Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

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Re: Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

Postby admin » Sat Dec 16, 2017 1:43 am

William Colby and CIA Dirty Tricks
by Sherman H. Skolnick



Once they find something that works, that is what they do. So, again and again CIA officials have been caused to "disappear" or have been murdered. It is better than having to make messy explanations. A favorite cover story is the boat scenario or the plane crash, actually sabotaged.

In 1972, Dorothy Hunt, herself higher up in CIA than her husband, died along with eleven other Watergate figures in a sabotaged plane crash in Chicago. She was the wife of Watergate burglar, E. Howard Hunt. Together, they had blackmailed some two million dollars out of Nixon to stay shut about what they knew about Nixon's role in arranging the political assassination of President Kennedy. Her plan had been to transfer in Chicago to a private plane at a suburban airport to take her to an important meeting of her associates in the Caribbean. She reportedly survived the pancaking of the plane but was murdered by those among a 150-person FBI team that took over the crash site and excluded the local fire and police. Her associates in the Caribbean disappeared and all that was found was their boat.

In 1978, a CIA officer, suspected of being a Soviet "mole", disappeared and his empty boat was found near Chesapeake Bay. Without waiting to investigate, the local authorities were quick to state there was no foul play. Later, a body was found with a shot in the head. The authorities quickly stated it was the CIA official, John A. Paisley, and that he supposedly had committed suicide. They ignored his wife's vigorous protests that the body was the wrong height to be that of her husband. Later, the Senate Intelligence Committee, always friendly to CIA, stated that there was no credible evidence to show Paisley's death was other than a suicide. The investigative report was never made public, apparently for reasons of "national security", a catch-all cover up term.

Then there is the case of William Colby, former Director of Central Intelligence, who disappeared and his empty boat was found in the shallows of a Potomac River tributary near his southern Maryland retreat. (On the map, not so very far from the disappearance of Paisley.) Quite a bit of background is necessary to understand Colby.

During the war in Southeast Asia, William Colby headed the CIA's "Phoenix Assassination" Program, murdering some 68,000 Vietnamese for no better reason than they were on a list of those with the wrong politics or supposedly opposed the Saigon government, puppets of the American CIA. Also, starting in the 1970s, if not earlier, he was the overseer of a strange, almost secret bank called the Nugan-Hand Bank, with facilities stretching from California, to Australia, to the Philippines, Southeast Asia, and Saudi Arabia. Top U.S. Admirals and Generals operated their various offices.

In its basic form, the Nugan-Hand Bank handled CIA covert funds, financed worldwide CIA-sponsored assassinations, washed dope money, and aided U.S. military personnel to launder illicit loot, from dope dealing, gambling, sale of U.S. military equipment stolen in great quantities from and during the Viet Nam War.

One of the founders of the Nugan-Hand Bank was found murdered in 1980. On his body was the card of William Colby. Not publicized much in the U.S. was the investigation of a government commission in Australia. Colby and the Generals and the Admirals ran the bank. The sordid details are in Jonathan Kwitny's book, "The Crimes of Patriots".

Some apologists for Colby contend he aided one or more Congressional investigations in the 1970s of CIA, supposedly for reform, such as the Senate Committee headed by the late Senator Frank Church. While outlining CIA plots against Cuba's Fidel Castro, these Congressional committees never saw fit to inquire into the doings of the Nugan-Hand Bank and William Colby's role with it.  

Upon the supposed collapse of the Nugan-Hand Bank, supposedly wiping out the secret deposits of various U.S. Military people, their successor and alter ego became what was called Household International. The world headquarters of the operation moved to the Chicago suburb of Prospect Heights. Colby, who had been Director of Central Intelligence from 1973-1976, continued on after 1980 as the overseer of the new name, Household International. Subsidiaries, actually and technically savings and loans, were called Household Bank.

In the 1980s, some thirty or more savings and loan associations were secretly taken over by CIA, for use to funnel covert funds for bloody and dirty tricks. After the operation was concluded, the money was sucked out, and the particular S&L "collapsed". A highly skilled Texas journalist detailed the doings of some 26 of these CIA-S&L operations which went "bust" and the clean-up arranged supposedly by the federal deposit insurance authorities at the great damage and detriment of the taxpayers. One of the S&Ls was run by one of George Bush's sons. See: Pete Brewton's heavily documented work, "The Mafia, the CIA, and George Bush".

Three or more CIA-S&Ls, not mentioned in the book, were in Illinois, in the Chicago area.

CLYDE SAVINGS & LOAN. A director of this reputed CIA operation was Congressman Henry Hyde who wore two hats. First, he was head of the CIA's "black budget" with more actual authority than the Director of Central Intelligence. Second, he has been a Congressman, on the House Intelligence Committee. More recently, Hyde became chairman of the House Judiciary Committee, with authority to decide who, if anyone, is subject to impeachment for being a corrupt federal judge.

Does it not violate the U.S. Constitution's mandate of Separation of Powers, for Hyde to be both a Congressman at the same time he is head of CIA's "black budget" for dirty tricks? The Federal Savings and Loan bail-out agency, Resolution Trust Corporation [RTC], brought an action in Chicago Federal District Court, accusing Hyde of various misconduct in the downfall of Clyde Savings. Case No. 93 C 2477. The case was being heard by Chicago Federal District Judge Brian Barnett Duff, closely aligned with the Federal Reserve and a crony of George Bush. Judge Duff is no stranger to covering up massive corruption. In 1990-91, he had the case involving the Federal Reserve Board, the House Banking Committee, and Italy's Banca Nazionale Delavoro, Italy's largest bank owned in part by the Vatican. At issue were records of BNL's Chicago branch, relating to the private joint business ventures of Iraq's strongman, originally installed by CIA, Saddam Hussein, and Hussein's secret business partner. Judge Duff ordered the records be kept secret. This writer and his associates were the only journalists attending the federal appeals hearing of the BNL case in May, 1991. I interviewed two of the participants who told me that the secret private business partner of Saddam Hussein has been George Bush, at the time U.S. President. Involved were BNL records relating to oil kick-backs from the whole Persian Gulf area for the decade 1980, to 1990, 25 billion dollars per year kick-backs, shared by Saddam Hussein with George Bush and Bush's circle of cronies; 25 percent of one trillion dollars of oil shipped to the West in that decade, 25 billion dollars per year, 250 Billion Dollars total.

So Judge Duff knew how to torpedo controversies and cover them up. At a crucial point in the case against Henry Hyde, a CIA attorney appeared in chambers with Judge Duff, and persuaded Duff -- as if persuading were needed -- that all key records are to be kept secret. In a later trick, Judge Duff arranged to delay a trial on key issues for several years by certifying a piece-meal appeal, usually not permitted -- all to protect CIA and Hyde.

LIBERTYVILLE SAVINGS & LOAN. A director of this CIA S&L was Charles Hunter who was the chief financial officer of the drugstore chain, Walgreen's. Hunter actually ran Walgreen's since the CEO, "Cork" Walgreen, spent two weeks of the month vacationing in Florida. RTC sued Charles Hunter in Chicago's Federal District Court, accusing Hunter and others of causing the downfall of Libertyville S&L, Case No. 91 C 1741. Accused of causing damages of more than 42 million dollars, the details could have great impact on Hunter's role with Walgreen's, showing violation of his fiduciary duties as chief financial officer of Walgreen's.

Hearing the case was Chicago Federal District Judge Harry D. Leinenweber -- wife, Lynn Martin, was Secretary of Labor in the Bush Administration. (We confronted her on a radio talk show, asking her to explain why her husband the Judge never disqualified himself when several cases were on his docket which she as Labor Secretary was shown as a party to the case. She replied, she never asked her husband about his Court work.) To cover up the CIA S&L case, Judge Leinenweber reportedly received a gift, or bribe, of some 17 million dollars. The RTC officials bringing the case looked the other way, as they did in corrupt doings related to Bill and Hillary Clinton.

OLYMPIA SAVINGS AND LOAN ASSOCIATION, reportedly operated by CIA in a suburb of Chicago. Overseer in this operation reportedly has been Dr. Earl Brian, a financial industry and mass media heavyweight. In various books, he is accused of being a key player in the "October Surprise", guns and money funneled to Iran to have them delay release of the U.S. hostages so as to wreck Jimmy Carter's bid for re-election as president and help install the Reagan/Bush ticket. The hostages were released in January, 1981, just as Reagan was being sworn in as the new President. Dr. Earl Brian reportedly played a key role in the INSLAW Affair. He also owned Channel 66 TV, just south of Chicago, in an area that is the reputed U.S. entry point for the smuggling in to this country of "China White", high purity heroin. He ran a financial espionage operation called Financial News Network. Brian has been prosecuted in Los Angeles Federal Court, for a scam using FNN; the details about espionage and CIA have been omitted from the federal criminal charges, however, by the federal prosecutor.

AMERICAN HERITAGE SAVINGS & LOAN ASSOCIATION. Reportedly used in part for washing CIA covert funds, the collapsed shell of what was left was merged and taken over by Household Bank. The Federal Home Loan Bank parked 58.4 million dollars with Household to satisfy claims pending since 1983 by Joseph Andreuccetti, a west suburban caulking contractor. Andreuccetti was the victim of a swindle that included the following: 1. Multi-million dollar condo complex in Addison, Illinois, a west suburb of Chicago, a very short distance from the home of Henry Hyde. Called Kingspoint Condominiums, in the deal the nephew/godson of Paul Marcinkus, namely Christian Henning, Jr., falsely claimed to be Andreuccetti's partner. Marcinkus, until 1991, was the head of the Vatican Bank. Authorities of the Republic of Italy contend Marcinkus was part of a scheme to launder dope and gun smuggling and political assassination funds, on behalf of the Sicilian mafia and the American CIA, through the Vatican Bank. Bishop Marcinkus has so far escaped extradition from Sun City, Arizona, where he resides now, back to Italy, on the contention that the Vatican is a separate sovereignty from Italy.

2. Marcinkus, originally from the long-known mafia-enclave of Cicero, a Chicago suburb, has been the dominant force controlling First National Bank of Cicero, a reputed Mafia-CIA money machine. To try to cover up a vast scam by Marcinkus, Henning, and others, the Cicero bank used false loan details to fraudulently push Andreuccetti into *involuntary* bankruptcy, still pending since 1984, Case numbers 84 B 10338, 10339, and some ten related cases showing the roles of Household, the First National Bank of Cicero, First Midwest Bank, and others in skimming off funds used for bribing judges and other political officials.

3. Officials of the defunct American Heritage S&L, to silence them, were prosecuted in the case of U.S. vs. John Best et al. The federal prosecutor, William R. Hogan, Jr., is a story all by himself. Reportedly trained and groomed by Special Forces and CIA, Hogan in a way is far too clever to have been just an Assistant U.S. Attorney in Chicago. Hogan's extended family has included those close to the Catholic Archbishop of Chicago who also is Treasurer for the whole Catholic Church for the Western Hemisphere, from Canada to Argentina.

Hogan was the federal prosecutor in a large group of cases of the narco-terrorist street gang called the El Rukns. The gang previously was called the Blackstone Rangers and was used as computer models in how they cowed and terrorized Chicago southside neighborhoods, to study how to cow and terrorize hamlets in Viet Nam. Until Hogan showed up, the El Rukns were untouchable. Their bail bond money was often supplied by the traditional mafia. The gang early on was financed by CIA-linked Foundations, including the Charles Merrill Trust of Cambridge, Mass. (Linked to Merrill-Lynch stock brokerage.) Hogan is accused by his Justice Department bosses of having been overzealous in the El Rukn prosecutions. Most of the defendants who were also witnesses against other gang members were already in jail awaiting trials. Hogan is accused of arranging sex and dope for some of the El Rukns, either inside the jail, or transporting them to a federal office building to have sex and dope there.

