Russia: A Country Study, edited by Glenn E. Curtis

Re: Russia: A Country Study, edited by Glenn E. Curtis

Postby admin » Mon Aug 27, 2018 5:33 am

The Third World

The Cold War affected the relations the United States and the Soviet Union had with Third World states. Both superpowers wooed Third World allies, many of which used the Cold War to extract favorable aid as the price of closer relations. The Soviet Union endeavored to construct socialism in the Third World to demonstrate that Marxism-Leninism would someday triumph worldwide. Many of its so-called client states were proclaimed as "socialist oriented" or following the path of "noncapitalist development," and the Soviet Union signed friendship treaties and other security and aid agreements with them. Some Third World states, however, involved themselves in the influential Nonaligned Movement, which began in 1955 and represented more than half the world's population. Most of those countries formally eschewed major security and other relations with the superpowers, with conspicuous exceptions such as Cuba. At some stages of its existence, however, the Nonaligned Movement appeared to have a pro-Soviet bias.

The collapse of the Soviet Union broke most of Russia's ties with Third World states. The Soviet ideological mission of fostering socialism also ceased. Russia was unable to continue economic subsidies to client regimes, including the Soviet-installed regime in Afghanistan that collapsed in 1992. Russia continued to play a reduced role in some of the regional peace negotiation efforts it had inherited from the Soviet Union, notably in the Middle East and in Cambodia.

Relations with Africa received a relatively low priority, and in 1992 Russia closed nine embassies and four consulates on that continent. Relations with some African states already had worsened in late 1991 when Yeltsin ordered the end of all foreign aid and demanded immediate repayment of outstanding debts. Most African states responded that their debts with the former Soviet Union should be forgiven or reduced because they had been largely military outlays resulting from a moribund superpower rivalry.

The January 1993 draft foreign policy concept made no mention of Russian support for former Soviet client states in Africa or elsewhere. Instead, the concept emphasized the use of diplomatic leverage to induce payment of debts by those states. Beginning in mid-1994, a shift began toward increased economic ties with more economically developed African states such as South Africa and Nigeria.
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Re: Russia: A Country Study, edited by Glenn E. Curtis

Postby admin » Mon Aug 27, 2018 5:33 am

The Middle East

The Middle East was among the most important Third World regions for Soviet foreign policy and national security. The Soviet Union shared boundaries with Middle Eastern states Iran and Turkey, and some of those states' ethnic, religious, and language groups also were represented on the Soviet side of the border. The region's oil resources and shipping lanes were of significant interest to the Soviet Union and to the West. After World War II, the main Soviet goal in the region was to minimize the influence of the United States. Toward that end, the Soviet Union gave large-scale support to a group of radical Arab states that were united by their quest to eliminate Israel and to oust all vestiges of Western influence in the region. At various times, the strategy also included extensive economic assistance to NATO member Turkey, unsuccessful attempts at negotiation of the Iran-Iraq War in the mid-1980s (during a period of strained relations with both countries), and, in the late 1980s, pursuit of closer relations with moderate states of the region such as Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia as well as United States ally Israel. In 1987 the Soviet Union protected Kuwaiti shipping in the Persian Gulf against Iranian attack, and it established consular relations with Israel. At the same time, the Soviet Union continued ties with radical regimes in Libya, Syria, and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (South Yemen).

In the last years of the Soviet Union, influence with Libya, Iraq, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), and Kuwait ebbed, and the Soviet Union played a peripheral role in the Persian Gulf War of 1991. Despite its friendship treaty with Iraq, the Soviet Union supported the United States-led international effort to reverse Iraq's occupation of Kuwait. After the war, the Soviet Union found itself marginalized by United States dominance in the region. The Soviet Union played a minor but significant role as co-coordinator with the United States of peace talks between Israel and the Arab states that began in January 1992.

The independence of the five former Soviet Central Asian republics put a geographical barrier between Russia and the states of the Middle East. Some Russian democrats and some ultranationalists believed that the Soviet Union's involvement with Islamic states such as Afghanistan and the Central Asian republics had drained resources and harmed Russia's economic and political development and stability. This sentiment was a major factor in the original formulation of the CIS, which included only the Slavic republics in that new organization and added the Central Asian and Caucasus states only at the insistence of Kazakstan's president Nursultan Nazarbayev.

Beginning in 1993, however, Russian policy toward the Middle East and the Persian Gulf became more assertive in selected areas. In late 1992, Russia endeavored, with limited success, to prevent Iran from supporting the Islamic elements of a coalition government in Tajikistan, then under siege by antireformist Tajikistani elements. On other issues, Iran and Russia pursued similar interests in constraining anti-Russian and anti-Iranian political currents in Azerbaijan, and Iran used relations with Russia to counteract United States-led international economic and political ostracism.

A major factor in renewed Russian interest in the region was the prospect of arms sales and other trade, which were the goals of Chernomyrdin's visit to Saudi Arabia and other Persian Gulf states in November 1994. In December 1994, Russia signed a trade agreement with Egypt with the stated purpose of resuming Egypt's Soviet-era position as the most important trade partner in the Middle East. Russia moved to reestablish its earlier lucrative arms sales ties with Iran, selling that country fighter aircraft, tanks, submarines, fighter-bombers, and other arms. Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, and Algeria also made arms purchases in the early 1990s, as did Egypt and Syria. However, the level of Russian arms sales remained low compared with the previous decades of high Soviet visibility in the region. In 1996 Russia continued to observe international bans on arms sales to Libya and Iraq.

Ultranationalists and other deputies in the Russian parliament called for rebuilding ties with Iraq and condemned United States air strikes against that country in January and June 1993. Among Russia's overtures for better relations was an appeal in the UN Security Council for easing international economic sanctions on Iraq, but in late 1995 these efforts were set back by revelations that Iraq was seeking to develop a nuclear weapons program. The apparently poor performance of Russian equipment during the Persian Gulf War discouraged many Middle Eastern states from buying Russian arms. Another negative effect on Russia's ties with the Middle East was Russia's aggression against Chechen Muslims and its stance favoring Serbia against Muslim Bosnia.

A series of Russian contracts to build nuclear power plants and to share nuclear technology with Iran became a major international issue and a source of particular friction with the United States. The initial 1993 contract was not fulfilled; a new contract, worth a reported US$800 million, called for construction of a nuclear reactor on the Persian Gulf. In September 1995, Moscow announced a further contract to build two additional, smaller reactors. Although the United States strongly protested what it viewed as potential nuclear proliferation to a terrorist state, Russia responded that international law permitted such deals and that the reactors would be under full safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency.

Russian diplomats encouraged Arab participation in the Arab-Israeli peace talks that began in 1992, and Russians participated in talks between Israel and the PLO on the issue of PLO self-rule in Israeli-occupied territories. Among other reasons, Russia supported the peace process as a means of reducing the threat of the spread of Islamic fundamentalism.

Russian foreign minister Primakov launched shuttle diplomacy in the Middle East in April 1996 in an attempt to end fighting in southern Lebanon and to increase Russia's diplomatic role in the region. However, Russia's condemnation of Israeli attacks against militant Arab Hezbollah guerrillas in southern Lebanon led Israel to respond that it preferred the more evenhanded diplomatic approach of the United States. Russia subsequently was excluded from a multilateral force agreed upon by Israel, Lebanon, and Syria to monitor a United States-brokered cease-fire in Lebanon.
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Re: Russia: A Country Study, edited by Glenn E. Curtis

Postby admin » Mon Aug 27, 2018 5:34 am

Latin America

In the Soviet period, the main reasons for involvement in Latin America were not historical, cultural, or economic, but related to strategic competition with the United States. Accordingly, the Soviet Union endeavored to foster leftist insurgencies and other distractions to interfere with United States foreign policy in the region.

The main bases of Soviet involvement in Latin America were Cuba and Nicaragua, but the Soviet Union also attempted some involvement in Peru and Grenada. The Soviet Union placed military and intelligence facilities in Cuba to spy on the United States. It also supported Cuba as an attractive and successful model of Latin American socialism that would induce other countries to move into the same sphere and become export bases for ideology. In 1962 Khrushchev attempted to redress Soviet strategic nuclear inferiority by surreptitiously placing intermediate-range nuclear missiles in Cuba. The resulting crisis brought the United States and the Soviet Union to the brink of war. Although tensions over Cuba subsided considerably in the decades that followed, Cuba remained an important Soviet outpost until the Gorbachev regime began substantially cutting aid in the late 1980s. The other potential outpost of communism in Latin America, Nicaragua, was lost when a free election rejected the procommunist Sandinista Party in 1990. Meanwhile, Soviet purchases of grain and other goods from Latin America slumped severely in the decade before the breakup of the Soviet Union and thereafter because of the Soviet Union's inability to pay in hard currency (see Glossary).

