The Limits to Growth: A Report for the Club of Rome’s Projec

The Limits to Growth: A Report for the Club of Rome’s Projec

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The Limits to Growth: A Report for the Club of Rome’s Project on The Predicament of Mankind
by Donella H. Meadows, Dennis L. Meadows, Jorgen Randers, William W. Behrens III
© 1972 by Dennis L. Meadows

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


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To Dr. Aurelio Peccei, whose profound concern for humanity has inspired us and many others to think about the world’s long-term problems

The MIT Project Team

Dr. Dennis L. Meadows, director, United States
DR. ALISON A. ANDERSON, United States (pollution)
DR. JAY M. ANDERSON, United States (pollution)
ILYAS BAYAR, Turkey ( agriculture)
WILLIAM W. BEHRENS III, United States (resources)
FARHAD HAKIMZADEH, Iran (population)
DR. STEFFEN, HARBORDT, Germany (socio-political trends)
JUDITH A. MACHEN, United States (administration)
DR. DONELLA H. MEADOWS, United States (population)
PETER MILLING, Germany (capital)
NIRMALA S. MURTHY, India (population)
ROGER F. NAILL, United States (resources)
JORGEN RANDERS, Norway (pollution)
STEPHEN SHANTZIS, United States (agriculture)
OHN A. SEEGER, United States (administration)
MARILYN WILLIAMS, United States (documentation)
DR. ERICH K. O. ZAHN, Germany agriculture)

Table of Contents: [PDF HERE]

• FOREWORD, by Potomac Associates
• FIGURES
• TABLES
• INTRODUCTION
• I The Nature of Exponential Growth
• II The Limits to Exponential Growth
• III Growth in the World System
• IV Technology and the Limits to Growth
• V The State of Global Equilibrium
• COMMENTARY, by The Club of Rome Executive Committee
• APPENDIX Related Studies
• NOTES

FIGURES

• FIGURE 1: Human Perspectives
• FIGURE 2: World Fertilizer Consumption
• FIGURE 3: World Urban Population
• FIGURE 4: The Growth of Savings
• FIGURE 5: World Population
• FIGURE 6: World Industrial Production
• FIGURE 7: Economic Growth Rates
• FIGURE 8: Protein and Caloric Intake
• FIGURE 9: Food Production
• FIGURE 10: Arable Land
• FIGURE 11: Chromium Reserves
• FIGURE 12: Chromium Availability
• FIGURE 13: Chromium Availability with Double the Known Reserves
• FIGURE 14: Energy Consumption and GNP Per Capita
• FIGURE 15: Carbon Dioxide Concentration in the Atmosphere
• FIGURE 16: Waste Heat Generation in the Los Angeles Basin
• FIGURE 17: Nuclear Wastes
• FIGURE 18: Changes in Chemical Characteristics and Commercial Fish Production in Lake Ontario
• FIGURE 19: Oxygen Content of the Baltic Sea
• FIGURE 20: US Mercury Consumption
• FIGURE 21: Lead in the Greenland Ice Cap
• FIGURE 22: DDT Flows in the Environment
• FIGURE 23: Population Growth and Capital Growth Feedback Loops
• FIGURE 24: Feedback Loops of Population, Capital, Agriculture, and Pollution
• FIGURE 25: Feedback Loops of Population, Capital, Services, and Resources
• FIGURE 26: The World Model
• FIGURE 27: Nutrition and Life Expectancy
• FIGURE 28: Industrial Output Per Capita and Resource Usage
• FIGURE 29: World Steel Consumption and GNP Per Capita
• FIGURE 30: US Copper and Steel Consumption and GNP Per Capita
• FIGURE 31: Birth Rates and GNP Per Capita
• FIGURE 32: Families Wanting Four or More Children and GNP Per Capita
• FIGURE 33: Desired Family Size
• FIGURE 34: The Effect of Pollution on Lifetime
• FIGURE 35: World Model Standard Run
• FIGURE 36: World Model with Natural Resource Reserves Doubled
• FIGURE 37: World Model with "Unlimited" Resources
• FIGURE 38: Cost of Pollution Reduction
• FIGUEE 39: World Model with "Unlimited" Resources and Pollution Controls
• FIGURE 40: World Model with "Unlimited" Resources, Pollution Controls, and Increased Agricultural Productivity
• FIGURE 41l World Model with "Unlimited" Resources, Pollution Controls, and "Perfect" Birth Control
• FIGURE 42: World Model with ''Unlimited" Resources, Pollution Controls, Increased Agricultural Productivity, and "Perfect" Birth Control
• FIGURE 43: Modern Whaling
• FIGURE 44: World Model with Stabilized Population
• FIGURE 45: World Model with Stabilized Population and Capital
• FIGURE 46: Stabilized World Model I
• FIGURE 47: Stabilized World Model II
• FIGURE 48: World Model with Stabilizing Policies Introduced in the Year 2000

TABLES

• TABLE 1: Doubling Time
• TABLE 2: Economic and Population Growth Rates
• TABLE 3: Extrapolated GNP for the Year 2000
• TABLE 4: Nonrenewable Natural Resources
• TABLE 5: DDT in Body Fat
• TABLE 6: Cost of Reducing Air Pollution in a US City
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