Silent Spring, by Rachel Carson

Hard to overstate the significance of this topic. Unfortunately, the material in here will become more and more depressing as time goes on. Not much hope of any alternative to that.

Re: Silent Spring, by Rachel Carson

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PART 1 OF 2

List of Principal Sources

CHAPTER 2: THE OBL1GAT1ON TO ENDURE

Page 7
"Report on Environmental Health Problems," Hearings, 86th Congress, Subcom. of Com. on Appropriations, March 1960, p. 170.

Page 9
The Pesticide Situation for 1957-58, U.S. Dept of Agric., Commodity Stabilization Service, April 1958, p. 10.

Page 10
Elton, Charles S., The Ecology of 1nvasions by Animals and Plants. New York: Wiley, 1958.

Page 12
Shepard, Paul, "The Place of Nature in Man's World," Atlantic Naturalist, Vol. 13 (April-June 1958), pp. 85-89.

CHAPTER 3: EL1X1RS OF DEATH

Pages 14-37
Gleason, Marion, et al., Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1957.

Pages 14-37
Gleason, Marion, et al., Bulletin of Supplementary Material: Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products, Vol. 1V, No. 9. Univ. of Rochester.

Page 17
The Pesticide Situation for 1958-59, U.S. Dept. of Agric., Commodity Stabilization Service, April 1959, pp. 1-24.

Page 17
The Pesticide Situation for 1960-6l, U.S. Dept. of Agric., Commodity Stabilization Service, July 1961, pp. 1-23.

Page 17
Hueper, W. C., Occupational Tumors and Allied Diseases. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas, 1942.

Page 18
Todd, Frank E., and S. E. McGregor, "Insecticides and Bees," Yearbook of Agric., U.S. Dept. of Agric., 1952, pp. 131-35.

Page 18
Hueper, Occupational Tumors.

Page 20
Bowen, C. V., and S. A. Hall, "The Organic Insecticides," Yearbook of Agric., U.S. Dept. of Agric., 1952, pp. 209- 18.

Page 21
Von Oettingen, W. F., The Halogenated Aliphatic, Olefinic, Cyclic, Aromatic, and Aliphatic-Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Including the Halogenated Insecticides, Their Toxicity and Potential Dangers. U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare. Public Health Service Publ. No. 414 (1955), pp. 341-42.

Page 21
Laug, Edwin P., et al., "Occurrence of DDT in Human Fat and Milk," A.M.A. Archives Indus. Hygiene and Occupat. Med., Vol. 3 (1951), pp. 245-46.

Page 21
Biskind, Morton S., "Public Health Aspects of the New Insecticides," Am. Jour. Diges. Diseases, Vol. 20 (1953), No. 11, pp. 331-41.

Page 21
Lang, Edwin P., et al., "Liver Cell Alteration and DDT Storage in the Fat of the Rat 1nduced by Dietary Levels of 1 to 50 p.p.m. DDT," Jour. Pharmacol. and Exper. Therapeut., Vol. 98 (1950), p. 268.

Page 21
Ortega, Paul, et al., "Pathologic Changes in the Liver of Rats after Feeding Low Levels of Various Insecticides," A.M.A. Archives Path., Vol. 64 (Dec. 1957), pp. 614-22.

Page 22
Fitzhugh, O. Garth, and A. A. Nelson, "The Chronic Oral Toxicity of DDT (2,2-B1S p-CHLOROPHENYL-1,1,1-TRI-CHLOROETHANE)," Jour. Pharmacol. and Exper. Therapeut., Vol. 89 (1947), No. 1, pp. 18-30.

Page 22
Laug et al., "Occurrence of DDT in Human Fat and Milk."

Page 22
Hayes, Wayland J., Jr., et al., "Storage of DDT and DDE in People with Different Degrees of Exposure to DDT," A.M.A. Archives Indus. Health, Vol. 18 (Nov. 1958), pp. 398-406.

Page 22
Durham, William F., et al., "Insecticide Content of Diet and Body Fat of Alaskan Natives," Science, Vol. 134 (1961 ) No. 3493, pp. 1880-81.

Page 22
Von Oettingen, Halogenated... Hydrocarbons, p. 363.

Pages 22-23
Smith, Ray F., et al., "Secretion of DDT in Milk of Dairy Cows Fed Low Residue Alfalfa," Jour. Econ. Entomol., Vol. 41 (1948), pp. 759-63.

Page 23
Laug et al., "Occurrence of DDT in Human Fat and Milk."

Page 23
Finnegan, J. K., et al., "Tissue Distribution and Elimination of DDD and DDT Following Oral Administration to Dogs and Rats," Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. and Med., Vol. 12 (1949), 356-57.

Page 23
Lang et al., "Liver Cell Alteration."

Page 23
"Chemicals in Food Products," Hearings, H.R. 74, House Select Com. to Investigate Use of Chemicals in Food Products, Pt. 1 (1951), p. 275.

Pages 23-24
Von Oettingen, Halogenated... Hydrocarbons, p. 322.

Page 24
"Chemicals in Food Products," Hearings, 81st Congress, H.R. 323, Com. to 1nvestigate Use of Chemicals in Food Products, Pt. 1 (1950), pp. 388-90.

Page 24
Clinical Memoranda on Economic Poisons. U.S. Public Health Service Publ. No. 476 (1956), p. 28.

Page 24
Gannon, Norman, and J. H. Bigger, "The Conversion of Aldrin and Heptachlor to Their Epoxides in Soil," Jour. Econ. Entomol., Vol. 51 (Feb. 1958), pp. 1-2.

Page 24
Davidow, B., and J. L. Radomski, "Isolation of an Epoxide Metabolite from Fat Tissues of Dogs Fed Heptachlor," Jour. Pharmacol. and Exper. Therapeut., Vol. 107 (March 1953), pp. 259-65.

Page 24
Von Oettingen, Halogenated... Hydrocarbons, p. 310.

Page 25
Drinker, Cecil K., et al., "The Problem of Possible Systemic Effects from Certain Chlorinated Hydrocarbons," Jour. Indus. Hygiene and Toxicol., Vol. 19 (Sept. 1937), p. 283.

Page 25
"Occupational Dieldrin Poisoning," Com. on Toxicology, Jour. Am. Med. Assn., Vol. 172 (April 1960), pp. 2077-80.

Page 25
Scott, Thomas G., et al., "Some Effects of a Field Application of Dieldrin on Wildlife," Jour. Wildlife Management, Vol. 23 (Oct. 1959), pp. 409-27.

Page 25
Paul, A. H., "Dieldrin Poisoning -- a Case Report," New Zealand Med. Jour., Vol. 58 (1959), p. 393.

Pages 25-,6
Hayes, Wayland J., Jr., "The Toxicity of Dieldrin to Man," Bull. World Health Organ., Vol. 20 (1959), pp. 891-912.

Page 26
Gannon, Norman, and G. C. Decker, "The Conversion of Aldrin to Dieldrin on Plants," Jour. Econ. Entomol., Vol. 51 (Feb. 1958), pp. 8-11.

Page 26
Kitselman, C. H., et al., "Toxicological Studies of Aldrin (Compound 118) on Large Animals," Am. Jour. Vet. Research, Vol. 11 (1950), p. 378.

Page 26
Dahlen, James H., and A. O. Haugen, "Effect of Insecticides on Quail and Doves," Alabama Conservation, Vol. 26 (1954), No. 1, pp. 21-23.

Page 26
DeWitt, James B., "Chronic Toxicity to Quail and Pheasants of Some Chlorinated Insecticides," Jour. Agric. and Food Chem., Vol. 4 (1956), No. 10, pp. 863-66.

Page 26
Kitselman, C. H., "Long Term Studies on Dogs Fed Aldrin and Dieldrin in Sublethal Doses, with Reference to the Histopathological Findings and Reproduction," Jour. Am. Vet. Med. Assn., Vol. 123 (1953), p. 28.

Page 26
Treon, J. F., and A. R. Borgmann, "The Effects of the Complete Withdrawal of Food from Rats Previously Fed Diets Containing Aldrin or Dieldrin." Kettering Lab., Univ. of Cincinnati; mimeo. Quoted from Robert L. Rudd and Richard E. Genelly, Pesticides: Their Use and Toxicity in Relation to Wildlife. Calif. Dept of Fish and Game, Game Bulletin No. 7 (1956), p. 52.

Page 26
Myers, C. S., "Endrin and Related Pesticides: A Review." Penna. Dept. of Health Research Report No. 45 (1958). Mimeo.

Page 27
Jacobziner, Harold, and H. W. Raybin, "Poisoning by Insecticide (Endrin)," New York State Jour. Med., Vol. 59 (May 15, 1959), pp. 2017-22.

Page 27
"Care in Using Pesticide Urged," Clean Streams, No. 46 (June 1959). Penna. Dept. of Health.

Page 28
Metcalf, Robert L., "The 1mpact of the Development of Organophosphorus Insecticides upon Basic and Applied Science," Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am., Vol. 5 (March 1959), pp. 3-15.

Pages 28--29
Mitchell, Philip H., General Physiology. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1958. Pp. 14-15.

Page 29
Brown, A. W. A., Insect Control by Chemicals. New York: Wiley, 1951.

Page 29
Toivonen, T., et al., "Parathion Poisoning Increasing Frequency in Finland," Lancet, Vol. 2 (1959), No. 7095, pp. 175-76.

Page 30
Hayes, Wayland J., Jr., "Pesticides in Relation to Public Health," Annual Rev. Entomol., Vol. 5 (1960), pp. 379-404.

Page 30
Occupational Disease in California Attributed to Pesticides and Other Agricultural Chemicals. Calif. Dept. of Public Health, 1957, 1958, 1959, and 1960.

Page 30
Quinby, Griffith E., and A. B. Lemmon, "Parathion Residues As a Cause of Poisoning in Crop Workers," Jour. Am. Med. Assn., Vol. 166 (Feb. 15, 1958). pp. 740-46.

Page 30
Carman, G. C., et al., "Absorption of DDT and Parathion by Fruits," Abstracts, 115th Meeting Am. Chem. Soc. (1949), p. 30A.

Page 30
Clinical Memoranda on Economic Poisons, p. 11.

Page 31
Frawley, John P., et al., "Marked Potentiation in Mammalian Toxicity from Simultaneous Administration of Two Anticholinesterase Compounds," Jour. Pharmacol. and Exper. Therapeut., Vol. 121 (1957), No. 1, pp. 96-106.

Page 31
Rosenberg, Philip, and J. M. Coon, "Potentiation between Cholinesterase Inhibitors," Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. and Med., Vol. 97 (1958), pp. 836-39.

Page 31
Dubois, Kenneth, P., "Potentiation of the Toxicity of Insecticidal Organic Phosphates," A.M.A. Archives Indus. Health, Vol. 18 (Dec. 1958), pp. 488-96.

Page 32
Murphy, S. D., et al., "Potentiation of Toxicity of Malathion by Triorthotolyl Phosphate," Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. and Med., Vol. 100 (March 1959), pp. 483-87.

Page 32
Graham, R. C. B., et al., "The Effect of Some Organophosphorus and Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Insecticides on the Toxicity of Several Muscle Relaxants," Jour. Pharm. and Pharmacol., Vol. 9 (1957), pp. 312- 19.

Page 32
Rosenberg, Philip, and J. M. Coon, "Increase of Hexobarbital Sleeping Time by Certain Anticholinesterases," Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. and Med., Vol. 98 (1958), pp. 650-52.

Page 32
Dubois, "Potentiation of Toxicity."

Page 33
Hurd-Karrer, A. M., and F. W. Poos, "Toxicity of Selenium-Containing Plants to Aphids," Science, Vol. 84 (1936), pp. 252.

Page 33
Ripper, W. E., "The Status of Systemic Insecticides in Pest Control Practices," Advances in Pest Control Research. New York: Interscience, 1957. Vol. 1, pp. 305-52.

Page 33
Occupational Disease in California, 1959.

Pages 33-34
Glynne-Jones, G. D., and W. D. E. Thomas, "Experiments on the Possible Contamination of Honey with Schradan," Annals Appl. Biol., Vol. 40 (1953), p. 546.

Page 34
Radeleff, R. D., et al., The Acute Toxicity of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon and Organic Phosphorus Insecticides to Livestock. U.S. Dept. of Agric. Technical Bulletin 1122 (1955).

Page 35
Brooks, F. A., "The Drifting of Poisonous Dusts Applied by Airplanes and Land Rigs," Agric. Engin., Vol. 28 (1947), No. 6, pp. 233-39.

Page 35
Stevens, Donald B., "Recent Developments in New York State's Program Regarding Use of Chemicals to Control Aquatic Vegetation," paper presented at 13th Annual Meeting Northeastern Weed Control Conf. (Jan. 8, 1959).

Page 35
Anon., "No More Arsenic," Economist, Oct. 10, 1959.

Page 35
"Arsenites in Agriculture," Lancet, Vol. 1 (1960), p. 178.

Page 36
Horner, Warren D., "Dinitrophenol and Its Relation to Formation of Cataract." (A.M.A.) Archives Ophthalmol., Vol. 27 (1942), pp. 1097-1121.

Page 36
Weinbach, Eugene C., "Biochemical Basis for the Toxicity of Pentachlorophenol," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., Vol. 43 (1957), No. 5, pp. 393-97.

CHAPTER 4: SURFACE WATERS AND UNDERGROUND SEAS

Page 40
Biological Problems in Water Pollution. Transactions, 1959 seminar. U.S. Public Health Service Technical Report W60-3 (1960).

Page 40
"Report on Environmental Health Problems," Hearings, 86th Congress, Subcom. of Com. on Appropriations, March 1960, p. 78.

Page 41
Tarzwell, Clarence M., "Pollutional Effects of Organic Insecticides to Fishes," Transactions, 24th North Am. Wildlife Conf. (1959), Washington, D.C., pp. 132-42. Pub. by Wildlife Management Inst.

Page 41
Nicholson, H. Page, "Insecticide pollution of Water Resources," Jour. Am. Waterworks Assn., Vol. 51 (1959), pp. 981-86.

Page 41
Woodward, Richard L., "Effects of Pesticides in Water Supplies," Jour. Am. Waterworks Assn., Vol. 52 (1960), No. 11, pp. 1367-72.

Page 41
Cope, Oliver B., "The Retention of DDT by Trout and White fish," in Biological Problems in Water Pollution, pp. 72- 75.

Page 42
Kuenen, P. H., Realms of Water. New York: Wiley, 1955.

Page 42
Gilluly, James, et al., Principles of Geology. San Francisco: Freeman, 1951.

Pages 42-43
Walton, Graham, "Public Health Aspects of the Contamination of Ground Water in South Platte River Basin in Vicinity of Henderson, Colorado, August, 1959." U.S. Public Health Service, Nov. 2, 1959. Mimeo.

Pages 42-43
"Report on Environmental Health Problems."

Page 44
Hueper, W. C., "Cancer Hazards from Natural and Artificial Water pollutants," Proc., Conf. on Physiol. Aspects of Water Quality, Washington, D.C., Sept. 8-9, 1960. U.S. Public Health Service.

Pages 46-48
Hunt, E. G., and A. I. Bischoff, "Inimical Effects on Wildlife of Periodic DDD Applications to Clear Lake," Calif. Fish and Game, Vol. 46 (1960), No. 1, pp. 91-106.

Page 49
Woodard, G., et al., "Effects Observed in Dogs Following the Prolonged Feeding of DDT and Its Analogues," Federation Proc., Vol. 7 (1948), No. 1, p. 266.

Page 49
Nelson, A. A., and G. Woodard, "Severe Adrenal Cortical Atrophy (Cytotoxic) and Hepatic Damage Produced in Dogs by Feeding DDD or TDE," (A.M.A.) Archives Path., Vol. 48 (1949), p. 387.

Page 49
Zimmermann, B., et al., "The Effects of DDD on the Human Adrenal; Attempts to Use an Adrenal-Destructive Agent in the Treatment of Disseminated Mammary and Prostatic Cancer," Cancer, Vol. 9 (1956), pp. 940-48.

Page 50
Cohen, Jesse M., et al., "Effect of Fish Poisons on Water Supplies. I. Removal of Toxic Materials," Jour. Am. Waterworks Assn., Vol. 52 (1960), No. 12, pp. 1551-65. "II. Odor Problems," Vol. 53 (1960), No. I, pp. 49-61. "III. Field Study, Dickinson, North Dakota," Vol. 53 (1961), No. 2, pp. 233-46.

Page 50
Hueper, "Cancer Hazards from Water Pollutants."

CHAPTER 5: REALMS OF THE SO1L

Page 54
Simonson, Roy W., "What Soils Are," Yearbook of Agric., U.S. Dept. of Agric., 1957, pp. 17-31.

Page 54
Clark, Francis E., "Living Organisms in the Soil," Yearbook of Agric., U.S. Dept. of Agric., 1957, pp. 157-65.

Page 55
Farb, Peter, Living Earth. New York: Harper, 1959.

Page 57
Lichtenstein, E. P., and K. R. Schulz, "Persistence of Some Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Insecticides As Influenced by Soil Types, Rate of Application and Temperature," Jour. Econ. Entomol., Vol. 52 (1959), No. 1, pp. 124-31.

Page 57
Thomas, F. J. D., "The Residual Effects of Crop-Protection Chemicals in the Soil," in Proc., 2nd Internatl. Plant Protection Conf. (1956), Fernhurst Research Station, England.

Page 57
Eno, Charles F., "Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Insecticides: What Have They Done to Our Soil?" Sunshine State Agric. Research Report for July 1959.

Page 57
Mader, Donald L., "Effect of Humus of Different Origin in Moderating the Toxicity of Biocides." Doctorate thesis, Univ. of Wisc., 1960.

Page 57
Sheals, J. G., "Soil Population Studies. I. The Effects of Cultivation and Treatment with Insecticides," Bull. Entomol. Research, Vol. 47 (Dec. 1956), pp. 803-22.

Page 58
Hetrick, L. A., "Ten Years of Testing Organic Insecticides As Soil Poisons against the Eastern Subterranean Termite," Jour. Econ. Entomol., Vol. 50 (1957), p. 316.

