EMERGING VIRUSES: AIDS & EBOLA: Nature, Accident or Intenti

Re: EMERGING VIRUSES: AIDS & EBOLA: Nature, Accident or Inte

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Part 1 of 2

Chapter 22: The Special Virus Cancer Program

THE next morning, figuring I had learned as much about Marburg as the experts (not including Preston) chose to reveal, I decided to look for the few Congressional Record citations I couldn't find in other libraries. This time, with the Davis Library "basement pass" in hand, I approached a tall weighty fellow standing behind the government document librarian's desk.

"Hi. I'm looking for these Congressional Record references," I said, pointing to a few computer printouts.

"The Congressional Records are in the basement," he replied in a mildly inconvenienced tone. Then with a stuffy air of library science about him, he added, "I'll have to go down to get you a few at a time."

"I have my own pass," I proudly displayed. "How 'bout if you just show me where to look?"

"Fine. Follow me," he conceded.

I negotiated the department's swinging gate, passed through a set of open doors, and skipped down a flight of stairs in hot pursuit of my guide. As I entered the huge documents room, the librarian, who had gained about ten yards on me, pointed ahead and said, "The Congressional Records are over there."

Then, something very strange happened. Customarily, at least out of courtesy, I would have followed the man. But suddenly I felt myself entering what I can only describe as a "twilight zone." It was as if time and everything else stood still. My intuition told me to turn right. Without hesitating or missing a step I simply obeyed leaving my guide behind.

I had heard of uncommon intuitive leaps that led scientists to make important discoveries. I often used the example of Einstein who explained his theory of relativity (E=MC2)as a breakthrough that came to him during twilight sleep. I suppose, in retrospect, this experience was like that for me -- somewhat of an intuitive breakthrough -- except I wasn't sleeping.

Instinctively, I was being drawn in another direction; like metal to a distant magnet. I simply went with the force. Concerned my behavior, which must have seemed rude and impulsive, would further inconvenience the librarian, I blurted, "You don't mind if I have a look over here?"

That, along with my abrupt departure, obviously startled him. Stumbling for words, he replied, "You're not going to find anything over there." Then when he realized my course was set, he half obligingly advised, "That's not how you conduct research. You're likely to miss what it is you're looking for."

"I appreciate that," I said, but clearly paid no heed. I just continued along my merry way down the isle to the source of my beguilement.

The librarian, forced to concede, said, "I'll get your Congressional Records." We parted, him leaving me to prove myself wrong.

I wandered auspiciously for about fifteen yards. A voice inside said, "Turn left." I obeyed and then began to slow. My neck suddenly cranked to the left. Instantly and intently my eyes began scanning the unmarked shelves for something I knew would be there. I just wasn't sure what it was. Momentously, my focus turned knee high, and roamed title by title for a treasure. Then, suddenly, there it was. A faded red-covered book with white letters bleeding through. The words Special Virus Cancer Program touched my soul.

I grabbed the title in total disbelief. Completely amazed at what had just happened, all I could say was, "Wow! This is just what I'm looking for!"

Seconds later, the librarian walked up carrying three volumes of Congressional Record's. "Here's what you wanted," he said as he laid the texts down on a desk. ''I'm glad you found what you wanted." Then he turned and walked away.

Still dazed as he disappeared from sight, I returned, 'Thanks a lot, I really appreciate your help."

For months, I had read dozens of authors acknowledging the NIH's "Special Virus Cancer Program." Now, here was the book on it (see fig. 22.1).1 The text, covered the period from 1970 to 1971 -- the critical period during which I knew Gallo and company had created numerous AIDS-like retroviruses. I thumbed through the 383-page NCI "Progress Report #8" and realized it detailed virtually all the important investigations conducted in support of Nixon's "war on cancer." It identified all the contracting agencies; summarized their grant proposals; and provided the names, addresses, and even telephone numbers of the project directors, officers, and study consultants for the entire operation.

More incredibly, as I turned the pages toward the end of the book, my thumb caught on page 273. There in black and white read "Progress Report on Investigation of Carcinogenesis with Selected Virus Preparations in the Newborn Monkey -- Submitted By Bionetics Research Laboratories, Inc., A Division of Litton Industries." In it was a summary of "The Inoculation Program," wherein between 1962 and 1971, "a total of 2,274 primates have been inoculated" on behalf of "over 70 investigators in 50 different laboratories throughout the world." Here was documented evidence that Litton Bionetics had not only been involved in the development of AIDS-like, Marburg-like, and Ebola-like viruses, but had been inoculating simian monkeys with these mutant horrors as early as 1962, and had shipped the infected monkeys dead and alive, whole and in parts, to labs around the world -- including the ones in which the Marburg and Reston outbreaks occurred.2

Without further ado, I raced back upstairs to photocopy what on gross examination appeared to be the essential parts of the DHEW publication. Then, I did the same with its shelf-mate "Progress Report #9."3 After about an hour of photocopying, I found a chair, sat back, and began to read the volumes from cover to cover. The task ultimately consumed the remaining part of my stay at UNC.

The Special Virus Cancer Program

The Special Virus Cancer Program was introduced by the Program Staff of the Viral Oncology, Etiology Area of the NCI. The finishing touches to the manuscript were added October 24 through 27, 1971, at "the Annual Joint Working Conference, SVCP at the Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA.," a location half-way between Bethesda and New York City, and at the same time, I noted, was fairly close to West Point -- Merck-town, U.S.A.

The NCI staff explained:

The Viral Oncology Area is responsible for planning and conducting the Institute's program of coordinated research on viruses as etiological agents of cancer. Scientists within this Area not only provide the broad operational management for intramural and collaborative research but also conduct comprehensive investigations on specific animal oncogenic viruses and their interaction with host cells and apply this information to search for viruses which may be etiologically related to the initiation and continuation of human cancer.

Contract supported research is conducted within the Viral Oncology Program under the Special Virus Cancer Program (SVCP) whose primary objectives are: (I) to determine whether viruses comparable to those known to induce cancers of laboratory and domestic animals are causative agents of human cancer, and (2) to develop therapeutic and preventive measures for control of human cancers when such causative agents are found. A detailed history of events leading to the development of the SVCP may be found in previous Annual Reports of the NCI.

Briefly, in 1964, the Congress of the United States provided funds to the NCI for an intensified program in virus-leukemia research because many scientists were convinced that an effort to identify viruses or to detect virus expression in human tumors would contribute to the determination of the etiology of cancer. Using a new planning approach (Convergence Technique), an overall program aimed on the premise that one virus is an indispensable element for the induction (directly or indirectly) of at least one kind of human cancer and that the virus or viral genome persists in the diseased individual. In 1968, the program was enlarged to encompass all types of cancer. The Program plan is reviewed regularly by the Director, NIH; the Director, NCI; the National Cancer Advisory Council; the Scientific Directorate, NCI; and the Etiology Program Management Group, NCI.

During the past seven years, the Institute has developed an effective management program which has made rapid, substantial progress in understanding cancer induction by viruses. The funding level for this Program in fiscal year 1971 has been about $35 million.4


The staff proceeded through a lengthy description of the SVCP's organization and management, which they summarized graphically in an organizational chart and list of managers (see fig. 22.2). This was followed by a list of 105 "Consultants to the Special Virus Cancer Program -- Fiscal Year 1971." Several doctors whose names I immediately recognized were: David Baltimore, MIT; Mark Chatigny, Naval Biological Laboratories; Leon Dmochowski, M.D., Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute; Peter Duesberg, University of California, Berkeley; Sidney Farber, Children's Cancer Research Foundation, Boston; Peter Gerone, Fort Detrick, Maryland; Richard Herberling and Seymour Kalter, Southwest Foundation for Research; Maurice Hilleman, Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research; John Landon; Bionetics Research Laboratories; Brian MacMahon, one of my professors at Harvard University; Albert Sabin, Weizman Institute, Rehovot, Israel; and Howard Temin, McArdle Research Laboratory, University of Wisconsin; and last, but not least Erling Jensen of Hazleton Research Laboratories. 5

Fig. 22.1. Special Virus Cancer Program Book Cover

Image
This book was removed by NCI administrators from the Fort Detrick library's catalog. It was discovered by the author serendipitously in the basement of the University of North Carolina Davis Library.


Fig. 22.2. Organizational Chart and Program Managers of the NCI's Special Virus Cancer Program

Image

Office of the Scientific Director: ETIOLOGY

Associate Scientific Director For VIRAL ONCOLOGY (Chairman -- SVCP)

Program Analysis and Communication

Developmental Research

Immunology Group

Special Animal Leukemia Ecology

Biohazards Control and Containment

Science Management

Program Management

Resources and Logistics

Solid Tumor Virus Segment

Breast Cancer Virus Segment

Source: NCI staff. The Special Virus Cancer Program: Progress Report #8. Office of the Associate Scientific Director for Viral Oncology (OASDVO). J. B. Moloney, Ed., Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1971, pp. 11-14.

***

PROGRAM MANAGEMENT PERSONNEL

Science Management Team


Dr. J. B. Moloney, Associate Scientific Director for Viral Oncology, NCI
Mr. L. R. Carrese, Deputy Associate Director for Program, NCI
Dr. L. R. Sibal, Associate for Program Coordination, Viral Oncology, NCI
Dr. D. J. Rubin, Scientific Coordinator for Extramural Research, VO, NCI

Administrative Officer, Assistant Administrative Officers and Contract Specialists

Mr. John P. Patterson
Mr. Nick Olimpio
Mr. Robert Velthuis
Mr. J. Thomas Lewin
Mr. Maurice Fortin
Mr. Thomas Porter
Mr. Fred Shaw
Mr. John Gibbons

Program Segments and Membership

Developmental Research Segment


Dr. Robert Manaker, Chairman
Dr. Jack Gruber, Vice Chairman and Executive Secretary
Dr. Samuel Dales, Public Health Res Inst., N.Y.C.
Dr. Paul Gerber, DBS, NIH
Dr. Anthony Girardi, Wistar Institute
Dr. Timothy O'Connor, NCI
Dr. Alan Rabson, NCI
Dr. Bernard Roizman, University of Chicago
Dr. Duard Walker, University of Wisconsin
Dr. Virginia Dunkel, NCI

Special Animal Leukemia Ecology Segment

Dr. Michael Chirigos, Chairman
Dr. John Glynn, Vice Chairman
Dr. George Burton, Executive Secretary
Dr. Friedrich Deinhardt, Presbyterian St. Luke's Hospital
Dr. Bernice Eddy, DBS, NTH
Dr. Charles Rickard, Cornell University
Dr. William Moloney, Peter Bent Brigham Hospital
Dr. Mearl Stanton, NCI
Dr. Peter Vogt, University of Washington
Dr. David Yohn, Ohio State University
Dr. Hans Sjogren, Pacific Northwest Research Foundation

Solid Tumor Virus Segment

Dr. Robert J. Huebner, Chairman
Dr. James Duff, Vice Chairman
Mrs. Harriet Striecher, Executive Secretary
Dr. Charles Boone, NCI
Dr. Maurice Green, St. Louis University
Dr. Leonard Hayflick, Stanford University
Dr. Karl Hellstrom, University of Washington
Dr. Edwin Lennette, Calif. Dept. of Public Health
Dr. Joseph Melnick, Baylor University
Dr. Herbert Rapp, NCI
Dr. Wallace Rowe, NIAID, NIH
Dr. Hans Meier, Jackson Laboratories

Immunology Group

Dr. Paul Levine Co-Chairman
Dr. Herbert Rapp
Dr. Ernest Plata, Executive Secretary
Dr. Charles Boone, NCI
Dr. Berton Zbar, NCI
Dr. Tibor Borsos, NCI
Dr. Ronald Herberman, NCI
Dr. Maurice Hilleman, Merck Institute
Dr. Barry Bloom, Einstein College of Medicine
Dr. Arthur Brown, University of Tennessee
Dr. George Santos, Johns Hopkins University

Resources and Logistics Segment

Dr. Robert Holdenried, Chairman
Dr. George Todaro, Vice Chairman
Dr. Roy Kinard, Executive Secretary
Dr. James Duff, NCI
Dr. K. Arnold Fowler, NCI
Dr. Adi Gazdar, NCI
Dr. Paul Levine, NCI
Miss Marie Purdy, NCI

Biohazards Control and Containment Segment

Dr. Alfred Hellman, Chairman
Mr. Errmitt Barkley, Vice Chairman
Mr. Mark Chatigny, Naval Biological Laboratory
Dr. Peter Gerone, Fort Detrick
Dr. Seymour Kalter, Southwest Foundation
Dr. Maurice Mufson, Hektoen Institute for Medical Research
Dr. William Payne, Div. of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH
Dr. Briggs Phillips, Becton-Dickinson
Dr. Arnold Wedum, Fort Detrick
Dr. Richard Griesemer, Ohio State University
Dr. Simon Sulkin, U. of Texas Southwestern Medical School
Dr. George Michaelsen, University of Minnesota

Human Leukemia Therapy Segment

Dr. Seymour Perry, Chairman
Dr. Edward Henderson, Vice Chairman

Breast Cancer Virus Studies Segment

Dr. W. Ray Bryan, Chairman
Dr. Robert Depue, Vice Chairman
Dr. H. J. Clausen, Executive Secretary
Dr. Louis R. Sibal, NCI
Dr. Ernest Plata, NCI
Dr. Harish Chopra, NCI
Dr. J. R. Fraumeni, NCI
Dr. Richard Bates, NCI
Dr. E. Vollmer, NCI
Dr. M. Black, New York Medical College, N.Y.C.
Dr. M. Brennan, Michigan Cancer Foundation
Dr. K. DeOme, University of California, Berkeley
Dr. W. Feller, Georgetown University
Dr. R. Gilden, Flow Laboratories
Dr. D. Moore, Institute for Medical Research

Program Management Segment

Dr. J. B. Moloney, Chairman
Dr. L. R. Sibal, Executive Secretary
Dr. W. Ray Bryan, NCI
Dr. A. J. Dalton, NCI
Dr. James Duff, NCI
Dr. Michael Chirigos, NCI
Dr. Robert Huebner, NCI
Dr. Robert Manaker, NCI
Dr. Deward Waggoner, NCI
Dr. Robert Holdenried, NCI
Dr. George Todaro, NCI


SVCP Highlights

Next, "Progress Highlights" of their scientific activities were presented. The majority of highlights focused on Type C viruses which, of course, Gallo's group had manipulated by the dozens. The NCI staff reported "There are now over 100 viruses which are known to cause virtually all kinds of cancer in every major group of animals including nonhuman primates."

Viruses of one (Type C) are known to cause leukemias, lymphomas, and sarcomas in chickens, mice, and cats. Particles, which closely resemble Type C viruses, can be found in human patients affected with these same kinds of cancers.

. . . By using techniques developed from animal tumor virus studies, every effort is being made to determine whether these viruses cause human malignancies .... Some important new discoveries that have been made are: (1) Certain oncogenic viruses are unable to produce malignancies unless a "helper" virus is present [such as EBV], thus suggesting that an interplay exists between two viruses. (2) Certain tumor-inducing chemicals, irradiation, (carcinogens) may act as cofactors in activating latent, oncogenic viruses within cells. [This dovetailed what Peter Duesberg had argued with regard to AIDS.6] (3) Certain tumor viruses contain unique enzymes which are required in the replication of viruses in cells [exactly what Gallo and coworkers from Litton Bionetics had been studying with the reverse transcriptase enzyme]. These and other important developments will be discussed further in this report.5

Type C Particles

When the Special Virus Cancer Program was initiated, highest priority was given to the search for human leukemia viruses resembling the Type C viruses causing chicken and mouse leukemias. Since that time, many Type C viruses, the total is now about 85, have been found in a variety of tumors from many species of two vertebrate classes. All of these species continue to be studied intensively under the broader scope of the Special Virus Cancer Program. Several of the Type C viruses are established as the causative agents in leukemias, lymphomas, and sarcomas of chickens, mice, cats and hamsters. Many of these can infect and produce malignancies in other species (e.g. a sarcoma virus of the cat produces tumors in marmoset monkeys). Furthermore, some of these viruses can cause malignant transformation to occur in animal and human cells grown in the laboratory (e.g. cat leukemia and sarcoma viruses alter embryonic human cells). Type C virus particles have been found in association with malignancies of a spectrum of animal species including nonhuman primates, rats, cattle, woolley monkeys, gibbons, and man .... 5


After reading this, I reflected on "Gallo's Research Anthology" (see fig. 6.8). I recalled he not only received credit for discovering the first two types of human leukemia viruses, HTLV-I and II, but he published manipulating Type C monkey viruses-he extracted the viruses' nucleic acids, infused their empty envelopes with chicken and cat leukemia/sarcoma RNA, grew the mutants in human WBC cultures, then prompted them to infect human T-Iymphocytes and produce the leukemias, sarcomas, general wasting, and essentially all the symptoms of AIDS (see fig. 6.5).7

Creating More AIDS-like Viruses

Under the report's next heading, "Reactions between Type C viruses causing leukemias and sarcomas (solid tumors)," the NCI staff explained how and why they created more AIDS-like viruses:

When inoculated into appropriate cell cultures, Type C sarcoma viruses of chickens, mice and cats produce foci [cancerous growths] of altered cells. This fundamental discovery provides a readily visible indicator reaction for the detection of sarcoma viruses. On the other hand, leukemia viruses grown in tissue culture do not cause foci or other detectable changes. The finding that leukemia viruses can either inhibit or enhance focus formation by sarcoma viruses of the same species has led to the development of methods for the detection and quantitation of leukemia viruses indirectly.

Certain of the chicken, cat and mouse sarcoma viruses are "defective" in that they do not produce foci in cell cultures or tumors in animals in the absence of a co-infecting, "helper" leukemia virus. [Amazingly, the researchers called carcinogenic viruses "defective" if they were unable to produce cancers without the help of other factors including chemicals, radiation, and here leukemia viruses.] Further, in the presence of a defective sarcoma virus the helper action of leukemia viruses can be used as a specific indicator for their detection and quantitation. It is now believed that defective sarcoma virus-leukemia virus interactions may be more widespread in nature than originally thought and that similar systems may be found in man. A mouse leukemia virus which has been adapted to grow in human cells is now available to search for defective human sarcoma viruses, if they exist.8


In other words, humans would eventually be inoculated with mouse leukemia viruses in an effort to locate inactive human sarcoma viruses. Like the BLV experiments Strecker described in cows, here humans were to become the "mixers" for mutant leukemia and sarcoma viruses.

Here, in almost lay terms, the NCI staff described their greatest accomplishment in 1971 was to produce AIDS-like viruses for pre-cancer diagnosis. In continuing this effort, they reported an "alternative approach" had been developed for the detection of possible human leukemia viruses:

A defective mouse sarcoma virus and its leukemia virus helper can be made to form tight functional aggregates, which behave as one virus. Using a mixture of mouse sarcoma virus and cat leukemia virus, a hybrid aggregate which could be grown continuously in cat cells was produced. [Again, this is exactly what Gallo reported.7] Because the aggregate is defective, it requires the simultaneous presence of a cat leukemia virus for producing altered foci in cat cells. Thus, a focus forming sarcoma virus of the mouse, artificially changed to one possessing infectivity for cat cells, can now be used in cultures for the detection of cat leukemia viruses.

This hybrid virus, as well as the cat leukemia virus, will also grow in human embryonic cells in tissue culture. If sufficient amounts of the Type C particles found in association with human leukemia can be obtained, the possibility exists that the cat-adapted mouse sarcoma virus can be hybridized with the human agent to produce an indicator system for the detection of human leukemia viruses.8 Fig. 22.3 presents a graphic description of this work.


Litton's Group in Uganda

The NCI staff went on to explain how Type C virus particles can get into the genes of normal cells and cause them to develop cancer. Then they discussed in great detail, the enzyme that represented "a dramatic breakthrough" in the investigation of cancer. Without naming Gallo, they discussed his explicit area of expertise -- RNA-dependent DNA polymerase -- and explained, as Gallo had in numerous publications, the "biochemical pathways of tumor virus infection and replication."

Intensive investigations have now revealed polymerase activity in cells of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia; more preliminary evidence has shown the enzyme is in cells of sarcomas, Burkitt's lymphoma and breast cancer. Since the RNA-dependent DNA polymerase is apparently always present in the RNA tumor viruses of animals, its discovery in the human tumor cells offers good supportive evidence that viruses are associated with cancers in man. The RNA-dependent DNA polymerase of human leukemia cells is inhibited by a drug, n-dementhyl rifampicin [which Gallo had received from another documented Nazi employer and biological weapons contractor, Dow Chemical Company, and which he subsequently studied and reported on,9 and] which also inhibits the enzyme activity found in the Type C RNA tumor viruses of animals. Studies are underway [principally in Gallo's lab] to explore the action of this drug and the various modifications of it. These investigations could provide new approaches to the treatment of malignancies in man.8


Fig. 22.3. A Technique Devised by NCI Researchers . Including Robert Gallo as an Alternative Approach for the Detection of Possible Human Leukemia Viruses

Image
A bizarre series of cancer research experiments in which numerous leukemia and sarcoma viruses from cats and mice were mixed to produce a variety of mutants, One such virus infectious for cats was cultured in human embryonic cells to develop a diagnostic test for human leukemia. Source: NCI staff. The Special Virus Cancer Program: Progress Report #8. Office of the Associate Scientific Director for Viral Oncology (OASDVO). J.B. Moloney, Ed., Washington, DC.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1971, p. 22.


Following a shorter review of Type B viruses thought to be associated with breast cancer, and Herpes-type viruses "associated with some forms of chronic leukemia, lymphoma and postnasal carcinoma ... " the NCI staff focused on EBV. Their program, they said, had studied the significance of Epstein-Barr viruses extracted from Burkitt's lymphomas and postnasal carcinomas "through the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in the West Nile District of Uganda." This, of course, was close to where Preston noted AIDS, Marburg, Ebola, and Reston viruses were believed to have originated. The purpose of the NCI/NARC collaborative effort was "to determine the feasibility of further studies on EBV in relation to Burkitt's tumor .... " Also mentioned was the fact that "EBV infection has been associated with the development of infectious mononucleosis in young adults, a disease with the attributes of a self-limiting leukemia."10

Now it all seemed to fit. Gallo's group at Litton Bionetics, unlike any other, had performed the core services needed during the SVCP for the NCI to achieve its principle goals. Not only had Litton Bionetics been contracted to "manage the operations of the [entire] National Cancer Institute's Frederick (Md.) Cancer Research Center, including more than 750 scientists and support personnel," I I but here was evidence they ran the show in the West Nile District of Uganda as well. Reflecting on what I had just read about Litton Bionetics being the world's principal supplier of monkeys during the 1960s and early 1970s (see the first four grant summaries in fig. 22.5),2 they obviously maintained a facility in this area -- close to where OTRAG operated. Thus, I realized, the unnamed animal supplier who sent Marburg-infected monkeys to Europe was undoubtedly Litton Bionetics.

Moreover, I knew Gallo had worked with EBV to make his retroviruses grow faster. I was certain he knew his cell lines needed to be free of EBV lest they continue to mass produce retroviruses. 12 But here was the most damning evidence that the entire French-American fracas was a farce -- truly a distraction. This document proved that Gallo's group was intimately involved in EBV studies simultaneously in Bethesda and Uganda, which would also explain how Litton Bionetics ended up with the patent on the mononucleosis blood test. 13

Into the Future With OTRAG and Gallo

Next, the report provided their "projections" of how their research would be developed or expanded into the future. "Human studies," they wrote, would be expanded "to identify viruses or detect virus expressions in human tumors ... [and] to search for candidate viruses or subviral products which induce human malignancies .... " Such studies were desired:

(1) To identify and isolate candidate viruses or subviral products in leukemias, lymphomas and sarcomas.

(2) To identify and isolate candidate viruses or subviral products in breast, lung and other carcinomas.

(3) To develop methods for the detection of high cancer risk groups, i.e., individual susceptibility of predisposition to transformation by human viruses.

(4) To develop suitable reagents for mass diagnostic screening for candidate viruses.

(5) To characterize, biologically and biochemically, presumptive viral agents.

(6) To increase emphasis on understanding the relationship of environmental agents (e.g. chemical carcinogens) as cofactors in viral carcinogenesis. This represents a major expansion of effort requiring combined efforts of the Viral Oncology and Chemical Carcinogenesis Areas. 14

This later function was one Litton Bionetics's chief revenue producing specialties.

The SVCP's projections regarding future "Molecular Studies," which again was Dr. Gallo's forte, and their "Immunological Studies" in which Hilleman, Krugman, and Poeisz majored were summarized next (see fig. 22.4).

Next, the SVCP "Summary Reports" reviewed progress which had been made in every working group. In this section, the staff disclosed the principal researchers directing each group and area of investigation.

Under another heading "Other Research Developments" in the Viral Leukemia and Lymphoma Branch, the staff described a variety of viral experiments, including those using Epstein-Barr, cat leukemia/sarcoma, and monkey leukemia/lymphoma/sarcoma viruses. Here they announced a major breakthrough:

Herpes saimiri is a DNA containing virus indigenous to the squirrel monkey. Recent studies have shown that this virus will induce acute lymphocytic leukemias as well as lymphomas and reticulum cell sarcomas in owl monkeys and marmosets. This is the first demonstration that a virus produces leukemia and lymphomas in primates and may serve as an important model for human leukemia and lymphoma. 15


This disclosure obviously foreshadowed the announcement made almost ten years later by Gallo that he had discovered HTLV-I, a leukemia virus he identified as the cause of T-cell leukemia in Japan.

I thus wondered whether H1LV-I had been developed by Gallo and company during the early 1970s as part of the SVCP. HTLV-I, like HIV and the Marburg viruses, may have then been accidentally released or deployed to initiate the Japanese epidemic for which Gallo could later claim the discovery of its etiologic agent. This would put a new spin on what Shilts described as "something of a backward scientific affair," I realized. 16 In fact, the entire H1LV-I saga, in light of this evidence, was reasonably a possible pilot study or model for the AIDS epidemic a decade later.

Fig. 22.4. A Description of the Molecular and Immunological Studies Conducted During the NCI's Special Virus Cancer Program

Molecular Studies

In recent months rapid major advances have been made in the field of molecular biology. These findings have direct application to the study of the relationship of viruses to tumors. There is evidence that the genetic material (RNA) of the tumor viruses can direct the synthesis of new DNA. The demonstration that RNA tumor viruses contain enzymes (polymerase, ligase) which may be required for viral infection, interaction with host cell genome, and viral replication has provided the basis for the development of new, extremely sensitive methods for the detection of oncogenic viruses or their "fingerprints." Indeed, knowledge of the fundamental molecular events which occur during virus infection and subsequent cell transformation provides the first truly rational approach to therapy. Enzyme activities analogous to those of RNA tumor viruses have recently been found in cells of human leukemics. This offers strong supportive evidence that viruses are associated with cancers in man.

a. Basic studies

The Program is prepared to broaden its activities for identifying and characterizing the spectrum of enzymes (and other mediators) required by tumor viruses for replication and transformation.

b. Applied studies

As knowledge of the fundamental molecular events in virus-cell interactions is developed, the Program will apply this information to the study of human cancer as follows:

(1) To identify and characterize similar enzymes or enzymatic activities within normal and malignant human cells.

(2) To develop highly sensitive methods for the detection of virus or virus activity in human cells.

(3) To develop a rational basis for therapy or prevention by exploring various approaches to blocking of viral replication and/or tumorigenesis at the cellular and subcellular levels. The therapy could be directed at any or all of the stages of cell transformation beginning with cell infection by a tumor virus.

Ultimately these studies will require an exhaustive effort to develop drugs, anti-enzymes, gene repressors or inhibitors effective at the molecular level.

3. Immunological Studies

Immunologic research has provided extremely sensitive techniques for detection and characterization of tumor viruses, viral antigens, and changes in surface membranes of tumor cells. Indeed, such efforts have contributed to an understanding of the role of immunological mechanisms in host-tumor and host-virus interactions which provide an approach to the prevention and treatment of cancer.

a. Basic studies. Investigations of selected model systems, representing tumors induced by Type C, Type B, and Herpes-type viruses, will be extended to further identify, characterize and determine the viruses, viral antigens, and membrane antigens of tumor cells. This includes development and application of improved techniques with the sensitivity and specificity required to detect cellular alterations induced by tumor viruses alone or as the result of interaction with other environmental agents (e.g. chemicals, irradiation). Efforts will be increased to develop similar immunological methods and diagnostic reagents for application to human cancer. Research will be intensified and expanded:

(1) To study cellular and humoral immune mechanisms and to determine their relative significance in host recognition of and response to tumor and/or tumor viruses.

(2) To develop methods to enhance host response to tumor or virus antigens.

Increasing emphasis will be directed toward research on spontaneous or naturally occurring tumors in model systems relevant to human cancer. These studies would provide the basis for a rational approach to prevention (vaccines) and treatment (immunotherapy) of cancer.

b. Applied studies. Basic research will provide the framework or identification and characterization of viruses, viral antigens, and cell membrane alterations in human cancers. Immunological methods and reagents will be developed and applied:

(1) To relate candidate human viruses to known oncogenic agents.

(2) To identify and characterize interspecies viral antigens which are present in known mammalian tumors, and therefore, could provide the basis for a formidable probe to detect human tumor viruses or viral antigens.

(3) To launch large-scale seroepidemiological surveys which will define high risk populations.

(4) To determine the presence of cross-reacting antigens in various human tumors.

Clinical studies will be directed toward understanding and manipulation of immune mechanisms in human cancer as a basis for:

(1) Development of vaccines from identified and fully-characterized human tumor virus(es).

(2) Determination of the role of host immune responses in tumor recognition and rejection.

(3) Application of (1) and (2) in the prevention and control of human cancer.

As research progresses, increased emphasis on application will be as follows:

(1) Immunodiagnosis and seroepidemiology

(2) Clinical studies on the role of immune mechanisms in human cancer

(3) Immunotherapy

(4) Vaccines (conventional or other)

Ultimately, these studies would be organized to coordinate and integrate the application of appropriate biochemical, immunological, and genetic methods of detection, prevention, and control of various types of human cancer.

4. Test Systems

In vitro and in vivo (animal) test systems will be carefully selected to evaluate the work outlined in the previous research areas; specifically: (a) to determine the oncogenic potential of candidate human viruses; (b) to develop bioassay systems for testing viral, and viral/chemical carcinogens; (c) to begin vaccine (conventional or other) testing and immunization programs; (d) to begin therapy testing programs; and (e) to explore special animal tumor systems with particular relevance to human cancer.

Source: NCI staff. The Special Virus Cancer Program: Progress Report #8. Office of the Associate Scientific Director for Viral Oncology (OASDVO). J. B. Moloney, Ed., Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1971, pp. 28-30.


A Cat Owner's Nightmare

Another paragraph dealt with cat owners and AIDS-like diseases in cats. Having studied feline leukemia/sarcoma viruses, the staff reported, "About one and one-half years ago, a nationwide effort was initiated to obtain cancerous cats (primarily leukemias and sarcomas) from cat breeders and owners." The NCI put out a nationwide call "for materials and cancerous purebred cats with pedigrees." Letters were "sent to cat owners soliciting cats with veterinarian-diagnosed cancers."15

The authors wrote, "The procurement effort not only obtains valuable research material but reassures the cat owners and other concerned citizens of NCI's active program for the evaluation of the unlikely hazard of this disease to human health."15

How ironic, I thought, the NCI was spending hundreds of millions of taxpayer dollars to prove that animals, including cats and monkeys, were potential reservoirs for cancer viruses at the same time they assured people that it was safe to handle these animals. Then, even more bizarre, was the fact that as pet owners supplied the NCI with experimental cat viruses, the researchers engineered them to cause cancer in humans.

Apparently, I realized, cancer virus-infected animals posed less of a risk to the public's health than did the NCI.
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Re: EMERGING VIRUSES: AIDS & EBOLA: Nature, Accident or Inte

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Part 2 of 2

Filling in the Missing Pieces

The staff continued to describe dozens of studies in which "special viruses" were bioengineered in order to identify more viruses, develop a better understanding of cancers, and produce potential experimental vaccines. A list of 120 contracts given to a couple dozen SVCP contractors was provided in this section. 17 Their "TABLE II" included each contractor's name, telephone number, and project title. "Contract Summaries" followed this list. Fig. 22.5 provides selected reports from this section including those of: Bionetics Research Laboratories, Inc.;18 Merck and Company, Inc.;19 Public Health Research Institute of the City of New York;20 the University of California;21 and Hazleton Research Labs (also spelled "Hazelton" in the same government document).22

These SVCP contract summary reports filled in "many of the gaps in the knowledge I had concerning the relationships between the various suspects and their activities. For instance, Gallo's boss, Robert Manaker was commonly cited as the chief of the Viral Biology Branch and Chairman of the Etiology Area for the entire SVCP. Dr. Roy Kinard served as vice chairman until March 2, 1971, and Dr. Jack Gruber, who reviewed the vast majority of contracts carried the title of executive secretary under Manaker.23 Manaker and Gruber administered the Merck and Company, Inc. project entitled, "Research on Oncogenic and Potentially Oncogenic Viruses, Large-scale Virus Production and Vaccine Development" directed by Maurice Hilleman. Manaker was the principal "Project Officer" on the contract as well as the "Segment Chairman."19 He was also the NCI's project officer for Hazleton Laboratories "Studies on the Etiology of Canine Cancer."

Surely Preston would love to see this, I thought facetiously, as I read that Hazleton not only supplied the NCI with viruses, but they conducted virtually the same experiments that Gallo had performed on monkeys using dogs. Their summary report in fig. 22.5 showed they innoculated dogs, "kittens," and mice with leukemia and sarcoma viruses in a failed attempt to develop vaccines for "immunotherapeutic" control of "naturally occurring" cancers in humans.22

A Bionetics contract summary disclosed that Dr. John Landon served as the director of Litton Bionetics along with David Valerio and Robert Ting. Ting had co-authored numerous Gallo research publications. The SVCP report noted that Gallo served as an NCI "Project Officer" overseeing several Bionetics contracts, and that Gruber and Kinard shared this responsibility with Gallols (see also fig. 22.5).

This report confirmed that Bionetics and Merck had co-investigated African green monkeys, and both had challenged them with the Australia antigen associated with hepatitis B transmission. Both companies were involved in the research that led to the development of Merck's infamous hepatitis B vaccine, most plausibly responsible for spreading AIDS throughout the world. 19

While reading the SVCP progress reports, many of my grimmest suspicions proved to be true. For instance, the Merck and Company contract gave for its "proposed course":

The investigators will devote initial efforts to developing methods for propagation, purification, concentration and specific quantitation of candidate viruses suspected or shown to cause cancer in man. At the present time, investigations will be focused upon herpes-type (DNA) viruses and "B" and "e" type (RNA) particles [that is, the viruses known to cause lymphomas, leukemias, sarcomas, general immune suppression and wasting -- all commonly associated with AIDS]. Parallel studies to evolve live attenuated and killed virus vaccines in appropriate animal model systems will be conducted. Particular attention will be given to developing and applying optimal methods for viral attenuation, viral inactivation, viral quantitation, vaccine safety assessment, and vaccine potency assay.19


Thus, in 1971, Merck's research agenda (NIH contract 71-2059)19 completely overlapped Bionetics work (contract NIH contract 71- 2025)18 -- a highly incriminating fact which might best explain both the rapid spread of HIV following Merck vaccine trials, as well as the simultaneous AIDS outbreaks in Central Africa and New York City.

Additionally incriminating in this regard was another Bionetics contract that called for the company to supply "Support Services for the Special Virus Cancer Program" (NIH contract 69-2160).24 The Litton group was paid not only to supply monkeys and biochemical testing reagents to other research groups, including those at Merck, but also to compare and manipulate AIDS-like viruses in Africa and America simultaneously.24 Begun on June 27, 1969, and completed within a year, their work evaluated EBV levels in blood taken from "American patients with Burkitt's lymphoma and age- and sex-matched patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia, African Burkitt lymphoma, and nonmalignant diseases." At the same time, in the same study, to complete the Bionetics contract, NCI officer Bassin and his co-worker Dr. Pienta were "to rescue and isolate" viruses from "undifferentiated sarcomas" from human patients "by co-cultivation, hybridization, and other techniques."24

Just as I theorized, had OTRAG assisted in the development or testing of AIDS-like viruses, they would have received their experimental reagents and animals from Litton Bionetics.

Adjacent this Bionetics research report was one coded NIH 71-2149. Here $75,000 a year went to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) for essentially identical "Studies on RNA-Dependent DNA Polymerase" on which Gallo's teams had reported. The project director, David Baltimore, the researcher Strecker had accurately cited as a pioneer of the work Gallo made famous, and NCI officer/Bionetics overseer George Todaro, performed this series of studies to identify the genetic codes in cancer viruses that enabled them to cause human tumors. This work, the progress report stated, had been given the "highest priority in the SVCP" (see fig. 22.6).

Another contract of interest was "The Production of Simian Viruses and Homologous Antisera" (NIH 69-93) directed by Seymour Kalter from the Southwest Foundation for Research and Education. (see final contract in fig. 22.5). Here, the summary revealed, Kalter's group served as quality control experts for the NCI's chief monkey virus suppliers, principally Litton Bionetics. In addition, Kalter was responsible for diagnosing the "viral isolates that may emerge from studies done .... " In other words, as new forms of mutant monkey viruses emerged from Bionetics and other labs, Kalter diagnosed what kind of bugs they were, and what they might be expected to do in monkeys and man.

I suddenly realized where the phrase "emerging viruses" came from.

In summary, I realized this SVCP report documented three frightening facts: (1) the Litton and Merck network of researchers undoubtedly produced an array of AIDS-like viruses under these contracts alone; (2) such work was ongoing at the time Merck hepatitis B vaccine studies were being conducted in New York and Africa under Krugman and Hilleman, these men shared their information and resources; and, most alarming, (3) Robert Gallo's affiliates at Litton Bionetics supplied the experimental viruses and monkeys -- both infected and uninfected -- to NCI and Merck researchers in Bethesda, Central Africa, New York, and Pennsylvania. Therefore, had either one infected monkey, or a bit of monkey-virus-contaminated material, been used to develop one batch of experimental hepatitis B vaccine, in anyone of their labs, this alone might explain the origin of AIDS and the epidemic's simultaneous emergence in New York and Central Africa during the late 1970s.

Fig. 22.5. Grant Descriptions and Summary Reports of AIDS-like Virus and Vaccine Studies Conducted By Bionetics, Merck, Hazleton, University of California, and Public Health Research Institute of the City of New York During the NCI's Special Virus Cancer Program

BIONETICS RESEARCH LABORATORIES (NIH-69-2l60)

Title: Support Services for the Special Virus Cancer Program.

Contractor's Project Director: Dr. Robert C. Y. Ting

Project Officer (NCI): Dr. George Todaro

Objectives: To provide a laboratory that will collect, process and test specimens from human and animal sources suspected of containing virus associated antigens or antibodies, and to provide other virology, immunology or cell culture services as required.

Major Findings: Services and resources provided in close collaboration with NCI investigators during the past year include: (1) biochemical studies of cell growth regulation with Dr. Todaro; (2) attempts to isolate a human cancer virus with Dr. Bassin; (3) tests for EBV antigens for Dr. Levine; (4) immunological tests of leukemia patients, including studies of twins, for Dr. Levine; (5) CF tests for gs antigens for Dr. Hellman; (6) membrane antigen preparation from human tissue for Dr. Herberman; (7) collection of familial cancer sera and histories for Dr. Fraumeni; (8) tissue and serum bank for Dr. Levine et al; (9) American Burkitt registry and follow-up; and (10) data processing with Dr. Waggoner.

When abortively transformed cells containing SV40 genome were re-infected with SV40, they had a lower rate of transformation than cells without the genome; thus, the presence of SV40 did not confer immunity.

Fetal thymus cells of dogs were co-cultivated with irradiated human sarcoma cells. The dog cells showed degeneration and transformation (chromosome analysis now being done).

Rhesus cell cultures infected with Mason-Pfizer virus showed evidence of transformation and caused regressing tumors when subsequently inoculated into newborn rhesus monkeys.

Cellular immunity studies of leukemia patients, using lymphocyte cytotoxicity and cytotoxicity inhibition tests, suggest that cells of such patients possess leukemia-associated antigens and that a widespread antigen system may be operative in human and animal tumors.

Significance to Biomedical Research and the Program of the Institute:

This contract laboratory provides an opportunity for a systematic, large-scale effort to detect viruses and/or viral antigens in human tumor materials (particularly leukemias and sarcomas), using tissue culture, immunological, biochemical and EM techniques. This is a major objective of the SVCP.

Proposed Course: It is proposed that this contract will continue to supply the necessary supportive services required to meet the needs of the SVCP.

Date Contract Initiated: June 27, 1969

Current Contract Level: $800,000


Date Contract Initiated: March 1, 1971

BIONETICS RESEARCH LABS., INC. (NTH 69-2160)

Title: Support Services for SVCP

Contractor's Project Director: Dr. Robert Ting

Project Officers (NCI): Dr. George Todaro
Dr. Paul Levine
Dr. Robert Bassin

Objectives: To provide a laboratory that will collect, process an test cancer specimens from human and animal sources suspected of containing virus associated antigens.

Major Findings: EBV studies were carried out under the super- VISIon of Dr. Paul Levine. One study initiated and completed during this year was a seroepidemiological study comparing EBV titers in American patients with Burkitt's lymphoma and age-and sex-matched patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia, African Burkitt lymphoma, and non-malignant diseases. The African Burkitt sera were significantly higher than the American Burkitt sera (P<0.005). The role of EBV in human lymphoma was evaluated by immunological techniques detecting humoral and cellular immunity to the virus. The importance of careful clinical evaluation was emphasized by a study of twenty American patients with Burkitt's lymphoma and age and sex matched controls. Treatment and prognosis correlated with EBV titers in both lymphoma and leukemia patients, indicating that seroepidemiological studies which include single samples on a patient may be misleading. The studies clearly demonstrated that American patients with Burkitt's lymphoma, although their histopathology is indistinguishable from African patients, have different immune patterns to EBV.

Five individuals with low titers to EBV who were identified on an earlier study of Hodgkins disease were followed over a three year period. Half the patients developed high titers while the other half maintained low titers.

A study of leukemia in identical twins was initiated to determine whether an antigen could be detected in the cells of a leukemia twin which would not be identified in his normal HLA identical twin. Leukemia-associated antigens were detected in four of the seven families studied to date using the lymphocyte cytotoxicity test. In the animal system, this test is positive only when the lymphocytes are presensitized by an antigen, so that the reactivity of the family members against the leukemic patient's cells but not against the normal twin's cells suggest that an environmental agent, perhaps a virus, is present.

Sera from 43/102 (42%) of breast cancer patients had antibodies to BeLev antigens. Sera from 29% of patient's with sarcomas had detectable antibodies, whereas, 13% of patients with benign breast diseases and 3.6% of normal blood bank donors reacted.

Significance to Biomedical Research and the Program of the Institute:

Provides opportun1ty for systemat1c, large-scale effort to detect viruses or viral antigens in human or animal materials using tissue culture, immunological, biochemical and EM techniques. This is a major objective of the SVCP.

Proposed Course:

Although this contract will continue to supply necessary supportive services to SVCP, the workscope has recently been divided into three major areas, each being co-directed by a senior investigator at Bionetics and an NCI project officer. Drs. Rein and Todaro will attempt to isolate, characterize, and purify the factor(s) in serum which overcome contract inhibition and regulate the growth of normal and transformed 3T3 cells in culture. Drs. Pienta and Bassin will attempt to rescue and isolate a viral genome in undifferentiated sarcomas from untreated patients by co-cultivation, hybridization, and other techniques. Drs. Levine and Ting will continue studies to detect tumor specific antigens in patients with leukemia, lymphoma and breast cancer. In the leukemia studies, special emphasis will be placed on testing patients who have an identical twin; in the lymphoma studies, the serums of patients in selected disease groups will be tested for antibodies to EBV.

Date Contract Initiated: June 27, 1969


BIONETICS RESEARCH LABORATORIES, INC. (NIH-71-2025)

Title: Investigations of Viral Carcinogenesis in Primates

Contractor's Project Directors: Dr. John Landon
Dr. David Valerio
Dr. Robert Ting

Project Officers (NCI): Dr. Roy Kinard
Dr. Jack Gruber
Dr. Robert Gallo

Objectives: (1) Evaluation of long-term oncogenic effects of human and animal viral inocula in primates of various species, especially newborn macaques; (2) maintenance of monkey breeding colonies and laboratories necessary for inoculation, care and monitoring of monkeys; and (3) biochemical studies of transfer RNA under conditions of neoplastic transformation and studies on the significance of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase in human leukemic tissues.

Major Findings: This contractor continues to produce over 300 excellent newborn monkeys per year. This is made possible by diligent attention to reproductive physiological states of female and male breeders. Semen evaluation, artificial insemination, vaginal cytology and ovulatory drugs are used or tried as needed.

Inoculated and control infants are hand-fed and kept in modified germ-free isolators. They are removed from isolators at about 8 weeks of age and placed in filtered air cages for months or years of observation. The holding area now contains approximately 1200 animals up to 5 years old. Approximately 300 are culled every year at a rate of about 25 per month. This is necessary to make room for young animals inoculated with new or improved virus preparations.

During the past year macaques were inoculated at birth or in utero with the Mason-Pfizer monkey mammary virus, Epstein-Barr virus, Herpesvirus saimiri, and Marek's disease virus. EB virus was given with immunostimulation and immunosuppression (ALS, prednisone, imuran). Australia antigen was given to newborn African green monkeys.

The breeding and holding colonies were surveyed for antibody to EBV. All breeders were positive and their offspring contain maternal antibody for several months. Colony-born offspring that have lost maternal antibody and are sero-negative will be surveyed periodically for conversion to the EB positive state.

An RNA-dependent DNA polymerase similar to that associated with RNA tumor viruses was detected in human leukemic cells but not in normal cells stimulat by phytohemagglutinin. The enzyme was isolated, purified and concentrated 200-fold, making possible its further characterization and study in relation to the leukemic process in man.

Significance to Biomedical Research and to the Program of the Institute:

Inasmuch as tests for the biological activity of candidate human viruses will not be tested in the human species, it is imperative that another system be developed for these determinations and, subsequently for the evaluation of vaccines or other measures of control. The close phylogenetic relationship of the lower primates to man Justifies utilization of these animals for these purposes. Further study of altered transfer RNA and polymerase enzymes would determine their significance in neoplastic change and provide a basis for selection of therapeutic agents.

