A Higher Form of Killing: The Secret Story of Chemical and B

Re: A Higher Form of Killing: The Secret Story of Chemical a

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INDEX

Aachen, 104
Abyssinia, 49 - 50
acerycholine, 54
aconitine, 61
Adie, Captain, 18
Advanced Projects Research Agency, 240
Afghanistan, 43 - 4, 232 - 3, 245
African Swine Fever, 262
Agee, Philip, 21 5
Agent Orange, 191 - 3, 196
Agriculture and Fisheries, Ministry of, 86
Agricultural Research Council, 86
Alaska, 182, 224
Alexander, General, 122
Algeria, 259
Ambros, Otto, 54, 55, 64
American Chemical Society, 45
Anderson, Sir Austin, 40, 4 I
Anderson, Jack, 219
Anderson, Sir John, 98
animal experiments, 39 - 40, 60, 77, 168, 176
Anorgana, 55
anthrax: first suggested as BW agent, 70;
method of preparing spores, 70 - 1; effects
of, 70, 88; used in Gruinard tests, 70 - 4;
prepared by the Japanese, 76, 77, 78, 79,
141; used in cattle cakes, 86 - 8; code - named
N, 100; Lord Cherwell reports to Churchill
on, 100 - 1, 102; USA begins manufacturing
4 lb bombs, 100 - 4, Britain orders 500, 000
of, 101 - 4; Allied contingency plans for use
of, 104 - 5; crudeness of as a weapon, 105;
considered for use against German cities,
129, 132 - 5; 75, 82, 84, 94, 97, 142, 153,
155, 161, 162, 165, 167, 170, 171, 172,
2.15, 218, 2.2.1.
anti - crop warfare, 97 - 100, 160, 190-2
Apen, von, 142 - 3
Arbusov, Alexander, 139
Archangel, 43
Armenueres, 3 I
'Armor For The Inner Man', 189
Army Medical Research Institute, 222
Arras, Battle of, 22 - 3
arsenic, 89
Asian 'flu, 168
Aspergillus (umigatus, 156
Atelier de Pyrotechnie du Bouchet, 43
atomic bomb, 65, 96, 100, 105, 114, 124, 134,
135
atropine, 57
Attlee, Clement, I13
Aultbea, 68, 72
Australia, 47, 98, 175, 177, 201, 227, 257
Avonmouth mustard gas factory, 28
Bacillus globigii, 156
Bacon, Geoffrey, 169
Bacteriological Warfare Committee, 72, 84,
101, 248
Bahamas, 155, 169
Baldwin, Stanley, 50
Balkans, I3 1 - 2
Bandera, Stefan, 199
Barcroft, Joseph, 5, 37 - 8
Bari Harbour disaster, 119 - 23
Barley, Colonel, I15
'Beam' operations, 29 - 30
Beaverbrook, Lord, 113
Beckstrom, Howard D., 119 - 20
Ben Lomond, 157, 158
Berlin, 104, 105, 125
Bertram, Captain, 3
Bild Zeitung, 221
'binary' weapons, 231 - 2, 237, 239 - 40
Biological Weapons Convention, 171, 172,
217 - 18, 219, 221, 222 - 3, 228, 237
Bistera, 121
'Black Book', 65
Blackfoot Indians, 240
'Black Magic', 194
Blauer, Harold, 188 - 9
Blome, Professor, 85
Boeki Kyusuibu, 78
Bomber Command, I12, 131, 134
Bormann, Martin, 62 -
Boscombe Down, 76
botulinus toxin (BTX), 84, 88 - 9, 92 - 3, 94,
154, 203, 214
botulism, 76, 96
Bourget, 52
Boycott, Professor A. E., 41
Bradley, General Omar, 63
Brandt, Karl, 63
Brandyuzhsky gas factory, 50
Brave New World, 68
Brazil, 162
Brezhnev, Leonid, 228
British Broadcasting Corporation, 107, 197
British Expeditionary Force, 108
British Medical Journal, 168
Brown, Ernest, 101, 103, 250
Brown, Sir William, 113
brucellosis 76, 97, 105 - 6, 155, 161, 163, 172
Buchenwald, 85
Bulgaria, 197 - 8
BZ, 189 - 90, 259
Callaghan, James, 237
Camoodia, 165, 191, 235
Cambrai salient, 31
Camp Detrick, 89, 97, 103, 151 - 3, 154, 160,
162, 163. See also Fort Detrick.
Camp Sibert, 119
Canada: troops suffer early gas attack, 3 - 4;
signs Geneva Protocol, 45; supplies Britain
with antidote to BTX, 84 - 5; wartime cooperation
with Britain, 94 - 5, 96, 20t; and
BW Convention, 171, 216, 218;and Tripartite
Agreement, '74 - 5, '77, 18}, 184; and
LSD, 187, 205; 61, 161, 164, 213, 227
cancer, 35 - 6, 168
cannabis, 208
Castro, Fidel, 214, 262, 263
cat bombs, 203
cattle cakes (anthrax - impregnated), 86 - 8
Cayley, Fred 35
Celibes, 78
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 147, 201,
202, 2.04 - 15, 224, 234, 262
Chamberlain, Neville, 82, 83, 88, 107
Changteh, 80
Chemical Corps, US: unreliability of intelligence
estimates, 146; tests germs on US
public, 154, 157, 158 - 60; plans for BW,
161 - 2, 164 - 5; alleged use 0 BW in Korea,
162 - 3; use of mosquitoes for BW, 165 - 7;
urges expansion in Kennedy era, 169; and
Tripartite Agreement, '74; and production
of sarin, 182; and production of VX, 184 -
5; launches public relations campaign, 185 -
6; and 'war without death', 186 - 7, 188 - 90;
and disposal of toxic waste, 217; increase in
strength in 1970s, 228; present - day estimates
of Soviet strength, 229 - 30; and 'Summit'
programme, 260. See also Chemical
Warfare Service.