Page 58
Lichtenstein, E. P., and J. B. Polivka, "Persistence of Insecticides in Turf Soils," Jour. Econ. Entomol., Vol. 52 (1959) No. 2 pp. 289-93.

Page 58
Ginsburg, J. M., and J. P. Reed, "A Survey on DDT-Accumulation in Soils in Relation to Different Crops," Jour. Econ. Entomol., Vol. 47 (1954), No. 3, pp. 467-73.

Page 58
Cullinan, F. P., "Some New Insecticides -- Their Effect on Plants and Soils," Jour. Econ. Entomol., Vol. 42 (1949), pp. 387-91.

Page 58
Satterlee, Henry S., "The Problem of Arsenic in American Cigarette Tobacco," New Eng. Jour. Med., Vol. 254 (June 21, 1956), pp. 1149-54.

Page 59
Lichtenstein, E. P., "Absorption of Some Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Insecticides from Soils into Various Crops," Jour. Agric. and Food Chem., Vol. 7 (1959), No. 6, pp. 430-33.

Pages 59-60
"Chemicals in Foods and Cosmetics," Hearings, 81st Congress, H.R. 74 and 447, House Select Com. to Investigate Use of Chemicals in Foods and Cosmetics, Pt. 3 (1952), pp. 1385-1416. Testimony of L. G. Cox.

Pages 60-61
Klostermeyer, E. C., and C. B. Skotland, Pesticide Chemicals As a Factor in Hop Die-out. Washington Agric. Exper. Stations Circular 362 (1959).

Page 61
Stegeman, LeRoy C., "The Ecology of the Soil." Transcription of a seminar, New York State Univ. College of Forestry, 1960.

CHAPTER 6: EARTH'S GREEN MANTLE

Pages 64-66
Patterson, Robert L., The Sage Grouse in Wyoming. Denver: Sage Books, Inc., for Wyoming Fish and Game Commission, 1952.

Pages 65-66
Murie, Olaus J., "The Scientist and Sagebrush," Pacific Discovery, Vol. 13 (1960), No. 4, p. 1.

Page 66
Pechanec, Joseph, et al., Controlling Sagebrush on Rangelands. U.S. Dept. of Agric. Farmers' Bulletin No. 2072 (1960).

Pages 67-68
Douglas, William O., My Wilderness: East to Katahdin. New York: Doubleday, 1961.

Page 68
Egler, Frank E., Herbicides: 60 Questions and Answers Concerning Roadside and Rightofway Vegetation Management. Litchfield, Conn.: Litchfield Hills Audubon Soc., 1961.

Page 68
Fisher, C. E., et al., Control of Mesquite on Grazing Lands. Texas Agric. Exper. Station Bulletin 935 (Aug. 1959).

Page 68
Goodrum, Phil D., and V. H. Reid, "Wildlife Implications of Hardwood and Brush Controls," Transactions, 21st North Am. Wildlife Conf. (1956).

Page 68
A Survey of Extent and Cost of Weed Control and Specific Weed Problems. U.S. Dept. of Agric. ARS 34-23 (March 1962).

Page 70
Barnes, Irston R., "Sprays Mar Beauty of Nature," Washington Post, Sept. 25, 1960.

Page 70
Goodwin, Richard H., and William A. Niering, A Roadside Crisis: The Use and Abuse of Herbicides. Connecticut Arboretum Bulletin No. 11 (March 1959), pp. 1-13.

Page 71
Boardman, William, "The Dangers of Weed Spraying," Veterinarian, Vol. 6 (Jan. 1961), pp. 9-19.

Page 72
Willard, C. J., "Indirect Effects of Herbicides," Proc., 7th Annual Meeting North Central Weed Control Conf. (1950), pp. 110-12.

Page 72
Douglas, William O., My Wilderness: The Pacific West. New York: Doubleday, 1960.

Pages 72-73
Egler, Frank E., Vegetation Management for Rights-of-Way and Roadsides. Smithsonian Report for 1953 (Smithsonian Inst., Washington, D.C.), pp. 299-322.

Page 73
Bohart, George E., "Pollination by Native Insects," Yearbook of Agric., U.S. Dept. of Agric., 1952, pp. 107-21.

Page 74
Egler, Vegetation Management.

Page 74
Niering, William A., and Frank E. Egler, "A Shrub Community of Viburnum lentago, Stable for Twenty-five Years," Ecology, Vol. 36 (April 1955), pp. 356-60.

Page 74
Pound, Charles E., and Frank E. Egler, "Brush Control in Southeastern New York: Fifteen Years of Stable Tree-Less Communities," Ecology, Vol. 34 (Jan. 1953), pp. 63-73.

Page 75
Egler, Frank E., "Science, Industry, and the Abuse of Rights of Way," Science, Vol. 127 (1958), No. 3298, pp. 573- 80.

Page 75
Niering, William A., "Principles of Sound Right-of-Way Vegetation Management," Econ. Botany, Vol. 12 (April-June 1958), pp. 140-44.

Page 75
Hall, William C., and William A. Niering, "The Theory and Practice of Successful Selective Control of 'Brush' by Chemicals," Proc., 13th Annual Meeting Northeastern Weed Control Conf. (Jan. 8, 1959).

Page 75
Egler, Frank E., "Fifty Million More Acres for Hunting?" Sports Afield, Dec. 1954.

Page 75
McQuilkin, W. E., and L. R. Strickenberg, Roadside Brush Control with 2,4,5-T on Eastern National Forests. Northeastern Forest Exper. Station Paper No. 148. Upper Darby, Penna., 1961.

Page 76
Goldstein, N. P., et al., "Peripheral Neuropathy after Exposure to an Ester of Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid," Jour. Am. Med. Assn., Vol. 171 (1959), pp. 1306-9.

Page 76
Brody, T. M., "Effect of Certain Plant Growth Substances on Oxidative Phosphorylation in Rat Liver Mitochondria," Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. and Med., Vol. 80 (1952), pp. 533-36.

Page 76
Croker, Barbara H., "Effects of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T on Mitosis in Allium cepa," Bot. Gazette, Vol. 114 (1953), pp. 274-83.

Page 76
Willard, "Indirect Effects of Herbicides."

Page 77
Stahler, L. M., and E. J. Whitehead, "The Effect of 2,4-D on Potassium Nitrate Levels in Leaves of Sugar Beets," Science, Vol. 112 (1950), No. 2921, pp. 749-51.

Page 77
Olson, O., and E. Whitehead, "Nitrate Content of Some South Dakota Plants," Proc., South Dakota Acad. of Sci., Vol. 20 (1940), p. 95.

Page 78
What's New in Farm Science. Univ. of Wisc. Agric. Exper. Station Annual Report, Pt. II, Bulletin 527 (July 1957), p. 18.

Page 78
Stahler and Whitehead, "The Effect of 2,4-D on Potassium Nitrate Levels."

Page 78
Grayson, R. R., "Silage Gas Poisoning: Nitrogen Dioxide Pneumonia, a New Disease in Agricultural Workers," Annals Internal Med., Vol. 45 (1956), pp. 393-408.

Page 78
Crawford, R. F., and W. K Kennedy, Nitrates in Forage Crops and Silage: Benefits, Hazards, Precautions. New York State College of Agric., Cornell Misc. Bulletin 37 (June 1960).

Page 78
Briejer, C. J., To author.

Page 79
Knake, Ellery L., and F. W. Slife, "Competition of Setaria faterii with Corn and Soybeans," Weeds, Vol. 10 (1962), No. 1, pp. 26-29.

Page 80
Goodwin and Niering, A Roadside Crisis.

Page 80
Egler, Frank E., To author.

Page 80
DeWitt, James B., To author.

Page 81
Holloway, James K, "Weed Control by Insect," Sci. American, Vol. 197 (1957), No. 1, pp. 56-62.

Page 81
Holloway, James K., and C. B. Huffaker, "Insects to Control a Weed," Yearbook of Agric., U.S. Dept. of Agric., 1952, pp. 135-40.

Page 81
Huffaker, C. B., and C. E. Kennett, "A Ten-Year Study of Vegetational Changes Associated with Biological Control of Klamath Weed," Jour. Range Management, Vol. 12 (1959), No. 2, pp. 69-82.

Pages 82-83
Bishopp, F. C, "Insect Friends of Man," Yearbook of Agric., U.S. Dept. of Agric., 1952, pp. 79-87.

CHAPTER 7: NEEDLESS HAVOC

Page 87
Nickell, Walter, To author.

Page 88
Here Is Your 1959 Japanese Beetle Control Program. Release, Michigan State Dept. of Agric., Oct. 19, 1959.

Page 88
Hadley, Charles H., and Walter E. Fleming, "The Japanese Beetle," Yearbook of Agric., U.S. Dept. of Agric., 1952, pp. 567-73.

Page 89
Here Is Your 1959 Japanese Beetle Control Program.

Page 89
"No Bugs in Plane Dusting," Detroit News, Nov. 10, 1959.

Page 90
Michigan Audubon Newsletter, Vol. 9 (Jan. 1960).

Page 91
"No Bugs in Plane Dusting."

Page 91
Hickey, Joseph J., "Some Effects of Insecticides on Terrestrial Birdlife," Report of Subcom. on Relation of Chemicals to Forestry and Wildlife, Madison, Wise., Jan. 1961. Special Report No. 6.

Page 92
Scott, Thomas G., To author, Dec. 14, 1961.

Page 92
"Coordination of Pesticides Programs," Hearings, 86th Congress, H.R. 11502, Com. on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, May 1960, p. 66.

Pages 92-94
Scott, Thomas G., et al., "Some Effects of a Field Application of Dieldrin on Wildlife," Jour. Wildlife Management, Vol. 23 (1959), No. 4, pp. 409-27.

Page 94
Hayes, Wayland J., Jr., "The Toxicity of Dieldrin to Man.," Bull. World Health Organ., Vol. 20 (1959), pp. 891-912.

Pages 94-95
Scott, Thomas G., To author, Dec. 14, 1961, Jan. 8, Feb. 15, 1962.

Pages 96-98
Hawley, Ira M., "Milky Diseases of Beetles," Yearbook of Agric., U.S. Dept. of Agric., 1952, pp. 394-401,

Pages 96-98
Fleming, Walter E., "Biological Control of the Japanese Beetle Especially with Entomogenous Diseases," Proc., 10th Internatl. Congress of Entomologists (1956), Vol. 3 (1958), pp. 115-25.

Page 98
Chittick, Howard A. (Fairfax Biological Lab.), To author, Nov. 30, 1960.

Page 99
Scott et al., "Some Effects of a Field Application of Dieldrin on Wildlife."

CHAPTER 8: AND NO B1RDS S1NG

Page 104
Audubon Field Notes. "Fall Migration - Aug. 16 to Nov. 30, 1958." Vol. 13 (1959), No. 1, pp. 1-68.

Page 105
Swingle, R. U., et al., "Dutch Elm Disease," Yearbook of Agric., U.S. Dept. of Agric., 1949, pp. 451-52.

Page 106
Mehner, John F., and George J. Wallace, "Robin Populations and Insecticides," Atlantic Naturalist, Vol. 14 (1959), No. 1, pp. 4-10.

Page 107
Wallace, George J., "Insecticides and Birds," Audubon Mag., Jan.-Feb. 1959.

Page 107
Barker, Roy J., "Notes on Some Ecological Effects of DDT Sprayed on Elms," Jour. Wildlife Management, Vol. 22 (1958), No. 3, pp. 269-74.

Page 107
Hickey, Joseph J., and L. Barrie Hunt, "Songbird Mortality Following Annual Programs to Control Dutch Elm Disease," Atlantic Naturalist, Vol. 15 (1960), No. 2, pp. 87-92.

Page 108
Wallace, "Insecticides and Birds."

Page 108
Wallace, George J., "Another Year of Robin Losses on a University Campus," Audubon Mag., March-April 1960.

Pages 108-9
"Coordination of Pesticides Programs," Hearings, H.R. 11502, 86th Congress, Com. on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, May 1960, pp. 10, 12.

Page 109
Hickey, Joseph J., and L. Barrie Hunt, "Initial Songbird Mortality Following a Dutch Elm Disease Control Program," Jour. Wildlife Management, Vol. 24 (1960), No. 3, pp. 259-65.

Page 109
Wallace, George J., et al., Bird Mortality in the Dutch Elm Disease Program in Michigan. Cranbrook Inst. of Science Bulletin 41 (1961).

Page 109
Hickey, Joseph J., "Some Effects of Insecticides on Terrestrial Birdlife," Report of Subcom. on Relation of Chemicals to Forestry and Wildlife, State of Wisconsin, Jan. 1961, pp. 2-43.

Page 110
Walton, W. R., Earthworms As Pests and Otherwise. U.S. Dept. of Agric. Farmers' Bulletin No. 1569 (1928).

Page 110
Wright, Bruce S., "Woodcock Reproduction in DDT-Sprayed Areas of New Brunswick," Jour. Wildlife Management, Vol. 24 (1960), No. 4, pp. 419-20.

Page 110
Dexter, R. W., "Earthworms in the Winter Diet of the Opossum and the Raccoon," Jour. Mammal., Vol. 32 (1951), p. 464.

Page 110
Wallace et al., Bird Mortality in the Dutch Elm Disease Program.

Pages 110-11
"Coordination of Pesticides Programs." Testimony of George J. Wallace, p. 10.

Pages 111-12
Wallace, "Insecticides and Birds."

Page 112
Bent, Arthur C., Life Histories of North American Jays, Crows, and Titmice. Smithsonian Inst., U.S. Natl. Museum Bulletin 191 (1946).

Page 112
MacLellan, C. R., "Woodpecker Control of the Codling Moth in Nova Scotia Orchards," Atlantic Naturalist, Vol. 16 (1961), No. 1, pp. 17-25.

Page 113
Knight, F. B., "The Effects of Woodpeckers on Populations of the Engelmann Spruce Beetle," Jour. Econ. Entomol., Vol. 51 (1958), pp. 603-7.

Page 114
Carter, J. C., To author, June 16, 1960.

Page 115
Sweeney, Joseph A., To author, March 7, 1960.

Page 115
Welch, D. S., and J. G. Matthysse, Control of the Dutch Elm Disease in New York State. New York State College of Agric., Cornell Ext. Bulletin No. 932 (June 1960), pp. 3-16.

Page 116
Matthysse, J. G., An Evaluation of Mist Blowing and Sanitation in Dutch Elm Disease Control Programs. New York State College of Agric., Cornell Ext. Bulletin No. 30 (July 1959), pp. 2-16.

Page 116
Miller, Howard, To author, Jan. 17, 1962.

Pages 116-17
Matthysse, An Evaluation of Mist Blowing and Sanitation.

Page 117
Elton, Charles S., The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants. New York: Wiley, 1958.

Page 118
Broley, Charles E., "The Bald Eagle in Florida," Atlantic Naturalist, July 1957, pp. 230-31.

Page 118
__, "The Plight of the American Bald Eagle," Audubon Mag., July-Aug. 1958, pp. 162-63.

Pages 118-19
Cunningham, Richard L., "The Status of the Bald Eagle in Florida," Audubon Mag., Jan.-Feb. 1960, pp. 24-43.

Page 119
"Vanishing Bald Eagle Gets Champion," Florida Naturalist, April 1959, p. 64.

Page 119
McLaughlin, Frank, "Bald Eagle Survey in New Jersey," New Jersey Nature News, Vol. 16 (1959), No. 2, p. 25. Interim Report, Vol. 16 (1959), No. 3, p. 51.

Pages 119-20
Broun, Maurice, To author, May 22, 30, 1960.

Page 120
Beck, Herbert H., To author, July 30, 1959.

Page 120
Rudd, Robert L., and Richard E. Genelly, Pesticides: Their Use and Toxicity in Relation to Wildlife. Calif. Dept. of Fish and Game, Game Bulletin No. 7 (1956), p. 57.

Pages 120-21
DeWitt, James B., "Effects of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Insecticides upon Quail and Pheasants," Jour. Agric. and Food Chem., Vol. 3 (1955), No. 8, p. 672.

Pages 120-2 1
__, "Chronic Toxicity to Quail and Pheasants of Some Chlorinated Insecticides. Jour. Agric. and Food Chem., Vol. 4 (1956), No. 10, p. 863.

Page 122
Imler, Ralph H, and E. R. Kalmbach, The Bald Eagle and Its Economic Status. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Circular 30 (1955).

Page 122
Mills, Herbert R., "Death in the Florida Marshes," Audubon Mag., Sept.-Oct. 1952.

Page 122
Bulletin, Internatl. Union for the Conservation of Nature, May and Oct. 1957.

Page 123
The Deaths of Birds and Mammals Connected with Toxic Chemicals in the First Half of 1960. Report No. 1 of the British Trust for Ornithology and Royal Soc. for the Protection of Birds. Com. on Toxic Chemicals, Royal Soc. Protect. Birds.

Pages 123-25
Sixth Report from the Estimates Com., Ministry of Agric., Fisheries and Food, Sess. 1960-61, House of Commons.

Page 124
Christian, Garth, "Do Seed Dressings Kill Foxes?" Country Life, Jan. 12, 1961.

Page 125
Rudd, Robert L., and Richard E. Genelly, "Avian Mortality from DDT in Californian Rice Fields," Condor, Vol. 57 (March-April 1955), pp. 117-18.

Page 125
Rudd and Genelly, Pesticides.

Page 126
Dykstra, Walter W., "Nuisance Bird Control," Audubon Mag., May-June 1960, pp. 118-19.

Page 126
Buchheister, Carl W., "What About Problem Birds?" Audubon Mag., May-June 1960, pp. 116-18.

Page 127
Quinby, Griffith E., and A. B. Lemmon, "Parathion Residues As a Cause of Poisoning in Crop Workers," Jour. Am. Med. Assn., Vol. 166 (Feb. 15, 1958), pp. 740-46.

CHAPTER 9: R1VERS OF DEATH

Pages 130-34
Kerswill, C. J., "Effects of DDT Spraying in New Brunswick on Future Runs of Adult Salmon," Atlantic Advocate, Vol. 48 (1958), pp. 65-68.