The January 1993 draft foreign policy concept viewed relations with Latin America as particularly important for Russia's economic development. Russia saw the Latin American countries, particularly Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico, as a source of low-price food and other goods for the Russian market, as a source of mutually beneficial technological cooperation, and as a market for arms. The 1993 concept called for establishing and consolidating ties with regional organizations such as the Organization of American States, in which Russia is a permanent observer. The concept was vague about relations with Cuba, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Guatemala, and it avoided mention of Soviet-era support for Marxist-Leninist ideological movements in those states.

Some Russian analysts argued for revival of the mutually profitable pre-Soviet trade ties that had exchanged goods from Siberia for goods from Latin America. These analysts advocated obtaining Latin America's trade products--coffee, cocoa, sugar, fruit, footwear, and oil--in exchange for Siberian timber, coal, fish, and furs. Some also argued that Russia's trade in the entire Pacific Basin should intensify to compensate for the loss of ports on the Baltic and Black seas.

In the first post-Soviet years, the Russian government received criticism from nationalist factions for declining trade and lax diplomacy with Latin America. In 1993 commercial activity recovered somewhat as Brazil and Russia concluded a trade agreement that was worth about US$2 billion and included arms purchases by Brazil. In 1994 Vladimir Shumeyko, speaker of the Federation Council, Russia's upper legislative chamber, toured Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, and Venezuela. Many Russians urged restored ties with Cuba, Nicaragua, and Peru in order to persuade those states to pay back Soviet-era loans. Some of the many Latin American students who had benefited from the Soviet Union's large student-exchange program also began to seek new entrepreneurial and cultural contacts with Russia on behalf of their native countries. In 1994 Russia cooperated with the United States by supporting a United States-led international intervention force in Haiti.

In early 1996, Foreign Minister Primakov traveled to Cuba and other Latin American states to indicate Russia's determination to expand ties in the region. In March 1996, Russia and Colombia announced an agreement on the supply of Russian small arms and ammunition. Seeking to restore ties with Nicaragua, Russia agreed in April 1996 to cancel the bulk of that nation's debt (US$3.4 billion) to the former Soviet Union.

The Soviet-era status of Cuba deteriorated seriously late in the Gorbachev regime. Ties between the communist parties of the two countries were severed, economic subsidies were suspended, and, in late 1991, Gorbachev announced the pullout of the Soviet military brigade from Cuba. The Soviet Union announced that "mutual benefit" and world prices would dictate future economic relations and that Cuba no longer would enjoy the special status it had had until that time. The end of subsidies was a severe blow to the Cuban economy. In November 1992, a Russian-Cuban trade agreement endeavored to restore some trade ties with a sugar-for-oil barter arrangement, but it did not include subsidies for Cuba. During 1992 the Russian government also failed to defend Cuba against increased commercial sanctions based on international accusations of human rights violations. Some Russian hard-liners criticized the Ministry of Foreign Affairs' treatment of Cuba, and that policy was reversed partially between 1993 and 1995. First Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Soskovets committed Russia to a credit of US$350 million and a sugar-for-oil barter agreement in 1993, and he made a high-level visit to strengthen bilateral ties in 1995.

Renewed Russian connections in Cuba have been of significant concern in the United States. Russia has argued that barter arrangements with Cuba do not violate provisions of the United States trade embargo on Cuba, which sets severe penalties for United States trading partners that deal with Cuba. In 1995 the United States voiced concern over Russian plans to assist Cuba in completing a nuclear power reactor. In February 1996, the United States tightened economic sanctions against Cuba in response to the shooting down of two United States civilian airplanes in international airspace. At that time, Yeltsin criticized the United States for overreacting, and he reaffirmed his intention of reestablishing traditional ties with Cuba.
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Re: Russia: A Country Study, edited by Glenn E. Curtis

Postby admin » Mon Aug 27, 2018 5:37 am

Appendix. Tables

Table 1. Metric Conversion Coefficients and Factors

When you know Multiply by To find
Millimeters 0.04 inches
Centimeters 0.39 inches
Meters 3.3 feet
Kilometers 0.62 miles
Hectares (10,000 2 ) 2.47 acres
Square kilometers 0.39 square miles
Cubic meters 35.3 cubic feet
Liters 0.26 gallons
Kilograms 2.2 pounds
Metric tons 0.98 long tons
1.1 short tons
2,204 pounds
Degrees Celsius (Centigrade) 1.8 and add 32 degrees Fahrenheit

Table 2. Rulers of Muscovy and the Russian Empire, 1462-1917

Period Ruler
Rurik Dynasty
1462-1505 Ivan III (the Great)
1505-33 Vasiliy III
1533-84 Ivan IV (the Terrible)
1584-98 Fedor I
Time of Troubles
1598-1605 Boris Godunov
1605 Fedor II
1605-06 First False Dmitriy
1606-10 Vasiliy Shuyskiy
1610-13 Second False Dmitriy
Romanov Dynasty
1613-45 Mikhail Romanov
1645-76 Aleksey
1676-82 Fedor III
1682-89 Sofia (regent)
1682-96 Ivan V (co-tsar)
1682-1725 Peter I (the Great)
1725-27 Catherine I
1727-30 Peter II
1730-40 Anna
1740-41 Ivan VI
1741-62 Elizabeth
1762 Peter III
1762-96 Catherine II (the Great)
1796-1801 Paul I
1801-25 Alexander I
1825-55 Nicholas I
1855-81 Alexander II
1881-94 Alexander III
1894-1917 Nicholas II
Source: Based on information from Marc Raeff, "History of Russia/Union of Soviet Socialist Republics," Academic American Encyclopedia, 16, Danbury, Connecticut, 1986, 358.

Table 3. Populated Places in European Russia Irradiated by Chernobyl' and Other Industrial Accidents

Jurisdiction Populated Places by Degree of Irradiation Total
0-1 1-5 5-15
Belgorod Oblast 318 232 0 550
Bryansk Oblast 1,183 479 264 1,926
Kaluga Oblast 262 281 69 612
Kursk Oblast 915 201 0 1,116
Leningrad Oblast 68 87 0 155
Lipetsk Oblast 123 92 0 215
Moscow Oblast 9 0 0 9
Nizhniy Novgorod Oblast 137 0 0 137
Orel Oblast 683 876 15 1,574
Penza Oblast 57 23 0 80
Republic of Bashkortostan 16 0 0 16
Republic of Chuvashia 34 0 0 34
Republic of Mari El 25 0 0 25
Republic of Mordovia 290 48 0 338
Rostov Oblast 2 0 0 2
Ryazan' Oblast 246 293 0 539
Smolensk Oblast 89 0 0 89
Tambov Oblast 116 7 0 123
Tula Oblast 1,072 1,150 144 2,366
Ul'yanovsk Oblast 101 8 0 109
Volgograd Oblast 2 3 0 5
Voronezh Oblast 758 214 0 972
TOTAL 6,506 3,994 492 10,992
Source: Based on information from Russia, Committee on Land Resources and Utilization, Zemlya Rossii 1995: Problemy, tsifry, kommentarii, Moscow, 1996, 35-36.

Table 4. Area, Population, and Capitals of the Soviet Republics, 1989 Census

Republic Area of Republic (in square kilometers) Population of Republic1 Capital Population of Capital
Russia 17,075,400 145,311,000 Moscow 8,815,000
Kazakstan 2,717,300 16,244,000 Alma-Ata 1,108,000
Ukraine 603,700 51,201,000 Kiev 2,544,000
Turkmenistan 488,100 3,361,000 Ashkhabad 382,000
Uzbekistan 447,400 19,026,000 Tashkent 2,124,000
Belorussia 207,600 10,078,000 Minsk 1,543,000
Kyrgyzstan 198,500 4,143,000 Frunze 632,000
Tajikistan 143,100 4,807,000 Dushanbe 582,000
Azerbaijan 86,600 6,811,000 Baku 1,115,000
Georgia 69,700 5,266,000 Tbilisi 1,194,000
Lithuania 65,200 3,641,000 Vilnius 566,000
Latvia 64,500 2,647,000 Riga 900,000
Estonia 45,100 1,556,000 Tallin 478,000
Moldavia 33,700 4,185,000 Kishinev 663,000
Armenia 29,800 3,412,000 Yerevan 1,168,000
TOTAL 22,403,000 286,717,000 24,008,000
Source: Based on information from Izvestiya [Moscow], April 29, 1989, 1-2.