Chemical Warfare Service, US: 1920 recruitment
campaign, 33; mobilizes opposition to
Geneva Protocol, 45 - 6; presses for increased
wartime spending on CW, 116 - 17;
sends men to Bari, 119; 27, 96, 123. For
post - WW2 activities, see Chemical Corps.
Cherwell, Lord, 100 - 2, 124
Chiefs of Staff, British, 81, 83, 87 - 8, 101, 112,
114 - 15, 122 - 3, 124 - 5, 125 - 9, 129 - 30,
133 - 4, 135, 138, 149, 151, 201, 253, 247.
China, 48 - 9, 79, 80 - 1, 117 - 18, 140 - 1, 152 -
3, 162 - 5, 188, 258, 259
Chisolm, General Brock, 84
chloracne, 193
chlorine, 1 - 3, 6, 10, 1, 14, 17, 116, 243
chlorine trifluoride, 58, 59
chloropicrin, 5I
cholera, 75, 76, 77, 78, 80, 142, 153, 154, 167
cholinesterase, 54
Cholmondely Castle, 90
Chuhsien, 80
Church, Frank, 211
Churchill, Winston: witnesses CW demonstration
in WWl, 21; predicts developments
in C BW, 70; and Hankey's request to
manufacture cattle cakes, 86 - 7; and anticrop
warfare, 98; informed of anthrax programme
100 - 1; authorises purchase of
500, 000 bombs, 101 - 2; favours initiating
gas warfare against German invasion, 110 -
11; anger at madequate CW stocks, 112 -
13, 114; and US supplies of phosgene, 115
'astonishment' at Ban disaster, 12.2.; and
threat of radioactive gas, 124 - 5; and V-
weapon attacks, 125 - 7; calls for 'cold.
blooded calculation' about initiating CW,
127 - 9; expands report to include BW, 129 -
30; anger at delay in receiving report, 130;
receives report, 133 - 4; 'not at all convinced'
by report, 134; winds up gas production,
134 - 5; offers Stalin CW supplies, 135;
wishes to publicly threaten Germany with
CW retaliation (1943), 253, (1944), 247;
warns Hitler against using gas, 252; 81, 97,
107, 115, 117, 133,
Clamency phosgene factory, 50
Clarendon Laboratory, I '4
C N riot gas, 194
cobra venom, 21 I
Cockayne, William, 176 - 7
Colby, William, 211, 212, 262
Collinge, Lieutenant, 26
Colorado Beetle. 87, 97, 99
Combined Chiefs of Staff, 89, 122, 135, 249
Coningham, Air Marshal Sir Arthur, 120
Creasy, William M., 164, 247, 250
C S riot gas, 194 - 5, 264
Cuba, 220, 259, 263
cyanide, 21 I
cyanogen chloride, 59
Cyprus, 143, 194
Czechoslovakia, 88 - 94, 188, 198, 223
DA, 32, 42
D.ch.u, 8l. Daily Mai, 6
Daily Telegraph, 220
Dalby, Callt.in, 69
Danzig, Hitler's speech at, 55, 83, 84
D - Day, 63, 85, 123, 124 - 5, 135
DOT, 64, 66
Defence, Ministry of, xii, 86, 157, 177, 179,
180, 181, 182. - 3, 222 -
Defense, Department of, 163, 164, 171, 192,
24
Defense Science Board (US), 185
Defence Standards Laboratories, Australia,
214
defoliation, 98
dengue, 167, 263
DF, 232
dichlor, 182
Dick, Professor, 91 - 2
Dill, Sir John, 109 - 11, 112, 249
dioxin, 192 - 3
Disarmament Committee, Geneva, 171
'DM', 42, 51
DNA, 240
Donovan, William, 201 - 2
Dugway Proving Ground, 117, 171, 182, 190,
216
Duisberg, Carl, 9 - 10, I11, 32
Dulles, Allen, 205
Dunkirk, 109, 136
Dyhernfurth nerve gas factory, 55 - 7, 58, 138
dysentery, 75, 77, 78, 79, 80, 142, 154, 167
East Germany, 223 - 4
Ebola fever, 219
Edgewood Arsenal, 33, 50, 64, 95, 96, 121,
173, 174, 182, 184, 188 - 9, 231, 232, 264
Egypt, 226, 234, 259
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 122 - 4, 134
Elberfeld, 54
encephalitis, 97, 168
encephalomyelitis, 161
Enigma, 252
entomological warfare, 97
Erickson, john, 22 5 - 6
ethnic weapons, 240 - 1
Evans, Dr Martin, 213
Exeter University, 198
Fafek, Rela, 91
Falkenhagen sarin factory, 58, 138
Falkenhayn, General, 2 - 3
feather bombs, 160, 162
Federal Bureau of Investigation, H 9, 220
Ferry, General, 4
Fildes, Dr Paul, 69, 72 - 3, 82, 83 - 4, 86, 88 - 91,
104 - 5, 149
First World War: first gas attacks, 1 - 4; first
British gas attack, 11 - 15; first phosgene
attack, 17 - 19; Battle of the Somme, 19 - 20;
modern weapons in, 20 - 1; growing importance
of gas, 21 - 2; 32 - 3; Battle of Arras,
22 - 3; introduction of mustard gas, 24 - 8;
use of railway trains in gas attacks, 28 - 30;
1918 German offensive, 31 - 2; total gas
casualties, 32; total tonnage chemicals used
in, 32; Porton Down in, 37 - 41; allegations
of germ warfare in, 74; xii, 54, 62, 108, 136.