Pages 130-34
Keenleyside, M. H. A., "Insecticides and Wildlife," Canadian Audubon, Vol. 21 (1959), No. 1, pp. 1-7.

Pages 130-34
____, "Effects of Spruce Budworm Control on Salmon and Other Fishes in New Brunswick," Canadian Fish Culturist, Issue 24 (1959), pp. 17-22.

Pages 130-34
Kerswill, C. J., Investigation and Management of Atlantic Salmon in 1956 (also for 1957, 1958, 1959-60; in 4 parts). Federal-Provincial Co-ordinating Com. on Atlantic Salmon (Canada).

Page 132
Ide, F. P., "Effect of Forest Spraying with DDT on Aquatic Insects of Salmon Streams," Transactions, Am. Fisheries Soc., Vol. 86 (1957), pp. 208-19.

Page 133
Kerswill, C. J., To author, May 9, 1961.

Pages 133-34
____, To author, June 1, 1961.

Page 135
Warner, Kendall, and O. C. Fenderson, "Effects of Forest Insect Spraying on Northern Maine Trout Streams." Maine Dept. of Inland Fisheries and Game. Mimeo., n.d.

Page 135
Alderdice, D. F., and M. E. Worthington, "Toxicity of a DDT Forest Spray to Young Salmon." Canadian Fish Culturist, Issue 24 (1959), pp. 41-48.

Pages 135-36
Hourston, W. R., To author, May 23, 1961.

Page 136
Graham, R. J., and D. O. Scott, Effects of Forest Insect Spraying on Trout and Aquatic Insects in Some Montana Streams. Final Report, Mont. State Fish and Game Dept., 1958.

Pages 136-37
Graham, R. J., "Effects of Forest Insect Spraying on Trout and Aquatic Insects in Some Montana Streams," in Biological Problems in Water Pollution. Transactions, 1959 seminar. U.S. Public Health Service Technical Report W60-3 (1960).

Pages 137-38
Crouter, R. A., and E. H. Vernon, "Effects of Black-headed Budworm Control on Salmon and Trout in British Columbia," Canadian Fish Culturist, Issue 24 (1959), pp. 23-40.

Page 138
Whiteside, J. M., "Spruce Budworm Control in Oregon and Washington, 1949-1956," Proc., 10th 1nternatl. Congress of Entomologists (1956), Vol. 4 (1958), pp. 291-302.

Page 139
Pollution-Caused Fish Kills in 1960. U.S. Public Health Service Publ. No. 847 (1961), pp. 1-20.

Page 139
"U.S. Anglers -- Three Billion Dollars," Sport Fishing Inst. Bull., No. 119 (Oct. 1961).

Page 140
Powers, Edward (Bur. of Commercial Fisheries), To author.

Page 140
Rudd, Robert L., and Richard E. Genelly, Pesticides: Their Use and Toxicity in Relation to Wildlife. Calif. Dept. of Fish and Game, Game Bulletin No. 7 (1956), p. 88.

Page 140
Biglane, K. E., To author, May 8, 1961.

Page 140
Release No. 58-38, Penna. Fish Commission, Dec. 8, 1958.

Page 140
Rudd and Genelly, Pesticides, p. 60.

Page 140
Henderson, C., et al., "The Relative Toxicity of Ten Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Insecticides to Four Species of Fish," paper presented at 88th Annual Meeting Am. Fisheries Soc. (1958).

Page 140
"The Fire Ant Eradication Program and How It Affects Wildlife," subject of Proc. Symposium, 12th Annual Conf. Southeastern Assn. Game and Fish Commissioners, Louisville, Ky. (1958). Pub. by the Assn., Columbia, S.C., 1958.

Page 140
"Effects of the Fire Ant Eradication Program on Wildlife," report, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, May 25, 1958. Mimeo.

Page 140
Pesticide-Wildlife Review, 1959. Bur. Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Circular 84 (1960), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, pp. 1-36.

Page 140
Baker, Maurice F., "Observations of Effects of an Application of Heptachlor or Dieldrin on Wildlife," in Proc. Symposium, pp. 18-20.

Pages 140-41
Glasgow, L. L., "Studies on the Effect of the Imported Fire Ant Control Program on Wildlife in Louisiana," in Proc. Symposium, pp. 24-29.

Page 141
Pesticide-Wildlife Review, 1959.

Page 141
Progress in Sport Fishery Research, 1960. Bur. Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Circular 101 (1960), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Page 141
"Resolution Opposing Fire-Ant Program Passed by American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists," Copeia (1959), No. 1, p. 89.

Pages 141-43
Young, L. A., and H. P. Nicholson, "Stream Pollution Resulting from the Use of Organic Insecticides," Progressive Fish Culturist, Vol. 13 (1951), No. 4, pp. 193-98.

Page 143
Rudd and Genelly, Pesticides.

Page 143
Lawrence, J. M., "Toxicity of Some New Insecticides to Several Species of Pondfish," Progressive Fish Culturist, Vol. 12 (1950), No. 4, pp. 141-46.

Page 144
Pielow, D. P., "Lethal Effects of DDT on Young Fish," Nature, Vol. 158 (1946), No. 4011, p. 378.

Page 144
Herald, E. S., "Notes on the Effect of Aircraft-Distributed DDT-Oil Spray upon Certain Philippine Fishes," Jour. Wildlife Management, Vol. 13 (1949), No. 3, p. 316.

Pages 144-46
"Report of Investigation of the Colorado River Fish Kill, January, 1961." Texas Game and Fish Commission, 1961. Mimeo.

Pages 146-47
Harrington, R. W., Jr., and W. L. Bidlingmayer, "Effects of Dieldrin on Fishes and Invertebrates of a Salt Marsh," Jour. Wildlife Management, Vol. 22 (1958), No. 1, pp. 76-82.

Pages 147-48
Mills, Herbert R., "Death in the Florida Marshes," Audubon Mag., Sept.-Oct. 1952.

Page 148
Springer, Paul F., and John R. Webster, Effects of DDT on Saltmarsh Wildlife: 1949. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Special Scientific Report, Wildlife No. 10 (1949).

Pages 149-50
John C. Pearson, To author.

Pages 150-51
Butler, Philip A., "Effects of Pesticides on Commercial Fisheries," Proc., 13th Annual Session (Nov. 1960), Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Inst., pp. 168-71.

CHAPTER 10: 1NDlSCR1M1NATELY FROM THE SK1ES

Page 156
Perry, C. C., Gypsy Moth Appraisal Program and Proposed Plan to Prevent Spread of the Moths. U.S. Dept. of Agric. Technical Bulletin No. 1124 (Oct. 1955).

Pages 156-57
Corliss, John M., "The Gypsy Moth," Yearbook of Agric., U.S. Dept. of Agric., 1952, pp. 694-98.

Page 157
Worrell, Albert C., "Pests, Pesticides, and People," offprint from Am. Forests Mag., July 1960.

Page 157
Clausen, C. P., "Parasites and Predators," Yearbook of Agric., U.S. Dept. of Agric., 1952, pp. 380-88.

Page 157
Perry, Gypsy Moth Appraisal Program.

Page 158
Worrell, "Pests, Pesticides, and People."

Page 158
"USDA Launches Large-Scale Effort to Wipe Out Gypsy Moth," press release, U.S. Dept. of Agric., March 20, 1957.

Page 158
Worrell, "Pests, Pesticides, and People."

Page 158
Robert Cushman Murphy et al. v. Ezra Taft Benson et al. U.S. District Court, Eastern District of New York, Oct. 1959, Civ. No. 17610.

Page 158
Murphy et al. v. Benson et al. Petition for a Writ of Certiorari to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, Oct. 1959.

Page 158
Waller, W. K., "Poison on the Land," Audubon Mag., March-April 1958, pp. 68-71.

Page 159
Murphy et al. v. Benson et al. U.S. Supreme Court Reports, Memorandum Cases, No. 662, March 28, 1960.

Page 159
Waller, "Poison on the Land."

Page 160
Am. Bee Jour., June 1958, p. 224.

Page 161
Murphy et al. v. Benson et al. U.S. Court of Appeals, Second Circuit. Brief for Defendant-Appellee Butler, No. 25,448, March 1959.

Page 161
Brown, William L., Jr., "Mass Insect Control Programs: Four Case Histories," Psyche, Vol. 68 (1961), Nos. 2-3, pp. 75-111

Page 161-62
Arant, F.S., et al., "Facts about the Imported Fire Ant," Highlights of Agric. Research, Vol. 5 (1958), No. 4.

Page 162
Brown, "Mass Insect Control Programs."

Page 162
"Pesticides: Hedgehopping into Trouble?" Chemical Week, Feb. 8, 1958, p. 97.

Page 163
Arant et al., "Facts about the Imported Fire Ant."

Page 163
Byrd, I. B., "What Are the Side Effects of the Imported Fire Ant Control Program?" in Biological Problems in Water Pollution. Transactions, 1959 seminar. U.S. Public Health Service Technical Report W60-3 (196o), pp. 46-50.

Page 163
Hays, S. B., and K. L. Hays, "Food Habits of Solenopsis saevissima richteri Forel," Jour. Econ. Entomol., Vol. 52 (1959), No. 3, pp. 455-57.

Page 164
Caro, M. R., et al., "Skin Responses to the Sting of the Imported Fire Ant," A.M.A. Archives Dermat., Vol. 75 (1957), pp. 475-88.

Page 164
Byrd, "Side Effects of Fire Ant Program."

Page 164
Baker, Maurice F., in Virginia Wildlife, Nov. 1958.

Page 165
Brown, "Mass Insect Control Programs."

Page 166
Pesticide-Wildlife Review, 1959. Bur. Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Circular 84 (1960), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, pp. 1-J6.

Page 166
"The Fire Ant Eradication Program and How 1t Affects Wildlife," subject of Proc. Symposium, 12th Annual Conf. Southeastern Assn. Game and Fish Commissioners, Louisville, Ky. (1958). Pub. by the Assn., Columbia, S.C., 1958.

Pages 166-67
Wright, Bruce S., "Woodcock Reproduction in DDT-Sprayed Areas of New Brunswick," Jour. Wildlife Management, Vol. 24 (1960), No. 4, pp. 419-20.

Page 167
Clawson, Sterling G., "Fire Ant Eradication -- and Quail," Alabama Conservation., Vol. 30. (1959), No. 4, p. 14,

Page 167
Rosene, Walter, "Whistling-Cock Counts of Bobwhite Quail on Areas Treated with Insecticide and on Untreated Areas, Decatur County, Georgia," in Proc. Symposium, pp. 14-18.

Page 167
Pesticide-Wildlife Review, 1959.

Pages 167-68
Cottam, Clarence, "The Uncontrolled Use of Pesticides in the Southeast," address to Southeastern Assn. Fish, Game and Conservation Commissioners, Oct. 1959.

Pages 168-69
Poitevint, Otis L., Address to Georgia Sportsmen's Fed., Oct. 1959.

Page 169
Ely, R. E., et al., "Excretion of Heptachlor Epoxide in the Milk of Dairy Cows Fed Heptachlor-Sprayed Forage and Technical Heptachlor," Jour. Dairy Sci., Vol. 38 (1955), No. 6, pp. 669-72.

Page 169
Gannon, N., et al., "Storage of Dieldrin in Tissues and Its Excretion in Milk of Dairy Cows Fed Dieldrin in Their Diets," Jour. Agric. and Food Chem., Vol. 7 (1959), No. 12, pp. 824-32.

Page 169
Insecticide Recommendations of the Entomology Research Division for the Control of Insects Attacking Crops and Livestock for 1961. U.S. Dept. of Agric. Handbook No. 120 (1961).

Page 170
Peckinpaugh, H. S. (Ala. Dept. of Agric. and Indus.), To author, March 24, 1959.

Page 170
Hartman, H. L. (La. State Board of Health), To author, March 23, 1959.

Page 170
Lakey, J. F. (Texas Dept. of Health), To author, March 23,1959.

Page 170
Davidow, B., and J. L. Radomski, "Metabolite of Heptachlor, Its Analysis, Storage, and Toxicity," Federation Proc., Vol.11 (1952), No. 1, p. 336.

Page 170
Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, in Federal Register, Oct. 27, 1959.

Page 171
Burgess, E. D. (U.S. Dept. of Agric.), To author, June 23,1961.

Page 171
"Fire Ant Control is Parley Topic," Beaumont [Texas] Journal, Sept. 24, 1959.

Page 171
"Coordination of Pesticides Programs," Hearings, 86th Congress, H.R. 11502, Com. on Merchant Marine and Fisheries, May 1960, p.45.

Page 172
Newsom, L. D. (Head, Entomol. Research, La. State Univ.), To author, March 23, 1962.

Page 172
Green, H. B., and R. E. Hutchins, Economical Method for Control of Imported Fire Ant in Pastures and Meadows. Miss. State Univ. Agric. Exper. Station Information Sheet 586 (May 1958).
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PART 2 OF 2

CHAPTER 11: BEYOND THE DREAMS OF THE BORG1AS

Page 175
"Chemicals in Food Products," Hearings, 81st Congress, H.R. 323, Com. to 1nvestigate Use of Chemicals in Food Products, Pt. I, (1950), pp. 388-90.

Page 175
Clothes Moths and Carpet Beetles. U.S. Dept. of Agric., Home and Garden Bulletin No. 24 (1961).

Page 176
Mulrennan, J. A., To author, March 15, 1960.

Page 176
New York Times, May 22, 1960.

Pages 176-77
Petty, Charles S., "Organic Phosphate Insecticide Poisoning. Residual Effects in Two Cases," Am. Jour. Med., Vol. 24 (1958), pp. 467-70.

Page 177
Miller, A. C., et al., "Do People Read Labels on Household Insecticides?" Soap and Chem. Specialties, Vol. 34 (1958), No. 7, pp. 61-63.

Page 178
Hayes, Wayland J., Jr., et al., "Storage of DDT and DDE in People with Different Degrees of Exposure to DDT," A.M.A. Archives Indus. Health, Vol. 18 (Nov. 1958), pp. 398-406.

Page 178
Walker, Kenneth C., et al., "Pesticide Residues in Foods. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene Content of Prepared Meals," Jour. Agric. and Food Chem., Vol. 2 (1954), No. 20, pp. 1034-37.

Page 179
Hayes, Wayland J., Jr., et al., "The Effect of Known Repeated Oral Doses of Chlorophenothane (DDT) in Man," Jour. Am. Med. Assn., Vol. 162 (1956), No. 9, pp. 890-97.

Page 179
Milstead, K. L., "Highlights in Various Areas of Enforcement," address to 64th Annual Conf. Assn. of Food and Drug Officials of U.S., Dallas (June 1960).

Pages 179-80
Durham, William, et al., "Insecticide Content of Diet and Body Fat of Alaskan Natives," Science, Vol. 134 (1961), No. 3493, pp. 1880-81.

Page 180
"Pesticides- 1959," Jour. Agric. and Food Chem., Vol. 7 (1959), No. 10, pp. 674-88.

Page 180
Annual Reports, Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare. For 1957, pp. 196, 197; 1956, p. 203.

Page 181
Markarian, Haig, et al., "Insecticide Residues in Foods Subjected to Fogging under Simulated Warehouse Conditions," Abstracts, 135th Meeting Am. Chem. Soc. (April 1959).

CHAPTER 12: THE HUMAN PR1CE

Page 188
Price, David E., "Is Man Becoming Obsolete?" Public Health Reports, Vol. 74 (1959), No. 8, pp. 693-99.

Page 188
"Report on Environmental Health Problems," Hearings, 86th Congress, Subcom. of Com. on Appropriations, March 1960, p. 34.

Page 189
Dubos, Rene, Mirage of Health. New York: Harper, 1959. World Perspectives Series. p. 171.

Page 189
Medical Research: A Midcentury Survey. Vol. 2, Unsolved Clinical Problems in Biological Perspective. Boston: Little, Brown, 1955. p. 4.

Page 190
"Chemicals in Food Products," Hearings, 81st Congress, H.R. 323, Com. to Investigate Use of Chemicals in Food Products, 1950, p. 5. Testimony of A. J. Carlson.

Page 190
Paul, A. H., "Dieldrin Poisoning - a Case Report," New Zealand Med. Jour., Vol. 58 (1959), p. 393.

Page 190
"Insecticide Storage in Adipose Tissue," editorial, Jour. Am. Med. Assn., Vol. 145 (March 10, 1951), pp. 735-36.

Page 191
Mitchell, Philip H., A Textbook of General Physiology. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1956. 5th ed.

Page 191
Miller, B. F., and R. Goode, Man and His Body: The Wonders Of the Human Mechanism. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1960.

Page 191
Dubois, Kenneth P., "Potentiation of the Toxicity of Insecticidal Organic phosphates," A.M.A. Archives Indus. Health, Vol. 18 (Dec. 1958), pp. 488-96.

Page 192
Gleason, Marion, et al., Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1957.

Page 193
Case, R. A. M., "Toxic Effects of DDT in Man," Brit. Med. Jour., Vol. 2 (Dec. 15, 1945), pp. 842-45.

Page 193
Wigglesworth, V. D., "A Case of DDT Poisoning in Man," Brit. Med. Jour., Vol. 1 (April 14, 1945), p. 517.

Page 193
Hayes, Wayland J., Jr., et al., "The Effect of Known Repeated Oral Doses of Chlorophenothane (DDT) in Man," Jour. Am. Med. Assn., Vol. 16, (Oct. 27, 1956), pp. 890-97.

Pages 193-94
Hargraves, Malcolm M., "Chemical Pesticides and Conservation Problems," address to 23rd Annual Conv. Natl. Wildlife Fed. (Feb. 27, 1959). Mimeo.

Page 194
____, and D. G. Hanlon, "Leukemia and Lymphoma -- Environmental Diseases?" paper presented at Internatl. Congress of Hematology, Japan, Sept. 1960. Mimeo.

Page 194
"Chemicals in Food Products," Hearings, 81st Congress, H.R. 323, Com. to Investigate Use of Chemicals in Food Products, 1950. Testimony of Dr. Morton S. Biskind.

