1 Krupke, CH, GJ Hunt, BD Eitzer, G Andino, and K Given. 2012. Multiple routes of pesticide exposure for honey bees living near agricultural fields. PLoS ONE, 7(1): e29268.
2 Mineau, P and C Palmer. 2013. The Impact of the Nation’s Most Widely Used Insecticides on Birds. American Bird Conservancy. Online at: http://www.abcbirds.org/abcprograms/pol ... ns/Neonic_
FINAL.pdf.; Hopwood, J, SH Black, M Vaughn, and E Lee-Mader. 2013. Beyond the Birds and the Bees: Effects of Neonicotinoid Insecticides on Agriculturally Important Beneficial Invertebrates. The Xerces Society. Online at: http://www.xerces.org/wp-content/upload ... esSociety_
3 Pettis, JS, D vanEngelsdorp, J Johnson, and G Dively. 2012. Pesticide exposure in honey bees results in increased levels of the gut pathogen Nosema. Naturwissenschaften, 99:153-158.; Henry, M, M Beguin, F Requier, O Rollin, J-F Odoux, P Aupinel, J Aptel, S Tchamitchian, and A Decourtye. 2012. A common pesticide decreases foraging success and survival in honey bees. Science, 336: 348-350.
4 Stokstad, E. 2013. How big a role should neonicotinoids play in food security? Science, 340: 675.
5 Soroka, JJ, LF Grenkow, and RB Irvine. 2008. Impact of decreasing ratios of insecticide-treated seed on flea beetle feeding levels and canola seed yields. Journal of Economic Entomology, 101(6): 1811-1820.
6 Cox, WJ and JH Cherney. 2011. Location, variety, and seeding rate interactions with soybean seed-applied insecticides/fungicides. Agronomy Journal, 103(5):1366-1371.
7 7 U.S.C. § 136 et seq.
8 7 U.S.C. § 136(bb).
9 This conclusion is from a review of orders in the Federal Register (http://www.federalregister.gov
) and the lack of any “Notices of Denial” for registration applications for products of the six active neonicotinoid ingredients. It is possible EPA has made some denial decisions via internal deliberations that never reached the formal order stage.
10 Brassard, D. 2012. Memorandum - Estimated Incremental Increase in Clothianidin Usage from Pending Registrations. EPA Biological Analysis Branch, Biological and Economic Analysis Division, Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention. August 30.; Krupke, C. 2013. Dust in the Wind: Advances in Protecting Pollinators During Planting Season. Presentation to Crop Pest Management Shortcourse & Minnesota Crop Production Retailers Association Trade Show. Minneapolis, MN. December 11. Online at: http://www.extension.umn.edu/agricultur ... essionals/
11 EPA’s FIFRA regulation on Product Performance at 50 CFR § 158.400(e)(1) provides, in pertinent part: “The Agency has waived the requirement to submit product performance data unless the pesticide product bears a claim to control pest microorganisms that pose a threat to human health and whose presence cannot readily be observed by the user…. However each registrant must ensure through testing that his product is efficacious when used in accordance with label directions and commonly accepted pest control practices. The Agency reserves the right to require, on a case-by-case basis, submission of product performance data for any pesticide product registered or proposed for registration.”
12 Xerces Society. 2013. Scientists Call for an End to Cosmetic Insecticide Use After the Largest Bumble Bee Poisoning on Record. June 27. Online at: http://www.xerces.org/2013/06/27/scient ... for-anend-
to-cosmetic-insecticide-use-after-the-largest-bumble-bee-poisoning-on-record/. Includes this statement: “The University of Minnesota’s Dr. Marla Spivak, a leading global authority on bee health, echoed Vaughan’s sentiment. ‘The Oregon bee poisoning is a clear warning. We have to stop pesticide use in cases where human health or food security is not at risk.’”
13 Cox et al. 2007; Cox et al. 2008; Petzold-Maxwell et al. 2013; Pynenburg et al. 2011b; Reisig et al. 2012; Seagraves and Lundgren 2012; Tinsley et al. 2012; Wilde et al. 2001. (See full citations in ‘Reviewed Literature’ section).
14 Cox and Cherney 2011; Esker and Conley 2012; Johnson et al. 2009; Jordan et al. 2012; Magalhaes et al. 2009; McCornack and Ragsdale 2006; Ohnesorg et al. 2009; Pynenburg et al. 2011a; Royer et al. 2005; Soroka et al. 2008; Wilde et al. 2007. (See full citations in ‘Reviewed Literature’ section).