Table 5. Largest Nature Reserves and National Parks, 1992

Name and Location Year Established Area Number of Protected Species
Animals Birds Plants
Putoran Reserve, Krasnoyarsk Territory 1988 1,887 38 142 650
Ust'-Lena Reserve, Republic of Sakha 1986 1,433 32 99 523
Taymyr Reserve, Krasnoyarsk Territory 1979 1,349 16 85 714
Tunka Park, Republic of Buryatia 1991 1,184 47 200 100
Kronotskiy Reserve, Kamchatka Oblast 1967 1,142 42 217 810
Central Siberian Reserve, Krasnoyarsk Territory 1931 972 45 241 545
Magadan Reserve, Magaden Oblast 1982 884 46 135 300
Altay Reserve, Republic of Gorno-Altay 1932 881 67 320 1,454
Dzhugdzhur Reserve, Khabarovsk Territory 1990 860 29 69 480
Olekminsk Reserve, Republic of Sakha 1984 847 40 180 450
Wrangel Island Reserve, Magadan Oblast 1976 796 15 151 438
Pechero-Il'ich Reserve, Republic of Komi 1930 722 46 215 702
Baikal-Lena Reserve, Irkutsk Oblast 1986 660 48 171 679
Verkhnetazov Reserve, Tyumen' Oblast 1986 631 25 55 291
Yugan Reserve, Tyumen' Oblast 1982 623 24 180 739
Source: Based on information from Novaya Rossiya `94: Informatsionno-statisticheskiy al'manakh, Moscow, 1994, 95-96.

Table 6. Per Capita Annual Consumption of Selected Foods, 1991-94 (in kilograms unless otherwise specified)

Food 1991 1992 1993 1994
Meat and meat products 63 55 54 53
Milk and milk products 347 281 294 278
Eggs (units) 288 263 250 234
Fish and fish products 16 12 12 10
Sugar and confections 38 30 31 31
Vegetables 86 77 71 65
Fruits 35 32 29 n.a.
Potatoes 112 118 127 122
Source: Based on information from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD Economic Surveys: The Russian Federation 1995, Paris, 1995, 124.

Table 7. Population by Age and Sex, 1992

Age-Group Males Females Total
0-1 861,576 818,432 1,680,008
1-4 4,351,791 4,159,567 8,511,358
5-9 6,168,816 5,957,872 12,126,688
10-14 5,578,416 5,418,283 10,996,699
15-19 5,274,609 5,142,603 10,417,212
20-24 4,960,535 4,648,853 9,609,388
25-29 5,274,783 5,146,580 10,421,363
30-34 6,498,819 6,414,389 12,913,208
35-39 6,172,658 6,217,575 12,390,233
40-44 5,403,038 5,563,779 10,966,817
45-49 2,839,814 3,041,791 5,881,605
50-54 4,518,016 5,270,041 9,788,057
55-59 3,576,791 4,410,415 7,987,206
60-64 3,580,852 4,957,475 8,538,327
65-69 2,194,867 4,362,140 6,557,007
70-74 966,641 2,476,577 3,443,218
75-79 727,427 2,254,410 2,981,837
80-84 432,457 1,602,017 2,034,474
85 and over 180,568 884,901 1,065,469
TOTAL 69,562,474 78,747,700 148,310,174
Source: Based on information from United Nations, Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, Demographic Yearbook, 1993, New York, 1995, 214-15.

Table 8. Major Ethnic Groups, Selected Years, 1959-89 (in thousands of people)

Ethnic Group 1959 1970 1979 1989
Russians 97,863 107,748 113,522 119,866
Tatars 4,075 4,758 5,011 5,522
Ukrainians 3,359 3,346 3,658 4,368
Chuvash 1,436 1,637 1,690 1,774
Dagestanis 797 1,152 1,402 1,749
Bashkirs 954 1,181 1,291 1,345
Belorussians 844 964 1,052 1,206
Mordovians 1,211 1,177 1,111 1,074
Chechens 261 572 712 899
Germans 820 762 791 842
Udmurts 616 678 686 715
Mari 498 581 600 644
Kazaks 383 478 518 636
Jews 875 808 701 537
Armenians 256 299 365 532
Buryats 252 313 350 417
Ossetians 248 313 352 402
Kabardins 201 277 319 386
Yakuts 233 295 327 380
Komi 283 315 320 336
Azerbaijanis 71 96 152 336
Ingush 56 137 166 215
Tuvinians 100 139 165 206
Moldavians 62 88 102 173
Kalmyks 101 131 140 166
Roma 72 98 121 153
Karachay 71 107 126 150
Georgians 58 69 89 131
Karelians 164 141 133 125
Adyghs 79 98 107 123
Khakass 56 65 69 79
Balkars 35 53 59 69
Altays 45 55 59 69
Cherkess 29 38 45 51
Source: Based on information from Novaya Rossiya `94: Informatsionno-statisticheskiy al'manakh, Moscow, 1994, 110.

Table 9. Ethnic Composition of Autonomous Republics, 1989 (in percentages)

Republic Russians Titular Nationality Other Major Group
Adygea 68 Adyghs 22 Ukrainians 3
Bashkortostan 39 Bashkirs 22 Tatars 28
Buryatia 70 Buryats 24 --
Chechnya and Ingushetia 23 Chechens 53 --
Ingush 13 --
Chuvashia 27 Chuvash 68 Tatars 3
Dagestan 9 Dagestanis 80 Azerbaijanis 4
Gorno-Altay (Altay) 60 Altays 31 --
Kabardino-Balkaria 32 Kabardins 48 --
Balkars 9 --
Kalmykia 38 Kalmyks 45 Dagestanis 6
Karachayevo-Cherkessia 42 Karachay 31 --
Cherkess 10 --
Karelia 74 Karelians 10 Belorussians 7
Khakassia 80 Khakass 11 --
Komi 58 Komi 23 --
Mari El 48 Mari 45 Tatars 6
Mordovia 61 Mordovians 33 Tatars 5
North Ossetia (Alania) 30 Ossetians 53 Ingush 5
Sakha (Yakutia) 50 Yakuts 33 Ukrainians 7
Tatarstan 43 Tatars 49 Chuvash 4
Tyva (Tuva) 32 Tuvinians 64 --
Udmurtia 59 Udmurts 31 Tatars 7

Table 10. Ethnically Designated Jurisdictions, 1996

Jurisdiction Area Capital Population
Adygea 7,600 Maykop 450,400
Bashkortostan 143,600 Ufa 4,000,000
Buryatia 351,300 Ulan-Ude 1,050,000
Chechnya (Chechnya- Ichkeria) 19,300 Groznyy n.a.
Chuvashia 18,000 Cheboksary 1,361,000
Dagestan 50,300 Makhachkala 2,067,000
Gorno-Altay 92,600 Gorno-Altaysk 200,000
Ingushetia 19,300 Nazran 254,100
Kabardino-Balkaria 12,500 Nalchik 800,000
Kalmykia 75,900 Elista 350,000
Karachayevo-Cherkessia 14,100 Cherkessk 422,000
Karelia 172,400 Petrozavodsk 800,000
Khakassia 61,900 Abakan 600,000
Komi 415,900 Syktyvkar 1,227,900
Mari El 23,300 Yoshkar Ola 754,000
Mordovia 26,200 Saransk 964,000
North Ossetia 8,000 Vladikavkaz 660,000
Sakha 3,100,000 Yakutsk 1,077,000
Tatarstan 68,000 Kazan' 3,800,000
Tyva 170,500 Kyzyl 314,000
Udmurtia 42,100 Izhevsk 1,500,000
Autonomous oblast
Birobidzhan (Yevreyskaya autonomnaya oblast') 36,000 Birobidzhan 218,000
Autonomous regions (okruga )
Aga Buryat 19,000 Aga 77,000
Chukchi 737,700 Anadyr 156,000
Evenk 767,600 Tura 25,000
Khanty-Mansi 523,100 Khanty-Mansiysk 1,301,000
Koryak 301,500 Palana 39,000
Nenets 176,700 Naryan-Mar 55,000
Permyak 32,900 Kudymkar 160,000
Taymyr (Dolgan-Nenets) 862,100 Dudinka 55,000
Ust'-Orda Buryat 22,400 Ust'-Ordynskiy 137,000
Yamalo-Nenets 750,300 Salekhard 495,000
Source: Based on information from Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States 1997, London, 1996, 666-76, 691-94.

Table 11. Indicators of Living Standards, 1991-94

Indicator 1991 1992 1993 1994
Life expectancy, males (in years) 63.5 62.0 58.9 57.3
Life expectancy, females (in years) 74.3 73.8 71.9 71.1
Daily caloric intake 2,527 2,438 2,552 2,427
Percentage of consumer expenditure on food 38.4 47.1 46.3 46.8
Automobiles per 1,000 persons 63.5 68.5 75.7 84.4
Telephones per 1,000 persons 164.0 167.0 172.0 176.0
Source: Based on information from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD Economic Surveys: The Russian Federation 1995, Paris, 1995, 123.

