GAO-02-809R Origin of the AIDS Virus

Re: GAO-02-809R Origin of the AIDS Virus

Postby admin » Mon Jan 04, 2016 4:13 am

Visna virus
by Wikipedia
1/3/2016

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Visna virus
Virus classification
Group: Group VI (ssRNA-RT)
Order: Unassigned
Family: Retroviridae
Subfamily: Orthoretrovirinae
Genus: Lentivirus
Species: Visna virus
Synonyms: Maedi virus


Visna virus (also known as visna-maedi virus, maedi-visna virus and ovine lentivirus[1]) from the genus lentivirinae and subfamily Orthoretrovirinae, is a "prototype"[2] retrovirus[3] that causes encephalitis and chronic pneumonitis in sheep.[4] It is known as visna when found in the brain, and maedi when infecting the lungs. Lifelong, persistent infections in sheep occur in the lungs, lymph nodes, spleen, joints, central nervous system, and mammary glands;[2][5] The condition is sometimes known as "ovine progressive pneumonia" (OPP), particularly in the United States,[1] or "Montana sheep disease".[6] White blood cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage are the main target of visna virus.[7]

Viral infection

First described in 1954 by Bjorn Sigurdsson in Iceland,[6] Maedi-visna virus was the first lentivirus to be isolated and characterized, accomplished in 1957 by Sigurdsson.[6][7][8] "Maedi" (Icelandic for dyspnoea) and "visna" (Icelandic for "wasting"[9] or "shrinking" of the spinal cord) refer to endemic sheep herd conditions that were only found to be related after Sigurdsson's work.[6]

Visna infection may progress to total paralysis leading to death via inanition; however, if given assistance in eating and drinking, infected animals may survive for long periods of time, sometimes greater than ten years.[9] Viral replication is almost exclusively associated with macrophages in infected tissues; however, replication is restricted in these cells—that is, the majority of cells containing viral RNA do not produce infectious virus.[5]

The disease was introduced to Iceland following an import of Karakul sheep from Germany in 1933.[6] The susceptibility to maedi-visna infection varies across sheep breeds, with coarse-wool breeds apparently more susceptible than fine-wool sheep.[6] Attempts at vaccination against maedi-visna virus have failed to induce immunity, occasionally causing increased viremia and more severe disease. [7] Eradication programs have been established in countries worldwide.[6]

Associated Diseases and Symptoms

Visna – Maedi is a chronic viral disease prevalent in adult sheep. The disease is rarely found in certain species of goat. Maedi Visna virus is also referred to as ovine progressive pneumonia. (OPP ) This disease corresponds to two clinical entities caused by the same Maedi is a form that results in a chronic progressive pneumonia. Visna refers to the neurological form of the disease and predominantly causes meningoencephalitis in adult sheep. This disease has inflicted many economic losses worldwide due to the long incubation period and the high mortality rate of sheep and goats. MV virus can infect sheep of any age but clinical symptoms rarely occur in sheep less than two years old. The onset of the diseases is gradual resulting in relentless loss of weight in addition to breathing problems. Cough, abortion, rapid breathing, depression, chronic mastitis and arthritis are also additional symptoms observed. These symptoms appear mostly in animals over the age of three and therefore might spread to other flocks before clinical diagnosis can be achieved. Animals showing the above symptoms might die within six months of infection. This causal lentivirus can be found in monocytes, lymphocytes and macrophages of infected sheep in the presence of humoral and cell mediated immune response and can also be detected by conducting several serological tests.[10] Transmission of the disease occurs most commonly via the oral route caused by ingestion of colostrum or milk that contains the virus or inhalation of infected aerosol droplets. Due to variation of the strains of MVV, some of the association clinical symptoms may be more pre-dominant in a flock relative to others along with differences in genetic susceptibility patterns.[11]

Viral Replication

Entry


Visna Maedi virus (VMV) belongs to the small ruminant lentivirus group (SRLV). In general, SRLVs enter the cell through the interaction of their glycosylated envelope protein with a cellular receptor on the cell's plasma membrane facilitating fusion of the viral and cellular membrane.[12] However, the specific cellular receptor that VMV binds is not entirely certain. A few studies have proposed MHC class II, CD4 and CXCR4 proteins as possible receptors however, none of these proteins have been established as the main receptor.[13][14] Another study suggests that C-type lectins part of the mannose receptor (MR) family play a role as an alternative SRLV receptor.[15] The mannose receptor is a 180-kDa transmembrane protein with eight tandem C-type lectin carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD) of which CRD4 and CRD5 are essential in recognizing mannose, fucose and N-acetyl glucosamine residues. Studies suggest that VMV gains entrance to the cell via mannosylated residues on its envelope proteins.[15] MR is involved in recognizing the surface of pathogens and is involved in phago- and endocytosis and mediating antigen processing and presentation in a variety of cells including monocyte/macrophages and endothelial cells.[16][17]