Proposed Course: Continuation with increased emphasis on monitoring and intensive care of inoculated animals to determine if active infection occurs, effects of infection, and degree of immunosuppression when used. Further studies of human neoplasms at a molecular level will continue.

Date Contract Initiated: February 12, 1962.


BIONETICS RESEARCH LABORATORIES, INC. (NIH 71-2025)

Title: Investigations of Viral Carcinogenesis in Primates

Contractor's Project Director: Dr. Harvey Rabin

Project Officers (NCI): Dr. Roy Kinard
Dr. Jack Gruber
Dr. Gary Pearson

Objectives: (1) Evaluation of long-term oncogenic effects of human and animal viral inocula in primates of various species, especially newborn macaques; (2) maintenance of monkey breeding colonies and laboratories necessary for inoculation, care and monitoring of monkeys; and (3) biochemical studies of transfer RNA under conditions of neoplastic transformation and studies on the significance of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase in human leukemic tissues.

Major Findings: This contractor continues to produce over 300 excellent newborn monkeys per year. This is made possible by diligent attention to reproductive physiological states of female and male breeders. Semen evaluation, artificial insemination, vaginal cytology and ovulatory drugs are used or tried as needed.

Inoculated and control infants are hand-fed and kept in modified germ-free isolators. They are removed from isolators at about 8 weeks of age and placed in filtered air cages for months or years of observation. The holding area now contains approximately 1200 animals up to 5 years old. Approximately 300 are culled every year at a rate of about 25 per month. This is necessary to make room for young animals inoculated with new or improved virus preparations.

New importance is being given to the New World species of monkeys, including squirrel, marmoset, and spider monkeys. Animals currently on study are being actively culled to reflect this change.

Special emphasis has been placed on virological studies characterizing the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV). Seven sublines established from chronically M-PMV-infected rhesus foreskin cultures were shown to be releasing moderately high titers of infectious M-PMV, and in addition seemed to have undergone in vitro transformation. Inoculation of cells of these sublines into newborn rhesus monkeys produced palpable masses at the sites of inoculation. Biopsies performed on these masses and on the regional lymph nodes of the same animals revealed the presence of proliferating virus characteristic of M-PMV by both electron microscopic and cell culture analysis. Proliferating M-PMV was found in the lymph nodes of monkeys inoculated with cell-free M-PMV preparations.

Chromatographic examination of transfer RNA's (tRNA's) from control and virus-transformed rat and mouse embryo cells demonstrated differences in phenyl-alanyl-tRNA's and aspartyl-tRNA's. No differences were noted in the elution profiles of seryl-, tyrosyl-, leucyl-, asparaginyl-, or glutaminyl-tRNA.

The effects of 11 rifamycin derivatives on viral reverse transcriptase and on DNA polymerases from human normal and leukemic blood lymphocytes were evaluated. Compound 143-483, 3-formyl rifamycin SV: octyl oxime showed the greatest potency and inhibited all DNA polymerases from both viral and cellular origins.

The contractor also engaged in collaborative studies involving the oncornavirus, RD-114, from a human sarcoma, isolated by Drs. McAllister, Gardiner, and Huebner. The virus is being produced and supplied by Dr. Gilden of flow Laboratories. Another virus, a human papovavirus associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, is being supplied by Dr. Duard Walker for inoculation into newborn monkeys.

Significance to Biomedical Research and to the Program of the Institute:

Inasmuch as tests for the biological activity of candidate human viruses will not be tested in the human species, it is imperative that another system be developed for these determinations and. subsequently for the evaluation of vaccines or other measures of control. The close phylogenetic relationship of the lower primates to man justifies utilization of these animals for these purposes. Further study of altered transfer RNA and polymerase enzymes would determine their significance in neoplastic change and provide a basis for selection of therapeutic agents.

Proposed Course: The previously mentioned studies will be continued and expanded. Particular attention will be given to research on animals inoculated with candidate human cancer Viruses, and investigations will be carried forward into the nature of neoplastic changes and their possible control at the cellular level. Collaborative efforts with other researchers within the SVCP will continue.

Date Contract Initiated: February 12, 1962

Current Annual Level: $2,153,850


Merck and Company, Inc. (NIH-71-2059)

Title: Study of Viruses in Human and Animal Neoplasia.

Contractor's Project Director: Dr. Maurice R. Hilleman

Project Officers (NCI): Dr. Robert A. Manaker
Dr. Jack Gruber

Objectives: To perform investigations designed to develop vaccines or other agents effective for the prophylaxis and therapy of human neoplasia of suspected viral etiology.

Major Findings: This is a new contract.

Significance to Biomedical Research and the Program of the Institute:

Current data support the concept that a virus or viruses are the essential element in most animal tumors studied and that viruses are probably the necessary etiological component in human neoplasia, though expression may be greatly influenced and modified by host and environmental factors. If viruses are the essential element in human cancer, then prophylaxis by vaccines to prevent or minimize infection should provide a rational approach to cancer prevention. This could be accomplished by utilization of live or killed virus vaccines or possibly by vaccines of purified virion subunits.

Vaccines would obviously provide their greatest benefit in preventing infection with oncogenic viruses transmitted horizontally after birth. However, even the possible vertical transmission of hypothetical neoplastic agents does not rule out a potential benefit from vaccines. Nononcogenic viruses may function as essential cofactors in expression of neoplasia, and immunity against such secondary agents might prevent expression of the neoplastic state. Additionally, antibody or cellular immunity may be enhanced by vaccination with homologous virus in virus-dependent cancer. Obviously this research investigation is of fundamental importance to the goals of SVCP and can make unique contributions to the total program.

Proposed Course: The investigators will devote initial efforts to developing methods for propagation, purification, concentration and specific quantitation of candidate viruses suspected or shown to cause cancer in man. At the present time, investigations will be focused upon herpes-type (DNA) viruses and "B" and "c" type (RNA) particles. Parallel studies to evolve live attenuated and killed virus vaccines in appropriate animal model systems will be conducted. Particular attention will be given to developing and applying optimal methods for viral attenuation, viral inactivation, viral quantitation, vaccine safety assessment, and vaccine potency assay.

Date Contract Initiated: March 1, 1971


MERCK AND COMPANY, INC. (NIH-71-2059)

Title: Oncogenic Virus Research and Vaccine Development

Contractor's Project Director: Dr. Maurice Hilleman

Project Officers (NCI): Dr. Robert A. Manaker
Mr. J. Thomas Lewin

Objectives: To conduct investigations designed to develop vaccines or other agents effective for the prophylaxis and therapy for human neoplasia of suspected viral etiology.

Major Findings: Multiple construction and renovation projects have been involved in the expansion and reorientation for this program. Remodeling of a laboratory, physically separated from the animal tumor virus area, was recently completed and is in use for Herpes simplex type 2 vaccine work. Two rooms (440 sq. ft.) in Bldg. #43 were remodeled and equipped and are in use for the germ-free derivation of kittens for the SPF cat colony breeding nucleus. Plans were completed for the renovation of half of Bldg. #65 (5,940 sq. ft.) for housing an SPF cat colony and for housing experimental cats. The construction and equipping of the new biohazard containment building #26B (12,096 sq. ft.) for laboratory work is progressing on schedule. The projected completion date is September, 1972.

Tumor-specific cellular vaccine development: The preparation and assay of tumor cell vaccines for protective efficacy in the hamster model system was continued at a lower priority level. Testing of adenovirus 31 tumor cell fractions prepared by mechanical disruption of the cells and fractionation by differential centrifugation was completed. None of the vaccines (crude cell homogenate, nuclear fraction-w2t = 10(7) pellet, membrane fraction-w2t = 5 x 10(9) pellet, particulate fraction-w2t = 10(11) pellet, cell sap-w2t = 10(11) supernate) protected hamsters against development of tumors when they were challenged by inoculation of viable homologous tumor cells. Work on the preparation of two other types of tumor cell antigens was continued. Cell membranes were prepared from a adenovirus 12 tumor cells by hypotonic extraction and were solubilized by sonication. The solubilized material was fractionated on Sephadex G200 columns and the desired iraction concentrated by the Diaflo membrane technique. The first batch of test and control antigens is on test for protective efficacy in hamsters. Preparation of additional batches of antigen for assay is in progress. Technology is still being developed for the preparation of adenovirus 7 tumor cell membranes by flow sonication and flow zonal centrifugation.

Investigation of the host immunologic response to nonprotective tumor cell vaccines is being conducted in hamster-tumor model systems. The first series of experiments was designed to test the effect of inoculation of known nonprotective vaccines before, simultaneously with, or after immunization with a known effective vaccine (5 x 10(6) y-irradiated tumor cells). Most of the experiments in this series are on test. Final results with one of the nonprotective vaccines, SV40 tumor cell ghosts prepared by hypertonic extraction, showed that this vaccine did not interfere with the ability of the host to reject viable homologous tumor cells after vaccination with 5 x 10(6) y-irradiated SV40 tumor cells.

Attempts to render nonprotective SV40 tumor cell vaccines effective by the administration of poly I:C before, simultaneously with, or after vaccine, single or multiple doses, or by different routes were not successful in the hamster model system.

Studies on the role of fetal antigens in tumor immunology are being conducted in the SV40-hamster model system. In the first series of experiment, y-irradiated, 9-12 day gestation fetal cells of multiparous origin did not protect adult male or female hamsters against tumor development when challenged with 5000 homologous tumor cells. Experiments are in progress wherein the vaccines were prepared from primaparous 10- day gestation embryos and are being tested in the SV40 virus-newborn hamster model system and in the adult hamster-tumor cell challenge system with a 2500 cell challenge dose.

Virus vaccine development: This project is still in the initial stages. The work in progress is concerned primarily with basic needs such as virus propagation, virus concentration and purification, preparation of specific antisera, and establishment of routine assay procedures.

The KT (Kawakami-Theilen) strain of feline leukemia virus (FLV) was routinely propagated in roller bottle (1 liter/bottle) suspension cultures of the virus-shedding FL74c cell line. Ten liter lots of culture fluid were concentrated (1000x) and purified by flow zonal centrifugation and isopynic centrifugation on sucrose gradients. Modifications in technology are still being made to increase the purity of the concentrated virus. Virus yields of 10(13) virus particles/ml were readily achieved.

In order to provide an adequate supply of healthy cats for future experimental work, establishment of a specific pathogen-free cat colony was proposed. The first step, the germ-free derivation of the breeding has been in progress for two months. All eight isolators are occupied by kittens (16 females, 7 males) ranging from 1 to 8 weeks in age.

Significance to Biomedical Research and the Program of the Institute:

If viruses are an essential element in the genesis of some human cancers, prophylaxis by vaccines to prevent or minimize infection should provide a rational approach to cancer prevention. This could be accomplished by living or killed virus vaccines or possibly by vaccines of purified virion sub-units. Although greatest benefit could be derived by prevention of infections transmitted horizontally after birth, a potential benefit from vaccines may be derived where viruses are transmitted vertically but do not express their full antigenic complement. Nononcogenic viruses may function as essential co-factors in expression of neoplasia, and immunity against such secondary agents might prevent expression of the neoplastic state. In addition, vaccination with homologous virus in a virus-dependent cancer may enhance specific humoral antibody or cellular immunity. This research project is of fundamental importance to total program.

Proposed Course: Efforts to prepare tumor-specific cellular antigens for immunoprophylaxis of cancer and to study the immunologic response to such antigens will continue. Tests with poly I:C for adjuvant effect on ineffective cellular vaccines will be completed. Work towards development of a feline leukemia-sarcoma virus vaccine and a herpesvirus type 2 vaccine will be continued as rapidly as possible. If no problems arise, the germfree derivation of kittens for the SPF cat colony should be completed in several months.

Date Contract Initiated: March 1, 1971

Current Annual Level: $1,016,000


HAZELTON LABORATORIES, INC. (NIH-69-2079)

Title: Studies on the Etiology of Canine Cancer

Contractor's Project Director: Dr. Erling M. Jensen

Project Officers (NCI): Dr. Michael A. Chirigos
Dr. Robert A. Manaker

Objectives: To determine whether any canine cancer is caused by viruses and whether there is any possible etiological relationship between canine and human cancers.

Major Findings: A common antigen in several specific canine sarcomas was detected by immunofluorescence tests with sera from the tumor-bearing and other sarcomatous dogs. Successful transplantation of a canine mammary carcinoma was achieved by inoculation of beagles in utero. If continuous passage proves possible, the tumor will provide a valuable system for studies on viral etiology, therapy, and possibly hormonal influence on tumor development. Cells of a canine osteosarcoma inoculated into kittens in utero were recovered after birth of the animals and placed in culture. Attempts are underway to determine whether this procedure activated virus production.

A convenient, quantitative infectivity focus assay for feline virus was developed for studies using feline leukemia viruses in attempts to recover defective viruses from canine tumors. Treatment with BUdR and IUdR was introduced in attempts to induce virus release from canine tumor cells. Exposure of XC rat cells, which have been routinely used to titer murine leukemia viruses, to BUdR activated virus production. Two viruses appear to be present.

Studies were initiated to evaluate the effect of combined chemotherapy and nonspecific immune stimulators on spontaneous lymphosarcoma in dogs. In some preliminary tests, streptonigrin was used to determine its inhibitory effect on dog cells infected with feline leukemia virus. Even at toxic drug levels, the reproduction of the virus was not eliminated. Focal areas of morphological change were observed in the canine cells exposed to streptomycin.

Significance to Biomedical Research and the Program of the Institute:

Study of canine neoplasms for evidence of viral associations is important in several respects. Since humans are in close contact with canine pets, the possibility that they may be exposed to a canine tumor virus must be investigated. In contrast to the cat and mouse, viruses are not regularly shed by canine tumor cells. An analogous situation exists in the human. The dog provides an excellent experimental animal to determine the presence of covert viral infections contributing to neoplastic transformations. If such viral relationships to cancer in the dog can be firmly established, the dog will provide opportunity to study the mechanisms for transmission of infection, virus-host relationships, and evaluation of control measures. In this respect, the dog would be one of the best models for human cancer.

Proposed Course: Redirection of the effort in this laboratory is being considered to utilize the facilities for more intensive study on tumor viruses, a more concentrated effort on viral relationships to canine mammary carcinoma, and evaluation of immunotherapeutic approaches to control of naturally occurring neoplasms.

Date Contract Initiated: May 26, 1969

Current Annual Level: $400,000


PUBLIC HEALTH RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF THE CITY OF NEW YORK, INC. (NCI-E-72-2028)

Title: Study of Cell Surface Alterations Induced by RNA and DNA Viruses.

Contractor's Project Director: Dr. Thomas Benjamin

Project Officers (NCI): Dr. George Todaro
Dr. Roy Kinard

Objectives: To investigate the relationship between cell surface alterations induced by RNA viruses and those induced by DNA viruses using several oncorna viruses and non-transforming mutants of polyoma virus.

Major Findings: Eight cell lines including 3T3, 3T12 and sarcoma virus transformed lines, have been transferred from Dr. Todaro's laboratory successfully and are being checked for possible selection of variants. This contract is new and no other results have been obtained.

Significance to Biomedical Research and the Program of the Institute:

The long range goal of the research program of this laboratory is an understanding of how oncogenic viruses overcome cellular growth controls. Ultimately, an understanding of the mechanism of neoplastic transformation by viruses will depend on progress in two areas: (1) the identification and characterization of those viral gene functions which are essential to the transformation process, and (2) the determination of how and where these essential viral genes interact with the cell and with factors which normally operate in regulating cell growth. The proposed contract will allow Dr. Benjamin to continue and extend his impressive work on this problem and will foster collaboration with other NCI and SVCP workers.

Proposed Course: Continuation to achieve the objectives described.

Date Contract Initiated: December 3, 1971

Current Contract Level: $36,800


CALIFORNIA, UNIVERSITY OF (NIH-NCI-E-70-204B)

Title: comparative Leukemia and Sarcoma Viral Studies

Contractor's Project Director: Dr. Leo K. Bustad

Project Officer (NCI): Dr. Robert J. Huebner

Objectives: To further study the two simian Type C viruses (woolly monkey sarcoma and gibbon lymphosarcoma) which were first isolated in this laboratory.

Major Findings:

(1) Woolly Monkey Fibrosarcoma (SSV): (a) SSV-infected bonnet monkey cells, cultivated in roller bottles, are yielding significant amounts of SSV virus. Several other cell lines of human, bovine, and simian origin also support SSV replication. (b) Bovine cells infected with woolly monkey sarcoma virus were inoculated into the autochthonous host at 10- to 14-day intervals as viable and freeze-thawed disrupted cells. Serum samples taken prior to inoculation and 6 weeks later were tested for antibody against the woolly monkey sarcoma virus by immunodiffusion. A positive precipitin band developed with a serum sample taken 6 weeks post-inoculation. (c) Radioimmune precipitation assays using SSV replicated in bovine thymus cultures were positive for bovine anti-SSV antisera but negative for bovine anti-FeSV antisera, indicating that SSV-infected cultures are free of FeSV antigens and that SSV and FeSV do not possess common envelope antigens. (d) Cellular and cell-free materials from tissue culture were inoculated subcutaneously into two newborn cotton-topped marmosets. Nodules (7 to 13 mm diameter) developed at the site of inoculation within 12 to 14 days. However, nodules regressed within 3 weeks. One nodule detected 28 days after inoculation reached 1 cm in diameter and has remained that size for 4 months. Blood samples from each animal have been examined monthly and no significant abnormalities have been noted. All inoculated monkeys are being held for continued observation.

(2) Gibbon Lymphosarcoma (SLV): (a) The cell line initiated from the gibbon tumor tissue remains the best producer of SLV, although bovine, African green monkey kidney (AGMK), and human cell lines support low levels of SLV replication. (b) Transmission of the gibbon lymphosarcoma was tested in 'neonatal squirrel monkeys and pigs. Three of four newborn squirrel monkeys inoculated with gibbon lymphosarcoma tissue culture cells had a transient enlargement of the regional lymph node draining the site of inoculation. No signs of neoplasia have been observed during the 4 to 5 months following challenge; regular examination of blood samples has revealed no abnormalities. All monkeys remain under observation. Three of eight inoculated pigs were sacrificed 4 months after injection and found to have slightly enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes; histopathologic diagnosis was lymphoid hyperplasia. No other lesions were detected. Surviving pigs have shown no signs of neoplasia in the 7 to 9 months since inoculation and remain under observation.

Significance to Biomedical Research and the Program of the Institute:

The finding at this laboratory of two Type C viruses associated with tumors of different primate species is evidence that the higher animals, including man, are likely to be among the growing number of species harboring oncornaviruses. Since monkeys and man are closely related phylogenetically, the proposed studies, which are oriented toward characterization of the primate viruses and seeking possible relation with human tumors, are of direct relevance in establishing the etiology of human cancer.

Proposed Course: (1) Characterize in greater detail the molecular components of the woolly monkey fibrosarcoma and gibbon lymphosarcoma viruses by analysis of enzymes, structural proteins and nucleic acid. (2) Determine the in vitro and in vivo biological activities of woolly monkey and gibbon lymphosarcoma viruses. (3) Initiate serologic studies for the detection of antigenic components in spontaneous tumors of simian and human origin that may be common to know simian RNA Type-C viruses. (4) Continue efforts to isolate oncogenic agents from spontaneous tumors of primates and complete limited studies on canine systems, (5) Complete studies on humoral antibody response in cats to the leukemia-sarcoma virus complex.

Date Contract Initiated: November 16, 1969

Current Contract Level: $550,000


SOUTHWEST FOUNDATION FOR RESEARCH AND EDUCATION (NIH 69-93)

Title: The Production of Simian Viruses and Homologous Antisera

Contractor's Project Director: Dr. Seymour S. Kalter

Project Officer (NCI): Dr. James T. Duff

Objectives: To determine the quality of simian virus reference reagents (seed material and antisera) packaged for NCI by another contractor. In addition, the laboratory serves as a diagnostic laboratory in a limited capacity for viral isolates that may emerge from studies done by other SVCP contractors.

Major Findings: The simian foamyvirus (FV) reagents were extensively tested and an attempt was made to determine whether a relationship exists between the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus and the foamyviruses. Assistance was given NCI personnel in the identification of Herpesvirus saimiri, a woolly monkey virus and in the study of other viruses isolated from primate neoplastic tissues.

All seven FV types grew at least on one of a variety of cell lines indicating viability of the ampouled stocks. Secondary rabbit kidney cell cultures supported the growth of all seven types and working pools are in preparation on these cells. The Baboon Submaxillary Lymph Node cell (SMLN) culture has proven most useful in working with all the types except 5. This is a diploid culture now in its 10th subpassage. Cytopathology on these cells is rapid (6-8 days), reaching a maximum in two weeks and is easy to read because of the uniformity in appearance of the cell sheet. Working pools of types 1, 2, 4, 6 and 7 have been prepared on SMLN cells with ]titers of 2.0-3.0 logs/0.1 ml. Vero cells were next most susceptible to foamyvirus infection, producing CPE with FV 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7.

Cross neutralization testing indicated an unanticipated FV 2-7 cross reaction and FV 6 and 7 appear to be "mislabelled."

There appears to be no serologic relationship between M-PMV and FV 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7.

Significance to Biomedical Research and the Program of the Institute:

These reagents will be useful to investigators in characterizing viruses isolated from neoplastic diseases (natural or induced) that occur in primates, and for monitoring primate colonies.

Proposed Course: Certify the packaged simian virus reagents and serve as a diagnostic laboratory for viral isolates referred to SWFRE by NCI.

Date Contract Initiated: June 15, 1966

Source: NCI staff. The Special Virus Cancer Program: Progress Report #8. Office of the Associate Scientific Director for Viral Oncology (OASDVO). J. B. Moloney, Ed., Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1970 and 1971. Page numbers are as shown.


Fig. 22.6. Grant Description and Summary Reports of "Highest: Priority" AIDS-like Virus Studies Conducted By The Massachusetts Institute of Technology During the NCI's Special Virus Cancer Program

MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (NCI-E-71-2149)

Title: Studies of Leukemia Virus DNA Polymerase.

Contractor's Project Director: Dr. David Baltimore

Project Officers (NCI): Dr. George Todaro
Dr. Roy Kinard

Objectives: To characterize the enzyme, its product, its mechanism of reaction, and formation of viral RNA during infection.

Major Findings: Using polyribionucleotides as templates, complementary primer was necessary to initiate DNA synthesis. Using poly(A) as a template for the DNA polymerase, the amount of poly(dT) synthesis was proportional to the amount of added template. The best primers were oligodeoxyribonucleotides such as oligo(dT) as a primer for poly(A). Polyribonucleotides were in general much better templates than polyribodeoxynucleotides.

The endogenous reaction involves the copying of the 60S-70S RNA found in the virion. The initial reaction product formed when the virion DNA polymerase copies the endogenous viral RNA consists of small pieces of DNA attached to the 60S-70S RNA. The DNA can be released from the bulk RNA by procedures which disrupt hydrogen bonds. The density of the product is not that of a free DNA but that of a covalently-bonded DNA-RNA hybrid. This finding, which was made both with mouse leukemia virus and avian myeloblastosis virus, indicates that the primer for the endogenol1~ reaction is an RNA molecule.

The globin messenger RNA or, more strictly, the 105 RNA from rabbit reticulocytes polyribosomes, was the best template for the DNA polymerase found. Synthesis of DNA amounting to 30-80% of the added template was observed with this RNA. Actinomycin D inhibited the reaction to about 50% indicating that half of the reaction involved copying of RNA and the other half the copying of the complementary DNA into a double-stranded DNA. In order to investigate the nature of the reaction product they studied its size and its ability to hybridize specifically with 105 RNA. They were able to demonstrate that the product was completely complementary to 105 RNA and was not complementary to other RNA's found in reticulocytes and elsewhere. This RNA may be of utility in many aspects of molecular cell biology and a number of experiments have been initiated using it.

Significance to Biomedical Research and the Program of the Institute:

The characterization of the enzyme that produces DNA from the tumor viruses genetic material (RNA) has the highest priority in the SVCP. It may provide much more sensitive techniques for finding cancer virus genetic information in human tumors.

Proposed Course: Continuation with slight decrease in budget. Date Contract Initiated: May 1, 1971

Current Contract Level: $75,000


MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (NIH 71-2149)

Title: Studies on RNA-Dependent DNA Polymerase

Contractor's Project Director: Dr. David Baltimore

Project Officer (NCI): Dr. George Todaro

Objectives: To characterize DNA polymerase and its product, to study its mechanism of reaction and formation of viral RNA during infection.

Major Findings: None reported yet, this is anew contract.

Significance to Biomedical Research and its Pro£ram of the Institute:

The Objectives above have highest priority in the SVCP. The results may provide very sensitive techniques for finding cancer virus genetic information in human tumors.

Proposed Course: Continuation with addition of EM capability.

Date Contract Initiated: May 1, 1971

Massachusetts Institute of Technology study summary (NIH) 71-2149. Document shows retrovirus pioneer David Baltimore, in cooperation with NCI chief George Todaro, performed similar studies to those performed by Robert Gallo's teams in Bethesda and Uganda. Todaro, Vice Chairman of Resources and Logistics for the Special Virus Cancer Program, was also the NCI officer who oversaw several AIDS-like virus studies conducted by Bionetics in the early 1970s. Source: NCI staff. The Special Virus Cancer Program: Progress Report #8. Office of the Associate Scientific Director for Viral Oncology (OASDVO). J. B. Moloney, Ed., Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1970, pp. 188-189, and 1971 pp. 214-215; 322-323.
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Re: EMERGING VIRUSES: AIDS & EBOLA: Nature, Accident or Inte

Postby admin » Thu Jun 30, 2016 4:06 am

Chapter 23: The Man-Made Origin of Marburg and Ebola

THE following week, I flew into Baltimore-Washington International airport. Jackie made plans for me to drive from BWI to Pittsburgh for my next seminar. The main purpose for the road trip was so that I could spend a couple of days in Frederick, Maryland, exploring Fort Detrick and the NCI library.

Arriving on the morning of April 4, 1995, I stopped to photograph its mildly intimidating gate (see fig. 23.1); then I drove right past an unsecured checkpoint. As I circled the complex, the Fort teamed with activity as construction crews and researchers bustled about. Several new buildings were going up, including the library annex. The NCI certainly appears to be immune to the real estate recession, I mused.

The NCI's new library seemed modest compared to all the others I had visited in the previous months. The floor area, about 2,000 square feet, supported the typical library fixtures.

I immediately approached two librarians who were conversing quietly at their station behind the main checkout counter. "Excuse me," I said politely, "I wonder if you have a series of NCI publications dating to the early 1970s entitled the "Special Virus Cancer Program Progress Reports?"

"Have you tried the computer?" quipped the senior staffer.

"Thanks a lot. I'll do just that." Please forgive my ignorance, I thought.

I turned, took three steps back to an open monitor and keyboard, and in the subject field entered the words "SPECIAL VIRUS CANCER PROGRAM (SVCP)." The computer immediately provided a list of SPECIAL VIRUS CANCER PROGRAM "Special Technical Publications." All right! I thought, excited by the possibility of finding something new. Quickly highlighting the first entry, I pressed the Enter key. To my absolute amazement, the computer responded:

Your search for the TITLE: SPECIAL VIRUS CANCER PROGRAM (SVCP), Special Technical Publication is not used in this library's catalog.


"What!" I can't believe that, I thought. The publication documenting the earliest efforts in the NCI's "war on cancer" is not here. No way.

I returned to the previous field, selected the second listing -- SPECIAL VIRUS CANCER PROGRAM "Special Technical Publication American Society for Tx," and pressed Enter. The computer, without pause, returned:

Your search for the TITLE: SPECIAL VIRUS CANCER PROGRAM (SVCP), Special Technical Publication is not used in this library's catalog.


"Oh, come on!"

I repeated the effort seven times; going down the list of SVCP Special Technical Publications that had obviously been written by the NCI staff. They were all apparently removed from the NCI "library's catalog."

Then I called the senior librarian over to the computer and demonstrated the problem.

"I guess we just don't have any of them," she defended, "but if you think the books are something we should have, you can fill out a special requisition form, and we'll get them."

"Thanks, but I'm only going to be in town for a couple of days," I said.

I walked away, amazed that these documents -- perhaps the most important and revealing in the history of the NCI -- had been apparently pulled from the library's shelves.

Image

Bridging the Blood Barrier

Other revealing documents had not been made classified, and my trip to Fort Detrick was ultimately worth the effort. As I searched shelf by shelf and title by title, I found four final pieces of the origin of AIDS, Ebola, and Marburg puzzles.

The first was published in Research Animals in Medicine.1 The National Heart and Lung Institute of the NIH had invited New York University School of Medicine researcher Dr. J. Moor-Jankowski to present a paper entitled "Blood Groups of Apes and Monkeys: Human and Simian Types." During her presentation, she acknowledged that she and Dr. Alexander S. Weiner from NYUMC had helped establish the Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates in NewY ork. Together, they gained "access to animals [simian monkeys] maintained by the U.S. Air Force and by some of the primate centers," most exclusively Litton Bionetics. 1-4

The NYUMC researcher described the research that set the stage for the use of monkey blood for human vaccine trials. Then she called attention to Dr. Weiner's ground breaking simian monkey experiments, which led to his "epoch-making discovery of the RH factor." Her work with Weiner was explained this way:

In 1962, Dr. Weiner and the author joined forces for a long-term study of blood groups of nonhuman primates. The results obtained during the first phase of our research program led us to establish the concept of human-type, simian-type and cross-immune-type blood groups in primates including man. The definition of these three categories, at which we arrived in 1964, has been most conducive for planning and advancement of further research. [1]


Their work had paved the way for human and monkey blood typing, and cross-matching experiments designed to give researchers and physicians advice on which monkey blood types might be compatible with which human blood types.

She concluded:

The information accumulated through our work during the last decade has resulted, among others, in the increased use of primate animals in experimental surgery requiring blood transfusion and priming of the heart-lung machine. All chimpanzees and baboons used as organ donors for human patients throughout the world since 1964, as well as most of the primate animals used in cross-circulation of patients in hepatic failure, have been tested in our laboratory. [1]


Though these researchers' efforts are not suspect -- since they had nothing to do with the viral experiments conducted by their NYUMC colleagues and other bioweapons contractors at Merck, the NCI, and Litton Bionetics -- their work established the precedent upon which all other researchers depended. Once human and monkey blood was successfully typed, interspecies blood mixing and transfusions, organ transplants, and cross-species vaccine research could proceed without fear of massive allergic reactions. That is, the barrier presented by the host's natural immune system-the rejection of foreign proteins -- could be bridged. Wiener's and Moor-Jankowski's efforts opened the way for an avalanche of monkey -- man vaccine experiments in which numerous deadly viruses were created, tested, and apparently deployed in unsuspecting and uninformed subjects.

Hard for most people to imagine, this was confirmed during an interchange with a member of her audience. Dr. Stormont asked:

You were talking about the complete interchange of blood between chimpanzees and man. Have you heard of any recent experiment where lower animal species' blood has been used to transfuse man? For an example, Dr. Wiener and Dr. Unger had one patient, an aged lady, who had autoimmune hemolytic disease. Finally she couldn't tolerate human blood and had developed antibodies for practically every antigen system known in man. As a last resort, they asked me to ship them some cattle blood from a healthy animal immediately. I sent them some and they transfused her with the blood. It kept her alive eight weeks beyond her expected death time. [1]


To which Moor-Jankowski innocently replied, "I haven't heard of this, which is quite interesting because I work so closely with Dr. Wiener. In light of what is being done now with nonhuman primates, I think this should be published."

More Litton Bionetics-Hazleton Monkey Business

When I linked Moor-Jankowski's source of simian monkeys to information on monkey suppliers provided by Drs. Fine and Arthur during a 1980 Cold Spring Harbor symposium, it became even more obvious that Litton Bionetics, Inc. was the principal exporter of monkeys throughout the world for military and industrial research. Fig. 23.2 was prepared by Fine and Arthur. It showed that Davis and Hazleton* Labs needed to import their monkeys, whereas only "LBI" maintained "colony-born" chimpanzees in Uganda. [4]

Gallo contributed an article in the same Cold Spring Harbor report wherein the NCI lab chief and several coauthors listed a series of their monkey virus experiments (see figs. 23.3 and 23.4). Fig. 23.2 showed Gallo's group used four major monkey suppliers: three American and one African. The three domestic suppliers that imported various monkey species from LBI included Hazleton Labs, Davis (California Primate Research Center), and the Mason Research Institute (of Worcester, Massachusetts). Apparently only Litton Bionetics, Inc. maintained a monkey facility in Northwest Uganda and did not need to import their monkeys. [4, 7]

Most incriminating is the fact that the specific rare species of monkeys -- Cercopithecus aethiops and Macacus mulatta -- that Litton Bionetics, Inc. exported and other animal suppliers imported, were the Marburg virus carriers to Europe during the first outbreak of the hemorrhagic fever in 1967, and the Davis AIDS-like virus outbreaks in 1969, 1976, and 1978 respectively. The Reston and Philadelphia outbreaks of Ebola-like viruses in 1989 and 1990 were associated with monkeys that had either originated at Litton Bionetics, or had contacted colony born Litton monkeys when the animals were housed in KLM's Amsterdam facility awaiting transport to New York. [12]

Landon's Ugandan Rhabdovirus Experiments

The next to last puzzle piece fell into place on reviewing a NCI Monograph entitled, The National Cancer Program and International Cancer Research. [3] Here, a 1974 article by John Higginson and Calum Muir reviewed the "Epidemiologic Program of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)" and the "geographic distribution of some Agency programs." They graphically displayed their findings in a figure that I had seen months earlier. This time, however, when I saw the map (see fig. 8.2), I noted that the most intense viral research activity in Uganda covered areas specifically investigated by Litton Bionetics, Inc. (LBI). LBI and Merck investigators had studied herpes-type virus infections in the area. [5, 6] both had also studied hepatitis and possible liver cancer viruses there, [5, 6] and LBI had conducted extensive carcinogen tests on more than 140 substances, many apparently on monkeys in Uganda also. [2, 5, 8-10]

After viewing the map, I returned to the lengthy addendum LBI provided in the 1971 "SVCP Progress Report #8," wherein they disclosed numerous studies they had conducted with Rhabdoviruses on monkeys and other animals. Rhabdoviruses, I recalled, were considered by many experts as the germ from which Marburg and Ebola viruses most likely evolved. [13] These viruses the LBI report showed had been manipulated, mutated, or mixed with other deadly viruses, including sarcoma and leukemia viruses. [7] LBI Rhabdovirus studies began in 1965. At that time the LBI group leader, Dr. John Landon, took minced tissue containing Rhabdoviruses along with numerous hybrids (Hybrid Rhabdoviruses were made by cross-breeding them with simian sarcoma and leukemia viruses to form mutant strains called "Rhabdomyosarcoma or Rhabdomyosarcoma L") and inoculated them into dozens of monkeys. Most died or were transferred.

Demonstration of IPA Specificity Based on Serum Absorption with Various Retroviruses

Image
Note: The name "Hazelton" is misspelled. The correct spelling is noted in the caption. Source: Fine DL and Arthur L.O. Prevalence of natural immunity to Type-D and Type-C Retroviruses in Primates. In: Viruses in Naturally Occuring Cancers: Book B. Myron Essex, George Todaro and Harold zur Hausen, eds., Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1980, Vol. 7, pp. 793-813.

Obviously if they survived Landon's experiments they had developed antibodies and immunity to the Rhabdoviruses. These monkeys, then, were considered valuable for the production of vaccines. Most of these were then transferred to various vaccine production facilities internationally. Consequently, the timing was perfect for the initial Marburg virus outbreaks in Marburg, Frankfort, and Belgrade in 1967 at the Behringwerke, the Paul Ehrlich Institute, and the Institute for Sera and Vaccines, respectively- all vaccine production facilities. [7, 13]

Fig. 23.5 contains the Rhabdovirus monkey experiments, among numerous others, conducted by Landon and company at LBI between 1965 and 1970. Details regarding the broad array of inoculated materials and viruses used by LBI and NCI researchers on monkeys are provided.

Considering the "MK" in MKNAOMI

The LBI addendum also provided a possible link to the CIA biological weapons testing Project MKNAOMI. In this, "Summary of Studies," the first entry was titled "BFKMRS, 10/65-3/66." It was further explained that the code letters "BFKMRS" represented Drs. Bryan, Falk, Kotin, Manaker, Rausher, and Sevenson. The next coded section was "MK-SVLP 2/66-3/ 67."

Fig. 23.3. Human Tissues and Cell Lines Examined By Dr. Robert Gallo for Simian Monkey Sarcoma Viruses

Image

Fig. 23.4. Experiments Conducted by Dr. Robert Gallo During the 1970s to "Probe" Human and Animal Genes for Signs of Simian Monkey Sarcoma Virus Infection

Image
The two preceding figures were prepared by Dr. Robert Gallo and coworkers from the NCI and Litton Bionetics. Fig. 23.3 lists the human tissues and cell lines examined for simian monkey sarcoma viruses. Fig. 23.4 shows subsequent work in which numerous "Type-C" RNA retroviruses were injected into human cells to probe for the presence of simian monkey sarcoma DNA (provirus strand) in the human chromosome. This work was ongoing well before the first AIDS cases were identified. Source: Gallo AC, Wong-Staal F, Marhkam PO, Ruscetti A, Kalyanaraman VS, Ceccherini-Nelli L, Favera AD, Josephs S, Miller NA and Reitz, Jr MS. Aecent studies with infectious primate retroviruses: Hybridization to primate DNA and some biological effects on fresh human blood leukocytes by simian sarcoma virus and Gibbon ape leukemia virus. In: Viruses in Naturally Occurring Cancers: Book B. Myron Essex, George Todaro and Harald zur Hausen, ads., Cold Spring Harbor. NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1980, Vol. 7, pp. 793-813.

Earlier, the "SVCP Progress Report #8" explained that "SVLP" represented the "Special Virus Leukemia Project." More important, the letters MK before SVLP indicated Drs. Manaker and Kotin. Manaker, I recalled, was the chief, of the Viral Biology Branch and chairman of the Etiology Area for the entire SVCP. Kotin's identity, however, required investigation. I learned from a search of the NCI library's database that Kotin was considered an expert in the field of biohazard control and laboratory safety and design.14'16 Together, Manaker and Kotin maintained formidable multidisciplinary knowledge -- virtually all the knowledge needed to set up a safe biological weapons testing lab and direct a multidisciplinary team of scientists in special operations research. The MK in the CIA's MKNAOMI, was therefore, very possibly, a code identifying principal investigators Manaker and Kotin.

I still had no idea who or what "NAOMI" might be.

The Man-Made Origin of AIDS, Ebola, and Marburg

Finally, I stumbled on expert testimony that the only time a simian monkey virus presents a danger to humans is when it has contaminated a vaccine and then is injected during a vaccination, and that the Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic viruses were man-made. These statements came from two of the world's leading experts in simian monkey virology-Drs. Seymour Kalter and Robert Whitney. [17]

Kalter, the doctor charged with diagnosing new viruses emerging from NCI-supported laboratories, and whose research was instrumental in determining that the search for the Marburg agent had been clouded by the CDC's bogus "United States antigen," made his irreverent comments during a Frederick Cancer Research Center symposium. His testimony was entered into the official record entitled, Biohazards and Zoonotic Problems of Primate Procurement, Quarantine and Research: Proceedings of a Cancer Research Safety Symposium. The event, held on March 19, 1975, soon after the second Marburg virus outbreak in South Africa, brought America's leading laboratory animal science directors together to discuss the issue. Participants included Alfred Hellman from the NCI's Office Biohazard and Environmental Control Branch; Peter Gerone from Tulane University's Delta Regional Primate Research Center; Elizabeth Muchmore -- a colleague of Krugman and Moor-Jankowski-from the Laboratory for Experimental Medicine and Surgery in Primates at the New York University Medical Center; David Valerio from Hazleton Laboratories; and Robert Whitney, a veterinarian from the Division of Research Services of the NIH.

Whitney prompted Kalter's comments following his presentation on "Important Primate Diseases (Biohazards and Zoonoses)." Whitney stated that:

Simian hemorrhagic fever is a sporadically occurring viral disease that has caused high mortality in large colonies of rhesus monkeys. The agent is a small RNA virus [as opposed to the much larger Marburg and Ebola viruses] that multiplies within the cytoplasm .... This, as well as many other diseases, dictates the need for separation of species of nonhuman primates. [17]


Fig. 23.5. Summary Report of Monkey Inoculation Studies Conducted by Litton Bionetics and NCI Researchers in Northwest Uganda.

Image

Image

Image

FORMAT OF THE REPORT

This review is divided into five types of studies plus an Addendum. The studies are:

A. Major Studies
B. Special Studies
C. Other Active Studies
D. Long-term Holding Studies
E. Terminated Studies

A major study is the product of an ad hoc committee formed within the Special Virus Leukemia Program to investigate areas of significance. These are major group or collaborative efforts with emphasis on inoculation of human material and subsequent long-term holding. These studies extend from August 1964 to May 1967.

The special studies program was formally initiated in June 1969, although procedures of this type had been employed since September 1968. With the shift in emphasis from gross tumor development to more sophisticated procedures involving inoculation and detection, a new type of program was developed. The objectives were to provide for experimental manipulation, close observation and monitoring of a limited number of selected animals. These studies proceed according to more formal protocols which involve greater varieties of inoculation procedures, possible animal preconditioning such as immunosuppression, or surgical manipulation, delayed hypersensitivity and more extensive and diverse monitoring.

Section C consists of current studies not of a special nature. These are programs with specified time limits for review, evaluation and subsequent implementing of decisions. Many of these may be considered preliminary investigations into previously undefined areas.

Section 0 includes those animals being maintained for extended time periods. The rationale is based on known long latent periods in primary animal tumor systems. In most of these, the inocula were human leukemic or tumor materials inoculated between 1962 and 1965.

Section E lists all completed studies.

The Addendum contains reports on two uninoculated groups:

1. Spontaneous neoplasia in the primate breeding colony;

2. Incidence of neoplasia in animals experimentally manipulated elsewhere and held at Bionetics.

Under Sections A through E, the studies are arranged alphabetically by investigator. Various codes are used to make the tables containing the information more meaningful. Origin of material is a capital letter (key l.a) and is associated with the disease type, which is also coded (key l.b). Information relative to source--the type of material used--is coded by numeral (key l.c). The number inoculated and the number dead or transferred are real numbers. The dates present in the tabulations refer to the time the animals were placed on study.

1. Material inoculated

a. Origin

avian
bovine
chemical
equine
feline
guinea pig
human
murine
ovine
rabbit
simian

Diagnosis

Adenovirus 12 + SV-40
Adenovirus 2 + SV-40
Adenovirus 2 + parainfluenza
Adenovirus 7
Acute leukemia
Acute 1ymphocytic 1eukemi a
Acute lymphocytic leukemia + influenza
Acute lymphocytic leukemia + parainfluenza
American Burkitt's lymphoma
Acute myelogenous leukemia
Acute myelogenous leukemia + monocytic leukemia
Acute monocytic leukemia
Arthropod-borne virus
Atypical monocytosis
Australia antigen
Bacterial agent
Burkitt's lymphoma
Bovine leukemia
Condyloma acuminatum
Congenital cerebral hyperplasia
Contro1 familial
Chedi ak-Hi gashi
Chondrosarcoma
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Chronic myelogenous leukemia
Cytomegalovirus
Congenital stem cell leukemia
Disease control
Dawson's encephalitis
Echovirus 9
Erythroid leukemia
Eosinophilia
Fibrosarcoma
Glioblastoma
H-1 virus
H. genitalis
H. simplex
Hodgkin's disease
Herpesvirus
Influenza
Infectious mononucleosis
Kuru
Leukemia
Liposarcoma
Lymphocytic leukemia
Leukemoid reaction of the liver
Lymphosarcoma
Lymphoma
Mammary tumor
Meningitis
Malignant histiocytosis
Miscellaneous leukemia
Miscellaneous virus
Malignant lymphoma
Multiple myeloma
Moloney sarcoma virus
Moloney sarcoma virus + arbovirus
Moloney sarcoma virus + leukemia
Moloney sarcoma virus + monkey tumor
Osteosarcoma
Papilloma
Parainfluenza
Pia mater control cell culture
Polycythemia
Mycoplasma
Rubella
Rauscher virus
Reticulum cell sarcoma
Reovirus 1
Reovirus 3
* Rhabdomyosarcoma + leukemia
Rhabdomyosarcoma
Rous transformed cells
Sarcoma
SV-20 + SV-40
Simian agent 7
Stem cell leukemia
Squamous cell sarcoma
Simian virus 5
Simian virus 20
Simian virus 40
Thrombocytopenia

***Possible Marburg predecessor

Transformed cells

Undiagnosed

Wilm's tumor

Yabavirus

c. Source -- coded as follows.

1 tissue culture

2 blood

3 plasma/serum

4 tissue mince

5 buffy coat

6 chemical

7 ascites

8 milk

9 spinal fluid

10 bone marrow

11 culture

2. Number of animals inoculated.

3. Number of animals dead or transferred.


Fig. 23.6. Bionetics Summary Report of Studies Code Named According to Researchers' Last Names Including MK-SVLP (Manaker/Kotin-Special Virus Leukemia Program)

Image

SUMMARY OF STUDIES *

A. Major Studies

1. BFKMRS, 10/65-3/66

This study was established under the Special Virus Leukemia Program of the NCI to investigate human leukemic materials, human papilloma and infectious mononucleosis in conjunction with the co-carcinogens benzo[a]pyrene and benzanthracene. The program was a product of the study group that included Drs. Bryan, Falk, Kotin, Manaker, Rauscher and Stevenson. This study has recently been terminated and the remaining animals are in the process of being transferred.

Inoculum / Source / No. inoculated / Dead or transferred

H P / 1 / 11 / 6
H L / 15 / 3
H IM / 1 / 11 / 3
Control / -- / 9 / 2

*Some studies summarized are in the process of being terminated and this may not be reflected in the total numbers. This is due to lag times in finalization of reports on selected studies.


Image

2. Fink-Malmgren-Rauscher. 8/64 - 9/65

This program was designed to investigate the ability of fresh human leukemic materials. as well as cultured and manipulated cell products. to induce similar neoplasia in the newborn monkey.