Hogan's apparent defense is that if this occurred at all, it was arranged or supervised by his supervisors. The more serious matters, according to Hogan's circle, is that at least six federal judges in Chicago take bribes, as known to corrupt officials in the IRS and the Justice Department; and that nothing is being done by federal authorities. Among those reportedly taking bribes is Chief Bankruptcy Judge John D. Schwartz presiding in the Joseph Andreuccetti cases and related matters. Schwartz previously was a director and stockholder of First National Bank of Cicero, instrumentally interwoven in the complex of details in the Andreuccetti Affair. According to an undisputed admission and confession in a related court case, Schwartz has not filed a proper federal income tax return and has an estimated off-shore net worth of 141 million dollars -- has not filed a proper return in *30 years*.

The Kingspoint valuable property was purchased by Wallace Lieberman, on other occasions a federal bankruptcy auctioneer; Lieberman's partner in the deal was Robert Belavia, a reputed mafia kingpin. Shortly after Marcinkus returned to the U.S. and a few days after a complaint about Lieberman was made to the U.S. Attorney in Chicago about Lieberman, he was murdered, apparently by an FBI agent (the same one, according to undisputed federal court records) who caused some 40 federal grand jury witnesses to be murdered or to disappear in the proceedings in 1991-92, in the INSLAW Affair (high Reagan and Bush administration officials accused of stealing high technology and selling it to, among others, sworn enemies of the U.S.)

That same FBI agent, Mike "Chuckie" Peters, flies a helicopter and plays a key role in the 1996 events in Montana. 4. In a federal court case against top IRS and Justice Department officials, involving corruption, an undisputed confession and admission of an official in the Criminal Investigation Division of IRS shows:

-- the higher ups at IRS stole the Kingspoint properties from Lieberman and arranged to hustle Belavia quickly into prison; that the IRS officials stole the properties for their own personal benefit and caused certain related land title records to disappear as part of a cover up. As shown in Case No. 92 C 7048, in Chicago Federal District Court.

-- that the IRS was instrumental in covering up the disappearance of 50 million dollars, parked by federal authorities with Household Bank -- on which Joseph Andreuccetti has a long-pending claim -- and that the money was secretly transferred to Little Rock in an attempt to cover up some 47 million dollars reportedly embezzled by Bill and Hillary Clinton from Madison Guaranty S&L in Little Rock.

-- that the Bankruptcy Trustee in the Andreuccetti cases, Jay A. Steinberg, has been allowed and permitted to file false and fraudulent state and federal revenue forms and tax returns, supposedly in the name of Joseph Andreuccetti, without the knowledge or consent of Andreuccetti.

5. Steinberg is a partner in the huge law firm of Hopkins & Sutter, major counsel for RTC. The firm arranged for two faraway lawyers -- Hillary Rodham Clinton and Vincent W. Foster, Jr. -- to work on the left-over problem of a Chicago-area savings and loan whose collapse was caused by fraudulent bonds by Clinton's dope and bond broker crony, Dan Lasater. Hillary and Vince reportedly whitewashed hundreds of millions that could have been recovered by RTC. Hopkins and Sutter also arranged to have George Bush's son escape prison in the Silverado S&L scandal in Denver.


By 1995-96, matters intensified in which William Colby was implicated, in one way or another. The First National Bank of Cicero, dominated by mafia-CIA darling Bishop Paul Marcinkus, recent head of the Vatican Bank, had been taken over by Pinnacle Banc Group, the successor and alter ego of the infamous Bank of Credit and Commerce International. It was becoming more and more known, through items posted on Internet, and stories elsewhere, that the espionage operation, BCCI, dominated by CIA, had not, in fact, collapsed in July 1991; that Pinnacle was the new name and face. Four major, international news operations had the BCCI bribery list, how they bribed 25 percent of both houses of the U.S. Congress -- 28 U.S. Senators and 108 members of the House. Although the establishment news groups had the list and corroborated its validity, they decided not to go with it -- it would destabilize the U.S. central government. Strange, but the list, for 30 days, was a public record at the Bank of England! This writer received from a brave journalist the list and corroboration, and wrote a story about it in a right-wing paper in 1991. The publication received the list of names but deleted them from the published story. By 1995, the names were becoming more and more known and the result: an unusually large number of representatives and senators suddenly decided to resign, retire, and not run for re-election in 1996. Some of them had already arranged their re-election campaign literature.

It was becoming more and more evident that former CIA Director William Colby was directly implicated in the dirty business -- now implicating the Clintons -- of Household International and Household Bank. Colby was reportedly directly involved in the BCCI/Pinnacle Banc Group espionage operations. The Roger D'Onofrio Affair in Italy [see CN 6.65] was not going away; he was a top American CIA official, residing in Italy, put under house arrest for being involved in arranging for the Vatican Bank, in conjunction with the Sicilian mafia, to launder dope and gun loot, smuggle gold, and sell nuclear bomb triggers to sworn enemies of the U.S.

A member of the London Gold Pool, living near the First National Bank of Cicero, John Tarullo, was murdered in August 1995. His connections extended reportedly to the CIA, the Archbishop of Milan, the FBI Counter-Intelligence section, as well as the traditional Sicilian mafia. Tarullo's connections reportedly extended to Judy Baar Topinka, a close crony of the Bank [of Cicero] and Marcinkus; she was elected Illinois State Treasurer in 1994. Did the Vatican Bank now have their agent in charge of all the state public money of Illinois? (She praised that Bank and Marcinkus on this writer's public access cable TV show just prior to her election.)

Also becoming clear was William Colby's role in trying to get an armlock on political dissent in the U.S. Notice the role of Colby's close crony John DeCamp, an attorney from Lincoln, Nebraska, in trying to throttle various financial possible scandals, such as Pinnacle Banc Group/BCCI, Household International, Household Bank, the Clintons and the strange death of National Security Agency operative Vincent W. Foster, Jr. at the time Foster was also a top Clinton White House aide. -- cronies of the so-called Independent Whitewater Counsel Kenneth Starr were reportedly trying to push John DeCamp to be in charge of Joseph Andreuccetti and his explosive group of court cases. Luckily, Joe [Andreuccetti] refused. -- John DeCamp reportedly played a role in attempting to control or manipulate Oklahoma Federal Grand juror Hoppy Heidelberg. Hoppy was attempting to persuade fellow grand jurors that the FBI and other federal authorities have to be compelled to bring before the grand jurors certain data about John Doe #2, or even #3, in respect to the Oklahoma City bombing case. A reputed government counter-intelligence agent, Lawrence W. Myers, became the chief investigative reporter -- if not actually the controlling force -- of a new, supposedly dissident publication, called Media Bypass magazine, that went from about 5,000 monthly circulation to near 50,000 in a very short time. The militia movement, the Freemen, the tax protester movement, and others like them, somehow got the impression that Media Bypass magazine spoke for them. Who checked Myers' background? He was reportedly highly skilled in counter-terrorism, an expert on bomb making, and had worked for the adjunct to CIA, namely, Wackenhut, on terrorist problems. Myers wrote four published books on bomb making including remote explosives detonators. The books were published by a reputed CIA proprietary, Palladin Press, reportedly supervised by William Colby and his cronies.

John Doe #3 reportedly was an Iraqi intelligence official brought into the U.S. and kept totally surveilled and supervised by the CIA. Did the Iraqi "spook" help the American CIA create a so-called terrorism event in Oklahoma City to promote possible martial law to strangle growing dissent in the U.S.? Or was it a bungled event, done with U.S. central government complicity?

By April 1996 it was becoming clear to some that William Colby had to disappear or be thrown away. Household International's stock took a tumble; they were forced to give away 54 of their Household Bank units to the Harris Bank, a unit of the Canadian bank octopus, Bank of Montreal, owned by the infamous Bronfman family, big in dope, gun smuggling, *and* booze. Not everyone bought the mass media story that the Bronfmans actually paid over 200 million dollars for the Household Bank units.

About 10 days after the Household Bank-Harris Bank arrangement, William Colby disappeared. Colby's close crony, John DeCamp, was supposedly advisor to Hoppy at the same time DeCamp was attorney for Media Bypass and closely linked to Myers, the reputed "spook". Some clever sorts were putting two and two together. Was the whole magazine a trick to catalogue and finger dissidents? Did Myers and DeCamp almost cause Hoppy to be arrested?

-- a few days prior to his disappearance, Colby was in Texas at a university seminar on the Viet Nam War. Some thought maybe Colby was knowledgeable about POWs who the U.S. government cannot admit still exist in Southeast Asia: are the POWs made into "mules" in the dope trade for the reported benefit of Colin Powell and his pals George Bush and Richard Armitage? Did Colby whisper explosive items into some ears in or near the seminar?

Former CIA Director William Colby was too involved. So, the mysterious "they" used the boat trick, to make him disappear or for murder.

At the time of his disappearance, Colby was under Congressional subpoena to testify. Some believe his testimony could have put Bill and Hillary Clinton in prison.

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Mr. Skolnick is founder/chairman, since 1963, of the public interest reform group, Citizens' Committee to Clean Up the Courts, investigating and researching judicial bribery and political murders. Since 1971, he has been editor of a 5-minute recorded phone commentary, HOTLINE NEWS, (312) 731-1100, a regular phone call, on 24 hours per day, changed several times per week. Since 1991, he has been a regular panelist, now the moderator, of a weekly public access one-hour Cable TV Show, "Broadsides", available to some 400,000 households. His comments appear on several news groups on Internet and on the World Wide Web. Office, 8 a.m. to midnight, 7 days/week: (312) 375-5741. Call before sending fax. 9800 S. Oglesby Ave., Chicago, IL 60617-4870.
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Re: Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

Postby admin » Sun Dec 17, 2017 2:43 am

Report to the Virginia State Crime Commission on Violent Crime and Worker's Safety in Virginia Convenience Stores -- EXCERPT
by Department of Criminal Justice Services
Virginia Crime Prevention Center
December, 1991 ... 5NCJRS.pdf




This study is the result of the interest, experiences and efforts of innumerable individuals. Since many of these experiences involved great personal tragedy, we dedicate it to the victims of the violent crimes discussed later, and to those who live with the personal losses that resulted from them.

We are especially indebted to the local law enforcement agencies that responded to our survey. Although a voluntary effort, their overwhelming response to our request, often requiring tedious manual searching of files, is an indication of the seriousness with which they view the problem of violent crimes at convenience stores. A special thanks to the Virginia Beach Police Department for sharing the prototype of our survey collection instrument.

Taking the risk of omitting many that assisted us, we would like to specifically thank:

Convenience Store Safety Committee
Ms. Nancy Venable-Corruthers
Ms. Jean Berrier

Elected Officials
The Honorable Owen Pickett
The Honorable Elmon Gray
The Honorable George Heilig, Jr.

Gainesville, Florida Police Department
Chief Wayland Clifton, Jr.
Mr. Patrick Callahan

Industry Representatives
Virginia Convenience Store Clerks
Mr. Charles Duvall, Jr., Lindl Corporation
Ms. Rosemary Erickson, Athena Research Corporation
Mr. Wayne Stageman, Southland Corporation
National Association of Convenience Stores
Present and Former Loss Prevention Directors

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Dr. Thomas Bender
Dr. Catherine Bell
Dr. Lynn Jenkins
Dr. Timothy Pizatella
Dr. Gale Savage

Print Media
Mr. Glen Allen Scott, The Virginian-Pilot / Ledger-Star

State of Florida
Mr. Dan Gilmore, Bureau of Crime Prevention and Training

Prof. R. Michael MacDonald, Virginia Commonwealth University
Prof. Jan L. Thomas, Virginia Commonwealth University
Prof. Garland White, Old Dominion University

Virginia State Government
Department of Labor and Industry
Industrial Commission
Crime Victims' Compensation Division
Workers' Compensation Division


There has been rising concern nationally that members of certain occupational groups suffer an increased risk of being victims of violent crime while on the job. This concern about violent crime in the workplace has also surfaced in Virginia.

During 1989, Delegate George Heilig, Jr. of Norfolk brought to the attention of the Commission the risks encountered by individuals such as convenience store clerks. As a result of his interest, Commission staff met in Virginia Beach with Ms. Nancy Venable and her sister, Ms. Jean Berrier, whose father had been murdered while working at night as a convenience store clerk in South Carolina. After considering the information gathered at this meeting, Senator Elmon Gray invited the sisters to address the Commission at its December 19, 1989, meeting in Richmond.