Replication

Visna Maedi virus is a retrovirus meaning its genome consists of a (+)RNA that undergoes reverse transcription and then is integrated into the host's genome after infection. This integration is what leads to VMV's lifelong persistent infection.[7] VMV has a long incubation period. During the initial outbreak among sheep in Iceland, there was no sign of clinical disease until six years after the importation of the Karakul sheep, which brought the virus from Germany to Iceland.[18] Susceptibility to infection also increases with a higher level. VMV infects cells of the monocyte lineage, but only replicates at high levels when the monocytes are more mature/differentiated.[19] of maturity/differentiation of the monocytes. Infected differentiated monocytes, also known as macrophages, will continuously present VMV antigens inducing T-lymphocytes to produce cytokines that in turn induce the differentiation of monocytes.[7]

Viral Transmission

Horizontal Transmission


Horizontal transmission plays an important role among livestock due to their often close quarters, especially during winter stabling. Free virus or virus infected cells are generally transferred in through inhalation of respiratory secretions. Additionally, fecal-oral transmission often occurs through contamination of drinking water.[20] Sexual transmission has also been shown to be possible [21] No link has yet been made between transmission and other excretory products such as saliva and urine.

Vertical Transmission

In endemically infected flocks of livestock, free virus and virus infected cells are passed through from mothers to lambs via colostrumand milk.[22] This is one of the key features in affected populations, as it contributes greatly to the virus becoming endemic in the flock.[23] Lambs are extremely vulnerable to infection due to the permeability of the guts of newborns [24]

Virion Structure

Visna virus particles are spheres approximately 100 nm in diameter. Virions consist of an icosahedral capsid surrounded by an envelope derived from the host plasma membrane.[25] Inside the capsid are the nucleoprotein-genome complex and the reverse transcriptase and integrase enzymes. A crystal structure of the virion has not been obtained and the triangulation number of the icosahedron is unknown.

Tropism

The term viral tropism refers to the cell types a virus infects. Visna virus is generally known to target cells of the immune system, mainly monocytes and their mature form, macrophages. Studies suggest that the amount of viral replication appears to have a direct correlation with the maturity of the infected cells, with relatively little virus replication in monocytes when compared to more mature macrophages [26]

Infection can also occur in mammary epithelial and endothelial cells, implying mammary glands as a main viral reservoir, showing the importance that vertical transmission plays in the spread of the virus [27]

Genome Structure

Visna virus has a positive-strand RNA genome approximately 9.2 kilobases in length. As a retrovirus in the genus lentivirinae, the genome is reverse transcribed into proviral DNA. The visna virus genome resembles that of other lentiviruses, in terms of the gene functions that are present. Visna virus is closely related to the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus but has limited nucleotide sequence similarity with other lentiviruses.[1]

The visna viral genome encodes three structural genes characteristic of retroviruses, gag (group specific antigen), pol (polymerase), and env (envelope protein).[25] The genome also encodes two regulatory proteins, tat (trans-activator of transcription) and rev(regulator of virion protein expression). A rev response element (RRE) exists inside the env gene. An auxiliary gene, vif (viral infectivity factor), is also encoded. However, the number and role of auxiliary genes varies by strain of visna virus. The genome sequence is flanked by 5’ and 3’ long terminal repeats (LTRs).

The viral LTRs are essential for viral transcription.[28] The LTRs include a TATA box at the -20 position and a recognition site for the AP-4 transcription factor at the -60 position.[29] There are several AP-1 transcription factor binding sites in the viral LTRs. The closest AP-1 binding site is bound by the Jun and Fos proteins to activate transcription.[30] A duplicated motif in the visna virus LTR is associated with cell tropism and neurovirulence.[31]

The gag gene encodes three final glycoprotein products: the capsid, the nucleocapsid, and the matrix protein which links the capsidand the envelope.

