting from it those targets the United States could hit in North Vietnam with the least amount of risk to its people. This was in keeping with the administration's policy of graduated pressure on the North Vietnamese.[8]

Image
Krulak inspecting Marines from First Air Naval Gunfire Liaison Company in Hawaii, April 1965.

On March 1, 1964, Krulak was designated Commanding General, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific, and promoted to Lieutenant General. For the next four years, Krulak was responsible for all Fleet Marine Force units in the Pacific, including some 54 trips to the Vietnam theater. Many sources including Coram (2010) report that the Chu Lai base, which commenced in May 1965, was named after Krulak's own Chinese name.[9]

At the beginning of the war, Krulak put forward the "Spreading Inkblot Theory." This promoted a spreading inkblot of small units actions to pacify South Vietnam village by village. When large enemy units were encountered then General Westmoreland's overwhelming firepower should be employed. He also called for intensive bombing of North Vietnam and mining of Haiphong Harbor. Krulak's plans were eventually rejected as Westmoreland favored hammering the enemy into submission through superior firepower and the Johnson administration feared relentless bombing of the North would provoke Soviet and Chinese intervention.[10] Krulak opposed the establishment of a Marine base at Khe Sanh.[11]

Krulak hoped to become the next Commandant of the Marine Corps, but in 1967 Lyndon B. Johnson selected Leonard F. Chapman, Jr.. As a result, Krulak retired on June 1, 1968, receiving a Navy Distinguished Service Medal for his performance during that period.[11] Military historian Robert Coram states that it was Krulak's comments to President Johnson criticizing the restraints placed on American military operations in Vietnam that resulted in Johnson's selection of Chapman over Krulak.[7] General Krulak's son Charles C. Krulak eventually became the 31st Commandant of the Marine Corps, serving from 1995 to 1999.

Medals and decorations

Krulak's medals and decorations include:[12]

Navy Cross Navy Distinguished Service Medal
Legion of Merit w/ 2 award stars & valor device Bronze Star with "V" device Purple Heart Air Medal
Navy Presidential Unit Citation w/ 3 service stars China Service Medal w/ 1 service star American Defense Service Medal w/ Base clasp American Campaign Medal
Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal w/ 3 service stars World War II Victory Medal Navy Occupation Service Medal National Defense Service Medal w/ 1 service star
Korean Service Medal w/ 4 service stars Vietnam Service Medal w/ service star Order of Service Merit, Second Class National Order of Vietnam, Commander
Vietnam Gallantry Cross w/ palm Korean Presidential Unit Citation United Nations Korea Medal Vietnam Campaign Medal

Strategic vehicle advocacy

Krulak was an early advocate of using helicopters as attack platforms. He was also instrumental in the development of Higgins boats, which enabled beach landings of men and material in World War II.[13]

Post-military career

After retiring from the Marine Corps, Krulak worked for Copley Newspapers, including serving as president of Copley News Service and vice president of Copley Press. He retired from Copley in 1977, though he continued to contribute to their news service.[14] Krulak also wrote a number of books, including the iconic Marine Corps history First to Fight.[15]

In retirement, Krulak was active in community organizations, as well as participating in Marine Corps activities. He served as president and trustee of the Zoological Society of San Diego.[14] His wife, Amy, died in 2004.[11]

On December 29, 2008, Lieutenant General Krulak died at age 95 in San Diego, California.[15][16] He was survived by his three sons – retired Marine Corps Commandant General Charles Krulak, Reverend Victor Krulak (Commander Navy Chaplain Corps), Reverend William Krulak (Colonel USMCR) — four grandchildren, and 10 great-grandchildren.[14] Krulak's funeral was held on January 8, 2009, in the chapel at MCAS Miramar, with burial at Fort Rosecrans National Cemetery.[14]

Honors

In 2004, Lieutenant General Krulak was the recipient of the U.S. Naval Academy's Distinguished Graduate award, which honors alumni who have "provided a lifetime of service to the nation or armed forces, have made significant and distinguished contributions to the nation via their public service and have demonstrated a strong interest in supporting the Navy or Marine Corps and the United States Naval Academy. These individuals are the embodiment of the Naval Academy’s mission to provide graduates who will be ready '…to assume the highest responsibilities of command, citizenship and government.'"[17]

In 2007, at the Marine Corps Association's first annual banquet, Secretary of Defense Robert Gates recounted the story of Krulak's time in China and his career:[18]

Krulak’s was, of course, a legendary career: Navy Cross; counterinsurgency advisor to the Joint Staff; commander of the Fleet Marines in the Pacific during the Vietnam War; and, father of a future Marine Commandant, Chuck Krulak.... Victor Krulak’s story and accomplishments teach us a good deal:

• About learning from the experiences and setbacks of the past;
• About being open to take ideas and inspiration from wherever they come; and
• About overcoming conventional wisdom and bureaucratic obstacles thrown in one’s path.