At that meeting Ms. Berrier and Ms. Venable, representing the Convenience Store Safety Committee, urged the Commission to investigate ways to reduce the risk of harm from violent crime to those persons who earn their living as convenience store clerks. This same theme has been repeatedly raised by editorials in The Virginian-Pilot and The Ledger-Star. Congressman Owen Pickett has also addressed this concern with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health which is studying homicide in the workplace.

While the Commission was interested in this important issue, existing work obligations prevented it from undertaking a legislative study in 1990. In an April 24, 1990, letter to the Department of Criminal Justice Services (DCJS), Senator Gray referred to Section VIII (B) of the Commission's 1989 Annual Report and requested that the Virginia Crime Prevention Center (VCPC) within DCJS begin collecting information during 1990 on the scope of the problem in Virginia. It was also requested that these preliminary data be
presented to the Commission for review.

On December 11, 1990, a Preliminary Report was presented to the Commission. At that time it was noted that the convenience store industry was conducting a three-part national study that would be completed in November 1991. Desiring to benefit from the industry's study, the Commission requested that DCJS continue with its Virginia study and incorporate the findings of the industry's study with a report to the Commission in December 1991.
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Re: Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

Postby admin » Sun Dec 17, 2017 2:56 am

Richard Obenchain, chairman of the Virginia YRs
by Standard-Speaker
Hazleton, Pennsylvania
August 16, 1963



Richard Obenchain [Obenshain], chairman of the Virginia YRs, who, too, supported McDevitt for chairman, observed: "Hard as Governor Rockefeller may try to tag the Young Republicans with the odious epithet of extremism, he succeeds only in exaggerating the desperation of his own political strategy. The Young Republicans were virtually united in their enthusiasm for Barry Goldwater and their deep belief in the sound principles of constitutional government."

The reports of respected newsmen make Rockefeller's charge more absurd. M. Stanton Evans, editor of the Indianapolis News, writes in National Review that "ruthless, roughshod tactics" were used not by Luken's supporters, but by those out to beat him including YR officials from Rockefeller's New York State.

Outgoing YR Chairman was Leonard Nadasdy, a Minnesota liberal who used every parliamentary trick at his disposal to defeat Lukens. With the convention machinery arrayed against Lukens, Editor Evans writes, "the Conservative forces found communications a particularly difficult problem.

The difficulty was intensified on the eve of the balloting, when Lukens headquarters found their phone lines had been cut." Large groups of liberal delegates, sergeants-at-arms and private police (dubbed rent-a-cops by conservatives) roamed the convention floor to prevent Lukens workers from moving about. But Lukens won despite almost impossible odds, and the Young Republicans had a Goldwater Republican at their helm.
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Re: Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

Postby admin » Sun Dec 17, 2017 3:33 am

Blue Ridge Hall: Historic Places Registration Form
Botetourt County, Virginia
by J. Daniel Pezzoni, Landmark Preservation Associates
October 7, 2016



Name of Property

Historic name: Blue Ridge Hall
Other names/site number: Blue Ridge Hotel; DHR ID# 011-5096
2. Location
Street & number: 11593 Lee Highway
City or town: Fincastle State: Virginia County: Botetourt

Architectural Classification


Summary Paragraph

Blue Ridge Hall (ca. 1836) occupies a 9.28-acre parcel at the junction of US Highway 11 and the former Fincastle and Blue Ridge Turnpike (current State Route 606) in southeastern Botetourt County, Virginia. The south-facing two-story frame house has a symmetrical five-bay front, a metal-sheathed side-gable roof, a coursed rubble limestone foundation, and brick end chimneys. A two-story rear wing, built in the 1930s, has an enclosed two-tier side porch. Later exterior features include a 1950s two-story single-tier Colonial Revival front porch and 1980s vinyl siding. The interior features Federal mantels, a center-passage stair with winders, and molded trim. Near the house stand a ca. 1945 garage, a 1990s storage building, and a ca. 2000 shed, all of which are non-contributing buildings as they postdate the property’s period of significance.

Narrative Description


The house occupies a ridge between Looney’s Mill Creek, a branch of the James River, and a branch of the creek known as Beckner Branch. The approximately eight-acre parcel surrounding the house includes a lawn area with large deciduous trees including silver maples and a pecan and, beyond, rolling pasture land. Interstate 81 passes downhill to the north and is visible in some directions, screened in others. The Blue Ridge Mountains are visible to the south and Purgatory Mountain is visible to the northeast.


1. House. Ca. 1836; 1930s; 1950s. Contributing building.
2. Garage. 1940s. Non-contributing building.
3. Shed. Early 1990s. Non-contributing building.
4. Storage building. 1915; 1990s. Non-contributing building.

House Exterior

Blue Ridge Hall is a Federal-style, two-story, side-gabled, five-bay, single-pile, central-passage, frame dwelling with a two-story rear ell. The dwelling’s principal exterior feature is its monumental single-tier porch that covers the middle three bays of the front façade. The Colonial Revival porch, built in the late 1950s, has square wood columns of the type popularized by Mount Vernon and Tara in the movie Gone with the Wind. The columns stand on poured concrete bases which in turn rest on a poured concrete floor with a concrete stoop and step in front of the entrance. The porch’s shed roof has a beaded tongue-and-groove ceiling and may have been reused from the two-tier porch that formerly stood at the same location.

The exterior end brick chimneys, which are painted, have corbelled caps and small stepped shoulders at the first and second-story ceiling levels. The east chimney, which is Flemish bond, has a poured concrete base and, spaced along its shaft, metal reinforcing straps. A brick flue rises through the interior of the rear wing. The first-story windows of the original front part of the house have nine-over-nine sashes whereas the second-story windows are nine-over-six. The center second-story front window, converted from a doorway in the 1950s, has six-over-six sashes. Most windows have false shutters. The front entry has a four-pane transom and a simple 1950s Colonial Revival treatment at the top. There are small four-pane square windows in the original house gables. The 1930s rear wing has three-over-one windows, singly or in pairs. The wing’s enclosed side porch has two-pane windows over the stair, which was originally enclosed, and three-over-one windows added when the rest of the porch was enclosed in the 1950s. From the enclosed porch extends a 1950s flagstone patio with a low stone wall at its back corner. Attached to the wall are the ruins of a limestone chimney that formerly belonged to a nineteenth-century kitchen at the location. Adjoining the patio is a poured concrete pump house of low profile with a metal cover. A nineteenth-century cistern, not readily visible above ground, adjoins the rear wing on its west elevation.

House Interior

The interior has standard period finishes such as board floors, plaster and lath wall and ceiling finishes, and beaded baseboards. Most rooms have chair rails with simple cap moldings and beaded lower edges, and between the chair rails and baseboards some rooms have plaster finishes, others board wainscots. Doors are six-panel with flush beaded panels on their principal faces. The wide center passage contains a single-run stair with a simple square newel at its foot, capped by a ball finial and pegged to the handrail which is supported by rectangular balusters. The string is beaded as are the vertical boards that form the spandrel under the string. The stair has winders at the top and the closet under it was made into a powder room in the 1980s. Nicks in the outer paint layers have revealed earlier olive drab paint on the risers and dark brown paint or stain on the treads. At the back of the passage French doors open into the dining room in the rear wing.

The east or right-hand downstairs room has a mantel with a single frieze panel and narrow pilasters with symmetrically molded recessed panels on their faces. The mantel shelf is supported by a stack molding consisting of out-stepping quarter round moldings accentuated by narrow recesses between them. On the floor and ceiling are traces of a former corner stair (also visible in seams in the floor boards of the room above). The west or left-hand downstairs room has two windows on each of its three outside walls. Its mantel is tripartite in design with narrow tablets at the ends of the frieze, over the pilasters, and a wide tablet at the center of the frieze. The pilasters are narrow and plain and the stack molding under the shelf is formed of moldings with a variety of profiles. The shelf, which has a molded edge, steps out over the three frieze tablets (the mantel shelf in the east room also steps out but only at the ends).

The upstairs center passage has a finished stair to the attic. The stair has winders at its base, a tall square newel with beaded corners, a molded cap, and rectangular balusters. The stair is mostly open underneath, with an underside and small spandrel sheathed with beaded boards, and the space under it is accessed through a two-panel door. The mantel in the east upstairs room has a framed fireplace surround (the fireplace itself is blocked), three panels in the frieze, and a stack molding under the shelf. The west upstairs room, which was partitioned into storage rooms in recent decades, has a mantel with a tall frieze with two panels. The attic is divided into three finished rooms, with the center room having the stair which has a solid board railing. Beaded batten doors open from the center room into the end rooms and each is constructed with wrought nails with irregular heads. A small, low batten door in the east attic room, which is also constructed with wrought nails, opens into a long, low, unfinished space across the front of the attic in which are visible rafters with straight, regular saw marks (indicating they were machine-sawn) and roof boards with multiple cut nails protruding through, left over from former wood-shingle roofing. The fastening method at the top of the rafters was not readily apparent.

The rear wing has two rooms on the first floor, a larger dining room against the original house and a smaller kitchen at the end. The kitchen finishes are modern. At the end of the enclosed porch on the east side of the ell is a reused dogleg stair with beading on the upper edge of the closed string and on the edges of the treads. The railing that pens the top of the stairwell has tapered square newels. At the south end of both levels of the porch are visible the original beaded weatherboards of the front part of the house. The lower-level porch floor is concrete whereas the upper-level floor has beaded floor boards, presumably reused interior sheathing boards from an unknown building. The basement under the wing, which has exposed poured concrete walls and a non-historic flagstone floor, contains a long nineteenth-century counter from the store that once stood on the property. The wooden counter has turned legs, molded trim, and, affixed to the top of one of the legs, a small advertisement for Eisenlohr’s Cinco Cigars. The wing’s attic, accessible through a pull-down stair, reveals reused hewn rafters from an unknown building that are butted and nailed to a ridge board that is itself a reused beaded board. The rafters formerly had lapped and pegged collar beams; these were removed and pieces of wood wire-nailed into the lap notches, but the peg holes and some sawn-off pegs survive. A few joists visible in gaps in the floor have whitewash on them, evidence that they too were reused. The laths of the walls in the front section attic are visible from the rear wing attic and they appear to be split.

The original section of the house also has a basement, a partial one under the west end. The space has whitewashed stone walls and log ceiling joists, hewn on two faces and also whitewashed. At the west end is a stone and brick fireplace with the brickwork supported by a curved iron lintel. On the basement room’s back elevation is the pegged wooden frame of a former opening, now infilled, that may have been a window or possibly a vent. The hewn log floor joists appear to continue in the crawlspace under the center and east end of the house.

Non-contributing Resources

The one-story frame garage stands beside Route 11 to the southeast of the house. It has a metalsheathed hip roof, vinyl siding, board sliding doors on tracks, and a cinder block foundation. A late 1940s photo shows the garage, which was probably relatively new at the time since cinder block experienced its first regional popularity in the 1940s (although it saw limited use in the 1930s).

The one-story prefab-type frame shed, probably built in the early 1990s and located in the northeast corner of the yard, has an asphalt-shingle gambrel roof and T1-11-type siding. In the meadow near it is a concrete floor or foundation remnant from a milkhouse and granary building.

In the east corner of the nominated parcel is a one-story frame building constructed for the growing of shitake mushrooms, probably in the 1990s. The building has a “broken” gable roof form with clerestories facing east, metal roof sheathing, and particle-board and T1-11-type siding. The building stands on the poured concrete foundations of a barn constructed ca. 1915. The building currently serves for storage.

Statement of Significance Summary Paragraph (Provide a summary paragraph that includes level of significance, applicable criteria, justification for the period of significance, and any applicable criteria considerations.)