The env gene is translated into a single precursor polyprotein that is cleaved by a host protease into two proteins, the surface glycoprotein and the transmembrane glycoprotein. The transmembrane glycoprotein is anchored inside the envelope lipid bilayer while the surface glycoprotein is non-covalently linked to the transmembrane glycoprotein.[25]

The pol gene encodes five enzymatic functions: a reverse transcriptase, RNase H, dUTPase, integrase, and protease.[25] The reverse transcriptase is an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase that exists as a heterodimer protein with RNase H activity. The dUTPase enzyme is not present in all lentiviruses. The role of the dUTPase in the visna virus life cycle is unclear. dUTPase-deficient visna virus knockout strains show no decrease in pathogenicity in vivo.[32] The integrase enzyme exists inside the viral capsid, facilitating integration into the host chromosome after entry and virion uncoating. The protease cleaves the gag and pol polyprotein precursor.

The viral tat gene encodes a 94-amino acid protein. Tat is the most enigmatic of the proteins of the visna virus. Most studies have indicated that Tat is a transcription factor necessary for viral transcription from the LTRs. Tat contains both a suppressor domain and a powerful acidic activator domain on the N-terminus.[33] It has been suggested that Tat interacts with the cellular AP-1 transcription factors Fos and Jun to bind to the TATA-binding protein and activate transcription.[30] However, other studies have suggested that the visna virus "Tat" protein is not a trans-activator for transcription but instead exhibits a function involved in cell cycle arrest, making it more closely related to the HIV-1 Vpr protein than Tat.[34]

The viral rev gene encodes a post-transcriptional regulatory protein.[35] Rev is required for expression of unspliced or partially spliced mRNA coding for the viral envelope protein, including gag and env in a similar manner as the HIV Rev protein.[36] Rev binds as a multimer to the Rev Response Element (RRE) which has a stem-loop secondary structure.

The function of the auxiliary gene vif is not fully known. The vif gene product, a 29 kDa protein, induces a weak immune response in animals.[37] Deletion experiments have demonstrated that the vif gene is essential for infectivity.[38]

Model system for HIV infection

Though it does not produce severe immunodeficiency, visna shares many characteristics with human immunodeficiency virus, including the establishment of persistent infection with chronic active lymphoproliferation;[2] however, visna virus does not infect T-lymphocytes.[7]The relationship of visna and HIV as lentiviruses was first published in 1985 by visna researcher Janice E. Clements and colleagues in the HIV field.[39] It has been postulated that the effects of maedi-visna infection in sheep are the "equivalent" of central nervous system disease and wasting syndrome found in human AIDS patients.[1][40] Despite limited sequence homology with HIV,[1] the genomic organization of visna is very similar, allowing visna infection to be used as an in vivo[41] and in vitro model system for HIV infection.[42][43][44]

Research using visna was important in the identification and characterization of HIV. Nucleotide sequence analysis demonstrated that the AIDS virus was a retrovirus related to visna and provided early clues as to the mechanism of HIV infection.[9]

The Cow Theory

ROBERT: Yeah. It is interesting. And so we tracked NBC, I think it's [NBC-] XIII . . . back to Louisiana State Agriculture Farm (LSAF) cow BFC-44. And what happens was you see, they were looking a lot at HLTV-I, which is like bovine leukemia virus (BLV), [5] and this cow at the LSAF got they thought a BLV infection. She got huge lymph nodes in the neck just like HLTVV-I/BLV in cattle. And then she apparently conquered it because the lymph nodes went down; she got better after a mononucleosis-like disease, and she made lots and lots and lots of antibodies against this virus.

Then about five or six years later, she started losing weight rapidly, developed diarrhea, and died with pneumonia. And they autopsied her and of course she had no immune system left.

And as far as we can tell, that was the original bovine visna virus isolate.

LEN: What year was that?

ROBERT: 1969. And that virus was capable of wiping out T-cells selectively, it produced syncytium [a mass of cell fluids containing many cell nuclei formed by the joining of originally separate cells as a result of infection or disease] [6] in tissue culture, and it does everything that AIDS does.

LEN: Now, who was studying that?

ROBERT: That was isolated from the LSAF outside of New Orleans.

LEN: So Gallo wasn't the only one studying that virus?

ROBERT: No, everybody was. These [cultures] were [widely distributed]. If you go back and look at the veterinary literature, they were looking at all the BLV, bovine leukemia virus lines, bovine syncytium viruses, and bovine visna viruses. And all these things were being studied. . . .

Well, at this point, they were still essentially noninvasive because they were restricted to animals. But, then what happened was in the late '60s and early '70s they started growing these in human tissue.