fleas, 78, 97, 143, 162, 167
'Flying Cow', 114
'Flying Lavatory', 114
Food Machinery and Chemical Corporation,
185
foot and mouth disease, 82, 84
Ford, Gerald, 164
Formosa, 47
Fort Detrick, 163, 164, 166 - 7, 168, 170 - 1,
191, 206 - 7, 212, 213, 214, 221
Foulkes, General C. H; 7 - 8, 11, 12, 15, 19, 21,
22, 29, 30, 33 - 4, 39, 40, 43 - 4, 74, 245
fowl pest, 97
France, 1 - 3, 4, 23, 28, 32, 38, 43 - 6, 50 - 2,
108 - 9, 136, 138, 162, 197 - 8, 218
Frankfurt, 104
'Frankfurter', 114
Freedom of Information Act, 80, 210
French, Sir john, 5, 15
Fries, General, 27
Fritzsche, Hans, 85 - 6
Frucht, Adolf - Henning, 223 - 5
fungu toxin, 78
Gabcik, Josef, 90, 91, 93
G agents - see nerve gas
Gas!, 34
gas gangrene, 76, 79, 141
Gaswerfer 1918, 33
Gelan, 65
genetic bomb, 240 - 1
Geneva Disarmament Conference, 81
Geneva Protocol: signing of, 44 - 5; ratification
of, 46; Porton research continues 'under the
rose' of, 47; Italy ignores, 50; BW included
in, 44, 74, 75; British distrust of German
commitment to, 83, 87, 107; belligerents
agree to abide by, 107; British willingness to
break, 115, 130, 134; US not bound by in
WW 2, 116; 117; dispute over application
of to white phosphorus, 123; US feel able to
change policy regarding, 163; US able to use
CW by not having ratified, 193 - 4; US
ratifies, 228; application regarding neutron
bomb, 234.
George V, 38
Germany: launches first gas attack, 1 - 8;
strength of chemical industry, 8; reasons for
introducing CW, 8 - 10; effects of first British
gas attack, 14 - 15; uses phosgene, 17 -
19; effects of first British phosgene attack,
19 - 20; and Battle of Arras, 22 - 3; codenames
for gases, 23; introduces mustard gas,
24, 26, 28; reaction to 'beam' attacks, 29 -
30; launches 1918 offensive, 30 - 1; dependence
on chemicals, 3 I; W W I casualties,
32; post - WW I work, 43; and Geneva Protocol,
44, 45, 46; collaboration with Soviet
Union, 47; British and French fear of, 51;
development of nerve gas, 52 - 7; WW 2 CW
weapons, 57 - 60, 111; and human experimentation,
60 - 2; main CW installations,
58, 62; skill in keeping nerve gas secret, 64 -
5; use of BW in WWI, 74; British fears of
G's BW, 83, 84 - 5, 87, 101; extent of BW
programme, 85; uncovers evidence of Polish
BW, 89; reaction to Heydrich's death, 93;
suspects Allied anticrop warfare, 99; WW 2
pledge to abide by Geneva Protocol, 107;
Allied fears of, 108; and Blitzkreig, 108 - 9;
Roosevelt's warning to, 118; attack on Bari,
120; and V - weapons, 125 - 6; British consider
using CBW against, 127 - 35, and cities
chosen as targets, 253; tempted to use C W,
109, 136; CW stocks captured, 137 - 8,
173 - 6; fear of Soviet Union, 139 - 40, 141 -
3; 202, 203. See also West Germany, East
Germany.
Gestapo, 62, 89
Gestewitz, Hans Rudolf, 224
Ghosh, Dr Ranajit, 184
glanders, 74, 76, 77, 79, 8o, 97
glycolates, 210
Goebbels, Josef, 62
Goring, Hermann, 99, 135
Gottlieb, Sid, 209, 214, 262
Granite Peak Testing Station, 97
Great Britain: reaction to first gas attacks, 4 - 7;
appointment of Gas Adviser, 7 - 8; weakness
of chemical industry, 8 - 9, 10; raises chemical
troops, 11 - I2; launches first gas attack,
12 - 15; anti - gas schools, 15 - 16; introduces
phosgene, 19 - 20; public hostility to gas,
20 - 2.1; foundation of Porton Down, 21,
37 - 8; new gas weapons of, 22 - 3; begins
production of mustard gas, 28; 'beam' operations,
29 - 30; plans massive gas attack,
30; post - WW I attitude to gas, 33 - 4, 41 - 2;
gas casualties in WW I, 16, 26, 31, 32, 34;
use of gas in Russian civil war, 43; use of gas
in Afghanistan, 43 - 4; and Geneva Protocol,
45, 46; civil defence against gas, 50, 107 - 8;
conversations with French CW experts, 51 -
2.; ignorance of nerve gas, 64 - 7; birth of BW
project, 81 - 3; defensive preparations
against BW attack, 82, 84 - 5; produces first
mass - produced BW weapon, 86 - 8; wartime
collaboration with US on BW, 95 - 7; and
anti - crop warfare, 97 - 100; orders 500,000
anthrax bombs, 100 - 3; contingency plan to
attack German cities, 104 - 5; pledges to
abide by Geneva Protocol during WW 2,
107; plans to gas invading German army,
109 - 12.; increases gas production, 113 - 15;
wartime collaboration with US on CW,
115 - 16; dispute with US over white phosphorus,
123 - 4; and V - weapon attack, 125 -
7; contemplates use of C BW in WW 2,
126 - - 35; disposal of wartime CW stocks,
137 - 8; discovers Nazi nerve gas, 137 - 9;
fear of Russian CW, 139 - 40; post WW 2
military planning 149 - 5 I; post - war BW
trials, 155, 157 - 8; vulnerability to BW
attacks, 168 - 9; and Tripartite Agreement,
173 - 6, 183 - 5; and nerve gas manufacture,
179 - 80; and LSD, 187 - 8; use of anti - crop
warfare in Malaya, 19I; proposes BW
convention, 217 - 18; continuing research in
BW, 222 - 3; defensive expertise, 227; renewed
interest in CW, 237.