Inoculum / Source / No. inoculated / Dead or transferred

H AML / 2 / 6 / 5
H ALL / 2 / 11 / 9
H EL / 2 / 5 / 5
H CML / 2 / 2 / 1

3. Irradiation Study, 2/67 - 5/67

The major emphasis of this study was to determine the suppressive effects of radiation upon primates and the subsequent enhancement or creation of a more favorable environment for neoplastic alteration. The program was under the direction of Drs. Reisinger and Bowser. with Drs. Rauscher, Landon. Stewart, Moloney, Perry and Hart collaborating.

Inoculum / Source / No. inoculated / Dead or transferred

H BL+Irr.* / 1/ 16 / 2
H BL+Irr.+ BSA / -- / 8 / 5
H LI rr. / 2 / 8 / 2
H S+Irr. / 3 / 4 / 3
M S+Irr. 4 / 3 / 2
S LE1, 2+ Irr. / 1 / 4 / 2
A S-R+Irr. / 1 / 5 / 1
Irr. / -- / 35 / 12
Irr.+BSA / -- / 17 / 3

*Irradiation

4. MK-SVLP, 2/66 - 3/67

This study was initiated by Drs. Manaker and Kotin in collaboration with an ad hoc committee of the SVLP. The prime objective was the induction of neoplasia in primates using Burkitt and other lymphoma material in conjunction with the co-carcinogens benzanthracene and benzo[a]pyrene.

Inoculum / Source / No. inoculated / Dead or transferred

H BL / 1 / 105 / 11
H Lymph / 1 / 33 / 5
H L / 1 / 18 / 3
H Sq S / 1 / 13 / 0
Control / -- / 6 / 1


Image

5. Perry-Rauscher. 7/66-10/68

This program was initiated by Dr. Rauscher in collaboration with Dr. Perry of NCI and Dr. Landon of Bionetics. Fresh whole blood from leukemic patients was inoculated directly into monkeys using multiple sites and volumes as large as possible.

Inoculum / Source / No. inoculated / Dead or transferred

H CML / 2 / 26 / 6
H AML / 2 / 12 / 0
H LS / 2 / 4 /0
H ALL / 2 / 18 / 0
H CLL / 2 / 6 / 0
H RCS / 2 / 1 /0
H HD / 2 / 3 / 1
H AT MON / 2 / 2 / 1
H ML / 2 / 2 / 0
H C-H / 2 / 4 / 2
H BL / 2 / 1 / 0
H Lymph / 2 / 1 / 0

6. PSG-Melnick, 9/65-1/68

This study was a product of the Primate Study Group headed by Dr. J. Melnick. The primary objective was the investigation of the possible oncogenicity of selected human prototype vi ruses in primates in conjunction with the use of co-carcinogens. This study is in the process of being terminated with the remaining animals being transferred to Dr. Melnick.

Inoculum / Source / No. inoculated / Dead or transferred

H Reo / 1 / 9 / 6
H Reo 3 + BL / 1 / 15 / 15 H CMV / 1 /12 / 5
H P / 1 / 1 / 1
H Herp/S / 1 /12 / 7
H Ad2P 1 / 12 / 1
H&S A2S40 / 1 / 12 / 1
H R / 1 / 12 / 2
H Echo 9 / 1 /12 / 5
C / 1 /1 / 0


Image

Image

Image

Image
* = Nine monkeys inoculated with Marburg-like viruses survived and apparently remained in the holding facilities of Bionetics in Northwest Uganda. These may have been transferred to Europe and/or infected other monkeys shipped to Frankfurt, Marburg, and Belgrade between July 20th and August 10th, 1967. John Landon, cited above, was Bionetics' Senior Project Director along with Robert Ting.

Then, most incredibly, Whitney noted that simian monkey viruses would only cause disease in humans if they were transmitted, just as I had concluded earlier (see pages 130-134), by vaccines:

There are viruses which naturally occur in apes and monkeys which are apparently nonpathogenic. but might cause disease in human beings by being transmitted in biologics [vaccines] manufactured from nonhuman primate [monkey] tissues. An example of this is the SV-40 virus from macaque kidney . cells. It must have been administered to thousands of humans in polio virus vaccine. Fortunately, there were no undesirable effects [recorded or reported] in man, but it causes sarcoma in newborn hamsters. The term SV-40 refers to simian virus 40 of the simian-virus series introduced by Hull and his collaborators in 1956. This series [Whitney showed a slide for the group] is a list of the many simian viruses recovered from monkey kidneys or stools in the course of research work on poliomyelitits and other diseases. Most of these viruses are "orphan" which means that they are simply viruses which seem to have no pathogenic effects. [17]

Rhesus monkeys, cynomolgus monkeys (M. fascicularis), and chimpanzees have been used extensively in the study of poliovirus infections and development of vaccines. Inoculation of the agents by parenteral route is necessary to establish infection in rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys.... [17] [Emphasis added.]


Following brief statements about polio and rabies, Whitney explored the 1975 Marburg virus outbreak:

Marburg Virus Disease is also known as "green monkey disease" and "vervet monkey disease." It was first reported in humans in Europe in 1967.A total of 31 human cases occurred in the outbreaks, and death resulted in seven cases. Twenty-five of these cases occurred in humans who were working in laboratories that utilized green monkey tissue for vaccine production. No cases were reported in personnel working with the live monkeys. Apparently, all the monkeys were sacrificed. Whether the animals were sick or if they had lesions was never determined as necropsies were not performed nor were detailed records maintained. [This was obviously quite suspicious given the panic that ensued and the immediate WHO and CDC intervention.] Studies on these human cases and on additional monkeys demonstrated that the disease was caused by an ... extremely large, cylindrically shaped [virus] ....

This disease was not reported again since the European outbreaks, either in man or nonhuman primates, until February 1975. Three non-laboratory associated cases in man were reported from South Africa. There is no specific therapy and no vaccine for this deadly disease. It is the most recent and impressive example of the potential public health threat to man from nonhuman primates. [17]


Kalter apparently took exception to Whitney's last remark, but Gerone voiced his concern first. "In the latest morbidity-mortality report that crossed my desk on Monday, Marburg virus disease seems ready to come to a head again."

Obviously, the CDC had warned the medical research establishment to prepare for future Ebola outbreaks, which occurred in Sudan and Zaire about eighteen months later.

Kalter, the senior monkey expert had heard enough. Obviously annoyed at the dearth of scientific evidence, he immediately shot back, "The information is very, very meager." [17]

Then with uncustomary rambling, he explained:

Three cases seem to be involved. Two of these involve a young man and young lady traveling around Africa, where they evidently picked up the disease. The epidemiology of their cases is not known. Their contact with monkeys as monkey handlers is nil; however, they did associate with monkeys at farms and homes. The third case involved a nurse, and it followed the same pattern as established in Germany and Yugoslavia, where the secondary cases are as much of a problem as the primary cases. The young man died, the two ladies (the companion and nurse) are evidently recovering. I simply have to hold off on any comments regarding the epidemiology until we know more about it. But monkeys have not been excluded [or, for that matter, he obviously thought, included] definitely. [17]


Then, doing what he said he had to "hold off" -- apparently he couldn't help commenting: "For the sake of completeness, we might mention one or two other points that are important to the total picture. I'll address myself principally to some of the viral diseases. We just referred to Marburg. I believe simian-hemorrhagic fever is important. It appears to be a manmade disease."

Undoubtedly, Kalter's words stunned many in the audience. Without pause, he had in essence insinuated the simian-hemorrhagic fever RNA had been experimentally transfused into the larger Marburg cylinder, and now was infecting humans.

Having said what he feared best not be said, he quickly added as an off-the- cuff example, "Tattooing has been important in the epidemiology of outbreaks of tuberculosis in the States, Soviet Union, and in England." He then changed tacks again and rambled on at length about a variety of viruses, monkeys, and dreaded diseases.

Hellman's Rebuttal

Few words were said following Kalter's heretical remarks. His wasn't a hard act to follow by any means, but most of the audience sat speechless. The tentative silence was finally broken by Alfred Hellman from the NCI. In an obvious effort to break the tension and fortify the institute's politically correct theory of Marburg's evolution from the ape, Hellman said:

In regards to what Sy Kalter was saying about the RNA tumor viruses, reports have appeared in recent newspaper articles, for example, The [N. Y} Times, on the isolation of a virus from a woman with myelogenous leukemia. Thus far, the immunology and some of the hybridization biochemistry data on this virus would suggest that it has some relation, if not a lot of relation, with the Wooly and Gibbon agents which cause a malignancy in these animals. Apparently at least from the data ... , it appears that the Gibbon ape lymphosarcoma virus probably is transmissible horizontally. I believe one should be aware of this and concerned about the possible relationship of these agents with that isolated from a human.


Why might Hellman have defended the establishment's untenable theory that Marburg and other monkey viruses could readily transmit their infections "horizontally" to humans?

As mentioned earlier, the "Special Virus Cancer Program Progress Report #8" identified Hellman as the the chairman of the NCI's section on Biohazards Control and Containment. He was also executive project officer for the NCI in their effort to test the "Aerosol Properties of Potentially Oncogenic Viruses" with the Navy. Hellman, oversaw the Naval Biomedical Research Lab studies in which viruses were spread through the air in an effort to study "virus-host interaction considering both the hazard to humans and animals and the potential for cross contamination." [8] These studies, similar to what had been conducted on the USS Coral Sea and the USS F. D. Bailey in 1950, were apparently a follow-up to the studies conducted by the Special Operations Division of the Army in cooperation with the Navy and the CIA. [18] This time, in 1971, instead of exposing unwitting servicemen to aerosols containing relatively mild, Serratia marcescens and Bacillus globigii bacteria, humans and animals were exposed to carcinogenic viruses. In these reports. Hellman and his colleagues wisely chose to keep the identity of their human and animal test subjects classified. [8]

_______________

Notes:

* same firm and government grant [SVCP 69-20791 as "Hazelton" misspelled in several publications.
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Re: EMERGING VIRUSES: AIDS & EBOLA: Nature, Accident or Inte

Postby admin » Thu Jun 30, 2016 4:24 am

Chapter 24: Ebola Kikwit and the Sloan/Hot Zone/Plague Connection

WHILE typing these final words, New York Times medical reporter Lawrence Altman broke the story about the 1995 Ebola outbreak in Kikwit, Zaire-an area about 200 miles north of the still militarized Angolan border.  [1]

For several months prior to this medical emergency, as Gerone and Hellman said had been done in the Spring of 1975, the media foretold of Ebola's likely return. The Coming Plague by Newsday's health and science writer Laurie Garrett had joined The Hot Zone as the talk of the town. As Preston and Garrett toured the television talk-show circuit, the film Outbreak was trouncing its competitors at the box office. At the same time the networks were replaying versions of The Andromeda Strain. Then on Monday May 8, just two days before Altman's article appeared, CBS aired its highly publicized made-for-television movie Virus, another spin-off from Robin Cook's novel Outbreak.

Like the media, I too had warned friends and colleagues for months about the coming plague. Unlike the media's fairy tale, though, my prediction was based on the knowledge that the authorities had created and maintained stockpiles of such viruses for allegedly scientific purposes. I also knew that it made good business sense to re-release a proven money-maker.

In late 1994, my suspicions were further provoked when I received an invitation to attend my alma mater's "6th Annual Public Health Rounds." The Harvard program, "Patterns of Disease Evolution: Preparing for the Next Pandemic," warned that, "Global changes in climate, the environment, economic patterns and migration have contributed to the spread of AIDS, Lyme disease, Ebola and pneumonic plague." To my knowledge "global changes in climate" had nothing to do with "emerging viruses," while the other factors held little consequence as compared to the SVCP.

Given all the disinformation from the media as well as academic sources, it was only reasonable to conclude Ebola would likely come again.

The 1995 Ebola Outbreak

Officials at Zaire's health ministry allegedly traced Ebola's sudden reemergence to a "surgical patient" at a Kikwit hospital. Beginning April 10, the virus quickly spread to and from the hospital's staff. Among the first victims were three Italian nuns who served as nurses. One traveled to Mosango for care and died there, but not before infecting at least ten more medical staff. The virus ultimately reached several other areas, including Zaire's capital city Kinshasa. [1-3]

Teams of experts were immediately dispatched from the WHO, the CDC, and the Institute Pasteur, according to Dr. James W. LeDuc, a hemorrhagic fever specialist at the WHO. Tissue samples from the victims, LeDuc said, were initially sent to the Tropical Disease Institute in Antwerp, Belgium, but had to be forwarded to the CDC, through the Belgian Embassy, because scientists there, unlike the 1970s, were no longer working on hemorrhagic viruses.

Capitalizing on the opportunity to editorialize, LeDuc said, "It just shows the deteriorating capacity of the world to diagnose these diseases." Altman apparently agreed. The New York Times reported that LeDuc's view was shared by "a number of leading experts who, in recent years, have called attention to the threat from new and emerging viruses, like Ebola, and deplored the ability of laboratories to detect them." [1]

"At the CDC," Altman wrote, "where the blood samples arrived mid- Tuesday," Dr. Clarence J. Peters, an expert in hemorrhagic fever viruses, said in an interview, "We're still in the stage of trying to read tea leaves from third hand overseas reports .... We don't know how long it will take to get an answer. It's like planting a garden, sometimes everything comes up quickly, other times it takes longer."

This was a fast-growing garden however. The "mystery virus" was identified by television news reporters as Ebola, oddly, even before such reports were officially confirmed.

That night, Ted Kopel opened his special ABC News Nightline report this way:

KOPEL: We are, it turns out, reasonably flexible about plagues. All things considered, Americans have adjusted remarkably well to the plague that has been among us for the nearly fifteen years now. It is the worst in the world these days. But, because we've become reasonably informed about how it is passed on and how to avoid it, AIDS doesn't provoke a great deal of hysteria anymore. In fact, it barely arouses much interest. Just to keep things in perspective, the Ebola virus ... only exists in this country in our fevered imaginations. We have watched Dustin Hoffman pretend to deal with a pretend outbreak in a pretend movie, and that has made us more receptive than we might otherwise be to a genuine outbreak that is killing people horribly and very quickly in Zaire. It is an important story, and we're not above using a couple of movie clips to engage your interest in it. But what is most important ... is to keep what's happening in perspective.

Ebola is without question a biological Satan .... The second part of the virus nightmare is that it could travel even further. Someone carrying the virus might get on a plane, leave Zaire, and in a matter of hours carry it across the world. [2]


Having grabbed America's attention, media moguls used Richard Preston and CDC spokespersons, including Ruth Berkelman, their Deputy Director of Infectious Disease, and Don Francis who was on the "front line of the battle against the 1976 Ebola epidemic in the Sudan" to knock home their point-increased funding was "vitally" needed by the CDC to protect the public against Ebola and other new "emerging" viruses.

The Hot Zone author, Preston argued:

PRESTON: There are things going on in the tropical rain forests that we don't understand very well. And new viruses, and new agents, new organisms that are infectious are emerging and attempting, as it were, to break into the human species and to spread widely. I think probably the best example of this, of course, is the AIDS virus itself. [2]


"Politics may matter as much as biology; especially in a place like Zaire -- a country whose leader is widely seen as corrupt, whose military steals what it wants; whose medical system is crippled by an economy in collapse. Disastrous conditions for ordinary people; ideal conditions for extraordinary viruses," ABC news reported.

Newsday's Laurie Garrett was interviewed next. Garrett had written a highly detailed account of research conducted in the aftermath of the Marburg and Ebola outbreaks in her book The Coming Plague. Though she reviewed Siegert's work regarding the first time this new hemorrhagic fever virus broke out in Europe, she wrote that "investigators hit pay dirt when they determined that all the monkeys came from three shipments of wild animals transported from Uganda to Belgrade, then on to Marburg and Frankfurt." This, I noted, was somewhat misleading as Siegert noted four suspected monkey shipments from a single dealer, that is, Litton Bionetics.  [4]

Moreover, Garrett, had gone so far as to note that German scientists immediately turned to Dr. Jordi Casals, director of the Rockefeller Foundation's arbovirus laboratory at Yale, for assistance in identifying this bizarre Marburg agent. Casals, one of only two hemorrhagic disease experts throughout the world, Garrett recalled, was asked "to screen patient blood samples against all the viruses in his Rockefeller facility." Between 1951 and 1971, she wrote, "the Rockefeller Foundation's Virus Program" had "operated facilities in eight countries through which over sixty viruses" were allegedly "discovered." [4]

Yet, despite Garrett's detailed knowledge of such key researchers, their activities, and those of their affiliated institutions, rather than stating what the mass of circumstantial and scientific evidence showed -- Ebola was apparently man-made -- Garrett blamed the Kikwit outbreak on social factors and insterility. She stated the virus's reservoir was unknown:

GARRETT: It can be no coincidence that this has occurred now in Zaire. This is a virus that takes advantage of social disruption, of the lack of proper medical equipment -- of syringes, so that people reuse syringes that are contaminated and inject the virus directly into their patients.

One of the key lessons that we have to learn from this outbreak right now.... We don't know where Ebola lurks -- where it exists, when it doesn't appear [until] suddenly in 1976 and 1979. We don't know what animal carries it or insect. We don't know how the original human being who brings the virus into a village or a setting got it, and from where. And unless we know the natural ecology of this organism, we can never predict when it will appear again; where it will appear again. What we can do, however, is deal with the amplifying effect, which in the case of Ebola every single time has involved a hospital -- a substandard facility -- with shortages of syringes; with recycled syringes being used over and over again on the same people; improper sterile technique. That's an amplifier. It takes that one individual who's infected who got it from some animal, that we don't know, out in the rain forest, brought it into that hospital setting and the hospital becomes this amplification system to magnify it into an epidemic. That's what we need to attack. We as human beings spread these things around. It's our incompetence, our idiocy, our inequities all over the world that are responsible for these things. And if we don't confront those issues, this is only one of many outbreaks, many epidemics we will see and that will accelerate with time.

KOPEL: But Dr. Berkelman, that's where we run into the crossover between the medical problem and the political problem. Because it's not always that easy, for example, for the World Health Organization to move into a country and say, 'Here's what you've got to do in your hospitals.' Or even if a million new hypodermics are sent into a country like Zaire, likely as not they'll end up on the black markct rather lhan ending up in the hospitals that Ms. Garrett was talking about. [2]


Evading the question of political corruption and incompetence, Berkelman -- like a well-trained media spokesperson -- replied:

BERKELMAN: Yes, but at the same time the world has grown pretty complacent about infectious diseases. We do have some diseases that are targeted. But for the last few decades, we really have said, 'Well, we've conquered smallpox, and we're dealing with some of the others. And we really have not done what we could do, and we need do more .... And we have been working at CDC to deal with the emerging infections that we have become complacent about; not only in the United States, but in other developed countries and developing countries. And the World Health Organization even right now is considering a resolution to say it's time that we really deal with the issue of these infectious diseases. That we haven't conquered them; that they're going to continue to evolve, and we have to deal with not only what is coming, but what may reemerge and what may continue to be causing problems ... ." [2]


What a coincidence, I thought, that the WHO was just now 'considering a resolution' to commit millions more to their infectious disease efforts. The outbreak., for that measure, was certainly well timed.

Kopel then asked Francis, "To what degree should this outbreak of Ebola be a wake-up call to the world at large?"

Francis responded as did Berkelman by lobbying for additional funding:

FRANCIS: I think it should be a very strong wake-up call to back up what Dr. Berkelman said. Despite all of the screams from Gingrich et al. to slice government funding, we should be damn glad that Dr. Berkelman and her colleagues at the CDC have a team going off to Zaire, and have a group of experts who can help the world. We have got to have a commitment to prevention, by and large, and frankly, for my twenty-five years working in this field, I have yet to see the United States truly have a commitment to prevention, and doing things in a logical way. We get very excited about short-term situations and then forget it. [2]


Thus, the 1995 Ebola outbreak was exploited by CDC officials and the media. Indeed, Americans got "very excited" about prospects of bleeding, "from all open orifices-from the mouth, nose, eyes, what have you." [2] The threat was then used to justify the alleged need for massive infusions of cash into CDC coffers.

The following week, Newsweek's, cover story quoted Francis and Stephen Morse, a virologist at Rockefeller University. Writers for the magazine asked rhetorically:

What needs to be done on the domestic front? The Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta is this absolutely crackerjack government agency. It's one of the very few agencies in the federal government that really works. But they have terrible funding problems and are spread really thin. And they don't have any political constituency. There's no political-action group there hammering away at Congress to give them the money they need to do their job .... It's important because we are linked now, biologically, to the rest of the world. If Congress cuts the budget of the CDC, Congress is going to cut the throat of the American people. [5]


The same financial concerns were echoed in USA Today. The "heroes," "disease busters," "disease cowboys" -- those "front line scientists of the CDC" the cover story contended, "should have their own airplanes"; yet are in dire fiscal straights. Their numbers "are shrinking, labs are deteriorating and administrators worry about the day when two Ebola-like emergencies happen at the same time, and they find themselves short of heroes." [6]

"If Ebola showed up in other parts of Africa now we'd be in trouble," said Dr. James Hughes, head of the CDC division of infectious disease. "Or if there was a Lassa fever outbreak tomorrow in West Africa, we'd be unable to respond. These things don't tend to occur simultaneously, but someday they will." [6]

"At first glance," Kim Painter of USA Today wrote, "CDC seemed fairly prosperous, an agency of 6,500 full-time employees, with an annual budget of more than $2 billion." But "only six people at CDC" were qualified to work in their BSL 4 lab -- "one of only two maximum-safety labs in the country and six in the world." Which meant, Painter quickly noted, "that while the Ebola work goes on, virtually everything else screeches to a halt." [6]

Finally, Don Francis complained about the frugal atmosphere in which he conducted the 1976 Ebola investigation in Sudan. "It's all low-budget stuff," he said. "I think it's a shame. With an outbreak like this, they (CDC officials) should have their own damned airplanes .... If we need to send 40 experts over to Zaire we should be able to do it." [6]

"Still," Painter lamented, those at the CDC weren't expecting "such largesse" anytime soon:

In fact, they're hoping they won't lose some of the money Congress has already promised for this year.

A pending bill at one point cut out $47 million the agency was promised for a new lab building. It also cut about half of the $5.3 million it was promised to invigorate its system for monitoring emerging infectious disease the CDC says needs $100 million to $125 million.

In the latest version of the bill, the money for the lab building and the emerging disease program is intact. [6]


"We just haven't learned our lessons very well," said Dr. Joe McCormick, a CDC physician who had joined Francis's 1976 Ebola expedition. Defending the need to spend $150 million more a year to finance ten more virology labs and fifteen surveillance clinics proposed for the outskirts of rain forests and large tropical cities, McCormick warned, "We're going to pay now or pay later." [5]

Exploiting a tragic Ebola outbreak to further CDC special interests followed the precedent of turning tragedies into political expedients long established by the government and healthcare NGGs. The CDC ultimately got its money. McCormick's advice, I feared, was more malignant however. Given the facts, I concluded his presage was like extortion -- "pay now or pay later" -- akin to a ransom notice for ongoing genocide.

As Garrett disclosed, the concept of "fifteen surveillance clinics" as a defense against the coming plagues was "the brainchild of Stephen Morse ... at Rockefeller University." He had discussed the matter with ardent biowarfare protester and Nobel laureate Joshua Lederberg "in 1988 while planning the historic 1989 "Emerging Viruses" conference. The Program for Monitoring Emerging Viruses (ProMED), in essence, resurrected "the old Rockefeller Foundation international network of tropical laboratories," that had been previously administered by the CDC and the foundation. [4]

On May 11, 1995, Dr. Brian Mahy, a virologist at the CDC whose team had confirmed the outbreak was caused by Ebola, revealed to Dr. Lawrence Altman of the New York Times, that the strain of the Kikwit virus was "nearly identical to the one that caused the first known epidemic, in the Ebola region of Zaire in 1976." Altman reported that the surprise was shared by numerous experts who "had expected greater differences because viral strains from different locales tend to vary." [7]

Indeed it was hard to believe that Ebola Zaire, which had differentiated itself genetically from its predecessor, Ebola Sudan, over the course of five months and 500 miles, had emerged almost twenty years later, over the same distance, virtually unaltered. Some believe that modem technology may have helped, that is, refrigeration.

Filing for "Bankruptcy"

A week after Ebola Kikwit monopolized the headlines, on May 16, 1995, Dow Coming announced it was filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. The move was precipitated by a $4.2 billion class-action suit brought against the company on behalf of 400,000 women who reported ill health effects following the placement of breast implants manufactured by the company.

"Ironically," one wire service reported, "while the courts have handed down multimillion-dollar awards based on the presumption of a health hazard, major scientific studies now being completed have pointed to the opposite conclusion: that there is no evidence that breast implants are harmful." [8]

The media had gotten this information from Dow Coming's president, Richard A. Hazleton who argued the need for placing liability in such matters on the shoulders of the American taxpayer. To do otherwise, he claimed, would endanger health companies' research and development potential.

Hazleton further charged that the American economy and justice system had been corrupted by "junk science .... Having successfully attacked silicone breast implants," he lamented, "plaintiff's attorneys now have their sights set on another health care product: Norplant™.'' [9]

To help free American corporate "litigation targets" from attack by what he called "Litigation, Incorporated," Hazleton advanced a series of congressional recommendations for which he pledged to lobby. These included:

• The exclusion of biomaterials suppliers from litigation brought against medical device manufacturers ....

• A cap on punitive damages.

• The elimination of joint and several liability were the company with the deepest pockets pays the most, regardless of their degree of liability.

• Greater adherence to the Daubert principles which require judges to act as "gatekeepers" with respect to the admissibility of scientific evidence in the courtroom.

• And ... a tightening of requirements when it comes to expert witnesses' credentials-simply being a medical doctor does not qualify you to testify about diseases unrelated to your field.

• Limiting the grounds for claims in accordance with generally accepted medical illnesses and their causes. Most of the claims against Dow Coming are for diseases that are not even recognized in medical text books. They also happen to be ailments that primarily affect women during, and shortly after, child-bearing age -- surprise! -- the same group most likely to have breast implants. [9]

Noting the identical spelling of Hazleton's name with that of the NCI and USAMRIID contractor in charge of the "Reston monkey house," I immediately placed a call to Virginia to determine if there was any relationship between the two. To my astonishment, the receptionist answered, "Good afternoon, this is Coming-Hazleton Biotechnologies, how can I help you."

I asked to speak with someone from the public relations department, and once connected requested information on the subject of Mr. Hazleton's identity and bankruptcy efforts. I was then directed to dial a toll free number to speak with someone from "client services." Here, another receptionist answered, "Medpath. Good afternoon." Now I realized that Medpath, the large laboratory conglomerate that had purchased Litton Bionetics labs, was now, at least administratively, directing traffic for Hazleton under the Dow Coming umbrella. A final call to Midland, MI, Dow Coming's home office, resolved my suspicion. Richard A. Hazleton, the C.E.O. of the company, Barbara Meussig, the media relations manager informed me, "has no connection to Coming-Hazleton."

The Media's Role

On Tuesday evening September 7, 1993, the CBS Evening News aired a special "Reality Check" segment. Dan Rather reported that the U.S. government spends between $2.5 and $3 billion of taxpayer money every year on public relations campaigns. The administration directs 10,858 federal public affairs workers to generate a barrage of press releases that target the media and daily influence world news. In essence, Rather reported, "critics say too much taxpayer money is being spent by the government to say nice things about itself." [11]

The previous year during another CBS News report on "Watergate: The Secret Story," Rather admitted publicly that much of what the news media broadcasts is censured by political bigwigs. Through the CIA, FBI, and FCC, the CBS News anchorman reported, politically correct positions are guarded and counterintelligence campaigns are continuously waged and won. Rather noted, for instance, that during the Nixon administration, the CIA "had ways of influencing a lot of [media] people on the beat, either through their editors or publishers or through granting of favors, all the ways that guys, politicians from county courthouses and city halls and state legislatures do it, but in very sophisticated ways .... " [12,13]

Likewise, in Keeping America Uninformed, author Donna Demac traced the demise of America's free press largely to the FBI and CIA again during this same period in history. Demac wrote:

Richard Nixon, for example, for whom journalists were a persistent headache, eventually had intelligence agents wiretapping reporters' telephone lines, opening their mail, and raiding press offices. Such measures were believed to have ended when Nixon left office. [However,] ... the Reagan administration also authorized the FBI and CIA to search newsrooms and institute a stream of ad hoc restrictions. It was primarily interested ... in designing laws and regulations that would outlast the administration and reposition the media as a subordinated source of information about the actions of government. [14]


According to the Church Committee, by February 1976, fifty American journalists were working for the CIA. Carl Bernstein wrote for Rolling Stone that according to CIA documents, "more than 400 American journalists ... in the past 25 years have secretly carried out assignments for the CIA." Such efforts, wrote Bernstein, contributed to the distortion of news at home as well as abroad.

The authors of Covert Action Information Bulletin added:

The CIA has at various times owned or subsidized more than 50 newspapers, news services, radio stations, periodicals and other communications entities, sometimes in the U.S. but mostly overseas. Another dozen foreign-based news organizations, not CIA-financed, were infiltrated by paid CIA agents. Nearly a dozen American publishing houses, including some of the most prominent names in the industry, have printed at least a score of the more than 250 English- language books financed or produced by the CIA since the early 1950s, in many cases without being aware of the Agency involvement. A substantial number of the bogus news stories planted abroad were published as genuine in the United States, a phenomenon the CIA calls "blowback," "replay," or "domestic fallout." [15]


Other times news stories and headlines are tweaked, or distorted, just enough for "damage control." Such was the case when USA Today carried a special report entitled "Doctor ties gulf war illness to anti-chemical pills." The brief report on page 6 came as Pentagon officials openly denied a common cause for "Gulf War Syndrome" -- the headaches, chronic fatigue, nausea, and other symptoms that as many as 50,000 Desert Storm veterans experienced in the aftermath of the war. A brief one line disclosure by the principle investigator, Scottish scientist Goran Jamal, noted the most likely cause of the syndrome "were vaccinations" and not "pills." [16]

Days later an esteemed American cancer researcher, Dr. Garth Nicolson, chairman of the Department of Thmor Biology at the University of Texas, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center made headlines, in the National Enquirer, for a different reason. I? For months he had tried to gain media attention regarding his discovery that more than half of "Chronic Fatigue- Immune Dysfunction Syndrome" (CFIDS) patients were infected by a variant of a common germ known as Mycoplasma fermentans. His letter to the editor of the Journal of the American Medical Association, and a lengthy article in the Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, included the discovery that about 80 percent of these people were helped by taking an inexpensive antibiotic -- Doxycycline. [18, 19] More astonishing, however, was his finding that the microbe's strength and insidious behavior was associated with a special gene identical to the one that codes for HIV's outer envelope. 19 His conclusion? The organism was undoubtedly developed in a lab and most likely transmitted, once again, accidentally or intentionally through the vaccines administered to the soldiers. [17]

Within days, however, major television networks responded by broadcasting alternative conclusions reached by other scientists, incredibly, from the University of Texas, where Nicolson was suddenly being pressured to leave his tenured post. Their studies, funded suspiciously by Ross Perot, showed that chickens injected with the chemicals given to Gulf War soldiers to prevent infections were weakened by the drug interactions. [20]

"What does it all mean?" asked investigative reporter Bill Schaap, a long-time CIA observer:

It is not rhetoric to claim that "though control" is [here] .... COINTELPRO and Operation CHAOS are alive and well. The government wants, on the one hand, a blank check to spread its disinformation, and on the other, vast powers to prevent anyone from accusing it of doing so. Clearly, truth is the first casualty of cold wars as well as hot wars. [21]


Sloan/Hot Zone/Plague Connections

Shortly after the Ebola outbreak in Kikwit, Jackie gave birth to a beautiful, seven-pound-thirteen-ounce baby girl. Eight weeks later we drove to New York to introduce Aria Katriel to friends and relatives in Manhattan. Here I happened to read a New York Times article entitled "Grants by Foundations Help Technology Books Make It to the Shelves." The story revealed The Hot Zone's author, Richard Preston, had received a generous grant from the Sloan Foundation "though the book did not fit into the Sloan technology series."22How interesting, I thought.

Years before I had read Paul Starr's book, The Social Transformation of American Medicine: The Rise of a Sovereign Profession and the Making of a Vast Industry. Starr noted the important role the media and private foundations played in marketing cancer research. He wrote:

In the late forties, a new force began to be felt that greatly spurred the expansion of the NIH. This was the emergence of a private, lay lobby for medical research. Its chief architects, Mary Lasker and Florence Mahoney, brought money and influence to a cause of ready-made appeal. Mrs. Mahoney's husband owned the Cox newspaper chain, and Mrs. Lasker and her husband, who had made a fortune in advertising, had recently taken a major role in reorganizing the American Society for the Control of Cancer. The Lasker group had led the organization which they renamed the American Cancer Society, to introduce modem advertising techniques and to devote the proceeds to cancer research. Mass fund raising for medical research had already been turned into a high art by ... 1937.

This "noble conspiracy," also known as "Mary and her little lambs," believed that the doctors and research scientists were too accustomed to thinking small . . . . NIH discovered that the way to open wide the public's purse was to call attention to one disease at a time. [23]


"Why would the Sloan Foundation provide major funding for a work that didn't fit their agenda?" I asked Jackie, as my intuition drew on Starr's revelations.

A search through Sloan Foundation's annual reports, on file in Manhattan's New York Public Library, revealed nine ghastly and incriminating reasons that, most incredibly, tied all the elements of my investigation together. The Sloan Foundation: (1) supported black educational initiatives consistent with the COINTELPRO Black Nationalist Hate Group campaign;24 (2) administered mass-media-public-persuasion experiments completely consistent with the CIA's Project MKULTRA -- efforts to develop brainwashing technologies and drugs to affect large populations;  [25] (3) funded much of the earliest cancer research involving the genetic engineering of mutant viruses; [26] (4) began major funding of the National Academy of Sciences, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (for "neuroscience" and molecular genetics research), the Salk Institute (for viral research), and the Scientists' Institute for Public Information between 1968 and 1970; [27] (5) funded population control studies by Planned Parenthood- World Population, New York, N.Y.; [24] (6) funded the Community Blood Council of Greater New York, Inc., the "council of doctors" who established the infamous New York City Blood Bank; [28] (7) maintained Laurence S. Rockefeller, the director of the Community Blood Council of Greater New York and the president of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, as chairman of the board of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, and a trustee for the Foundation; [29, 30] (8) gave in excess of $20,000 annually to the Council on Foreign Relations; [27] and (9) maintained among its "marketable securities," 16.50') shares of Chase Manhattan Bank stock (in 1967, which it apparently sold by 1970 probably to avoid conflict of interest charges) along with 24,400-53,000 shares issued by Merck & Co., Inc. (which it maintained at least until 1973, the end of the investigated period). [31]

"This is like the icing on the cake," I said to Jackie after relaying the information. "No wonder they funded The Hot Zone."

I later learned that Laurie Garrett was also "subsidized by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation" during her writing of The Coming Plague. [4]

Background on Sloan

Alfred P. Sloan, for many years the chief executive officer of General Motors Corporation, began The Sloan Foundation in 1934. In its early years, the foundation's work focused on its founder's personal conviction that "ignorance of the principles of capitalism and free enterprise was both a danger and an opportunity." The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sloan's alma mater, was the principal recipient of foundation support during the first ten years. [25]

As the Second World War was winding down, Sloan joined the board of directors of New York City's Memorial Hospital for Cancer and Allied Diseases. Soon thereafter, Sloan founded the Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research to administer the hospital's research activities. Then, in 1945, Sloan persuaded his General Motors colleague Charles F. Kettering to lend his name to the Institute. [25]

For the next thirty-four years, the Sloan Foundation maintained a special relationship with "Sloan-Kettering," as it is popularly known. General support grants were made each year, as well as frequent grants for particular projects . . . . Today, Sloan-Kettering (the official name is now Memorial Sloan- Kettering Cancer Center) is the largest private institution in the world for the treatment of cancer and for cancer-centered research and training. Its operating budget in 1980 was $183 million, of which $44 million was spent on research and training. [25]


Their 1967-1973 annual reports document the foundation's activities and orientation. Besides the organization's heavy investment in genetic engineering and cancer research, between 1969 and 1979, four particular programs were implemented and completed:

one to increase the number of minority students in medicine and management; one to support experimental work in educational technology; one to establish the new discipline of neuroscience; and one to increase the number of minority students in engineering. [25]


By the early 1980s, the foundation's principal scientific focus, under the neuroscience umbrella, became mass persuasion technologies. The "program in cognitive science," was a pure research program "focused on problems of understanding human mental processes." Financial aid during this program went to support "highly interdisciplinary research in psychology, linguistics, neuroscience, philosophy, anthropology, and computer science." Discoveries made during this program laid the foundation for later work that focused on "management education," or "public management," as it was called. Explained in The Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Institutions, the foundation's concept of "public" management involved "the analysis of public problems and the management of government" in an effort to solve those problems. [25]

Apparently, this work was initiated as the foundation's response to Nixon administration "national security" concerns. The rising tide of racial violence and antiwar protests weighed heavy on the minds of foundation leaders. As Kissinger took control of the NSC, the CIA, the FBI, and COINTELPRO, Sloan Foundation activities reflected such adjustments. Everett Case, then the foundation's president, articulated the seriousness of the times and the need for the foundation to respond accordingly in a report published in the spring of 1968. Case wrote:

the multiplication and growth of many of our besetting social problems seem all too reminiscent of the behavior of the cancerous cell. Who would have predicted at the beginning of this decade that racism would infect and inflame the minds of even a vocal minority of the Negroes who, in this country, have been its principal victims? Who would have foretold the rise in resort to violence not only among the swelling ranks of the criminals but also as a means of social protest and even as a weapon of dissent? [24]


Case's next paragraphs were most enlightening:

More effective techniques for the control of population growth are at hand. The genetic code has been deciphered, and the elements of DNA can now be made synthetically. So, too, the hundreds of young scientists who have earned Sloan fellowships in basic research have made important contributions to our understanding of both the macrocosm and the microcosm.

It is different when one leaves the laboratory or the field experiment, and the disciplined minds they attract, for the sprawling, clamorous, and slippery problems which confront, say, the President of the United States or the Mayor of New York City. It is easy to ascribe outbreaks of urban violence to the intolerable conditions of the ghettos. It is easy to ascribe those conditions to the neglect or apathy of the landlords, to the massive immigration of unskilled and disadvantaged Negroes from the South, to the cupidity of the real estate operators and the building trades, or to the ineptitude and corruption of city officials. It is much harder to get at the root causes of such phenomena, and even more difficult to discover and apply effective cures.

. . . Some such observation applies as well to those who see our salvation simply in terms of a return to the "old-fashioned morality." It is not that the younger generation (and moral confusion is not limited to them) have found anything better than the golden rule or the New Testament's "Second Commandment"; indeed, many of them are seeking new ways of applying these precepts more effectively. In the canyons and ghettos of megalopolis, however, the simple injunction to "love thy neighbor as thyself' too often seems meaningless or irrelevant. Moreover, the new knowledge and new technology which we owe to science can not only change our environment in ways that bewilder and confuse, but can themselves become instruments of exploitation. By the same token, they may convert the stuff of moral and legal controversy into an academic exercise ....

[S]cience ... whatever its problems, including the apprehension of a popular revulsion against its untoward consequences, it is clear that science is an enterprise too dynamic to be "turned off' if we would, and too fundamental to our security and our economy to be abandoned if we could. Certainly the search for the causes and possible cures of cancer must be accelerated, not brought to a halt. Together with technology, engineering and management, moreover, science has an indispensable role to play in any effective assault society may launch upon the stubborn complexities of our urban problems. [24]


The Sloan Foundation, thus, implemented grant programs consistent with the COINTELPRO Black Nationalist Hate Group's campaign to dissuade black America against violent revolution, and refined their resources for "public management." Undoubtedly, they fulfilled their founder's goal to take advantage of people's "ignorance of the principles of capitalism and free enterprise," and the military-medical-industrial opportunities that presented themselves in genetic engineering, cancer research, and population control.
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Re: EMERGING VIRUSES: AIDS & EBOLA: Nature, Accident or Inte

Postby admin » Thu Jun 30, 2016 4:54 am

Chapter 25: Smoking Guns and Conclusions

On June 27, 1983, before the AIDS virus was even officially discovered, the French newspaper, Liberation, carried the headline "Institut Pasteur, Sick With Gay Cancer" alleging the Institut Pasteur Production (IPP), 45 percent of which was owned by the "Institut Pasteur," had received and used "AIDS contaminated" American blood serum to manufacture hepatitis B vaccines that were given to sexually promiscuous gays, as well as exported to foreign countries. [1] The article noted that IPP was Merck, Sharp, & Dohme's (MSD) strongest competitor in the burgeoning Asian hepatitis B vaccine market.

Thus, the possibility that MSD, perhaps through the CIA, arranged for HIV-tainted American blood serum shipments to the IPP, which may have spread AIDS to Europe and Asia, crossed my mind.

Such a consideration would seem unreasonable were it not for the fact that the CIA had commonly conducted industrial espionage operations against French firms on behalf of American companies. [2] As past CIA Director R. James Woolsy remarked, "With the end of the Cold War, the CIA must enter the era of economic espionage." In the language of espionage, a French columnist explained, this meant that "the CIA will henceforth do many services for American enterprises which take the trouble to ask it for 'help' in both counterespionage and espionage itself." [3]

The Hilleman Interview

Soon after the galleys of Emerging Viruses arrived in a select few reviewers' hands, I received an urgent message from Dr. Watson, at the Medical- Legal Foundation, instructing me to obtain a copy of The Health Century by Edward Shorter, Ph.D. [4]

Shorter, a medical historian at the University of Toronto, was commissioned by the NIH to write a one hundred year summary of the Institutes' "medical miracles." He was given carte blanche access to all department heads, researchers, and Institute officials. According to Shorter, "tapes of the interviews" were "deposited in the History of Medicine Division of the National Library of Medicine." The resulting book, published by Doubleday, contained information that was refreshingly frank and even embarrassing. [5]

In his seventh chapter, Shorter traced the NIH's early cancer research efforts to James Ewing, at New York's Memorial Hospital, later part of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, who "suggested to colleagues that they try mustard gas on various cancers." In 1942, Ewing's recommendation was taken up by Yale University scientists Louis Goodman and Alfred Gilman, who studied "what mustard gas did to white cells." Their research gave rise to the modem day use of alkylating agents which stop cancer cells from multiplying along with every other cell in the body. [4]

The first cancer virus, Shorter reported, was discovered by two women, Bernice Eddy, a doctor of bacteriology, and Sarah Stewart, a cancer researcher. Eddy's story went back to her discovery, in 1954, of live monkey viruses in the "supposedly inactivated" polio vaccines developed by Jonas Salk. "This discovery had not been well received at the NIH," Shorter wrote, and Eddy, considered a "whistle-blower," was demoted. Later, unbeknownst to her superiors, she teamed up with Sarah Stewart to discover the SE polyoma virus. The "SE" refers to Stewart and Eddy. "The polyoma was particularly important," Shorter said, "because, up to that time, scientists had thought of viruses as causing cancer mainly in birds." The polyoma virus caused cancers in every animal receiving it. [4]

Unfortunately, Eddy and Stewart never received the recognition they deserved. Their male counterparts largely censored, and then took credit for, the women's findings. Allegedly independent of Bernice Eddy's discovery, Shorter reported, a virologist named Laurella McClelland, working under Mauril:~ Hilleman at Merck's vaccine division, noted "something funny" going on in the Rhesus monkey kidney cells being used to test Merck's polio vaccines. The company, at the time, produced both the Salk inactivated polio vaccine and Sabin's live virus vaccine. The latter was being field tested in the Soviet Union and in Europe at the time of Stewart's polyoma virus discovery. Both vaccines, produced in Rhesus monkey kidney cells, were so badly contaminated with strange viruses, that Hilleman requested African green monkeys be imported to safety test both the vaccines and the rhesus cells. McClelland reported the frightening results of these tests to her boss. "For some reason," wrote Shorter, "the viruses the rhesus monkeys were carrying didn't destroy their own kidneys, but they destroyed those of the greens." This led to Hilleman's discovery of SV40. [4]

Not long after I read this, Dr. John Martin sent me a copy of Shorter's audiotaped interview with Hilleman. [5] During the session ,Shorter asked, ''Tell me, how did you findSV40 in the poliovaccine?'' [6]

"Well that was a Merck thing." Hilleman replied. "I can tell you very briefly. . .. I came to Merck [in 1957 from the OSRD -- the Defense Department's Office of Scientific Research and Development -- then, a scientific intelligence contributor to the WRS and later the CIA] and I was going to develop vaccines, and we had wild viruses ... you remember those wild monkey kidney viruses. And I finally gave up. I said you can't develop vaccines with these damn monkeys ... If I can't do something [about them], I'm going to quit."

So Hilleman called Washington, D.C. zoo director, Bill Mann for help. "These lousy monkeys are picking [the viruses] up while being stored in the airports, in transport, at these off loading places." Hilleman said.

Mann told Hilleman his problem was "very simple." Hilleman recalled that Mann advised him to "go ahead, get your monkeys out of West Africa. Get the African green. Bring them into Madrid. Unload them there. There are no other traffic through there for animals. Fly them into Philadelphia and pick them up. Or fly them into New York and pick them up right off the airplane."

"So," Hilleman continued, "I brought African greens in. I didn't know we were importing AIDS virus at the time."

One might have expected shock from Hilleman's listeners. Shorter was joined by a film producer and crew from WGBH, Boston's famous PBS production center. Instead, laughter filled the room.

"Oh, now we know," said a woman heartily.

"What Merck won't do to develop a vaccine," Shorter chided between fits of laughter, obviously clueless why Hilleman was dead serious.

"Yeah, right," the woman replied as Hilleman continued.

"We brought in those monkeys .. .this was the solution. Because these monkeys didn't have the wild viruses."

"Why didn't the greens have the wild viruses since they came from Africa?" Shorter questioned, gathering his wits.

"Because they weren't being infected in these group holding things with all these other 40 different [monkey] viruses," Hilleman answered.

"But they had the ones they brought from the jungle, though?"

"Yeah, they had those, but there were relatively few. What you do is if you have gang housing then you're going to have an epidemic transmission of infection in a confined space."

"Oh, so that's it," Shorter replied, suddenly getting the picture.

Hilleman continued. "So anyway, the greens came in, and now we had these, and then we're taking our seed stocks to clean them up, and God, now I'm discovering new viruses. So, I said, 'Judas Priest!'"

Merck's vaccine director, who admitted to Shorter retaining military and NIH ties while working for Merck, continued to explain how he came to announce this discovery before an international gathering of scientists. The Copenhagen conference was sponsored by Sabin's benefactor -- the Sister Kenny Foundation -- the counterpart to the March of Dimes Foundation that supported Salk.