Table 12. Students in Primary and Secondary Schools, Selected Years, 1986-93 (in millions of students)

1986 1991 1992 1993
Grades 1 to 4
Urban 4.6 5.3 5.3 5.3
Rural 2.0 2.3 2.4 2.5
Total grades 1 to 4 6.6 7.6 7.7 7.8
Grades 5 to 9
Urban 7.0 7.5 7.5 7.5
Rural 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.9
Total grades 5 to 9 9.8 10.3 10.3 10.4
Grades 10 to 11 (or 12)
Urban 1.2 1.4 1.4 1.3
Rural 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6
Total grades 10 to 11 (or 12) 1.9 2.0 2.0 1.9
Schools for the mentally or physically handicapped 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4
TOTAL 18.6 20.3 20.4 20.5
Source: Based on information from Novaya Rossiya `94: Informatsionno-statisticheskiy al'manakh, Moscow, 1994, 557.

Table 13. Education Statistics for the Autonomous Republics, 1994

Republic Number of General Schools Number of General School Students Vocational Schools Higher Schools
Adygea 169 63,500 10 1
Bashkortostan 3,264 606,300 157 9
Buryatia 602 190,600 44 4
Chechnya and Ingushetia 554 250,700 22 3
Chuvashia 715 210,100 35 3
Dagestan 1,589 395,000 29 5
Gorno-Altay 135 36,700 4 1
Kabardino-Balkaria 249 131,300 19 3
Kalmykia 250 56,300 12 1
Karachayevo-Cherkessia 186 71,600 8 2
Karelia 336 116,400 21 3
Khakassia 281 93,900 12 1
Komi 591 196,200 12 1
Mari El 435 120,500 34 3
Mordovia 823 132,800 42 2
North Ossetia 210 105,900 17 4
Sakha 711 197,900 33 2
Tatarstan 2,422 525,100 118 15
Tyva 163 61,200 11 1
Udmurtia 882 252,700 45 5
Source: Based on information from Russian Business Agency et al., Russia 1994-95: Business, Social, Economic Analytic Profile, 2 and 3, Moscow, 1994.

Table 14. Incidence of Selected Diseases, 1990-94 (rate per 1,000 persons)

Disease 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994
Infectious diseases 34.9 33.4 34.9 38.6 44.2
Cancer 5.5 5.8 5.9 6.1 6.5
Endocrinological diseases 3.6 4.0 4.2 4.5 5.2
Blood diseases 1.3 1.6 1.9 2.2 2.4
Diseases of the nervous system 45.8 47.6 50.6 54.3 56.5
Circulatory diseases 11.2 11.0 11.5 11.8 12.9
Respiratory diseases 336.2 351.9 289.7 309.2 283.2
Diseases of the digestive organs 27.2 28.6 31.2 32.3 33.2
Diseases of the urinary tract 19.6 20.1 22.3 24.1 26.9
Skin diseases 35.0 35.0 35.7 39.9 45.6
Bone and muscle diseases 24.8 25.5 25.6 25.9 26.9
Source: Based on information from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD Economic Surveys: The Russian Federation 1995, Paris, 1995, 129.

Table 15. Land Utilization, 1993 and 1994 (in millions of hectares)

1993 1994
Agricultural (enterprise and individual ownership) 656.6 667.7
Under municipal or village jurisdiction 38.0 38.6
Designated for industry, transportation, or other nonagricultural purpose 17.8 17.6
Protected lands 26.7 27.3
Owned by timber companies 843.3 838.6
Water resources 19.0 19.4
Lands held in reserve 108.3 100.6
TOTAL 1,709.7 1,709.8
Source: Based on information from Russia, Committee on Land Resources and Utilization, Zemlya Rossii: Problemy, tsifry, kommentarii, 1995, Moscow, 1996, 5.

Table 16. Revenue Sources of Subnational Jurisdictions, 1992, 1993, and 1994 (in millions of United States dollars)

Source 1992 1993 1994
Transfers from national and other government levels 1,419 4,686 7,345
Percentage of total transfers (86.0) (99.0) (98.0)
Profit taxes 4,150 12,110 10,560
Percentage of total profit taxes (58.5) (67.4) (64.9)
Value-added taxes (VAT) 2,290 4,309 5,023
Percentage of total VAT (24.9) (35.7) (35.0)
Excise taxes 500 941 990
Percentage of total excise taxes (52.5) (49.4) (40.0)
Sales taxes 21 n.a. n.a.
Percentage of total sales taxes (100.0) (n.a.) (n.a.)
Personal income taxes 1,943 4,700 5,799
Percentage of total personal income taxes (100.0) (100.0) (99.3)
Property taxes 247 585 1,611
Percentage of total property taxes (100.0) (100.0) (100.0)
Foreign economic activity 36 97 58
Percentage of total foreign economic activity (2.1) (4.5) (0.8)
Natural resource use payments 496 639 681
Percentage of total natural resource use payments (100.0) (70.6) (84.3)
Land taxes 243 293 517
Percentage of total land taxes (76.1) (86.8) (93.3)
Government duties n.a. 109 60
Percentage of total government duties (n.a.) (71.5) (61.7)
Privatization revenues 196 271 n.a.
Percentage of total privatization revenues (69.7) (79.2) (84.5)
Other tax and nontax revenue 392 187 n.a.
Percentage of total other revenue (n.a.) (n.a.) (n.a.)
TOTAL 11,887 30,722 36,619
Source: Based on information from World Bank, Russian Federation: Toward Medium-Term Viability, Washington, 1996, 44.

Table 17. Labor Force Employment Indicators, 1995 and 1996 (in percentage of workforce unless otherwise indicated)

Date Unemployment Underemployment Vacancies
Short-Time On administrative leave (in thousands)
January 7.3 2.8 1.6 311
February 7.4 2.9 1.5 316
March 7.5 3.1 1.7 329
April 7.7 2.8 1.4 368
May 7.7 2.6 1.6 405
June 7.7 2.7 1.3 445
July 7.8 2.5 1.3 454
August 7.8 2.5 1.3 460
September 7.9 2.6 1.3 446
October 8.1 2.5 1.3 404
November 8.1 2.7 1.1 352
December 8.2 n.a. n.a. 309
January 8.3 n.a. n.a. 294
February 8.4 n.a. n.a. 287
March 8.5 n.a. n.a. 286
Source: Based on information from Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Report: Russia, 2d Quarter 1996, London, 1996, 27.

Table 18. Production Trends in Selected Branches of Heavy Industry, 1992-96 (January 1990=100)

Date All Industry Ferrous Metallurgy Chemical and Petrochemical Machine Building and Metalworking
January 81 73 80 81
July 70 65 69 75
January 70 66 67 79
July 62 58 58 66
January 51 47 40 37
July 50 52 41 37
January 50 54 49 37
July 50 55 48 34
January 46 53 44 31
April 45 54 43 32
Source: Based on information from Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: Central Eurasia Economic Review, September 3, 1996, 50.

Table 19. Modes of Public Transportation, Selected Years, 1985-92 (in millions of passengers)

Mode 1985 1990 1991 1992
Bus 0.2 0.1 0.3 1.5
Air 3.4 4.4 3.6 3.5
Boat n.a. n.a. 0.1 0.2
Bus 702 705 790 520
Railroad 236 261 274 245
Air 69.9 86.4 82.4 59.1
Inland waterway 20.8 20.6 17.1 7.9
Bus 5,498 5,052 5,153 4,531
Railroad 2,799 2,882 2,421 2,127
Inland waterway 30.5 26.5 36.8 21.2
Bus 19,818 22,869 21,359 19,739
Taxi 680 557 526 266
Trolley 5,314 6,020 8,005 8,619
Tramway 5,997 6,000 7,619 8,071
Subway 3,319 3,659 3,229 3,567
Source: Based on information from Novaya Rossiya `94: Informatsionno-statisticheskiy al'manakh, Moscow, 1994, 481.

Table 20. Modes of Transportation of Selected Products, Selected Years, 1985-92 (in millions of tons)

Product and Mode 1985 1990 1991 1992
Railroad 371.6 387.4 341.0 321.4
Inland waterway 16.8 14.6 12.7 10.8
Truck 22.0 23.3 n.a. n.a.
Sea 9.8 16.2 11.7 10.4
Railroad 16.0 12.2 10.1 10.9
Truck 0.1 0.1 0 0
Petroleum products
Railroad 265.9 246.7 234.9 212.0
Inland waterway 38.8 33.0 31.0 20.5
Truck 27.4 28.3 n.a. n.a
Sea 51.3 53.4 33.9 38.3
Iron and manganese ore
Railroad 110.3 113.0 96.4 89.8
Inland waterway 3.1 2.3 1.4 1.1
Truck 1.4 4.5 n.a. n.a.
Sea 3.7 4.1 2.4 2.8
Ferrous metals
Railroad 158.0 142.1 118.6 94.5
Inland waterway 3.4 2.5 2.5 2.1
Truck n.a. 30.8 n.a. n.a.
Sea 0 3.0 2.2 3.1
Chemical and mineral fertilizers
Railroad 79.6 76.4 69.1 51.7
Inland waterway 4.4 5.0 4.2 3.6
Truck 5.5 3.7 n.a. n.a.
Sea 4.3 2.8 1.3 1.3
Railroad 137.5 131.7 116.3 97.2
Inland waterway 67.5 49.7 37.5 27.5
Truck 19.7 15.0 n.a. n.a.
Sea 13.2 11.3 7.1 4.7
Railroad 79.3 81.5 69.9 63.2
Inland waterway 5.6 5.9 5.3 6.3
Trucks 59.6 60.5 n.a. n.a.
Source: Based on information from Novaya Rossiya `94: Informatsionno-statisticheskiy al'manakh, Moscow, 1994, 479.