Page 195
Thompson, R. H. S., "Cholinesterases and Anticholinesterases," Lectures on the Scientific Basis of Medicine, Vol. II (1952-53), Univ. of London. London: Athlone Press, 1954.

Page 195
Laugh, E. P., and F. M. Keenz, "Effect of Carbon Tetrachloride on Toxicity and Storage of Methoxychlor in Rats," Federation Proc., Vol. 10 (March 1951), p. 318.

Page 196
Hayes, Wayland J., Jr., "The Toxicity of Dieldrin to Man," Bull. World Health Organ., Vol. 20 (1959), pp. 891-912.

Page 196
"Abuse of Insecticide Fumigating Devices," Jour. Am. Med. Assn., Vol. 156 (Oct. 9, 1954), pp. 607-8.

Pages 196-97
"Chemicals in Food Products." Testimony of Dr. Paul B. Dunbar, pp. 28-29.

Page 197
Smith, M. I., and E. Elrove, "Pharmacological and Chemical Studies of the Cause of So-Called Ginger Paralysis," Public Health Reports, Vol. 45 (1930), pp. 1703-16.

Page 197
Durham, W. F., et al., "Paralytic and Related Effects of Certain Organic Phosphorus Compounds," A.M.A. Archives Indus. Health, Vol. 13 (1956), pp. 326-30.

Page 197
Bidstrup, P. L., et al., "Anticholinesterases (Paralysis in Man Following Poisoning by Cholinesterase Inhibitors)," Chem. and Indus., Vol. 24 (1954), pp. 674-76.

Page 198
Gershon, S., and F. H. Shaw, "Psychiatric Sequelae of Chronic Exposure to Organophosphorus Insecticides," Lancet, Vol. 7191 (June 24, 1961), pp. 1371-74.

CHAPTER 13: THROUGH A NARROW W1NDOW

Page 199
Wald, George, "Life and Light," Sci. American, Oct. 1959, pp. 40-42.

Page 200
Rabinowitch, E. I., Quoted in Medical Research: A Midcentury Survey. Vol. 2, Unsolved Clinical Problems in Biological Perspective. Boston: Little, Brown, 1955. p. 25.

Page 201
Ernster, L., and O. Lindberg, "Animal Mitochondria," Annual Rev. Physiol., Vol. 20 (1958), pp. 13-42.

Page 202
Siekevitz, Philip, "Powerhouse of the Cell," Sci. American, Vol. 197 (1957), No. 1, pp. 131-40.

Page 202
Green, David E., "Biological Oxidation," Sci. American, Vol. 199 (1958), No. 1, pp. 56-62.

Page 202
Lehninger, Albert L., "Energy Transformation in the Cell," Sci. American, Vol. 202 (1960), No. 5, pp. 102-14.

Page 202
____, Oxidative Phosphorylation. Harvey Lectures (1953-54), Ser. XLIX, Harvard University. Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1955. pp. 176-215.

Page 203
Siekevitz, "Powerhouse of the Cell."

Page 203
Simon, E. W., "Mechanisms of Dinitrophenol Toxicity," Biol. Rev., Vol. 28 (1953), pp. 453-79.

Page 203
Yost, Henry T., and H. H. Robson, "Studies on the Effects of Irradiation of Cellular Particulates. III. The Effect of Combined Radiation Treatments on Phosphorylation," Biol. Bull., Vol. 116 (1959), No. 3, pp. 498-506.

Page 203
Loomis, W. F., and Lipmann, F., "Reversible Inhibition of the Coupling between Phosphorylation and Oxidation," Jour. Biol. Chem., Vol. 173 (1948), pp. 807-8.

Page 204
Brody, T. M., "Effect of Certain Plant Growth Substances on Oxidative Phosphorylation in Rat Liver Mitochondria," Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. and Med., Vol. 80 (1952), pp. 533-36.

Page 204
Sacklin, J. A., et al., "Effect of DDT on Enzymatic Oxidation and Phosphorylation," Science, Vol. 122 (1955), pp. 377-78.

Page 204
Danziger, L., "Anoxia and Compounds Causing Mental Disorders in Man," Diseases Nervous System, Vol. 6 (1945), No. 12, pp. 365-70.

Page 204
Goldblatt, Harry, and G. Cameron, "Induced Malignancy in Cells from Rat Myocardium Subjected to 1ntermittent Anaerobiosis During Long Propagation in Vitro," Jour. Exper. Med., Vol. 97 (1953), No. 4, pp. 525-52.

Page 204
Warburg, Otto, "On the Origin of Cancer Cells," Science, Vol. 123 (1956), No. 3191, pp. 309-14.

Page 205
"Congenital Malformations Subject of Study," Registrar, U.S. Public Health Service, Vol. 24, No. 12 (Dec. 1959), p. 1.

Page 205
Brachet, J., Biochemical Cytology. New York: Academic Press, 1957. p. 516.

Page 206
Genelly, Richard E., and Robert L. Rudd, "Effects of DDT, Toxaphene, and Dieldrin on Pheasant Reproduction," Auk, Vol. 73 (Oct. 1956), pp. 529-39.

Page 206
Wallace, George J., To author, June 2, 1960.

Page 206
Cottam, Clarence, "Some Effects of Sprays on Crops and Livestock," address to Soil Conservation Soc. of Am., Aug. 1961. Mimeo.

Page 206
Bryson, M. J., et al., "DDT in Eggs and Tissues of Chickens Fed Varying Levels of DDT," Advances in Chem., Ser. No. 1, 1950.

Page 207
Genelly, Richard E., and Robert L. Rudd, "Chronic Toxicity of DDT, Toxaphene, and Dieldrin to Ring-necked Pheasants," Calif. Fish and Game, Vol. 42 (1956), No. 1, pp. 5-14.

Page 207
Emmel, L., and M. Krupe, "The Mode of Action of DDT in Warm-blooded Animals," Zeits. fur Naturforschung, Vol. 1 (1946), pp. 691-95.

Page 207
Wallace, George J., To author.

Page 207
Pillmore, R. E., "Insecticide Residues in Big Game Animals," U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, pp. 1-10. Denver, 1961. Mimeo.

Page 207
Hodge, C. H., et al., "Short-Term Oral Toxicity Tests of Methoxychlor in Rats and Dogs," Jour. Pharmacol. and Exper. Therapeut., Vol. 99 (1950), p. 140.

Page 207
Burlington, H., and V. F. Lindeman, "Effect of DDT on Testes and Secondary Sex Characters of White Leghorn Cockerels," Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. and Med., Vol. 74, (1950), pp. 48-51.

Page 207
Lardy, H. A., and P. H. Phillips, "The Effect of Thyroxine and Dinitrophenol on Sperm Metabolism," Jour. Biol. Chem., Vol. 149 (1943), p. 177.

Page 208
"Occupational Oligospermia," letter to Editor, Jour. Am. Med. Assn., Vol. 140, No. 1249 (Aug. 13, 1949).

Page 208
Burnet, F. Macfarlane, "Leukemia As a Problem in Preventive Medicine," New Eng. Jour. Med., Vol. 259 (1958), No. 9, pp. 423-31.

Page 208
Alexander, Peter, "Radiation-Imitating Chemicals," Sci. American, Vol. 202 (1960), No. 1, pp. 99-108.

Page 210
Simpson, George G., C. S. Pittendrigh, and L. H. Tiffany, Life: An Introduction to Biology. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1957.

Page 211
Burnet, "Leukemia As a Problem in Preventive Medicine."

Page 211
Beam, A. G., and J. L. German III, "Chromosomes and Disease," Sci. American, Vol. 205 (1961), No. 5, pp. 66-76.

Page 211
"The Nature of Radioactive Fall-out and Its Effects on Man," Hearings, 85th Congress, Joint Com. on Atomic Energy, Pt. 2 (June 1957), p. 1062. Testimony of Dr. Hermann J. Muller.

Page 211
Alexander, "Radiation-Imitating Chemicals."

Pages 211-12
Muller, Hermann J., "Radiation and Human Mutation," Sci. American, Vol. 193 (1955), No. 11, pp. 58-68.

Page 212
Conen, P. E., and G. S. Lansky, "Chromosome Damage during Nitrogen Mustard Therapy," Brit. Med. Jour., Vol. 2 (Oct. 21, 1961 ), pp. 1055-57.

Page 212
Blasquez, J., and J. Maier, "Ginandromorfismo en Culex fatigans sometidos por generaciones sucesivas a exposiciones de DDT," Revista de Sanidad y Assistencia Social (Caracas), Vol. 16 (1951), pp. 607-12.

Page 212
Levan, A., and J. H. Tjio, "Induction of Chromosome Fragmentation by Phenols," Hereditas, Vol. 34 (1948), pp. 453- 84.

Page 212
Loveless, A., and S. Revell, "New Evidence on the Mode of Action of 'Mitotic Poisons,''' Nature, Vol. 164 (1949), pp. 938-44.

Page 212
Hadorn, E., et al., Quoted by Charlotte Auerbach in "Chemical Mutagenesis," Biol. Rev., Vol. 24 (1949), pp. 355-91.

Page 212
Wilson, S. M., et al., "Cytological and Genetical Effects of the Defoliant Endothal," Jour. of Heredity, Vol. 47 (1956), No. 4, pp. 151-55.

Page 212
Vogt, quoted by W. J. Burdette in "The Significance of Mutation in Relation to the Origin of Tumors: A Review," Cancer Research, Vol. 15 (1955), No, 4, pp. 201-26.

Page 213
Swanson, Carl, Cytology and Cytogenetics. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1957.

Page 213
Kostoff, D., "Induction of Cytogenic Changes and Atypical Growth by Hexachlorcyclohexane," Science, Vol. 109 (May 6, 1949), pp. 467-68.

Page 213
Sass, John E., "Response of Meristems of Seedlings to Benzene Hexachloride Used As a Seed Protectant," Science, Vol. 114 (Nov. 2, 1951), p. 466.

Page 213
Shenefelt, R. D., "What's Behind Insect Control?" in What's New in Farm Science. Univ. of Wise. Agric. Expel. Station Bulletin 512 (Jan. 1955).

Page 213
Croker, Barbara H., "Effects of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T on Mitosis in Allium cepa," Bot. Gazette, Vol. 114 (1953), pp. 274- 83.

Page 213
Muhling, G. N., et al., "Cytological Effects of Herbicidal Substituted Phenols," Weeds, Vol. 8 (1960), No. 2, pp. 173- 81.

Page 213
Davis, David E., To author, Nov. 24, 1961.

Page 214
Jacobs, Patricia A., et al., "The Somatic Chromosomes 1n Mongolism," Lancet, No. 7075 (April 4, 1959), p. 710.

Page 214
Ford, C. E., and P. A. Jacobs, "Human Somatic Chromosomes," Nature, June 7, 1958, pp. 1565-68.

Page 214
"Chromosome Abnormality in Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia," editorial, Brit. Med. Jour., Vol. 1 (Feb. 4, 1961), p. 347.

Page 214
Bearn and German, "Chromosomes and Disease."

Page 215
Patau, K., et al., "Partial-Trisomy Syndromes. I. Sturge-Weber's Disease," Am. Jour. Human Genetics, Vol. 13 (1961), No. 3, pp. 287-98.

Page 215
____, "Partial-Trisomy Syndromes. II. An 1nsertion As Cause of the OFD Syndrome in Mother and Daughter," Chromosoma (Berlin), Vol. 12 (1961), pp. 573-84.

Page 215
Therman, E., et al., "The D Trisomy Syndrome and XO Gonadal Dysgenesis in Two Sisters," Am. Jour. Human Genetics, Vol. 13 (1961), No. 2, pp. 193-104.

CHAPTER 14: ONE 1N EVERY FOUR

Page 219
Hueper, W. C., "Newer Developments in Occupational and Environmental Cancer," A.M.A. Archives Inter. Med., Vol. 100 (Sept. 1957), pp. 487-503.

Page 220
____, Occupational Tumors and Allied Diseases. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas, 1942.

Page 221
____, "Environmental Cancer Hazards: A Problem of Community Health," Southern Med. Jour., Vol. 50 (1957), No, 7, pp. 923-33.

Page 221
"Estimated Numbers of Deaths and Death Rates for Selected Causes: United States," Annual Summary for 1959, Pt. 1, Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 7, No. 13 (July 22, 1959), p. 14. Natl. Office of Vital Statistics, Public Health Service.

Page 221
1962 Cancer Facts and Figures, American Cancer Society.

Page 221
Vital Statistics of the United States, 1959. Natl. Office of Vital Statistics, Public Health Service. Vol. 1, Sec. 6, Mortality Statistics. Table 6-K.

Page 222
Hueper, W. C., Environmental and Occupational Cancer. Public Health Reports, Supplement 209 (1948)

Page 222
"Food Additives," Hearings, 85th Congress, Subcom. of Com. on 1nterstate and Foreign Commerce, July 19, 1957. Testimony of Dr. Francis E. Ray, p. 200.

Page 223
Hueper, Occupational Tumors and Allied Diseases.

Page 224
____, "Potential Role of Non-Nutritive Food Additives and Contaminants as Environmental Carcinogens," A.M.A. Archives Path., Vol. 62 (Sept. 1956), pp. 218-49.

Page 224
"Tolerances for Residues of Aramite," Federal Register, Sept. 30, 1955. Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare.

Page 225
"Notice of Proposal to Establish Zero Tolerances for Aramite," Federal Register, April 26, 1958. Food and Drug Administration.

Page 225
"Aramite -- Revocation of Tolerances; Establishment of Zero Tolerances," Federal Register, Dec. 24, 1958. Food and Drug Administration.

Page 225
Von Oettingen, W. F., The Halogenated Aliphatic, Olefinic, Cyclic, Aromatic, and Aliphatic-Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Including the Halogenated Insecticides, Their Toxicity and Potential Dangers. U.S. Dept. of Health; Education, and Welfare. Public Health Service Publ. No. 414 (1955).

Page 225
Hueper, W. C., and W. W. Payne, "Observations on the Occurrence of Hepatomas in Rainbow Trout," Jour. Natl. Cancer Inst., Vol. 27 (1961), pp. 1123-43.

Page 225
VanEsch, G. J., et al., "The Production of Skin Tumours in Mice by Oral Treatment with Uretbane-Isopropyl-N- Phenyl Carbamate or Isopropyl-N-Chlorophenyl Carbamate in Combination with Skin Painting with Croton Oil and Tween 60," Brit. Jour. Cancer, Vol. 12 (1958), pp. 355-62.

Pages 225-26
"Scientific Background for Food and Drug Administration Action against Aminotriazole in Cranberries." Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Nov. 17, 1959. Mimeo.

Page 226
Rutstein, David, Letter to New York Times, Nov. 16, 1959.

Page 226
Hueper, W. C., "Causal and Preventive Aspects of Environmental Cancer," Minnesota Med., Vol. 39 (Jan. 1956), pp. 5-11, 22.

Page 227
"Estimated Numbers of Deaths and Death Rates for Selected Causes: United States," Annual Summary for 1960, Pt. 2 Monthly Vital Statistics Report, Vol. 9, No. 13 (July 28, 1961), Table 3.

Page 227
Robert Cushman Murphy et al. v. Ezra Taft Benson et al. U.S. District Court, Eastern District of New York, Oct. 1959, Civ. No. 17610. Testimony of Dr. Malcolm M. Hargraves.

Page 228
Hargraves, Malcolm M., "Chemical Pesticides and Conservation Problems," address to 23rd Annual Conv. Natl. Wildlife Fed. (Feb. 27, 1959). Mimeo.

Page 228
____, and D. G. Hanlon, "Leukemia and Lymphoma -- Environmental Diseases?" paper presented at Internatl. Congress of Hematology, Japan, Sept. 1960. Mimeo.

Page 229
Wright, C., et al., "Agranulocytosis Occurring after Exposure to a DDT Pyrethrum Aerosol Bomb," Am. Jour. Med., Vol. 1 (1946), pp. 562-67.

Page 229
Jedlicka, V., "Paramyeloblastic Leukemia Appearing Simultaneously in Two Blood Cousins after Simultaneous Contact with Gammexane (Hexachlorcyclohexane)," Acta Med. Scand., Vol. 161 (1958), pp. 447-51.

Pages 229-30
Friberg, L., and J. Martensson, "Case of Panmyelopthisis after Exposure to Chlorophenothane and Benzene Hexachloride," (A.M.A.) Archives Indus. Hygiene and Occupat. Med., Vol. 8 (1953), No. 2, pp. 166-69.

Pages, 231-33
Warburg, Otto, "On the Origin of Cancer Cells," Science, Vol. 12J3 No. 3191 (Feb. 24, 1956), pp. 309-14.

Page 233
Sloan-Kettering Inst. for Cancer Research, Biennial Report, July 1, 1957-June 30, 1959, p. 72.

Page 233
Levan, Albert, and John J. Biesele, "Role of Chromosomes in Cancerogenesis, As Studied in Serial Tissue Culture of Mammalian Cells," Annals New York Acad. Sci., Vol. 71 (1958), No. 6, pp. 1022-53.

Page 234
Hunter, F. T., "Chronic Exposure to Benzene (Benzol). II. The Clinical Effects," Jour. Indus. Hygiene and Toxicol., Vol. 21 (1939), pp. 331-54.

Page 234
Mallory, T. B., et al., "Chronic Exposure to Benzene (Benzol). III. The Pathologic Results," Jour. Indus. Hygiene and Toxicol., Vol. 21 (1939), pp. 355-93.

Page 234
Hueper, Environmental and Occupational Cancer, pp. 1-69.

Page 234
__, "Recent Developments in Environmental Cancer," A.M.A. Archives Path., Vol. 58 (1954), pp. 475-523.

Page 234
Burnet, F. Macfarlane, "Leukemia As a Problem in Preventive Medicine," New Eng. Jour. Med., Vol. 259 (1958), No. 9, pp. 423-31.

Page 235
Klein, Michael, "The Transplacental Effect of Urethan on Lung Tumorigenesis in Mice," Jour. Natl. Cancer Inst., Vol. 12 (1952), pp. 1003-10.