Blue Ridge Hall in Botetourt County, Virginia, was built about 1836 at the intersection of a regional turnpike and the Great Road, the main artery of the Valley of Virginia. The two-story Federal-style house was built for politician George W. Wilson and was afterward owned by US Representative Nathaniel H. Claiborne and, from 1849 to 1890, by businessman and farmer Samuel Obenshain. The house served as an ordinary and stagecoach stop known as the Blue Ridge Hotel and the property was the location of the Blue Ridge Post Office. Blue Ridge Hall is locally significant under Criterion A in the Commerce area of significance as an antebellum hotel and stagecoach stop. The property is also locally significant under Criterion C in the Architecture area of significance for its Federal mantels and other notable details. The period of significance extends from the completion of the house about 1836 until ca. 1940 when the dwelling’s rear wing was completed.

Narrative Statement of Significance (Provide at least one paragraph for each area of significance.)

Historic Context

Criterion A: Commerce

Blue Ridge Hall stands on land that belonged to the estate of Thomas Wilson in the early 1830s. The apparently undeveloped house site was purchased by George W. Wilson in September 1834 for the sum of $825. The deed for the property described it as the dower tract assigned to Thomas’s widow, Mary. An 1830 plat described a dower tract of 150 acres, however the 1835 county land book listed Wilson as the owner of only 31 acres at the location. No value of buildings was given for Wilson’s tract but a year later buildings valued at $2,000 stood on it and a marginal note in the land book entry stated “$2000 added for Buildings.” This likely represents Wilson’s construction of Blue Ridge Hall, which dates to the period stylistically. An additional $200 was added to the value of buildings in 1837. It may be that Blue Ridge Hall was completed in 1835, the date an associated post office was established, although as noted the house was not added to the tax rolls until 1836.1

George W. Wilson (1802-78) was an up-and-coming political and business leader at the time. During his career he represented Botetourt County in the Virginia House of Delegates and in 1849 he was a director of the Fincastle and Blue Ridge Turnpike, which was established in 1833. Construction of the turnpike, which linked the Botetourt County seat to Bedford County over the Blue Ridge, appears to have been the precipitating factor in the construction of Blue Ridge Hall for it crossed the Great Road (current US Route 11) at the point where Wilson would build his house. In April 1835 the Blue Ridge Post Office opened, possibly in the store that stood to the west side of the house and which appears to be portrayed on an 1864 map. The store may have been rebuilt in 1882.2

In 1837 Wilson married Susan Magdaline Claiborne (1819-95), the daughter of Nathaniel H. Claiborne, who would become the second owner of Blue Ridge Hall in 1841 when George and Susan sold the property to him for the sum of $4,000. The 1841 transfer is the earliest found deed reference to the property as the Blue Ridge Hotel. Nathaniel Herbert Claiborne (1777-1859) belonged, according to his obituary, “to a family that has furnished numerous members of Congress.” His brother, William C. C. Claiborne, served as the first US governor of Louisiana. Nathaniel’s own political career began with his election to the Virginia House of Delegates in 1810, representing Franklin County, and included service in the US House of Representatives from 1825 to 1837. According to historians John and Emily Salmon, during his House of Representatives term Claiborne was known as a “watchdog of the treasury” owing to his fiscal conservatism. Botetourt County land books, which list the place of residence of property owners, suggest Claiborne lived some of the time at Blue Ridge Hall and some of the time in Franklin County, presumably at his plantation Claybrook where he died in 1859. His wife was Elizabeth Archer (Binford) Claiborne (ca. 1799-1880).3

In 1849 Samuel Obenshain purchased the Blue Ridge Hotel and 150 acres from Nathaniel and Elizabeth Claiborne for the purchase price of $3,500. Obenshain (1812-1890; name spelled Obenchain in the deed and some other period records) belonged to a family who owned a number of farms in the Looney’s Creek and Back Creek vicinity of southern Botetourt County. The 1850 census lists Obenshain as a merchant and owner of $4,760 in real estate. Obenshain’s wife was Ann Elizabeth Hardy Obenshain (1828-1858), the daughter of Thomas Hardy, who was a tollgate keeper on the Fincastle and Blue Ridge Turnpike. Living with the couple were two young sons, Zachary T. and Marcus D., and a merchant named Walton Obenshain. Samuel Obenshain was known as “Hotel Sam” to distinguish him from other Samuel Obenshains in the vicinity. The 1850 census slave schedules list a Samuel Obenchain Jr. as the owner of seven enslaved people, including two adults and five minors.4

Samuel Obenshain made another large investment shortly before purchasing Blue Ridge Hall. In 1848 he and partners George and Robert Waskey, known as the firm of Waskeys and Obenshain, were in the process of erecting a “manufacturing mill” in the town of Springwood (then known as Jackson) on the James River near Blue Ridge Hall. This is likely the mill of “Ro Waskey” that is enumerated in the 1850 industrial census schedules, a water-powered merchant mill also known as Jackson Mills that produced $12,000 in flour annually in 1850. The association between Obenshain and the Waskeys may have dated back to the 1830s and it continued until the firm dissolved in 1880.5

Ann Obenshain died in 1858 and two years later Samuel married Lucy A. (Halley) Obenshain (1837-1920). Lucy’s Civil War reminiscences were published in a newspaper article in 1918. “She had a brother and a step son in the Civil War [the step son was likely Zachary T. Obenshain]. She gave all her spare time to the knitting of socks and [scarves] for the Southern boys during the four [years’] struggle . . . The yarn she used for knitting in those days was taken from the sheep’s back, raised on the farm [and] hauled to Bonsacks [and] made into rolls, brought back home and spun by hand before ready for use . . . The food situation at one time was so critical that only the products from cane were obtainable for eating purposes. The seed part was used as a substitute for coffee, the seed was also ground into flour and molasses made from the cane and used on the cakes made from the flour.” The 28th Virginia Volunteer Regiment organized in the Mill Creek community, as the area around Blue Ridge Hall and nearby Mill Creek Baptist Church are known, and is said to have drilled in the coach yard on the east side of the house during the Civil War.6

Obenshain family ledgers detail the operations of the family general store and stagecoach business, though not the hotel. The store accounts date from the 1850s to the 1870s. Entries include the sale of sugar, soda, tobacco, dry goods and notions such as calico, flannel, and skirt braid, and other items as diverse as plow points and a coffee pot and “1 bunch flowers.” The stagecoach business involved the collection of fares for travelers headed to such regional destinations as Buchanan, Lexington, Bonsacks, Goshen, and Staunton. A September 1862 entry refers to “carrying mail.” Notes in the Brugh Collection which appear to reflect research or reminiscences by Geraldine Obenshain (1915-2010) state that “Blue Ridge was a tavern and inn operated by Samuel Obenshain. Also horses were stabled at Blue Ridge for coach changes.” The coach lot is said to have been situated on the east side of the house, between the house and two barns (or a barn and stable) shown in old photos. It appears Samuel Obenshain may have operated the stage business or a portion of it as an agent for a Col. M. G. Hannan. The two corresponded in 1868, Obenshain asking if it were permissible for a certain passenger to travel on the stage at half fare and Hannan approving the request. Obenshain noted that the passenger would “do a great deal of traveling” at half rate and argued that the “stages are seldom crowded and some pay is better than none.”7

Court records and business directories detail aspects of the property’s postbellum history. In October 1865 Obenshain was licensed to “keep a house of private entertainment at his house called the Blue Ridge Hotel.” He renewed the license under the name Blue Ridge Hotel on a more or less yearly basis into the early 1870s. Several of the licenses noted that he was “sober and of good character,” a standard requirement of innkeepers during the nineteenth century, and some referred to his business as an ordinary. The hotel was a going concern in 1880 when a directory listed it as the hotel of S. Obenchain and Company. This was the name of Obenshain’s general merchandise store, which had a branch in Springwood beginning in 1879. Samuel and his sons Zachary and Marcus operated the Blue Ridge Post Office at various times. The post office name was changed to Arch Mills in 1887 and was last operated by Zachary’s wife, Virginia (Jenny) Obenshain, until it closed in 1907. After Samuel’s death in 1890, Lucy Obenshain was assigned a dower right in a portion of his lands. Samuel’s son Boyce Putney Obenshain (1871-1958) acquired the property in 1906. The hotel was not listed in an 1893 business directory and the last reference to a “Blue Ridge Hotel” discovered in court records dates to the 1890s, though by that time the name may have been more a reference to a landmark than to an operating business.8

B. P. Obenshain, whose wife was Ida A. (Shockley) Obenshain (1874-1909), made various improvements to the property. The 1915 land book lists the addition of a “new barn” which boosted the value of improvements from $700 to $870 (the barn foundation survives incorporated into a modern building). The current rear wing was added in the early 1930s. Its side porch, used by the family as a sleeping porch (open-air sleeping was considered healthy for the lungs), was partially open on both levels until the 1950s when windows were added. Also in the 1950s a pair of Mennonite missionaries from Pennsylvania stayed at the farm for an extended period and built the rock wall and flagstone patio beside the house. B. P. Obenshain was a successful farmer and president of the Bank of Troutville, located in the nearby town of Troutville. He served as Botetourt County sheriff from 1919 to 1923 and is believed to have been the first Republican officeholder in the county, establishing a longtime family association with the Republican Party.
B. P. Obenshain’s grandson and the brother of current owner Joseph B. Obenshain, Richard D. Obenshain, ran to represent Virginia’s 3rd Congressional District in the US House of Representatives in 1964, ran for Virginia Attorney General in 1969, served as cochairman of the Republican National Committee in 1975-1976, and ran as the Republican candidate for the US Senate in 1978 (he died in a plane crash while campaigning). B. P. Obenshain’s great-grandson Mark D. Obenshain ran as the Republican candidate for Virginia Attorney General in 2013.9

The house continued to evolve during the late twentieth and early twenty-first century. Interior modifications were made in the 1980s including a kitchen remodeling and the installation of central heating. In 2000-2001 a second-floor bedroom in the rear wing was subdivided into bathrooms. A porch column destroyed in a storm was replaced in the early 2000s. The earliest documented reference to the house as “Blue Ridge Hall” appears to date to about 1966, although the name may have been in use earlier.

Architectural Context

Criterion C: Architecture

Blue Ridge Hall was historically the Blue Ridge Hotel, and yet its form, with a symmetrical fivebay front and center-passage plan, is that of an elite dwelling of the antebellum period. This is in part due to the fact that the house doubled as a private home, but also because many Virginia hostelries of the era and earlier were domestic in appearance, albeit larger than most houses. A close match to Blue Ridge Hall in form, scale, and date is the original portion of the 1834 Central Hotel in New Castle, the county seat of neighboring Craig County. The Central Hotel began as a two-story brick building described as having four rooms, which suggests it had a center-passage plan. The hotel may have been built in conjunction with the opening of the Cumberland Gap Turnpike (also known as the Fincastle to Cumberland Gap Turnpike), which would give it another affinity with Blue Ridge Hall: strategic placement on a major regional artery. The Central Hotel was enlarged by the addition of a third story and rear wing in the 1850s when New Castle was made the Craig County seat. Closer to home, though later, was Fincastle’s Hayth’s Hotel, which may have opened in 1878. Hayth’s Hotel, which apparently survives in part, was a sprawling affair with a triple-decker porch facing the courthouse square. Hayth’s Hotel was large to begin with—it originally boasted thirty beds—and it grew still larger in 1895 with the addition of a three-story annex containing a large “music room.” A hotel that stood in the Botetourt County village of Amsterdam in the early twentieth century was also a rambling building of frame construction wholly or in part. If the Blue Ridge Hotel only ever had a one-story rear wing and no other additions or extensions, then it never grew to the size of the Central, Hayth, and Amsterdam hotels. It apparently only had capacity for a small number of guests, perhaps stagecoach passengers waiting for connections, though some guests may have lodged in other buildings, the store or possibly even the barn, or may have camped on the grounds.10

A feature that may relate to hotel use is the former corner stair that rose from the east first-floor room to the room above. Some contemporary Virginia houses had a second-floor room known as a “traveler’s room” which was accessible by stair from the room below but had no connection to other second-floor rooms, an arrangement which separated the family from guests. Examples of the arrangement in Virginia include the Bowling and Mildred Eldridge House (1822-1823; formerly in Halifax County) and the Finney-Lee House (1839; Franklin County). However, the upstairs room at Blue Ridge Hall appears to have always had a doorway into the second-floor center passage. The passage door has the same beaded flush panel treatment as other original doors.11

The lateness of Blue Ridge Hall’s construction during the main phase of the Federal style explains the Greek Revival influence seen in the first-floor east room mantel’s pilasters. These are symmetrically molded (Greek Revival) as opposed to asymmetrically molded (Federal). There is a hint of Georgian influence in the framed fireplace surround of the second-floor east room mantel. Rather than being evidence of earlier fabric—the mantel is otherwise similar to other Federal mantels in the house—the Georgian influence may be the consequence of the fact the mantel was in an upstairs room (a house’s simplest or least current mantels tend to be in the upstairs). Likewise, in some contexts a second stair like the one formerly in the east room might indicate an earlier house incorporated in a mostly later house. However the construction of Blue Ridge Hall appears to be of a piece throughout, with consistent first-floor floor structure and attic framing from gable to gable, suggesting the original portion was built in one campaign. Also, tax records do not indicate an earlier building at the location.