Table 21. Major Import Partners, 1992, 1993, and 1994 (in millions of United States dollars)

Country 1992 1993 1994
Germany 6,725 5,142 5,597
Ukraine n.a. n.a. 4,473
Belarus n.a. n.a. 2,088
United States 2,885 2,304 2,053
Kazakstan n.a. n.a. 2,016
Finland 1,223 724 1,618
Netherlands 368 431 1,603
Italy 3,052 1,106 1,510
Japan 1,680 1,367 1,004
Poland 1,230 529 1,001
Source: Based on information from Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Report: Russia, 2d Quarter 1996, London, 1996, 35.

Table 22. Major Export Partners, 1992, 1993, and 1994 (in millions of United States dollars)

Country 1992 1993 1994
Ukraine n.a. n.a. 6,602
Germany 5,873 5,074 5,296
Switzerland 865 1,726 3,748
United States 694 1,998 3,694
Britain 2,287 3,353 3,640
Belarus n.a. n.a. 3,112
China 2,737 3,068 2,833
Italy 2,951 2,629 2,729
Netherlands 2,277 979 2,389
Kazakstan n.a. n.a. 2,288
Japan 1,569 2,005 2,165
Finland 1,564 1,364 2,028
Source: Based on information from Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Report: Russia, 2d Quarter 1996, London, 1996, 35.

Table 23. Trade with the United States by Selected Products, 1995 and 1996 (in thousands of United States dollars)

Product 1995 1996
Unwrought aluminum 782,865 588,247
Precious metals and related items 425,348 533,856
Milled steel products 462,252 461,297
Base metals and chemicals 411,749 397,519
Uranium and plutonium 277,010 228,484
Fertilizers 208,080 169,609
Frozen fish 58,869 90,755
Petroleum products 52,129 81,686
Crude petroleum 68,055 79,698
Shellfish 73,015 77,166
Ferroalloys 132,250 74,168
Inorganic chemicals 70,282 62,897
Other 1,097,975 682,437
Total exports 4,019,879 3,527,819
Poultry 606,622 912,705
Cigarettes 69,874 360,792
Construction and mining equipment 191,755 174,395
Miscellaneous animals and meats 103,902 140,429
Vehicles and vehicle chassis 88,452 95,100
Commercial and pleasure vessels 9,326 93,323
Automatic data processing machines 113,947 92,847
Medical goods 59,488 65,392
Telephone and telegraph equipment 53,538 59,044
Scientific and industrial instruments 37,537 50,579
Cereals 63,289 46,211
Edible preparations 33,471 44,456
Other 1,322,536 1,125,329
Total imports 2,753,737 3,260,602
Source: Based on official statistics of the United States Department of Commerce.

Table 24. Presidential Election Second-Round Results by Autonomous Republic, 1996

Republic Boris Yeltsin Gennadiy Zyuganov Against Both Candidates Absentee Voided
Adygea 76,146 133,665 7,575 12,595 118,457
Bashkortostan 1,170,774 990,148 83,484 81,180 535,815
Buryatia 192,933 210,791 16,036 26,454 26,448
Chechnya 275,455 80,877 15,184 33,541 122,438
Chuvashia 205,959 405,129 21,614 27,596 313,864
Dagestan 471,231 401,069 7,423 26,446 249,200
Gorno-Altay 40,026 48,057 3,527 5,805 35,166
Ingushetia 75,768 14,738 3,136 1,973 19,681
Kabardino-Balkaria 259,313 135,287 7,952 16,739 95,083
Kalmykia 103,515 39,354 2,919 14,642 53,731
Karachayevo-Cherkessia 109,747 101,379 5,286 12,510 73,749
Karelia 251,205 100,104 25,025 17,669 96,990
Khakassia 116,729 116,644 11,842 11,030 96,086
Komi 308,250 134,224 31,577 15,955 301,146
Mari El 154,301 199,872 19,628 26,479 171,064
Mordovia 238,441 249,451 16,328 29,106 167,499
North Ossetia 133,748 164,308 7,317 11,630 98,451
Sakha 274,570 126,888 17,293 30,581 62,849
Tatarstan 1,253,121 658,782 74,178 73,109 569,118
Tyva 73,113 37,227 2,423 11,474 33,625
Udmurtia 392,551 302,649 40,302 29,756 279,947
RUSSIA 40,208,384 30,113,306 3,604,550 3,615,336 31,013,641
Source: Based on information from Rossiyskaya gazeta [Moscow], July 16, 1996, translated in Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: Central Eurasia, July 31, 1996, 1-3.

Table 25. Funding of Government Functions by Jurisdiction, 1994

Function Federal Republic, Oblast, or Territory Rayon
Defense 100 percent, except military housing -- Military housing
Internal security 100 percent -- --
Foreign economic relations 100 percent -- --
Education All expenses of universities and research institutes All technical and vocational schools Wages and maintenance of primary and secondary schools
Health Medical research institutes Tertiary, veterans', and specialized hospitals Secondary hospitals
Public transportation -- Interjurisdictional highways, air, and railroad facilities (former federal) Some facilities such as subways
Libraries Special libraries such as Lenin Library Special services Most services
Housing A portion of construction A portion of construction A portion of construction; maintenance
Price subsidies A portion of food and medicine -- Fuels, mass trans-portation, basic foods, and medicines
Welfare payments A portion A portion Program management
Environment National issues Regional functions such as forest preservation --
Source: Based on information from World Bank, Russian Federation: Toward Medium-Term Viability, Washington, 1996, 40-41.

Table 26. Political Parties and Groups Receiving Highest Vote Count in State Duma Elections, 1995

Full Name of Party or Group National Vote Count
Communist Party of the Russian Federation (KPRF) 15,432,963
Liberal-Democratic Party of Russia (LDPR) 7,737,431
Our Home Is Russia All-Russian Political Movement (NDR) 7,009,291
Yabloko Public Association 4,767,384
Women of Russia Political Movement 3,188,813
Communist Workers of Russia for the Soviet Union 3,137,406
Congress of Russian Communities Public Political Movement (KRO) 2,980,137
Party of Workers' Self-Government 2,756,954
Russia's Democratic Choice-United Democrats (DVR-OD) 2,674,084
Agrarian Party of Russia 2,613,127
Derzhava (State Power) Social-Patriotic Movement 1,781,233
Forward, Russia! Public Political Movement 1,343,428
Power to the People! 1,112,873
Republican Party of the Russian Federation (RPRF-Pamfilova- Gurov-Vladimir Lysenko) 1,106,812
Trade Unions and Industrialists of Russia-Union of Labor 1,076,072
Votes against all federal tickets 1,918,151
Source: Based on information from Rossiyskaya gazeta [Moscow], January 24, 1996, translated in Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: Central Eurasia: Russia, Results of December 1995 State Duma Elections, April 24, 1996, 20-21.

Table 27. Major Periodicals, 1995-96

Newspaper Type Date Established Circulation
Argumenty i fakty Weekly, independent 1992 3,200,000
Izvestiya Daily, independent since 1991 1917 604,765
Kommersant Daily Daily, focuses on business, youth 1990 104,400
Komsomol'skaya pravd a Daily, lacks former strong ideology 1925 1,547,000
Krasnaya zvezda Daily, conservative, mainly military 1924 107,350
Literaturnaya gazeta Weekly, liberal, cultural coverage 1929 280,000
Megapolis ekspres Weekly, international, neocon- servative 1990 400,000
Moskovskiye novosti Weekly, independent, antiestablishment 1930 167,367
Moskovskaya pravda Daily 1918 377,000
Nezavisimaya gazeta Daily, independent, owned by banker Boris Berezovskiy 1990 50,400
Ogonek Weekly, independent, owned by banker Boris Berezovskiy 1899 100,000
Pravda Independent, pro-communist 1912 210,000
Rossiyskaya gazeta Daily, source of official documents, very pro-government 1990 500,000
Rossiyskiye vesti Weekly, highest-quality government voice 1991 131,000
Segodnya Daily, political and business emphasis 1993 100,000
Sovetskaya Rossiya Daily, communist and nationalist views 1956 250,000
Trud Daily, trade union paper 1921 800,000
Source: Based on information from Richard F. Staar, The New Military in Russia: Ten Myths That Shape the Image, Annapolis, 1996, 229-32; and Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: Central Russia, Pre-Election Survey of Major Russian Media, December 5, 1995, 9-19.