Early Researchers

LEN: Now when you say 'they,' can you be more specific in terms of the labs that you're familiar with that were doing this work?

ROBERT: Yeah, well virtually every lab in the world that was doing sophisticated lymphocyte studies. But particularly Gallo and company at the NIH, ahh . . . ahh . . . actually there were only a few guys you know - Gallo, Montagnier, a couple of guys that are dead, Baltimore, [7] Teman, [8] and a few others and a few veterinarians. . . .

Dmochowski was interesting because he was the first one to show that you could basically adapt retroviruses to different mammalian species by growing them in the tissue cultures that you wanted them to go to. Now he's down in Texas. [9]

Miller, in 1969, took bovine leukemia virus and injected it into chimpanzees, and the chimpanzees formed antibodies against the virus. [10] So they concluded that these chimpanzees were immune. And so that was the decision for telling everybody that bovine viruses in human beings posed no threat; which is relatively true, there is a species barrier.

Since the 1950s and even the 1940s Bumy, [11] Bobrow, [12] and all these guys from Europe said these [bovine] viruses posed a threat to humans, so they began a whole program of mass extermination of cattle in Europe that carried BLV and other viruses. [13]

In this country, half of our herds are infected with BLV, BFC, or BVV, and the only thing that has prevented, in my opinion, everyone from dying of T-cell leukemia is the fact that pasteurization of the milk kills viruses.

Now if you look at the distribution of T-cell leukemia across the upper United States, from like Minnesota to Wisconsin, there's a huge incidence of T-cell leukemia in dairy farmers.

And if you actually look at some of the studies done in France, they found that guys working in meat-packing plants had a greater incidence of T-cell leukemia too. [13]

So there's all this evidence that T-cell leukemia is related to BLV, which it certainly is, [and] for sure, if you culture the virus in human tissue and adapt it, what you get [is an HTLV-I-like virus that thrives in humans]. . . .

If you look at BVV, bovine visna virus, [13] . . . it's very closely related [to HIV], but it's still not there; it's not the same as AIDS because what you have is bovine visna virus - a virus growing in cattle - and that's not adapted to humans yet. To adapt it to humans, you've got to grow it in human tissue, as they were doing in those early '70s. And what they discovered was that it was a selective T-cell destroyer [just as the AIDS virus is].

-- Emerging Viruses: AIDS & Ebola: Nature, Accident or Intentional?, by Leonard G. Horowitz, DMD, MA, MPH


Control programs

Many countries have some sort of national programme to prevent and control a situation where the virus spreads. These programs include:

•Frequent serological testing- Aids in a fast diagnosis.
•Removal of seropositive animals from breeding program
•Separation of animal born to seropositive dam (milk re-placer).
•Quarantine of animal before introduction into heard.
•Disinfection (sensitive).

References

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Re: GAO-02-809R Origin of the AIDS Virus

Postby admin » Mon Jan 04, 2016 6:34 am

Transduction of endogenous envelope genes by feline leukaemia virus in vitro
by JULIE OVERBAUGH, NORBERT RIEDEL, EDWARD A. HOOVER & JAMES I. MULLINS
Nature 332, 731 - 734 (21 April 1988); doi:10.1038/332731a0

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Transduction of endogenous envelope genes by feline leukaemia virus in vitro

JULIE OVERBAUGH, NORBERT RIEDEL*, EDWARD A. HOOVER† & JAMES I. MULLINS‡

* Department of Cancer Biology, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave., Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA

† Department of Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523, USA

* Present address: Boston University School of Medicine, 80 East Concord Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA.

‡ To whom correspondence should be addressed.

Feline leukaemia viruses (FeLV) are exogenous retroviruses that can be detected in most cats with leukaemia, aplastic anaemia, myeloproliferative diseases and fatal immunosuppression1,2. FeLV isolates have been divided into three subgroups, based on the viral envelope-determined properties of interference and host range in vitro 3,4. FeLV-A is present in all natural isolates4,5 and is generally minimally pathogenic6,7. FeLV-B is found with FeLV-A in isolates from ~40% of natural infections and in a higher percentage of cats with lymphoma5. Following the fundamental observations of genetic reassortment of avian retroviruses with endogenous viral genes8 and the origination of lymphomagenic viruses during the ontogeny of AKR mice9, we show here that transfection of feline cells with FeLV-A DNA results in its recombination with endogenous FeLV-related sequences to produce viruses with the structural and host range properties of FeLV-B. Thus in vitro propagation of a retro virus may result in the generation of variants with very different properties.

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