There are clues to the original configuration of the rear of the house. The current rear wing appears to date entirely to the 1930s without bodily incorporating fabric from what may have stood at the location earlier, although it does contain a reused stair, rafters, and floor boards of uncertain provenience. Family tradition maintains that a one-story wing extended to the rear, and this is supported by the presence of an original doorway on the back wall of the first-floor east room, which probably opened onto the porch of the former wing. The lack of a corresponding original door on the back wall of the room above suggests the earlier wing lacked a second story. The kitchen, which was a separate one-story weatherboard-sided building which stood off the end of the early and later rear wings, survived into the 1950s.12

A ca. 1915 photograph of the property (Figure 1) shows the dwelling’s appearance with a two-tier front porch (replaced during the 1950s) and prior to construction of the two-story rear wing in the 1930s. But for the replacement of the porch, the dwelling’s main block is virtually unchanged. A frame building to the left (west) of the primary dwelling is believed to have been the store, rebuilt in the 1880s, that also included a post office. The barn and attached silo that stand to the right (east) of the dwelling were removed at an unknown date, with the extant 1990s storage building constructed on the barn’s foundation. Just visible between the house and barn, behind trees, is a front-gabled building that may have been the milk house and granary, the foundations for which remain extant near the early 1990s shed. An intriguing aspect of this photograph is the presence of two heavy timber posts with connecting overhead lines; these appear to be telephone poles, indicating that Blue Ridge Hall had telephone service at a relatively early date.  

Figure 1. Ca. 1915 photo of property, view looking northeast.  

9. Major Bibliographical References

Bibliography (Cite the books, articles, and other sources used in preparing this form.)

Anderson, William. “A Map of the Fincastle and Blue Ridge Turnpike.” 1833. Original in the Board of Public Works Collection, Library of Virginia, Richmond.

“Arch Mills Post Office.” Report (1992) by the historian of the Corporate Information Services, US Postal Service.

Around Town: A Pictorial Review of Old Fincastle, Virginia. Fincastle, Va.: Historic Fincastle, ca. 1990.

Botetourt Bicentennial Souvenir Program and History. Booklet (1970) at the Fincastle Library, Fincastle, Va.

Botetourt County court order, deed, land book, and surveyor’s records. Botetourt County Courthouse, Fincastle, Va.

Botetourt County History before 1900 through County Newspapers. Fincastle, Va.: Botetourt County American Bicentennial Commission, 1976.

Brugh Collection. Notebooks at the Fincastle Library, Fincastle, Va.

Chataigne, J. H. comp. Chataigne’s Virginia Business Directory and Gazetteer, 1880-81. Richmond, Va.: Baughman Bros. 1880.

________. Chataigne’s Virginia Gazetteer and Classified Business Directory, 1893-94. Richmond, Va.: J. H. Chataigne, 1893.

Daily National Intelligencer (Washington, D.C.).

Fincastle Herald (Fincastle, Va.).

Fulwiler, Harry, Jr. Buchanan, Virginia: Gateway to the Southwest. Fincastle, Va.: Botetourt County Historical Society, 1980 (reprint).

Geraldine Mangus Obenshain Collection. Notebooks at the Fincastle Library, Fincastle, Va.

Giles, Leslie A., and J. Daniel Pezzoni. “Finney-Lee House.” National Register of Historic Places Registration Form, 1996.

Gilmer, Jeremy Francis. “Botetourt Co. Va. South West Section.” Map, 1864.

Governor’s Message and Annual Reports of the Public Officers of the State. Richmond, Va.: William F. Ritchie, 1849.

Heffelfinger, Grace P. “New Castle Historic District.” National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination Form, 1973.

Historical Magazine.

Jennings, Ruby Brugh. 1850 Census, Botetourt County, Virginia. St. Louis, Mo.: Tree Art Publishers, 1976.

Lee, Anne Carter, et al. Buildings of Virginia: Valley, Piedmont, Southside, and Southwest. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2015.

McClane, Debra Alderson. Botetourt County Revisited. Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia Publishing, 2014.

Niederer, Frances J. The Town of Fincastle, Virginia. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1965.

Obenshain Family Collection. Blue Ridge Hall, Fincastle, Va.

Obenshain, Geraldine. “Zachary T. Obenshain.” In Botetourt County, Virginia, Heritage Book, 1770-2000. Fincastle, Va.: Botetourt Heritage Book Committee, 2000.

Obenshain, Joseph B. “The Blue Ridge Hall.” Virginia Department of Historic Places Preliminary Information Form, 2002.

________. Personal communication with the author, May 2016.

Obenshain, Mary Anne Rader, comp. “The Frontier Settlement of Amsterdam, Virginia.” Notebook at the Fincastle Library, Fincastle, Va.

Pezzoni, J. Daniel. The Architecture of Historic Rockbridge. Lexington, Va.: Historic Lexington Foundation, 2015.

________. “Bowling and Mildred Eldridge House.” National Register of Historic Places Registration Form, 1993.

Salmon, John S., and Emily J. Salmon. Franklin County, Virginia, 1786-1986: A Bicentennial History. Rocky Mount, Va.: Franklin County Bicentennial Commission, 1993.

United States Census 1850 industrial and slave schedules.

Vassar, Stephen D., Sr. “Early Roads.” In Botetourt County, Virginia, Heritage Book 1770-2000. Fincastle, Va.: Botetourt Heritage Book Committee, 2000.

________. Life along Back Creek and Looney’s Mill Creek. Roanoke, Va.: 2001.

Photo Log

All photos common to:

Name of Property: Blue Ridge Hall

City or Vicinity: Fincastle County: Botetourt State: Virginia

Photographer: J. Daniel Pezzoni Date Photographed: May 2016

Description of Photograph(s) and number, include description of view indicating direction of camera.

Photo 1 of 13: VA_BotetourtCounty_BlueRidgeHall_0001 View: West and south elevations of house. View looking northeast.

Photo 2 of 13: VA_BotetourtCounty_BlueRidgeHall_0002 View: West elevation of house. View looking east.

Photo 3 of 13: VA_BotetourtCounty_BlueRidgeHall_0003 View: East and north elevations of house. View looking southwest.

Photo 4 of 13: VA_BotetourtCounty_BlueRidgeHall_0004 View: First-floor center passage and stair.

Photo 5 of 13: VA_BotetourtCounty_BlueRidgeHall_0005 View: First-floor east room mantel.

Photo 6 of 13: VA_BotetourtCounty_BlueRidgeHall_0006 View: First-floor west room mantel.

Photo 7 of 13: VA_BotetourtCounty_BlueRidgeHall_0007 View: Second-floor attic stair.

Photo 8 of 13: VA_BotetourtCounty_BlueRidgeHall_0008 View: Second-floor east room mantel.

Photo 9 of 13: VA_BotetourtCounty_BlueRidgeHall_0009 View: 1930s rear wing second floor enclosed porch.

Photo 10 of 13: VA_BotetourtCounty_BlueRidgeHall_0010 View: 1930s rear wing rafter.

Photo 11 of 13: VA_BotetourtCounty_BlueRidgeHall_0011 View: Ca. 1945 Garage and 1990s Shed.

Photo 12 of 13: VA_BotetourtCounty_BlueRidgeHall_0012 View: Setting looking northeast from dwelling.

Photo 13 of 13: VA_BotetourtCounty_BlueRidgeHall_0013 View: Setting looking northwest from dwelling.



1 Botetourt County land books; Deed Book 20, p. 644; Surveyor’s Book 4, p. 188.

2 Governor’s Message and Annual Reports of the Public Officers of the State, 33; Vassar, “Early Roads,” 4; “Arch Mills Post Office;” Fincastle Herald, May 11, 1882; Gilmer, “Botetourt Co. Va.”

3 Daily National Intelligencer, June 26, 1837; Salmon and Salmon, Franklin County, 101; Historical Magazine (November 1859), 352; Botetourt County land books; Deed Book 25, 523.

4 Botetourt County Deed Book 29, p. 548; Jennings, 1850 Census, 210; Vassar, Life along Back Creek, 52; Obenshain, “Blue Ridge Hall;” US Census.

5 Geraldine Mangus Obenshain Collection, “Samuel Obenshain & Ann Elizabeth Hardy” notebook; US census; Botetourt County Deed Book 40, p. 368.

6 Joseph B. Obenshain personal communication with the author, May 2016; Obenshain, “Blue Ridge Hall;” Geraldine Mangus Obenshain Collection, “Samuel Obenshain & Ann Elizabeth Hardy” notebook.

7 Obenshain Family Collection; Brugh Collection volume 5, p. 236.

8 Chataigne, Chataigne’s Virginia Business Directory and Gazetteer, 1880-81, 132-133; Chataigne, Chataigne’s Virginia Gazetteer and Classified Business Directory, 1893-94, 281; “Arch Mills Post Office;” Obenshain, “Zachary T. Obenshain,” 180; Botetourt County Deed Book B, p. 368; County Court Order Book 4, pages 440, 492, 595; County Court Order Book 5, pages 155, 405, 522, 564; County Order Book 6, p. 188; Geraldine Mangus Obenshain Collection, “Samuel Obenshain & Ann Elizabeth Hardy” notebook.

9 Joseph B. Obenshain personal communication with the author, May 2016; Obenshain, “Blue Ridge Hall;” Botetourt County land books; Brugh Collection volume 7, p. 65.  

10 Pezzoni, Architecture of Historic Rockbridge, 126-127; Lee, Buildings of Virginia, 169-170; Heffelfinger, “New Castle Historic District;” Around Town, 56-57; Niederer, Town of Fincastle, 56-57; Obenshain, “Frontier Settlement of Amsterdam,” 47.

11 Pezzoni, “Bowling and Mildred Eldridge House;” Pezzoni, “Finney-Lee House,” 12.

12 Joseph B. Obenshain personal communication with the author, May 2016.  
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Re: Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

Postby admin » Sun Dec 17, 2017 3:57 am

Rosemary Trible's long path to forgiveness after rape
by Katherine Calos
Richmond Times-Dispatch
May 2, 2010



Rosemary Trible looks at baby clothes with her daughter, Mary Katherine Trible Peters, at Rattle & Roll in the River Road II Shopping Center.

Stories about rape often focus on the crisis. This story is about what happens in the rest of your life.

It's about faith and love, forgiveness and a near-death experience. It's about healing through good works. It's about the remarkable path of Rosemary Trible, who was raped at gunpoint in Richmond 35 years ago. Only now, at age 61, has she gone public with a book about her experience.

One of the remarkable things about her story is that it remained a secret while she helped her husband, Paul S. Trible Jr., run for office in eight major political campaigns. He served as a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate for 12 years.
In 1996, he became president of Christopher Newport University, where she also has been very visible and involved as the president's wife.

During those years in politics and education, she did develop a quiet ministry working one on one with women in crisis. "I almost had a sense . . . when a woman was hurting, and especially if she'd been suffering in some way from fear or sexual assault," she said in a soft, whispery voice as she sat in the cheerful living room of the CNU president's house, a place that every CNU student visits at the beginning and end of college life.