15 Johnson, KD, ME O’Neal, DW Ragsdale, CD Difonzo, SM Swinton, PM Dixon, BD Potter, EW Hodgson, and AC Costamagna. 2009. Probability of cost-effective management of soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in North America. Journal of Economic Entomology, 102(6): 2101- 2108.
16 Seagraves, MP and JG Lundgren. 2012. Effects of neonicotinoid seed treatments on soybean aphid and its natural enemies. Journal of Pest Science, 85:125-132.
17 Searches were performed on Google Scholar and Web of Science using terms including neonicotinoid, yield, efficacy, etc.
18 Buntin, GD and JN All. 2012. Corn stand and yield loss from seedling injury by southern corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 106(4): 1669-1675.; Pataky, JK, PM Michener, ND Freeman, JM Whalen, JA Hawk, T Weldekidan, and RH Teyker. 2005. Rates of seed treatment insecticides and control of Stewart’s wilt in sweet corn. Plant Disease, 89: 262-268.; Strausbaugh, CA, EJ Wenninger, and IA Eujayl. 2012. Management of severe curly top in sugar beet with insecticides. Plant Disease, 96: 1159-1164.; Wilde, G, K Roozeboom, M Claassen, K Janssen, and M Witt. 2004. Seed treatment for control of early-season pests of corn and its effect on yield. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology, 21(2): 75-85.
19 Jeschke P, R Nauen, M Schindler, and A Elbert. 2011. Overview of the status and global strategy for neonicotinoids. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(7): 2897-2908.; Thielert W. 2006. A Unique Product: The Story of the Imidacloprid Stress Shield. Presentation in Frankfurt, Germany. May 18. Online at: http://typo3.vara.nl/fileadmin/uploads/VARA/be_users/
20 Stokstad, E. 2013.
21 European Food Safety Agency. 2012. Assessment of the scientific information from the Italian project ‘APENET’ investigating effects on honeybees of coated maize seeds with some neonicotinoids and fipronil. EFSA Journal, 10(6): 2792. Online at: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/it/
efsajournal/pub/2792.htm.; CRA-API – The Honey Bee and Silkworm Research Unit of the Agricultural Research Council. 2009. Effects of Coated Maize Seed on Honey Bees. Apenet.
22 Goulson, D. 2013. An overview of the environmental risks posed by neonicotinoid insecticides. Journal of Applied Ecology, 50: 977-987.
23 Krupke, C. 2014. Personal communication. March 10.
24 Lundgren, J. 2014. Personal communication. March 3.
25 Baute, T. 2013. Using Fungicide-Only Treated Seed and Following IPM. Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food. Online at: http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/cro ... talk/2013/
26 Morrissey, C. 2014. Perspectives from the Prairies: Uncovering the facts about neonicotinoid insecticides on wetland ecosystems. Presentation to the Canadian Section of The Wildlife Society, February 28. Summary online at: http://wildlife.org/canada/education
27 Stathers, R. 2014. The Bee and the Stock Market. Schroder Fund Advisors LLC. Online at: https://c.na3.content.force.com/servlet/servlet
. ImageServer?id=01550000001G3JyAAK&oid=00D300000000M2BEAU.; Rabobank. 2011. The Plight of the Honey Bee - Why the Loss of Honey Bee Colonies May Sting Global Agriculture. Industry Note 252-2011. Online at: http://www.ishs.org/sites/default/files ... /rabobank_
28 Goulson, D. 2013.; Van der Sluijs, JP, N Simon-Delso, D Goulson, L Maxim, J-M Bonmatin, and LP Belzunces. 2013. Neonicotinoids, bee disorders and the sustainability of pollinator services. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 5(3-4): 293-305.
29 Pettis, JS et al. 2012.
30 USDA. 2012. Report on the National Stakeholders Conference on Honey Bee Health. USDA. Online at: http://www.usda.gov/documents/ReportHoneyBeeHealth.pdf
31 Bee Informed. 2013. Winter Loss Survey 2012-2013: Preliminary Results. Online at: http:// beeinformed.org/2013/05/winter-loss-survey-2012-2013/.
32 USDA. 2012. No insurance is available to beekeepers to cover excess bee mortality.
33 Klein, AM, BE Vaissiere, JH Cane, I Steffan-Dewenter, SA Cunningham, C Kremen, and T Tscharntke. 2007. Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 274(1608): 303-313.