Greece, 259
Greenland, 182
Green Monkey disease - see Marburg fever
Griffiths, Tom, 180 - 1
Grindley Sergeant, 3
Gruinard Island, 68 - 74, 81, 94, 96, 97, 100,
158, 161
Guest, Sapper, 25
H, HS, HT - see mustard gas
Haber, Clara, 10, 11
Haber, Fritz, xiii, 10 - 11, 15, 32, 243 - 4
Ha bomb, 77
Hague Declaration (1899) 5, 9, 43
Haig, Alexander, 231, 233, 234
Haig, Sir Douglas, 12, 14, 31
Haiti, 166
Haldane, J. B. S., 33, 34, 40
Hamburg, 104
Hankey, Lord, 69, 81 - 4, 86 - 8
Harbin, 78
Harbin Military Hospital, 75, 76
Harrison, Colonel, 39
Hartley Sir Harold, 25
Harwell, 158
Hawaii, 190
Helfaut, Special Brigade HQ, 21
Helminthosporium oryzae van Brede de Haan,
99
Helms, Richard, 205, 209, 215
Henderson, Dr David, 69, 70, 71, 105
Henderson, Major - General, 110
Hersh, Seymour, 146
Heydrich, Reinhard, 88 - 94
Highland Light Infantry, 19
Hill, Dr Edwin V., 153
Himmler, Heinrich, 89
Hiroshima, 140, 149
Hitler, Adolf: gassed in WWI, 32, 243; urged
to use CW, 62 - 3; calls conference at Wolf's
Lair, 64; reaction to Heydrich's death, 93;
and Danzig boast of 'secret weapons', 55,
83, 84; 52, 57, 59, 67, 89, 101, 106, 109,
122, 125, 136, 138, 243, 252
Hmong tribesmen, 234 - 5
Hochwerk, 55
Hodgkin, Captain A. E., 29 - 30, 31
Hoffman, Dr Albert, 187
Hokkaido, 78
Holland Committee, 33 - 4, 41 - 2
Holmes, Walter, 49
Hoover, J. Edgar, 220
Horn Island Testing Station, 97
Human experiments, 39 - 40, 42 - 3, 60 - 2, 79 -
80, 140 - 1, 142 - 3, 152 - 4, 167 - 8, 177 - 8,
264
Hungary, 198, 204
Huxley, Aldous, 68, 70
hydrogen cyanide (HCN), 38, 47, 48, 58, 59,
II4, 140
hypo helmets, 17
Ichang, 117
Idmiston, 37
Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), 11, 50,
97 - 8, 184
India, 44, 47, 98, 177, 201
Information, Ministry of, 132
Inspector of Chemical Warfare, 111 - 12
Institute of Animal Physiology, 213 - 14
Interessen Gemeinschaft (I. G. Farben), 8 - 10,
30, 54, 55, 56, 61 - 2
Inter - Service Committee on Chemical Warfare,
248
Isbell, Dr Harris, 206
Ishii, General Shiro, 75 - 6, 78 - 9, 81, 152 - 3
Ismay, General Hastings, 101, 111
Israel, 226
Italy: establishes chemical corps, 43; signs and
ratifies Geneva Protocol, 45, 46; uses CW in
Abyssinia, 49 - 50; British Intelligence reports
on, 50, 51; regarded as 'certain' to use
CW in WW2, 51; and Bari disaster, 119 -
23; Ribbentrop threatens with CW, 253;
108, 109.
Jager, August, 4
Japan: begins work on CW, 43, 47; signs
Geneva Protocol, 45; fails to ratify Protocol,
46; range of CW weapons, 47 - 8; uses CW
in China, 48, 117 - 18; begins work on BW,
75 - 6; founds Pingfan Institute, 76 - - 8; BW
weapons developed, 77; conducts experiments
on paws, 79 - 80, 141, 152 - 4; uses
BW in China, 80 - 1; US plans attack on rice
crop of, 99; US fears of, 117 - 18; Roosevelt
warns, 118, 123; extent of WW 2 CW, 118;
US plans to use CW against, 135; and Khabarovsk
war crimes trial, 140 - 1; US shields
BW criminals, 79, 140 - 1, 152 - 4; OSS
clandestine attacks on during WW 2, 203;
87, 117, 119, 132, 137, 142, 248.