Prior to the meeting, Hilleman had wondered what he would talk about. He decided a presentation on "something that's gonna attract attention .... I know what I'm gonna do," he enticed Shorter, "I'm going to talk about, the detection of non-detectable viruses .... So I thought gee that damn SV40. I mean, I mean that," Hilleman stuttered awkwardly for the first time, "that damn vacuolating agent that we have, I'm going to pick that particular one. So I picked it, and quick worked it up, and I thought, boy now, that virus has got to be in the vaccines. And it's got to be in Sabin's vaccine. So I tested it, and sure enough it was in there."

"I'll be damned," Shorter said with a sigh, the seriousness of Hilleman's admissions finally sinking in.

"So now.... I go ahead,"

"So you just took stocks of Sabin's vaccine off the shelf here at Merck," Shorter interrupted.

"Yeah, it was made at Merck."

"You were making it for Sabin at this point?"

"Yeah, it was made before I came."

"Yeah, but at this point Sabin was just doing these massive field trials?" Shorter asked for clarification.

"Uh huh. In Russia and so forth," Hilleman replied.

In the meantime, Merck's vaccine chief said, "we had taken this virus and put it into hamsters." The hamsters grew tumors, just as Eddy's had. "So the joke of the day was that we would win the Olympics because the Russians would be loaded down with tumors." Shorter footnoted that "Sabin had field-tested his oral polio vaccine extensively in the Soviet Union." [4]

Consequently, just prior to delivering his lecture, Hilleman decided to break the news to Albert Sabin, after which Sabin rebutted, "This is just another obfuscation that is going to upset vaccines."

"I said, 'well you know, you're absolutely right,''' Hilleman continued, "but we have a new era here, an era of detection. And the important thing is to get rid of these viruses."

Shorter interrupted, "Well, why did he call it an obfuscation if it was a virus that was contaminating the vaccine?"

"Well now, because there were 40 different viruses in these vaccines anyway that we were inactivating, and ah."

"But you weren't inactivating the [SV40] ... "

"No, that's right." Hilleman under pressure explained. "But yellow fever vaccine had leukemia virus in it, and you know this is in the days of very crude science. So anyway I went down and talked to him.

"He said, 'Why are you concerned about it?'"

"I said, I have a feeling down in my bones that this virus is different .. I don't know how to tell you this, but I've been around vaccines for a long time. I just think this virus may have some long-term effects."

Sabin asked what kind?

"I said cancer."

Shorter then asked why the press didn't pick up on the controversy.

A confused Hilleman replied with sudden memory loss, "Well I guess it did. I guess it did. I don't remember very well. We had no press release on it. Obviously you don't go out, this was a scientific affair within the scientific community."

Changing the subject, he then said, "But anyway, the next thing you know we had run out activation curves on these things. We knew it was in our seed stock for making vaccine .... We'd run it down and it would all be killed, you see. But," Hilleman chuckled, "when we were able technologically to grow more virus, then we found it wasn't being inactivated. That virus, you see, has one in 10,000 particles [that] is not inactivated by formaldehyde. Which was a very strange phenomenon .... It was good science at the time because that's what you did. You didn't worry about these wild viruses."

Later, Shorter asked when SV40 and the respiratory adenoviruses, another Hilleman discovery, were "first identified to be tumorigenic in mammals?"

Hilleman replied, "I think the SV40 and the adeno's, gee, they were sort of contemporary. I think they were contemporary .... "

"Is that right?" Shorter replied a bit surprised.

Indeed, Hilleman explained, the SV40 virus was in "the same family, you know, that causes progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. All of us carry it. You get immunosuppressed and you come down with this head disease."

"This is projected as AIDS?"

"JC virus," Hilleman returned, apparently referring to the encephalitis virus infection that remains latent until the immune system collapses.

Minutes later Shorter asked why Hilleman didn't continue his SV40 cancer research.

"I couldn't go ahead and form an SV40 cancer lab and ultimately go on into molecular biology [as Gallo and others had done]. I had to go into other things."

"Well why is that?" queried Shorter.

"Because I had to go on to develop vaccines for Merck."

A moment of silence later, followed by audience laughter, Shorter wryly chided, "Just what Merck wants to hear of course, that you were driven by the compassion for commercialism away from revolutionary science."

"No. No. No. No.... " Hilleman missed the joke, "Now, now, now look, now don't get the wrong idea," he defended. "Don't quote me wrong. Because in the real world, all of these, these basic [Hilleman paused to gather his thoughts] background things. Now that SV40 discovery for example, if that had been a human carcinogenic agent that could have been like the discovery of AIDS virus, you know, for iatrogenic spread of cancer."

"Because it had already been injected into 10 million people," Shorter said with a nervous burst of laughter.

"That's absolutely right," Hilleman replied not realizing he had contradicted and incriminated himself. Only minutes earlier he had told Shorter how SV40 had, as Bernice Eddy avowed, been carcinogenic to humans. "If you stop it. And we did stop it. Absolutely." Hilleman lied, defending, "That brought vaccines to a halt for polio until that was cleaned up."

It was never cleaned up entirely. Minutes later, Hilleman recalled his human cancer research that included, "the basic research with SV40." And later, when they worked on cancer immunology, he proudly described "taking a person's tumor, grinding it up, and putting it back into him," using "our SV40 hamster model." [6]

Shortly after Hilleman formally presented his SV40 findings in Copenhagen, Yale researchers with an electron microscope determined that SV40 and the SE polyoma were very similar viruses.

"Nothing about the monkey virus causing cancer had yet surfaced in either the lay press or scientific literature although insiders were aware. Alan Rabson, a former senior administrator at the NCI, attended the conference and told Shorter, "Everyone in the grapevine knew." [4]

Members of "the grapevine," recognizing that millions of children had received both polio vaccines, were now frantic. "Everyone was very excited" at the NIH, Rabson said. Hilleman believed the inactivation process used to produce Salk's polio vaccine had been successful. [7] He was wrong. Live SV40 remained. Recipients maintained traces of SV40 antibodies in their blood. Those who had received Sabin's vaccine, however, lacked SV40 antibodies. Luckily, the virus was substantially inactivated in the process of digestion. [8] "The Russians, supposed to show up at the Olympics dragging with tumors, were safe!" [9] wrote Shorter sarcastically.

Finally, on July 26, 1961, the New York Times reported that Parke- Davis, another vaccine manufacturer, and Merck decided to pull the plug on their Salk vaccines, "until they can eliminate a monkey virus." There was still no mention of cancer. The article, adjacent another about overdue library books, was buried on page 33. The cancer connection was suppressed until February 1962, when the Times finally reported it on page 27. [10]

"Was this silence merely the incompetence of the press in the face of a complex scientific question," Shorter asked, "or was there a deliberate effort to keep a lid on the story?" In December 1986, an elderly Sabin replied, "I think to release certain information prematurely," he said, "is not a public service. There's too much scaring the public unnecessarily. Oh, your children were injected with a cancer virus and all that. That's not very good." [4]

One needs to recall "how badly the whole public health system had been burned by the Cutter incident five years previously," Shorter considered in an effort to understand Sabin's attitude. In 1955, the first lots of improperly inactivated Salk polio vaccine was processed and shipped by the Cutter Laboratories in Berkeley, California. "Live polio virus was being injected into children," wrote the medical historian. "The gratitude of the public turned to horror as the Cutter vaccine gave polio to almost 80 recipients; these children in turn went on to spread the disease to another 120 playmates and relatives; three quarters of the victims were paralyzed and 11 died." [12]

It was Bernice Eddy whose lab tests showed the Cutter vaccine had been inadequately treated. Eventually she lost her labs pursuing and espousing the truth. Her treatment scandalized the scientific community, and resulted in a U.S. Senate investigation during which she warned legislators that unless the vaccine contamination problem was addressed, slow monkey viruses would surely deliver human cancer epidemics around the world. [13]

Unfortunately, senators and the media were unimpressed. The date was October 15, 1971 -- four days before President Nixon's helicopter touched down on Fort Detrick's parade field in celebration of the transition from America's top biological weapons testing center into the Frederick Cancer Research Facility of the National Cancer Institute. It was to be the leading facility in the fight against what he called, "America's No. 1 enemy -- Cancer!"  [14]

When asked if Nixon's war on cancer had been won or lost, Hilleman said "it never produced anything really because the science wasn't there, it wasn't right. But it produced the money that eventually allowed for the breakthroughs. [6]

What type of breakthroughs? "As far as I'm concerned," Hilleman explained, "when the onco[cancer]viruses were discovered, and you have to credit Bob Huebner [Peter Duesberg's NCI-University of California supervisor, see fig. 8.3] for the oncogenes, that concept, (and I think he should get the Nobel prize for it, but he won't) but that was the beginning of the modem era of cancer etiology. From that came the business of activation of normal host genes, that there are genes that have to do with replication of cells, and if you activate them, screw them up some way, or carry them from cell to cell, you can produce cancer. Now that to me was the beginning of the modem cancer era. Now you understand things at a genetic level. And that is what is great." [6]

Hilleman never revealed to Shorter Merck's participation in the NCI's Special Virus Cancer Program. Or that by 1965 the rampant biohazard and containment problems were to be largely solved by Dow Chemical Company through an NCI contract. The "Research and Development of Biohazards Containment Facilities," contract, seen in fig. 25.1, showed that Bionetic's Kensington, Maryland operation had been among the first to be given site visits by Dow consultants. A mere one percent of the entire Special Virus Cancer Program budget went towards preventing cross contamination and viral outbreaks from reoccurring (see fig. 25.2). [15]

More Live Vaccine Contaminants

Apparently, SV40 was not the only virus allowed to contaminate American made vaccines. Using a combination of advanced tissue culture methods and genetic probes, Dr. W. John Martin, Professor of Pathology at the University of Southern California, assayed blood samples from patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and related nervous disorders. This work led to his discovery of unique cell-destroying viruses that were not recognized by the immune system. Termed "stealth viruses," the germs were able to cause persistent infections because they were missing specific genes which, if expressed, would evoke effective antiviral immunity. [16, 17]

Fig. 25.1. Dow Chemical Company's Special Virus Cancer Program Biohazard and Containment Contract Summary

Image

Image

The Dow Chemical Company (PH43-65-l045)

Title: Research and Development of Biohazards Containment Facilities

Contractor's Project Director: Mr. Cyril B. Henke

Project Officer (NCI) , Mr. W. Emmett Barkley

Objectives:

The objectives of this contract are to evaluate possible hazards to personnel conducting research in the virus-cancer field, study the state-of-the-art of agent control and containment from the standpoint of personnel protection and increasing the validity of experimental studies, assist in the planning, construction and evaluation performance of new concepts for facilities and programs involving hazardous agents.

More specifically, the current contract effort is being directed to the following program areas,

1. Applied research and development studies on biohazards control and containment.

2. The continued implementation and further development of an environmental monitoring program for Building 41.

3. The continued evaluation of the performance of environmental control features incorporated in building 41 and into the prototype laboratory units.

4. Related operational activities in Building 41.

5. Consultation for the Special Virus Cancer Program with special emphasis on providing assistance to NCI contractors through a site visit program.

Significance to Biomedical Research and the Program of the Institute:

The data collected in this program indicates that the facility systems and operational procedures are very effective in maintaining low contamination levels and minimizing cross contamination within the facility. Dow personnel continue to provide operational engineering analysis support to the NCI virus containment facility to improve the operation and maintenance of the primary and secondary barrier systems.

A theoretical analysis has been completed in which equations were developed to describe the removal of airborne contaminants from a room utilizing various combinations of air filtration, building ventilation systems and air recirculation devices. It has been concluded that while such devices are impractical for controlling room air pressures, they are highly effective in improving room air quality. A significant part of the work effort during this contract period has been given to the NCI safety and environmental control site visit and consultation program. Site visits have been made to the following facilities:

Bionetics, Kensington, Maryland
Microbiological Associates, Bethesda, Maryland

University Laboratories, Highland Park, New Jersey

Plow Laboratories, Rockville, Maryland

Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York

Proposed Course of the Project: Experiments are being prepared to: 1) obtain comparative data between theory and operation of air recirculation unit(s) within a typical research laboratory, 2) determine the unit size required to obtain an equivalent high air change rate and 3) determine how unit location and air distribution can most effectively minimize high concentrations of contaminants at specific locations within the laboratory.

Date Contract Initiated: June 25, 1965

Source: NCI staff. The Special Virus Cancer Program: Progress Report #8. Office of the Associate Scientific Director for Viral Oncology (OASDVO). J. B. Moloney, Ed., Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1971, pp. 222-223


Fig. 25.2. Annual Funding Levels for Viral Oncology Segments of the NCI's Special Virus Cancer Program

Image
Source: NCI staff. The Special Virus Cancer Program: Progress Report #8. Office of the Associate Scientific Director for Viral Oncology (OASDVO). J. B. Moloney, Ed., Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1971, pg. 63.

In March of 1995, Martin communicated to FDA officials that some stealth viruses clearly originated from African green monkey simian cytomegaloviruses -- a type of herpesviruses that are known to infect man, monkeys, and other animals. Along with a complete account of his research, he sent the FDA an article published in July 1995 that said, "The potential introduction of pathogenic viral variants into humans through the use of African green monkey-derived cell lines" during the production of live viral vaccines "should be evaluated." [16]

Martin easily made the vaccine connection since he had previously served, between 1976 and 1980, as the director of the Viral Oncology Branch of the FDA's Bureau of Biologics (now the Center for Biologics, Evaluation and Research). During his tenure at the bureau, he reported to his supervisors that even the contemporary polio vaccines contained foreign DNA that should raise concerns. At the time he detected this, he had not been informed of a 1972 study that showed that simian cytomegalovirus was present in the kidney cultures of all eleven African green monkeys imported for vaccine production by Lederle -- the sole producer of Orimune® live polio vaccines for the United States. [18]

Instead of rewarding Martin for his expertise, FDA officials advised him to discontinue this work because, they alleged, it was outside the scope of the testing required to approve the polio vaccine. Martin recalled being told by the bureau's director, "Stop worrying about it, every time you eat an apple you ingest foreign DNA." His project was quickly terminated. [18]

After Martin published his 1995 findings, he began to receive calls and documents from other scientists regarding what others had learned years ago about the viral contaminants in polio vaccines. WaIter Kyle sent him a 1972 "Cytomegalovirus Contingency Plan" prepared by Lederle in case the Bureau of Biologics took issue with the continued production of polio vaccine in possibly contaminated monkey kidney cells. The plan was never tested, however, as the Bureau chose not to pursue the entire matter. A year later, in a letter addressed to the President of American Cyanimid, the parent company of Lederle, by a Lederle official, it was clearly understood that indeed the FDA could have, and should have acted to halt further Orimune® development until the monkey virus contamination problem had been resolved. [19]

In June 1995, Martin again formally communicated his concerns to the FDA that certain stealth viruses may have originated from simian cytomegaloviruses. He asked the FDA to help him investigate the prevalence of infection by this virus in the general population and in the concentrated polio vaccine lots. His requests were denied leaving him little option but to notify others.

In November 1995, Martin reported his findings to the Vaccine Safety Forum of the Institute of Medicine, part of the National Academy of Sciences. In spite of requests for action by many of those in attendance, FDA officials remained uncommitted. Lederle's response was that they had complied with all of the FDA's requirements. CDC representatives also said it was not their problem.

In March 1996, Martin again presented new evidence. This time, during the "Twentieth Century Plagues symposium in Los Angeles and San Francisco sponsored by California's Department of Health. Here, Martin reviewed the early developments of both the Salk and Sabin polio vaccines. Commenting on the issue of SV40 contamination, he referred to published works by Drs. Lednickey and Cristaudo, and their colleagues, identifying SV40 gene sequences in childhood choroid plexus brain tumors and in mesotheliomas -- rare cancers arising from cells lining the cavity surrounding the lung. [18,19]

In other words, anyone, and particularly those who received polio vaccines prior to 1964, is at risk of carrying SV40, and spreading it to others at home or in the community. The virus is apparently circulating now throughout the human race, and may give rise to more virulent viruses over time. Moreover, the possibility of SV40 genes being transmitted congenitally from human parents to offspring cannot be ruled out.

An even more threatening situation applies to vaccine-derived stealth viruses. Martin noted that the increased incidence of chronic fatigue syndrome, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, and other behavior-linked illnesses "may be an inadvertent consequence of stealth virus vaccine contaminants."

If a vaccine program were initiated today, Martin concluded, "one would surely not import wild monkeys from Africa, create short term primary kidney cultures, add a human virus, and administer the crude gamish derived from the virally infected cells to virtually every child in the country. Nor would one want to withhold applying the many molecular biological techniques developed over the last 30 years to assess vaccine purity. Yet this is essentially the situation with live polio vaccine, and comparable arguments can be made for other human and animal viral vaccines .... If animal viruses have been inadvertently introduced into humans, the sooner we find out the better." [18, 19]

Martin, like Hilleman, concurred with the conclusion I reached in chapter thirteen regarding the iatrogenic, that is accidental, theory on the origin of AIDS. It is certain that, at least, the building blocks for the AIDS virus came to North America the same way SV40 had come -- through the importation of contaminated monkeys used for viral vaccine and other research. Not from an African green monkey bite, and not from a gay flight attendant.

The Intentional AIDS Transmission Theory

It has been theorized, and circumstantial evidence in this book supports the theory, that black Africans and American homosexuals may have been targeted for viral weapons experimentation by activists in America's military- medical-industrial complex and agents for the CIA.

According to the Church commission hearings, Henry Kissinger, and by association Elmo Zumwalt or Melvin Laird, and Sidney Gottlieb ordered or administered the development and/or stockpiling of biological weapons, including immune-system-destroying viruses functionally identical to HIV, and the deployment of systems necessary to administer these viruses to large populations. Frank Carlucci, Joseph Califano, and Alexander Haig may also have been involved.

The principal military scientists and industrialists involved in the development, study, and/or possible deployment of AIDS-like viruses, which may have included Ebola and Marburg-like rhabdoviruses, included Robert Gallo of the National Cancer Institute; John Landon and Robert Ting of Litton Bionetics; Litton Industries president Roy Ash; research affiliates of MSD, including Maurice Hilleman; and a handful of researchers at the New York University Medical Center, the New York City Blood Bank, the University of California, and the CDC. Additional institutions which may have played a role in the development of such germs during the 1960s and early 1970s include the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the Navy's Biomedical Research Laboratory, Hazleton Laboratories, Inc., the NIAID, and the AEC.

It is likely that most of the scientists involved in developing such viruses for military contractors, the NCI, the CIA, and the Special Operations Division of the Army, believed they were serving the interests of national security, or humanity. The question of their supervisors purposes, motivations, and intent can only be fully answered through a Congressional inquiry.

With regard to the theory of intentional AIDS transmission for population control, undoubtedly, the motives and mechanisms existed to support this possibility. The evidence shows a channel through which experimental (mutant) viruses, viral vaccines, other reagents, and drugs flowed between the NCI and affiliated testing laboratories at Litton Bionetics and Fort Detrick, to MSD and its related research labs in New York and Central Africa, was the Drug Development Branch of the NCI. Through this channel, or another, the CIA, or a saboteur, may have delivered a single roller bottle [20, 21] containing AIDS viruses to experimental vaccine producers or directly to Merck's hepatitis B (and perhaps other multicomponent) vaccines -- the vaccines that appear to have played a principal role in infecting scores of human subjects in the early 1970s in New York City, Central Africa, and other regions of the world hardest hit by AIDS. [22, 23]

Also, considering Merck, Sharp & Dohme's relationship with the military, and its economic competitor the Institute Pasteur Production, in contrast to previous theories on the initial international spread of AIDS from Central Africa through needlesticks or homosexual practices, covert operations by the CIA, contaminated vaccines, and even industrial espionage, may explain the rapid progress of the epidemic to African, European, South American, and eastern nations.

Given the cold war climate in the 1970s, the believed strategic importance of Central Africa, and the activities to promote military and economic dependence of several black nations -- in particular the resource wealthy region of Angola and Zaire -- the use of HIV and Ebola as biological weapons to affect military, economic, and "national security" objectives, including population control, must be considered. This theory is bolstered by the following facts:

• As national security advisor under Nixon, in 1969, Henry Kissinger ordered a reassessment of America's biological weapons capabilities from which the option to develop immune-system-destroying viruses was selected. Such viruses were to be used when necessary to keep U.S. military "visibility to a minimum" during a "gray" area operation intended to influence "certain events of potentially global importance." Shortly following their development, Kissinger also ordered the CIA (whose scientists developed and stockpiled numerous deadly viruses for Project MKNAOMI) to conduct covert military operations in the Zaire/Angola arena-the region of Africa hardest hit by the AIDS and Ebola epidemics. [24-26]

• The Defense Department and NCI paid Litton Bionetics (as supervised by Dr. Robert Gallo at the NCI), and other affiliated biological weapons contractors, millions of dollars during the 1960s and early 1970s to produce immune-system-depleting and cancer-causing viruses. These would include the viruses with the pathological effects of the HIVs and the hemorrhagic fever viruses Ebola and Marburg. [25-31]

• U.S. congressional documents confirm the CIA obtained dozens of biological weapons, including deadly viruses, and illegally maintained them in storage facilities on the grounds of Fort Detrick as late as 1975. Thereafter, they possibly retained private firms for such purposes despite all such actions being illegal. [26]

• CIA chiefs acknowledged their likely use of biological weapons through covert operations long after the ratification of the Geneva accord by Kissinger and Nixon, despite knowledge that all such actions were illegal. [24]

• The CIA conducted dozens of biological warfare experiments on hundreds of thousands of unsuspecting human subjects both domestically and in foreign lands. [24]

• DOD biological weapons contractors Merck and/or Litton Bionetics conducted numerous AIDS-like virus and vaccine experiments during the 1960s and early 1970s simultaneously in New York City and/or Central Africa -- the two areas hardest hit by the AIDS epidemic.

• Population control was deemed a high priority foreign policy and national security objective during the late 1960s and early 1970s by then the Honorable George Bush of Texas. More recently, groups active in the Council on Foreign Relations have urged policy makers and industrialists to reduce even the size of the U.S. population to between 125 and 150 million people, "or about its size in the 1940s." [32]

The fact that the epidemic overwhelmingly and specifically struck groups that had been consistently targeted by American intelligence agencies does not necessarily give more weight to the intentional transmission theory since MSD and other military vaccine producers routinely used black Africans, prisoners, and other high risk groups for vaccine experiments.

The Accidental Alternative

It is highly plausible that the earliest AIDS, Ebola, Marburg, and Reston virus outbreaks occurred accidentally. The most common source of these outbreaks was not African monkeys, per se, but more specifically African primates inoculated with such viruses and subsequently exported by Litton Bionetics for vaccine production, cancer studies, and biological weapons research. The weight of evidence, then, falls on Litton -- the principal military- medical-industrial "support services" provider to all NCI contractors including MSD, the NYUMC, Hazleton Laboratories, Inc., Davis Laboratories, and others. Given the number of documented laboratory outbreaks alone, in 1967, 1976, 1978, and 1989, all associated with specific monkey species supplied by Litton Bionetics, or Litton monkey cohabitants, it is reasonable to conclude that an independent investigation of the records and quarantine facilities of Litton's foreign and domestic primate research and supply centers is in order.

Another concern regarding vaccine production facilities and their products is the fact that government and industry standards disregarded simian virus contaminants. Contamination of experimental and production vaccines, including polio and others, by SV40, SFV, SIV-agm and possibly SIV-cpz in the range of 100 particles per dose, occurred routinely, very likely giving rise to viral recombinants that might have crossed species barriers as, in many cases, they had been engineered to do through human tissue culturing. All told, such methods and materials used by NCI researchers could have easily created AIDS-virus progenitors including SIV-agm, SIV-cpz and HIV-2. Thus, the iatrogenic theory of HIV development is strongly supported.

With the North American AIDS epidemic, besides the NCI and Litton Bionetics, the Merck company and the NYUMC appear chiefly accountable. It is reasonable to propose HIV-I, HIV-2, or other progenitors, initially infecting Litton-supplied monkeys, were accidentally transmitted to MSD or NYUMC experimental vaccines that were then tested on mentally retarded children, gay volunteers, and others in New York City as early as 1970.

Though polio vaccines are also suspected of transmitting HIV-I and other viruses, the unique epidemiology, and concurrent outbreaks of AIDS in New York City and Central Africa, appears to coincide more closely with the administration of experimental hepatitis B vaccines than with either the Salk or Sabin vaccines. The polio vaccine trials were conducted during the mid to late 1950s and early 1960s. Had HIV-1 been transmitted then, the outbreaks would have been more likely to have occurred during the late 1960s or early 1970s, that is, almost a decade before the onset of clinical cases, and prior to when molecular genetics indicates HIV-l evolved.

However, the possibility that HIV-l evolved in Willowbrook children and/or gay men as a result of first polio and then hepatitis vaccine contamination cannot be ruled out. The first four lots of Merck's experimental hepatitis B vaccine may have been partially derived from the children and! or the men's blood serum, which may have included live SV40, SFV, SIV=agm , or other viruses -- potential building blocks of HIV-1 -- transmitted to the human donors during polio vaccination a decade earlier. Thus, recombination of HIV-l ancestors may have occurred in one or more of the hepatitis B serum donors. This, as an alternative to purposeful or chimpanzee mediated contamination of the Merck vaccine, could have resulted in the transmission of AIDS as well.

Another polio vaccine theory advanced by Dr. Howard B. Urnovitz, founder and chief science officer for Calypte Biomedical company in Berkeley, California is also noteworthy. Urnovitz concluded that HIV-l may be a monkey-human hybrid since a certain number of the polio vaccine recipients possibly maintained the HIV-l envelope in their cells as a normal gene. [33] This gene then could have recombined with any of the viruses likely to have contaminated the human vaccines in question, to produce a monkey/human hybrid on the way to becoming HIV-l.

Like Martin, Kyle, Shultz, Ellswood and Stricker, Umovitz called for careful PCR analyses of the experimental vaccine lots in question in order to prove or disprove these hypotheses, providing the lots, allegedly in safe keeping at the FDA, have not been altered or destroyed.

Plausible Denial and Self-Incrimination

Unless the U.S. Congress orders an independent investigation, thorough genetic analyses of the suspected hepatitis B and polio vaccine lots, and look-back studies of disease among their recipients, the origin of AIDS mystery will likely remain unsolved.

Given all the facts, however, there is one thing for certain -- the speculation that AIDS jumped species naturally to initially infect people, virtually simultaneously, on two far removed continents, and more oddly, in the two exact regions wherein the suspected AIDS-like virus and vaccine experiments took place, must be seriously questioned. Moreover, based on the mass of evidence compiled herein, scientists (including those at the NCI and CDC) who advocated such farfetched notions of the origin of AIDS, in contrast to their knowledge of the NCI's Special Virus Cancer Program and recombinant viral vaccine experiments, have obviously incriminated themselves.

Such self-incrimination is additionally evident considering the same core group of research institutions and researchers falsely alleged: (1) that HIV was widely distributed in central Africa in the early 1970s and even long before, (2) that the Marburg agent was likewise found in monkeys throughout the world, (3) that Merck's hepatitis B vaccine was vindicated as the source of HIV transmissions, (4) that American researchers required the French to discover how to keep HIV infected T-cells alive, (5) that key investigators, including Don Francis and Luc Montagnier, were unaware of Robert Gallo's AIDS-like virus experiments during the early 1970s, (6) that funding would not be withheld during the early 1980s to allow other researchers to investigate the virus suspected of causing AIDS, (7) that the AIDS-virus took several years to discover, (8) that the discovery of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) took place during the 1980s simultaneously by Gallo and Montagnier, (9) that the discovery of HIV-2 occurred virtually simultaneously by Essex and Montagnier, (10) that the subsequent French American AIDS fracases evolved so inexplicably, (11) that the Ebola viruses represented a serious natural threat to humans, despite evidence and expert testimony that it was man-made, and (12) that HIV-l cannot be the cause of AIDS as argued by Peter Duesberg.

Finally, that virtually no attention was paid by any of the suspects to the iatrogenic theory of AIDS, is additionally suspicious if not criminal.

Making a Difference?

In 1982, after the national broadcast of the award winning television documentary "OPT: Vaccine Roulette," parents in the Washington, D.C. area whose children had been injured by the OPT vaccine founded Dissatisfied Parents Together (OPT) and launched what is now recognized as the consumer vaccine safety movement in the U.S. In 1985, the book DPT: A Shot in the Dark by Harris Coulter, Ph.D., and Barbara Loe Fisher, co-founder of Dissatisfied Parents Together, was published by Harcourt Brace Jovanovich indicting the whole cell pertussis vaccine and documenting serious flaws in America's highly politicized mass vaccination program. Media coverage of OPT vaccine associated injuries and deaths became widespread and, although most vaccine injury lawsuits were settled out of court for modest sums (with pressure being placed on plaintiff's to agree to having all court records sealed from public view as a condition of settlement), there were several well publicized multimillion dollar awards against vaccine manufacturers. [34]

These events were immediately followed by pressure placed on Congress by the vaccine manufacturers, including Lederle, Connaught and Merck, to pass an exclusive remedy federal vaccine injury compensation program that would remove all liability from drug companies who make vaccines and physicians who administer vaccines. The threat the drug companies delivered to Congress, with the help of physician organizations such as the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Medical Association, was that they would stop producing vaccine for the nation's childhood vaccination program.

In response, in 1986, President Reagan signed the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act. The law was to have created a non-adversarial, no-fault alternative to lawsuits for victims of mandatory vaccinations. It also: included safety provisions such as a centralized vaccine adverse event reporting system; mandatory reporting by doctors of hospitalizations, injuries and deaths following vaccinations; mandatory record keeping by doctors of vaccine lot numbers and reactions; and requirements that doctors give patients/parents vaccine benefit/risk information. Punitive damages in lawsuits against vaccine manufacturers or physicians were outlawed, except for cases where criminal negligence would be proven. However, Congress did not completely remove all liability in the court system from the vaccine manufacturers and preserved the right of vaccine victims to bring a lawsuit if they were turned down by the federal system or they considered the award to be too small.

Following the law's passage, the Departments of Justice and Health and Human Services systematically gutted the program and made it highly adversarial. Each claim was fought by taxpayer funded government lawyers and hired physician experts. Compensation was denied to three quarters of all child vaccine victims. What was to have been a fairer, less emotionally draining, and less time consuming alternative to litigation, turned into a sham. Dissatisfied Parents Together, which operates the National Vaccine Information Center (NVIC) and helped to create the law, described the program as "a drug company dream, a consumer's nightmare, a scientific travesty, and a national tragedy."

"What we have in this country," said Barbara Loe Fisher, NVIC Co- Founder and President, "is that every citizen is forced by law to use vaccines which are being poorly studied, tested, and regulated for safety, as well as unsafely administered, and no one is held accountable when a citizen, usually a child, is injured or killed by that product. No other product in America is protected from the pressures of the marketplace like that. The public has little way to exert economic pressure to force bad vaccines off the market, force improvement of existing ones, or force doctors to administer them more safely because nobody has the right to refuse to use them or hold manufacturers and negligent physicians accountable when injuries and deaths occur."

The federal government has pressured states to set up tracking systems to tag and track all children from birth to ensure that they are injected with multiple vaccines, all of which have not been adequately studied to evaluate their impact on humans at the cellular and molecular biology level.

"Nor is there informed consent in America when it comes to vaccination," said Fisher. "At its core, forcing individuals to risk injury or death without their consent is a violation of civil and human rights, the Nuremberg Code, and the Helsinki Declarations. In principal, it is also a violation of the tenets embodied in the scriptures of every major religion. If the State can tag, track down, and force American citizens against their will to risk injury and death by being injected with biologicals of unknown toxicity today, there is no limit on what freedoms the State can take away in the name of the greater good tomorrow."

Marge Grant, however, another founding member of the NVIC, argued that talk is cheap. Actions speak louder than words. Grant, who protested the "infamous" vaccine injury act's passage from the start, recalled that Barbara Loe Fisher and allied vaccine industry lobbyists were largely to blame for the law's inadequacy.

'They are to blame," Ms. Grant said of Fisher and another NVIC Past- President, attorney Jeffrey Schwartz. "Schwartz was so politically involved, and the politics were so thick you could cut them with a knife. [34]

"I want to regurgitate every time I hear those 'dedicated voices' screaming against the many new vaccines and vaccine procedures being mandated when indeed they are responsible .... Don't forget, they [the vaccine manufacturers] were relieved of all of this [responsibility] with the passing of the infamous 'no-fault' compensation program thanks in large measure to Schwartz, Fisher, and [current NVIC Director Kathy] Williams." [34]

To meet this affront, regional anti-vaccine consumer coalitions are forming. Their purpose is to educate the public to act at the local, state, and federal levels, and lobby, to insure the right to informed consent to any medical procedure, including vaccination, that involves the risk of injury or death.

Additional lobbying efforts are needed to force a congressional oversight hearing on existing vaccine laws; a congressional investigation into gross mismanagement of the mass vaccination system by federal government officials with the cooperation of the pharmaceutical industry; and FDA reforms that require government health officials involved in licensing, testing, and regulating vaccines to release information on their safety and efficacy or lack thereof.

Final Thoughts

Sean MacBride, the former foreign minister of Ireland, a 1974 Nobel Peace prize recipient, and the president of the International Peace Bureau, wrote that despite his "deep affection for, and tremendous admiration of, the United States and its people":

I came to the conclusion that all the values that made me admire the American people were being eroded by the covert operations of the CIA and kindred secret bodies ....

[I]n my view, the survival of this great democracy is now being gravely threatened by the covert criminal actions of the Central Intelligence Agency and its associate services. If the United States is to be protected from this grave danger, it is essential that the activities of this secret agency should be fully exposed to the people of the United States .... Even if there is, now, an attempt being made by some to check the activities of the CIA and the other United States intelligence agencies, the whole concept of a secret government and army within a government is a menace to the democratic system. [35]


The disclosures made herein provide additional evidence that Sean MacBride's prose is accurate. "We the People of the United States," and peace-loving citizens around the world, now face a nightmarish danger. Deadly animal viruses are now multiplying in our human bodies. This, at a time when we seem to have less and less influence over the systems of governments on which we depend for our health and safety.

One reaction is to turn away, and choose, as so many do, denial as a means of coping. Such a truth tears at the hearts of especially those who embrace the paternal role of government -- those who are comforted by our military, medical, and intelligence capabilities. Living relatively comfortable lives, unscathed by the unusual cancers and bizarre plagues that have struck so many other families, the pain threshold for the masses is but a date with destiny.

Not so for the vast majority of Africans, and urban African Americans. This dynamic may partly explain why the vast majority of white people react to the genocidal theory of AIDS with disbelief whereas blacks largely embrace the notion. [36]

There is some consolation in knowing this general atmosphere is not unique in political history. On the brink of the American revolution, the great patriot Patrick Henry warned that it is natural to indulge in illusions:

We are apt to shut our eyes against a painful truth, and listen to the song of that siren till she transforms us into beasts. Is this the part of wise men, engaged in a great and arduous struggle for liberty? Are we disposed to be the number of those who, having eyes, see not, and having ears, hear not, the things which so nearly concern their temporal salvation? For my part, whatever anguish of spirit it may cost, I am willing to know the whole truth; to know the worst, and to provide for it. [37]


What will it take to break the trance of complacency lulled by the siren's song? Realizing that maybe, or even probably, your relatives and friends have also died, or now suffer, from any number of cancers or immune system disorders whose skyrocketing incidence begs attention and an honest explanation. Only through lessons learned can the millions of lives lost to the present and coming plagues be reconciled.

Reconciling the origin of the world's emerging viruses is urgent. From this work comes the knowledge that those blamed for starting the AIDS epidemic were blameless, while those truly responsible continue to reap the pandemic's rewards. By understanding how the AIDS and Ebola viruses came to be, we are much closer to discovering how to pick them apart, piece by piece and gene by gene, until the part that overwhelms the human immune system is located and inactivated, or some alternative therapy is proven as effective. Hopefully this work will sound enough alarms to prevent such outbreaks from ever happening again. [38]

Finally, readers are encouraged not to mark those implicated for violent retribution, but rather, to confront their soul's similar assassins. There are elements in each of us that instill fear, cloud the mind, harm the body, weaken the will, and violate the human spirit, just as the villains do in this search for truth. The wisdom and divine guidance needed to lay such inhumanity to rest lies within.
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Re: EMERGING VIRUSES: AIDS & EBOLA: Nature, Accident or Inte

Postby admin » Thu Jun 30, 2016 5:43 am

Part 1 of 2

Epilogue

In Vancouver, Canada, on July 10, 1996, at the XI International Conference on AIDS, I was privileged to become the first investigator in the history of the esteemed meeting to defend a scientific paper that concluded the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs), and their closest relatives, the simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs), most likely evolved from men's desire to play God in the name of science. The abstract, D3678, weathered the social science committee's peer review process and is reprinted in figure 26.1. [1]

Later that week, following moderate coverage by Canada's leading news sources, and total censorship by their American counterparts, I was interviewed by Vancouver's top-rated talk show host, Fanny Kiefer, on CKNW radio. Carol Punt, an independent film producer who was in the middle of developing a documentary about vaccines, and their risks, filmed the session. Following the interview Carol informed me that Dr. Gallo was scheduled to host a forum the next night in which the public was invited to ask questions. "Would you like to attend with us and ask Dr. Gallo a question or two?" Carol asked.

"How can I refuse?" I replied.

So the next evening, when Gallo was finished speaking, before a few hundred Canadians, the press, and Carol's documentary film crew, I took the microphone. I asked Gallo if he was at all concerned that his early experiments, with Litton Bionetics investigators, in which monkey viruses, like simian virus 40 (SV40), and others, recombined with numerous animal cancer viruses, like cat leukemia and chicken leukemia/sarcoma, "might have given rise to HIV or its relatives following their culture in human tissues; and that these mutants might have contaminated some live viral vaccines produced in contaminated monkeys and chimps supplied to vaccine manufacturers" through his colleagues at Litton Bionetics?

To say that Dr. Gallo became angry is an understatement. "Quite frankly, I don't know what the hell you're talking about," he said shaking his head. Many in the audience laughed.

"I'll cite your papers Dr. Gallo."

"If you can," Gallo challenged, "you've got a paper that I don't know I ever published. I'd sure like you to cite it. Would you begin?"

"Sure. I'd be happy to. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 1970, Gallo et al. That was an oral presentation which you gave before a NATO audience in Mol, Belgium ... I'll be happy to show you the paper." [2]

"Okay. Stop. Stop. I mean this is beyond asinine," he said. "In Mol, Belgium -- it was my first trip to Europe so I can remember -- a NATO meeting did take place. NATO meetings fund all scientific meetings, all over the world, even East/West at that time, biologic meetings, scientific, chemistry meetings. All kinds of meetings -- meetings about motherhood, fatherhood, everything. And what I talked about in Mol, Belgium was in the 1960s, long before gene cloning took place, before I ever worked in virology. What I talked about was cellular transfer RNA. Okay? That was Mol, Belgium. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. And SV40, I never published a paper in my life on SV40, except the transfer RNA species in SV40 transformed [i.e., caused cancer in] hamster cells compared to non-transformed [normal] cells as a control.

"You've got pineapples, kiwis, grapes, and cherries, mixed in with some other tutie-fruitie. I don't know what in the hell you're talking about." Amidst audience laughter Gallo continued, "I'm a little bit tired about this kind of nonsense and crap."

"Excuse me," I continued, "and Gallo, Sarin et al. with Litton Bionetics researchers as your coauthors in which you combined leukemia/sarcoma complex models?" [3]

"Let me ... OK. We created. Yes. Very smart. We did. Everything was created by us working in our laboratories," Gallo defended sarcastically. "Look, just for those with some remote ... some little bit of understanding of this; who care about this, ahh ... kind of idea. I've never ... I, I've ... I mean [I've] had a lot of things said, but never had anything quite like that one.

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THE MYSTERIOUS ORIGIN OF HIV: REVIEWING THE NATURAL, IATROGENIC, AND GENOCIDAL THEORIES OF AIDS

Horowitz, Leonard G, * Strecker R, Cantwell A, Vid D, and Grossman G.

Tetrahedron, Inc., a nonprofit educational corporation, Rockport, MA 01966, U.S.A

Issue: Two-thirds of African Americans recently surveyed believe the AIDS epidemic may be genocide. Such beliefs may impair health service utilization and preventive behaviors. Moreover, reconciling the origin of HIV is additionally important for I) sociological reasons -- victims of AIDS should not be blamed for starting the epidemic, 2) scientific reasons-new therapies might be developed from a better understanding of HIV's origin; and 3) ethical reasons-the events precipitating the epidemic should never be allowed to happen again.

Project: In an effort to shed light on this most mysterious and controversial subject, a review of the literature was initiated to determine the most plausible origin of HIV-1. During a two year period, more than 2,500 documents were collected and critically analyzed. This analysis included all natural, iatrogenic, and genocidal theories of AIDS's origin as previously presented in the scientific literature and lay media.

Results: The lay media appears to be an important factor in the development of beliefs regarding the origin of AIDS. Numerous publications and broadcasts on this subject were found, most advancing the natural -- African green monkey -- theory of AIDS's' origin. The scientific literature, however, provided no direct evidence for HIV's natural evolution from monkey to man, only circumstantial evidence. Alternatively, a growing body of evidence in the scientific literature suggested an iatrogenic origin of AIDS. Specifically, the possibility that HIV -I and HIV -2 evolved during early laboratory investigations and vaccine trials is of growing interest. Evidence supporting the genocidal theory of AIDS which appeared in numerous lay publications, and rarely, in esteemed periodicals, was clearly circumstantial, albeit disconcerting.

Lessons Learned: The speculation that HIV naturally evolved to be horizontally transmitted from the African green monkey to man must be seriously questioned. Alternatively, more consideration should be given to a growing body of scientific evidence supporting an iatrogenic origin. Moreover, the genocidal theory of AIDS could not be ruled out.

The above abstract appeared in the scientific proceedings book as abstract # 03678 presented on July 10, 1996 during the social sciences session of the conference. The paper was defended by lead author Dr. Leonard G. Horowitz. The American news media failed to cover the presentation despite multiple invitations.


"There were people who thought and made postulations that ... It was not actually directed at me. This is a good one; a new one. But that HIV could have been created in laboratory experiments. The two answers to that, that are definitive, conclusive, [are] that no scientist could have deliberately created them unless he was a super genius and ten years ahead of his time. The AIDS virus definitively existed long before molecular cloning. That's point one. Point two [is] we know the full sequence of the genome of HIV. It was published by our lab in 1985 with comparisons done around the same time. The genome has no homology to any known existing virus in the world except SIV discovered after it. It has nothing to do with cats. It has nothing to do with chicken sarcoma viruses. SV40 is a DNA virus that comes from little animals that can transform cells in culture," Gallo continued condescendingly, "it has no sequences in HIV. Further, we never worked with SV40 with those viruses together, and if we did the whole thing would be irrelevant. And I think you need to begin with biology 101 highschool [level]. Okay?"

The forum ended and Gallo rushed off guarded by James Jennings, Executive Director for one of the largest public relations firms in the world -- Hill and Knowlton of Washington, D.C. -- the publicists employed by the Bush administration to incite public outrage against Saddam Hussein in support of America's entrance into the Gulf War. [4]

Later, someone handed Gallo a marketing flier describing this book with Dr. John Martin's name appearing on the cover. Dr. Martin was well known to Gallo. Not only was Martin recognized as one of the world's leading authorities in vaccine contamination analysis, but he had rented a room in Gallo's house while living on the East Coast. Moreover, only weeks earlier, Gallo had visited Martin at his University of California laboratory to learn what breakthroughs Martin and coinvestigator Zaki Salahuddin, who had previously worked for Gallo, were exploring.

Then another notable drew Gallo's attention -- Dr. Garth Nicolson, who was, at the time, Gallo's counterpart at MD Anderson Cancer Research Center.5 Both had been affiliated with Fort Detrick researchers during the "Special Virus Cancer Program," and Gallo knew Nicolson's credentials were impeccable. Dr. Nicolson's testimonial on the back of the flier (and book) raised Gallo's ire. So days later Gallo telephoned Nicolson for an explanation as to why such an esteemed scientist would hail the work of "an obvious loon."

"Bob. First of all he's no loon," Nicolson replied. "He's a Harvard grad. Second of all, have you read his book?"

"No," Gallo admitted.

"Bob, you'd better read his book.... Here's his number .... "

Minutes later my telephone rang. "This is 'Gallo,''' he announced. Indeed, I was surprised and puzzled why the world's leading AIDS researcher would contact someone who obviously needed highschool level biology training.

Gallo immediately apologized for slighting me publicly. He defended that he did initially believe that I was looney, but that Garth had straightened him out on the matter. He allegedly called to offer his support for my investigation into the facts surrounding the origin of AIDS. He stated that he too was a "humanitarian." He had very little to do with Litton Bionetics researchers. (See their contract on page 427.) He said their association was only a way to financially "grow my lab." He confessed virtually no association with Fort Detrick biological weapons testers.

Expecting the conversation to continue for awhile, with tape recorder readied by my phone, I asked, "Dr. Gallo, do you mind if I record this conversation?"

"For what purpose?" he asked.

"Why for publication purposes of course. I now find myself in the role of an investigative reporter."

He thought it over for a moment and then replied, "All right."

The recording began and lasted about a half hour. On tape Gallo expressed no regrets or concerns over the possibility of having contributed to the biological weapons (BW) race, or to the development of my. In fact, regarding the BW issue, Gallo stated, "I certainly believe that we, America, needed research on germ warfare because we know today, for example, ahh, direct conversations with people in the former Soviet Union; that there was a rather massive undertaking in potential germ warfare. So at minimum we needed it for defense purposes. That would be my philosophy, of course .... I mean rationally."

Additionally, he articulated four objections to my thesis that HIV might have evolved from laboratory experiments in which various animal cancer viruses were recombined with monkey viruses. 1 listened intently recognizing the fact that I needed to hear and study these objections carefully if I were to respectably provide a scientific defense.

Objections to the Man-made Theory

Gallo's main objections were as follows:

First, he claimed that viruses such as monkey, cat, chicken, cattle, and sheep, could not be recombined. They "lack the homology" or likeness, he claimed, needed for recombination.