His book First to Fight won the 1984 Samuel Eliot Morison Award for Naval Literature.[19][20]

Published works

• First to Fight: View of the U.S. Marines. Simon & Schuster. 1991. ISBN 0-671-73012-6.
• Panama: An Assessment. U.S. Strategic Institute. 1990. ISBN 0-913187-03-8.
• Organization for National Security: A Study. U.S. Strategic Institute. 1983. ISBN 0-913187-00-3.

References

1. http://www.encyclopedia.com/article-1G2 ... arold.html
2. "Letter from Victor H. Krulak to Mr. Fletcher Prouty, March 15, 1985".
3. "Prominent Marines". Marine Corps Legacy Museum. Archived from the original on July 10, 2006. Retrieved July 11, 2006.
4. Garner, Dwight (November 9, 2010). "Robert Coram's 'Brute' Recalls Gen. Victor Krulak – Review". The New York Times.
5. Goldstein, Richard. "Victor H. Krulak, Marine Behind U.S. Landing Craft, Dies at 95 ", The New York Times, January 4, 2009. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
6. "Navy Cross Awards to members of the U.S. Marines in World War II". HomeOfHeroes.com. Archived from the original on August 29, 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-11.
7. Liewer, Steve, "'Brute' Krulak Commemorated", San Diego Union-Tribune, January 9, 2009.
8. McMaster, H.R. (1997). Dereliction of Duty: Lyndon Johnson, Robert McNamara, The Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Lies that Led to Vietnam. New York, NY: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-018795-6.
9. Willis, Bud Marble Mountain: A Vietnam Memoir 2010 Page 359 "Krulak named Chu Lai after himself, having been the General who first flew over the area and selected the site. There were no towns nearby, just a wide open area, so he called it Chu Lai, which means Krulak in Mandarin Chinese. (From the book Brute by Robert Coram 2010)"
10. Crocker(2006): 365.
11. Perry, Tony, "Victor H. Krulak, 1913 – 2008", Los Angeles Times, December 31, 2008, p. B6.
12. Who's Who in Marine Corps History.
13. Miller, Stephen (January 3, 2009). "Military Innovator Who Sought New Approach to Battle in Vietnam". Wall Street Journal.
14. Gonzalez, Blanca (December 30, 2008). "Marine Corps legend Gen. Victor Krulak dies at 95". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved January 3, 2009.
15. Perry, Tony (December 31, 2008). "Victor H. Krulak dies at 95; retired Marine lieutenant general". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 31, 2008.
16. "Marine legend Lieutenant General Victor Krulak dies". Marine Corps Times. Associated Press. December 31, 2008. Retrieved December 31, 2008.
17. Kurz, Laura (2004). "2004 Distinguished Graduate Award Recipients Honored". Shipmate Magazine. U.S. Naval Academy Alumni Association and Foundation. Archived from the original on May 9, 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-11.
18. "Marine Corps Association Annual Dinner (Arlington, VA) — Remarks as by Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates". July 18, 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-19.
19. "Latest NOUS Awards". Naval Order of the United States. Retrieved December 23, 2017.
20. "Previous Morison Book Awards". Naval Order of the United States, New York Commandery. Retrieved December 23, 2017.

Further reading

• Crocker, H.W. (2006). Don't Tread on me: A 400-year history of America at War, from Indian Fighting to Terrorist Hunting. Crown Forum. ISBN 1-4000-5363-3.
• Krulak, Victor H. Organization for National Security, Cambridge, Massachusetts: United States Strategic Institute, 1983. (ISBN 0-913187-00-3)
• Krulak, Victor H. First to Fight: An Inside View of the U.S. Marine Corps, Anapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1984. (ISBN 0-87021-785-2) This book is on the Chief of Naval Operations' Professional Reading List and the Commandant of the Marine Corps' Reading List
• Chapin, Captain John C., USMCR (Retired) (1997). "Diversionary Landings". Top of the Ladder: Marine Operations in the Northern Solomons. Marines in World War II Commemorative Series, Marine Corps Historical Center, United States Marines Corps. Retrieved 2006-07-11.
• Coram, Robert (2010). Brute: The Life of Victor Krulak, U.S. Marine. Little, Brown & Co.
• Hove, Duane T. (2003). American Warriors: Five Presidents in the Pacific Theater of World War II. Burd Street Press. ISBN 1-57249-307-0.
• Miller, Stephen (January 3, 2009). "Military Innovator Who Sought New Approach to Battle in Vietnam (Victor H. Krulak 1913–2008)". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 3, 2009.

External links

• "Lieutenant General Victor H. Krulak, Sr. – Deceased". USMC General Officer & Senior Executives Biographies. United States Marine Corps. Retrieved 2009-01-23.
• "Lieutenant General Victor H. Krulak, USMC (Deceased)". Who's Who in the Marine Corps History. History Division, United States Marine Corps. Retrieved 2008-01-03.
• Rholes, LCpl Ryan (January 8, 2009). "Marine Corps legend 'Brute' Krulak passes away at age 95". Marine Corps Air Station Miramar Public Affairs. United States Marine Corps. Archived from the original on January 16, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-23.
• Victor Harold "Brute" Krulak at Find a Grave
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