John Harvey, 119 - 20
Joint Chiefs of Staff, US 160, 169, 179
Joint Planning Staff, 126 - - 7, 129 - 33
Joint Technical Warfare Committee, 98 - 9,
143, 149
Jones, Professor R. V., 84
Kaffa, 74
Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, 10, 11, 43
Karaganda poison gas factory, 50
Kargin, Professor Colonel, 139
Kelly, Dr John, 49
Kempai, 75
Kennedy, John F., 169
Kennes, General, 63
KGB, 198 - 200, 211, 220
Khabarovsk war crimes trial, 79, 141
Khokhlov, Nicholai, 198 - 9
Khruschev, Nikita, 147
Kinghwa, 80
King's Liverpool Regiment, 26
Kitchener, Lord, 5
Kleinhans, Dr Wilhelm, 56, 138
Knowles, Captain Elvin, 119 - 20
Korea, 162 - 3, 194, 205, 259
Kostov, Vladimir, 197 - 8
Krappitz nerve gas arsenal, 56, 62
Kraz, Dr 55
Kroesen, Frederick, 227
Kubis, Jan, 90, 91, 93
Kuhn, Dr Richard, 139
Kuibyshev gas factory, 50
Kwangtung, 75
Kyasanar Forest Disease, 168
Lance missile, 232
Lane, W. R., 69
Langat VilUS, 168
Langemarck, 1
Laos, 191, 234, 235
Lashbrook, Robert, 207
Lassa fever, 219
Le 100, 65
Leahy, Admiral Timothy, 117, 249
League of Nations, 44, 49
Lee, Inspector Richard, 258
Leeds, 72
Lefebure, Victor, 33
leprosy, 142
Lethbridge Report, 135
Lewisite, 32, 47, 51, 116, 148
Ley, Robert, 62 - 3
Libya, 200
lice, 85, 162
Lidice, 90, 93
Lin Piao, General, 162
List, 51
Lister Institute, 69, 74, 86
Livens, Captain F. H., 22 - 3
Livens Projector, 22 - 3, 42, 47, 112
Liverpool University, 125
Lloyd George, David, 38
LN agents, 99
Loos, Battle of, 11 - 15
Lovell, Stanley P., 201 - 4
LSD, 187 - 8, 206 - 10, 259
Ludwigshafen, 56
Luftwaffe, 59, 120, 138
Lumumba, Patrice, 214
Luranil, 55
Maddison, Ronald, 178
malaria, 167
Malaya, 100, 191, 192
Manhattan Project, 81, 101
Marburg fever, 219
Markov, Georgi, 197 - 8
Marshal, George C, 124
Martin, Trevor, 181
Masuda, Colonel Tomosada, 76 - 8
McDonald, Larry, 227
M device, 32, 43
Medical Research Council, 69, 81, 82, 86
Mekong Delta, 191
meliodosis, 97
Mellanby, Edward, 82
Memphis, 166
Merck, George W., 96, 151
Mexico, 213
M13, 50
Ml 6, 94, 147, 224
MI 19, 66, 67
Middlesex, 1st Regiment, 14
Middlesex Hospital, London, 69
Mindszenry, Josef, 204 - 5
Minneapolis, 157
Mitkiewicz, Colonel, 89
MKDELTA, 210
MKSEARCH, 210
MKULTRA, 206 - 10
Mongolia, 142 - 3
Montana, 55
Montgomery, General B. L., 63
Monturon, 55
Moran, Lord, 28
Moravec, General Frantisek, 90, 93
Morocco, 44, 202
Morrison, Herbert, 125
mosquitoes, 96, 162, 163, 165 - 7
Moss, Robert, 220
Mrugowsky, Oberfuhrer, 60 - 1
Munich crisis, 50, 107
Munster, 11, 58
Mussolini, Benito, 62
mustard gas: first use of, 24; effects of, 25 - 6;
scale of German attack using, 26; casualty-producing
power of, 26 - 7; difficulties in
production of 28; British use of, 32; long-term
effects of, 35, 36; human experimentation
using, 39, 41, 42 - 3; use of in Afghanistan,
43, 44, 245; high altitude spraying of,
52; use of in Abyssinia, 49; German WW 2
weapons used in, 58, 59; British civil defence
precautions against, 107 - 8; Churchill suggests
use of against German invasion, 111;
method of employment against possible invasion,
111 - 12; British WW 2. production
of, 113 - 14; role in Bari disaster, 119 - 22;
Churchill suggests use against German
cities, 127 - 9; likely effects if used against
cities, 131 - 2; disposal of stocks of after W
W 2, 137, 183; still in Soviet arsenal, 140
148, 230; US stockpile of, 196; use in clandestine
operations, 2.00, 201, 203; use of in
Yemen, 234; 23, 47, 52, 58, 67, 80, 105,
116, 117, 236.