"Regarding experiments that might have created the AIDS virus," he said, "why I thought you were joking, you see, or just, you know, playing around, is that when you said cat ... or chicken sarcoma virus, cat leukemia virus, and SV40, first, ... it is impossible for them to recombine. There has to be regions of homology for any genome to recombine. It is an impossibility to have recombination occur in the absence of homology. Those three viruses you mention have no homology, one to another. They cannot recombine."

In other words, these viruses, he said, were so different that they could not be brought together by laboratory experiments into forming new virus species. This argument I knew was false as I held documented evidence that not only had investigators under Gallo's supervision done this type of work, but that Gallo's mentors instructed him that it could and was being done.

Second, Gallo claimed that even if such animal cancer viruses had recombined, they bear no similarity (or "homology" once again) to the HIVs. "Therefore, none of them could contribute to any part of HIV," he continued, "That's why, for somebody who understands things, what you said was funny. I thought it was a joke."

It is no joke, and few others laughed. Several authorities had counseled me as to certain genetic similarities between the "type-C" animal cancer viruses, Gallo and others experimented on, and the human AIDS virus. Moreover, I had recently returned from a Florida university research lab6 wherein the homology between common oral polio vaccine viral contaminants and HIV-1 had been studied. Some of the matches were as high as forty percent. That is, extremely high homology.

Third, Gallo claimed the technology did not exist to create HIV-I, at that time, in one of their labs. He stated specifically that "the sophisticated molecular genetics biotechnology needed to construct the AIDS virus, gene by gene," did not exist in any lab before 1975. Though this was true, I knew that Alexander Graham Bell did not need fiber optics to make his first telephone call. I held government documents that proved that crude and sloppy laboratory techniques were being used by Gallo's understudies during the late 1960s and early 1970s to accomplish immune-system-ravaging/cancer virus recombination.

In fact, Gallo's allegation that bioweapons developers did not have the wherewithal to develop HIV, or perform genetic engineering on viruses until the late 1970s or early 1980s is unequivocally false and misleading. Here is more evidence directly from Biological and Toxin Weapons Today (Oxford University Press, 1986) by Erhard Geissler with contributions by David Baltimore and Raymond Zilinskas:

The full promise of biotechnology did not become apparent and seize the imagination of people everywhere until the first of the revolutionary genetic engineering techniques, recombinant DNA, was developed in the early 1970s. Previous to this, the improvement of genetic characteristics of microorganisms was laborious and time-consuming since it depended on random mutation, screening and selection -- a hit or miss strategy with a moderate probability of successfully manipulating cells for planned ends. Recombinant DNA, however, allows researchers to manipulate directly the genetic material of cells in a purposeful manner to achieve predetermined goals. Genetic engineering received another boost in 1975 when scientists were able to fuse a cell.... [7]


David Baltimore, it should be noted, during the late 1960s, had undoubtedly led members of the National Academy of Sciences, National Research Counsel, in their offer to help the Department of Defense spend the $10 million appropriated for the development of immune-system-ravaging viruses for germ warfare.

These authors went on to report that "although HTLV-III [Gallo's name for HIV] is not considered as a potential BW agent, studies of AIDS and of its causative agent may nevertheless be interesting for designers of BW agents. AIDS induces many severe psychological reactions, especially among the major risk group, and production of 'desired psychological effects' is one of the additional characteristics of potential BW agents, as characterized by the US Army. Therefore, an agent like HTLV-III might be considered an ideal BW agent by terrorists .... " [7]

Also, regarding the Marburg and Ebola viruses, Lassa fever, and Legionnaire's disease, the authors reported that these agents "have been regarded by US Army scientists as among those 'putative BW agents having the highest liability for operational use.''' However, they continued, biohazard and containment technologies improved during the mid- 1970s and 1980s so that the risk of studying, and mass producing, these potentially useful biological weapons was greatly reduced. They acknowledged:

... the possibility offered by genetic engineering of replicating nucleic acids (including viral genomes in bacterial host cells) greatly reduces the need for safety requirements to work with these viruses. The genome of Lassa virus has already been studied [in 1983-84] by physical mapping (oligonucleotide fingerprinting) and its N gene segment has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Obviously, the new techniques make it feasible to develop such viruses into BW agents which can be manufactured on a larger scale. [7]


Indeed, biological weapons investigators were hard at work, from the 1960s to the present, developing and testing viruses, including AIDS and Ebola, for military operations and even "psychological warfare." Dr. Gallo would have certainly suspected this and known that biological weapons developers were five to ten years more advanced than commercial labs.

Finally, Gallo argued that "monkeys are infected with viruses .... We know [HIV] came from monkeys. No rational informed person could argue otherwise." I knew this was scientifically unconfirmed. In fact, when Cape Cod producer Mike Carrie, of WXTK's "Gino Montesi Show," later asked the director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Dr. David Satcher, to comment on my thesis following Gallo's refusal to do so, CDC communications officer Tammy Nunnally faxed Mike the following statement:

"Scientists are not certain how, when, or where the AIDS virus evolved and first infected humans. HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, is not a manmade virus and did not originate in laboratories in this country or other countries. It is a human virus that evolved naturally over time, as other viruses have. Attached is a cite from the World Book Encyclopedia which was written by one of our experts .... "

The citation added that, "Researchers have shown that HIV-l and HIV- 2 are more closely related to simian immunodeficiency viruses, which infect monkeys, than to each other. Thus, it has been suggested that HIV evolved from viruses that originally infected monkeys in Africa and was somehow transmitted to people. One argument against this theory is that HIV has only been found in human beings. It never has been isolated from any wild monkey or other animal species." [8]

Though Gallo admitted that the "missing link" between the SIVs and the HIVs was perplexing, the cat, chicken. monkey, or cow virus recombination theories, he reiterated, was "altogether an impossibility. I would tell you if something [like that went wrong). I can think of more rational and possible things that could have happened by accident at that period of time, but that's really the wrong tree."

I balked at hearing the world's leading retrovirologist intimate he might provide a more plausible accidental theory on the origin of AIDS.

So I pressed him for more information on the plausibility of my general thesis by asking, "So there's absolutely no possibility that these types of experiments, not necessarily in your lab, presented building blocks where hybrids were being created [that might have given rise to the HIVs]?"

Surprisingly, Gallo replied, "No. I can not say no to you. I don't say no to you. I said that we don't have any virus, that we know of, that has homology to HIV-l, to say this became HIV-l, except for the monkey virus SIV, or the human [virus] HIV-2, which is essentially exactly the same as the strain of SIV. We just don't have any virus that has those sequences in it.

Fig. 26.2. Letter to Dr. Gallo From Dr. Horowitz Addressing Gallo's Objections to the Man-made Theory of AIDS's Origin

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October 28, 1996

Dr. Robert C. Gallo
Director, Institute for Human Virology
725 West Lombard Street
Baltimore, MD 21201

Dear Bob:

Thank you very much for the interview you gave me on July 30, 1996. 1 found the discussion very interesting, and am responding herein.

First, I greatly appreciate your offer to help in determining the origin of human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs). I understand that you must, however, limit your views partly for political expediency, and partly due to lack of any definitive knowledge.

In any case, my responses to your four specific objections to my thesis -- that HIV-1, or its progenitors, could have evolved from laboratory experiments and subsequent human vaccine contaminations (i.e., hepatitis B and polio) with simian and type-C cancer viruses routinely studied and recombined during the "Special Virus Cancer Program" -- are as follows:

Objection #1 -- The viruses discussed lack the "homology" needed to recombine.

I will grant you that some degree of homology is needed for recombination, and the more homology the more recombination. However, neither the whole genome needs to be homologous nor is there a requirement that the homologous regions be contiguous. Small stretches of even a few base pairs are all that is needed for recombination of type-C cancer viruses-the focus of substantial "Special Virus Cancer Program" research. HIV has been shown to evolve through type-C like morphogenesis. (Salakian, P et al. J Virology 70:3706-3715)

Moreover, random natural recombination is not the only issue. You may recall, given your first hand knowledge of bench level virology during the late 19605 and early 1970s, that people who were really up on molecular virology at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) including the late Dr. George Khoury, Ed Scolnic, and others, recombined such viruses in their labs. Documents show many government and industry researchers, known or unknown to you, were heavily involved in genetic engineering, in this time frame, preceding the discovery of HIV.

Additionally, some restriction enzymes were available before the discovery of HIV-1. Several enzymes were even publicly available to do gene cutting and pasting.

If you insist on homology of genomic organization, or nucleotide sequences, let me point out that the world of virology has known the lentiviruses for a long time. What about the bovine immunodeficiency virus? I do not need to tell you that there are a lot of organizational similarities between HIV and BIV

You mentioned Ray Gilden during our interview. I am currently preparing a paper that discusses Gilden's warning in this regard. Following lengthy trials, concerning the homology of C-type cancer viruses, and the RD 114 cat/human viral recombinant, Gilden stated: "[A] new virus with no growth restrictions may be accidentally introduced in a new species, perhaps by vaccine, and these become epigenetic as opposed to a rarely seen endogenous virus. Possibilities of recombinants are thus raised. ., which could have an extended or newly acquired oncogenic potential." Gilden's warning obviously foreshadowed the AIDS pandemic. (See: Viruses, Evolution, and Cancer: Basic Considerations-International Conference of Comparative Virology, 2nd, Mont Gabriel, Can., 1973. New York: Academic Press, 1974, pp. 235-256.)

Regarding the little genetic similarity between the viruses used in your and Litton Bionetics's labs and HIV-I, this does not negate the probability that the SIVs and HIVs evolved from recombinant viral research. Having studied SV4O, you may recall how this and another very dissimilar virus -- the human adenovirus -- were found to combine, creating a potentially deadly mutant-the ad-SV40 hybrid. In 1973, Andrew Lewis, at the NIAID (see: Biohazards in Biological Research, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1973, pp. 96- 113) showed that following unexpected and unexplained recombination of these grossly different viruses, hybrids emerged that contained as little as 6% of the original SV40 genome.

Thus, few viral sequences resembling those of C-type cancer viruses may appear in HIV. yet this does not negate the possibility that some segments of the SIVs and HIVs may have come from NCI laboratory specimens.

Furthermore, molecular virology entails a lot more than homologous recombination. One could practically construct new viruses residue by residue using the general pattern of established viruses viz, the LTR. gag, pol, env and all the interesting genes sprinkled in. Though building and then testing the stability and function of new constructs is a painstaking and time consuming process, documented evidence shows this is precisely what was done during the 1960s and early 1970s by biological weapons contractors (see: Geissler E. Biological and Toxin Weapons Today, London: Oxford University Press, 1986 with contributions by David Baltimore and Raymond Zilinskas).

Additionally significant and suspicious is that HIV does not fit the mold for naturally evolved viruses. There is a lone~40 percent homologous virus -- HIV-2 -- which may or may not have been a progenitor of HIV-I, and it may not have originated in monkeys. HIV-2 is definitely not endogenous to any of the species from which it has been isolated. The word "endogenous" is meant here in the classical sense. Which came first? The fact that we now find them in several monkeys and a group of individuals in one region of Africa (i.e., "high risk" Senegalese female prostitutes who, due to their "risk," and participation in public health/research programs. likely received the most suspected hepatitis B vaccine) makes one very suspicious. This is like the simian sarcoma virus complex (SSV, SSav and SiSV) which does not have any comparable viruses in the animal kingdom. There has not been a second isolation of that virus (HIV-2) yet.

Where did HIV-2 and other SIVs come from? The world of virology is still waiting for that answer. Max Essex informed me his isolation came from monkeys infected with human tissues during laboratory experiments. My theory of sloppy science (e.g., contaminated vaccines for HIV- I and HIV- 2, and contaminated monkeys being released back into the wild for the other SIVs) best explains the circumstantial and scientific evidence at hand. Do you have any better explanations? You indicated that you were able to provide a more "plausible" iatrogenic theory on the origin of AIDS but time did not permit you to explain. I await any additional insights you may be able to share.

Objection #2 -- Regarding the viruses I discussed as having been recombined by your colleagues at the NCI and Litton Bionetics, "not anyone of them have any homology to what is HIV Therefore. none of them could contribute to any part of HIV."

It is a matter of public record that once you firmly believed HIV was closely related to HTLV-1 and HTLV-II. Hence the name HTLV-III. As a matter of fact there was a publication in Science (see: Homology of AIDS-associated virus with genomes of human T-cell leukemia viruses, Arya SK. et al. Science 1984; 225:927-930) showing molecular similarity. Did you ever withdraw that paper?

I agree that since there are no known viruses in the evolutionary scheme that look very similar to HIVs, HIV must be considered unique by design. However, you know that HIV is not totally unique. In very general terms, HIV is similar to both type C and type D viruses along with the inclusion of regulatory genes typical of lentiviruses.

Again, you may recall Ray Gilden's instruction on this subject in the "Comparison and Evolution of RNA Tumor Virus Components" (In: Viruses. Evolution, and Cancer: Basic Considerations -- International Conference of Comparative Virology, 2nd, Mont Gabriel, Can., 1973. New York: Academic Press, 1974, pp. 235-256.):

"The relationship of viruses such as Visna, Mason-Phizer, and mouse MTV (mammary tumor virus) to type C particles cannot be assessed in quantitative terms, yet the presence of reverse transcriptase and approximate morphologic similarity of virions present a strong case for common ancestry however remote . . . .We should stress here that groupings such as "type C" are man-made abstractions, and arguments of differences are only indicators of variability that are difficult for men to accommodate in simple classification schemes. . Once the ability to make comparisons is granted. a second major problem of critical significance to any attempt to discuss evolutionary relationships arises. Simply stated this is, how do we know that the viruses chosen for analysis are representative of the species from which they were isolated?" [emphasis added]


Though Gilden's conclusions were drawn long before the arrival of sophisticated DNA sequencing techniques, his point is still valid and particularly applicable to the question here: Did HIV evolve from laboratory experiments in which chance or intentional encounters occurred between different viruses of foreign species? The answer, as your comments suggest, is very plausibly "yes," despite the fact we may be unaware of the largest contributing virus(es).

Having studied SV40, you may again recall Andrew Lewis's conclusions at the NIAID (see: Biohazards in Biological Research, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1973, pp. 96- 113.) Regarding the ad-SV40 hybrids, "Until satisfactory studies evaluate the long-term effects of SV40 infection in humans and clarify the relationship between SV40 and SV40-related agents to chronic degenerative central nervous system disease in humans, it appears to this reviewer that the laboratory manipulation of SV40 involves some risks."

Likewise, reflecting on your work with human white blood cells and type-C cancer viruses George Todaro (and Gallo), concluded:

"Because viruses can alter their host range either by adaptation or selection, these human hybrid cells would appear to constitute a potential biohazard since, in this situation, one has an endogenous virus of a species being produced by cells which, at least in part, are human. These hybrid cells are being extensively explored by geneticists allover the world who do not realize that they contain high titers of potentially oncogenic [cancer causing] viruses ... What is not clear is the nature of the relationship between the acquisition of oncogenic potential by a cell and the expression of that cell's endogenous type C viral information. Type C viruses carry oncogenic information and can produce tumors (leukemias, lymphomas and sarcomas) by exogenous infection; whether horizontal spread (cell to cell and/or animal to animal) of exogenous type C virus is responsible for a significant portion of naturally occurring cancers in vertebrates is uncertain; that they can have oncogenic potential and can produce tumors in a variety of species is firmly established. It follows, then, that these viruses and the cells that produce them must be treated as potentially hazardous agents."


This is why I asked you in Vancouver whether you remain concerned that your early research with colleagues at Litton Bionetics might have given rise to AIDS virus progenitors.

A final point deserves mention here. HIV and other newly discovered viruses are still trying to stabilize themselves in their respective hosts. A similar situation was described by Todaro regarding "the feline leukemia and sarcoma viruses [that] might be derived from other species." (See Todaro's work "Endogenous type-C viruses in cell cultures. In: Biohazards ill Biological Research. A Hellman, MN Oxman and R Pollack Eds. New York: CSHL, 1973, pp. 114-130.) Todaro, who cited additional examples of cross species laboratory transfers, noted that since these viruses grow so readily in cat cells, and spreads so "readily through the population, producing a high level of diseases, [their presence] represents an apparently unnatural situation among mammalian species." Likewise, Gerald Myers at Los Alamos recently shared with my colleague, author Ed Haslam, that HIV mutates faster than anything he has ever studied. In this manner, HIV stretches the bounds of nature. This, coupled with the fact that no close ancestors exist strongly suggests HIV is not natural but man-made.

Hopefully these extremely variable genomes may finally select a few stable versions, and like influenza, may settle down to be mildly harmful to its present hosts to mutual advantage.

In conclusion, in the absence of orderly evolution, uniquely high mutational tendencies, and its timely appearance the decade following recombinant biotechnology initiation, HIV was very possibly designed and put together along the lines of several well known agents with very adverse functional properties/consequences post infection in their present hosts.

Objection #3 -- "Obviously, you didn't say it was done intentionally, but just in case anybody ever said, it was impossible to do intentionally, because the viruses existed in human beings at least since the 19605; and molecular techniques for gene cloning, doing these things in a laboratory, didn't evolve until the late '70s and early 1980s. So it's off by almost twenty years."

The earliest confirmed isolates of HIV go back only to 1976 (Myers and Pavlakis. The Retroviridae. New York: Plenum press. 1992, pg. 59). Regarding the reports claiming the earlier existence of HIV, I can only say-"What won't people do to get published?"

Recombinant DNA technology was beginning to unfold, even in the public domain, by the early 1970s. You even reported a cellular cloning operation involving SV40 in a 1972 publication (Gallagher R, Ting R, and Gallo, RC. Biochemica el Biophysica Acta 1972:272:570). Definitive experiments in phages and molecular biology using DNA manipulation goes back to 1952 (see: Phage and the origin of Molecular Biology, Eds. Cairas J, Stent GS, and Watson JD. Cold Springs Harbor Press, 1972).

Please allow me to refresh your memory that a 1969 Congressional Record cites Litton Bionetics as sixth largest U.S. Army biological weapons contractor. This is exactly the time when members of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council (NAS-NRC) informed U.S. Department of Defense officials of their ability to produce, through genetic engineering, a "new infective microorganism" that may ravage the human immune system, and leave people susceptible to infectious diseases and cancers. Obviously then, by 1968, shortly after you began work at the NCI, the NAS-NRC was aware of genetic engineering capabilities, and offered to help develop "synthetic biological agents" for germ warfare. (See Emerging Viruses: AIDS & Ebola, pp. 6-7)

Objection #4 -- "Monkeys are infected with viruses.... We know [HIV] came from monkeys. No rational informed person could argue otherwise."

The later is not true. I, like other researchers including Todaro (re: feline leukemia virus), Gerald Myers, and George Pavlakis, can argue otherwise.

Myers and Pavlakis, in "Evolutionary Potential of Complex Retroviruses (In: The Retroviridae, op cit.)" were unconvinced HIV evolved from either monkeys left alone in the wild or from monkeys at all' This was made clear when the authors discussed only the "possible simian origin of HIV" And though evidence, they said, was mounting HIV evolved from monkey virus relatives, they entertained the possibility ancestral viruses may have formed during the 19505 "as part of malaria experiments." (See page 59.)

I agree that HIV appears to have evolved substantially from monkeys and/or monkey virus parts. But as these scientists, as well as Ray Gilden (see Gilden, op cit.) indicated, we can't be sure. My investigation confirms that much was done to monkeys and monkey viruses that might have contributed to HIV's development.

Whereas 1accept that SIV from the chimpanzee is the closest relative to HIV·I, and that HIV-2 is much like SIV present in wild sooty mangabeys, these viruses are all relatively recent isolates, and may themselves have evolved from laboratory experiments conducted during the 19505, I960s, or perhaps early 1970s when immune deficiency studies in New York City and Central Africa were in vogue.

Additional support for this iatrogenic theory comes from a series of letters/articles in the February 1988 issue of Nature wherein Essex and Kanki raised the "obvious possibility" that macaques "hecame infected with SIV from another primate species in captivity." Yet, Kestler, et al. concluded SIVmac, the laboratory contaminant identical to HIV·2, did not likely evolve from SIVagm or SIVmangabey. So if not from these primates, then where did SIVmac(HIV-2) come from?

"I am aware ... of at least five instances in other laboratories in the United States and Europe where noninfected cell cultures became infected with HIV-I in the same containment hood," wrote Carel Mulder in Nature. Thus, it remains highly plausible the original SIV evolved from laboratory outbreaks of HIV-1, or some related virus, carried by monkeys or vaccines into the wild. As John Martin reminded us in the foreword to Emerging Viruses: AIDS & Ebola, it was not uncommon to have experimental animals, particularly ailing ones, released back into the wild.

So, how did the infectious agent HIV enter humans around 1970? Well, documents show that in the late I960s, and early 19705, hepatitis B vaccine efforts concentrated in New York City and Central Africa. The virus was pooled from live, heavily infected, chimpanzees, Rhesus monkeys, and humans. Serum for the vaccine lots, containing 200,000 human doses, was obtained from the humans who received these viruses and, most assuredly, simian virus recombinants as well. By the way, these humans had received the earliest polio vaccines containing SV40, simian foamy retroviruses, and more. The primate resource for this effort was, as you mentioned, Litton Bionetics vis the U.S. Army.

In conclusion, I greatly appreciate this dialogue with you on a subject that has been kept in the closet for a variety of understandable reasons. Since I have your permission, I will incorporate your response in future work, and look forward to expanding common ground and reaching a scientific consensus regarding the origin of AIDS.

Yours in the Spirit of health,
Leonard G. Horowltz, D.M.D., M.A., M.P.H.





Now if you then say to me, 'Could it be an unidentified virus that mixed 'A' with 'B' with 'C', then I would say, 'Yeah that's possible .... "

Further, Gallo stated my thesis was "not impossible. I can't even say it's improbable, that some viruses mixed could contribute to HIV. Because I told you that the closest we have to it is the chimp virus and HIV-2. The chimp virus is the closest we have to HIV-l, but there's something missing. That is, the chimp virus is about fifty/forty percent the same as HIV-l. We would have said it came from chimps into man, but we can't, because the virus in man is too different. We don't know where the rest came from."

"Okay," I interrupted, "I've got something for you. Did you know that in the 1974 subtype hepatitis B vaccine [trials], the viruses were prepared, were grown, in chimps?"

"No," he replied, "I did not know that."

"Don't you find that extraordinary?"

"Ahh. I did, I ... I find it interesting. I don't find it extraordinary that they would grow in chimps. I mean people do grow things in monkeys. I did not know that, and that's interesting."

"And that's the subtypes," I offered, "that were used on Willowbrook State School mentally retarded children, and apparently [gay men and Blacks in Central Africa] .... "

"Ahh. Can I. . ." Gallo interrupted, "these are things, Leonard, I would never comment on, especially with a recorder, because I just don't know. I don't know the significance of that."

"I appreciate that. And your political position I can appreciate that [too]."

"Well, you know anything that I say, it's going to be in the newspapers."

"Right. And I don't want to put you in that position," unless I have to, I thought.

"No. I do want a discussion that's, ahh, honest, open, and frank. Ahh. But if I get into that, God knows how anybody could use it. ..."

Our conversation ended shortly thereafter and, as agreed, I sent Gallo a copy of Emerging Viruses: AIDS & Ebola, along with an invitation to contribute any changes he felt were needed to improve the quality and accuracy of this work.

After transcribing his interview, and filing copies safely away with attorneys and colleagues, I ventured back to Harvard's Countway library to investigate Gallo's claims.

First, I was struck by the fact that he had attended the Gustav Stem Foundation virology symposium wherein Robert Purcell described his use of chimpanzees for pooling, that is growing, the hepatitis B viruses needed for the 1974 experiments that most plausibly brought AIDS to the world. Could Gallo's memory have conveniently lapsed, had he honestly forgotten, or had he simply been in the pissoir when Purcell presented this information?

Gallo's specific objections to my thesis were all unreasonable. As documented in a letter I subsequently sent to him (see figure 26.2), and a manuscript I prepared for scientific publication, all of his points were seriously weakened by the scientific facts.

Though my letter requested a response from him, four months later he still had not called or written. So I called him.

He took my call immediately, and with obvious jubilation he reported, "Have you heard the good news?"

"No. What's that?"

"You know the guy you implicate in your book? Maurice Hilleman?"

"Yes."

"President Clinton has announced he'll soon be awarding Hilleman a Presidential Medal of Honor for his service to American medicine and the military. What d'ya think of that?"

''I'm certain he'll be thrilled," I replied.

Not wanting to dwell on the "good news," I continued, "Bob, are you planning to respond to my letter of October 28, 1996, wherein I had requested some additional information?"

"You know, I do recall you sent me a letter, and that it contained some questions. I seem to have misplaced it."

"Would you like me to fax you a copy and then get back to me?"

"Yes. Please do."

"All right. I'll fax it at once."

That was on March 2, 1997. The transmittal was followed by a post script that said, "P.S. I have been asked to consent to debate the issues with you by several members of the media, including Michael Savage at KSFO in San Francisco, and Jane Freeman at Blackwell Television Corp. in Arlington, VA. I consented. If you are unwilling to do so, kindly specify your concerns so that when future requests of this nature are made, I can inform those requesting the interchange of your exact reason(s) for declining."

The answer came two days later from Mike Carrie who persisted in trying to schedule a debate.

"Gallo told his secretary to inform me," Mike said, "that he wouldn't dignify your comments with a response."

We both laughed, and that was our last attempt to gain a public discussion with Gallo that was, "ahh, honest, open, and frank."
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Re: EMERGING VIRUSES: AIDS & EBOLA: Nature, Accident or Inte

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Part 2 of 2

Fulfilling a Prophecy

Late at night, on Friday, November 23, 1996, in Phoenix, Arizona, a middle-aged man named Jabril Muhammad slept soundly. The tall, good looking, articulate, man, of deep spiritual conviction, had retired earlier than usual that evening. Exhausted by the day's customary duties, this spiritual advisor to the highest leader of the Nation of Islam, Minister Louis Farrakhan, had the added burden of making several hospital visits that day to an ailing family member. Jabril was now recharging for what he hoped would be a more relaxed and focused weekend.

Suddenly, from the depths of his subconscious, a voice inside him shouted, "Jabril, wake up! Wake up and turn your radio on!"

"What?"

"Get up and turn on your radio," the inner messenger commanded.

Jabril complied instantly. He sat up, stripped the bedcovers from his chest, turned on his night light, and reached for the alarm radio on his night-table. He groped clumsily for the "on" switch, found it, and pushed it forward. An instant later the voice of Art Bell -- latenight's leading radio talk show host filled Jabril's room.

"I'm interviewing Dr. Len Horowitz, the author of the book Emerging Viruses: AIDS & Ebola -- Nature, Accident or Intentional?," Mr. Bell told his audience. For the next hour Jabril listened intently as I explained the work of Robert Gallo and Bionetics researchers, described the vaccines that most plausibly brought AIDS to the world, and implicated the Rockefeller-led military-medical-industrial complex whose plan for a New World Order called for massive depopulation at home and abroad. The spiritual advisor sat stunned.

In his transfixed state, Jabril could only listen. Writing down the book order line that the host liberally announced, along with my web site, and Email address, never entered Jabril's mind until the show ended. All at once, it seemed, his trance broke and he realized what had happened.

He reflected on the great prophecies of the Honorable Elijah Muhammad, the son of the Nation of Islam's Messiah, Master Fard Muhammad, responsible for bringing the Muslim faith to America for the liberation of enslaved Africans. The Honorable Elijah Muhammad was Jabril's teacher and Jabril was his favorite student. Elijah Muhammad dutifully prepared Jabril for his lifetime of human service. His instructions included ways of surviving the great tribulations he foresaw.

"Someday," the great prophet told Jabril, "a White man will come and explain why so many of our people are dying from plagues. When this man comes, reach out to him. Befriend him."

The next day Jabril phoned around feverishly to get a copy of this book. He called a dozen friends and bookstores countrywide but to no avail. Sunday passed likewise. Jabril retired Sunday night frustrated and disappointed. Not knowing where to turn next, he resigned his quest to a bedtime prayer.

"Jabril, wake up!"

The inner voice had returned. In fact, it was the same dream. "Wake up and turn your radio on!" the guide commanded.

Jabril was now familiar with the process. The outcome was identical.

Sunday night Art Bell always chose to rerun his best show of the week. He replayed our interview, and Jabril got my number.

The next morning my telephone rang. "Hello, my name is Jabril Muhammad," he announced. "I'm the spiritual advisor to Minister Louis Farrakhan. I heard you this weekend on the 'Art Bell Show.'''

Jabril then relayed to me the entire story described above. He ended by saying, "Minister Farrakhan would like to meet with you. Would you be willing to come to Chicago?"

Two days later I was honored to spend the evening with Minister Louis Farrakhan at his home in Chicago. The Nation of Islam's Health Minister, Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad, from Washington, D.C., and Minister Farrakhan's AIDS czar, Dr. Barbara Justice Muhammad, from New York City, were also asked to attend and presented at the last minute.

The evening, and dinner, began with prayers and lessons for us from Minister Farrakhan. Acknowledging the unique assembly of a White Jewish man, with Christian beliefs, and Black brothers and sisters of the Muslim faith, we discussed the fears and concerns of people divided by the religious politics of a world gone mad.

Sure Jewish and Christian friends had advised me against accepting the risks of Minister Farrakhan's invitation. Forming an alliance with the leaders of The Nation of Islam for any reason seemed traitorous. The stereotyped Muslim is believed by the vast majority of Jews and Christians to be antisemitic and sexist. Likewise, Nation of Islam followers commonly view White Jews and Christians as racist and threatening.

Knowing, however, how the media, and the forces that wield it, are capable of distorting reality to divide and conquer, I remained open. I had also been primed for this meeting.

Months earlier I had witnessed a horrifying act of deception and treachery perpetrated by the major television networks against Louis Farrakhan and The Nation of Islam. During coverage of the "Million Man March" I noted a peculiar similarity in network coverage of the event. All networks portrayed the historic day of atonement, peacefully focused by the minister onto the fundamental need for building self-esteem, and spiritual devotion to God and family, as his ego trip.

"This march is about me," three of the four major networks broadcast Louis Farrakhan telling the masses with arms flailing. Reporters noted that the minister's speech lasted three-plus hours. What struck me odd was that all the networks, allegedly independent news sources, broadcast the same seconds of clip. How could this be? Only later, as I watched the entire speech on C-SPAN, did I realize the ruse.

What Minister Farrakhan had actually said was, "And they want you to believe that this march is about me." The networks had purposely clipped his statement mid-sentence. They effectively distorted his meaning. I felt betrayed. Though I knew news organizations were capable of doing that, and that they routinely distorted the facts, witnessing the harsh reality left me feeling violated and cold.

So tempering my anxiety about messianic Jew meeting Islamic leader, and warming to the genuineness of the man and his message as we sat around the dinner table, was not difficult.

Indeed, Minister Farrakhan immediately hit a heartstring when, after praying for holy guidance, and a constructive outcome to our divinely inspired meeting, Minister Farrakhan turned to me and said, "You know, there's a lot more to this project than you might think. This is more than just an investigation into AIDS and Ebola viruses. I believe your greatest work is yet to come, and that you have been protected by the Lord and his angels to do this great work which involves extraordinary healing. Bridging the gap between people who have been, for so long, struggling against each other rather than against a common enemy. I see your greatest work is yet to come." Intuitively I knew this too.

A Political Time-bomb

Minister Farrakhan, and the others in the room, listened as I described my research and summarized this book. At the end of the meeting, he instructed his health advisors, Drs. Alim and Justice Muhammad, to study the book, decide their next steps, and report back. Health minister Alim Muhammad immediately suggested organizing a symposium to study the topic. It was later arranged to coincide with the Nation of Islam's "Saviour's Day" Convention in Chicago. Minister Farrakhan suggested that I might be invited to speak during the health ministry's session of the conference.

Three months later, in Chicago, before a "Saviour's Day" crowd of almost a thousand, the Minister of Health announced his recommendation for a moratorium on U.S. Government promulgated vaccines. He had studied the book and found it compelling enough to issue this warning. In essence, he lit the fuse on a political time-bomb. The blast would be determined by three months of deliberations by an official task force assembled by the health minister and the legislative committee of the National Medical Association -- the American Black physician's counterpart to the American Medical Association. The task force proceedings were to be monitored, and resulting questions addressed, by top CDC and vaccine industry officials.

In fact, within days of Dr. Muhammad's controversial recommendation, CDC Director, David Satcher, M.D., Ph.D., a personal friend of the health minister, faxed Dr. Muhammad a letter expressing his views regarding my thesis on the man-made origin of HIV. He also voiced concern regarding the proposed moratorium on immunizations. In the letter Dr. Satcher invited Dr. Muhammad and I to "visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to discuss these and other public health issues of mutual interest." The letter's content is reprinted in its entirety in figure 26.3.

In reply to Dr. Satcher's communication, Dr. Muhammad asked me to respond to the CDC Director's comments. The terms of my acceptance of Dr. Satcher's invitation, and rebuttal to his message regarding the iatrogenic theory of AIDS's origin through contaminated vaccines, is reprinted in figure 26.4.

The Health Minister's Concerns

The health minister's recommended moratorium on immunizations had been carefully considered. Dr. Muhammad's decision was based on previous research into the man-made theory of AIDS's origin, evidence that the pharmaceutical industry and FDA cooperatively allowed contaminated vaccines to be released, and ongoing concerns that the AIDS epidemic may be a genocidal effort to reduce Black populations. In addition, Dr. Muhammad was clearly impressed by the "smoking guns" delivered in this book.

The following is an interview with Dr. Muhammad. I began by asking the health minister to articulate his greatest concerns regarding the theory of AIDS as biological genocide:

Dr. Muhammad: I think that it is widely believed in the Black community that genocide is a very likely possibility. This is not only based on historical records which extend all the way back to the time of Columbus, wherein historians record that in the Caribbean Sea, on all of the islands, the Indian populations totaled approximately 15 million. But in one short generation, after Columbus's arrival, that population had been reduced to about 1,500 presumably due to the spread of epidemic diseases such as smallpox and measles to which the Indians had no natural immunity.

The same kind of thing happened in Mexico and South America. In fact, wherever the European "discoverers" ventured. They found that, amazingly, people seemed to die at their feet.

We know that Western science, at that time, had not yet developed a germ theory, so they substituted other theories to explain what was going on. Presumably it was the divine destiny of the European people to rule.

Now ... in 1761 the British general Geoffrey Amhearst deliberately distributed smallpox infected blankets to some of the Indian tribes during the French- American War, and decimated entire villages and tribes. To my knowledge this was the first deliberate use of biological weapons even though, beginning with Columbus, that principle had been established as a way to depopulate and conquer territories so that they could be repopulated with another preferred group.

To bring this up to date, science today has reached a zenith. We live in a hightech age when yesterday's works of science fiction are today's realities.

So when we look at Henry Kissinger's 1974 report -- a study that was commissioned under Richard Nixon and completed during the Ford administration -- the National Security Memorandum 200, some important concerns come to light. ... One sees for the first time that Third World populations are specifically targeted by the United States as an enemy to the national security interests of America. [5]

It is not unimportant or coincidental, in my view, that starting in 1969, five years earlier, freshman Congressman George Bush from Texas, initiated a legislative investigating committee to look into the issue of planetary overpopulation.

So these forces were active at the time that people were being persuaded by propaganda to believe that population, in and of itself, was a problem. And that in the view of Henry Kissinger, the National Security Council, and the White House, it was their view that as a part of the national security interests, in order to safeguard America, you had to do something about population.

And in that National Security Memorandum 200, Kissinger goes on at length, not only detailing the populations that specifically he targeted, such as African nations, Black nations outside of Africa including Brazil, Iran, Iraq ... and others. All tolled I think there were thirteen. In fact, he detailed the kind of language that would have to be used in these programs to get around the political, cultural, and even religious objections that would be raised to population control efforts-whether it was through birth control programs or other means. So, many years ago, we became aware of all of these policy objectives. And I think the beauty of the book Emerging Viruses: AIDS & Ebola is that the documented proof was brought together in one place in a very powerful way."

Dr. Horowitz: That was my next question. What did you conclude after reading the book?

Dr. Muhammad: Well Dr. Justice and I were convinced in 1991, that AIDS could not be a naturally occurring virus .... From 1991 on, especially at important events like the Congressional Black Caucus weekends, where we were asked to present, we always raised the issue of genocide. And we called on Congressman Louis Stokes and others to convene investigatory hearings into the issue of whether or not AIDS was part of a genocidal policy of the United States government....

Now Emerging Viruses: AIDS & Ebola basically begins where our efforts left off. It begins with that portion of the Congressional Record ... dealing with the development of an artificial microorganism ... and lays out in very precise detail how that work proceeded. So that by the end of the book, whether or not these are artificially created microoganisms is no longer a matter of mere speculation and circumstantial evidence, but I think it is conclusively proven.

I'm not in the legal profession, but I know in law there is a concept of "probable cause." I think certainly, the book provides probable cause to believe that Henry Kissinger and others were involved in the deliberate development of infective microorganisms for the purpose of genocide in Central Africa and other parts of the world. I think that the evidence is strong enough that were it to be reviewed by the appropriate legal authorities that it would serve to produce several indictments of those individuals that are involved. And it certainly is my hope that's exactly where this will lead .... To the same kinds of trials that were held in Nuremburg, and bring the accused before a bar of justice. And then let all the evidence contained in the book be heard and judged on its own merit.

I think that it is more than likely that we are in the midst of the worst genocide that has ever been carried out in the history of the world. It makes what Hitler did in Germany pale by comparison. It makes what Stalin did, and what Mao may have done, and others also pale by comparison.

Dr. Horowitz: All right then, Dr. Muhammad, how has this new knowledge, in relation to past knowledge, influenced your position regarding vaccines, number one, and what measures or political actions do you plan to now take?

Dr. Muhammad: Well, as discussed in the book, the role that vaccines played in the development of these artificial microorganisms is central. In fact, without the cancer virus and vaccine experiments, the knowledge of these microorganisms wouldn't have been gained, the cataloging of them wouldn't have taken place, and the ideas of recombining them in certain ways to produce cancer-causing microorganisms wouldn't have taken place. And so the problem of either accidental or deliberate biocontaminations of vaccines is just brought clearly to one's attention.

Along side of that you have to pay attention to epidemiological studies that seem to suggest that HIV is not primarily a sexually transmitted disease ....

One has to ask the question, 'If sexual transmission is not the primary means, what has been the primary means?' And I think the great thesis of the book is that it was through vaccine trials that this country was probably responsible for inoculating millions of people with HIV and perhaps other disease causing microorganisms.

And so that means that the distrust that already exists, especially in the Black communities, and in other communities as well, over public health measures such as vaccinations, is bolstered and substantiated. In fact, we have every reason to fear that the vaccines, that we are using, could be inadvertently, or deliberately, contaminated with viruses that could be part of the biological armamentarium that had been developed for cancer research, biological warfare, or genocide.

So that forces us to the position of, at least, considering a moratorium on vaccines, and massive public education programs to inform people of this very real and probable risk. And it forces us to seek alternatives [to traditional public health practices] ....

The central points are clear .... There is, in the eyes of some, some potential public health risk in calling for a moratorium on vaccines. But our position really is that the policy of genocide is a real policy of the United States until proven and declared otherwise. And, therefore, the risk of that genocidal policy far outweighs any potential public health risk from a moratorium on vaccines.


Indeed, a basic tenant of prudent public health policy is that the benefits versus risks of that policy should be carefully weighed and prove positive. Regarding immunizations, the absence of such definitive analyses provides ample motive to pause and question both vaccination policy and its makers. By the CDC's own accounts more than 48,743 adverse vaccine reactions were reported between 1991 and 1996. During this time authorities acknowledged that more than 99 percent of the most severe cases were never reported. 10 Thus, annually, as many as 1 million Americans may have been harmed by vaccines, with, conservatively, tens of thousands seriously injured. In conclusion, the annual morbidity, if not mortality, from immunization practices in the United States approaches, and may even surpass, that of AIDS.

Fig.26.3.Letter to Nation of Islam Health Minister Alim Muhammad From CDC Director David Satcher Expressing His Views on the Man-made Theory of AIDS's Origin and Vaccine Moratorium Recommendations

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February 17, 1997

Dear Dr. Muhammad:

This letter is in response to our conversation of February 13, 1997, regarding the safety of immunizations. We appreciate the opportunity to share detailed information with you regarding our efforts to protect our Nation's children against vaccine-preventable diseases. I am interested in discussing the safety of childhood vaccines further with you and Dr. Leonard G. Horowitz and invite you to visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to discuss these and other public health issues of mutual interest.

Immunizations are among the most effective public health interventions in preventing illness and death throughout the world. Immunizations prevent an estimated 3 million deaths annually in children worldwide, and have resulted in more than 95 percent reduction in cases of all vaccine-preventable diseases in the U.S. compared to the prevaccine era. (See enclosed table.)

While routine childhood immunization has saved many lives and prevented disease epidemics both in the United States and elsewhere, it has paradoxically resulted in a decreased awareness by the public of the dangers of vaccine-preventable diseases. This decreased awareness can result in reduced vaccine coverage or delays in age-appropriate vaccination which frequently result in resurgent outbreaks of disease. The recent outbreak of diphtheria in Russia, pertussis in the United Kingdom in the 1970s, and, closer to home, the epidemic of measles in the United States in 1989-1991 illustrates this problem. Of particular note was the greatly increased burden of measles among unvaccinated preschool children in minority communities during the 1989-1991 measles epidemic. (See the enclosed article on "The Measles Epidemic.") This outbreak could have been prevented through use of the safe and effective measles vaccine, which is widely available through providers and public health clinics in the United States. We are, therefore, concerned that diseases like measles or whooping cough (pertussis) will continue to occur in young children in this country. Children who are not vaccinated will be at increase risk for disability and death associated with vaccine-preventable diseases. (See the enclosed issue of the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 44, No. 28.)

For several years, misinformation has circulated that vaccines are the source by which the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was introduced into the human population. One such misconception is based on an assumption that vaccines grown in monkey kidney cell cultures could have been infected with a monkey virus which eventually led to the spread of HIV infection and the resulting acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. Though both are retroviruses, the simian virus is not the same as the human immunodeficiency virus. In fact, the genomic organization of the two viruses is very different.

Of the current universally recommended vaccines, only poliovirus vaccines are grown in monkey cells. The monkey kidney cell lines used in vaccines have been examined and demonstrated to be free of the simian virus and HIV (See enclosed article by Khan et al.)

Use of these vaccines is critical to the worldwide polio eradication effort. The Western Hemisphere is now free of the wild polio virus, and worldwide, reported polio cases have been reduced by about 90 percent between 1988 and 1996--from 35,251 to 3,500, respectively. The goal is to eradicate polio worldwide by the year 2000, resulting in improvement in the health and well-being of all children as they no longer face the risk of death or paralysis from polio. Once polio is eradicated, the vaccination will eventually be stopped just as smallpox eradication led to cessation of that vaccination in the 1970s.

Regarding the ebola outbreaks in Africa, concerns have been expressed that vaccines could cause ebola or were contaminated with ebola virus. After the eboJa virus was discovered in 1976, testing to exclude its presence was incorporated into the mandatory procedures for all tissues used in medical research or in the manufacture of other products, including vaccines. (These mandatory testing procedures are found in title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations pertaining to the manufacturing and regulation of vaccines.)

Because of economic constraints in Africa and other parts of the world, medical instruments designed for a single use are often reused. Under these circumstances, both the ebola virus and HIV can, indeed, be spread; however, neither the ebola virus or HIV have been spread through the use of a vaccine administered through properly sterilized injection and other medical equipment.

Vaccines have been and are made to protect the health and welfare of all persons and are recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, the American Academy of Pediatrics, or the American Academy of Family Physicians for all children irrespective of race or ethnicity. The major threat to the health of African-American children comes not from vaccines, but from diseases that can occur if children are not appropriately immunized.

I hope this information and enclosed materials are helpful to you. I would also like to invite you to our annual National Immunization Conference which will be held May 19- 22 in Detroit. This conference is attended by medical and public health professionals from the Federal, State, and local levels to discuss various topics related to vaccines. I may be contacted at 404-639-7000. (FAX: 404-639-7111)

Thank you for your interest in this very important health issue.

Sincerely,

David Satcher, M.D., Ph.D.
Director

Enclosures


Fig. 26.4. Reply to CDC Director Dr. David Satcher From Dr. Leonard Horowitz Concerning Contaminated Vaccines and the Iatrogenic Theory of AIDS's Origin

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March 14, 1997

Dr. David Satcher, M.D., Ph.D.
Director
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Atlanta, GA 30333

Dear Dr. Satcher:

Thank you for your invitation of Feb. 21, 1997 (that came by way of Minister of Health for the Nation of Islam, Dr. Abdul Alim Muhammad) to visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to discuss the issue of vaccine contamination and "other public health issues of mutual interest," namely the origin of AIDS and Ebola viruses.

First, I greatly appreciate the opportunity to visit the CDC to present and discuss my investigation into the origin of AIDS and Ebola viruses. Last Fall, in the Bahamas, I met at length with your Associate Director for Minority Health, Reubin Warren, who likewise invited me to visit the CDC for this purpose. We have yet to set a date for this meeting.

Regarding your communication to Dr. Muhammad concerning the "misinformation .. . circulated that vaccines are the source by which the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was introduced into the human population, wherein you discuss "one such misconception," the polio vaccine theory, Dr. Muhammad asked me to reply to your comments.

For your information, you have apparently been misinformed. I challenge you, or any NIH investigator, to debate the scientific facts, the vast majority of which support the contention that contaminated vaccines have played a major role in the transmission of animal viruses to humans. A growing body of scientific evidence indicates vaccine contaminants are most plausibly related to certain types of cancers, and contemporary epidemics involving the human immune system including AIDS and chronic fatigue. Regarding AIDS, the evidence shows that the most supported theory on AIDS's origin, that is, the only theory that takes into account all of the confirmed scientific facts, as opposed to politically correct pseudo-scientific speculations, is the theory that I have advanced in Emerging Viruses: AIDS & Ebola.