Pages 235-37
Biskind, M. S., and G. R. Biskind, "Diminution in Ability of the Liver to Inactivate Estrone in Vitamin B Complex Deficiency," Science, Vol. 94, No. 2446 (Nov. 1941), p. 462.

Pages 235-37
Biskind, G. R., and M. S. Biskind, "The Nutritional Aspects of Certain Endocrine Disturbances," Am. Jour. Clin. Path., Vol. 16 (1946), No. 12, pp. 737-45.

Pages 235-37
Biskind, M. S., and G. R. Biskind, "Effect of Vitamin B Complex Deficiency on Inactivation of Estrone in the Liver," Endocrinology, Vol. 31 (1942) No. 1, pp. 109-14.

Pages 235-37
Biskind, M. S., and M. C. Shelesnyak, "Effect of Vitamin B Complex Deficiency on 1nactivation of Ovarian Estrogen in the Liver," Endocrinology, Vol. 30 (1942), No. 5, pp. 819-20.

Pages 235-37
Biskind, M. S., and G. R. Biskind, "Inactivation of Testosterone Propionate in the Liver During Vitamin B Complex Deficiency. Alteration of the Estrogen-Androgen Equilibrium," Endocrinology, Vol. 32 (1943), No. 1, pp. 97-102.

Page 236
Greene, H. S. N., "Uterine Adenomata in the Rabbit. III. Susceptibility As a Function of Constitutional Factors," Jour. Exper. Med., Vol. 73 (1941), No. 2, pp. 273-92.

Page 236
Horning, E. S., and J. W. Whittick, "The Histogenesis of Stilboestrol-Induced Renal Tumours in the Male Golden Hamster," Brit. Jour. Cancer, Vol. 8 (1954), pp. 451-57.

Page 236
Kirkman, Hadley, Estrogen-Induced Tumors of the Kidney in the Syrian Hamster. U.S. Public Health Service, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monograph No. 1 (Dec. 1959).

Page 236
Ayre, J. E., and W. A. G. Bauld, "Thiamine Deficiency and High Estrogen Findings in Uterine Cancer and in Menorrhagia," Science, Vol. 103, No. 2676 (April 12, 1946), pp. 441-45.

Pages 236-37
Rhoads, C. P., "Physiological Aspects of Vitamin Deficiency," Proc. Inst. Med. Chicago, Vol. 13 (1940), p. 198.

Page 237
Sugiura, K., and C. P. Rhoads, "Experimental Liver Cancer in Rats and Its Inhibition by Rice-Bran Extract, Yeast, and Yeast Extract," Cancer Research, Vol. 1 (1941), pp. 3-16.

Page 237
Martin, H., "The Precancerous Mouth Lesions of Avitaminosis B. Their Etiology, Response to Therapy and Relationship to Intra oral Cancer," Am. Jour. Surgery, Vol. 57 (1942), pp. 195-225.

Page 237
Tannenbaum, A., "Nutrition and Cancer," in Freddy Homburger, ed., Physiopathology of Cancer. New York: Harper, 1959. 2nd ed. A Paul B. Hoeber Book. p. 552.

Page 237
Symeonidis, A., "Post-starvation Gynecomastia and Its Relationship to Breast Cancer in Man," Jour. Natl. Cancer Inst., Vol. 11 (1950), p. 656.

Page 237
Davies, J. N. P., "Sex Hormone Upset in Africans," Brit. Med. Jour., Vol. 2 (1949), pp. 676-79.

Pages 237-38
Hueper, "Potential Role of Non-Nutritive Food Additives."

Page 238
VanEsch et al., "Production of Skin Tumours in Mice by Carbamates."

Page 238
Berenblum, I., and N. Trainin, "Possible Two-Stage Mechanism in Experimental Leukemogenesis," Science, Vol. 132 (July 1, 1960), pp. 40-41.

Pages 238-39
Hueper, W. C., "Cancer Hazards from Natural and Artificial Water Pollutants," Proc., Conf. on Physiol. Aspects of Water Quality, Washington, D.C., Sept. 8-9,1960, pp. 181-93. U.S. Public Health Service.

Page 239
Hueper and Payne, "Observations on Occurrence of Hepatomas in Rainbow Trout."

Page 241
Sloan-Kettering Inst. for Cancer Research, Biennial Report, 1957-59

Pages 240-42
Hueper, W. C., To author.

CHAPTER 15: NATURE F1GHTS BACK

Page 245
Briejer, C. J., "The Growing Resistance of Insects to Insecticides," Atlantic Naturalist, Vol. 13 (1958), No. 3, pp. 149-55.

Page 247
Metcalf, Robert L., "The Impact of the Development of Organophosphorus Insecticides upon Basic and Applied Science," Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am., Vol. 5 (March 1959), pp. 3-15.

Page 248
Ripper, W. E., "Effect of Pesticides on Balance of Arthropod Populations," Annual Rev. Entomol., Vol. 1 (1956), pp. 403-38.

Page 248
Allen, Durward L., Our Wildlife Legacy. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1954. pp. 234-36.

Page 248
Sabrosky, Curtis W., "How Many Insects Are There?" Yearbook of Agric., U.S. Dept. of Agric., 1952, pp. 1-7.

Page 249
Bishopp, F. C., "Insect Friends of Man," Yearbook of Agric., U.S. Dept. of Agric., 1952, pp. 79-87.

Page 249
Klots, Alexander R, and Elsie B. Klots, "Beneficial Bees, Wasps, and Ants," Handbook on Biological Control of Plant Pests, pp. 44-46. Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Reprinted from Plants and Gardens, Vol. 16 (1960), No. 3.

Page 250
Hagen, Kenneth S., "Biological Control with Lady Beetles," Handbook on Biological Control of Plant Pests, pp. 28-35.

Page 250
Schlinger, Evert I., "Natural Enemies of Aphids," Handbook on Biological Control of Plant Pests, pp. 36-42.

Page 251
Bishopp, "Insect Friends of Man."

Page 252
Ripper, "Effect of Pesticides on Arthropod Populations."

Page 252
Davies, D. M., "A Study of the Black-fly Population of a Stream in Algonquin Park, Ontario," Transactions, Royal Canadian Inst., Vol. 59 (1950), pp. 121-59.

Page 252
Ripper, "Effect of Pesticides on Arthropod Populations."

Pages 251-53
Johnson, Philip C., Spruce Spider Mite Infestations in Northern Rocky Mountain Douglas-Fir Forests. Research Paper 55, Intermountain Forest and Range Exper. Station, U.S. Forest Service, Ogden, Utah, 1958.

Pages 253-54
Davis, Donald W., "Some Effects of DDT on Spider Mites," Jour. Econ. Entomol., Vol. 45 (1952), No. 6, pp. 1011- 19.

Page 254
Gould, E., and E. O. Hamstead, "Control of the Red-banded Leaf Roller," Jour. Econ. Entomol., Vol. 41 (1948), pp. 887-90.

Page 254
Pickett, A. D., "A Critique on Insect Chemical Control Methods," Canadian Entomologist, Vol. 81 (1949), No. 3, pp. 1-10.

Pages 254-55
Joyce, R. J. V., "Large-Scale Spraying of Cotton in the Gash Delta in Eastern Sudan," Bull. Entomol. Research, Vol. 47 (1956), pp. 390-413.

Page 255
Long, W. H., et al., "Fire Ant Eradication Program Increases Damage by the Sugarcane Borer," Sugar Bull., Vol. 37 (1958), No. 5, pp. 62-63.

Page 255
Luckmann, William H., "Increase of European Corn Borers Following Soil Application of Large Amounts of Dieldrin," Jour. Econ. Entomol., Vol. 53 (1960), No. 4, pp. 582-84.

Page 256
Haeussler, G. J., "Losses Caused by Insects," Yearbook of Agric., U.S. Dept. of Agric., 1952, pp. 141-46.

Page 256
Clausen, C. P., "Parasites and Predators," Yearbook of Agric., U.S. Dept. of Agric., 1952, pp. 380-88.

Page 256
____, Biological Control of Insect Pests in the Continental United States. U.S. Dept. of Agric. Technical Bulletin No. 1139 (June 1956), pp. 1-151.

Page 257
DeBach, Paul, "Application of Ecological Information to Control of Citrus Pests in California," Proc., 10th Internatl. Congress of Entomologists (1956), Vol. 3 (1958), pp. 187-94.

Page 257
Laird, Marshall, "Biological Solutions to Problems Arising from the Use of Modern Insecticides in the Field of Public Health," Acta Tropica, Vol. 16 (1959), No. 4, pp. 331-55.

Page 257
Harrington, R. W., and W. L. Bidlingmayer, "Effects of Dieldrin on Fishes and Invertebrates of a Salt Marsh," Jour. Wildlife Management, Vol. 22 (1958), No. 1, pp. 76-82.

Page 258
Liver Flukes in Cattle. U.S. Dept. of Agric. Leaflet No. 493 (1961).

Page 258
Fisher, Theodore W., "What 1s Biological Control?" Handbook on Biological Control of Plant Pests, pp. 6-18. Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Reprinted from Plants and Gardens, Vol. 16 (1960), No. 3.

Page 259
Jacob, F. H., "Some Modern Problems in Pest Control," Science Progress, No. 181 (1958), pp. 30-45.

Page 259
Pickett, A. D., and N. A. Patterson, "The Influence of Spray Programs on the Fauna of Apple Orchards in Nova Scotia. IV. A Review," Canadian Entomologist, Vol. 85 (1953), No. 12, pp. 472-78.

Page 260
Pickett, A. D., "Controlling Orchard Insects," Agric. Inst. Rev., March-April 1953.

Page 260
____, "The Philosophy of Orchard Insect Control," 79th Annual Report, Entomol. Soc. of Ontario (1948), pp. 1-5.

Page 261
____, "The Control of Apple Insects in Nova Scotia." Mimeo.

Page 261
Ullyett, G. C., "Insects, Man and the Environment," Jour. Econ. Entomol., Vol. 44 (1951), No. 4, pp. 459-64.

CHAPTER 16: THE RUMBL1NGS OF AN AVALANCHE

Pages 263-64
Babers, Frank H., Development of Insect Resistance to Insecticides. U.S. Dept. of Agric., E 776 (May 1949).

Pages 263-64
____, and J. J. Pratt, Development of Insect Resistance to Insecticides. II. A Critical Review of the Literature up to 1951. U.S. Dept. of Agric., E 818 (May 1951).

Page 265
Brown, A. W. A., "The Challenge of Insecticide Resistance," Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am., Vol. 7 (1961), No. 1, pp. 6- 19.

Page 265
____, "Development and Mechanism of Insect Resistance to Available Toxicants," Soap and Chem. Specialties, Jan. 1960.

Page 265
Insect Resistance and Vector Control. World Health Organ. Technical Report Ser. No. 153 (Geneva, 1958), p. 5.

Page 265
Elton, Charles S., The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants. New York: Wiley, 1958. p. 181.

Page 265
Babers and Pratt, Development of Insect Resistance to Insecticides, II.

Page 266
Brown, A. W. A., Insecticide Resistance in Arthropods. World Health Organ. Monograph Ser. No. 38 (1958), pp. 13, 11.

Page 267
Quarterman, K. D., and H. F. Schoof, "The Status of Insecticide Resistance in Arthropods of Public Health Importance in 1956," Am. Jour. Trop. Med. and Hygiene, Vol. 7 (1958), No. 1, pp. 74-83.

Page 267
Brown, Insecticide Resistance in Arthropods.

Page 267
Hess, Archie D., "The Significance of Insecticide Resistance in Vector Control Programs," Am. Jour. Trop. Med. and Hygiene, Vol. 1 (1952), No. 3, pp. 371-88.

Page 268
Lindsay, Dale R., and H. I. Scudder, "Nonbiting Flies and Disease," Annual Rev. Entomol., Vol. 1 (1956), pp. 323- 46.

Page 268
Schoof, H. F., and J. W. Kilpatrick, "House Fly Resistance to Organo-phosphorus Compounds in Arizona and Georgia," Jour. Econ. Entomol., Vol. 51 (1958), No. 4, p. 546.

Page 268
Brown, "Development and Mechanism of Insect Resistance."

Page 268
____, Insecticide Resistance in Arthropods.

Page 269
____, "Challenge of Insecticide Resistance."

Page 269
____, Insecticide Resistance in Arthropods.

Page 270
____, "Development and Mechanism of Insect Resistance."

Page 270
____, Insecticide Resistance in Arthropods.

Page 270
____, "Challenge of Insecticide Resistance."

Page 271
Anon., "Brown Dog Tick Develops Resistance to Chlordane," New Jersey Agric., Vol. 37 (1955), No. 6, pp. 15-16.

Page 271
New York Herald Tribune, June 22, 1959; also J. C. Pallister, To author, Nov. 6, 1959.

Page 271
Brown, "Challenge of Insecticide Resistance."

Page 272
Hoffmann, C. H., "Insect Resistance," Soap, Vol. 32 (1956), No. 8, pp. 129-32.

Page 273
Brown, A. W. A., Insect Control by Chemicals. New York: Wiley, 1951.

Page 273
Briejer, C. J., "The Growing Resistance of Insects to Insecticides," Atlantic Naturalist, Vol. 13 (1958), No. 3, pp. 149-55.

Page 273
Laird, Marshall, "Biological Solutions to Problems Arising from the Use of Modern Insecticides in the Field of Public Health," Acta Tropica, Vol. 16 (1959), No. 4, pp. 331-55.

Page 273
Brown, Insecticide Resistance in Arthropods.

Page 274
__, "Development and Mechanism of Insect Resistance."

Page 275
Briejer, "Growing Resistance of Insects to Insecticides."

Page 275
"Pesticides - 1959," Jour. Agric. and Food Chem., Vol. 7 (1959), No. 10, p. 680.

Page 275
Briejer, "Growing Resistance of Insects to Insecticides."

CHAPTER 17: THE OTHER ROAD

Page 278
Swanson, Carl P., Cytology and Cytogenetics. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1957.

Page 279
Knipling, E. F., "Control of Screw-Worm Fly by Atomic Radiation," Sci. Monthly, Vol. 85 (1957), No. 4. pp. 195- 202.

Page 279
__, Screwworm Eradication: Concepts and Research Leading to the Sterile-Male Method. Smithsonian Inst. Annual Report, Publ. 4365 (1959).

Page 279
Bushland, R. C., et al., "Eradication of the Screw-Worm Fly by Releasing Gamma-Ray-Sterilized Males among the Natural Population," Proc., Internatl. Conf. on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Aug. 1955, Vol. 12, pp. 216-20.

Page 280
Lindquist, Arthur W., "The Use of Gamma Radiation for Control or Eradication of the Screwworm," Jour. Econ. Entomol., Vol. 48 (1955), No. 4, pp. 467-69.

Page 281
____, "Research on the Use of Sexually Sterile Males for Eradication of Screw-Worms," Proc., Inter-Am. Symposium on Peaceful Applications of Nuclear Energy, Buenos Aires, June 1959, pp. 229-39.

Page 281
"Screwworm vs. Screwworm," Agric. Research, July 1958, p. 8. U.S. Dept. of Agric.

Page 281
"Traps Indicate Screwworm May Still Exist in Southeast." U.S. Dept. of Agric. Release No. 1502-59 (June 3, 1959). Mimeo.

Page 282
Potts, W. H., "Irradiation and the Control of Insect Pests," Times (London) Sci. Rev., Summer 1958, pp. 13-14.

Page 282
Knipling, Screwworm Eradication: Sterile-Male Method.

Page 282
Lindquist, Arthur W., "Entomological Uses of Radioisotopes," in Radiation Biology and Medicine. U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, 1958. Chap. 27, Pt. 8, pp. 688-710.

Page 282
____, "Research on the Use of Sexually Sterile Males."

Page 283
"USDA May Have New Way to Control Insect Pests with Chemical Sterilants." U.S. Dept. of Agric. Release No. 3587-61 (Nov. 1, 1961). Mimeo.

Page 283
Lindquist, Arthur W., "Chemicals to Sterilize Insects," Jour. Washington Acad. Sci., Nov. 1961, pp. 109-14.

Page 283
____, "New Ways to Control Insects," Pest Control Mag., June 1961.

Page 283
LaBrecque, G. c., "Studies with Three Alkylating Agents As House Fly Sterilants," Jour. Econ. Entomol., Vol. 54 (1961), No. 4, pp. 684-89.

Page 284
Knipling, E. F., "Potentialities and Progress in the Development of Chemosterilants for Insect Control," paper presented at Annual Meeting Entomol. Soc. of Am., Miami, 1961.

Page 284
__, "Use of Insects for Their Own Destruction," Jour. Econ. Entomol., Vol. 53 (1960), No. 3, pp. 415-20.

Page 284
Mitlin, Norman, "Chemical Sterility and the Nucleic Acids," paper presented Nov. 27, 1961, Symposium on Chemical Sterility, Entomol. Soc. of Am., Miami.

Page 285
Alexander, Peter, To author, Feb. 19, 1962.

Page 285
Eisner, T., "The Effectiveness of Arthropod Defensive Secretions," in Symposium 4 on "Chemical Defensive Mechanisms," 11th 1nternatl. Congress of Entomologists, Vienna (1960), pp. 264-67. Offprint.

Page 285
__, "The Protective Role of the Spray Mechanism of the Bombardier Beetle, Brachynus ballistarius Lec.," Jour. Insect Physiol., Vol. 2 (1958), No. 3, pp. 215-20.

Page 285
__, "Spray Mechanism of the Cockroach Diploptera punctata," Science, Vol. 128, No. 3316 (July 18, 1958), pp. 148- 49.

Page 285
Williams, Carroll M., "The Juvenile Hormone," Sci. American, Vol. 198, No. 2 (Feb. 1958), p. 67.

Page 285
"1957 Gypsy-Moth Eradication Program." U.S. Dept. of Agric. Release 858-57-3. Mimeo.