mycotoxins, 236
Nancekuke, 179 - 81, 184
napalm, 123
Narashino gas warfare school, 48, 118
National Academy of Science, 96
National Cancer Institute, 222
NATO, 145, 219, 225 - 6, 228, 230 - 1, 264
Natzweiler concentration camp, 60, 85
Needham, Dr Joseph, 163 - 3
nerve gases: invention of, 53 - 4; characteristics
of, 54; Germans begin manufacture of, 55 -
6; dangers involved in manufacture of, 56 -
7; as a filling for V - weapons, 59 - 60; extent
of German arsenal, 62; Hitler considers using,
62 - 4; kept secret from the Allies, 64 - 7;
Germans attempt to destroy factory, 138;
stocks fall into Allied hands, 137 - 9; Rus-
sians begin manufacture of, 148; Britain, US
and Canada work on, 173 - 5, 176 - 85, 216,
239; Soviet agents, 225 - 6, 229 - 30; 'binary'
nerves gases, 231 - 2; 247, 264. See also
tabun, sarin, soman, V X
neutron bomb, 234
Nevin, Edward, 255
Newall, Sir Cyril, 83
Newport VX factory, 185
New York, 156, 159
New York State Psychiatric Institute, 189
New Zealand, 175
Nimitz, Admiral Chester, 135
Ningpo, 80
nitric acid, 59
Nixon, Richard M., 171 - 2, 173, 211, 215,
216, 217, 219 - 20, 225, 228, 229, 231, 237,
265
NKVD, 89
Northern Ireland, 194
Novosibirsk, 200
Now!, 220
N - Stoff, 58
Nuremberg war crimes trial, 85, 99
Obanakoro (Nigeria), 177
Ochsner, General Hermann, 59
Ohio State University, 163
Okinawa, 196, 217
Okolovich, Segeivich, 198
Olsen, Frank, 207 - 8
Operation Anthropoid, 89 - 94
Operation Cauldron, 157
Operation Harness, 155, 255
Operation Hesperus, 157
Operation Negation, 155
Operation Overlord - see D - Day
Operation Ozone, 155
Operation Pandora, 155
organo - phosphorous compounds, 53
OSS, 89, 201 - 4, 208
Owen, Wilfred, 20
Pacific War Council, 81
Pakistan, 233
Panama Canal Zone, 182
Pappenheimer, Professor Alvin, 94
Pearl Harbor, 87, 120
Peck, Air Vice - Marshal, 86
Penkovsky, Oleg, 146 - 8
Pennsylvania University, 196, 260
Pentagon, 150, 153, 160, 185, 186, 217, 222,
232, 235, 237, 240
Peshawar, 44, 143
PF - 3, 66
Pha Na Khun, 234
Phnom Penh, 165
phosgene (CG), 11, 17 - 20, 23, 28, 33, 35, 44,
50, 51, 52, 59, 112, 113, 115, 131 - 2, 140,
183, 196
Phytophtera infestans (Mort) de Bary, 99
Picker, Professor, 60
pigeon bomb, 16o
Pikalov, V.K., 225
Pine Bluff Arsenal, 116, 160, 163, 172, 190,
218
Pingfan Institute, 76 - 9
Piricularia oryzae, 99
plague, 74, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 85, 97,
142, 143, 153, 161, 162, 167, 169
pneumonic plague, 169
Poland, 44, 89, 139, 249
Portal, Sir Charles, 129
Porton, 37
Porton Down, chemical and biological warfare
establishment: founded in 1916, 21, 37; investigates
WW I gas casualties, 35 - 6; work
of during WWI, 37 - 41; established on
peacetime basis, 41 - 2; work between the
wars, 42 - 3, 52; continues offensive work
despite Geneva Protocol, 46 - 7; investigates
German CW after WW2., 57 - 8, 59, 60;
failure to develop nerve gas during WW 2. 66 - 7; and Gruinard tests, 69 - 72., 96; and 1
continuing contamination of Gruinard, 73 -
4; establishment of biological warfare
laboratory, 83; manufactures 5 million
anthrax - tilled cattle cakes, 86 - 8, 105; and
assassination of Heydrich, 88 - 9, 90, 94;
and setting up of Suffield testing range, 94 -
5; and CW weapons in WW 2., 114; supplies
clandestine CW weapons to SOE, 201;
Microbiological Research Establishment
founded, 151; post - war BW work, 152.,
157, 158, 164, 168, 222., 266; use of service
volunteers in experiments, 174, 183 - 4; and
accidental gassing of William Cockayne,
176 - 7; and death of Ronald Maddison,
178; suicide of Director, 178 - 9; post - war
CW work, 177; and Nancekuke 'out station',
179 - 81; develops VX, 184 - 5; develops
CS, 194; and Markov case, 198; expertise
in defence, 2.2.7, opens new 'Battle Run',
2.2.8;present - day size, 37; 40, 49, 64, 117,
12.1, 173, 183, 190, 244, 248, 2.55.
Posen Military Medical Academy, 85
Possev, 220
Powers, Gaty, 221
Pravda, 140
Project Bluebird, 2.05
Project Often, 2.10
Project Tomka, 47
prussic acid, 199
psittacosis, 97, 161, 202
Public Health Laboratory, 82., 84
Q Fever, 161, 170, 172, 218
radioactive gas, 12.4 - 5
Ramsay, Captain, 2.5, 27
Randle poison gas factory, 113
Raubkammer training area, 58, 59, 60, 62.
Reagan, Ronald, 231, 233
Red Cross, 49, 234, 259
Reutershan, Paul, 193
Rhydmwyn gas factory, 114
Ribbentrop, Joachim von, 135, 253
ricin, 198
ricketts, 97
Rift Valley Fever, 161
rinderpest, 95, 97
Robertson, General, 7
Rocksavage poison gas factory, 113
Rocky Mountain Arsenal, 117, 182, 196, 217
Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 161
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 95, 96, 117, 118, 122,
123, 12.9, 135, 136, 163, 164, 201
Roskill, Stephen, 82
272
Index
Rothschild, General J. H., 165, 170
Royal Air Force, 44, 88, 90, 111 - 12, 119, 158,
176, 179, 180, 250
Royal Army Medical Corps, 17, 25, 40
Royal Engineers, 7, 25. See also Special Brigade.