I advance the theory that HIV, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) relatives, evolved during the late 1960s to mid 1970s as a result of vaccine trials -- including those conducted by Saul Krugman and later Maurice Hilleman at Merck pharmaceutical company (under NIH contract number 71-2059), along with coinvestigators at the CDC, FDA, and the National Institute for Allergies and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), as reported by Robert Purcell from NIAID. These investigators used heavily contaminated chimpanzees, and rhesus monkeys, supplied by the Army's sixth top biological weapons contractor -- Litton Bionetics research lab (under NIH primate supply contracts including, but not limited to NIH 69-2160) -- to "pool" hepatitis B viruses that were used to develop a reported 200,000 human doses of vaccine. Four subtypes of this hepatitis B vaccine were produced by these agencies and then simultaneously tested in New York City on gay men, Willowbrook State School mentally retarded children, on Staten Island, NY, and Blacks in Central Africa. The live hepatitis B viruses used to make these vaccines were extracted from the contaminated chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys, and then administered to these human subjects, along with all the other live viral contaminants these animals were infected with, including, but not limited to the herpes-type viruses, including simian cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and herpes B virus (all scientifically associated with chronic fatigue which, may I remand you, appeared on the planet at precisely the same time as the AIDS epidemic). Other viruses such as foamy retroviruses containing the AIDS-linked enzyme reverse transcriptase was also present in these animals. Additionally, most of the human subjects who received these infectious agents, and whose blood was later taken to make the suspected hepatitis B vaccines, had, approximately a decade earlier, received Salk or Sabin polio vaccines contaminated with SV40, and again, other common monkey kidney cell viral contaminants. This, of course, confounds my thesis, but significantly increased the likelihood that HIV progenitor viruses could have recombined to form HIV as well as SIV relatives-all a direct result of sloppy scientific methods and contaminated live viral vaccines.

My thesis explains the major scientific facts concerning the evolution of HIV including: 1) the earliest confirmed isolation of HIV, contrary to media headlines and popular belief, dates back only to 1976 as reported by Gerald Myers in Jay Levy's recently published textbook The Retroviridae; 2) by 1968 there were apparently HIV progenitors causing AIDS-like illnesses circulating in the U.S. as reported by Witte, et al.; 3) the closest relative to HIV-l is the SlY from the chimpanzee; 4) the SIVs were discovered after HIV; 5) SIV from the macaque monkey, identical to HIV-2 found to be a laboratory contaminant, was not found in wild monkeys, only Senegalese female prostitutes, who because of their high risk trade, likely received contaminated hepatitis B vaccines during the I970s. (How, other than through contaminated vaccines, could scores of these women have picked up a research laboratory monkey virus contaminant?); 6) the evolution of several subtypes of HIV around the planet by 1975, as detailed in Myers's "Big Bang" theory, coincides with the 1974 administration of the four subtypes of hepatitis B vaccine in various parts of the world including New York City and Central Africa by Hilleman's four teams; 7) the mutational frequency of HIV is consistent with that of a new virus; 8) the fact that HIV is associated with severe immunosuppression, and high mortality and morbidity, is also most consistent with a new virus requiring evolution to establish homeostasis in its new human host; 9) the mutational frequency range of HIV, again according to Myers (personal communication) exceeds that of anything natural, thus strongly suggesting an iatrogenic origin; 10) the unique epidemiology of AIDS in which the highest HIV seroprevalence rates exist in the exact regions of the world and populations wherein the hepatitis B vaccine was tested, namely New York City, Central Africa, and particularly in homosexual men, intravenous drug users, prisoners, and people of African decent, that is, people commonly used in vaccine trials; 11) Maurice Hilleman's 1986 admission that his team at Merck had brought the AIDS virus into North America in contaminated African green monkeys, again supplied by Litton; 12) that the epidemic broke out the decade following the 1960s wherein major advances in genetic biotechnology were made and wherein cell/virus cloning procedures exploded; 13) that contrary to popular belief and misinformation, sufficient homology exists between HIV and common polio vaccine viral contaminants, and viruses likely to have contaminated Litton laboratory animals and cell cultures at the time the earliest hepatitis B vaccines were produced, to advance this thesis, and last but not least, 14) that scientists (including Dr. Robert Gallo and others) who advanced farfetched notions of the African green monkey theory of HTLV-1 and HIV, despite their sophisticated knowledge of the NCI's "Special Virus Cancer Program ••in which viral recombinants and related vaccines were produced, have obviously incriminated themselves. A discussion of substantial self-incriminating evidence is provided on page 498 of Emerging Viruses: AIDS & Ebola. That virtually no attention has been paid by your organization, the NCI, as well as other AIDS investigators, to the iatrogenic theory of AIDS, is highly suspicious if not criminal.

On related notes, that leading AIDS investigators and public health officials have continued to downplay the need to determine HIV's origin, and possible continued spread through contaminated vaccines, flies in the face of ethical public health practice and preventative medicine. Moreover, you may not know that on February 18, 1997,Tammy Nunnally of your Office of Communications sent Gino Montesi and Mike Carrie from WXTK Radio on Cape Cod an official transmittal from your office that states, "the virus that causes AIDS, is not a man-made virus and did not originate in laboratories ... It is a human virus that evolved naturally over time, as other viruses have." Who authorized her to communicate such misinformation? She references only the "World Book Encyclopedia which was written by one of our experts," as her definitive source. This is a sham-an absolute insult to medical intelligence. Why should I and the general public trust you, or the organization you represent, in light of such unfounded, biased, and misleading communications?

Finally, did I hear correctly that Dr. Gallo is, once again, under investigation for scientific misconduct or fraud? Having challenged Dr. Gallo at the XI International Conference on AIDS in Vancouver, regarding his role in the development of numerous immune system ravaging viruses while NCI project officer, overseeing Litton's NIH contract 71- 2025-"Investigation of Viral Carcinogenesis in Primates"-I have reviewed his major objections to my thesis which, by the way, are discredited by his and his NIH mentors' earlier scientific contributions. I am enclosing a copy of a letter I sent to Dr. Gallo on October 28, 1996, wherein I refute his misleading claims. This transmittal followed a lengthy interview he provided me wherein he acknowledged my general thesis is plausible. Most importantly, he stated that he might be able to lend additional information in support of the accidental theory on the origin of AIDS. I still patiently await this information.

In conclusion, I gladly accept your invitation to discuss these mutual concerns, but I don't want to waste your time and mine playing lip service to the issues. If you or other CDC officials are willing to critically examine the facts, take a stand for common sense and scientific integrity, including a willingness to examine the CDC's apparent role in developing (along with Hilleman, Purcell et al.) the vaccine that most plausibly brought AIDS to the world, then I will be happy to schedule a visit to Atlanta to meet with you. If not, it's possible I'll see you in heaven or, with God's grace, and the support of the American people, before a Congressional investigating committee.

Sincerely yours,
Leonard G. Horowitz, D.M.D., M.A., M.P.H.
President, Tetrahedron Incorporated
a nonprofit educational corporation
Rockport, Massachusetts 01966
Telephone: 508-546-6586· URL# http://www.Tetrahedron.org
E-mail: tetra@tetrahedron.org


Fear's Call to Awareness and Action

People everywhere have wondered if I now fear for my life. A better question is, "Does the benefit of this work exceed the risk to a single life, mine or anyone's?"

During the past several months more than half of the audiences I polled knew friends or family members who, over the past few years, fell victim to bizarre immune-system-related disorders, or unique cancers, unrelated to family history.

My greatest fear is that the holocaust my mother survived in 1939, by coming to America, killed her -- a victim of flu vaccine induced Guillain- Barre autoimmune disease and cancer -- in 1994. We fought for years, she and I, over the likelihood of a contemporary holocaust. "It could never happen again," I blindly argued, "we have the media now." My mother was not like the rest of us who have been monumentally deceived.

Two years after my mother's death, I picked up a book entitled The Secret War Against the Jews (St. Martins, 1994) by John Loftus and Mark Aarons. The authors detailed the intricate deceptions carried out by international intelligence organizations as the forces of darkness moved to exterminate millions of Jews, Christians, homosexuals, Africans, Gypsies, and Indians. The world's masses knew nothing about the partnership, formed between John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company, Germany's IG Farben, and Hitler's Third Reich. The "pirates of Wall Street," Allen and John Foster Dulles, of the law firm Sullivan & Cromwell, had secretly negotiated this alliance. It was not known to allied airmen, flying bombing missions over Germany, why the IG Farben plants, where Hitler's munitions were made, were exempted from attack. Likewise, when the IG Farben-Rockefeller consortium used concentration camp victims as slaves to build and run their factories it never made the news. Nor was it heralded that this same team patented and sold the gas that the Nazis used in the concentration camps to send millions to their graves. Recent headlines have asked to know where the Nazi gold went. Historians only recently recorded that the Rockefeller's Chase Bank was among the largest recipients. [10]

How could people have not known what was really going on? How could the Dulles brothers and Rockefeller-led military-medical-industrial complex have gotten away with committing treason against the United States? How could the Dulleses have, immediately following World War II, successfully engineered the next great conflict -- the Cold War -- behind the backs of Roosevelt and Truman? The common answer is: sophisticated intelligence and counterintelligence programs in support of covert operations.

In Mein Kampf Hitler wrote, "If you tell a lie long enough, eventually it will be believed as truth .... [and] the greater the lie, the more people will believe it." The phrase "vaccines are safe and effective" echoes in my mind as does the memory of those millions of holocaust victims who were marshalled into the gas chambers for "disinfection" as a "public health" measure. My greatest fear, given this history, is that today's public health clinics and physician's offices are like the concentration camps, and that our FDA approved vaccines are like the gas.

Health scientists, on whom we depend for miracle cures, have been lulled by the same siren's song of deception. Evidence, in Christopher Simpson's The Science of Coercion, shows the Rockefeller Foundation, in collusion with the CIA, largely controlled funding for scientific progress and academic research in the United States and elsewhere. "This was not a 'conspiracy,' in the hackneyed sense of that word. It was rather ... informal authority" exercised by networks and projects that "advanced their conception of scientific progress and national security . . . to gain the financial support that is often a prerequisite to academic success." It is apparent that the "dominant paradigm" in health science is "in substantial part a paradigm of dominance" in which the inevitability of elite control is exercised. [11]

My experience with David Satcher classically exemplifies this thesis. Shortly before becoming Surgeon General of the United States he replied to my letter of February 17, 1997 (Fig. 26.4) by writing on May 22, 1997, "Thank you for your letter ... CDC believes that scientific evidence is the foundation for sound public health policies; however, the allegations contained within your letter do not appear to be based on credible, evidence-based information. I, therefore, believe that a meeting to discuss the issue would not likely serve a useful purpose." He, thus, cancelled his invitation.

Obviously, Dr. Satcher's inability to see any "credible evidence-based information" in this book stems from this "paradigm of dominance." To see and discuss the scientific evidence, the documented facts, would also require him to see himself and his agency, in all its "dominance," as fully exposed. Thus, befitting the "emperors new clothes," Satcher's promotion to Surgeon General of the United States was tailor made for a black man who could watch millions of his own people, and countless others, die without seeing anything.

In light of everything, this work appears to be well timed. The grave tribulations and plagues predicted in the Book of Revelation and linked to the world's most deceptive financial "sorcerers" -- the Rockefeller-led pharmaceutical industrialists, are here. Few will remain unaffected by this "paradigm [shift] of [lethal] dominance." Contaminated vaccines and tainted bloods now flow, like Babylon's wine, full of impurities, into the rivers and streams" of people around the world. In this manner, newly emerging viruses, lethal strains of bacteria, and other infectious "beasts" that deliver plagues, ranging from mad cow disease to cancer, are arising to reduce world populations as predicted by public health authorities and prophets alike. [13]

Let it be known who wins in the end. "The meek shall inherit the Earth." For all of this, you see, was planned by God and prophesied by his servants. His messengers foretold that, indeed, someday soon, the "crystal clear waters" will once again flow through our bloodstreams. Trees bearing healing leaves will surround us. The nations will, thus, be miraculously healed. This is our destiny. [13]
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Re: EMERGING VIRUSES: AIDS & EBOLA: Nature, Accident or Inte

Postby admin » Thu Jun 30, 2016 7:58 am

Part 1 of 4

References and Notes

Prologue


1. Runnells RR. AIDS in the Dental Office. The Story of Kimberly Bergalis and David Acer. Fruit Heights. Utah: IC Publications. Inc., 1993, pp. 293-298; Johnson vs. Acer (Legal suit brought against dentist David Acer by Sherry Johnson). Deposition of Edward Parsons for Robert Montgomery. December 9, 1993. Visual Evidence. Inc., (407-655-2855).

2. United States General Accounting Office. AIDS-CDC's investigation of HIV transmission by a dentist. GAO/PEMD-92-31. Washington. D.C. September 29, 1992.

3. American Broadcasting Company. 20120. Interview with Edward Parson on the Florida dental AIDS tragedy. October 1, 1993.

4. Horowitz LG. Deadly Innocence: Solving the greatest murder mystery in the history of American medicine. Rockport, MA: Tetrahedron, Inc., 1994.

5. McLoed D. Did Dr. Acer intentionally kill patients? Academy of General Dentistry Impact. 1995;23;10:19.

6. Horowitz LG. Correlates and predictors of sexual homicide with HIV in the Florida dental AIDS tragedy. AIDS Patient Care. 1994;8;4:220-228.

7. Horowitz LG. Sexual homicide with HIV in a Florida dental office? Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 1994;19;1:61-64.

8. Horowitz LG. Murder and cover-up may explain the Florida dental AIDS mystery. British Dental Journal. 1995; 10;24:423-427.

9. Strecker R. The Strecker Memorandum. The Strecker Group, 1501 Colorado Boulevard, Los Angeles. CA 90041, 1988.

10. Edward Parsons personal communication.

11. Breo DL. The dental AIDS cases -- Murder or an unsolvable mystery? JAMA 270:27, 2-2734. 1993.

12. CBS News -- a 60-MINUTES report. Kimberly's story. Produced by Josh Howard. June 19, 1994.

Chapter 1. Strecker's "World Health Organization Theory" of AIDS

1. Strecker R. The Strecker Memorandum. The Strecker Group, 1501 Colorado Boulevard, Los Angeles. CA 90041.1988.

2. Gonda MA. Braun MJ. Carter SG. Kost TA. Bess Jr JW. Arthur LO and VanDer Maaten MJ. Characterization and molecular cloning of a bovine lentivirus related to human immunodeficiency virus. Nature 1987;330, 388-391; Mulder C. Human AIDS virus not from monkeys. Nature 1988;333:396; See also: Penny D. Origin of the AIDS virus. Nature 1988;333:494-495.

3. Collin J. They deployed the AIDS virus. Townsend Letter for Doctors. April. 1988 p.152.

4. Department of Defense Appropriations For 1970: Hearings Before A Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations House of Representatives. Ninety-first Congress. First Session. H.B. 15090. Part 5. Research. Development. Test and Evaluation. Dept. of the Army. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington. D.C.. 1969.

5. This text was typed at the top of page 129 in the document cited in reference #4 above. A portion of this DOD appropriations document was provided by The Strecker Group and published as document number RS-028. Los Angeles: The Strecker Group. 1988.

6. Szmuness W. Stevens CE, Harley EJ. Zang EA and Oleszko WR et al. Hepatitis B vaccine: Demonstration of efficacy in a controlled clinical trial in a high-risk population in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine 1980;303; 15:833-841.

Chapter 2. WHO Plays in the Big Leagues

I. Horowitz LG. Deadly Innocence: Solving the greatest murder mystery in the history of American medicine. Rockport, MA: Tetrahedron, Inc., 1994. Includes a chapter titled "The Clinton-CIA Connection" which relays the story told by ex-intelligence asset Terry Reed. According to Reed's Compromised (S.P.I. Books, 1993), much of the Iran-Contra affair -- the drugs for arms and hundreds of millions of dollars of laundered cash -- was apparently handled by Clinton administration officials under a Banana Republic set up by the CIA and agents William Barr and Oliver North during the Reagan era.

2. Strecker RB. The Strecker Memorandum: The cause, the effects and the possible cure for the pandemic AIDS. Eagle Rock, CA: The Strecker Group, 1988.

3. Mathews AG. WHO's influence on the control of biologicals. WHO Chronicle 1968;23;1 :3-15.

4. Glatt MM. The development of international control of drugs. WHO Chronicle 1970;24;5: 189- 197.

5. Payne AAM. Approaches to communicable disease control: Specialized and integrated services. WHO Chronicle 1968;22; 1:3-7.

6. Tyrrell DAJ. The common cold research unit: WHO International Reference Centre for respiratory virus diseases. WHO Chronicle 1968;22;1 :8-11.

7. WHO News and Notes. Genetic susceptibility to infection. WHO Chronicle 1968;22;4:162.

8. WHO News and Notes. Studies of the American Indian. WHO Chronicle 1968;22; 10:459

9. Barrai I. Human genetics and public health. WHO Chronicle 1970;24;6:246-247.

10.WHO Report. Multipurpose serological surveys. WHO Chronicle 1971 ;25;3:99-101.

11. WHO News and Notes. Large-scale BCG trials. WHO Chronicle 1968;22;11:496.

12 WHO Current Research Projects. Live measles vaccines. WHO Chronicle 1968;22;12:534-5.

13. WHO Report (Based on a report presented to the Twenty-first World Health Assembly, and on discussions at the Assembly.) The smallpox eradication programme. WHO Chronicle 1%8;22;8:354- 362.

14. WHO Report (Based on a report presented to the Twenty-second World Health Assembly.) The smallpox eradication programme. WHO Chronicle 1969;23;10:465-476.

15. WHO News and Notes. Regional Committee for Africa. WHO Chronicle 1969;23;8:341-344.

16. Unfortunately, with the smallpox vaccination as with hepatitis B vaccination, the WHO reported that "in persons vaccinated only in infancy, the incidence of smallpox increases with age as immunity diminishes; the data indicate a high degree of protection for 4-5 years, followed by a slow decline, but even after a longer period, smallpox in vaccinated persons is usually milder than In unvaccinated persons and this appears to indicate some residual immunity. Similarly, the difficulty in producing a major reaction to revaccination lessens with time, but even after 10 or 20 years the vaccine required to produce a high percentage of takes must be at least 5- I0 times more potent than vaccines that will produce the same percentage of takes in primary vaccinations. The duration of immunity after revaccination cannot be assessed accurately because not enough is known about the occurrence of smallpox in successfully revaccinated persons. "

Quotation from: World Health Organization Report. Communicable diseases in 1970: Some aspects of the WHO programme. WHO Chronicle 197 1;25;6:249-255.

17. Rowe DS. The WHO immunology laboratories at Lausanne. WHO Chronicle 1968;22; 11:496.

18. WHO Report (Based on the 1969 report The medical research programme of the World health Organization, 1964-1968, Geneva.) Five years of research of virus diseases. WHO Chronicle 1969;23; 12:564-572.

19. Kalter SS and Heberling. The study of simian viruses. WHO Chronicle 1969;23;3: 112-117.

20. Siebert C. Smallpox is dead: Long live smallpox. The New York limes Magazine, Sunday, August 21, 1994, Section 6, pp. 31-55.

21. Walsh J. Civilian use for biological warfare facility under study. Science 1970; 167;923: 1359.

22 Henderson DA and Arita I. Monkeypox and its relevance to smallpox eradication WHO Chronicle 1973;27;4: 145-148.

23. As defined in Stedman's Medical Dictionary, Kuru is a "highly localized. fatal disease found in New Guinea, resembling paralysis agitans; found among certain cannibalistic people who ingest raw brain of recently deceased victims of the disease. Also call laughing sickness."

24. Lederberg J. Biological warfare: a globalthreal. American Scientist. 1971 59;2:195-7.

25. Department of Defense Appropriations For 1970: Hearings Before A Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations House of Representatives, Ninety-first Congress, First Session, H.B. 15090, Part 5. Research, Development. Test and Evaluation, Dept. of the Army. U.S. Government Priming Office. Washington. D.C., 1969.

26. Washington Correspondent. Gas and germ warfare renounced but lingers on. Nature 1970 228;273:707-8.

Chapter 3. Cold War, Biological Weapons, and World Health

1. Langer E Chemical and biological weapons: Once over lightly on Capitol Hill. Science 1967 156;778: 1073-5.

2. Anonymous. War on chemical and biological warfare. Nature 1968218;145:905-6.

3. Lesse S. Editorial: Poison and the United States Public Health Service-a study of medical perversion. American Journal of Psychotherapy 1975;29;4:463-5.

4. Beckwith J. Science for the people. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1972 196;4:236- 40.

5. Anonymous. Can biological war be stopped? Nature 1968219;155:665-6.

6. Crozier D. and Woodward TE. Report on research activities of the Commission on Epidemiological Survey. Military Medicine 1967132;8:609-13.

7.Wallach DP. Deterrent value of CB research. Science 1968 161;842:631.

8. Lederberg J. Biological warfare: a global threat. American Scientist 1971 59;2: 195-7.

9. Anonymous. The biological bomb. Lancet 1968;1 ;540:465.

10. Staff writer. War on chemical and biological warfare. Nature 1968;218:905-906.

11. The incomplete reference was given as "Hersh SM. Chemical and biological warfare. Indianapolis, N.Y, 1968.

12. Anonymous. Control of microbiological warfare. The Lancet 1968;2;564:391.

13. World Health Organization. Biomedical research: WHO's commitments examined. WHO Chronicle 1975;29:417-422.

14. McCrary DI. Letter to the Editor: Moral issues of CB warfare. Science 1967 156;780: 1307-8.

15. WHO Group of Consultants. Chemical and biological weapons: The hazard to health. WHO Chronicle 197024;3:99-108.

16. Horowitz LG. Lewis PL. and Cohen P. AIDS-related fear: Beliefs, attitudes and behaviors. Chicago Dental Society Review 1993;86;2: 18-23.

17. Horowitz LG and Kehoe L. Fear and AIDS: Educating the public about dental office infection control procedures. Journal of the American Academy of General Dentistry, 1993, 41, 5:385 392.

18. Horowitz LG and Lipkowitz RD. Survey on AIDS, Fear and Infection Control: Attitudes affecting management decisions. Journal of Clinical Preventive Dentistry 1992; 14;6:31-34.

19. Crozier D and Woodward TE. Report on research activities of the Commission on Epidemiological Survey, AFEB. Military Medicine 1967 132;8:609-13.

20. Covert NM. Cutting Edge: A history of Fort Detrick, Maryland 1943-1993. Fort Detrick: Headquarters U.S. Army Garrison Public Affairs Office (HSHD-PA), 1993.

21. Kalter SS and Heberling. The study of simian viruses. WHO Chronicle 1969;23;3: 112-117.

22. World Health Organization Report. Communicable diseases in 1970: Some aspects of the WHO programme. WHO Chronicle 1971 ;25;6:249-255.

23. World Health Organization Report. Five years of research on virus diseases. WHO Chronicle 196923;12:564-572.

24. World Health Organization Report. Recent work on virus diseases. WHO Chronicle 1974;28:410-413.

25. World Health Organization Report. Communicable diseases in 1970: Some aspects of the WHO programme. WHO Chronicle 1971;25;6:249-255.

26. World Health Organization Report. The smallpox eradication programme. WHO Chronicle 1968 22;8:354-362.

27. World Health Organization Report. Smallpox eradication: the first significant results. WHO Chronicle 196923;10:465-476.

28. World Health Organization Repoty. The smallpox eradication programme. WHO Chronicle 1975 29: 134-139.

29. World Health Organization Report. The eradication of smallpox. WHO Chronicle 1968. 22;12:523-527.

30. In other words, cancerous cells that have been presumably "transformed" by viral infections can be identified by specific foreign proteins (called antigens). Interestingly, The Group noted that these foreign proteins may enter a cell and thus be demonstrated regardless of the species or animal used as an infected host.

31. WHO Scientific Group on Viruses and Cancer (1965) Report, Geneva (Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., 1965, No. 295)

32. Mathews AG. WHO's influence on the control of biologicals. WHO Chronicle 1968;23;1 :3-15.

33. WHO Scientific Group on Human Viral and Rickettsial Vaccines. WHO Chronicle 1966 20;7 :255-261.

34. Gillette R VEE Vaccine: Fortuitous Spin-off from BW Research. Science 1971 ;173;995:405-8.

35. WHO Respiratory and Enterovirus Centres. WHO Chronicle. 197428:410-413.

36. The Directors of WHO Respiratory and Enterovirus Centres. Recent work on virus diseases. WHO Chronicle 1974;28:410-413.

37. Tyrrell DAJ. The common cold research unit: WHO International Reference Centre for respiratory virus diseases. WHO Chronicle 1968;22;1:8-11.

38. Kalter SS and Heberling RL. The study of simian viruses-work of the WHO collaborating laboratory on comparative medicine: Simian viruses. WHO Chronicle 1969;23;3: 112-117.

39. WHO Report (Based on the 1969 report The medical research programme of the World health Organization, 1964-1968, Geneva.) Five years of research of virus diseases. WHO Chronicle 1969;23; 12:564-572.

Chapter 4. The Road to Fort Detrick Runs Through Bethesda

1. Washington Correspondent. Biological warfare: Detrick left hanging. Nature 1971;229:5279:8.

2.Washington Correspondent. Biological warfare: Relief of Fort Detrick. Nature November 28, 1970;228:803.

3. Boffey PM. Fort Detrick: A top laboratory is threatened with extinction. Science January 22, 1968; 171:262-264.

4. Boffey PM. Detrick birthday: Dispute flares over biological warfare center. Science April 19, 1968; 171:285-288.

5. Allen JM, Emerson R, Grant P. Schneiderman HA and Siekevitz P. Science 1%8;160;834:1287-8.

6. The incomplete reference was given as "Hersh SM. Chemical and biological warfare Indianapolis, N. Y, 1968.

7. Anonymous. Control of microbiological warfare. The Lancet 1968;2;564:391.

8. World Health Organization. Biomedical research: WHO's commitments examined. WHO Chronicle 1975;29:417-422.

9. Covert NM. Cutting Edge: A history of Fort Detrick, Maryland 1943-1993. Fort Detrick, MD: Headquarters, U.S. Army Garrison, Public Affairs Office, 1993. [For copies call 301-619-2018]

10. Szmuness W, Stevens CE, Harley EJ, Zang EA and Oleszko WR et al. Hepatitis B vaccine: Demonstration of efficacy in a controlled clinical trial in a high-risk population in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine 1980;303;15:833-841.

11. Walgate R. Hepatitis B vaccine: Pasteur Institute in AIDS fracas. Nature 1983;304: 104.

12. This knowledge also made me wonder whether Bethesda maintained any secret, highest biosafety level 4, BSL4, labs. Later I learned that, BSL 4 facilities were only available at Fort Detrick and at the COC, they were not needed to produce or study the AIDS virus. This was confirmed during a telephone call to Bethesda's NCI AIDS research labs. The technician I spoke with there responded to my question, "Yes, we are handling the [AIDS] virus in level 3 labs as are numerous study groups around the country."

Despite the CDC labs ability to handle the AIDS-like viruses however, a review of the research literature from that period shows they were not active in such efforts. Only the NCI was conducting this kind of research and only in the Cell Tumor Biology Department at the NCI which was headed by Dr. Robert Gallo.

13. National Academy of Sciences. Symposium on chemical and biological warfare. Proc. N.A.S. 1970;65:250-279.

14. Department of Defense Appropriations For 1970: Hearings Before A Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations House of Representatives, Ninety-first Congress, First Session, H.B. 15090, Part 5. Research. Development, Test and Evaluation, Dept. of the Army. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1969.

15. Staff writer. CBW: Geneva Protocol at last. Nature 1970;227;261 :884.

16. Washington Correspondent. Gas and germ warfare renounced but lingers on. Nature 1970 228;273:707-8.

17. My hunch that the CIA might have been involved in viral research was based on my association with a Canadian colleague who relayed the story of Dr. Ewen Cameron. Cameron, the Chief of Psychiatry at McGill University's Allan Memorial Institute in Montreal. conducted LSD experiments for the CIA during a project code named MKULTRA. Victims of Cameron's brainwashing experiments were paid $7 million in settlements in a case which never went to court and was hushed up in the U.S. See: Bindman S. Ottawa has paid $7 million to brainwashing victims. Montreal Gazette, Wed. Jan. 19, 1994. p. BI.

18 The Rockefeller Commission. Report to the President by the Commission on CIA Activities Within the United States. Vice President Nelson A Rockefeller, Chairman. (Co-commissioners included Ronald Reagan). New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. 1975.

19. Moscow World Service in English. Belitskiy on How, Where AIDS Virus Originated. March 11, 1988. Published in International Affairs. FBIS-SOV-88-049, March 14, 1988. p. 24. Text discusses Seale's allegations, but does not furnish specifics.

20. Havana International Service in Spanish. German Claims AIDS Virus Created by Pentagon. FBIS-LAT 91-017. January 25, 1991. Caribbean, Cuba. Text discusses Dr. Jacobo Segal's allegations. Document PA 240 I21309 I-0000 GMT 24, January 1991.

21. Havana International Service in Spanish. Commentary Accuses U.S. of Developing AIDS Virus. LAT 24, June 1987. Caribbean, Cuba "Viewpoint" commentary read by Angel Hernandez. Document PA 200342- OOOGMT19, June 1987. pp. A5-6.

22. McGinniss J. The Last Brother: The Rise and Fall of Teddy Kennedy. New York: Pocket Star Books, 1994.

23. World Health Organization. Biomedical research: WHO's commitments examined. WHO Chronicle 1975;29:417-422.32. Washington Correspondent. Relief of Fort Detrick. Nature 1970;228:803.

24. Brumter C. The North Atlantic Assembly. Dordrecth: Maninus Lijhoff Publishers, 1986, p. 215.

25. Washington Correspondent. Relief of Fort Detrick. Nature 1970;228:803.

26. Goldman BA and Chappelle M. Is HIV=AIDS wrong? In These Times, August 5-18, 1992, pp. 8-10.

27. Gallo R. RNA-dependent DNA polymerase in viruses and cells: Views on the current state. Blood 1972;39;1:117-137.

28. Shilts R. And the Band Played On: Politics, People and the AIDS Epidemic. New York: Penguin Books, 1987, pp. 450-453.

Chapter 5. The Emperor's New Virus

1. Shilts R. And the Band Played On: Politics, People and the AIDS Epidemic. New York: Penguin Books, 1987.

2. Department of Defense Appropriations For 1970: Hearings Before A Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations House of Representatives, Ninety-first Congress. First Session. H.B. 15090, Part 5. Research. Development, Test and Evaluation. Dept. of the Army. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1969.

3. Shilts R. Op. cit., p. 269.

4. Shilts R. Ibid., p. 270-271.

5. Shilts R. lbid., p. 151.

6. Shilts R. lbid., p. 163.

7. Shilts R. lbid., pp. 73-74.

8. Shilts R. lbid., p. 186.

9. Shilts R. Ibid., p. 173.

10. Shilts R. lbid., p. 201-202.

11. Shilts R. Ibid., p. 151.

12. Shilts R. Ibid., p. 350.

13. Shilts R. Ibid., pp. 366-367.

14. Walgate R. Hepatitis B vaccine: Pasteur Institute in AIDS fracas. Nature 1983;304: 104.

15 Shilts R. Ibid., p. 264.

16. Shilts R. Ibid., p. 272

17. Shilts R. Ibid., p. 354

18. Shilts R. Ibid., p. 319

19. Shilts R. Ibid., p. 444.

20. Shilts R. Ibid., p. 451.

21. Shilts R. Ibid., p. 528-29.

22. Shilts R. Ibid., p. 452.

23. Gallo RC, Sarin PS, Allen PT, and Newton WA, et al. Reverse transcriptase in type C virus particles of human origin. Nature New Biology 1971 ;232: 10-142.

24. Talal N and Gallo RC Antibodies to a DNA:RNA Hybrid in systemic lupus erythematosus measured by a cellulose ester filter radioimmunoassay. Nature New Biology 1972;240:240-242.

25. Bobrow SN, Smith RG, Reitz MS and Gallo RC Stimulated normal human lymphocytes contain a ribonuclease-sensitive DNA polymerase distinct from viral RNA-directed DNA polymerase. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 1972;69; I I :3228-3232.

26. Gallo RC Reverse transcriptase, the DNA polymerase of oncogenic RNA viruses. Nature 197 1;234: 194- I98.

27. Gallo RC and Whang-Peng JW. Enhanced transformation of human immunocompetant cells by dibutyryl adenosine cyclic 3'5' -monophosphate. J. National Cancer Institute 1971;47;1:91-94.

28. Gallo RC, Hecht SM, Whang-Peng J and O'Hopp S. N-6-( 2-isopentenyl) adenosine: the regulatory effects of a cytokinin and modified nucleoside from tRNA on human lymphocytes. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta 1982;281:488-500.

29. Herrera F, Adamson RH and Gallo RC Uptake of transfer ribonucleic acid by normal and leukemic cells. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 1970;67;4: 1943-1950.

30. Among the human lymphocyte and RNA retrovirus reproductive stimulants Gallo and his coworkers studied were: phytohemagglutinin (a plant protein which makes red blood cells stick together) -- see Riddick DH and Gallo RC The Transfer RNA Methylases of Human Lymphocytes: Induction by PHA in Normal Lymphocytes. Blood 1971;37;3:282-292.; isopentenyladenosine (a plant hormone and component of yeast and mammalian tRNA}-see Gallo RC, Whang-Peng J and Perry S. Isopentenyladenosine Stimulates and Inhibits Mitosis in Human Lymphocytes Treated with Phytohemagglutinin. Science; 1969: 165:400-402; dibutyryl adenosine cyclic 3' 5' -monophosphate (a chemical messenger and hormone stimulent In cells) -- see Gallo RC, Whang-Peng J. Enhanced Transformation of Human Immunocompetent Cells by Dibutyryl Adenosine Cyclic 3', 5'-Monophosphate. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1971;47; I :91-94; magnesium (an element and dietary component) see Gallo RC, Sarin PS, Allen, PT, Newton WA, Priori ES, Bowen JM and Dmochowski L. Reverse Transcriptase in Type CVirus Particles of Human Origin. Nature New Biology 1971 ;232;140-142; Epstein Barr virus (a virus strongly linked to Burkin's-type lymphoma, cancer of the nasopharynx and infectious mononucleosis) see Fujioka S and Gallo RC Aminoacy1 Transfer RNA Profiles in Human Myeloma Cells. Blood 197I; 38;2:246-252; manganese (a metalic element) -- see Smith RG and Gallo RC DNA-Dependent DNA Polymerases I and II from Normal Human-Blood Lymphocytes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 1972; 69;10:2879-2884; adrenal corticosteroids and related steroid hormones including dexamethasone, prednisolone, fludrocortisone, hydrocortisone, corticosterone, cortisone, testosterone, progesterone, and insulin -- see Paran M, Gallo RC, Richardson LS and Wu AM. Adrenal Corticosteroids Enhance Production of Type-C Virus Induced by 5-lodo-2'- Deoxyuridine from Cultured Mouse Fibroblasts. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 1973;70;8:239 I-2395.

Chapter 6. Gallo's Research Anthology: The AIDS Buck and Virus Starts and Slops Here.

1. Germain RN. Antigen processing and CD4' T cell depletion in AIDS. Cell 1988; 54:441-414.

2. Herrera F, Adamson RH and Gallo RC Uptake of transfer ribonucleic acid by normal and leukemic cells. Proc Nat Acad Sci 1970;67;4: 1943-1950. This paper was presented before the "International Symposium on Uptake of Informative Molecules by Living Cells, Mol, Belgium, 1970, " the year in which $10 million in funds were appropriated by the Department of Defense for the development of AIDS-like viruses.

3. Gallo RC, Perry S and Breitman RT. The enzymatic mechanisms for deoxythymidine synthesis in human leukocytes. Journal of Biological Chemistry 1967;242;21 :5059-5068.

4. Gallo RC and Perry S. Enzymatic abnormality in human leukaemia. Nature 1968:218:465-466.

5. Gallo RC and Breitman TR. The enzymatic mechanisms for deoxythymidine synthesis in human leukocytes: Inhibition of deoxythymidine phosphorylase by purines. Journal of Biological Chemistry 1968;243;19:4943-4951.

6. Gallo RC, Yang SS and Ting RC. RNA dependent DNA Polymerase of human acute leukaemic cells. Nature 1970;228:927-929.

7. Gallo RC and Longmore JL. Asparaginyl-tRNA and resistance of murine leukaemias to Lasparaginase. Nature 1970;227: 1134-1136.

8. Department of Defense Appropriations For 1970: Hearings Before A Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations House of Representatives. Ninety-first Congress. First Session. H.B. 15090. Part 5. Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, Dept. of the Army. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1969.

9. Gallaher RE, Ting RC and Gallo RC. A common change aspartyl-tRNA in polyoma and SV transformed cells. Biochimica El Biophysica Acta 1972;272:568-582.

10. Gallo RC, Sarin PS, Allen PT, Newton WA Priori ES, Bowen JM and Dmochowski L. Reverse transcriptase in type C virus panicles of human origin. Nature New Biology 1971;232:140-142; see also Gallo RC. Transfer RNA and transfer RNA methylation in growing and "resting" adult and embryonic tissues and in various oncogenic systems. Cancer Research 1971;31:621-29.

11. Fujioka S and Gallo RC. Aminoacyl transfer RNA profiles in human myeloma cells. Blood 1971 ;38;2:246-252.

12. Smith RG and Gallo RC. DNA-dependent DNA polymerases I and II from normal human-blood lymphocytes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 1972;69; 10:2879-2884.

13. Bobrow SN, Smith RG, Reitz MS and Gallo RC. Stimulated normal human lymphocytes contain a ribonuclease-sensitive DNA polymerase distinct from viral RNA-directed DNA polymerase. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences 1972;69;11 :3228-3232

14. Robert MS, Smith RG, Gallo RC. Sarin PS and Abrell JW. Viral and cellular DNA polymerase: Comparison of activities with synthetic and natural RNA templates. Science 1972; 176:798-800.

15. Gallo RC, Abrell JW, Robert MS, Yang SS and Smith RG. Reverse transcriptase from Mason- Pfizer monkey tumor virus, avian myeloblastosis virus, and Rauscher leukemia virus and its response to rifamycin derivatives. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1972;48;4:1185-1189.

16. NCI staff. The Special Virus Cancer Program: Progress Report #8. Office of the Associate Scientific Director for Viral Oncology (OASDVO). J. B. Moloney, Ed., Washington, DC.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1971, p. 22.

17. Wu AM. Ting RC, Paran M and Gallo RC. Cordycepin inhibits induction of murine leukovirus production by 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 1972;69;12:3820-3824.

18. Gillespie D, Gillespie S, Gallo RC, East J and Dmochowski L. Genetic origin of RDI14 and other RNA tumor viruses assayed by molecular hybridization. Nature New Biology 1973;224:52-54.

19. Gallo RC, Miller NR, Saxinger WC and Gillespie D. Primate RNA Tumor Virus-Like DNA Synthesized Endogenously by RNA-Dependent DNA Polymerase in Virus-like Panicles from Fresh Human Acute Leukemic Blood Cells. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences 1973;70; 11 :3219- 3224.

20. Department of Defense Appropriations For 1970: Hearings Before A Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations House of Representatives. Ninety-first Congress. First Session. H.B. 15090. Part 5. Research, Development, Test and Evaluation. Dept. of the Army. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington. D.C., 1969, p. 689.

21. Committee on Human Resources. United States Senate. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research. Biological Testing Involving Human Subjects by the Department of Defense. 1977: Examination of Serious Deficiencies in the Defense Department's Efforts to Protect the Human Subjects of Drug Research. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, May 8 and May 23, 1977, pp. 80-100.

Chapter 7. Interview with Robert Strecker

1. According to The Strecker Group, Dr. Strecker's brother, Ted Strecker, was found shot to death alone in his home in Springfield, Missouri, an apparent suicide, on August 11, 1988. In the past he suffered from depression and monumental frustration at the relative lack of interest in his findings. Ted had been working with Robert to uncover evidence linking the DOD to the development of HIV Ted is credited, along with Black military officer, Zears Miles, for having discovered and distributed fig. 1.1. However, Robert spoke with Ted the night before his death. He seemed cheerful-"in good spirits, "- looking forward to new developments that promised progress. The following day he was found dead. His 22-caliber rifle lay next to him. He left no note, no message, and he said no goodbyes. This was very untypical of him. Officially the death was ruled a suicide.

"Next, " according to The Strecker Group, "Illinois State Representative Douglas Huff of Chicago was found alone in his home, dead from an apparent overdose of cocaine and heroin, on September 22, 1988. Representative Huff did everything in his power to make the Illinois State Legislature and the people of Chicago aware of Dr. Strecker's work. He was very vocal, gave many press interviews, was constantly on television and radio urging people to wake up to the coverup concerning AIDS. Did Representative Huff use drugs? Perhaps yes, but only occasionally and recreationally. Was he an addict? No. Would he have known how dangerous a massive overdose of cocaine and heroin was? Yes of course. Cause of death: officially a stroke. Dr. Strecker has serious doubts. "

2. Strecker's comment came months prior to the first confirmed case of HIV transmission from a human bite. See: Singer G and Athans M. 91-year-old teaches world about AIDS: HIV contracted from prostitute's bite. Sun-Sentinel Saturday October 28, 1995 pp1A and 6A.

3. Several reports confirmed that The Wistar Institute is located at 36th and Spruce Sts. Philadelphia, PA 19104 (215-222-6700). See: Science and Technology Division National Referral Center. Biological Sciences: A Director of Information Resources in the United States. Washington, D. C.: Library of Congress, 1972, p. 493.

4. New Bolton Center is apparently now part of the University of Pennsylvania. One reference which appeared during my Medline search was: Bowman KF, Tate LP Jr., Evans LH and Donawick WJ. Complications of cleft palate repair in large animals. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 1982; 180;6:652-7.

5. Gonda MA, Braun MJ, Carter SG, Kost TA, Bess JW, Arthur LO and Van Der Maaten MJ. Characterization and molecular cloning of a bovine lentivirus related to human immunodeficiency virus. Nature 1987;330:388-391. This research group, which reported stark similarities between the bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV) and HIV, interestingly enough was funded by the National Cancer Institute and based at the Frederick (Fort Detrick) Cancer Research Facility in Maryland. 6. Stedman's Medical Dictionary, Twenty-Second Edition. Baltimore Maryland: Williams & Wilkins Co., p. 1233.

7. Temin HM. The role of the DNA provirus in carcinogenesis bv RNA tumor viruses In: The Biology of Oncogenic Viruses, LG Silverster, Ed. New York: Elsevier, 1971, 176; Temin HM. The protovirus hypothesis. 1. Narional Cancer Institute 1971;46:3. Also see: Temin HM. The participation of DNA in Rous sarcoma virus production. Virology 1964; 23:486; Temin HM and Mizutani S. Nature 1970; 226:1211.

8. Baltimore D. Viral RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. Nature 1970;226: 1209.

9. Maruyama K and Dmochowski L. Cross-species transmission of mammalian RNA tumor viruses. Texas Medicine 1973;69:65-75. Regarding Hilary Koprowski serving at The Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, see: Silversti LG. The Biology of Oncogenic Viruses. New York: American Elsevier Pub- lishing Company, Inc., 1971, p. 332; Huebner RJ, Todaro GJ, Sarma P, Hartley JW, Freeman AE, Peters RL, Whitmire CE, Meier H and Gilden RV Switched Off' Vertically Transmitted C-type RNA Tumor Viruses as Determinants of Spontaneous and Induced Cancer: A New Hypothesis of Viral Carcinogenesis. In: Defectiveness, Rescue and Stimulation of Oncogenic Viruses: Second International Symposium on Tumor Viruses, Royaumont, France June 3-5, 1969. Paris: Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique, 1970, pp. 33-77; Montagnier L. Alterations de la surface des cellules BHK21 en rapport avec leur transformation par des virus ongogenes. Ibid., p. 6; For more on ethnic cancer studies see: MacMahon B. The ethnic distribution of cancer mortality in New York City, 1955. Acta Unio Internat. conrta cancrum, 1960 16;1716; Newill VA. Distribution of cancer mortality among ethnic subgroups of the white population of New York City, 1953-58. J. National Cancer Institute 1961 26:405.

10. Miller JM, Miller LD, Olsen C and Gillette KG. Virus-like particles in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocyte cultures with references to bovine lymphosarcoma. Journal National Cancer Institute 1969;43:1297-1305. See also: Miller JM and Van Der Maaten MJ. The biology of bovine leukemia virus infection in cattle. In: Viruses in Naturally Occurring Cancers: Book B. Essex M, Todaro G, and zur Hausen H, Eds. Cold Spring Harbor Conferences on Cell Proliferation, Vol. 7, New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1980, pp.901-909.

11. Burny A, Bex F, Chantrenne J, Cleuter Y, Dekegel D, Ghysdael J, Kenmann R, Leclercq M, Leunen J, Manunerickx M and Portetelle D. Bovine leukemia virus involvement in enzootic bovine leucosis [lymphosarcoma in cattle]. Adv. Cancer Res. 1978;28:251; See also: Burny A, Bruck G, Cleuter y et al. Bovine leukemia virus, a distinguished member of the human T-lymphotropic virus family. Soc. Press. Tokyo: VNU Science Press, Utrecht, pp. 219-227, 1983

12. Bobrow SN, Smith RG, Reitz MS and Gallo RC. Stimulated normal human lymphocytes contain a ribonuclease-sensitive DNA polymerase distinct from viral RNA-directed DNA polymerase. Proc. Not. Acad. Sci. 1972;69;11:3228-3232; Gallo RC, Pestka S, Smith RG, Herrera, Ting RC, Bobrow SN, Davis C and Fujioka S. RNA-and DNA-dependent DNA polymerases of human normal and leukemic cells. In Silvestri, L. (Ed.): 11.Lepetit Colloquia on Biology and Medicine "The Biology of Oncogenic Viruses." Amsterdam, North-Holland, 1971, p. 210.

13. Mussgay M, Dietzschold B, Lorenz R, Matheka HD, Matthaeus W, Straub OC, Weiland F, Wilesmith JW, Frenzel B and Kaaden O. Some properties of bovine leukemia virus, its use in seroepidemiological studies, and eradication of the disease from infected herds. In: Viruses in Naturally Occurring Cancers: Book B. M. Essex, G. Todaro and H zur Hausen, Eds. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1980, pp. 911-925; Flensburg Jc' Attempt to eradicate leukosis from a dairy herd by slaughter of cattle with lymphocytosis. Report over a ten-year period. Vet. Microbiol. 1976 I :30 I; Callahan R, Lieber MM, Todaro GJ, Graves DC and Ferrer FJ. Bovine leukemia virus genes in the DNA of leukemic cattle. 1976 Science 192:1005; Crespeau S, Sarsat FP, Vuillaume A, Levy 0 and Parodi AL. A two-year sero-epidemiological survey of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in a high-incidence area of the southwest of France. Ann. Rech. Vet. 19789:747; Haase A. The slow infection caused by visna virus. Curr. Top. Microbial. Immunol. 197572:101.; Narayan 0, Griffin DE and Clements JE. Virus mutation during "slow infection"- Temporal development and characterization of mutants of visna virus recovered from sheep. J. Gen. Virol. 197841:343.