34 USDA. 2012.
35 USDA. 2012.
36 Sinnathamby, S, Y Assefa, AM Granger, LK Tabor, and KR Douglas-Mankin. 2013. Pollinator decline: US agro-socio-economic impacts and responses. Journal of Natural and Environmental Sciences, 4(1): 1-13. The ten crops are: alfalfa hay, almond, apple, corn, cotton, peanut, soybean, sunflower, tomato and wheat.
37 Klein, AM et al. 2007.
38 Sinnathamby, S et al. 2013.
39 EPA. 2013. USDA and EPA Release New Report on Honey Bee Health. May 2. Online at: http:// yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/0/E04602A5E7AA060685257B5F004A12D3.
40 American Honey Producers Association. nd. Top 7 Priorities List. Online at: https://ahpanet
. site-ym.com/?page=Top7Priorities. AHPA’s priority list includes: “1. Fund Economic Research Service to develop an Economic Model of the value of bees. This new study is our foundational effort to factor in the real value of honey bees past the farm gate due to their direct impact on food production in the U.S.”
41 Carman, H. 2011. The estimated impact of bee colony collapse disorder on almond pollination fees. University of California Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics, ARE Update, 14(5): 9-11. Online at: http://giannini.ucop.edu/media/are-upda ... 14N5_4.pdf
42 USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service. Honey production estimates. Online at: http:// usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/MannUsda/viewDocumentInfo.do?documentID=1520; http://usda
. mannlib.cornell.edu/MannUsda/viewDocumentInfo.do?documentID=1670; http://usda.mannlib
43 Flottum, K. 2013. November regional honey price report. Bee Culture, November. The same journal for the prior year indicates the 2012 mid-range estimate. The value of lost production is based on a 2012 average bulk wholesale price of $1.80/lb., per Bee Culture. All figures are estimates; various methods can be used for these estimates. It should be noted that the prices rose significantly in 2013, which may have partially compensated the beekeeping sector as a whole for the crop reduction.
44 Kegley, S. 2014. Assessment of Trends in Factors Affecting Honey Bee Colony Numbers and Honey Production. Pesticide Research Institute. Presented at American Honey Producers Association, January 9. Online at: http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.ahpanet.com/resource/
45 Kegley, S. 2014.
46 Hopwood, J et al. 2013.
47 Losey, JE and M Vaughan. 2006. The economic value of ecological services provided by insects. Bioscience, 56(4): 311–323.
48 Chaplin-Kramer, R, K Tuxen-Bettman, and C Kremen. 2011. Value of wildland habitat for supplying pollination services to Californian agriculture. Rangelands, 33(3): 33-41.
49 Losey, JE and M Vaughan. 2006.
50 Starner, K and KS Goh. 2012. Detections of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid in surface waters of three agricultural regions of California, USA, 2010-2011. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 88: 316-321.; Van Dijk, TC, MA Van Staalduinen, and JP Van der Sluijs. 2013. Macro-invertebrate decline in surface water polluted with imidacloprid. PLoS ONE, 8(5): e62374.; Mineau, P and C Palmer. 2013.
51 Kremen C et al. 2007. Pollination and other ecosystem services produced by mobile organisms: a conceptual framework for the effects of land-use change. Ecology Letters, 10(4): 299–314.; Abramovitz, JN. 1998. Putting a value on nature’s “free” services. WorldWatch Magazine, 11(1): 10-19. Online at: http://www.worldwatch.org/system/files/EP111B.pdf
52 Losey, JE and M Vaughan. 2006.
53 Arnason, R. 2014. Neonicotinoids jeopardize Manitoba buckwheat exports. The Western Producer. January 31. Online at: http://www.producer.com/2014/01/neonico ... buckwheat-
54 Estimates of the wholesale value of the rejected Canadian buckwheat range from about US $18,000 to $45,000 depending on the size of the containers and other factors. See, Manitoba Agricultural Services Corporation, Current Dollar Values; Crops. Online at: http://www.masc.mb.ca/
55 Goulson, D. 2013.
56 Corn Dust Research Consortium. 2014. Preliminary Report: Initial Findings for 2013, Provisional Recommendations, Timetable. Pollinator Partnership. Online at: http://www.pollinator.org/PDFs/
57 Center for Food Safety. 2013. Seed Giants vs. US Farmers. Online at: http://www