"Through all these years, it's been how I reached out."

Now she's telling the world about her path "from victim to victory" in a book titled "Fear to Freedom: What if you did not have to be so afraid?" She'll be in Richmond to talk about it Tuesday at a luncheon for Elijah House Academy.

"There are so many more women and men affected by this. If my story, sharing it, could help any of those women, it would be worthwhile to be vulnerable," she said. "I want them to see not only the pain of what happens, but also that the lost joy can be found again and the cycle of fear can be broken."

Rosemary Trible has had a life full of victories. She was America's Junior Miss in 1967, four years after Diane Sawyer held the title.

By 1975, with her husband serving as Essex County commonwealth's attorney, she was hosting her own television show on WTVR at a time when that was a big step forward for women. Once a week, she devoted "Rosemary's Guestbook" to an important issue, such as interviews with rape victims early in December 1975.

A week after that show she decided to stay overnight at a hotel near the station, Richmond's CBS affiliate, instead of driving an hour home to Tappahannock. She wanted to tape three extra shows for the holiday break.

At about 11 p.m., she went downstairs to get a cup of coffee. When she returned and sat down at the desk to continue working on the scripts, a man rushed forward from the curtains.

"This man grabbed me around the neck with his gloved hands," she said. "He put this steel gun at my head and he said in this deep voice, 'OK, Miss Cute Talk Show Host, what do you do with a gun at your head?'

"Of course we hadn't talked about that on the show," she said, her voice lowering to a whisper, "and he wanted to prove a lesson to me that I would never forget.

"It was a night of horrors. I fought, I pled, I cried, I prayed. It was very violent. I remember finally saying the Lord's Prayer to keep from going into shock and to try to get my mind off of this horror.

"The last trigger, with the gun at my head, he said, 'I know where you live. I know who you are. And I will kill you if you tell.' That's the dagger that's the hardest thing. They plant this fear in your life that's like a dagger. It's the cycle of fear that really destroys your life."

As soon as he left, she called hotel security. Police investigated. She called her husband and went to the hospital.

"The next morning, I did the show on robot. I was determined. I knew he'd be watching. John Shand [the station manager] said, 'If you can't finish it, I'll walk on.' He said, 'Go home, I'll do the next three shows for you.'"

She worked there a few more months, but the strain was too much.

"Going back and forth to the station, that hour drive, there's this tape recorder in your head that says, 'I know where you live. I will kill you.' It was so combined with my work and where we lived.

"I'd always been a very hugging, affectionate person, and [after that] you couldn't be touched. People that you didn't know, strangers, would send this trigger of fear into you. I would drive home from the show and cry all the way.

"I finally realized it was important to be tender with myself. You have to give yourself some grace that you really have gone through a horrible crime. It's the kind of crime that, regardless of the circumstances, you have this feeling of shame and guilt. You feel like you'll never be pure again. It strips you of something that is a very personal part of yourself. No matter if it's a date rape or children raped by a father or uncle, whatever it is, it's like you take on the shame and guilt, and there's this inset of fear. Is this going to happen again? Is he going to find me?"

Her husband worked closely with Richmond police, but the attacker never was found. The assailant wore a mask and gloves, so there were no fingerprints and only a limited description. DNA profiling was not yet available.

Paul Trible recalls that the rape happened on the evening of a day that he was in court prosecuting a murder case. "It was a tragic event," he said. "It was a difficult and challenging time for Rosemary and for us, but we dearly love each other. I was of course angry that this could have happened to my beloved wife.

"I love her dearly. I love Rosemary more today than when I walked her down the aisle 39 years ago. She is the joy of my life. It breaks my heart that she experienced the tragic events of that evening in Richmond, but she has triumphed over evil and her story hopefully can empower lots of people to do that."

To outside observers, their life retained the polish of perfection.

Within a year, Paul Trible, then 29, was running for Congress from the First District. Despite her fears, Rosemary went on the campaign trail, with former college roommate Rene Bowditch at her side for support. "We tried to stay with friends rather than hotels. You have to watch your triggers, and for me, staying in hotels was a trigger," she said.

Trible won, and their first child, Mary Katherine, was born 10 days after he was sworn into Congress in 1977. Paul Trible III was born in 1980. Both children live in Richmond now. Mary Katherine Peters is pregnant with the first grandchild.

"That brought some of the joy back into my life," Rosemary said, remembering Mary Katherine's birth.

When Mary Katherine was 6 months old, however, someone broke into their house in Old Town Alexandria while they were out for a stroll.

"All that fear came rushing back," she said. "I remember praying. It was a turning point. . . . I cried out to God, 'I can't live like a victim the rest of my life, and I can't deal with this fear again.' I really felt a sense of the presence of God, that, 'I'm here, I'm with you.'

"Somehow that was a real breakthrough for me, a beginning of trusting that I was going to be OK. The healing process really began from there and, about a year later, coming to a place of forgiveness."

A church conference in inner-city Washington was the catalyst.

"Have you ever gone into a room where you didn't know anyone and said, 'I'll sit next to anyone but that person,' and that person comes and sits next to you?" she asked. "He was a huge African-American man, about the stature of the man who raped me. He said, 'My name is Pat Patterson. I spent five years in Alcatraz and another seven years in Lorton prison.' And now my heart is really pounding. He said, 'That man over there, Pastor John Staggers, for two years he came to Lorton and told me about God and said if I asked to be forgiven, my sins and crimes can be forgiven. I accepted Christ and now I'm two weeks out of prison. I'm going to work with inner-city school kids because they can't finesse me. I've been there.'"

She remembered a biblical passage: "If anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation. Old things are passed away and all things become new."

"This man, Pat, I didn't need to be afraid of anymore. He wasn't the same criminal he was."

She excused herself from the church meeting and went to the restroom to pray: "'I forgive the man who raped me. And I will pray the rest of my life that he will understand about forgiveness, and [be so completely transformed that] I will spend eternity with the man that raped me.' It was like this burden came off of me and I realized the power of forgiveness.

"I walked back in that door and took his hand. We became great friends," They were so close that years later, she did a eulogy at Patterson's funeral, she said.

"I needed to go back into the place of fear -- the inner city -- to be healed of that fear."

For 11 years she worked with members of Congress and their families on inner-city projects. When she found out that six kids at an after-school program had been molested in the alleyway, "I got some friends involved and built a playground with a fence around it so it would protect those young people. It was so healing to be able to get involved in helping others who had been wounded."

Work with university students extends back to 1983 when the Tribles became the first hosts of the Virginia Student Leadership Forum on Faith and Values. In 1990, they joined with several congressional leaders in beginning the National Student Leadership Forum to bring together a diverse group from around the nation for study of Jesus' leadership model.

Though religion has been central to her life, she said, "it's not a requirement for healing. For me, my faith in God was a tremendous blessing. I encourage women to seek whatever they may believe in. I do believe with all my heart that a beautiful way to find healing in your life is faith. It was true for me."

She also encourages women to seek counseling and to find two "elephants" -- friends who will hold you up when you're weak the way two elephants will stand on either side of a wounded elephant to keep it from falling to the ground.

A final step in her healing came 14 years ago, just after they'd moved to CNU in Newport News. On an icy winter day, her car spun out while she was heading to Gloucester for a retreat being attended by six college students who'd been raped.

When she got the car turned around, she took the next exit and stopped.

"I knew I had been shaken. I didn't know how serious it was," she said. "I didn't realize I was lapsing into this comalike state."

Three hours passed before someone called the rescue squad. Snow was piling up around the car, and freezing temperatures were affecting her body, she said. Rescuers didn't know she had been in a wreck because the car was off the highway.

She remained unconscious for three days. "That first night, I had a near-life experience," she said. "I don't call it near-death.

"The spirit of the Lord was like a joy, like a friend that was with me. Ever since I'd stopped the car, there had been this white light that had embraced me. It began moving forward, like it was guiding me. The white opened up to a blue sky and an incredible wheat field. There were five lights coming toward me. It was like a welcoming committee." Behind the first light, she saw a dark shadow.

"Out of that shadow walked an African-American man. He said, 'I'm the man who raped you. I wouldn't be here but you prayed all those years for forgiveness and that I will spend eternity with you.' Somehow God had answered my prayer. This horrible man, who had destroyed my life and that of so many other women, I believe, was forgiven, even of the treacherous thing he had done.

"When I'm able to share that with someone who's been raped, it gives them new hope and an opportunity maybe to forgive a father or someone who's date-raped them. It'll set you free. When I forgave this man, he wasn't my problem any more. I had released him. That was a gift to my life."

As tragic as the rape was, she realizes that it also made her the person she is today. It has been used for a purpose in her life.

"I would not have the compassion for women if this had not happened to me, nor would I have understood the depth of pain that someone who experiences this crime would feel.

"And yet, the joy I've had in my life, and Paul, and the experiences we've been able to enjoy together, it's like another season has opened up in our life. I'm so grateful."

She was moved to write the book after hearing their rector ask two questions in a sermon: "What if you didn't have to be so afraid?" and "What if you could help others not be so afraid?"

She thought about it on the way home.

"Rosemary was uncommonly quiet," her husband recalled. "When Rosemary is quiet, I know something important is going on."

She told him she felt it was important to share her story. Would that be OK?

"I smiled to myself and thought, 'Surely, Paul, you're not going to stand between Rosemary and God.'" The children also agreed, and she started writing. The book already is in a second printing. It includes stories of others who've felt "broken" as well as a devotional guide for people who want to follow Trible's faith journey.

"I truly believe this issue will never get out of the darkness until we are willing and able to share it in the light," she said. "I'm grateful to have the opportunity to do that."

Contact Katherine Calos at (804) 649-6433 or
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Re: Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

Postby admin » Sun Dec 17, 2017 4:03 am

Paul S. Trible Jr.
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/16/17



Paul S. Trible Jr.
United States Senator
from Virginia
In office
January 3, 1983 – January 3, 1989
Preceded by Harry F. Byrd Jr.
Succeeded by Chuck Robb
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Virginia's 1st district
In office
January 3, 1977 – January 3, 1983
Preceded by Thomas N. Downing
Succeeded by Herbert H. Bateman
Personal details
Born Paul Seward Trible Jr.
December 29, 1946 (age 70)
Baltimore, Maryland
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Rosemary D. Trible
Alma mater Hampden–Sydney College (B.A.)
Washington and Lee University (J.D.)

Paul Seward Trible Jr. (born December 29, 1946) is an American attorney and Republican politician from Virginia, who served in the U.S. House of Representatives for three terms and the U.S. Senate for one term. He is currently president of Christopher Newport University.

Education and early career

Trible graduated from Hampden–Sydney College in 1968 with a Bachelor of Arts in History. In 1971, he received a Juris Doctor degree from Washington and Lee University School of Law and was soon after admitted to the Virginia Bar. He served as a law clerk for a federal judge from 1971 to 1972, and then as an assistant U.S. Attorney in the Eastern District of Virginia from 1972 to 1974.

Political career

In 1973, Trible was elected as Commonwealth's Attorney for Essex County, Virginia, serving from 1974 to 1976. He was appointed to the Virginia Law Enforcement Officers Training and Standards Commission in 1976 and in November was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, winning reelection in 1978 and 1980. In 1982, Trible received the Republican nomination for the U.S. Senate seat being vacated by Harry F. Byrd Jr., defeating Lt. Governor Richard Joseph Davis Jr. in the general election. After serving in the U.S. Senate from 1983 to 1989, Trible declined to seek reelection in 1988. During the last year of his Senate term, he served simultaneously as a member of the U.S. Delegation to the United Nations. In 1989, Trible was the early favorite to capture the GOP nomination for governor; however, Marshall Coleman narrowly won the nomination and ultimately lost to Democrat L. Douglas Wilder. In 1989, between his retirement from the Senate, and his run for governor, Trible was a teaching fellow at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. After his political career, Trible briefly returned to practicing law with Laxalt, Washington, Perito and Dubuc of Washington, D.C. and Shuttleworth, Ruloff, Giordano and Kahle, P.C. of Virginia Beach, Virginia.