Table 28. Main Directorates of the Armed Forces General Staff, 1994

Directorate Function
Armaments Liaison with military industrial complex
Armor Staff supervision of maintenance and modernization of combat vehicles
Artillery Staff supervision of maintenance and modernization of weapons
Billeting and Maintenance Maintenance and operation of military real estate
Cadres Management of careers of professional military officers and warrant officers
Construction Supervision of funding and resources for new military construction
Construction Industry of Ministry of Defense Supervision of classified construction projects
Education Education and training of cadres and specialists
Foreign Relations Direction of foreign assistance programs and military attachés
Intelligence Successor to Soviet Main Intelligence Directorate (GRU); collection of strategic, technical, and tactical information for armed forces
Military Counterintelligence Oversight of military security matters
Motor Vehicles Supervision of maintenance and modernization of wheeled vehicles
Organization-Mobilization Development and dissemination of mobilization plans for national emergencies
Personnel Work Successor to Soviet political office, for management of enlisted personnel
Trade Management of foreign military sales
Source: Based on information from Joint Publications Research Service, JPRS Report: Central Eurasia Military Affairs: Directory of Military Organizations and Personnel, Washington, 1994, 32-53.

Table 29. Strategic Nuclear Forces, 1995

Type Number in Inventory Description
Typhoon 6 20 Sturgeon SS-N-20 missiles
Delta-IV 7 16 Skiff SS-N-23 missiles each
Delta-III 13 16 Stingray SS-N-18 missiles each
Delta-II 4 16 Sawfly SS-N-8 missiles each
Delta-I 15 12 Sawfly SS-N-8 missiles each
Total 45 684 missiles
Intercontinental ballistic missiles
SS-17 Spanker (RS-16) 10 All MIRV, all in Russia
SS-18 Satan (RS-20) 222 10 MIRV, 174 in Russia, remainder without warheads in Kazakstan
SS-19 Stiletto (RS-18) 250 6 MIRV, 160 in Russia, 90 in Ukraine
SS-24 Scalpel (RS-22) 92 10 MIRV, 46 in Russia, 46 in Ukraine; in Russia, 10 in silos, 36 on rails
SS-25 Sickle (RS-12M) 354 Mobile, single-warhead, at 10 bases; 336 in Russia, 18 in Belarus
Source: Based on information from The Military Balance, 1995-1996, London, 1995, 113-14.

1. Includes results of 1986 accident at Chernobyl' Nuclear Power Station in Ukraine and three nuclear accidents at Mayak nuclear weapons plant in Chelyabinsk.
2. In curies per square kilometer.
3. Bryansk Oblast also has ninety-three populated places with more than fifteen curies per square kilometer.
4. Estimated.
5. Estimated. Each republic's capital is also the largest city in the republic.
6. Includes the area of the White Sea and the Sea of Azov.
7. Soviet citizens outside the Soviet Union are included.
8. In thousands of hectares.
9. n.a.--not available.
10. Category based on about thirty nationalities.
11. --indicates no other major group present.
12. Republics of Chechnya and Ingushetia were united until 1992.
13. Category includes about thirty nationalities.
14. In square kilometers.
15. 1995 estimates for all republics except Karachayevo-Cherkessia (1990) and Buryatia, Karelia, Komi, and Sakha (1994); 1990 estimates for autonomous oblast and all autonomous regions.
16. n.a.--not available.
17. Combined figures for Chechnya and Ingushetia.
18. Exchange rate used in calculations: 1992, 222 rubles per US$1; 1993, 933 rubles per US$1; 1994, 3,000 rubles per US$1.
19. n.a.--not available.
20. Figures do not add to totals because of "n.a." figures.
21. As estimated by United Nations International Labour Organisation.
22. n.a.--not available.
23. n.a.--not available.
24. n.a.--not available.
25. n.a.--not available.
26. n.a.--not available.
27. -- no jurisdictional responsibility.
28. Towns and villages are responsible for paramedical personnel.
29. KPRF--Kommunisticheskaya partiya Rossiyskoy Federatisii.
30. LDPR--Liberal'no-demokraticheskaya partiya Rossii.
31. NDR--Nash dom Rossiya.
32. KRO--Kongress russkikh obshchin.
33. DVR-OD--Demokraticheskiy vybor Rossii-Ob"yedinennoye dvizheniye.
34. RPRF--Respublikanskaya partiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii.
35. GRU--Glavnoye razvedyvatel'noye upravleniye.
36. MIRV--multiple-warhead independently targeted reentry vehicle.
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Re: Russia: A Country Study, edited by Glenn E. Curtis

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Re: Russia: A Country Study, edited by Glenn E. Curtis

Postby admin » Mon Aug 27, 2018 5:42 am


Academy of Sciences (Akademiya nauk): Russia's most prestigious scholarly institute, established in 1725 by Peter the Great. The Academy of Sciences has historically carried out long-range research and developed new technology. The Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union conducted basic research in the physical, natural, mathematical, and social sciences. In 1991 Russia established its own academy for the first time in the Soviet era.

Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM Treaty): A 1972 agreement limiting deployment of United States and Soviet anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems. A protocol signed in 1974 limited each party to a single ABM system deployment area. In 1996 the United States and Russia negotiated to modify the terms of the treaty in order to permit testing of technology against non-intercontinental delivery systems.

balance of payments: A record of receipts from and payments to the rest of the world by a country's government and its residents. The balance of payments includes the international financial transactions of a country for commodities, services, capital transactions, and gold movements.

balance of trade: A record of a country's trade in goods with the rest of the world. The balance of trade differs from the balance of payments (q.v.) because the latter includes transactions for services and the former does not. When the exports of merchandise exceed imports, a country is said to have a balance of trade surplus or to have a favorable balance of trade. When the imports of merchandise exceed exports, a country is said to have a balance of trade deficit or to have an unfavorable balance of trade.

Bank for International Standards (BIS): Established in 1930 to assist national central banks in managing and investing monetary reserves and to promote international cooperation among those banks.

Bolshevik: Originally referring to a member of the majority (bol'shinstvo), a name adopted by the radical members of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party in 1903. In March 1918, the Bolsheviks formed the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik). That Party was the precursor of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU--q.v.).

boyar: Between the tenth and seventeenth centuries, a member of the upper level of the nobility and state administration in Kievan Rus' and Muscovy. Abolished as a class by Peter the Great.

Brezhnev Doctrine: The Soviet Union's declared right to intervene in the internal affairs of another socialist state if the leading role of that state's communist party was threatened. Formulated as justification for the Soviet Union's invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968. Mikhail S. Gorbachev implicitly abandoned the Brezhnev Doctrine in 1989.

chernozem: Literally, black earth. A type of rich, black soil indigenous to large parts of Ukraine and southwestern Russia.

collective farm (kollektivnoye khozyaystvo--kolkhoz): In the Soviet agricultural system, an agricultural "cooperative" where peasants, under the direction of party-approved plans and leaders, were paid wages based in part on the success of their harvest. Still in existence in the 1990s.

Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS): Created on December 21, 1991, when eleven heads of state signed the Alma-Ata Declaration, expanding membership of the all-Slavic CIS established at Minsk two weeks earlier by Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. The eight other members were Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The CIS aims to coordinate intracommonwealth relations and oversee common interests of its members in economics, foreign policy, and defense matters. In October 1993, Georgia became the twelfth member of the CIS. Efforts to strengthen CIS authority and interaction generally have not been successful.

communism/communist: A doctrine based on revolutionary Marxist socialism (q.v.) and Marxism-Leninism (q.v.). As the official ideology of the Soviet Union, it provided for a system of authoritarian government in which the CPSU (q.v.) alone controlled state-owned means of production. Communism nominally sought to establish a society in which the state would wither away and goods and services would be distributed equitably.

Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU): The official name of the communist party in the Soviet Union after 1952. Originally the Bolshevik (q.v.) faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party, the party was named the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik) from March 1918 to December 1925, then the All-Union Communist Party (Bolshevik) from December 1925 to October 1952. After the August 1991 Moscow coup, Russian president Boris N. Yeltsin banned the party in Russia and ordered its property turned over to the government.

Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE): See Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe.

Congress of People's Deputies: Established in 1988 by constitutional amendment, the highest organ of legislative and executive authority in the Soviet Union. As such, it elected the Supreme Soviet, the Soviet Union's standing legislative body. The Congress of People's Deputies elected in March-April 1989 consisted of 2,250 deputies. The congress ceased to exist with the demise of the Soviet Union.

Conventional Forces in Europe Treaty (CFE Treaty): An agreement signed in November 1990 by the members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO--q.v.) and the Warsaw Pact (q.v.) states. The CFE Treaty sets ceilings from the Atlantic to the Urals on armaments essential for conducting a surprise attack and initiating large-scale offensive operations. The treaty includes a strict system of inspection and information exchange. The CFE Treaty entered into force in November 1992.