Royal Navy, 155
Royal Society, 69
Rudriger, Colonel, 54
Ruwet, Colonel Vincent, 207
Sahara, 52, 259
Saigon Children's Hospital, 193
St. Thomas's Hospital, London, 168
Salisbury, 157
Salisbury Plain, 21, 37, 41
salmonella, 76, 80
Salt, Major, 44
Sandoz Drug Company, 187
San Francisco, 156 - 7, 209, 255
San Francisco Examiner, 144, 208
sarin (GB) 54, 58, 59, 61, 64, 138, 176 - 80,
182, 217, 232
Saudi Arabia, 2.59
Savannah, Georgia, 166
Schnitzler, Baron Georg von, 61 - 2.
Schrader, Dr Gerhard, 53, 54, 56, 57, 65, 99
Schwirkmann Horst, 199 - 200
sclerotium rolfsii, 99
Scotland Yard, 197, 198
SD, 89
Second World War: Hitler considers using
CW, 57, 59 - 60, 62 - 4; Allies consider anticrop
warfare, 98 - 100; British contingency
plan to use anthrax, 104; belligerents pledge
to abide by Geneva Protocol, 107; belief that
CW would be used in, 51, 107 - 8; Churchill
warns Germans against using CW during,
252.;Ribbentrop threatens Italians with C W,
253; British plans to initiate CW to repel
German invasion, 109-12, 115, 250; movement
of CW stocks during 108, 119, 125;
fears surrounding Normandy landings, 123 -
5, 247; British consider initiating CBW
in response to V - weapons attacks, 125 -
35; likely effects of C BW on course of, 130
5; CW very nearly used in, 106, 135 - 6, 137;
total CW stocks during 58, 108, 118; clandestine
use of C BW during, 88 - 94, 198
200 - 4, 208; most records relating to still
closed xii, 86, 248; 52, 54, 106, 143, 149,
151, 160, 161, 168, 173, 177, 183, 185,
191, 191, 230, 252, 253.
Selassie, Haile 49
Sergeant missile, 166, 171
serratia marcescens, 156
Servizio Chemico Militare, 43
Seventh Day Adventists, 167
Seveso, 193
sex hormones, 2.04
shellfish toxin, 211, 212, 213, 214, 262.
Siberian Regiment, 11
Singapore, 119
SK, 9
smallpox, 76, 79, 153
Snajdr, Vladimir, 91 - 3
soman (GO), 138, 148, 176
Somer Lost, 58
Somme, Battle of, 19 - 20
Southampton, 157
Soviet Union: casualties in WW I, 8, 10 - 11,
2.42., 32.; POSt - WWl work on CW, 43, 50;
and Geneva Protocol, 45, 46; collaboration
with Germany, 47; British fear of, 51, 84,
136; alleged use of BW against Japan, 75;
use of BW by N KV0, 89; fears of German
attack, 135, 145, 252; captures German
nerve agents, 138 - 9; post - war Allied fears
of, 139 - 40, 143 - 4, 145, 150, 225 - 6, 229;
stages Khabarovsk war crimes trial, 140 - 1;
work on BW, 1.111 - 4; states position on
CB W, 144 - 5; Red Army training, 145; and
Penkovsky allegations, 146 - 8; extent of
Soviet arsenal, 148; seeks to interrogate
Japanese BW experts, 152 - 3; clandestine
use of CB Wagents, 198 - 200, 205; and BW
Convention, 218 - 9, 228; claims not to possess
biological weapons, 218 - 9; alleged
continued BWdevelopment, 218 - 22; develops
VR 55, 235; and proposed CW convention,
228 - 9; post - war CW stocks, 229 - 30;
NATO presumes will use CW, 230 - 1;
alleged use of CW in Afghanistan, 2.32. - 3,
236; alleged to have supplied CW to Egypt,
226, to Yemen, 234, 235, to Vietnamese,
234 - 5; and T - 2, 236 - 8; 30, 48, 59, 63, 85,
108, 126, 211
Spain, 44
Spandau CW laboratories, 54, 58, 66
Special Air Service, 214
Special Brigade, 11 - 13, 19, 20, 21, 29
Special Operations Executive (SOE), 89, 90,
2.00 - 1
Speer, Albert, 62. - 3, 2.47
'Squirt', the, 114
SS, 58, 60, 61, 62.
Stalin, Joseph, 62, 129, 135, 142, 252.
Starmp, Lord, ix, 84, 96 - 7, 202.
Stashinstzy, Boggan, 199
State Department, 221, 235 - 6
Stimson, Henry L., 95 - 6
Stoff 146, 65
Stokes mortar, 22., 23
Stoney Mountain, Manitoba, 157
Strasburg University, 60
Stuttgart, 194
Substance 83, 65
Suffield testing range, 94 - 5, 173, 174
Supply, Ministry of, 112 - 13, 114
Sutton, Graham, 69, 70
Sutton Oak, 50, 179
Sverdlovsk, 2.20 - 2.