1976: Elected to the U.S. House of Representatives with 48.56% of the vote, defeating Robert E. Quinn (D) and Mary B. McClaine (I).
1978: Re-elected with 72.06% of the vote defeating Lewis B. Puller Jr. (D).
1980: Re-elected with 90.48% of the vote defeating Sharon D. Grant (I).
1982: Elected to the U.S. Senate with 51.18% of the vote, defeating Richard J. Davis (D).

Christopher Newport University

On January 1, 1996, Trible became the fifth president of Christopher Newport University. The 35-year-old institution had recently achieved full university status and his arrival came at a time when the school was undergoing many changes as it evolved from a college to a university.

In late 2006, CNU’s Board of Visitors announced that a new library and a merit scholarship with a $500,000 endowment would be named in honor of President Trible and his wife in recognition of their leadership and contributions to the university. Trible also serves on the Council of Presidents of Virginia’s public colleges and universities, as well as Chair of the NCAA Division III President's Council.

Personal life

He is married to Rosemary (Dunaway) Trible and they have two children, Mary Katherine, who is married to Dr. Barrett W. R. Peters; and Paul, CEO and co-founder of Ledbury, who is married to Brittany (Gordon) Trible. His father was Paul S. Trible Sr., the son of George Meredith and Clara (Seward) Trible. His mother was Katherine (Schilpp) Trible.


Trible, Paul S. "Restoring the College Core" Richmond Times-Dispatch 2 Nov. 2014: F3.
Trible, Paul. "Colleges Must Get Used to Collaborating With Congress" The Chronicle of Higher Education 15 Jul. 2005: B16.
Trible, Paul. "Letting Colleges Down" The Washington Post 19 Apr. 2005: A12.
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Re: Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

Postby admin » Sun Dec 17, 2017 5:25 am

Carl Epting Mundy Jr.
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/16/17



Carl E. Mundy Jr.
30th Commandant of the Marine Corps (1991-1995)
Birth name Carl Epting Mundy Jr.
Born July 16, 1935
Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.
Died April 2, 2014 (aged 78)
Alexandria, Virginia, U.S.
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branch United States Marine Corps
Years of service 1953-1995
Rank US Marine 10 shoulderboard.svg General
Commands held 2nd Battalion, 4th Marines
2nd Marine Regiment
4th Marine Amphibious Brigade
II Marine Expeditionary Force
Marine Forces Atlantic
Commandant of the Marine Corps
Battles/wars Vietnam War
Cold War
Awards Defense Distinguished Service Medal
Navy, Army, Air Force, & Coast Guard Distinguished Service Medals
Legion of Merit
Bronze Star
Purple Heart
Other work USO
Marine Corps University Foundation
General Dynamics
Council on Foreign Relations

Carl Epting Mundy Jr. (July 16, 1935 – April 2, 2014) was a United States Marine Corps General who was the 30th Commandant of the United States Marine Corps and member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from July 1, 1991 until his retirement on June 30, 1995, after 38 years of active duty service.

From 1996 to 2000, he served as president and CEO of the USO.[1] Mundy was the chairman of the Marine Corps University Foundation.[2] He also served on a number of corporate boards.

Early life and education

Mundy was born on July 16, 1935 in Atlanta, Georgia.[3] His family moved frequently when he was a young child, settling in Waynesville, North Carolina when Mundy was about 10 years old.[3] He graduated from Sidney Lanier High School in Montgomery, Alabama. At age 18, he enlisted in the U.S. Marine Corps Reserve.[4]


Mundy visiting a survivor of the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995.

Mundy enlisted in the Marine Corps Reserve and enrolled in the PLC Program in December 1953 while attending college – serving in the 38th Special Infantry Company, Montgomery, Alabama and rising to the rank of sergeant. He was commissioned a Second Lieutenant in June 1957, following graduation from Auburn University. His later military education included the Command and General Staff College and the Naval War College.

His early assignments included service in the 2nd Marine Regiment, 2nd Marine Division; duty aboard the aircraft carrier USS Tarawa (CV-40) and the cruiser USS Little Rock (CLG-4); instructor at The Basic School; and as Officer Selection Officer, Raleigh, North Carolina. In 1966-67, Mundy served in Vietnam as operations and executive officer of the 3rd Battalion, 26th Marines, 3rd Marine Division, and as an intelligence officer in the Headquarters, III Marine Amphibious Force.

After the Vietnam War, his principal assignments were:

Aide de Camp to the Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps
Inspector Instructor, 4th Air-Naval Gunfire Liaison Company, Miami, Florida
Commanding Officer, 2nd Battalion, 4th Marines, 3rd Marine Division
Plans Officer, Headquarters Marine Corps
Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, 2nd Marine Division
Chief of Staff, Sixth Marine Amphibious Brigade
Commanding Officer, 2nd Marine Regiment, 2nd Marine Division, and 36th and 38th Marine Amphibious Units

Following advancement to Brigadier General in April 1982, Mundy's assignments were:

Director of Personnel Procurement, Headquarters Marine Corps
Commanding General, Landing Force Training Command, U.S. Atlantic Fleet, and Commanding General, 4th Marine Amphibious Brigade
Advanced to major general in April 1986
Director of Operations, Plans, Policies and Operations Department, Headquarters Marine Corps
Advanced to lieutenant general in March 1988
Deputy Chief Staff for Plans, Policies and Operations, Headquarters Marine Corps Operations Deputy to the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Commanding General of the Fleet Marine Force, Atlantic, the II Marine Expeditionary Force, the Allied Command Atlantic Marine Striking Force, and designated to command Fleet Marine Forces which might be employed in Europe
Promoted to General on July 1, 1991
Commandant of the Marine Corps from July 1, 1991 to June 30, 1995

Awards and decorations

General Mundy's awards include:

Marine Corps Parachutist badge
1st Row Defense Distinguished Service Medal Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Identification Badge
2nd Row Navy Distinguished Service Medal Army Distinguished Service Medal Air Force Distinguished Service Medal Coast Guard Distinguished Service Medal
3rd Row Legion of Merit Bronze Star w/ valor device Purple Heart Medal Navy Commendation Medal w/ 1 award star & valor device
4th Row Combat Action Ribbon Navy Presidential Unit Citation Navy Unit Commendation National Defense Service Medal w/ 1 service star
5th Row Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal Vietnam Service Medal w/ 2 service stars Sea Service Ribbon Vietnamese Cross of Gallantry w/ 1 gold star
6th Row Colombian Distinguished Service[clarification needed] Spanish White Cross of Naval Merit French Legion of Honor, Grade of Commander Argentinian Order of the Liberator General San Martin, Grand Cross
7th Row Royal Norwegian Order of Merit, Grand Cross Netherlands Medal of Merit in silver Vietnamese Cross of Gallantry Unit Citation Vietnam Campaign Medal

Note: The gold US Navy Parachute Rigger badge was worn unofficially by USMC personnel in place of US Army parachutist badge from 1942-1963 before it officially became the Navy and Marine Corps Parachutist insignia on July 12, 1963 per BuPers Notice 1020. Members of the Marine Corps who attended jump school before 1963 were issued the silver Army parachutist badge but may be depicted wearing the gold Navy Parachute Rigger badge as it was common practice during this time period.

Personal life

Mundy in May 2013

Mundy was married and has three children – two sons and a daughter. Both sons are U.S. Marine Corps officers, including Carl Epting Mundy III, who is a major general.[5][6]

Remarks on minority officers

In an October 31, 1993 segment on the CBS program 60 Minutes on the dearth of minority promotions in the U.S. Marine Corps, General Mundy was quoted as saying, "In the military skills, we find that the minority officers do not shoot as well as the non-minorities. They don't swim as well. And when you give them a compass and send them across the terrain at night in a land navigation exercise, they don't do as well at that sort of thing."[7] Mundy, noted for being blunt, though possibly the "victim of selective editing", apologized for "any offense that may have been taken" from his remarks.[8] According to The Times, the general elaborated on this question at a 1993 commemoration of the Battle of Iwo Jima, when commenting on Ira Hayes, he said "Were Ira Hayes here today ... I would tell him that although my words on another occasion have given the impression that I believe some Marines ... because of their color ... are not as capable as other Marines ... that those were not the thoughts of my mind ... and that they are not the thoughts of my heart.[9][10]

Position on married Marines

Mundy issued an order in 1993 to cut down (and eventually eliminate) the recruitment category for married Marines; the order was rescinded following a public outcry.

Remarks on gays serving in the military

Mundy was signatory to an open letter delivered to President Barack Obama and Members of Congress expressing support for the 1993 law stating that self-identified homosexuals are not eligible to serve in the military, commonly referred to as "Don't ask, don't tell."[11] The letter said in part, "We believe that imposing this burden on our men and women in uniform would undermine recruiting and retention, impact leadership at all echelons, have adverse effects on the willingness of parents who lend their sons and daughters to military service, and eventually break the All-Volunteer Force."[12] However unlike the 34th commandant, General James T. Conway, Mundy has said that if the restriction were repealed the troops should not be segregated.[13][14] For a person to "proclaim: I'm gay" is the "same as I'm KKK, Nazi, rapist," Mundy says.[15]


Mundy died of cancer (Merkel cell carcinoma) at his home in Alexandria, Virginia on April 2, 2014 at the age of 78.[16][17]


1. "Carl Mundy: Executive Profile & Biography". Business Week. Retrieved 22 February 2009.
2. "Board of Trustees: General Carl E. Mundy Jr. USMC (Ret) – Chairman". Marine Corps University Foundation. Archived from the original on 25 August 2009. Retrieved 22 February 2009.
3. b Ruane, Michael E. (June 5, 1999). "Four Years Ago, Carl Mundy Hung Up His Sword. His Life Would Never Be the Same" (Reprinted on Washington Post. p. C01. Retrieved 22 February 2009.
4. "2007 Lifetime Achievement Award Recipients: Carl E. Mundy Jr. '57". Auburn University. Archived from the original on 25 August 2009. Retrieved 22 February2009.
5. "Major General Carl E. Mundy, III Commander, Task Force 51". U.S. Navy. Archived from the original on 20 January 2015. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
6. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-04-01. Retrieved 2011-10-18.
7. "A Few Good Men". 60 Minutes. CBS News. 2 June 1999.
8. "Apology for Remarks On Minority Marines". New York Times. November 3, 1993.
9. Thompson, Mark (28 November 1993). "Commandant Of Marine Corps Doesn't Mince Words – Mundy's Comments: Wonderfully Blunt Or Just Insensitive?". Seattle Times. Retrieved 22 February 2009.
10. Asthana, Anushka; Ford, Richard; Watson, Roland. "The Times". London. Archived from the original on 2013-05-05.
11. "Homosexuals in the Military" Archived 2009-07-20 at the Wayback Machine., Center for Military Readiness, April 9, 2009.
12. "Flag and General Officers for the Military" Archived 2009-04-23 at the Wayback Machine., April 9, 2009.
13. Marines will still be 'hammering' Afghanistan next year Archived 2010-08-27 at the Wayback Machine.
14. "What Would It Take To End 'Don't Ask, Don't Tell'?". 5 February 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
15. Eric Bradner, CNN (10 October 2014). "Clinton presidential documents cover Kagan, gays, email -". CNN. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
16. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-07-17. Retrieved 2014-04-03.
17. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-04-06. Retrieved 2014-04-03.


• "Official Biography: General Carl E. Mundy Jr". United States Marine Corps. Archived from the original on 20 February 2012. Retrieved 9 April 2014.

