FM 34-52 Intelligence Interrogation, by Army Headquarters

Re: FM 34-52 Intelligence Interrogation, by Army Headquarter

Postby admin » Fri May 17, 2019 1:48 am

Part 2 of 2

OVERALL OBJECTIVE STATEMENT

Figure B-1 shows a sample overall objective statement for an interrogation element in division GS. It is not all inclusive. PIR and IR shown are not comprehensive and are used as subheadings with intelligence indicators grouped under each. Figure B-2 contains an overall objective statement that includes the six IEW tasks.

PRIORITY INTELLIGENCE REQUIREMENTS

1. NBC WEAPONS.


1. Are NBC weapons present in any of the brigade sectors?
2. When will these NBC weapons be used?
3. Where will these NBC weapons be used?
4. How many of these NBC weapons will be used against each target?
5. What systems will deliver these NBC weapons?

II. ENEMY ATTACK.

1. When will the enemy attack?
2. Where will the enemy attack?
3. What is the attack's main objective?
4. What units will conduct the attack?
5. What is the combat effectiveness of attack units?
6. What artillery groups, regimental or divisional, will support the attack?
7. Where are these artillery groups located?

III. ENEMY DEFENSE.

1. Where will the enemy establish lines of defense?
2. What enemy units have been assigned to each defensive belt?
3. What is the combat effectiveness of the units assigned to each defensive belt?
4. What types of antitank weapons have been assigned to each defensive belt?
5. What obstacles have been emplaced in each defensive belt?
6. What minefields have been emplaced in each defensive belt?
7. What enemy units comprise the reaction force to counter friendly armor or heliborne assaults?
8. What types of artillery are assigned to support the defense?
9. Where is this artillery located?

IV. ENEMY RETREAT.

1. What units will take part in the retreat?
2. What are the current positions of the retreating units?
3. When will each of the retreating units begin its movement?
4. What routes will be taken by the retreating units?
5. What units have been designated the rear guard for the retreat?
6. What units have been designated the covering force for the retreat?
7. Where will each of the retreating units establish new positions?
8. What types of artillery have been assigned to support the retreat?
9. What deception efforts will be made to conceal the retreat?

V . ENEMY REINFORCEMENT.

1. What units comprise the enemy's second echelon?
2. What is the combat effectiveness of the units in the enemy's second echelon?
3. What is the direction of travel for each unit in the enemy's second echelon?
4. How soon will units in the enemy's second echelon begin to enter each brigade's AO?
5. What units within the enemy's first echelon will receive reinforcements of personnel or equipment?
6. To what extent will these units be reinforced?
7. How soon will these reinforcements arrive?
8. By what routes will these reinforcements arrive?

INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS

I. SUPPLY POINTS.


1. What types of ammunition is the enemy stockpiling?
2. What are the types of POL the enemy is stockpiling?
3. Where are these supply points located?
4. What units are serviced by these supply points?
5. How much materiel is currently stockpiled at these locations?

II. VULNERABILITIES.

1. What malfunctions are occurring with the enemy's--
a. Weapons?
b. Vehicles?
c. Communications?
d. Ammunition?
2. What are the enemy's major supply routes?
3. How often are supplies transported over these routes?
4. What transportation priority has the enemy assigned to each category of supplies?
5. What choke points has the enemy identified along his own lines of
communications?

Figure B-1. Sample overall objective statement.