Page 286
Brown, William L., Jr., "Mass Insect Control Programs: Four Case Histories," Psyche, Vol. 68 (1961), Nos. 2-3, pp. 75-111.

Page 286
Jacobson, Martin, et al., "Isolation, Identification, and Synthesis of the Sex Attractant of Gypsy Moth," Science, Vol. 132, No. 3433 (Oct. 14, 1960), p. 1011.

Page 287
Christenson, L. D., "Recent Progress in the Development of Procedures for Eradicating or Controlling Tropical Fruit Flies," Proc., 10th 1nternatl. Congress of Entomologists (1956), Vol. 3 (1958), pp. 11-16.

Page 287
Hoffmann, C. H., "New Concepts in Controlling Farm Insects," address to Internatl. Assn. Ice Cream Manuf. Conv., Oct. 27, 1961. Mimeo.

Page 287
Frings, Hubert, and Mable Frings, "Uses of Sounds by Insects," Annual Rev. Entomol., Vol. 3 (1958), pp. 87-106.

Page 287
Research Report, 1956-1959. Entomol. Research Inst. for Biol. Control, Belleville, Ontario. pp. 9-45.

Page 288
Kahn, M. C, and W. Offenhauser, Jr., "The First Field Tests of Recorded Mosquito Sounds Used for Mosquito Destruction," Am. Jour. Trop. Med., Vol. 29 (1949), pp. 800-27.

Page 288
Wishart, George, To author, Aug. 10, 1961.

Page 288
Beirne, Bryan, To author, Feb. 7, 1962.

Page 288
Frings, Hubert, To author, Feb. 12, 1962.

Page 288
Wishart, George, To author, Aug. 10, 1961.

Page 288
Frings, Hubert, et al., "The Physical Effects of High 1ntensity Air-Borne Ultrasonic Waves on Animals," Jour. Cellular and Compar. Physiol., Vol. 31 (1948), No. 3, pp. 339-58.

Pages 288-89
Steinhaus, Edward A., "Microbial Control -- The Emergence of an Idea," Hilgardia, Vol. 26, No. 2 (Oct. 1956), pp. 107-60.

Page 289
__, "Concerning the Harmlessness of Insect Pathogens and the Standardization of Microbial Control Products," Jour. Econ. Entomol., Vol. 50, No. 6 (Dec. 1957), pp. 715-20.

Page 289
____, "Living Insecticides," Sci. American, Vol. 195, No. 2 (Aug. 1956), pp. 96-104.

Page 289
Angus, T. A., and A. E. Heimpel, "Microbial Insecticides," Research for Farmers, Spring 1959, pp. 12-13. Canada Dept. of Agric.

Page 289
Heimpel, A. M., and T. A. Angus, "Bacterial Insecticides," Bacteriol. Rev., Vol. 24 (1960), No. 3, pp. 266-88.

Page 290
Briggs, John D., "Pathogens for the Control of Pests," Biol. and Chem. Control of Plant and Animal Pests. Washington, D.C., Am. Assn. Advancement Sci., 1960. pp. 137-48.

Page 290
"Tests of a Microbial Insecticide against Forest Defoliators," Bi-Monthly Progress Report, Canada Dept. of Forestry, Vol. 17, No. 3 (May-June 1961).

Pages 290-91
Steinhaus, "Living Insecticides."

Page 291
Tanada, Y., "Microbial Control of Insect Pests," Annual Rev. Entomol., Vol. 4 (1959), pp. 277-302.

Page 291
Steinhaus, "Concerning the Harmlessness of Insect Pathogens."

Page 291
Clausen, C. P., Biological Control of Insect Pests in the Continental United States. U.S. Dept. of Agric. Technical Bulletin No. 1139 (June 1956), pp. 1-151.

Page 291
Hoffmann, C. H., "Biological Control of Noxious Insects, Weeds," Agric. Chemicals, March-April 1959.

Page 291
DeBach, Paul, "Biological Control of Insect Pests and Weeds," Jour. Applied Nutrition, Vol. 12 (1959), No. 3, pp. 120-34.

Page 293
Ruppertshofen, Heinz, "Forest-Hygiene," address to 5th World Forestry Congress, Seattle, Wash. (Aug. 29-Sept. 10, 1960).

Page 293
__, To author, Feb. 25, 1962.

Page 293
Gosswald, Karl, Die Rote Waldameise im Dienste der Waldhygiene. Luneburg: Metta Kinau Verlag, n.d.

Page 293
__, To author, Feb. 27, 1962.

Page 295
Balch, R. E., "Control of Forest Insects," Annual Rev. Entomol., Vol. 3 (1958), pp. 449-68.

Page 295
Buckner, C. H., "Mammalian Predators of the Larch Sawfly in Eastern Manitoba," Proc., 10th Internatl. Congress of Entomologists (1956), Vol. 4 (1958), pp. 353-61.

Page 295
Morris, R. F., "Differentiation by Small Mammal Predators between Sound and Empty Cocoons of the European Spruce Sawfly," Canadian Entomologist, Vol. 81 (1949), No. 5.

Page 296
MacLeod, C. F., "The Introduction of the Masked Shrew into Newfoundland," Hi-Monthly Progress Report, Canada Dept. of Agric., Vol. 16, No. 2 (March-April 1960).

Page 296
__, To author, Feb. 12, 1962.

Page 296
Carroll, W. J., To author, March 8, 1962.
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Re: Silent Spring, by Rachel Carson

Postby admin » Tue Aug 04, 2015 2:05 am

Afterword
by Edward O. Wilson

FORTY YEARS AGO, Silent Spring delivered a galvanic jolt to public consciousness and, as a result, infused the environmental movement with new substance and meaning. The effects of pesticides and other toxic chemical pollutants on the environment and public health had been well documented before Silent Spring, but in bits and pieces scattered through the technical literature. Environmental scientists were aware of the problem, but by and large they focused only on the narrow sector of their personal expertise. It was Rachel Carson's achievement to synthesize this knowledge into a single image that everyone, scientists and the general public alike, could easily understand.

The need for such a book was great even within the sciences. As the mild-mannered aquatic biologist was researching Silent Spring, ecology was near the bottom of the scientific disciplines in prestige and support; few Americans even knew what the world meant. Conservation biology, later to become one of the most rapidly growing disciplines, did not exist. At the time, the scientific culture was fixated on the spectacular success of the molecular revolution, which had placed physics and chemistry at the foundation of biology. Researchers were learning to reduce living processes to their molecular elements. I, for example, as a young naturalist trained in field biology, was busy collaborating with organic chemists to break the code of pheromones used by ants to organize their colonies.

The environment was also excluded from the mainstream political agenda. America in the late 1950s and early 1960s was an exuberant and prospering nation. Buoyed by record peacetime economic growth, an ethic of limitless progress prevailed, yet the country, locked in a cold war that threatened our way of life, was vulnerable to the formidable enemies that encircled us. The Soviet Union had matched the United States in nuclear weaponry and beaten us into space, and on the Asian mainland China held us at a military standstill. For the sake of our prosperity and security, we rewarded science and technology with high esteem and placed great trust in the seeming infallibility of material ingenuity. As a consequence, environmental warnings were treated with irritable impatience. To a populace whose forebears had within living memory colonized the interior of a vast continent and whose country had never lost a war, arguments for limit and constraint seemed almost unpatriotic.

The temper of the times was epitomized by the concept of the peaceful use of atoms, which culminated in federal plans to excavate harbors and waterways with low-yield nuclear explosions. One such proposal seriously considered by engineers was the instant construction of a sea-level channel parallel to the Panama Canal with a string of precisely timed detonations. Fortunately, that particular dream never left the drawing board. Aside from the foreign policy complications inherent in cutting a Central American country into two pieces, there was a biological risk. The U.S. National Research Council committee reviewing the plan (on which I served as a junior member) raised a warning hand. We pointed out that organisms living in the shallow waters of the eastern Pacific are very different from those in the Caribbean. The two faunas, having evolved independently of each other for millions of years while separated by the intervening Panamanian isthmus, would now be mingled by currents flooding from the Pacific side. Among the many unfortunate likely results would be the invasion of the Caribbean waters by poisonous sea snakes as well as by sea wasps, a form of stinging jellyfish.

A second example of national impetuosity I happened to witness was the U.S. Department of Agriculture's fire ant eradication program. Rachel Carson was to label it, in Silent Spring, "an outstanding example of an ill-conceived, badly executed, and thoroughly detrimental experiment in the mass control of insects, an experiment so expensive in dollars, in destruction of animal life, and in loss of public confidence in the Agriculture Department that it is incomprehensible that any funds should still be devoted to it."

The target of this fiasco was the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta), which had been introduced into the port of Mobile, Alabama, most likely in cargo shipped from Argentina. Its colonies, each containing several hundred thousand very aggressive workers, construct soil nests surmounted by mounds as much as a foot high. The name fire ant comes from its sting, which feels like a burning match held too close to the skin. The exact time of the establishment of the species in the United States is not known, but was probably sometime in the 1930s. By rare coincidence I was the first person unofficially to record its presence. In 1942, as a thirteen-year-old Boy Scout studying ant species around my home near the Mobile docks, I discovered a single well-developed colony of red imported fire ants. Seven years later, when the species had become abundant enough to rank as a local pest, I was hired by the state of Alabama to make the first thorough study of its habits and distribution. I found that the ants were spreading radially outward from Mobile at the rate of about five miles a year and had already reached the borders of Florida and Mississippi. By continuing this advance, and also by hitchhiking in nursery and farm products, they were destined to spread during the next several decades throughout the South from the Carolinas to Texas.

The red imported fire ant was and remains a serious nuisance. Its stings are unpleasant, and on rare occasions the venom triggers fatal anaphylactic shock. The teeming workers have been known to attack seedling corn and other crops as well as the hatchlings of ground-nesting birds. Its mounds are large and numerous enough to interfere with the operation of farm machinery. Yet it was never an economic pest in the same class as the boll weevil, gypsy moth, European corn borer, and other destructive insects.

Its conspicuous and menacing behavior nevertheless caused enough alarm for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, with enthusiastic support from the pesticide industry, to launch an eradication effort, not just to control the ant but to remove it entirely from American soil. In 1958 a million acres were sprayed with the powerful insecticides dieldrin and heptachlor. As Rachel Carson documented in Silent Spring, the environmental results were catastrophic. Wildlife and livestock exposed to the poisons, through direct contact or in polluted water, began to suffer an often fatal nervous disorder. Many bird populations were decimated. The effects on human health were never assessed, and the probably destructive elements on native insect populations -- those elements necessary for the healthy functioning of the natural ecosystems -- were hardly mentioned.

The red imported fire ants bounded back after the pesticide carpet bombing and continued their spread across the South without pause. This disconcerting outcome was easy to predict. In the genetic strain of the red imported fire ant then prevalent, each colony is started by a single mated queen and grows to maturity within one to three years. At that point it starts to generate thousands of new queens, each capable of traveling for miles in the air before settling down to start a new colony. Just one surviving colony missed by the poison sprays is enough to reseed an area of many square miles. When a new formal scientific name was later picked for the species (to clear up a confusion in its taxonomic history), the logical choice was invicta, meaning "unconquered." By the late 1960s, as the eradication effort wound down, I felt justified in calling the campaign against the unconquered ant the "Vietnam of Entomology."

Rachel Carson, in recounting such horror stories in Silent Spring, did not call for an end to pest control. Rather, she asked for an end to reckless endangerment by the use of broad-spectrum pesticides. These substances, she argued, should never be spread across the nation's fruited plains without adequate and public knowledge of their impact on the environment and human health. Instead, she insisted, we must switch to clean, precise solutions based on science and broad environmental knowledge.

For the most part, Americans listened and began to turn away from wholesale toxic pollution. The Carson ethic spread to other countries and to other venues within each country. It is not possible exactly to assess the full influence of Silent Spring on American environmentalism. In the decades that followed, the book's message was blended with other scientific and literary efforts and folded into the growing activist movement, which was drawn from multiple social and political agendas. But whatever the genealogy, no one can deny that Rachel Carson's book exerted, and continues to exert, a major influence. In immediate impact, it accelerated the resistance to chemical pollution that is all but universal today -- in word if not always in deed. Silent Spring also became a national political force, largely responsible for the establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency in 1970. The task of pesticide oversight and the Food Safety Inspection Service were transferred to the new agency from the Department of Agriculture, marking a turnabout in policy emphasis from the benefits of chemical crop treatments to their risks.

A collateral effect of Silent Spring was the boost it gave to conservation of natural environments. Chemical pollution is the third-ranking cause of species extinction in the United States, after habitat destruction and "biological pollution" -- the influx of alien species that outcompete and push back native ones. The general environmental concern abetted by Silent Spring resulted in the passage in 1973 of the Endangered Species Act by a near-unanimous vote in Congress. In concept and effect the act is easily the most important piece of conservation legislation in the nation's history. Its most dramatic successes include the recovery of the American alligator, gray whale, bald eagle, peregrine falcon, and eastern population of the brown pelican. All were imperiled forty years ago, and all are now considered relatively safe.

The environmental movement nevertheless is still forced to work its way up the rough side of the mountain, even in the country that gave it birth. If Rachel Carson were alive today, I believe she would give America a mixed grade. The increased public awareness of the environment would please the educator in her; the ranking of her book as a literary classic would astonish the writer; and the existence of new regulatory laws would gratify the frustrated government bureaucrat. The naturalist in Rachel Carson, positioned at the core of her several parts, would take pleasure in knowing that ecocidal schemes such as the sea-level canal and the fire ant eradication program, if broached today, would be widely ridiculed and perish stillborn.

Even so, she would recognize that the war between environmentalists and exploiters, local and national, is far from over. It has only subsided since 1962 to a more muted equilibrium. Although developers and policymakers come up with fewer spectacularly bad large projects, they continue to chip, saw, and drill away at the remains of the American natural environment. They say, over and over, we just need a little more here and there. The environmentalists respond by saying, pull back: nature is dying the torture-death of a thousand cuts.

Of the 1,254 species protected under the Endangered Species Act at the end of 1991, four times as many are declining as are gaining in population. The enemies of federal environmental regulation cite this difference as evidence that the act has failed. Their logic, if applied widely, would call for closing hospital emergency rooms because so many people die there. They declare the Endangered Species Act a detriment to economic growth, conveniently ignoring the fact that fewer than one in a thousand projects reviewed under its provisions has been halted.

During the past forty years the United States has come to understand that it is a major player in the deterioration of the global environment. Rachel Carson, who was a quick learner, would be ahead of us in understanding the devastating effects everywhere of still-rocketing population growth combined with consumption of natural resources, the thinning of the ozone layer, global warming, the collapse of marine fisheries, and, less directly through foreign trade, the decimation of tropical forests and mass extinction of species. She would regret, I am sure, the sorry example the United States sets with its enormous per capita appropriation of productive land around the world for its consumption -- ten times that of developing countries.

On the other hand, the lady from Maryland would take some hope from Earth Summit, the successful Montreal Protocol aimed at the reduction of ozone-thinning chlorofluorocarbons, and the less successful Kyoto Protocol designed to slow climatic warming (still thwarted in 2002 by lack of American approval). She would be cheered by news of the rapid growth in funding by the muscle of such global nongovernmental organizations as Conservation International, the Nature Conservancy, and the World Wildlife Fund-U.S.

Silent Spring continues to be worthy of our attention because it marks an important moment in history, just as Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin and John Muir's Our National Parks do. The examples and arguments it contains are timeless lessons of the kind we need to reexamine. They are also timely, because the battle Rachel Carson helped to lead on behalf of the environment is far from won.