Further reading

• Mundy, General Carl E. Jr. (November 1, 1993). "The Role of the Marine Corps in the Post-Cold War Era". Heritage Lecture #475. Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on 19 February 2009. Retrieved 22 February 2009.
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Re: Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

Postby admin » Sun Dec 17, 2017 5:50 am

Harold W. Gehman Jr.
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/16/17



Harold W. Gehman Jr.
Admiral Harold W. Gehman
Nickname(s) Hal
Born October 15, 1942 (age 75)
Norfolk, Virginia
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branch United States Navy
Years of service 1965-2000
Rank Admiral
Commands held United States Joint Forces Command
Battles/wars Vietnam War
Awards Legion of Merit
Bronze Star
Other work Chairman, Columbia Accident Investigation Board
Co-chair, Cole Commission
BRAC committee

Admiral Harold W. Gehman Jr. (born October 15, 1942) is a retired United States Navy four-star admiral who served as NATO's Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic (SACLANT), Commander-in-Chief of the United States Joint Forces Command, one of the United States' Unified Combatant Commands, and Vice Chief of Naval Operations. He was also the Co-Chairman of the Commission that investigated the terrorist attack on the USS Cole and was Chairman of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) after the Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrated during reentry in 2003, killing all seven crew members.

Military career

Gehman was born in Norfolk, Virginia on October 15, 1942 and graduated from Pennsylvania State University in 1965 with a Bachelor of Science in Industrial Engineering and a commission in the Navy from the Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps. A Surface Warfare Officer, he served at all levels of leadership and command in guided missile destroyers and cruisers. During the course of his career, Gehman had five sea commands in ranks from Lieutenant to Rear Admiral. Gehman served in Vietnam as Officer in Charge of a Swift patrol boat and later in Chu Lai as Officer in Charge of a detachment of six swift boats. His staff assignments were both afloat on a Carrier Battle Group staff and ashore on a fleet commander's staff, a Unified Commander's staff and in Washington, D.C. on the staff of the Chief of Naval Operations (four tours). Promoted to four-star Admiral in 1996, he became the 29th Vice Chief of Naval Operations in September 1996. As Vice Chief of Naval Operations he was a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, formulated the Navy's $70 billion budget and developed and implemented policies governing the 375,000 people in the Navy. Assigned in September 1997 as Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic and Commander-in-Chief, United States Atlantic Command (later changed to Joint Forces Command), he became one of NATO's two military commanders and assumed command of all forces of all four services in the continental United States and became responsible for the provision of ready forces to the other Unified Commanders in Chief and for the development of new joint doctrine, training and requirements. He retired from the Navy in October 2000.

Awards and decorations

Badge Surface Warfare Officer Pin
1st Row Defense Distinguished Service Medal | Legion of Merit with two gold award stars
2nd Row Bronze Star Meritorious Service Medal Joint Service Commendation Medal
3rd row Navy and Marine Corps Achievement Medal with award star Combat Action Ribbon Joint Meritorious Unit Award
4th Row Navy Meritorious Unit Commendation Navy "E" Ribbon National Defense Service Medal with one bronze service star
5th row Vietnam Service Medal with three service stars Navy Sea Service Deployment Ribbon with four service stars Navy and Marine Corps Overseas Service Ribbon
6th row Vietnam Gallantry Cross Unit Citation Vietnam Civil Actions Medal Unit Citation Vietnam Campaign Medal

Post military

In retirement, Gehman has served as chairman of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board, co-chair, with retired general William W. Crouch, of the Department of Defense's Cole Commission, on the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) committee, and is a Senior Fellow of the National Defense University's Capstone Program.[citation needed]


Gehman is married to the former Janet F. Johnson and they have three adult children, Katherine, Christopher and Paul.


Wikimedia Commons has media related to Harold W. Gehman, Jr.
This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document "National Defense University bio".
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Re: Mrs. Kay Griggs on How the Government Works

Postby admin » Sun Dec 17, 2017 5:57 am

William W. Hartzog
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/16/17



William W. Hartzog
General William W. Hartzog
Born September 21, 1941 (age 76)
Wilmington, North Carolina
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branch United States Army
Years of service 1963-1998
Rank General
Commands held Training and Doctrine Command
1st Infantry Division
United States Army South
197th Infantry Brigade
Battles/wars Vietnam War
Awards Legion of Merit
Soldier's Medal
Bronze Star with "V" Device
Purple Heart
Other work CEO, Burdeshaw Associates

General William White Hartzog (born September 21, 1941) was a four-star U.S. Army general whose commands during his 35-year career include the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command, the 1st Infantry Division, and United States Army South. He was born in Wilmington, North Carolina.[1]

Military career

After graduating from The Citadel in 1963, where he received a degree in English, he was commissioned in the infantry. His first assignment after the Infantry Officer Basic Course was as Executive Officer of an Officer Candidate School company at Fort Benning. In 1965 he was assigned to Fort Kobbe, Panama. He deployed to Vietnam in 1967, eventually commanding a company, and upon return to the United States he attended the Infantry Officer Advanced Course. After graduation, he was assigned as a tactics instructor at the United States Military Academy, then returned to Vietnam in 1972 as a Plans Officer for Military Assistance Command, Vietnam. He attended the United States Marine Corps Command and Staff College from 1973 to 1974, then proceeded to Fort Riley, where he served in various staff positions with the 1st Infantry Division. In April 1978, he was given command of the 193rd Infantry Brigade. Following his assignment in Panama, he attended the United States Army War College at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, and then served at the War Plans Division in Washington D.C., where he eventually became Chief. He was next assigned as Executive Officer at the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, before taking command of another brigade, the 197th Infantry Brigade at Fort Benning. After serving from 1987 to 1989 as the Assistant Commandant of the United States Army Infantry School, he returned to Panama for a third time as the J-3, United States Southern Command, a position he held during Operation Just Cause. He took command of United States Army South in 1990, and followed that command in 1991 with command of the 1st Infantry Division. He served as Deputy Commander in Chief/Chief of Staff, United States Atlantic Command from 1993 to 1994 before taking command of United States Army Training and Doctrine Command at Fort Monroe, from which he retired in 1998.

Awards and Decorations

Combat Infantryman Badge
Expert Infantryman Badge
Senior Parachutist Badge
Army Staff Identification Badge
Defense Distinguished Service Medal with oak leaf cluster
Army Distinguished Service Medal with oak leaf cluster
Legion of Merit with four oak leaf clusters
Soldier's Medal
Bronze Star with V Device and oak leaf cluster
Purple Heart
Meritorious Service Medal with oak leaf cluster
Air Medal
Joint Service Commendation Medal
Army Commendation Medal with three oak leaf clusters

He was given the Appalachian State University Distinguished Alumni Award in 1996.[2]

Post military

After retiring from the Army, Hartzog became CEO of Burdeshaw Associates, a defense consulting firm,[3] sits on the Board of Directors of the Army Historical Foundation,[4] and is a member of the Defense Science Board.[5]


1. [1]
2. Appalachian Alumni Association Distinguished Alumni Award
3. Burdeshaw Associates, Ltd. Executive Leadership
4. Army Historical Foundation Board and Staff
5. Defense Science Board Members, Senior Fellows, and Ex Officio 29 July 2003
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John N. Abrams
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 12/16/17



John N. Abrams
General John N. Abrams
Born September 3, 1946 (age 71)
Cumberland, Maine
Allegiance United States United States of America
Service/branch United States Army
Years of service 1966–2002
Rank US-O10 insignia.svg General
Commands held Training and Doctrine Command
11th Armored Cavalry Regiment
Joint Task Force Kuwait
2nd Infantry Division
V Corps
Battles/wars Vietnam War
Relations GEN Creighton Abrams (father)
BG Creighton W. Abrams III (brother)
GEN Robert B. Abrams (brother)
Other work Military analyst, Associated Press

General John Nelson Abrams (born September 3, 1946) is a retired United States Army four-star general who commanded the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command from 1998 to 2002. He is the son of former Army Chief of Staff, General Creighton W. Abrams, Jr. and his two brothers were also Army general officers.

Military career

Abrams was born on September 3, 1946 in Cumberland, Maine.[1] He received his commission through Officer Candidate School in 1966, after enlisting as a tank crewman in 1966.[2] His commands have included the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment, Joint Task Force Kuwait, 2nd Infantry Division, V Corps.,[2] and US Army Training and Doctrine Command.

As a young armor officer, Abrams served two years in Vietnam, rising from platoon leader to troop commander. Toward the end of his tour, Abrams commanded an armored cavalry troop in the Mang Yang Pass, where he established such good relations with the Montagnard villagers that a local village chief gave him an elephant. "Isn't that great, Dad?" he asked his father Creighton, who at the time was commander of all U.S. forces in Vietnam. "Well, let me tell you, I knew he was in trouble," Creighton Abrams recounted later. "I asked him if he knew what it meant for a Montagnard village chief to give someone an elephant, and of course he just thought it was a nice thing for the guy to do. Well, sir, I told him in no uncertain terms, 'John, you better pack up and leave that area quick, 'cause you are now engaged to be married to a Montagnard woman. That elephant is a wedding gift!'" John Abrams married Cecilia Bosico in 1969, after a courtship that did not involve an elephant.[3]

In his tour as Commander of the Second Infantry Division he was promoted to Major General and stationed at Camp Red Cloud, near Uijeongbu, Republic of Korea near the Olympic Velodrome. During Operation Desert Storm he could view the combat area by live satellite imaging and see his brother's unit, Gen Creighton Abrams, III, who was the Artillery Commander for Desert Storm.

Major General Abrams was active in community affairs and worked with the Amerasian Children's Fund, The Pearl Buck Association and the American Red Cross. He redesigned the 2nd Infantry Division (2nd ID) logo to depict a "handsome Indian" and placed this design on another of his creations, the 2nd ID sports jacket. He also designed and produced a 2nd ID sports cap. He was instrumental in improving morale to this combat unit and community support from the Korean civilians. The original drawings, art work, and first production runs were kept by Col. G F (Coach) Sweetman, who was responsible for their production.

After completing his tour in Korea, he was promoted to Lieutenant General and assigned as commander of V Corps in Germany, a unit also commanded by Lt. Gen Colin Powell. He was the second officer in U.S. Army history to command the same unit as his father, the other being General George Smith Patton.

In 1998 he was promoted to general and assigned as Commander, United States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC), which oversees all training in the U.S. Army. He held this position until his retirement in 2002.

Abrams received his Bachelor of Science degree in Business Administration from Bowling Green University, a Master of Science degree in Public Administration from Shippensburg University, and an honorary Doctor of Education degree from Norwich University.[4]

Awards and Decorations

Army Staff Identification Badge
11th Armored Cavalry Regiment Distinctive Unit Insignia[2]
Army Distinguished Service Medal with oak leaf cluster
Silver Star with oak leaf cluster
Legion of Merit with two oak leaf clusters
Bronze Star with Valor Device and three oak leaf clusters
Purple Heart
Meritorious Service Medal
Air Medal with award numeral 2
Army Commendation Medal with oak leaf cluster
Army Achievement Medal with oak leaf cluster
National Defense Service Medal with two bronze service stars
Vietnam Service Medal with one silver and one bronze service star
Southwest Asia Service Medal with 1 bronze service star
Armed Forces Service Medal
Army Service Ribbon
Overseas Service Ribbon with Award numeral 5
NATO Medal for Former Yugoslavia
Vietnam Gallantry Cross with silver star and two bronze stars
Gallantry Cross Unit Citation Ribbon
Civil Actions Unit Citation Ribbon
Vietnam Campaign Medal
Kuwait Liberation Medal (Kuwait)

Post military

After retiring, Abrams became a military analyst for the Associated Press.[2] He is the President and Chief Executive Officer of Abrams Learning & Information Systems, Inc., a consulting and technology firm.[4]

See also

The first father-son U. S. Army Generals to command the same unit were George S. Patton, Jr. and George S. Patton IV, commanding the 2nd Armored Division.

Another Link between Patton and Abrams families was that Creighton, John's father, was Patton's spearhead commander in World War II, where Patton praised him as being the only tank commander equal to himself.[5]

Images gallery

General Abrams, 1990


1. "General Officer Announcement 334-98". U.S. Department of Defense. June 30, 1998.
2. "AP Signs Four-Star General for Military Expertise".
3. Sorley, Lewis (1992). "Thunderbolt - From the Battle of the Bulge to Vietnam and Beyond: General Creighton Abrams and the Army of His Times". New York: Simon & Schuster: 294–295
4. ALIS Inc. Management Team Archived 2012-03-28 at the Wayback Machine.
5. "Nation: Pattern's Peer". Time. 14 April 1967.
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