14. Though I was unable to locate the Montagnier publication re: placing EBV into infected T-cell culture to keep them alive, I did locate several articles published in the early 1970s that noted the presence EBV caused lymphocytes to proliferate. Several papers were presented during conferences attended by both Montagnier and Gallo that emphasized the role of EBV in molecular biology and tumor virology. Gallo wrote about the work of Pagano and the role of EBV in human cancer in his 1977 book, referred to EBV as a model oncogenic virus: "The evidence with EBV, although not definitive, has been extended from Burkitt's lymphoma to nasopharyngeal carcinomas." So he was certainly well aware of the ability of EBV to prompt lymphocytic proliferation. See: Gallo R. Recent Advances in Cancer Research: Cell Biology, Molecular Biology, and Tumor Virology, Volume 1. Cleveland: CRC Press, Inc., 1977; In 1971 EBV was also studied by Gallo and co-workers. See Fujioka S and Gallo RC. Aminoacyl Transfer RNA Profiles in Human Myeloma Cells. Blood 1971; 38;2:246-252.

15. I was unable to find direct evidence that Montagnier had worked side-by-side with Gallo at the NCI. However, I located ample evidence that the two traveled in some of the same scientific circles, and attended many of the same cancer virus conferences. It is clear they were aware of each others' research from the late 19605. Also, Montagnier published a report that suggested lings between LAVI HTLV-III and the bovine leukemia virus. See: Alizon M and Montagnier L. Relationship of AIDS to other retroviruses. Nature 1985;313:743.

16. Strecker's comments about the "famous cat house experiments, " wherein Don Francis and Robert Gallo allegedly knew it was possible for mutant forms of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) to jump species to humans, are supported by parallel presentations made by the researchers during the same Cold Spring Harbor conference in 1980 See: Gutensohn N, Essex M, Francis DP and Hardy, Jr. WD. Risk to humans from exposure to feline leukemia virus: Epidemiological considerations; and Wong-Staal F, Koshy R and Gallo RC. Feline leukemia virus genomes associated with the domestic cat: A survey of normal and leukemic animals. In: Viruses in Naturally Occurring Cancers: Book A. Essex M, Todaro G, and zur Hausen H, Eds. Cold Spring Harbor Conferences on Cell Proliferation, Vol. 7, New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1980, pp. 699-706; 623-634.

17. World Health Organization Report. Five years of research on virus diseases. WHO Chronicle 1969 23;12:564-572; World Health Organization Report. Recent work on virus diseases. WHO Chronicle 1974;28:410-413; Kalter SS and Heberling RL. The study of simian viruses-work of the WHO collaborating laboratory on comparative medicine: Simian viruses. WHO Chronicle 1969;23;3: 112-117.

18. Strecker was also accurate in reporting that Salk and colleagues at The Salk Institute had been researching RNA and DNA retroviruses including the simian monkey virus (SV40) with financial support from the NCI and the West German Max-Planck Society. Thus, Salk quite plausibly participated, as Strecker alleged, in writing up the history of AIDS virus research, and in making "up a story." See: Tonegawa S, Walter G and Dulbecco R. Transcription of SV40 genome transformed and lytically infected cells; Eckhart W. Induction of cellular DNA synthesis after infection by polyoma virus: viral gene expression in the presence of hydroxyurea. (Both research teams from The Salk Institute) In: The Biology of Oncogenic Viruses. Proceedings of/he second Lepetit Colloquium, Paris France, November 1970. LG Silvestri, Ed. New York: Elsevier, 1971, pp. 65-75;290-294.

19. Beardsley T. AIDS: Pasteur sues over patent. Nature 1985;318:595; Palca J. AIDS: US wins round in patent row. Nature 1986;322:200; Palca J. Franco -- US agreement on AIDS test within sight: AIDS patent dispute near end? France and United States call truce. Nature 1987;326:115; See also: Staff writer. Settling the AIDS virus dispute. Na/ure 1987;326:425-426; Anderson C and Butler PD. US rejects French request to reopen AIDS patent deal. Nature 1987;326:425-426; Rensberger B. AIDS scientist Gallo, rival meet to discuss cooperation. The Washington Post, Saturday January 9, 1993, p. A2; Anderson C. Scientific misconduct: Popovic is cleared on all charges; Gallo case in doubt. Science 1993;262:981-983; Culliton BJ. Misconduct charges against Gallo withdrawn after Popovic decision. Nature 1993;366: 191; Brown D and Schwartz J. Case against AIDS scientist dropped: Agency decides evidence insufficient to sustain Gallo charges. The Washington Post Saturday, November 13, 1993, pp A I; 16; Greenberg DS. End of the Gallo case-maybe. The Lancet 1993;342: 1289; Staff writer. What to do about scientific misconduct. Nature 194;369:261-262.

20. Gutensohn N, Essex M, Francis DP and Hardy, Jr. WD. Risk to humans from exposure to feline leukemia virus: Epidemiological considerations; and Wong-Staal F, Koshy R and Gallo RC. Feline leukemia virus genomes associated with the domestic cat: A survey of normal and leukemic animals. In: Viruses in Naturally Occurring Cancers: Book A. Essex M, Todaro G, and zur Hausen H, Eds. Cold Spring Harbor Conferences on Cell Proliferation, Vol. 7, New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1980, pp.699-706; 623-634.

21. Gold M. Conspiracy of Cells Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1986.

22. Szmuness W, Stevens CE, Harley EJ, Zang EA and Oleszko WR et al. Hepatitis B vaccine: Demonstration of efficacy in a controlled clinical trial in a high-risk population in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine 1980;303;15:833-841.

Regarding Szmuness, I later learned from AIDS researcher and physician Alan Cantwell, Jr. that Wolf Szmuness became a professor of epidemiology at Columbia University School of Public Health, and chief of epidemiology at the New York City Blood Center in Manhattan shortly after his arrival in the united Slales. According to Cantwell, who credits Magic Shots (1982) by Allan Chase, Szmuness was born in 1919 in Poland, and came to the United States in 1968 after being expelled from Poland "by the communist government in an anti-semitic purge." With no other history, it is interesting that Szmuness, so quickly, in 1969, became the chief epidemiologist at the New York City Blood Center. For more information see: Cantwell A. AIDS and the Doctors of Death: An Inquiry into the Origin of the AIDS Epidemic. Los Angeles: Aries Rising Press, 1988.

23. An epitope is a molecular region on the surface of an invading microorganism or infectious agent capable of eliciting an immune response and of combining with the specific antibody produced by such a response. It is also called a "determinant, " or "antigenic determinant."

24. Gardner WU. International union against cancer: Brief history, organization, and program review of a nongovernmental voluntary organization. National Cancer Institute Monograph 1974 40:51- 55; Higginson J and Muir CS. Epidemiologic program of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. National Cancer Institute Monograph 1974 40:63-70.

25. Koch's postulates were advanced as a scientific method to determine the cause and effect relationship between a germ and the disease it is believed to cause. It is based on three tests: I) the microbe must be invariably found among organisms demonstrating the disease; 2) the microbe must not be present in disease-free organisms; and 3) the microorganisms must be effective in causing similar diseases among laboratory animals infected with the germ.

26. Strecker R. This is a bio-attack alert. The Strecker Group, 1501 Colorado Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90041. March 28, 1986, pp. 24-26.

27. Rowe DS. The WHO immunology laboratories at Lausanne. WHO Chronicle 1968;22;11 :496.

28. WHO Report (Based on the 1969 report The medical research programme of the World health Organization, 1964-1968, Geneva.) Five years of research of virus diseases. WHO Chronicle 1969:23;12:564-572.

29. Kalter SS and Heberling. The study of simian viruses. WHO Chronicle 1969;23;3: 112-117.

30. Three HIV genes -- gag, pol and env -- code for the structural pans of the AIDS virus envelope, or for the enzymes needed for gene transcription and insertion. According to authorities (Haselline WA, Wong-Staal F. The molecular biology of the AIDS virus. Scientific American 1988;52-62; and Kieny MP. Structure and regulation of the human AIDS virus. J AIDS 1990;3:395-402), the gag, or group specific antigen, gene codes for the p24 proteins which form an "inner shell" within the virus. The pol gene codes for the reverse transcriptase enzyme which transcribes viral RNA to form a proviral form of DNA. The pol gene also codes for the endonuclease enzyme which transpol1S the provirus into the host cell's nucleus and then deposits it into the host chromosome. The env gene codes for the "transmembrane protein" gp41 (glycosylated protein 41), which is incorporated into the envelope along with a closely associated gpl20 protein which itself may have cell and nerve killing effects. The tat gene codes for a protein that enhances viral replication.

31. Moscow World Service in English. Belitskiy on How, Where AIDS Virus Originated. March II, 1988. Published in International Affairs. FBIS-SOV-88-049, March 14, 1988, p. 24. Text discusses Seale's allegations, but does not furnish specifics.

32. Allison AC, Beveridge WIB, Cockburn We. et al. Virus-associated immunopathology: Animal models and implications for human disease. Bulletin WHO 1972;47:257-263.

33. Havana International Service in Spanish. German Claims AIDS Virus Created by Pentagon. FBIS-LAT 91-017. January 25, 1991. Caribbean, Cuba. Text discusses Dr. Jacobo Segal's allegations. Document PA 2401213091-0000 GMT 24, January 1991.

34. Coven NM. Cutting Edge: A history of Fort Derrick, Maryland 1943-1993. Fort Detrick, MD: Headquarters, U. S. Army Garrison, Public Affairs Office, 1993. [For copies call 301-619-2018].

35. Havana International Service in Spanish. Commentary Accuses U.S. of Developing AIDS Virus. LAT 24, June 1987. Caribbean, Cuba "Viewpoint" commentary read by Angel Hernandez. Document PA 200342- 000GMT19, June 1987. pp. A5-6.
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Re: EMERGING VIRUSES: AIDS & EBOLA: Nature, Accident or Inte

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Part 2 of 4

Chapter 8, HIV-1, 2 and the "Big Bang"

1. Gonda MA, Braun MJ, Caner SG, Kost TA, Bess JW, Arthur LO and Van Der Maaten MJ. Characterization and molecular cloning of a bovine lentivirus related to human immunodeficiency virus. Nature 1987;330:388-391.

2. Maruyama K and Dmochowski L. Cross-species transmission of mammalian RNA tumor viruses. Texas Medicine 1973;69-75. Regarding Hilary Koprowski serving at 1he Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, see: Silversti LG. The Biology of Oncogenic Viruses. New York: American Elsevier Publishing Company, Inc., 1971, p. 332; Huebner RJ, Todaro GJ, Sarma P, Hanley JW, Freeman AE, Peters RL, Whitmire CE, Meier H and Gilden RV Switched Off' Vertically Transmitted C-type RNA Tumor Viruses as Determinants of Spontaneous and Induced Cancer: A New Hypothesis of Viral Carcinogenesis. In: Defectiveness, Rescue and Stimulation of Oncogenic Viruses: Second International Symposium on Tumor Viruses, Royaumont, France June 3-5, 1969. Paris: Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique, 1970, pp. 33-77; Miller JM, Miller LD, Olsen C and Gillette KG. Virus-like panicles in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocyte cultures with references to bovine lymphosarcoma. Journal National Cancer Institute 1969;43:1297-1305; Burny A, Bex F, Chantrenne J, Cleuter Y, Dekegel D, Ghysdael J, Kettmann R, Leclercq M, Leunen J, Mammerickx M and Ponetelle D. Bovine leukemia virus involvement in enzootic bovine leucosis [lymphosarcoma in cattle]. Adv. Cancer Res. 1978;28:251; See also: Burny A, Bruck G, Cleuter y et al. Bovine leukemia virus, a distinguished member of the human T-Iymphotropic virus family. Soc. Press. Tokyo: VNU Science Press, Utrecht, pp. 219-227, 1983.

3. McClure MA, Johnson MS, Feng DF and Doolittle RF. Sequence comparisons of retroviral proteins: Relative rates of change and general phylogeny. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 1988;85:2469-73.

4. Devare SG. Bovine leukemia virus: an etiologic agent associated with lymphosarcoma of domestic cattle. In: Viruses in Naturally Occurring Cancers: Book B. Essex M, Todaro G, and zur Hausen H, Eds. Cold Spring Harbor Conferences on Cell Proliferation, Vol. 7, New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1980, pp. 943-952.

5. Gallo RC, Miller NR, Saxinger WC and Gillespie D. Primate RNA Tumor Virus-Like DNA Synthesized Endogenously by RNA-Dependent DNA Polymerase in Virus-like Panicles from Fresh Human Acute Leukemic Blood Cells. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences 1973;70; II :3219- 3224.

6 Chopra H. Ebert P, Woodside N, Kvedar J, Albert S and Brennan M. Electron microscopic detection of simian-type virus particles in human milk. Nature New Biology 1973;243: 159-160.

7.Gillespie D, Gillespie S, Gallo RC, East J and Dmochowski L. Genetic origin ofRDI14 and other RNA tumor viruses assayed by molecular hybridization. Nature New Biology 1973;224:52-54.

8. Gallo RC, Miller NR, Saxinger WC and Gillespie D. Primate RNA Tumor Virus-Like DNA Synthesized Endogenously by RNA-Dependent DNA Polymerase in Virus-like Particles from Fresh Human Acute Leukemic Blood Cells. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences 1973;70; I 1:3219- 3224.

9. For documentation of Hilary Koprowski serving at The Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, see: Silversti LG. The Biology of Oncogenic Viruses. New York: American Elsevier Publishing Company, Inc., 1971, p. 332.

10. Montagnier L. Alterations de la surface des cellules BHK21 en rapport avec leur transformation par des virus ongogenes. In: Defectiveness. Rescue and Stimulation of Oncogenic Viruses: Second International Symposium on Tumor Viruses, Royaumont, France June 3-5, 1969. Paris: Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique, 1970, p. 6.

11. Huebner RJ, Todaro GJ, Sarma P, Hartley JW, Freeman AE, Peters RL, Whitmire CE, Meier H and Gilden RV Switched Off' Vertically Transmined C-type RNA Tumor Viruses as Determinants of Spontaneous and Induced Cancer: A New Hypothesis of Viral Carcinogenesis. In: Defectiveness, Rescue and Stimulation of Oncogenic Viruses: Second International Symposium on Tumor Viruses, Royaumont, France June 3-5, 1969. Paris: Centre National De La Recherche Scientifique, 1970, pp. 33-77

12. For more on ethnic cancer studies see: MacMahon B. The ethnic distribution of cancer mortality in New York City, 1955. Acta Unio Internat. contra cancrum, 1960 16;1716; Newill VA. Distribution of cancer mortality among ethnic subgroups of the white population of New York City, 1953-58. 1. National Cancer Institute 1961 26:405.

It was also interesting to learn that the Public Health Research Institute of the City of New York, Inc. -- a for-profit organization -- promoted its "areas of interest" as "Virology, viral oncology; molecular biophysics; genetics; microbiology; and biochemistry." See: Science and Technology Division National Referral Center. Biological Sciences: A Director of Information Resources in the United States. Washington, D. C.: Library of Congress, 1972, p. 342.

13. Gardner WU. International union against cancer: Brief history, organization, and program review of a nongovernmental voluntary organization. National Cancer Institute Monograph 1974 40:51-55.

14. Higginson J and Muir CS. Epidemiologic program of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. National Cancer Institute Monograph 197440:63-70.

15. Hilleman MR. Prospects for vaccines against cancer. In: Viruses, Evolution and Cancer-Basic Considerations. E. Kurstak and K. Maramorosch Eds. New York: Academic Press, 1974, pp. 549-560.

16. This expert comment raises the question as to whether genetic predisposition for at least some human cancers existed in nature prior to extensive viral experimentation beginning in the 19505, as these experiments may have significantly altered gene pools and oncogenic susceptibility.

17. From: American Men & Women of Science, 1995-96 -19th Edition: A Biographical Directory of Today's Leaders in Physical, Biological and Related Sciences, Volume 2, C-F. New Providence, NJ: R. R. Bowker, p. 1417.

18. Preston R. The Hot Zone; A Terrifying True Story. New York: Random House, 1994.

19. Gutensohn N, Essex M, Francis DP and Hardy, Jr. WD. Risk to humans from exposure to feline leukemia virus: Epidemiological considerations. In: Viruses in Naturally Occurring Cancers: Book A. Essex M, Todaro GJ, and zur Hausen H, Eds. Cold Spring Harbor Conferences on Cell Proliferation, Vol. 7, New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 1980, pp.699-706; 623-634; Francis DP, Essex M and Hardy, Jr. WD. Excretion of feline leukaemia virus by naturally infected pet cats. Nature 269:252; Essex M and Francis DF. The risk to humans from malignant disease of their pets: An unsettled issue. J. Am. Anim. Hosp. Assoc. 197612:386.

20. Shilts R. And the Band Played On: Politics, People, and the AIDS Epidemic. New York: Penguin Books, 1987, p. 107;128-129.

21. Gallaher RE, Ting RC and Gallo RC. A common change aspartyl-tRNA in polyoma and SV transformed cells. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta 1972;272:568-582.

22. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Viruses in Naturally Occurring Cancers: Book A. Cold Spring Harbor Conferences on Cell Proliferation Volume 7, M. Essex, G. Todaro and H. zur Hausen Eds. New York: CHS Publications, 1980, pp. 589-708.

23. Shilts R. Op. cit.., p. 118.

24. Shilts R. Ibid., p. 128.

25. Horowitz LG. Deadly Innocence: Solving the Greatest Murder Mystery in the History of American Medicine. Rockport, MA: Tetrahedron, Inc., 1994, p. 11.

26. Goldman BA and Chappelle M. Is HIV=AIDS wrong? In These Times. August 5-August 18, 1992. pp. 8-10; also see Duesberg's original arguments in: Duesberg P. HIV is not the cause of AIDS. Science 1988;241:514-515. Gallo's response to Duesberg's theory were also published during this policy forum. See: Blattner W, Gallo RC, and Temin HM. HIV causes AIDS. Science 1988;241 :515-517.

27. Duesberg's study was revealed in: NCI staff. The Special Virus Cancer Program: Progress Report #9 Office of the Associate Scientific Director for Viral Oncology (OASDVO). 1. B. Moloney, Ed., Washington, D. c.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1972, p. 233. Earlier studies at the University of California on sarcoma and leukemia viruses in cows and monkeys beginning in 1969 were revealed in: NCI staff. The Special Virus Cancer Program: Progress Report #8. Office of the Associate Scientific Director for Viral Oncology (OASDVO). J. B. Moloney, Ed., Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1971, pp. 257-258. Note: These reports are very hard to find. Few libraries hold them, including the NCI Library at Fort Detrick. It was available through Davies Library, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Government Documents Department Depository, Reference # HE 20.3152:V81.

28. Duesberg PH, Vogt PK and Canaani E. Structure and replication of avian tumor virus RNA. In: The Biology of Oncogenic Viruses: Proceedings of the second Lepetit Colloquium, Paris, November 1970. L. G. Silvestri, Ed., New York: Elsevier, 1971, pp. 154-166.

29. Duesberg PH and Robinson WS. Inhibition of mouse leukemia virus (MLV) replication by actinomycin D. Virology 1967 31:742-746.

30. Duesberg P, Beemon K, Lai M and Vogt PK. Recombinants of avian RNA tumor viruses: Characteristics of the virion RNA. In: Viral Transformation and Endogenous Viruses. A. S. Kaplan, Ed., New York: Academic Press, 1974, pp. 137-153.

31. Neth R, Gallo RC, Spiegelman S and Stohlman Jr. F. Modern Trends in Human Leukemia: Biological, Biochemical and Virological Aspects. New York: Grune & Stratton, Inc., 1974, pp. 348-349.

32. Wu AM and Gallo RC. Life cycle of RNA oncogenic viruses. Ibid., p. 148; See also Wu A, Prival J, Paran M and Gallo RC. Hemopoietic stem cells and leukemia. Ibid., p. 60.

33. Duesberg P. HIV is not the cause of AIDS. Science I!lHH;241:514-517; see also Blattner W, Gallo RC and Temin HM. HIV causes AIDS. Science 1988;241:515; see also: Duesberg P and Yiamouyiannis J. AIDS. Delaware, Ohio: Health Action Press, 1995; for discussion on virus/host protein complex interactions leading to autoimmune diseases see: World Health Organization. Memoranda: Virus-associated immunopathology: Animal models and implications for human disease-Effects of viruses on the immune system, immune-complex diseases, and antibody-mediated immunologic injury. Bulletin of the WHO 1972;47:2:257-263.

34. Corbitt G, Bailey AS and Williams G. HIV infection in Manchester, 1959. The Lancet 1990;336:51.

35. Zhu T and Ho D. Was HIV present in 1959? Nature 1995;374:503-504.

36. Garrett L. The Coming Plague: Newly Emerging Diseases in a World Out of Balance. New York: Penguin Books, 1994, p. 380.

37. Corbitt G and Bailey AS. AIDS in Manchester, 1959? The Lancet 1995;345:1058.

38. Nahmias AJ, Weiss J, Yao X, Lee F, Kodsi R, Schanfield M, Matthews T, Bologniesi D, Durack D, Motulsky A, Kanki P and Essex M. Evidence for human infection with an HTLV III/LAV-like virus in Central Africa, 1959. The Lancet May 31, 1986:1279-80.

39. Garrett, Op. cit., pp. 371-81.

40. Saxinger WC, Levine PH, Deane AG, deThe, G, Lange-Wantzin, G, Moghissi, J, Mei Hoh, FL, Samgadharan MH. and Gallo RC. Evidence for Exposure to HTLV-III in Uganda Before 1973. Science 1995;227: I036-1038.

41. Lyons SF, Schoub BD, McGillivray GM, Sher R, and Dos Santos, L. Lack of evidence of HTLV-III endemic in southern Africa. New England Journal of Medicine 1995;312:1257-1258.

42. Carswell JW, Sewankambo N, Lloyd G, and Downing RG., How long has the AIDS virus been in Uganda? The Lancet (May 24)1986;849:1217.

43. Levy J, Pan LZ, Beth-Giraldo E, Kaminsky LS, Henle G, Henle W, and Giraldo G. Absence of antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus in sera from Africa prior to 1975. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 1986;83:7935-7937.

44 Kuhls TL. Nishanian PG. Cherry JD. Shen JP. Neumann CG. Stiehm ER. Enenger RB. Bwibo NO. and Koech D. Analysis of false positive H[V-I serologic testing in Kenya. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 1988;9:179-185.

45. Szmuness W. Stevens CEo Harley EJ. Zang EA and Oleszko WR et al. Hepatitis B vaccine: Demonstration of efficacy in a controlled clinical trial in a high-risk population in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine 1980;303; 15:833-841.

46. Shilts R. And the Band Played On: Politics, People and the AIDS Epidemic. New York: Penguin Books. 1987. p. 539.

47. Cantwell A. Queer Blood: The secret AIDS genocide plot. Los Angeles: Aries Rising Press. 1993. p. 27.

48. Krugman S. Overby LR. Mushahwar [K. Ling C-M. Forsner GG and Deinhardt F. Viral hepatitis. type B: Studies on natural history and prevention reexamined. New England Journal of Medicine [979;200:101-6.

49. Wine MH. Wine CL. Minnich LL. et al., AIDS in 1968. Journal of the American Medical Association 1984;251 :2657.

50. Garry RF. Witte MH. Gottlieb A. et al. Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968. Journal of the American Medical Association 1988;260:2085-87.

51. Kyle WS. Simian retroviruses. poliovaccine. and origin of AIDS. The Lancet 1992;339:600- 601.

52. Essex M. Kanki P. The origins of the AIDS virus. Scientific American 1988;259:64-71.

53. Strecker RB and Elswood BF. Origin of AIDS (letter to the editor). The Lancet 1992;339:867.

54. Schulz TF. Origin of AIDS (letter to the editor). The Lancet 1992;339:867.

55. Personal communication from Walter Kyle. May 19. 1996. Walter Kyle may be reached at his office at Sixty South Street. Hingham. MA 02043. telephone: 617-741-5953. fax: 617-741-5166.

56. Drew L. Lichtenstein. Issel CJ and Montelaro RC. Genomic quasi species associated with the initiation of infection and disease in ponies experimentally infected with equine infectious anemia virus. Journal of Virology 1996;70;6:3346-3354.

57. Shaheen F. Duan L. Zhu M. Bagasra 0 and Pomerantz RJ. Targeting human immunodeficiency virus type I reverse transcriptase by intracellular expression of single-chain variable fragments to inhibit early stages of the viral life cycle Journal of Virology 1996;70;6:3392-3400.

58. Sakalian M. Parker SD. Weldon RA and Hunter E. Synthesis and assembly of retrovirus gag precursors into immature caps ids in vitro. Journal of Virology 1996;70;6:3706-3715.

59. Gallo RC. Miller NR. Saxinger WC and Gillespie D. Primate RNA Tumor Virus-Like DNA Synthesized Endogenously by RNA-Dependent DNA Polymerase in Virus-like Particles from Fresh Human Acute Leukemic Blood Cells. Proceedings National Academy of Sciences 1973;70; 11 :3219- 3224

60. Chen Z. Telfer P. Gettie A. Reed P. Zhang L. Ho DD and Marx PA. Genetic characterization of New West African simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsm: Geographic clustering of household-derived SIV strains with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtypes and genetically diverse viruses from a single feral sooty mangabey troop. Journal of Virology 1996;70;6:3617-3627.

61. Kanki PJ. Barin S. M' Boup. et al., New human T-lymphotropic retrovirus (HTLV-IV) related to simian T-Iymphotropicvirus Type III (STLV-Illagm). Science 1986;232:238-43.

62. Kanki PJ. M' Boup S. Marlink R. et al., Sequence of simian immunodeficiency virus and its relationship to the human immunodeficiency viruses. Nature 1987;328:539-43.

63. Chakrabarti L. Guyader M. Alizon M. et al.. Sequence of simian immunodeficiency virus from macaque and its relationship to other human simian retroviruses. Nature 1987;328:543-47.

64. Myers G. MacInnes K. and Myers L. "Phylogenetic Moments in the AIDS Epidemic." Chapter 12 in S. S. Morese. ed .. Emerging Viruses (Oxford. Eng.: Oxford University Press. 1993).

65. Hope R. KU medical center virologist develops first model for testing HIV medications and vaccines. Univ. of Kansas Relations press release. October 10. 1995 (913-588-5240) and picked up by AIDS Weekly on October 23. 1995; see also Joag SV. Li Z. Foresman L. Stephens EB. Zhao LJ Pinson DM. McClure HM and Narayan O. SIV-HIV Chimeric virus that causes progressive loss of CD4+ T Cells and AIDS in pig-tailed macaques. Submitted to J of Virology in 1995.

Chapter 9. Early Targeting of Minority America

1. Dubos RJ. Environmental impact on health and disease. Industrial Medicine and Surgery 1961 ;30:369.

2. Yon Hoffman N. Citizen Cohn: The Life and Times of Roy Cohn. New York: Doubleday. 1988. pp. 127-35; 284-87;331-41.

3. Powers RG. Secrecy and Power: The Life of 1. Edgar Hoover. New York: The Free Press. 1987.

4. Strecker R. The Strecker Memorandum. The Strecker Group, 1501 Colorado Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90041, 1988.

5. Szmuness W, Stevens CE, Harley EJ, Zang EA and Oleszko WR et al. Hepatitis B vaccine: Demonstration of efficacy in a controlled clinical trial in a high-risk population in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine 1980;303; 15:833-841.

6. Horowitz LG. Deadly Innocence: Solving the greatest murder mystery in the history of American medicine. Rockport, MA: Tetrahedron, Inc., 1994.

7. Lait J and Mortimer L. Washington Confidential. New York: Crown Publishers, 1953.

8. D'Emilio J. Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities: The Making of a Homosexual Minority in the United States, 1940-1970. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983.

9. Newman DK. Protest, Politics and Prosperity: Black Americans and White Institutions, 1940- 1975. New York: Pantheon Books, 1978.

10. Covert NM. Cutting Edge: A history of Fort Detrick, Maryland 1943-1993. Fort Detrick, MD: Headquarters, U. S. Army Garrison, Public Affairs Office, 1993, p. 39-40; Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. Tenth Edition. Springfield, MA 1994, pp. 710, 924.

11. Buckley WF. Reeves' Kennedy. National Review, December 31, 1994 pp. 30-41.3. Hoover JE. "Turbulence on Campus, " PTA Magazine, Feb. 1966, p. 4.

12. Hoover JE. "Turbulence on Campus, " PTA Magazine, Feb. 1966, p. 4.

13. Goldstein RJ. Political Repression in Modern America. Cambridge, MA: Schenckmann/Two Continents, 1978, pp. 449-458.

14. Powers RG. Op. cit, p. 424-475.

15. Senate Select Committee. Final Report, Book III, pp. 179-189.

16. Hoover to SAC, Albany, Aug. 25, 1967, Senate Select Committee Hearings, Book, III, p. 180; Senate Select Committee, Hearings, Vol. 6, FBI, pp. 387-390.

17. See "King, " Hoover O&C File 23, in which the Director attempted to persuade Senator Scott not to honor King, May 22, 1968; Hoover to Tolson and others, June 19, 1969, FBI File 67-9524, Tolson Personnel File. The Panther Directives were issued on November 25, 1968, and January 30, 1969 (See Senate Select Committee, Final Report, Book III, p. 22). Also see Sanford J. U. FBI. Boston: Atlantic Monthly Pres, 1975, p. 465; and Powers RG. Op. cit. p. 458.

18. Ungar SJ. FBI. Boston: Atlantic Monthly Pres, 1975, p. 466

19. Powers RG. Op. cit, p. 458.

20. Richards D. Played Out: The Jean Seberg Story. New York: Playboy, 1981, p. 237.

21. Powers RG. Op. Cit, p. 460.

22. Bair D. Simone de Beauvoir: a Biography. New York: Summit Books, 1990, pp. 440-482.

23. Bair, Ibid. p. 518.

24. Bair, Ibid. p. 474.

25. Bair, Ibid. p. 480.

26. Goldstein RJ. Op. cit., p. 458; Senate Select Committee. Final Report, Book III, p. 519; and for documentation on Dr. Henry Kissinger's powerful National Security Staff position, see: Isaacson W. Kissinger: A Biography. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992, p. 135-672.

27. Rockefeller NA, Connor JT, Dillon CD, Griswold EN, Reagan R, and Kirkland, et al. Report to the President by the Commission on CIA Activities Within the United States .. New York: The Rockefeller Commission, 1975, p. 21 I.

Chapter 10. African Foreign Policy and Population Control

1. Lambo TA. The African mind in contemporary conflict: The Jacques Parisot Foundation Lecture, 1971. World Health Organization Chronicle 1971;25;8:343-353.

2. Powers RG. Secrecy and Power: The Life of J. Edgar Hoover. New York: The Free Press, 1987, p. 469.

3. Kumar S. Cold war and covert action in Africa. In: CIA and the Third World: A Study in Crypto- Diplomacy. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., 1981, pp. 65-92.

4. Department of Defense Appropriations For 1970: Hearings Before A Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations House of Representatives, Ninety-first Congress, First Session, H.B. 15090, Part 5, Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, Dept. of the Army. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1969 -- the text cited in previous chapters was discovered through the FOIA on page 129, but is missing from the public record.

5. House Republican Task Force Activities. Hon. George Bush of Texas in the House of Representatives. In: Congressional Record: Proceedings and Debates of the 91st Congress First Session. Volume 115-Pan 16. July 29, 1969, p. 21304.

6. Rogers WP. A report of the Secretary of State: United States Foreign Policy, 1971. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Department of State Publication 8634, General Foreign Policy Series 260. Released March 1972. p. 328.

7. Nixon R. U. S. foreign policy for the 1970s: Shaping a durable peace. A report to the Congress by the President of the United States, May 3, 1973. The Department of Sla/e Bulletin. Volume LXVIII, No. 1771, June 4, 1973, pp. 794-798.

8. Williams MJ. Sahel African disaster relief and recovery assistance: Text of a Report for the President. Department of State Bulletin, November 26, 1973, pp. 669-673.

9. Newsom DD. African development and U. S. Foreign Policy. Speech made before the annual meeting of the African Studies Association at Syracuse, N.Y., on Nov. 2, 1997. Department of State Bulletin, December 31, 1973, p. 789.

10. Kissinger H. Foreign assistance and America's purposes in the world. Speech made before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, June 4, 1974. Department of State Bulletin, June 24, 1974, pp. 710-715.

II. Kissinger H. Secretary Kissinger testifies on security assistance program. Statement made be- fore the House Committee on International Relations. Department of State Bulletin, November 24, 1975, pp. 747-748.

12. Department of State. Memorandum of Understanding Between ERTS-Zaire and the United Slates National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Diplomatic List. Washington, D. c.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1975, pp. 1700-1704.

13. Ranelagh J. The Agency: The Rise and Decline of the CIA. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985, p. 732.

14. Department of State Staff. World Population: The Silent Explosion. Department of State Bulletin. November, 1978. pp. 1-8. The Series were available through the Correspondence Management Division, Bureau of Public Affairs, Department of State, Washington, D.C. 20520

15. Fredericksen H. Feedbacks in economic and demographic transition. Science 1969;166:837.)

16. Ravenholt RT. Implications of mass immunization programs on the world population problem. In: Pan American World Health Organization. Proceedings of the International Conference on the Application of Vaccines Against Viral, Rickettsial, and Bacterial Diseases in Man. December 14-18, 1970. Scientific Publication No. 226. Washington, D.C.: Pan American Health Organization. 1en J, pp 527-528.

17. Who's Who in America, 49th Edition, Volume I A-K. New Providence, NJ: Marquis Who's Who, 1995, p.552.

18. Califano, Jr. JA. Health: U. S. Initiatives in International Health. Department of State Bulletin. September, 1978, pp. 35-38.

19. Hartmann B. Population control as foreign policy. Covert Action Information Bulletin. Winter 1991-92;39:26-30.

20. Simons H. Repackaging population control. Covert Action Quarterly 1994;51 :33-44.

21. Eberstadt N. Foreign Aid and American Purpose. Washington D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1988, p. 104.

22. Porrit J. Birth of brave New World Order. Guardian Weekly (London), September 11, 1994.

23. Gordon L. Woman's Body, Woman's Rights: A Social History of Birth Control in America. New York: Grossman, 1976. p. 400-401.

24. Foster G. quoted in "Global Demographic Trends to the Year 2010: Implications for U.S. Security, " Washington Quarterly, Spring 1989, and Information Project for Africa, Population Control and National Security. Washington, D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1989, p. 54.)

25. National Security Study Memorandum 200 (NSSM 200). "Implications of Worldwide Population Growth for US Security and Overseas Interests." U.S. National Security Council Report, December 10, 1974.

26. Ibid., pp. 21-22;115.

27. Robinson, Jr LH. Report to Africa Bureau, Office of Regional Affairs, Agency for International Development. Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers, November 6, 1981, pp. 15-16; Also see Ambassadors of Colonialism: the International Development Trap. An essay on the Benevolent Superpower, Sustainable Development, and Other Contemporary Myths, (Washington, D.C., Information Project for Africa, Inc., 1993.

28. Knowles JC. "Tools for Population Policy Development OPTIONS for Population Policy Project" (AID-funded project), 1988, p. 23.

29. In 1982 a US. General Accounting Office report cautioned that many NGOs in the U.S. were becoming overly dependent on USAID for financing their projects. See, "Voluntary Aid for Development: the Role of NGOs, " OECD (Paris: OECD, 1988), p. 113.

30. NGO Review 1993. The well-spent pound: an assessment of aid agencies '05 priorities for population activities. London: House of Commons, March, 1994, p. 48. Author Helen Simmons reviewed this work and footnoted, "While UNICEF was set up by the U.N. and so is not strictly an NGO, it increasingly operates in and is treated as one in the development circles. Even relatively modest NGOs still have fantastic incomes in African terms. The Save the Children Fund's (SCF) income of over $ I49 million in 1991-92 outstrips that of the Eritrean government five times over."

31. Kaplan R. The coming anarchy. Atlantic Monthly February, 1994, p. 58.

32. Thoreau HD. Journal [1906]. September 7, 1851

33. Sai FT and Chester LA. The role of the world bank in shaping Third World population policy. In: Population Policy: Contemporary Issues, G. Roberts, Ed., New York: Praeger, 1990, p. 183.

34. The Futures Group. The United Republic of Tanzania: Population and development. Washington, D.C., 1980, p. 45. For more information on the use of RAPID presentations, see Sai and Chester, Op. cit.

35. Associated Press. HRS can't do everything for everybody, task group's chief says. The Orlando Sentinel, Tuesday, January 8, 1991. The position articulated here by Janet Reno, prior to becoming attorney general in the Clinton administration, was that social reforms were needed to respond to "the failed family institution." The breakdown of the family, she said was the chief cause of crime and drug use in the United States.

36. Ward SJ, Poernomo I, Sidi S, Simmons R and Simmons G Service Delivery Systems and Quality of Care in the Implementation of NO/plant in Indonesia. New York: Population Control Council, February, 1990, pp. 45, 50-51.

37. Allen C. Norplant -- Birth control or coercion? Wall Street Journal, September 13, 1991, p. 10.

Chapter 11. Henry Kissinger's "New World Order"

1. Isaacson W. Kissinger: A Biography. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992, pp. 26-28

2. "America's Clausewitz was banned from Furth's city schools, " Further Nachrichten, Oct. 15, 1958; Collier BL. The Road to Peking. NIT Magazine, November 14, 1971. As noted in Kissinger by Kalb and Kalb, p. 35: "Almost word for word, he has relayed the same disclaimers to other interviewers."

3. Blumenfeld, R. Henry Kissinger. New York: New American Library, 1974, pp. 35-43.

4. Lina Rau Schubach, Dec. 8, 1988 quoted in Isaacson. Op. cit p. 26.

5. Menachem Lion, May 10, 1988 quoted in Isaacson. Op. cit p. 26.

6. Fritz Kraemer, May 14, 1988. quoted in Isaacson. Op. cit p. 29. Kremer has reported essentially the same views over the years. See also the New York Post, June 3, 1974.

7. Ward D. "Kissinger: A psychohistory." In: Henry Kissinger: His Personality and Policies, Dan Caldwell, ed.: Durham, N.C.: Duke Univ. Press, 1983.

8. Dickson P. Kissinger and the Meaning of History. New York: Cambridge Press, 1979. p. 43.

9. Isaacson, Op cit.. p. 30-31.

10. Themes expressed in a letter from Kissinger to "My dear Mrs. Frank, " April 21, 1946, courtesy of Paula Kissinger and Harold Reissner; Op. cit. Issacson, p. 53.

11. Thimmesch N. The iron mentor of the Pentagon. WP Magazine, March 2, 1975; Fritz Kraemer, May 4 and May 14, 1988. See Isaacson, Op. cit, p. 55.

12. "Memories of Mr. Henry, " Newsweek, Oct. 8, 1973, p. 48;.Henry Kissinger, December 19, 1988; Blumenfeld, Op cit. pp. 68-80; Isaacson, Op cit. pp. 53-55.

13. In 1945, the War Department set up a top-secret program initially named Project Overcast, and later renamed Project Paperclip which according to William Preston, a Professor of History at John Jay College of Criminal Justice of the City University of New York, was initiated to "locate, recruit, and exfiltrate to the United States hundreds of Nazi scientists, specialists in rocketry, biological warfare, aviation medicine, wind tunnels, and the like." Quoting from a "Secret Security Information" memo on Paperclip, "The Department of Defense has two classified projects, deemed of utmost importance. that result in the employment and exploitation of foreign scientists by the Department: .. PROJECT 63 is primarily a denial program with utilization as a desirable feature. The aim of this program is to secure employment in the United States of certain preeminent German and Austrian specialists, thus denying their services to potential enemies. Such specialists sign a six-month Department of Defense contract which guarantees them an income until permanent employment is arranged with Department of Defense agencies or industry within the United States." Please see: Preston W. The real treason. Cover; Action Information Bulletin 1986;25:23-26.

14. Smith RN. The Harvard Century. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986, p. 268-178; McGeorge Bundy, February 8, 1989.

15. Isaacson Op. Cit, pp. 60-61.

16. Isaacson's interviews with: Henry Kissinger, March 8, 1989; Arthur Gilman, February 14, 1989; Herbert Engelhardt, February 27, 1989; and Kissinger transcripts, House file, Harvard Registrar's Office; Ibid.

17. Recommendation for Phi Beta Kappa, by Elliott, Kissinger House file; Isaacson Op. Cit, p. 63.

18. Stoessinger J. Henry Kissinger: The Anguish of Power. New York: Norton, 1976, p. 4.

19. Op. cit. Isaacson, pp. 64-67.

20. Dickson P. Kissinger and the Meaning of History. New York: Cambridge, 1979.

21. Kissinger H. "The Meaning of History" Harvard University doctoral thesis. pp. 1-17.

22. Isaacson advises that Stanley Hoffmann, "a Harvard colleague, is the foremost analyst of the relationship between Kissinger's intellectual ideas and his policies. Particularly valuable are:" Hoffman S. Dead Ends. Cambridge: Ballinger, 1983, pp. 17-66; and Hoffman S. Primacy or World Order. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978, pp. 33-97.

23. Dickson, Op. cit., pp. 35, 47.

24. Graubard S. Kissinger: Portrait of a Mind. New York: Norton, 1973, p. 55.

25. Isaacson, Op. cit., pp. 70-71.

26. Memo from the special agent in charge, Boston, to the Central Research Division of the FBI, July 15, 1953; see Diamond S. Kissinger and the FBI. The Nation, November 10, 1979; Ibid.

27. Henry Kissinger, March 8, 1989; letter from Kissinger to his parents, June 4. 1952; Isaacson, Op. cit., pp. 80-81.

28. Kissinger H. A World Restored: Metternich. Castlereagh, and the Problems of Peace, 1812-22. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1957.; Kissinger, March 8, 1989; Hoffman, Op. cit., p. 36; Isaacson, Op. cit., pp. 75-76.

29. Stoessinger, Op. cit., p. 14.

30. Kissinger H. The limitations of diplomacy. The New Republic, May 9, 1955.

31. Isaacson, Op. cit., pp. 82-86.

32. Graubard, Op. cit., p. 104.

33. Isaacson, Op. cit., 90-93

34. Starr P. The Social Transformation of American Medicine: The rise of a sovereign profession and the making of a vast industry: New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1982, pp. 338-341.

35. Strickland S. Politics, Science and Dread Disease: A Short History of United States Medical Research Policy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1958, pp. 1-14.

36. Starr, Op. cit., p. 340.

37. Brown RE. Rockefeller Medicine Men: Capitalism and Medical Care in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979, pp. 3-4; 119-30.

38. Kissinger, Reflections on American diplomacy. Foreign Affairs, October, 1956.

39. Isaacson, Op. cit., 129-137.

40. Department of Defense Appropriations For 1970: Hearings Before A Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations House of Representatives, Ninety-first Congress, First Session, H.B. 15090, Part 5, Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, Dept. of the Army. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., July 1, 1969, p. 129.

41. Who's Who in America, 49th Edition, Volume I, A-K. New Providence, NJ., 1995, p. 123. Roy Ash's address for anyone wishing to write is: 1900 Avenue of the Stars, Suite 1600, Los Angeles, CA 90067-4407; Information on Alexander Meigs Haig, Jr. was found in the same publication on page, 1002.

42. Isaacson, Op. cit., 151-156.

43. Kissinger H. The Necessity of Choice. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1961, pp. 345-48.

44. Colodny L. Silent Coup: The Removal of a President. New York: SI. Martin's Press., 199, p. 53; see also Isaacson, Op. cit. 186- 188.

45. Hersh S. The Price of Power: Kissinger in the Nixon White House. New York: Summit, 1983, pp. 57-58; Morris R. Haig: The General's Progress. New York: Playboy, 1982, pp. 141-142.

46. Isaacson, Op. cit., pp. 188-191.

47. Isaacson, Op. cit., pp. 212-233; Morris R. Uncertain Greatness. New York: Harper & Row 1977, p. 159.

48. Summers A. Official and Confidential: The Secret Life of J. Edgar Hoover. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1993 p. 395.

49. Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Dr. Kissinger's Role in Wiretapping, 1974, p. 23.

50. Isaacson, Op. cit., pp. 202-205.

51. Haldeman's handwritten meeting notes, June 4, 1969; Ibid.

52. Hersh S. The Price of Power: Kissinger in the Nixon White House. New York: Summit, J 983. p. 36.

53. NYT, February 5, 1969; Time, February 14, 1969.

54. First Annual Report on U.S. Foreign Policy ("State of the World" report, February 18, 1970, 124-25; Leacacos J. The Nixon NSC. Foreign Policy, Winter 1971-72, p. 7.

55. What's in a name? Coincidentally, the German word Zum-WaIt, literally means "to the world." 56. Washington Correspondent. Gas and germ warfare renounced but lingers on. Nature 1970 228;273:707-8; National Academy of Sciences. Symposium on chemical and biological warfare. Proc. Nat Acad Sci 1970;65:250-279; Department of Defense Appropriations For 1970: Hearings Before A Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations House of Representatives, Ninety-first Congress, First Session, H.B. 15090, Part 5, Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, Dept. of the Army. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1969; WHO News and Notes. Regional Committee for Africa. WHO Chronicle 1969;23;8:341-344.
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Part 3 of 4

Chapter 12. Silent Coup in American Intelligence

1. Isaacson W. Kissinger: A Biography. New York: Simon & Schuster. 1992, p. 228.

2 Summers A Official and Confidential: The Secret Life of J. Edgar Hoover. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1993 pp. 409-410.

3. Isaacson. Op. cit., p. 148.

4. Summers, Op. cit., p. 375-376.

5. U.S. House Resolution 262, 81st Cong., 1st sess., cited in Max Lowenthal, The Federal Bureau of Investigation (New York: William Sloan Associates, 1950), p. 546; Powers RG. Secrecy and Power: The Life of J. Edgar Hoover. New York: The Free Press, 1987, pp. 299;439-40.