We are still poisoning the air and water and eroding the biosphere, albeit less so than if Rachel Carson had not written. Today we understand better than ever why we must press the effort to save the environment all the way home, true to the mind and spirit of the valiant author of Silent Spring.
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Re: Silent Spring, by Rachel Carson

Postby admin » Tue Aug 04, 2015 2:06 am

Index

Acetylocholine, 28-29
Adipose tissue, storage of chemicals
in, 190-91
ADP (adenosine diphosphate), 202,
203
Africa, cancer in tribes of, 237; results
of DDT spraying in, 254-55
Agriculture Department. See U.S.
Department of Agriculture
Alabama, fire ants in, 163, 164, 171
Alabama Cooperative Wildlife Research
Unit, 164, 167
Aldrin, 25, 26; nitrification affected
by, 57; persistence in soil, 58; used
against Japanese beetle in Michigan,
87, 89-91; birds killed by, 90,
91, 95, 99; toxicity, 95; as seed coating,
125
Alexander, Dr. Peter, 211, 285
Alfalfa caterpillar, virus used against,
290-91
American Cancer Society, 221
American Medical Association, 175,
190
American Society of Ichthyologists
and Herpetologists, 141
Aminotriazole, 182; carcinogenic
nature of, 36, 225-26
Amitrol. See Aminotriazole
Anemia, aplastic, 227, 228
Anopheles: mosquitoes, malaria carried
by, 257, 266; resistant to DDT,
269
Anoxia, caused by nitrates, 77; consequences
of, 204, 232
Ant, fire, 161-691 170-72, 255; forest
red, as insect predators, 293-94
Antelope, pronghorn, 65, 67
Appleworm. See Codling moth
Arant, Dr. F. 5., 163
Army Chemical Corps, Rocky Mountain
Arsenal of, 43
Arsenic, 16, 17-18; in herbicides, 35;
as carcinogen, 50-51, 220, 222-24;
soil poisoned by, 58-59; cows killed
by, 71; in crabgrass killers, 81;
human exposure to, 237
ATP (adenosine triphosphate), 202-3,
205-6, 207
Attractants, insect sex, 285-87
Audubon Society, Detroit, 90; Michigan,
90; National, 104, 147; Florida,
119
Auerbach, Charlotte, 209
Austin, Texas, fish killed by chemicals
near, 144-46

B vitamins, 236-37
Bacillus thuringiensis, 289-90
Bacterial insecticides, 288-91. See also
Milky disease
Baker, Dr. Maurice F., 164
Balance of nature, 246-48
Bantu tribes, cancer in, 237
Barker, Dr. Roy, 107, 108
Baton Rouge, birds killed by insecticides
in, 104
Beaver, 67, 68
Beck, Professor Herbert H., 120
Bedbugs, 273
Beekeeping, 17, 160
Bees, effect of parathion on, 29; dependence
on "weeds, " 73; killed by
insecticides, 160; deaths from sting
of, 164
Beetle, used in weed control, 82; Japanese,
87-99, 255, 256, 292; whitefringed,
165; vedalia, 256-57, 292
Benson, Ezra, 165
Bent, Arthur C., Lift Histories, 112
Benzene, leukemia caused by, 234
BHC (benzene hexachloride), effect
on nitrification, 57; persistence in
soil, 58; sweet potatoes and peanuts
contaminated by, 59-60 as its isomer,
lindane, 196; plant mutations
caused by, 213; and blood disorders,
227, 228, 229, 230, 234;
arthropods resistant to, 265, 267
Bernard, Richard F., 12 1
Bidlingmayer, W. L., 147
Biesele, John J., 233
Bingham, Millicent Todd, 69
Biocides, 8
Biological control of insects, 256,
259-61, 278--96
Birds, fish-eating, killed by insecticides,
45-46, 47, 48; reproduction
affected adversely by herbicides, 76;
killed by herbicides, 81; killed by
aldrin, 90, 91, 95, 99, 125-26;
killed by dieldrin, 93; killed by elm
spraying, 103-14; apparent sterility
in (eagles), 118, 120; killed by seed
treatment in England, United
States, 123-26; killed by fire ant
spraying program, 166-67; encouragement
of, in modem forests, 293.
See also Sterility, and various names
of birds, such as Eagles, Grebes,
Grouse, Gulls, Robins, Warblers
Blindness, in fish, caused by DDT,
135-36
Blood disorders, insecticides and,
227-30
Blue Island, Illinois, 91
Bob white quail, 167
Bollworm, 254-55
Bone marrow, chemicals with affinity
for, 234
Bonin 1slands, 287
Boyes, Mrs. Ann, 90
Bridger National Forest, 67-68
Briejer, C. J., 78, 245, 273, 275
British Columbia, forest spraying
injures salmon in, 137-38
British Trust for Ornithology, 123
Broley, Charles, 118-19, 122
Brooks, Professor Maurice, 104
Broun, Maurice, 119
Brown, Dr. A. W. A., 266, 271
"Brush control" spraying, 68-72;
selective, 74-75, 81
Budworm, black-headed, DDT spraying
for in British Columbia, 137-38
Budworm, spruce, DDT spraying
for in eastern Canada, 130-35; in
Maine, 135; in Montana, 136-37;
use of microbial disease against,
290
Burnet, Sir F. Macfarlane, 21 1, 234
Butler, Dr. Philip, 151

Cactus, insect enemy used to control,
82-83
California Citrus Experiment Station,
264
California Department of Public
Health, 49
Canada, spraying programs in,
137-38; "forest hygiene" programs
in, 295-96
Cancer: hazards from polluted water,
50-51; and cellular oxidation, 204;
natural causative agents, 219; and
man-made carcinogens, 219-20;
and industrial carcinogens, 220-21;
increase in, 221; in children,
221-22; and pesticides as carcino-
gens, 222-30, 237; Warburg theory
of origin, 231-33; and chromosome
abnormality, 233-34; urethane
as cause of, 235; possible indirect
causes, 235-37; and imbalance
of sex hormones, 235-37;
protective role of vitamins against,
236-37; multiple exposure to causative
agents of, 237-40; search for
cause vs. search for cure, 140-43.
See also Leukemia
Carbamates, 111-13, 235
Carbon tetrachloride, molecular
structure, 20
Carcinogens, 210-10; industrial,
220-11, 126; pesticides as, 222-15,
226-30; herbicides as, 2.1-5-16
Carroll, Lewis, 183
Carrots, insecticides absorbed by, 59
Cats, affected by aldrin, 90; dieldrin
fatal to, 93-94
Cattle: killed by arsenical insecticides,
71; attracted to and killed by plants
sprayed with 2, 4-D, 76-77; killed
by fire ant program, 168 Cell division,
209-10; and cancer, 230-33
Cellular oxidation, 100-103; effect of
insecticides upon, 203-7
Chaoborus astictopus, gnat, 46-47
Chemicals, general, new to human
environment, 7; insect-killing, new,
7; insecticidal, growth of production
of, 16, 17; biological potency
of, 16; dangerous interaction of,
31-32, 138; recurrent exposure to,
'73-74; less toxic, 184; stored in
human body, 190; parallel between
radiation and, 208-9. See also Herbicides,
1nsecticides, Pesticides, and
various chemicals by name
Chester Beatty Research Institute
(London), 285
Chickadees, 112
Chlordane, 21, 13-24; persistence in
soil, 58; in crabgrass killers, 80;
toxic to fish, 140, 145; household
use questionable, 174; and blood
disorders, 227, 228, 219; arthropods
resistant to, 267; roaches and
ticks resistant to, 271
Chloroform, molecular structure, 19
Cholera epidemic, London, 240-41
Cholinesterase, 29, 195
Chromosomes: and mitosis, 210; effect
of environmental factors on,
211; effect of pesticides on, 212-14;
abnormality of, in chronic leukemia,
213-15; abnormality of, and
birth defects, 215-16; abnormality
of, and cancer, 133-34
Cigarettes, arsenic content of, 58
CIPC, 225, 238
Cirrhosis, increase of, 192
Citrus industry, scale insect a threat
to, 256-57, 291
Clams, 150-51
Clear Lake, California, 46-50
Cockroaches, 271
Codling moth, in Nova Scotia, 254;
resistant to sprays, 264; resistant to
DDT, 272
Colorado River, fish destruction in,
114-45
Commercial Fisheries, Bureau of,
150, 151
Congenital defects, due to anoxia,
204; due to chromosome damage,
215
Connecticut Arboretum, 70, 71
Cordoba Province, Argentina, arsenic
poisoning and arsenical skin cancer
in, 223
Com borer, 255-56
Cornell University, 285; Agricul1ural
Experiment Station, 160
Cottam, Dr. Clarence, 167-68
Coyotes, 248
Crabgrass, 80-81, 177-78
Crabs, dieldrin fatal to, 147-49
Cranberry-weed killer, 37, 182,
225-26
Cranbrook Institute of Science, 109,
113
Culex mosquitoes, 267
Curacao, eradication of screw-worm
on, 280-81.
Czechoslovakia, biological warfare
experiments in, 291

Darwin, Charles, The Formation of
Vegetable Mould, 55-56
Darwin, Erasmus, 291
Davis, Professor David E., 213
DDD, 46; used against gnats at Clear
Lake, 46-49; physiological effect
of, 49
DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane),
discovery, 20; stored in
human body, 21-22, 177, 178, 179;
passed from one organism to another,
22-23; used against spruce
budworm, 41-42, 13 1-35; persistence
in soil, 58; birds poisoned by,
103, 107, 112, 113, 122, 125; used
for Dutch elm disease, 107-8; effect
on reproduction of birds, 108-9,
12o-n, 206, 207; stored in tissues
of fish, 136-37; toxic to fish, 143,
144; aerial spraying of, 158--60; in
milk, 159; in leaf crops, 160; effect
on nervous system, 192-93; as uncoupler,
204; genetic effects on
mosquitoes, 212; as carcinogen,
225; and blood disorders, 227, 228,
230; human exposure to, 238; certain
insects increase under spraying,
252, 253-55, 260; effect on spider
mite, 253-54; used against
typhus, 267; flies develop resistance
to, 267-68; mosquitoes resistant to,
269-70, 273; agricultural insects resistant
to, 272
DeBach, Dr. Paul, 257, 292
Deer, mule, 66, 67; Kaibab, 248
Defects, congenital. See Congenital
defects
Denmark, flies become resistant in,
267
Detergents, indirect role in carcinogenesis,
238-39
Detroit, spraying for Japanese beetle
in, 87, 89-91
Detroit Audubon Society, 90
Detroit News, 89
DeWitt, Dr. James, 120, 121
Dieldrin, 21, 25-26; aldrin convened
to, in soil, 58; effects of spraying
with, in Sheldon, Ill., 92-94; toxicity,
92-93; cats killed by, 93-94;
toxic to fish, 139, 140; toxic to
shrimp, 150; used against fire ants,
165; ruled unsuitable in forage,
169; delayed effects on nervous system,
196; flies resistant to, 268; banana
root borer resistant to, 290
Diels, Otto, 25
"Dinitro" herbicides, 36
Dinitrophenol, 36, 203-4, 207
Disease, environmental, 187-98; insect-
borne, 266; as weapon against
insects, 288-91
Douglas, Justice William 0., 67, 68,
72, 159
Dragonflies, 250
Dubos, Dr. Rene, 189
Dutch elm disease, 105; spraying for,
106, 114-15; controlled by sanitation,
115-17
Dutch Plant Protection Service, 78

Eagles, insecticides a threat to,
118-20, 121-22
Earthworms, Darwin on, 55-56; poisoned
by spraying, 107-8; 110
East Lansing, Mich., robin population
affected by spraying at, 106-9
Ecology, 189
Ecology of Invasions, The (Elton), 10
Egler, Dr. Frank, 74
Egypt, flies develop resistance in, 268
Eliassen, Professor Rolf, 40
Elm: American, and Dutch elm disease,
10, 105, 114; European, 117
Elton, Dr. Charles, 10, 11, 117, 265
Endrin, 25, 26-27; toxic to fish, 139,
140; toxic to shrimp, 150
England, use of arsenical weed killers
in, 35; birds affected by seed treatment in,
122-25
Entomologists, chemical control
favored by some, 259
Environment, adjustment of life to,
6-7; man's contamination of, 8-13
Enzymes, function, 16, 204; affected
by organic phosphates, 28-29; cholinesterase,
29, 34, 195, 197; liver,
31, 32, 191; role in oxidation, 201,
202, 204; in flies, 274
Eskimos, DDT in fat of, 179-80
Estrogens and cancer, 236, 237

Farm surpluses and insect control, 9
Fawks, Elton, 120
Federal Aviation Agency, 89
Field Notes, Audubon, 104
Fire ant, program against, 161-69,
170-72, 255; effective method of
control, 172
"Fire damp," 19
Fish, killed by insecticides, 41-42,
122, 131-47, 149-50; affected by
herbicides, 67, 68; blinded by DDT,
135-36
Fish and Wildlife Service. See U.S.
Fish and Wildlife Service
Fisheries Research Board of Canada,
132
"Flareback," insects', after spraying,
8, 252-58
Flint Creek, Alabama, 142
Florida, fish destruction in, 141; pesticide
pollution in salt marshes in,
146-48; abandons broad fire ant
control program, 172; mosquitoes
become resistant in, 270
Flukes, blood and liver, 258
Fly, fruit, 212, 287; screw-worm,
280-82; Hessian, 287; melon, 287.
See also Housefly
Food, chemical residues in, 178-84;
contamination in warehouses, 181.
See also Milk
Food and Drug Administration. See
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
"Forest hygiene," 293
Forest Service. See U.S. Forest Service
France, birds affected by insecticides
in, 122
Freiberg, Germany, arsenic-contamination
affects animals at, 223-24
Frings, Hubert and Mable, 288

Game Birds Association (British), 123
Gardening, poisons used in, 176-78
Genelly, Dr. Richard, 12 1
Genes, 209-10
Genetic effect, of chemicals, 8, 208,
209; of radiation, 208
"Ginger paralysis, " 197
Gnat, Chaoborus astictopus, 46-47
Goatweed. See Klamath weed
Gosswald, Professor Karl, 293-94
Grebes, western, 45, 47-48
Gromme, Owen J., 113
Groundwater, contamination of,
42-43, 50
Grouse, sage, 65, 67
Gulls, 45; California, DDD residues
in, 48; laughing, affected by spraying
of marshes, 148
Gynandromorphs, 212
"Gyplure, " 286
Gypsy moth, 156-57; importation of
natural enemies of, 157; aerial
spraying for, 158-61; secretion as
weapon against, 2.85-86; synthetic
lure isolated, 286

Hargraves, Dr. Malcolm, 227, 228,
229
Harrington, R. W., Jr., 147
Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, 110--20
Hayes, Dr. Wayland, Jr., 22
Health problems, new environmental,
187-98
Hepatitis, 25; increase of, 192
Heptachlor, 24; effect on nitrification,
57; persistence in soil, 58; effect
on hops sprayed with, 60-61;
effect on wildlife, Joliet, Illinois, 91;
toxic to fish, 139, 140, 141; used
against fire ants, 165, 166, 167,
168-69, 171; ruled unsuitable on
forage, 169; peculiar nature of, 170;
use results in increase of sugarcane
borer, 255
Herbicides, toxic effects of, 34-37,
76; used against sagebrush, 64-68;
used for roadside "brush control"
68-72, 74; animals attracted to
plants sprayed with, 76-77; possible
effects on reproduction in birds, 78;
toxic to plankton, 150-51; as agents
of chromosome damage, 2 1 3; as
carcinogens, 225-26
Hessian fly, 287.
Hickey, Professor Joseph, 109
Hinsdale, Illinois, birds killed by
DDT in, 103
Hiroshima, leukemia among survivors
of, 226
Hops, destroyed by heptachlor, 60-61
Hormones, sex, imbalance of, and
cancer development, 235-37
Housefly, diseases carried by, 266; resistance
to DDT and other chemicals,
267-68, 273-74; pilot projects
in sterilization of, 282-83
Hueper, Dr. W. C., on arsenicals, 18;
on contaminated drinking water,
50; on congenital and infant
cancer, 221-22, 235; Occupational
Tumors, 222, 223; on DDT as carcinogen,
225; on epidemic of cancer
in trout, 239; on eliminating
causative agents of cancer, 240-43
Hurricane: Edna (1954), 133; of
1938, 157
Huxley, Thomas, 248
Hydrocarbons, chlorinated, 18-27;
storage of, 21, 24, 1S, 190; persist
ence in soil, 58; sensitivity of fish
to, 139; in food crops, 180-84; effect
on liver, 191-92, 195, 235; effect
on nervous system, 192-96,
198; genetic effects of, 213-14

Illinois Agriculture Department, 91
Illinois Natural History Survey, 91,
94, 113; report quoted, 94
Industry, malignancies traceable to,
220-21, 226
Insecticides: abuses in use, general,
12-13; botanical, 16, 184; synthetic,
biological potency of, 16; arsenical,
17-18; chlorinated hydrocarbon,
18-27, 58, 139. 180-84, 191-96,
198, 21 3-14; organic phosphorus,
18-20, 27-32, 192, 195, 106-98;
systemic, 32-34; absorbed in plant
tissues, 59-61; fatal to birds,
103-14, 118-26; in household use,
174-75; available to home gardeners,
176-78; storage in adipose tissue,
190-91; interaction between,
195-96; linked with mental disease,
197-98; research on, 258-59; modem,
first medical use of, 267; bacterial,
289-91. See also Chemicals,
Pesticides, and various chemicals by
name
Insects, "flareback" after spraying, 8,
252-57; disease-carrying, 9,
257-58; incidence of, under single-crop
farming, 10; strains resistant
to chemicals, 246; control of, 247;
fecundity of, 147; held in check by
natural forces, 249-51; parasitic,
250-51; population upsets caused
by chemicals, 151-57; biological
control of, 256, 259-61, 278-96;
resistant to spraying, 263-72;
agricultural, developing resistance
of, 272; mechanism of resistance,
272-74; experiments with secretions
of, as weapons, 285-87; male
annihilation programs, 287; ultrasonic
sound as weapon against,
287-88; diseases of, as weapons
against, 288-91; natural enemies as
aid in control of, 291-06. See also
various insects by name
IPC, 225, 238
Iroquois County, Illinois, Japanese
eradication program in, 91-94, 95
Irrigation waters, contamination of,
44-46

Jacob, F. R., 159
Japanese beetle, adverse side-effects of
spraying, in Midwest, 87-96, 255;
control of, in the eastern states,
96-99; milky disease of, 97-99, 189;
total annual damage by, 156
Joachimsthal, lung cancer among
workers at, 220
Joliet, Illinois, disastrous effects of
heptachlor in, 91
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,
275

Kafue bream, 144
Klamath Lake, Lower and Upper, 45
Klamath weed, 81-82
Klinefelter's syndrome, 214
Knipling, Dr. Edward, 279, 280, 284
Koebele, Albert, 291 , 292
Korea, lice develop resistance to
DDT in, 168-69
Kuala Lumpur, Malaya, resistant
mosquitoes at, 273
Kuboyama, 229

Lacewings, 250-5 1
Ladybugs, 249-50
Laird, Marshall, 257
Lawns, treated for crabgrass, 80-81
Lead, arsenate of, 59, 253, 254, 261
Leaf roller, red-banded, 254
Leather Trades Review, 265
Lehman, Dr. Arnold, 22, 24
Leukemia, 234; chromosome abnormality
in, 214-15; and pesticides as
causative agents, 222, 226-30j rapid
development of, 226; rising incidence
of, 226-27, 234; DDT and
case histories of, 227, 228; in children,
235; as possible two-step
process, 2. 38
Levan, Albert, 2. 33
Lice, body, as disease carriers, 266;
resistance among, 267, 268-69
Lift (Simpson, Pittendrigh, Tiffany),
210
Lime sulfur, resistance to, 264
Lindane, nitrification affected by, 57;
household use of 175; effects on
nervous system, 196; plant mutations
caused by, 213; and blood disorders,
227, 228, 229, 234
Liver, cellular damage caused by
DDT, 21, 23; diseases of, caused by
chlorinated naphthalenes, 25; function
of, 191; effect of chlorinated
hydrocarbons on, 191-92, 195, 236;
role in sex hormone inactivation,
235-36; damage, and cancer development,
236-37
Long Island, effect of spraying for
gypsy moth on, 158
Louisiana, fish mortality in, 140; reluctance
to sign up for fire ant program
in, 171; sugarcane borer increased
by fire ant chemicals, 255
Lower Klamath Lake, California, 45
Lucky Dragon, tuna vessel, 229