Cossacks: Originally an amalgamation of runaway peasants, fugitive slaves, escaped convicts, and derelict soldiers, primarily Ukrainian and Russian, settling frontier areas along the Don, Dnepr, and Volga rivers. They supported themselves by brigandry, hunting, fishing, and cattle raising. Later the Cossacks organized military formations for their own defense and as mercenaries. The latter groups were renowned as horsemen and were absorbed as special units in the Russian army.

Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (Comecon; also CEMA or CMEA): A multilateral economic alliance created in January 1949, ostensibly to promote economic development of member states and to provide a counterweight to the United States-sponsored Marshall Plan. Shortly before its demise in January 1991, organization members included Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), Hungary, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, the Soviet Union, and Vietnam.

Council of Europe: Founded in 1949, an organization overseeing intergovernmental cooperation in designated areas such as environmental planning, finance, sports, crime, migration, and legal matters. In 1995 the council had thirty-five members. Russia achieved membership in January 1996.

Cyrillic: An alphabet based on Greek characters that was created in the ninth century for translating Eastern Orthodox religious texts into Old Church Slavonic (q.v.). Named for Cyril, the leader of the first religious mission from Byzantium to the Slavic people, the alphabet is used in Russia, Belarus, Bulgaria, Ukraine, and Yugoslavia. The Central Asian republics, Moldova, and Azerbaijan used a modified Cyrillic alphabet in the Soviet period.

demokratizatsiya (democratization): Campaign initiated in the late 1980s by Mikhail S. Gorbachev to expand the participation of a variety of interest groups in political processes.

duma (pl., dumy): An advisory council to the princes of Kievan Rus' and the tsars of the Russian Empire.
Duma (In full, Gosudarstvennaya duma--State Assembly)
Lower chamber of the legislature of Russia, established by Nicholas II after the Revolution of 1905, and functioning until 1917. Unlike advisory bodies such as the boyar (q.v.) dumy of the Kievan Rus' period and city dumy of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the Duma originally was to be a national representative body with the power to approve legislation. The first two Dumy (1905-07) were quickly dissolved because they opposed tsarist policies; the next two (1907-17) were more conservative and served full five-year terms.

East Slavs: A subdivision of Slavic peoples including Russians, Ukrainians, and Belarusians.

European Union (EU): Successor organization to the European Community. Began official operation in November 1993 to promote the economic unification of Europe, leading to a single monetary system and closer cooperation in matters of justice and foreign and security policies. In 1995 members were Austria, Belgium, Britain, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and Sweden.

five-year plan: A comprehensive plan that set the middle-range economic goals in the Soviet Union. Once the Soviet regime stipulated plan figures, all levels of the economy, from individual enterprises to the national level, were obligated to meet those goals. Such plans were followed from 1928 until 1991.

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT): An integrated set of bilateral trade agreements among more than 100 contracting nations. Originally drawn up in 1947 to abolish quotas and reduce tariffs among members. The Soviet Union eschewed joining GATT until 1987, when it applied for membership. It achieved observer status in 1990. In January 1995, GATT became the World Trade Organization (WTO--q.v.).

general secretary: The title of the head of the Communist party Secretariat, who presided over the Politburo and was the Soviet Union's de facto supreme leader. From 1953 until 1966, the title was changed to first secretary.

glasnost: Russian term for public discussion of issues and accessibility of information to the public. Devised by Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev to provoke public discussion, challenge government and party bureaucrats, and mobilize support for his policies through the media.

Golden Horde: A federative Mongol state that extended from western Siberia to the Carpathian Mountains from the mid-thirteenth century to the end of the fifteenth century. Generally, it exacted tribute and controlled external relations but allowed local authorities to decide internal affairs.

Great Terror: A period from about 1936 to 1938 of intense repression in the Soviet Union when millions were imprisoned, deported, and executed by Stalin's secret police for spurious political or economic crimes. The Great Terror affected all of Soviet society, including the highest levels of the party, government, and military.

gross domestic product (GDP): A measure of the total value of goods and services produced by the domestic economy during a given period, usually one year. Obtained by adding the value contributed by each sector of the economy in the form of profits, compensation to employees, and depreciation (consumption of capital). Only domestic production is included, not income arising from investments and possessions owned abroad.

gross national product (GNP): The total market value of final goods and services produced by an economy during a year. Obtained by adding the gross domestic product (GDP--q.v.) and the income received from abroad by residents and subtracting payments remitted abroad to nonresidents. Real GNP is the value of GNP when inflation has been taken into account.

Group of Seven (G-7): Formed in September 1985 to facilitate cooperation among the seven major noncommunist economic powers: Britain, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United States. Russia took part in numerous G-7 meetings, and when Japan ended its opposition, Russia achieved full membership in the renamed G-8 in 1997.

hard currency: Currency freely convertible and traded on international currency markets.
ntermediate-Range Nuclear Force Treaty (INF Treaty): A bilateral treaty signed in Washington in December 1987, eliminating United States and Soviet land-based missiles with ranges between 500 and 5,500 kilometers. Most of the Soviet missiles were deployed inside the Soviet Union; all of the United States missiles were in Belgium, Italy, the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany), and Britain.

internal passport (propiska): Government-issued document presented to officials on demand, identifying citizens and their authorized residence. Used in both the Russian Empire (q.v.) and the Soviet Union to restrict the movement of people. More limited use continued in some parts of Russia in the 1990s.

International Monetary Fund (IMF): Established along with the World Bank (q.v.) in 1945, the IMF has regulatory surveillance and financial functions that apply to its more than 150 member countries. The IMF is responsible for stabilizing international exchange rates and payments. Its main function is to provide loans to its members (including industrialized and developing countries) when they experience balance of payments (q.v.) difficulties. These loans frequently have conditions that require substantial internal economic adjustments by the recipients, most of which are developing countries.

KGB (Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti): Committee for State Security. The predominant Soviet agency for espionage and internal security since 1954. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia inherited the central agency in Moscow. Governments of other former Soviet republics took over KGB property on their territory.

kolkhoz: See collective farm.

kray (territory): Term for six widely dispersed administrative subdivisions whose boundaries are laid out primarily for ease of administration. Two include subdivisions based on nationality groups--one autonomous oblast (q.v.) and two autonomous regions (okruga--q.v.).

kremlin (kreml'): Central citadel in many medieval Russian towns, usually located at a strategic spot along a river. Moscow's Kremlin is the seat and symbol of the Russian government.

Lisbon Protocol: Agreement that implemented the first phase of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START--q.v.) after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The protocol is an amendment to the START agreement by which Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakstan undertook the Soviet Union's obligations under START I.

Marshall Plan: A plan announced in June 1947 by United States secretary of state George Marshall for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II. The plan was extended to all European countries, but the Soviet Union refused the offer and forbade the East European countries to accept aid under the Marshall Plan. As a counterweight, the Soviet Union created the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (Comecon--q.v.).

Marxism/Marxist: The economic, political, and social theories of Karl Marx, a nineteenth-century German philosopher and socialist, especially his concept of socialism (q.v.).

Marxism-Leninism/Marxist-Leninist: The ideology of communism (q.v.) developed by Karl Marx and refined and adapted to social and economic conditions in Russia by Vladimir I. Lenin. Marxism-Leninism was the guiding ideology for the Soviet Union and its satellites.

Menshevik: A member of a wing of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party that existed until 1917. Unlike the Bolsheviks (q.v.), the Mensheviks believed in the gradual achievement of socialism (q.v.) by parliamentary methods. The term Menshevik is derived from the word men'shinstvo (minority).

near abroad (blizhneye zarubezh'ye): Collective Russian term for the other fourteen newly independent states of the former Soviet Union. Frequently used in policy discussions about Russia's continued domination of certain of those states, especially in Central Asia and the Caucasus.

New Economic Policy (Novaya ekonomicheskaya politika--NEP): Instituted in 1921, it let peasants sell produce on an open market and permitted private ownership of small enterprises. Cultural restrictions also were relaxed during this period. NEP declined with the introduction of collectivization and was officially ended by Joseph V. Stalin in December 1929.

nomenklatura: The communist party's system of appointing reliable party members to key government positions and other important organizations. Also refers to the individuals as a social group.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): Founded in 1949, NATO served as the primary collective defense alliance in the containment of Soviet expansionism. Its military and administrative structure remain intact. The question of expanding NATO to include former Warsaw Pact (q.v.) members and successor states to the Soviet Union became a key issue in Russian foreign policy in the mid-1990s. In 1994 the alliance introduced a program for the former Soviet republics and the former Warsaw Pact countries called Partnership for Peace (q.v.).

Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty: (NPT; full title Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons) Went into effect in 1970 to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy over a period of twenty-five years. In May 1995, it was extended indefinitely. Only thirteen countries have not joined the NPT.

oblast: A major territorial and administrative subdivision in the newly independent states. Russia has forty-nine such divisions, which approximate provinces.

okrug (pl., okruga): An autonomous territorial and administrative subdivision of a territory (kray--q.v.) or oblast (q.v.) in the Russian Federation that grants a degree of administrative autonomy to a nationality; most are in remote, sparsely populated areas. In 1997 the Russian Federation had ten such jurisdictions.

Old Believers: A sect of the Russian Orthodox Church that rejected the liturgical reforms made by Patriarch Nikon in the mid-seventeenth century.

Old Church Slavonic (also known as Old Church Slavic): The first Slavic literary language, which influenced the development of the modern Slavic languages, including literary Russian. Used in liturgies of the Slavic Orthodox churches. After the twelfth century, known as Church Slavonic.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD): Founded by Western nations in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade. It also coordinated economic aid to less developed countries. In late 1996, twenty-eight nations were members, and Russia had been invited to join at an unspecified date.

Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE): Established as the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) in July 1972 by Canada, the United States, and all of the European states except Albania. In August 1975, these states signed the Helsinki Accords, confirming existing, post-World War II boundaries and obligating signatories to respect basic principles of human rights. Subsequently the CSCE held sessions and consultations on European security issues. The Charter of Paris (1990) established the CSCE as a permanent organization. In 1992 new CSCE roles in conflict prevention and management were defined, potentially making the CSCE the center of a Europe-based collective security system--a role advocated by Russia in the mid-1990s. The CSCE became the OSCE in January 1995. As of 1996, fifty-three nations were members.

Partnership for Peace (PfP): An initiative by NATO (q.v.) for the former Warsaw Pact (q.v.) member countries and the former Soviet republics, including Russia, to expand political and military cooperation and promote democratic principles in those countries. PfP aims to facilitate transparency in defense planning and budgeting, ensure democratic control of defense forces, maintain readiness to contribute to United Nations and OSCE (q.v.) operations, and develop cooperative military relations with NATO for peacekeeping, search-and-rescue, and humanitarian operations. All former Soviet and Warsaw Pact states were members by 1996, and many had conducted joint military exercises with NATO forces.

patriarch: Head of an independent Orthodox Church, such as the Russian Orthodox Church or one of the Uniate (q.v.) churches.

perestroika: Literally, rebuilding. Mikhail Gorbachev's campaign to revitalize the communist party, the Soviet economy, and Soviet society by reforming economic, political, and social mechanisms.

permafrost: Permanently frozen condition of soil except for surface soils that thaw when air temperatures rise above freezing. Thawing and refreezing cause instability of the soil, which greatly complicates the construction and maintenance of roads, railroads, and buildings. Permafrost covers roughly the northern one-third of the Russian Federation.

rayon: A low-level territorial and administrative subdivision for rural and municipal administration. A rural rayon is a county-sized district in a territory (kray--q.v.), oblast (q.v.), republic (q.v.), region (okrug--q.v.), or autonomous oblast. A city rayon is similar to a borough in some large cities in the United States.

republic: A territorial and administrative subdivision of the Russian Federation created to grant a degree of administrative autonomy to some large minority groups. In 1996 the Russian Federation had twenty-one republics (before 1992 called autonomous republics), including the war-torn Republic of Chechnya.

ruble: The monetary unit of the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation; divided into 100 kopeks. The exchange rate as of July 1997 was 5,790 rubles per US$1. Historically, the ruble has not been considered hard currency (q.v.). It became convertible on the international market in June 1996.

ruble zone: Name given the group of newly independent states that continued to use the Soviet, then Russian, ruble as the primary currency for financial transactions after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The ruble zone existed from December 1991 until July 1993, when the Russian Central Bank withdrew all ruble notes issued before January 1993.

Russian Empire: Successor state to Muscovy. Formally proclaimed by Tsar Peter the Great in 1721 and significantly expanded during the reign of Catherine II, becoming a major multinational state. The empire's political structure collapsed with the revolution of February 1917, but most of its territory was included in the Soviet Union, which was established in 1922.

Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic: (Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika--RSFSR). Official name of the largest of the fifteen union republics of the Soviet Union. Inhabited predominantly by Russians, the RSFSR comprised approximately 75 percent of the area of the Soviet Union, about 62 percent of its population, and more than 60 percent of its economic output.

serf: Peasant legally bound to the land. Serfs were emancipated by Tsar Alexander II in 1861.

Slavophiles: Members of the Russian intelligentsia in the mid-nineteenth century who advocated the preservation of Slavic, and specifically Russian, culture rather than opening Russian society and institutions to the influences of West European culture. Philosophically opposed to Westernizers (q.v.).

socialism/socialist: According to Marxism-Leninism (q.v.), the first phase of communism (q.v.). A transition from capitalism in which the means of production are state owned and whose guiding principle is "from each according to his abilities, to each according to his work." Soviet socialism bore scant resemblance to the democratic socialism that some West European countries adopted in the twentieth century.

sovkhoz: See state farm.

state farm (sovetskoye khozyaystvo: sovkhoz)--A government-owned and government-managed agricultural enterprise where workers are paid salaries. Still in existence in 1997.

Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START): Name of two treaties. START I, signed in July 1991 by the Soviet Union and the United States, significantly reduced limits for the two parties' intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) and their associated launchers and warheads; submarine-launched ballistic missile launchers and warheads; and heavy bombers and their armaments, including long-range nuclear air-launched cruise missiles. START II, signed in January 1993 by Russia and the United States but still unratified by Russia in mid-1997, further reduced strategic offensive arms of both sides by eliminating all ICBMs with multiple-warhead independently targeted reentry vehicles (MIRVs) and reducing the overall total of warheads for each side to between 3,000 and 3,500. In 1997 an important part of Russia's debate over future military and foreign policy.

taiga: The extensive, sub-Arctic evergreen forest of the Soviet Union. The taiga, the largest of the five primary natural zones, lies south of the tundra (q.v.).

territory: See kray.

tundra: The treeless plain within the Arctic Circle that has low-growing vegetation and permanently frozen subsoil (permafrost--q.v.). The northernmost of the five primary natural zones of the Soviet Union.

Uniate: A branch of the Roman Catholic Church that preserves the Eastern Rite (Orthodox) liturgy and discipline but recognizes papal authority.

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR): Successor state to the Russian Empire. Officially founded by Vladimir I. Lenin, head of the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), in 1922. Dissolved on December 25, 1991.

value-added tax (VAT): A tax applied to the additional value created at a given stage of production and calculated as a percentage of the difference between the product value at that stage and the cost of all materials and services purchased or introduced as inputs.

Warsaw Pact: Political-military alliance founded by the Soviet Union in 1955 as a counterweight to NATO (q.v.). Members included Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union. Served as the Soviet Union's primary mechanism for keeping political and military control over Eastern Europe. Disbanded in March 1991.

Westernizers: Russian intellectuals in the mid-nineteenth century who emphasized Russia's cultural ties with the West as a vital element in the country's modernization and development. Opposed by the Slavophiles (q.v.).

White armies: Various noncommunist military forces that attempted to overthrow the Bolshevik (q.v.) regime during the Civil War (1918-21). Operating with no unified command, no clear political goal, and no supplies from the Russian heartland, they were defeated piecemeal by the Red Army.

World Bank: Name used to designate a group of four affiliated international institutions that provide advice on long-term finance and policy issues to developing countries: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the International Development Association (IDA), the International Finance Corporation (IFC), and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA). The IBRD, established in 1945, has the primary purpose of providing loans to developing countries for productive projects. The IDA, a legally separate loan fund administered by the staff of the IBRD, was set up in 1960 to furnish credits to the poorest developing countries on much easier terms than those of conventional IBRD loans. The IFC, founded in 1956, supplements the activities of the IBRD through loans and assistance designed specifically to encourage the growth of productive private enterprises in the less developed countries. The president and certain senior officers of the IBRD hold the same positions in the IFC. The MIGA, which began operating in June 1988, insures private foreign investment in developing countries against such noncommercial risks as expropriation, civil strife, and inconvertibility. The four institutions are owned by the governments of the countries that subscribe their capital. To participate in the World Bank group, member states must first belong to the International Monetary Fund (IMF--q.v.).

World Trade Organization (WTO): The legal and institutional foundation of the multilateral trading system and successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT--q.v.) as of January 1, 1995. The WTO acts as a forum for multinational trade negotiations, administers dispute settlements, reviews the trade policies of member nations, and works with organizations such as the International Monetary Fund (q.v.) and the World Bank (q.v.) in developing coherent global economic policies. The WTO also covers new commercial activities beyond the jurisdiction of GATT, such as intellectual property rights, services, and investment. Russia sought membership in 1996, but it had not been accepted as of mid-1997.

Yalta Conference: Meeting of Joseph V. Stalin, Winston Churchill, and Franklin D. Roosevelt in February 1945 that redrew post-World War II national borders and established spheres of influence in Europe.
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