Sweden, 162
T2, 236 - 7
tabun (GA), 53 - 4, 56, 59, 61, 62, 64, 65, 66,
67, 138, 148, 176
Tandanoumi Arsenal, 47
Tanganyika, 2.13
Taranto, 12.1
Tass, 2.2.1, 237
Tay Minh Hospital, 193
tear gas, 9, 44, 194 - 5, 201, 233
Tempsford aerodrome, 90
tetanus, 76, 79, 80, 142
Thailand, 165, 234, 235
Thatcher, Margaret, 237
ticks, 167, 168
tick encephalitis, 76
273
Index
Time~ The (London), 6, 49, 83, 94
Times, New York, 32, 195, 218, 220
Tizard, Sir Henry, 149
Tizard Report, 137, 149 - 50
Tomio, Major Karasaw, 141
Tooele Arsenal, 196
trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (245T), 191
trilon 83, 65, 66
trilon 146, 65
Tripartite Agreement, 174 - 5, 183 - 4, 185,
187, 194
Truman, President Harry S., 1I7
T - Stoff, 9
Tube Alloy, 65, 100, 124
tuberculosis, 35, 76, 80, 153, 215
tularemia, 76, 97, 142, 155, 161, 163, 167,
170, 172, 202, 218
typhoid, 76, 78, 80, 89, 142, 153, 154
typhus, 76, 80, 89, 97
typhus - infected lice, 85
Uji bomb, 77
United Nations, 235, 259
United States of America: casualties in WW I,
31; establishes Edgewood Arsenal, 33; expands
Chemical Warfare Service, 33; signs
Geneva Protocol, 44 - 5; refuses to ratify
Geneva Protocol, 45 - 6; begins rearming,
50; censors material relating to DOT, 64;
believes rumours of nerve gas, 65; investigates Japanese
BW, 75, 76, 78 - 80; sets up
wartime BW research, 95 - 6; extent of investment
in BW, 96; BW installations, 96 -
7; and anti - crop warfare, 97 - 100; plans to
attack Japanese rice crops, 99; and manufacture
of anthrax bomb, 77, 81, 8, 5, 100,
101 - 4, 106, 133; develops brucellosis, 105;
supplies Britain with phosgene, 115; attitude
to CW during WW2, 115 - 16, 118;
and WW 2 CW production, 116 - 17, 118;
fears of Japan prove exaggerated, 117 - 18;
and Bari disaster, 119, 122; and use of white
phosphorus, 123 - 4; development of radioactive
gas, 124; considers using gas against
Japan, 135; fears of Soviet CW, 136, 145,
158, 225 - 8, 229 - 31; disposes of wartime
CW stocks, 137; discovery of German nerve
agents, 139, 173 - 4; shields Japanese BW
experts from prosecution, 79, 140 - 1, 152 -
4; fears of Soviet BW, 143 - 4, 219 - 22;
changes CBW policy, 147 - 8, 163 - 4; vulnerability
to BW attack, 95, 96, 150, 159 -
60; post - war BW research, 151 - 2, 160,
161, 164 - 6; post - war BW tests, 154 - 7,
158 - 9, 166, 167, 170 - 1; and BW in Korean
War, 162 - 3; post - war BW production, 160,
163, 166 - 7, 169 - 70, 172; and BW Convention,
171 - 2, 217 - 9, 222 - 3, 228; and Nixon
ban on growth of CBW, 171 - 2, 173, 216,
217; and Tripartite Agreement, 174, 183 - 5;
develops nerve gas arsenal, 181 - 2, 196;
searches for 'humane' gas weapon, 185 - 90;
uses CW in Vietnam, 190 - 5; and clandestine
use of CBW, 200 - 15; and chemical
disarmament, 216 - 17, 228 - 9; ratifies
Geneva Protocol, 228; develops binary
weapons, 231 - 2; and recent allegations of
Soviet CW, 232 - 8; and ethnic weapons,
240 - 1; 106, 110, 126, 130, 131, 147, 148,
149, 150, 224, 239,
USAAF, 160, 161, 162, 190, 192, 260
US Navy, 232
Valentine's Day Declaration, 211
Valley arsenal, 114
Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis, 170,
172, 218
Versailles, 44
Victor anti - invasion exercise, 115
Victor, Dr Joseph, 153
Vietnam, 98, 165, 167, 170, 190 - 5, 196, 216,
234, 235, 259
Vigo germ warfare factory, 77, 97, 103 - 4, 250
Virgin Islands, 160
Vozrozhdeniya Island. 142
VR55, 225
V - weapons, 59 - 60, 62, 64, 84, 125 - 7, 134
VX, 184 - 5, 196, 216, 217, 225, 232
Wansbrough - Jones, Brigadier Owen, 105 - 6,
150
War Cabinet 50, 83, 88, 109, 11, 112, 115,
122, 130, 200
War Research Service, 96
Warsaw Pact, 223 - 4, 225
Washington Treaty (1922), 44, 46
Watson, Colonel, 39
Watson, Dr Rex, ix, 73
Wehrmacht, 54, 55, 57, 85, 109, 112, 135,
141
Werwick, 32
West Germany, 196, 199, 224
Westminster, Duke of, 21
Westmoreland, General, 194
Weteye bomb, 182
White Cross - see tear gas
White, George, 208 - 9
white phosphorus, 123 - 4
'Who? Me?' bomb, 203
Wilhelmshafen, 104
Wilson, General, 6 - 7
Wilson, Harold, 234
Wimmer, Professor, 60
Winnipeg, 157
Winter - Lost, 58
'Wintex', 230
Woods, Donald, 69
World Health Organization, 36, 89
Wunsdorf, 51
Wynne, Greville, 147
Yamazaki, Major - General, 48
Yellow Cross - see mustard gas
yellow fever, 97, 162, 163, 165, 166 - 7, 172
'yellow rain' 234 - 8
Yemen, 234, 235, 259
Yom Kippur War, 226
Younger, General Allan, ix, 70, 71, 72, 73, 84
Ypres, 19, 24, 25, 29
Ypres, 2nd Battle of, 1 - 4, 6, 10
'Yperite' - see mustard gas
Zhukov, Marshal, 145
zinc cadmium sulphide, 158
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