6. Powers, Op. cit, p. 450.

7. Rockefeller NA, et. al., Op. cit., p. 233.

8. Summers, Op. cit., p. 397-399.

9 Ibid., p. 400-411.

10. William Preston, Jr. and Ellen Ray, chief administrators of the Fund for Open Information and Accountability, Inc. and frequent contributors to Covert Action Information Bulletin, published in Washington, D.C., cite many journalists who are "the disinformation peddlers-people who may, or may not at a given moment, be in the direct employ of the CIA or other intelligence agencies, but who can be counted on to report, embellish. or pass on whatever their disinformation masters in Washington decree .... In fact, coordination between the development of propaganda and disinformation themes by the covert media assets, the overt propaganda machine, and the bevy of puppet journalists is quite calculated ... " Among this group's most common ploys is to publish politically correct exposes making the journalist an expert witness for interrogation by Congressional investigating committees. "After that, " these authors note, "they are given credibility by the 'respectable' Cold War publications like the National Review, Commentary, and the New Republic. And finally, since they have repeated the theme so many times it must be true, they are given the opportunity to write Op Ed pieces for the New York Times or the Washington Post." Activities much like the one Summers chronicled regarding former Attorney General Ramsey Clark's editorial in The Washington Post which called for Hoover's resignation. For more information, please see: Preston W and Ray E. Disinformation and mass deception: Democracy as a cover story. Covert Action Information Bulletin 1983;19:7-8.

11. Rockefeller NA, Connor JT, Dillon CD, Griswold EN, Reagan R, and Kirkland, et al. CIA's Relation to Events Preceding the Watergate Break-in. Report to the President by the Commission on CIA Activities Within the United States .. New York: The Rockefeller Commission, 1975, pp. 193-197.

12. Isaacson, Op. cit., pp. 202-205.

13. Ibid. p.124-128.

14. Isaacson, Op. cit., p. 134-139.

15. Ibid. 733-743; Boeing was apparently contracted to provide Henry Kissinger with his private 707 jet, see page 694.

16. Covert NM. Cutting Edge: A history of Fort Detrick, Maryland 1943-1993. Fort Detrick, MD: Headquarters, U. S. Army Garrison, Public Affairs Office, 1993. [For copies call 301-619-2018)

17. Szmuness W, Stevens CE, Harley EJ, Zang EA and Oleszko WR et al. Hepatitis B vaccine: Demonstration of efficacy in a controlled clinical trial in a high-risk population in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine 1980;303;15:833-841.

18. Summers, Op. cit., p. 200; 414-416; Isaacson, Op. cit., p. 222-229.

19. Ibid. 721; 606.

20. CBS News. Watergate: The secret story CBS News special program. June 17, 1992 (Burrelle's Information Services transcript) pg. 31 ; My statement that "it wouldn't be the first or last time CBS reported" falsehoods is based on my knowledge of what "60-Minutes" did with "Kimberly's story". Produced by Josh Howard on June 19, 1994, the program was largely about Kimberly Bergalis's allegedly withheld sexual practices. She along with Dr. David Acer's other victims, Mike Wallace claimed, had gotten AIDS from risky lifestyle practices in the Stuart, F1.. community. I thoroughly critiqued the segment in Deadly Innocence and concluded it was a "cruel hoax"-produced for chiefly political reasons. See Horowitz L. Deadly Innocence: Solving the Greatest Murder Mystery in the History of American Medicine. Rockport, MA: Tetrahedron, Inc., 1994; See also, Isaacson, Op. cit., pg. 90-93.

21. Who's Who in America, 49th Edition, Volume I, A-K. New Providence, NJ., 1995, p. 552. Joseph Califano's may be reached by contacting the Department of Public Health Policy, Columbia University Schools of Medicine and Public Health, New York City.

22. Colodny L. Silent Coup: The Removal of a President. New York: St. Martins Press, 1991.

23. Isaacson, Op. cit., p. 143.

24. Summers, Op. cit., p. 421-422.

25. Rockefeller NA, el al., Op. cit., p. 451.

26. Isaacson, Op. cit., p. 491-495

27. Schaap B. Administration stonewalls while covert operations escalate. CovertAction Information Bulletin 1982;16:31

28. Agee P. The range of covert intervention. In: Dirty Work-2: The CIA in Africa. Secaucus, Ray E, Schaap W, Van Meter K and Wolf L eds. Secaucus, NJ: Lyle Stewart, Inc., 1979, pp. 47-49. 29. Lederer R. Precedents for AIDS? Chemical-biological warfare, medical experiments, and population control. CovertAction Information Bulletin 1987;28:33-42.

30. U.S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs. Hearing on U.S. Chemical Warfare Policy. Congo Sess. 93-2, May 1-14, 1974; U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. Prohibition of Chemical and Biological Weapons: Hearing to Consider Definition and Ratification of Geneva Protocol. December 10, 1974, Congo Sess. 93-2. The hearings indicated that two years after Nixon allegedly forbad the development of chemical and biological weapons arsenals, additional ones were being produced and stockpiles had not been destroyed.

31. U.S. Select Senate Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect 10 Intelligence Activities. Intelligence Activities. Senate Resolution 21. Vol. 1: Unauthorized Storage of Toxic Agents. September 16-18, /975. Congo Sess. 94-1, pp 22-23.

32. Isaacson, Op. cit., pp. 530-531; 491-495; 389.

33. Ibid. pp. 699-701.

34. Jimmy Carter speech, the Foreign Policy Association, Oct. 3, 1976.

Chapter 13. USAID and New York Blood

1. Califano, Jr. JA. Health: U. S. Initiatives in International Health. Department of State Bulletin. September, 1978, pp. 35-38.

2. Stevenson RW. Glaxo offers $14 billion for Wellcome: A British drug alliance would be the world's largest. New York 7imes, Tuesday, January 24, 1995, p. DI. The report noted Merck's AIDS and herpes drug market share was the largest at 3.9 percent valued at close to $10 billion.

3. Covert NM. Cutting Edge: A history of Fort Detrick, Maryland 1943-1993. Fort Detrick, MD: Headquarters, U. S. Army Garrison, Public Affairs Office, 1993. [For copies call 301-619-2018].

4. Isaacson W. Kissinger: A Biography. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992, pp. 186-188.

5. Ibid., p. 734.

6. Hilleman MR. Whither immunization against viral infections? Annals of Internal Medicine 1984; 101(6):852-8.

7. Ciesielski C, Marianos D, Ou CY, et al. Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in a dental practice. Annals of Internal Medicine 1992;116:798-805.

8 Poiesz B, Tomar R, Lehr B and Moore J. (and anonymous CDC authors from division closely associated with Don Francis's work-Hepatitis Branch, Division of Viral Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC.) Hepatitis B vaccine: Evidence confirming lack of AIDS transmission. MMWR 1984;33;49:685-687.)

9. Horowitz LG. Deadly Innocence: Solving the greatest murder mystery in the history of American medicine. Rockport, MA: Tetrahedron, Inc., 1994.

10. Szmuness W, Stevens CE, Harley EJ, Zang EA and Oleszko WR et al. Hepatitis B vaccine: Demonstration of efficacy in a controlled clinical trial in a high-risk population in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine 1980;303; 15:833-841.

11. Lang WR, Snyder FR, Lozovsky D, Kaistha V, Kaczaniuk MA, Jaffe JH and the ARC Epidemiology Collaborating Group. Geographic distribution of human immunodeficiency virus markers in parenteral drug abusers. American Journal of Public Health 1988;78;4:443-446.

12. Shilts R. And the Band Played On: Politics, People and the AIDS Epidemic. New York: Penguin Books, 1987, p. 233.

13. Lederer R. Origin and spread of AIDS: Is the west responsible? Covert Action Information Bulletin 1988; 29:52-65; JAMA, February 7, 1986.

14. Hirsh R. Hemophiliacs, blood transfusions and AIDS. In: Understanding AIDS. V. Gong, ed., New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press, 1985, p. 104.

15. Lehrman NS. Is AIDS Non-Infectious? The Possibility and its CBW Implications. Covert Action Information Bulletin 1987;28:55-62; Altman LK. AIDS development in infection: Data suggest AIDS rises yearly after infection. New York Times. March 3, 1987. p. C1., Pugliese G and Lampinen T. Am J Infection Control 1989; 17: I.

16. Shilts R. Op. cit., p. 202-203.

17. Ibid., pp. 371;409.

18. Ibid., p. 553.

19 Ibid., p. 458.

20. Physician and researcher Alan Cantwell, I later learned, likewise scrutinized the "Patient Zero" theory and came to the same conclusion. Cantwell observed that Shilts failed to mention "medical reports that indicate the AIDS virus was already 'introduced' into the New York City gay community, two years before Dugas was diagnosed' ... In blood specimens dating back to 1980 (the year Gaetan Dugas was diagnosed), " Cantwell noted, that 20 percent of the men in Szmuness's hepatitis B vaccine experiment were already HIV-positive. Thus, by then, "it is inconceivable that Dugas could have flown in from Paris and infected such a large number of gays, some of whom were infected as early as 1978 to 1979. Furthermore, the 'source' of Dugas's own HIV infection was never ascertained." See: Cantwell A. Queer Blood: The secret AIDS genocide plot. Los Angeles: Aries Rising Press, 1993, p. 29; also see Shilts R. Op. cit., pp. 23;460.

21 . Department of Defense Appropriations For 1970: Hearings Before A Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations House of Representatives, Ninety-first Congress, First Session, H.B. 15090, Part 5, Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, Dept. of the Army. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1969, p. 689.

22. Who's Who in America, 49th Edition, Volume I, A-K. New Providence, NJ., 1995, p.552.

23. The statement considers at least one year delay for the publication of Krugman's research results. See: Krugman S, Giles JP, Hammond J. Hepatitis virus: effect of health on the infectivity and antigenicity of the MS- 1and MS-2 strains. J Infectious Disease. 1970; 122:432-6; Krugman S, Giles JP, Hammond J. Viral hepatitis, type B (MS-2 strain): Studies on active immunization. JAMA 1971;217:41- 5; Krugman S, Giles JP. Viral hepatitis, type B (MS-2 strain); further observations on natural history and prevention. New England Journal of Medicine 1973;288:755-60; and Krugman S, Overby LR, Mushahwar IK, Ling C-M, Forsner GG and Deinhardt F. Viral hepatitis, type B: Studies on natural history and prevention reexamined. New England Journal of Medicine 1979;200: 101-6.

24. USDHEW. Virology: Volume 4-Control of Viral Infections. NIAID Task Force Report. Bethesda, MD: Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health (NIH) 79-1834, 1979, p. 20-65-78. 25. Centers for Disease Control. Guidelines for prevention of transmission of HIV and HBV to health-care and public safety workers. MMWR 1989;38: J -36; Seeff LB, Wright EC, Zimmerman HJ, Alter HJ, Dietz AA, Felsher BF, Finkelstein JD, Garcia-Pont P, Gerin JL, Greenlee HB, Hamilton J, Holland PV, Kaplan PM, Kiernan T, Koff RS, Leevy CM, McAuliffe VJ, Nath N, Purcell RH, Schiff ER, Schwanz CC, Tamburro CH, Vlahcevic Z, Zemel R and Zimmon DS. Type B hepatitis after needlestick exposure and its prevention with hepatitis B immune globulin. Annals of Internal Medicine 1978;88:285-293.

26. Poiesz BJ, Ruxcelti FW, Gazder AF, Bunn PA, Minna JD and Gallo RC Detection and isolation of type C retrovirus panicles from fresh and cultured lymphocytes of a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Medical Science /980;77:7415-9; Poiez BJ, Ruscetti FW, Reitz MS, Kalyanaraman VS and Gallo RC (This reference appeared in Gallo's July 18, 1985 Nature article entitled "A molecular clone of HTLV-IIl with biological activity, Volume 316, pp. 262-265. It gave no title other than:) Nature 198J ;294:268-271.

27. Ratner L, Haseltine W, Patarca R, Livak KJ, Starcich B, Josephs SF, Doran ER, Rafalski A, Whitehorn EA, Kaumeister K, Ivanoff L, Petteway SR, Pearson ML, Lautenberger JA, Papas RS, Ghrayeb J, Chang NT Gallo RC and Wong-Staal F. Complete nucleotide sequence of the AIDS virus, HTLV-III. Nature 1985; 313:277-284; Poiesz's citations included: Poiesz, B. J. et al. Proc Nat Acad Sci U.S.A. 77, 7415-7419 (1980)and Robert-Guroff, M, Rusceni FW, Posner LE, Poiesz BJ and Gallo RC 1. Exp. Med. 154, 1957-1964 (1981)

28. Wu AM, Ting RC, Paran M and Gallo RC Cordycepin inhibits induction of murine leukovirus production by 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine. Proc Nat Acad Sci 1972;69;12:3820-3824;

29. Paran M, Gallo RC, Richardson LS and Wu AM. Adrenal Corticosteroids Enhance Production of Type-C Virus Induced by 5-Iodo-2'-Deoxyuridine from Cultured Mouse Fibroblasts. Proc Nat Acad Sci 1973;70;8:2391-2395.

30. NIAID Task Force Report. Virology: Acute Viral Infections. Bethesda, MD: U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Public Health Service, National Institute of Health [Volumes 1-5 (NIH) 79-1831-35]. 1979;20:65-69

31. Krugman S. Viral hepatitis, type B: Prospects for active immunization. Ill. International Symposium on Viral Hepatitis, Milan, Dee. 1974. Develop. biol. Standard. Vol. 30, Munich: S. Karger Basel, 1975, pp. VI; 363-367; the General Discussion can be found on pp.375-379.

32. Department of Defense Appropriations For 1970: Hearings Before A Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations House of Representatives, Ninety-first Congress, First Session, H.B. 15090, Part 5, Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, Dept. of the Army. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1969, p. 689.

33. Other NYUMC biological weapons suppliers, Senate investigators learned within months following Krugman's presentation, included Dr. Alan W. Bernheimer, who supplied the Army's Special Operations Division with Staph bacteria and Botulinum toxin, and Dr. Arthur Eberstein, who manufactured or tested "shellfish poison" for the CIA. See: U.S. Select Senate Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. Intelligence Activities. Senate Resolution 21. Vol. I: Unauthorized Storage of Toxic Agents. September 16-18, 1975. Congo Sess. 94-1, pp. 216;221.

34. Szmuness W. Recent advances in the study of the epidemiology of hepatitis B. American Journal of Pathology 1975;81:629-49; Szmuness W, Harley EJ, Ikram H, Stevens CE, et al. Sociodemographic aspects of the epidemiology of hepatitis B. In: Vyas G, Cohen SN, Schmid R, eds. Viral hepatitis. Philadelphia: Franklin Institute Press, 1978:297-320.

35. Shilts, Op. cit., p. 125.

36. Krugman S, Hoofnagle MD, Gerety RJ, Kaplan PM and Gerin JL. Viral hepatitis type B: DNA polymerase activity and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen. New Engl J Med 1994;290;24:1331- 1335; see also: Reich WT. "Human research and the war against disease." In: Encyclopedia of Bioethics: Revised Edition, Vol. 4. New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan, 1995, pg. 2253-2254; and Lederer R. Origin and spread of AIDS: Is the west responsible. CovertAction Information Bulletin 1988;29:52-66, and reference #42.

37. USPHS/NCI Staff. Special Virus Cancer Program: Progress Report #8. J. B. Moloney, ed., Bethesda: USPHS NCI, 1971. Univ. North Carolina, Davies Library call number #HE 20.3l52:V8I, pp. 21-26;104.

38. Kalabus R, Sansarricq H, Larnbin P, Proulx J and Hilleman MR. Standardization and mass application of combined live measles-smallpox vaccine in Upper Volta. American Journal of Epidemiology 1967;86:93-111.

39. Buynak EB, Weibel RE, Whitman, Jr, Stokes J and Hilleman MR. combined live measles, mumps, and rubella virus vaccines. Journal American Medical Association 1969;207;12:2259-2262.

40. Coursaget P. Deciron F, TOrley E. Barin F, Chiron JP, Yvonnet B, Diouf C, Denis F, Diop-Mar I. Correa P, et al. IARC Scientific Publications 1984;63:319-335.

41. Purcell RH. Current understanding of hepatitis B virus infection and its implications for inununoprophy1axis. In: Antiviral Mechanisms: Perspectives ill Virology IX, The Gustav Stern Symposium. New York: Academic Press. 1975 pp. 49-76.

42. Krugman S, Giles JP and Hammond J. Infectious hepatitis: Evidence for two distinctive clinical. epidemiological, and immunological types of infection. JAMA 1967;200;5:366-373(96-103).

43. Moor-Jankowski J. Blood groups of apes and monkeys; Human and simian types. In: Research Animals in Medicine: National Heart and Lung Institute National Institutes of Health. Lowell T. Harmison, ed. Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Health. Education and Welfare, Public Health Service. National Institutes of Health, DHEW Publication No. (NIH) 72-333. October 2, 1973. pp. 483-488.

44. Schulz TF. Origin of AIDS (letter to the editor). The Lancet 1992;339:867.

45. Personal communication with Leonard Ciaccio, Staten Island Town Hall historian. 718-982-2000.

46. Epstein SS. The Politics of Cancer, Garden City. NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1979. pp. 336-337.

Chapter 14. African Vaccination Programs

1. Coursaget P, Deciron F, Tortey E. Barin F, Chiron JP, Yvonne! B, Diouf C, Denis F, Diop-Mar I. Correa P, et al. IARC Scientific Publications 1984;63:319-335.

2. Perrin J, Ntareme F, Coursaget P and Chiron JP. Vaccination of the newborn against hepatitis B in Burundi. IARC Scientific Publications 1984;63:307-18.

3. Pan American/World Health Organization. Proceedings of the llI1ernational Conference all the Application of Vaccines Against Viral, Rickettsial. and Bacterial Diseases of Man. December 14-18, 1970. Scientific Publication No. 226. Washington D.C.: World Health Organization. 1971.

4. Manaker, RA. Strother PC. Miller AA and Piczak CY. Behavior in vitro of a mouse lymphoid-leukemia virus. J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 1960;25:1411-1418.

5. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources. United States Senate. Ninety-fifth Congress. First Session. on Examination of Serious Deficiencies in the Defense Department's Efforts to Protect the Human Subjects of Drug Research. Biological Testing Involving Human Subjects by the Department of Defense. Washington. D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. March 8 and May 23.1977, pp. 147-148.

6. Pan American/World Health Organization. Op. cit., pp. xi-xxiii.

7. Foege WH. Measles vaccination in Africa. In: Ibid.. pp. 207-213.

8. Millar JD and Goege WH. Status of eradication of smallpox (and control of measles) in West and Central Africa. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1969; 120;6:725-732.

9. Shilts R. And the Band Played On: Politics. People and the AIDS Epidemic. New York: Penguin Books. 1987. pp. 500; 553.

10. Pan American/Worid Health Organization, Op. cit., pp. 614-615.

11. Paran M, Gallo RC, Richardson LS and Wu AM. Adrenal corticosteroids enhance production of type-C virus induced by 5-iodo-2' -deoxyuridine from cultured mouse fibroblasts. Proc Nat Acad of Sci 1973;70;8:2391-2395.

12. Gonda MA. Wong-Staal F. Gallo RC et al. Sequence homology and morphologic similarity of HTLV-III and visna virus, pathogenic lentivirus. Science 1985;227:173-177.

13. Gonda MA. Braun MJ. Carter SG, Kost TA. Bess Jr JW, Arthur LO and VanDer Maaten MJ. Characterization and molecular cloning of a bovine lentivirus related to human immunodeficiency virus. Nature 1987;330. 388-391; Mulder C Human AIDS virus not from monkeys. Nature 1988;333:396; See also: Penny D. Origin of the AIDS virus. Nature 1988;333:494-495; See also Dr. A. F. Rasmussen, Jr.'s contribution in "The present and future of immunization: Discussion." In: Pan American! World Health Organization., Op. cit., p. 602.

14. Hilleman, during an open discussion, stated "following Dr. Krugman's work, we have prepared highly purified Australia antigen from hepatitis B antigenic plasma." He also credited Krugman's earlier work saying, "Dr. Krugman's demonstration of protective efficacy of ... killed Australia antigen provided the sound basis and incentive to proceed with vaccine development. In the absence of such data, the activities in which we now engage [homosexual vaccine trials] might be regarded as foolhardy. His comments appear in: International Symposium on Viral Hepatitis. Milan, Dec. 1974. Develop. biol. Standard. Vol. 30, Munich: S. Karger Basel, 1975, p. 375.

15. Department of Defense Appropriations For 1970: Hearings Before A Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations House of Representatives, Ninety-first Congress, First Session, H.B. 15090, Part 5, Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, Dept. of the Army. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1969, p. 689.

16. Krugman S and Giles JP. Measles: The Problem. In: Pan American! World Health Organization., Op. cit., p, 195.

17. Gallo RC. The inhibitory effect of heme on heme formation In Vivo: Possible mechanism for the regulation of hemoglobin synthesis. Journal of Clinical Investigation 1967 ;46; 1:124-132; Gallo RC, Whang-Peng J and Adamson RH. Studies on the antitumor activity, mechanisms of action, and cell cycle effects of camptothecin. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1971 ;46;4:789-795; Wu AM and Gallo RC. Interaction between murine type-C virus RNA-directed DNA polymerases and rifamycin derivatives. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1974;340:419-436; Gallo RC, Sarin PS, Allen PT, Newton WA, Priori ES, Bowen JM and Dmochowski L. Reverse transciptase in Type-C virus particles of human origin. Nature New Biology 1971;232: 140-142; and Gallo RC and Breitman TR. The enzymatic mechanisms for deoxythymidine synthesis in human leukocytes: II Comparison of deoxyribosyl donors. Journal of Biological Chemistry 1968;243; 19:4936-4942.

18. Gallagher RE, Ting RC and Gallo RC. A common change of aspartyl-tRNA in Polyoma and SV40-transformed cells. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1972;272:568-582.

19. Ting RC, Yang SS and Gallo RC. Reverse transcriptase, RNA tumor virus transformation and derivatives of Rifamycin Sv. Nature New Biology 1972;236: 163-165. Dow Chemical provided a variety of Rifamycin derivatives used in this study of chemotherapeutic effects.

20. Pan American/World Health Organization, Op. cit., pp. 602-604.

21. Ibid., pp. 499- 500

22. Ibid, pp. 490-49 I.

23. Wehrle PF. Need for international cooperation in immunization programs. In: Pan American! World Health Organization, Op. cit., pp. 518-521.

24. Bres P. The problem of yellow fever. Ibid, pp. 25-28.

25. Taylor CE. Gaining public acceptance and maintaining regular programs in the developing countries. Ibid pp. 511-517.

26. Pollock TM. Trials of Prophylactic Agents for the Control of Communicable Diseases: A Guide to Their Organization and Evaluation. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1966, pp. 73-74.

27. Pan American/World Health Organization, Op. cit., p. 612.

28. Millar 1D. Gaining public acceptance in maintaining regular programs in the developed countries. Ibid, pp. 505-510.

29. Millar JD and Foege WH. Status of eradication of smallpox (and control of measles) in West and Central Africa. J Infect. Disease 1969; 120;6:725-732; Kalabus FH, Sansarrico H, Lambin P, Proulx 1 and Hilleman MR. Standardization and mass application of combined live measles-smallpox vaccine in Upper Volta. Amer. 1. Epidemiology 1967;86:93-111.

Chapter 15. The CIA/Detrick Operation

1. Rockefeller NA, Connor JT, Dillon CD, Griswold EN, Reagan R, and Kirkland, et al. Report to the President by the Commission on CIA Activities Within the United States. New York: The Rockefeller Commission, 1975.

2. U. S. House of Representatives, Ninety-Third Congress. Second Session Hearings before the Committee on the Judiciary, Presidential Statements on the Watergate Break-In and its Investigation, A resolution ... to investigate whether sufficient grounds exist for the House of Representatives to ... Impeach Richard M. Nixon, President of the United States. H. Res. 803. Washington, D.C.: U. S, Government Printing Office, May-June 1974; Isaacson W. Kissinger: A Biography. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992, pp. 592-606.

3. U.S. Select Senate Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. Intelligence Activities. Senate Resolution 2f. Vol. I: Unauthorized Storage of Toxic Agents. September 16-18, 1975. Congo Sess. 94-1.

4. U.S. Select Senate Committee Op. cit., pp. 1-4.

5. Ibid. pp. 5-7.

6. Ibid. p. III-IV

7. Ibid. pp. 200-203.

8. Ibid. pp. 207-209

9. Though the SVCP was cited in numerous publications by dozens of authors as supplying the financial support for their cancer virus and vaccine research efforts, access to the program's protocol or related literature was very difficult. I happened to run across one of the most important documents by chance. The title: NCI Staff. Special Virus Cancer Program: Progress Report #8. Bethesda, MD: Office of the Associate Scientific Director for Viral Oncology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, USPHS, August, 1971 is available through interlibrary loan from The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Davies Library, Government Documents Department, Call number HE 20.3152:V81-1971

10. Ibid. pp. 216-239.

11. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-fifth Congress, First Session, on Examination of Serious Deficiencies in the Defense Department's Efforts to Protect the Human Subjects of Drug Research, Biological Testing Involving Human Subjects by the Department of Defense. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, March 8 and May 23, 1977, pp. 89-90.

12. Epstein SS. The Politics of Cancer, Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1979, pp. 306- 307;333.

13. Ibid. pp. 240-243.

14. Ibid. pp. 8-9.

15. Ibid. pp. 13-14

16. Ibid. pp. 15-16.

17. Ibid. pp. 17-20.

18. Kissinger, according to Isaacson's biography, often worked behind Melvin Laird's back when he desired to deal with the Navy. Then he sent orders directly through Admiral Elmo Zumwalt. Since the Navy maintained the most active viral research program at the lime, it is possible Kissinger directed Zumwalt, and not Laird, to order the appropriations request for the development of AIDS-like viruses. However, according to Isaacson, who interviewed Zumwalt, the admiral always kept Laird informed regarding Kissinger's "out of channel" demands. See: Isaacson, Op. cit., pp. 190; 202-205. 19. Ibid. pp. 20-21.

20. Mr. Sidney Gottlieb was the head of a special CIA covert operation called MKULTRA. The program, according to Irwin Block of the Montreal Gazette, was designed to "explore brainwashing techniques that the agency believed were being perfected by the Chinese and Soviet Communists. The goal was mind control, " and some of the first known subjects were the psychiatric patients of the American psychiatrist Dr. Ewen Cameron who practiced at Montreal's Allan Memorial Institute. Later it was determined that the CIA gave "more than $60, 000 to the institute between 1957 and 1961 for the research. (See: Block I. Agency spent millions studying mind control Montreal Gazette. Wednesday October 5, 1988)

In 1960, CIA MKULTRA director Gottlieb was sent to the Congo, the region that was later named Zaire. Gottlieb's assignment was to help assassinate Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba, an anti-imperialist African leader. See: Lederer R. Precedents for AIDS? Chemical-biological warfare, medical experiments, and population control. Covert Action Information Bulletin 1987;28:33-42; U.S. Select Senate Committee Ob cit, pp. 22-25.

21. Ibid. pp. 26-28.

22. Ibid. p. 29.

23. Ibid. pp. 29-32; Colby may have perjured himself here as he acknowledged awareness of other biological weapons testing projects in which health effects were claimed by unsuspecting subjects. Investigative journalist Robert Lederer has written extensively on the subject of covert chemical and biological weapons testing by the American military. For more information, please see: Lederer R. Precedents for AIDS? Chemical-biological warfare, medical experiments, and population control. CovertAction Information Bulletin 1987;28:33-42.

24. Ibid. pp. 32-35.

25. Ibid. p. 35.

26. Ibid. p. 38.

27. Ibid. p. 40.

28 Ibid. p. 41.

Chapter 16. PROJECT: MKNAOMI

1. U.S. Select Senate Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. Intelligence Activities. Senate Resolution 21. Vol. I: Unauthorized Storage of Toxic Agents. September 16-18, 1975. Congo Sess. 94-1, p. 44.

2. U.S. Select Senate Committee Op. cit., pp. 45-46.

3. Classified PROJECT: MKNAOMI was a secret program of cooperation between the CIA and Army Special (meaning secret) Operations Division (SOD) at Fort Detrick to develop and covertly deploy a variety of biological weapons including natural toxins, lethal bacteria, and deadly viruses. Though the vast majority of text in this Congressional exhibit was illegible, the gist of the conversation suggests the principle purpose of MKNAOMI was to develop offensive biological weapons capabilities required to transmit lethal germs to mass populations. The Director of MKNAOMI is unknown but undoubtedly orders for its operation between 1969 through 1976 came from Dr. Henry Kissinger.

4. Isaacson W. Kissinger: A Biography. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992, p. 667.

5. U.S. Select Senate Committee Op. cit., pp. 52-61.

6. Herrera F, Adamson RH and Gallo RC. Uptake of transfer ribonucleic acid by normal and leukemic cells. Proc Nat Acad Sci 1970;67;4: 1943-1950. This paper was presented before the "International Symposium on Uptake of Informative Molecules by Living Cells, Mol, Belgium, 1970, " the year in which $10 million in funds were appropriated by the Department of Defense for the development of AIDS-like viruses.

7. Reference used: Rose LF and Kaye D. Internal Medicine for Dentistry. SI. Louis: C. V. Mosby Company, 1983, p. 200.

8. U.S. Select Senate Committee Op. cit., p. 66.

9. Ibid. p.p. 72-81.

10. Szmuness W, Stevens CE, Harley EJ, Zang EA and Oleszko WR et al. Hepatitis B vaccine: Demonstration of efficacy in a controlled clinical trial in a high-risk population in the United Stales. New England Journal of Medicine 1980;303;15:833-841.

11. Lederer R. Origin and spread of AIDS: Is the west responsible. CovertAction Information Bulletin 1988;29:52-66.

12. Krugman S, Giles JP, Hammond 1. Hepatitis virus: effect of health on the infectivity and antigenicity of the MS-I and MS-2 strains. J Infectious Disease. 1970;122:432-6; Krugman S, Giles JP, Hammond J. Viral hepatitis, type B (MS-2 strain): Studies on active immunization. JAMA 1971;217:41-5; Krugman S, Giles JP. Viral hepatitis, type B (MS-2 strain); further observations on natural history and prevention. New England Journal of Medicine 1973;288:755-60; and Krugman S, Overby LR. Mushahwar IK, Ling C-M, Forsner GG and Deinhardt F. Viral hepatitis, type B: Studies on natural history and prevention reexamined. New England Journal of Medicine 1979;200: I 01-6.

13. Szmuness W, Purcell RH, Dienstag JL and Stevens CEo Antibody to hepatitis A antigen in institutionalized mentally retarded patients. JAMA 1977;237: 1702-1705.

14. Lederer provided an important reference linking Krugman, Hilleman from Merck, and Purcell, to the Army. See: "Current Investigation Studies Approved by the Army Investigational Drug Review Board." Investigator: S. Krugman, M.D., Biomedical and Behavioral Research. 1975. Joint Hearings before the Subcommittee on Health of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare and the Subcommittee on Administrative Practices of the Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. Senate, September 10, 12, and November 7, 1975. p. 576.

15. Pollock TM. Trials of Prophylactic Agents for the Control of Communicable Diseases: A Guide to Their Organization and Evaluation. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1966. pp. 73-74.

16. Bres P. The problem of yellow fever. In: Pan American/World Health Organization. Proceedings of the International Conference on the Application of Vaccines Against Viral, Rickettsial, and Bacteria Diseases of Man. December 14- 18, 1970. Scientific Publication No. 226. Washington D.C.: World Health Organization, 197I, p. 25-28.

17. U.S. Select Senate Committee Op. cit., p. 97-98.

Chapter 17. The CIA's Human Experiments

l. U.S. Select Senate Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities. Intelligence Activities. Senate Resolution 21. Vol. I: Unauthorized Storage of Toxic Agents. September 16-18, 1975. Congo Sess. 94-1, pp. 93-125.

2. House Committee on Appropriations. Department of Defense Appropriations for 1977, Part I. Hearings before the Subcommittee on DOD Appropriations to consider DOD FY 77 budget request presented by CIA Director William E. Colby, January 22, 1976.

3. Ibid., see pp. 280-371 for appropriations for chemical and biological weapons, and page 406 for defense strategies against "Soviet and Cuban assistance in Africa."

4. Senate Committee on Human Resources. Biological Testing Involving Human Subjects by the Department of Defense, 1977. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research to examine Army biological warfare research programs, March 8, 1977 and May 23, 1977. Congo Sess. 95-1, pp. 3; 22-234; 244-256.

5. Brumter C. The North Atlantic Assembly. Dordrecth: Maninus Nijhoff Publishers, 1986, p. 215.

6. Senate Committee on Human Resources. Biological Testing Involving Human Subjects by the Department of Defense, 1977., Op. cit., p. 7-8.

7. Department of Defense Appropriations For 1970: Hearings Before A Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations House of Representatives, Ninety-first Congress, First Session, HB. 15090, Part 5, Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, Dept. of the Army. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1969, see pp. 79 and then 129 of classified document obtainable through FOIA; See also: "Current Investigation Studies Approved by the Army Investigational Drug Review Board." Investigator: S. Krugman, M.D., Biomedical and Behavioral Research, 1975, Joint Hearings before the Subcommittee on Health of the Committee on Lobar and Public Welfare and the Subcommittee on Administrative Practices of the Committee on the Judiciary, U.S. Senate, September 10, 12, and November 7, 1975, p. 576.

8. Senate Committee on Human Resources. Op. cit., p. 9; 11.

9. Ibid., p. 79 (C-4 Addendum).

10. Ibid., p. 14.

11. Ibid., p. 265-267

12. Ibid., pp. 91;125.

13. Rockefeller NA, Connor JT, Dillon CD, Griswold EN, Reagan R, and Kirkland, et a1.Report to the President by the Commission on CIA Activities Within the United States .. New York: The Rockefeller Commission, 1975, pp. 226-229. 1 thought it also interesting that the same year the Rockefeller commission reported its findings, Hoover's old friend and American counterintelligence asset Roy Cohn, made headlines for having engineered the resignation of President Jimmy Caner's chief of staff, Hamilton Jordan. Reportedly, Cohn leaked accusations to the New York Times that Jordan had been seen using cocaine in Manhattan's Studio 54. I noted that despite the changing of administrations, the old guard had remained intact and strong enough to undo what any President might. See: Von Hoffman N. Citizen Cohn: The Life and Times of Roy Cohn. New York: Doubleday, 1988, p. 405.

14. Lawrence Ken. The CIA and the mad scientist: Drugs, psychiatry, and mind control in Canada. CovertAction Information Bulletin 1987;28:29-32.

15. Commission of Inquiry Concerning Certain Activities of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (McDonald Commission), First Report: Security and Information (Oct. 9, 1979; Second Report: Freedom and Security Under the Law, Volumes i and 2 (August 1981); and Third Report: Certain R.C.M.P Activities and the Question of Governmental Knowledge (August 1981) Hull, Ont: Canadian Government Publishing Center, 1979-81.

16. Marks J. The Search for the "Manchurian Candidate": The CIA and Mind Control. New York: Time Books, 1979, pp. 134-135.

17. Opinion of George Cooper. Q. C, Regarding Canadian Government Funding of the Allanl Memorial Institute in the 1950s and 1960s. Onawa: Communications and Public Affairs, Department of Justice, 1986.

18. Ibid., p. 20.

19. Untitled CIA memorandum from May 5.1955. Joint Hearing Before the Select Committee on Intelligence and the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, U. S. Senate, August 3, 1977. Project MKULTRA, the CIA's Program of Research in Behavioral Modification. Washington, D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1977.

20. Marks. Op. cit, p. 137-139.

21. Cooper. Op. cit.. p. 80.

22. Bulf E. Have mosquitoes been drafted in a secret war? III These Times. September 23-29. 1981. p. 22: and "U.S. Germ Warfare Tests Revealed-Target: Savannah, Georgia, " Revolutionary Worker, November 21, 1980.

23. Lederer R. Precedents for AIDS? Chemical-biological warfare, medical experiments, and population control. Cover/Action Information Bulletin 1987;28:33-42.

24. Senate Committee on Human Resources, Op. cit., pp. 124-140.

25. Lederer refers interested readers to: "Guyana: The Faces Behind the Masks." CovertAction Information Bulletin 1980; 10:21.

26. Shapo MS. A Nation of Guinea Pigs: The Unknown Risks of Chemical Technology. New York:. Free Press. 1979, p. 91; Ana Maria Garcia. Study Guide for "La Operacion" (a documentary about sterilization of Puerto Rican women), 1986, available from Cinema Guild. New York City.

27. Mitford 1. Kind and Usual Punishment: The Prison Business. New York: Knopf, 1976. pp. 138- 67.

28. Lasagna L. Special subjects in human experimentation. In: Paul A. Fruend. ed., Experimentation with Human Subjects. New York: George Brazillier, 1969, p. 262.

29. Robbins W. "Dioxin Tests Conducted on 70 Philadelphia Inmates. Now Unknown. in 19605, " New York Times, July 17. 1983.

30. Milford J. Op. cit., pp. 157-167; Lastala J. "Atascadero: Dachau for Queers, " Advocate. April 25, 1972, pp. 11-13.

31. Jones JH. Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment. New York: Free Press. 1981, p. 2.

32. Ortleb C Bad Blood: The Health Commissioner, The Tuskegee Experiment, and AIDS Policy. New York Native. February 16. 1987, pp. 13-16; Ortleb C. Unpublished study suggests AIDS is caused by "virulent Immunosuppressant Spirochetes. New York Native, February 16.1987, p. 10.

33. CBS Television Network. Confirmation hearings of Dr. Henry Foster for U. S. Surgeon General CBS Evening News with Dan Rather and Connie Chung. Tuesday May 2. 1995.

34. United States Senate. Proceeding and Debates of the 91st Congress. First Session. Congressional Record, Volume 115 Part 17, August 5. 1969, to August 12. 1%9. Washington D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Office. 1969 p. 23075.

35. The statement considers at least one year delay for the publication of Krugman's research results. See: Krugman S. Giles JP, Hammond 1. Hepatitis virus: effect of health on the infectivity and antigenicity of the MS-1 and MS-2 strains. J Infectious Disease. 1970;122:432-6; Krugman S. Giles JP. Hammond J. Viral hepatitis. type B (MS-2 strain): Studies on active immunization. JAMA 1971 ;217:41- 5; Krugman S, Giles JP. Viral hepatitis. type B (MS-2 strain); further observations on natural history and prevention. New England Journal of Medicine 1973;288:755-60; and Krugman S, Overby LR. Mushahwar 1K. Ling C-M. Forsner GG and Deinhardt F. Viral hepatitis, type B: Studies on natural history and prevention reexamined. New England Journal of Medicine 1979;200: 101-6.

36. Shilts R. And the Band Played On: Politics, People and the AIDS Epidemic. New York: Penguin Books. 1987. p. 221-223.

37. Shilts. Ibid., pp. 238-239.

38. Ibid, p. 326.

39. Szmuness W. Stevens CE, Harley EJ, Zang EA and Oleszko WR et al. Hepatitis B vaccine: Demonstration of efficacy in a controlled clinical trial in a high-risk population in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine 1980;303;15:833-841.

40. Marennikova SS. Shelukhina EM, Mal 'tseva, Efremova EV and Matsevich GR. Data from the serological examination of the population of the Republic of Congo for the presence of antibodies to methods and general results. [Russian] Zhurnal Mikrobiologii. Epidemiologii i Immunobiologii 1984 (March) 3:95-100.

41. International Symposium on Viral Hepatitis. Milan. Dec. 1974. Develop. biol. Standard Vol. 30. Munich: S. Karger Basel, 1975, pp. 1V;480.

42. Krugman S, Overby LR. Mushahwar 1K. Ling C-M, Forsner GG and Deinhardt F. Viral hepatitis. type B: Studies on natural history and prevention reexamined. New England Journal of Medicine 1979;200: I01-6.

43. The 20 percent difference could be explained in two ways: It may have been due to the increased sexual exposures over time that the AIDS victims possibly received, that is, the gay men had developed natural immunity to hepatitis B viruses over the same period they were incubating AIDS viruses. Such a result could have occurred from simultaneous exposures to HIV and HBV during unprotected sex or through HIV tainted hepatitis B vaccines which contained either live hepatitis B viruses or HB core antigens. The Merck vaccines allegedly carried none of the above. Yet, with the large number of gay men in New York City who received the Merck vaccine, many of whom, shortly thereafter developed AIDS, it is questionable as to why so high a number as 88 percent would have developed immunity and therefore core HB blood markers against that which the vaccine allegedly reduced by 78.3 percent (according to Szmuness"), that is, HB virus infections.

44. Lederer's reference is "See, generally, Pedro I. Aponte Vazques, 'YoAcuso! Tortura y Asesinato de Don Pedro Albizu Camp [os, ' (Bayamon, Puerto Rico: Movimiento Ecumenico Nacional de Puerto Rico, 1985; and Pedro I Aponte Vaszquez, 'Asesino Rhoads a Albizu?' pamphlet, no date or publisher listed."

Finally, Lederer noted it was common practice for branches of the American military to develop and test weapons and then contract with private firms to mass produce the final product for international sales. Such was the case in 1966 when the Army tested a new vaccine for Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VVE).

In a most bizarre release -- obviously designed to promote the Army's biological weapons development program -- public relations offices reported,

after animal tests were completed, the Army began controlled testing of the new vaccine among 40 young draftees at Fort Detrick in 1962 or 1963. All of these draftees were Seventh Day Adventists, and all were conscientious objectors who, at the behest of their national church organization, had volunteered as test subjects for experiments related to biological warfare. Of the 40, about 15 suffered feverish reactions similar to VEE. Nevertheless, the vaccine conferred a solid and long-lasting immunity. In 1966, the National Drug Company, a subsidiary of Richardson-Merrell, Inc., began producing the vaccine under an Army contract.

The National Drug Company and Richardson-Merrell, Inc. were no longer in business at the time of this writing. They had apparently merged with Dow Chemical. Narayan's study was funded by "Hoechst Marion Roussel, Inc., formally known as Marion Merrell Dow Inc." See reference #59 in Chapter 8.

45. Net staff. The Special Virus Cancer Program: Progress Report #8. Office of the Associate Scientific Director for Viral Oncology (OASDVO). J. B. Moloney, Ed., Washington, D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1971, pp. 185-186.

46. NCI staff. The Special Virus Cancer Program: Progress Report #9 Office of the Associate Scientific Director for Viral Oncology (OASDVO). J. B. Moloney, Ed., Washington, D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1972, pp. 175- 176.

Chapter 18. Nazi Roots of American Central Intelligence: The Biological Warfare Industry

1. Scott PD. How Allen Dulles and the SS preserved each other. Covert Action Information Bulletin (Winter) 1986;25:4-14.

2. Scott's references on Mengele's identification was. Washington Post, February 15, 1985, p. A4.

3. Scott's references on the Austrian arrest of Mengele was The Nation, March 2, 1985, p. 231; On U. S. response to Japanese CBW activities -- Le Monde Diplomarique, July 1983, p. 24.

4. Isaacson W. Kissinger: A Biography. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992, pp. 48-49.

5. Hunt L. Secret Agenda: Nazi Scientists, The United States Government. and Project Paperclip, 1945 to 1990. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991, pp. 4;145-147 (for information on General Bolling); 186 (for Naval Medical Research Institute's employment of Paperclip. Nazis for biological weapons testing); and 256 (for Dow Chemical employment of convicted Nazi Otto Ambros).

6. Barbie's service as a CDC informant against French communist intelligence was documented by Linklater M. et al., The Nazi Legacy: Klaus Barbie and the International Fascist Connection. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston, 1984, pp. 163, 167

7. Scott reviewed the leaks from Army intelligence during the McCarthy era as detailed by Cook FJ. The Nightmare Decade: The Life and Times of Senator Joe McCarthy. New York: Random House, 1971, pp. 140, 411-424.

8. On Ryan's investigation of Barbie, see United States Department of Justice Criminal Division, Klaus Barbie and the United States Government: A Report to the Attorney General of the United States by Allan A. Ryan (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1983) p. 146, and Linklater, op. cit., pp. 180-181, 192-193

9. On name change from "Barbie" to "Barbier, " and Lee "Henry" Oswald deception, Scott credits his book-Crime and Cover-up. Berkeley: Westworks, 1977, p. 12.

10. Scott's footnoted that "Ishii had embarked on his experiments after a visit to prewar Nazi Germany. " His references was Seiichi Morimura, Akuma no Hoshaku. Tokyo: 1981.

11a. Linklater, Op. cit., n. 4, pp. 228; 236-237; 11b. Manning P. Martin Bormann: Nazi in Exile. Secaucas, NJ: Lyle Stuart Inc., 1981, pp. 29, 56, 64, 69, 113-118, and 134-135

12. Anne Burger biography and biological warfare job description: memo, C. R. Berrens, Naval Medical Research Institute, to Chief of Naval Operations, 27 November 1950, BOA administrative files, Navy Escape Clause, RG 330, NARS. Erich Traub biography is in Traub's JIOA dossier, RG 330, NARS.

13. NCI staff. The Special Virus Cancer Program: Progress Report #8. Office of the Associate Scientific Director for Viral Oncology (OASDVO). J. B. Moloney, Ed., Washington, D. c.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1971, pp. 224; 230-232.

14. Hervet F. Knights of darkness: The Sovereign Military Order of Malta. Covert Action Information Bulletin (Winter)1986;25:27-38.

15. Stevenson W The Bormann Brotherhood. NewYork: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1973, pp. 82-85. 16 Ibid, p. 227

17. Farago L. Aftermath: Martin Bormann and the Fourth Reich. New York: Avon, 1975, pp. 370 (Skorzeny);187 (Rudel); 305 (Rauff); 427 (Stangl); 289 (Eichmann).

18. Ibid, pp. 204-213.

19. Bower T. Klaus Barbie: The Butcher of Lyons. London: Granada, 1984, p. 179.

20. Stevenson, Op. cit., n. II, p. 227.

21. Farago, Op. cit., n. 13, p. 220.

22. Preston Jr. W The real treason. CovertAction Information Bulletin (Winter) 1986;25:23-26.

23. Higham C. Trading With the Enemy: An Exposure of the Nazi-American Money Plot, 1933- 1949. New York: Delacorte, 1983, pp. 20-31.

24. Hervet, Op. cit., 27-38.

25. Chaitkin A. Population control, Nazis, and the U.N.: Rockefeller and mass murder. Internet: Sumeria, 1996, http://www.livelinks.com/sumeria/politi ... nics.htmJ; see also: Kuhl S. The Nazi Connection: Eugenics, American Racism. and German Natiollal Socialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1994.
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