McGill University, cancer research at,
236
Maine, brush spraying in, 69-70; forest
spraying affects fish in, 135
Maine Department of 1nland Fisheries
and Game, 135
Malaria, flare-ups of, 270. See also
Mosquitoes
Malathion, 30-31, 32, 191; symptoms
of poisoning by, 177; effect on
nervous system, 197
Malaya, resistance of mosquitoes in,
273
Male annihilation programs, 287
Male sterilization technique, 27!r84
Maleic hydrazide, 213
Malformations. See Defects, congenital
Mammals: killed by weeds sprayed
with 2,4-D, 77; killed by aldrin,
90-91, 95, 90-100; killed by dieldrin,
93-94; killed by insecticides
in England, 124; killed by fire ant
program, 165-68; insecticides
found in testes of, 207; effect of
arsenic ingestion on, 223; cancer
research on, 236. See also Antelope,
Beaver, Cats, Coyotes, Deer,
Moose
Mantis, praying, 249, 251
Marigolds, used for combating nematodes,
78-79
Marsh gas, 19
Matagorda Bay, insecticides threaten
waters of, 145, 146
Matthysse, J. G., 116
Max Planck Institute of Cell Physiology,
231
Mayo Clinic, lymph and blood diseases
treated at, 21 7-28
Mealy bugs, 292
Mehner, John, 106, 108
Melander, A. L., 263-64
Melbourne, University of, 198
Melon fly, 287
Mental disease, insecticides linked
with, 197-98
Mental retardation, 215
Mesenteries, protective, 21
Metcalf, Robert, 247
Metchnikoff, Elie, 289
Methane, 19
Methoxychlor, 191, 195-96
Methyl chloride, molecular structure,
19
Methyl-eugenol, 287
Michigan Audubon Society, 90
Michigan State University, robin
population reduced by spraying at,
106-9
Microbial insecticides. See Bacterial
insecticides
Migration, worldwide, of organisms.
10-11.
Milk: human, insecticidal residues in,
23; pesticide residues in, 159-60,
160-70, 179
Milkfish, destroyed by spraying, 144
Milky disease, Japanese beetle, 97-99,
289
Miller, Howard C., 116
Mills, Dr. Herbert R., 147, 148
Minnesota, University of, 78
Miramichi River, 129-30; salmon affected
by DDT spraying, 131-35
Mississippi Agricultural and Experiment
Station, 172
Mites, soil, 55; spider, 252, 254; DDT
spraying leads to increase of, in
western forests, 253; in Nova Scotia,
260
Mitochondria, 201-2
Mitosis, 209-10
Molln, Germany, forest program in,
294
Mongolism, 215
Montana, forest spraying in, 136-37
Montana Fish and Game Department,
136, 137
Moose, 67, 68
Mosquitoes, control of, and problem
of fish conservation, 144; malaria-carrying,
257; genetic effect of
DDT on, 262; as disease transmitters,
266; Culex, 267; resistant to
DDT, 267, 269-70, 273; ultrasonic
sound as weapon against, 287-88.
See also Anopheles
Moth, Argentine, used in weed control,
83
Mothproofing, 174, 175
Mount Johnson Island, 120
Mule deer, 66, 67
Muller, Dr. Hermann J., 209, 211,
279
Muller, Paul, 20
Murphy, Robert Cushman, 103, 159
Mustard gas, 209
Mutagens, 37; chemical, 209, 212-16
Mutations, genetic, 208; caused by
various chemicals, 212-13; caused
by X-rays, 279. See also Genetic
effect
My Wilderness: East to Katahdin (Douglas),
67

Naphthalenes, 25, 228
National Audubon Society, 104, 147
National Cancer Institute, 239. See
also Hueper, Dr. W. C.
Natural History Survey. See Illinois
Natural History Survey
Nature, checks and balances of,
246-48
Nematode worms, marigolds used
against, 78-79
Nervous system, effect of insecticides
on, 192-98
New York State, Dutch elm disease
control in, 115-17
New York Times, 176
Newsom, Dr. L. D., 172
Nickell, Walter P., 87
Nicotine sulphate, 16, 260, 261
Nissan 1sland, 257
Nitrification, effect of herbicides on,
57
Nitrophenols, 228
Nova Scotia, biological control of orchard
pests in, 260-61
Nuclear division. See Mitosis

Occupational Tumors (Hueper), 222
Office of Vital Statistics, National,
164, 205, 221, 227
Oklahoma Wildlife Conservation
Department, 143
Oligospermia, crop dusters subject
to, 208
Organic phosphates, 27-32; effects on
nervous system, 192, 195. 196-98
Organisms, worldwide migration of,
10-11
Oxidation, cellular, 200-203; effect
of insecticides upon, 203-7; and
cancer research, 231-33
Oysters, 150-51

Pacific Flyway, 46
Pacific Science Congress, 144
Pallister, John C., 271
Paradichlorobenzene, 228
Paralysis, "ginger," 196-97
Parathion, 28, 29-30, 32, 126-27, 197
Pascal, 177
Pasteur, Louis, 220, 288
Patau, Dr. Klaus, 215
Peanuts, insecticide-contaminated, 60
Pennsylvania, fish mortality in, 140
Penta (pentachlorophenol), 36, 203-4
Pest Control Institute, Springforbi,
Denmark, 273
Pesticides, worldwide distribution of,
15-17; and blocking of process of
oxidation, 204; as mutagens, 209,
212-16; as carcinogens, 222-30; indirect
role in cancer, 237; and upset
of insect populations, 252-57. See
also Chemicals, 1nsecticides, and
various chemicals by name
"Pheasant sickness," 115
Phenols: effect on metabolism, 103;
genetic effects of, 111
Phillip, Captain Arthur, 81
Philippines, fish killed by spraying
in, 144
Phosphates. See Organic phosphates
Phosphorylation, coupled, 203
Pickett, A. D., 259-61
Pittendrigh, Colin S., 210
Plankton, DDD accumulated by, 48;
herbicides toxic to, 150-51
Plant killers. See Herbicides and
Weed killers
Plants, importation of, 11
Pneumonia, chemical, 78
poisoning, pesticide. See Disease,
environmental
poisons, availability of, to homeowners,
174-78
Poitevint, Dr. Otis L., 168-69
Polistes wasp, 251
Pott, Sir Percivall, 220
Price, Dr. David, 188
Prickly pears, insect enemy used to
control, 82-83
Prince Henry's Hospital, Melbourne,
198
Pyrethrins, 184
Pyrethrum, 16

Quail, 167

Rabinowitch, Eugene, 201
Radiation, 6-7; as uncoupler, 203;
and congenital deformity, 205; effect
on living cell, 208; parallel between
chemicals and, 208-9; and
cancer, 219; sterilization of insects
by, 279-83
Ragweed, 80
Ragwort, sprayed, attractive to livestock,
76
Rangelands, spraying of, 68
Ray, Dr. Francis E., 222
"Reichenstein disease" 223
Reproduction: of birds, adversely affected
by herbicides, 76; of birds,
affected by DDT and related insecticides,
108-9. 120-12, 206, 207,
213; diminished, linked with interference
with biological oxidation,
205
Reservoirs, insecticides in, 50
Residues, chemical, on food, 178- 83
Resistance: of scale insects to lime
sulfur, 264; of blue ticks to BHC,
165; of disease-carrying insects,
267; of houseflies to DDT, 267.
268; of various mosquitoes, 267,
269-70; of houseflies to BHC, 268;
of body lice to DDT, 268-69; of
malaria mosquitoes, 269; of ticks,
270-71; of German cockroaches,
271; of agricultural insects, 271-7 2;
mechanism of, 272-74
Resurgence, insect, 8, 25 2-58
Rhoads, C. P., 236-37
Rhodesia, fish destruction in, 143-44
Rice fields, 1l5-26
Roadside spraying, 69-75
Robins, affected by spraying for
Dutch elm disease, 106-9; reproduction
affected by DDT, 121
Robson, William, 209
Rocky Mountain Arsenal, 43
Root borer, banana, 290
Rostand, Jean, quoted, 13
Rotenone, 16, 184
Royal Society for the Protection of
Birds, 123
Royal Victoria Hospital (McGill),
cancer research at, 236
Rudd, Dr. Robert, 12 1
Runner, G. A., 279
Ruppertshofen, Dr. Heinz, 294, 295,
296
Rutstein, Dr. David, 226
Ryania, 184, 261

Sagebrush, tragic consequences of
campaign to destroy, 64-67
St. Johnswort. See Klamath weed
Salmon, Miramichi, affected by DDT
spraying, 129-35; in British Columbia,
killed by spraying, r37-38
San Jose scale, 264
Sardinia, insect resistance in, 267
Satterlee, Dr. Henry S., 58, 59
Sawflies, shrews as aid to control of,
295-96
Scale, San Jose, 264; cotton cushion,
256-57, 292
Schistosoma, 258
Schradan, 34
Schrader, Gerhard, 28
Schweitzer, Albert, quoted, 6
Screw-worms, eradicated through
sterilization, 280-82
Seed treatment, effects of, in England,
122-25; in United States,
125-26
Sex hormones, imbalance of, and cancer
development, 235-37
Sheldon, Illinois, effects of Japanese
beetle eradication program in,
91-94
Shelf paper, insecticide-treated,
174-75
Shellfish, affected by chemicals,
150-51
Shepard, Paul, 12
Shrews, as aid in sawfly control,
295-96
Shrimp, 149-50
"Silo deaths," 78
Simpson, George Gaylord, 210
Single-crop farming, insect problems
in, 10
Sloan-Kettering Institute, 233, 237
Snails, immune to insecticides,
257-5 8
Snow, John, 240
Soil, creation of, 53; organisms,
54-56; impact of pesticides on,
56-57; long persistence of insecticides
in, 57-61
Soot, 17; as containing cancer-producing
agent, 219, 220
Sound, ultrasonic, as weapon against
insects, 287-88
Southeast Asia, mosquito control
programs threaten fish in, 144
Sparrow, house, relative immunity to
some poisons, 166
Spider mites. See Mites
Spiders, as agents for biological control
of insects, 294-95
Spraying, "brush control," 68-72;
selective, 74-75, 81; disastrous
effect on wildlife, 85-87; aerial,
1SS-56; for gypsy moth, 158-61j
modified, 260--61
Springforbi, Denmark, Pest Control
Institute at, 273
Springtails, 55
Steinhaus, Dr. Edward, 291
Sterility: caused by aldrin, 26; of
grebes, 48; caused by insecticide
poisoning, 108-9; of robins, 108-9;
of eagles, 120; experimentally produced
in birds, 21 3
Sterilization: of male insects, as
method of control, 279-84; by
chemicals, 283-84
Strontium 90, 6, 234
Sugarcane borer, heptachlor increases
damage by, 255
Super races, evolution of, 8
Swallows, 111
Swanson, Professor Carl P., 278
Sweeney, Joseph A., 115
Sweet potatoes, BHC-contaminated,
59
Syracuse, New York, Dutch elm disease
in, 116
Syrphid fly, 249

Texas Game and Fish Commission,
145, 146
Ticks, developing resistance to chemicals,
265, 270-71
Tiffany, L. Hanford, 210
Tiphia vernalis, 96-97, 292
Tobacco, arsenic content of, 58-59
Tobacco hornworm, 287
Toledo, Ohio, Dutch elm disease in,
114-15
"Tolerances," 181-83
Toxaphene, toxic to fish, 41, 139, 140,
145; used against boll weevils, 142;
and blood disorders, 229
Triorthocresyl phosphate, '97
Trout, liver cancer in, 239
Trouvelot, Leopold, 156
Tsetse fly, British experiments to
eradicate, 282
Tule Lake, California, 45
Turkeys, wild, reduced by fire and
program, 167
Turner, Neely, 12
Turner's syndrome, 215
2,4-D, spontaneous formation of,
43-44; nitrification interrupted by,
57; physiological effects, 75-76;
curious effect on livestock, 76-77i
nitrate content of plants increased
by, 77-78; as cause of unplanned
changes in vegetation, 79; as uncoupler,
204; plant mutations
caused by, 213
2,4,5-T, 75
Typhus, DDT used against, 267;
DDT ineffective against, 268-69

Ullyett, G. C, , 6,
Uncoupling, 203-4
U.S. Department of Agriculture: rulings
on heptachlor, 60; Japanese
beetle program, 91, 92; research on
milky disease, 99; and gypsy moth
control, 157-58; campaign against
fire ants, 162-69, 170-72; on mothproofing,
175; estimates of Japanese
beetle and corn borer damage,
256;on resistance of insects, 275;
and development of male steriliza-
tion techniques, 279, 282-83
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: study
of effects of DDT spraying, 4'; reports
on aldrin, 89; Audubon Field
Notes, 104; concern over parathion,
126; study of bud worm spraying,
136; study of fish with tumors, 239
U.S. Food and Drug Administration:
regulations concerning chemical
residues in food, 141, 179, 180,
182; on pesticide residues in milk,
169; bans use of heptachlor on
foods, 170; on dangers of chlordane,
174; jurisdiction, 181; recommendations
on chemicals with
cancer-producing tendencies, 224,
225
U.S. Forest Service, 67, 136, 253
U.S. Office of Plant 1ntroduction, 11
United States Pharmacopeia, 196
U.S. Public Health Service, 44, 89,
139, 178-79
University of Melbourne, 198
University of Minnesota Medical
School, 78
University of Wisconsin, 113; Agricultural
Experiment Station, 78; research
in chromosome abnormality,
215
Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 45
Urbana, Illinois, Dutch elm disease
in, 114
Urethane, 212; as cancer-producing
agent, 235

Vedalia beetle, 256-57, 292
Vegetation, roadside, spraying of,
68-72; importance of, 72-73; selective
spraying of, 74-75
Viruses, as substitute for chemical insecticides,
290-91
Vitamins, protective role against cancer,
236-37

Wald, George, 199
Wallace, Dr. George, 106, 107, 108,
112, 121
Waller, Mrs. Thomas, 159
Warblers, 111
Warburg, Professor Otto, 231-32
Wasp, Tiphia vernalis, 96-97, 292;
muddauber, 149; horseguard, 249;
Polistes, 151
Water: pollution by pesticides, 39-51;
salt-shore, pesticidal pollution of,
146-51: polluted by detergents,
138-39' See also Fish
Waterford, Connecticut, trees injured
by spraying at, 71
Waterfowl, spraying a threat to,
45-46, 148
Webworms, biological warfare against,
190, 191
Weed control, insect enemies used
for, 81-83
Weed killers, 34-36, 68-71. See also
Crabgrass and Herbicides
Weevil, strawberry root, 60; boll,
141-41
West Virginia, bird population reduced
in, 104
Wheeler Reservoir, Alabama, 141
Whiskey Stump Key, Florida, 147
Whitefish Bay, Wisconsin, decline of
warblers in, 111
Wild cherry, sprayed, fatally attractive
to livestock. 76
Wildlife losses from pesticides,
85-87: in Japanese beetle spraying,
90, 91, 93, 95: in Dutch elm disease
spraying, 106-14: in England,
111-15; in rice fields, 115-16; in
forest spraying, 131-31, 134,
135-39. See also Fish, Birds, Mammals,
and various species
Winge, Ojvind, 134
Wisconsin, University of, 113; Agricultural
Experiment Station, 78;
chromosome research at, 215
Woodcocks, 110, 166-67
Woodticks, 170
World Health Organization, anti-malarial
campaigns of, 25;
Venezuelan cats killed by spraying
of, 94; and problem of insect resistance,
265, 266

X-ray, sterilization of insects by,
279-83

Yellow fever, Rare-ups of, 270 Yellow
jackets, 249
Yellowstone River, fish destruction
in, 136

Image

RACHEL CARSON (1907-1964) spent most of her professional life as a marine biologist with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. By the late 1950s, she had written three lyrical, popular books about the sea, including the best-selling The Sea Around Us, and had become the most respected science writer in America. She completed Silent Spring against formidable personal odds and despite critical attacks that echoed the assault on Charles Darwin when he published The Origin of Species, and with it shaped a powerful social movement that has altered the course of history.

Despite the enormous impact of Silent Spring, Carson remained modest about her accomplishment; as she wrote to a friend, "The beauty of the living world I was trying to save has always been uppermost in my mind -- that, and anger at the senseless, brutish things that were being done ... Now I can believe I have at least helped a little."

Among the many honors and awards Carson received during her lifetime were the National Book Award, for The Sea Around Us (1951); a Guggenheim fellowship (1951-1952); the John Burroughs Medal (1952 ; the Henry G. Bryant Gold Medal (1952); the Women's National Book Association Constance Lindsay Skinner Award (1963); the Conservationist of the Year Award from the National Wildlife Federation (1963); and a Gold Medal from the New York Zoological Society (1963).

Rachel Carson lived in Silver Spring, Maryland, until her untimely death.

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"The cornerstone of the new environmentalism ... well crafted, fearless, and succinct." -- PETER MATTH1ESSEN

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Rarely does a single book alter the course of history, but Rachel Carson's Silent Spring did exactly that. The outcry that followed its publication in 1962 forced the banning of DDT and spurred revolutionary changes in the laws affecting our air, land, and water. Carson's passionate concern for the future of our planet reverberated powerfully throughout the world, and her eloquent book was instrumental in launching the environmental movement. It is without question one of the landmark books of the twentieth century.

This edition includes an afterword by the author and scientist Edward O. Wilson. The introduction, by the acclaimed biographer Linda Lear, tells the story of Carson's courageous defense of her truths in the face of a ruthless assault from the chemical industry following the publication of Silent Spring and before her untimely death.

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RACHEL CARSON, 1907-1964, spent a good deal of her professional life as a marine biologist with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Her first three books -- Under the Sea-Wind, The Sea Around Us, and The Edge of the Sea -- established her reputation as a first-rate writer on the natural world.

EDWARD O. WILSON is the author of two Pulitzer Prize-winning books, On Human Nature and The Ants. His most recent book is The Creation, An Appeal to Save Life on Earth.

L1NDA LEAR is the author of Rachel Carson, Witness for Nature.
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