I. SITUATION DEVELOPMENT.

1. Are NBC weapons present in any of the brigade sectors?
a. Have any tracked, self-propelled rocket launchers been sighted within any of the brigade sectors?
b. Have any small convoys been sighted traveling under unusually heavy security within any of the brigade sectors?
c. Have light aircraft been sighted circling over convoys moving in any of the brigade sectors?
d. Have any noncommunications emitters normally associated with NBC weapons been identified in any brigade sector?
e. Have any installations with unusually heavy security been identified within any of the brigade sectors?
f. Have any tall, slender objects (such as towers, chimneys, or narrow trees) suddenly appeared in any of the brigade sectors?
2. When will these NBC weapons be used?
a. Have contingency orders been received by any enemy units in any of the brigade sectors which indicate circumstances under which NBC weapons will be used?
b. Have code words been disseminated to alert enemy troops that NBC weapons will be used in any of the brigade sectors?
c. What procedures are to be followed by enemy troops in any brigade sector immediately following receipt of alert codes?
d. Have any front-line enemy troops in any brigade sector inexplicably slowed or halted their advance?
e. Has any very heavy artillery been moved to within supporting distance of front-line enemy troops within any brigade sector?
f. Has random firing of very heavy artillery occurred within any of the brigade sectors?
3. Where will these NBC weapons be used?
a Have all known enemy agents suddenly disappeared from any areas within any of the brigade sectors?
b. Has enemy air activity suddenly increased in any areas within any of the brigade sectors?
c. Is unusual enemy air activity tiling place in any areas within any of the brigade sectors?
d. Is smoke being used or planned for use as cover for any front-line enemy troops in any of the brigade sectors?
e. Have specific areas within any brigade sector been identified as targets for NBC weapons?
f. Have orders been received by any enemy units in any brigade sector which indicate that NBC weapons might be used in support of their activities?
4. How many of these NBC weapons will be used against each target?
a. How many very heavy artillery dispositions have been identified within each brigade sector?
b. How many noncommunications emitters associated with NBC weapons have been identified within each brigade sector?
c. How many transporter-erector-launchers (TELs) have been sighted within each brigade sector?
d. How many enemy units within each brigade sector have been notified that NBC weapons might be used to support them?
e. How many front-line enemy units within each brigade sector have inexplicably slowed or stopped their advance?
5. What types of systems will be med to deliver these NBC weapons?
a. What calibers of very heavy artillery have been identified within each of the brigade sectors?
b. What types of TELs have been identified within each brigade sector?
c. What types of chemical agents have been•identified within each brigade sector?
d. What types of biological agents have been identified within each brigade sector?
e. What types of noncommunications emitters have been identified within each brigade sector?
6. When will the enemy attack?
a. Have any enemy units in any of the brigade sectors received orders to conduct assault operations?
b. Is the enemy massing mechanized infantry units in any of the brigade sectors?
c. Is the enemy massing armor units in any of the brigade sectors?
d. Is the enemy massing artillery units in any of the brigade sectors?
e. Are front-line enemy troops disposed along relatively narrow fronts in any areas within any of the brigade sectors?
f. What rumors indicating future offensive operations are circulating within enemy units in each brigade sector?
7. Where will the enemy attack?
a. What avenues of approach will be used by specific enemy units within each brigade sector?
b. How many enemy units will use each avenue of approach within each brigade sector?
c. Where are the enemy's large concentrations of mechanized infantry units within each brigade sector?
d. Where are the enemy's large concentrations of armor units within each brigade sector?
e. Where are the enemy's large concentrations of artillery units within each brigade sector?
8. What is the attack's main objective?
a. What objectives have been assigned to specific enemy units in each brigade sector for their offensive operations?
b. How many objectives have been assigned to specific enemy units in each brigade sector for their offensive operations?
c. How many enemy units within each brigade sector have been assigned the same objectives?
9. What units have been assigned to conduct the attack?
a. What enemy units in any of the brigade sectors have received orders to conduct assault operations?
b. What enemy units are rumored to be preparing to conduct offensive operations within any of the brigade sectors?
c. What enemy units have been assigned to use specific avenues of approach within each brigade sector?
d. What specific enemy units have been assigned the same objectives within each brigade sector?
10. What is the combat effectiveness of the units assigned to conduct the attack?
a. How many personnel are currently fit for duty within the specific enemy units assigned to conduct offensive operations in any of the brigade sectors?
b. How many vehicles are currently operational within the specific enemy units assigned to conduct offensive operations in any of the brigade sectors?
c. How many weapon systems are currently operational within the specific enemy units assigned to conduct offensive operations in any of the brigade sectors?
d. What is the morale of the personnel assigned to the specific enemy units assigned to conduct offensive operations in any of the brigade sectors?
11. What artillery groups, regimental or divisional, have been assigned to support the attack?
a. What artillery units have been ordered to support the enemy regiments or divisions assigned to conduct offensive operations in each of the brigade sectors?
b. What artillery assets have been identified within supporting distance of the enemy regiments or divisions assigned to conduct offensive operations?
c. What types of noncommunications emitters associated with regimental or divisional artillery groups have been identified within each of the brigade sectors?
12. Where will the enemy establish lines of defense?
a. Where are enemy units preparing extensive field fortifications within each brigade sector?
b. Where are enemy units establishing antitank strong points within each brigade sector?
c. To which front-line enemy units within each brigade sector are antitank units being attached?
d. Where are alternate artillery positions being prepared within each brigade sector?
e. Where are obstacles being emplaced within each brigade sector?
f. Where are mines being emplaced within each brigade sector?
13. What enemy units have been assigned to each defensive belt?
a. What specific enemy units are preparing extensive field fortifications within each brigade sector?
b. What specific enemy units are establishing antitank strong points within each brigade sector?
c. What specific enemy units within each brigade sector are receiving attached antitank units?
d. What specific enemy units within each brigade sector are preparing alternate artillery positions?
e. What specific enemy units are emplacing obstacles within each brigade sector?
f. What specific enemy units are emplacing mines within each brigade sector?
14. What is the combat effectiveness of the units assigned to each defensive belt?
a. How many personnel are currently fit for duly within the specific enemy units assigned to the defensive belts in each brigade sector?
b. How many vehicles are currently operational within the specific enemy units assigned to the defensive belts in each brigade sector?
c. How many weapons systems are currently operational within the specific enemy units assigned to the defensive belts in each brigade sector?
d. What is the morale of the personnel assigned to the specific enemy units assigned to the defensive belts in each brigade sector?
15. What types of antitank weapons have been assigned to each defensive belt?
a. What types of antitank weapons are possessed by the specific enemy units assigned to the defensive belts in each brigade sector?
b. What types of antitank units have been attached to specific enemy units assigned to the defensive belts in each brigade sector?
16. What obstacles have been emplaced in each defensive belt?
a. What natural obstacles have been incorporated into the defensive belts in each brigade sector?
b. What manmade antipersonnel obstacles have been emplaced by the specific enemy units assigned to the defensive belts within each brigade sector?
c. What manmade anti-vehicular obstacles have been emplaced by the specific enemy units assigned to the defensive belts within each brigade sector?
17. What minefields have been emplaced in each defensive belt?
a. What types of antipersonnel mines are being emplaced by the specific enemy units assigned to the defensive belts in each brigade sector?
b. What types of antitank mines are being emplaced by the specific enemy writs assigned to the defensive belts in each brigade sector?
18. What units comprise the reaction force to counter friendly armor or heliborne assaults?
a. What enemy writs have received orders to act as the reaction force for defensive positions in each brigade sector?
b. What enemy units are rumored to be the reaction force for defensive positions in each brigade sector?
c. What enemy units are located behind, but in proximity to, the defensive positions in each brigade sector?
19. What types of artillery are assigned to support the defense?
a. What enemy artillery units have received orders to support the defensive positions in each brigade sector?
b. What enemy artillery units are rumored to be supporting the defensive positions in each brigade sector?
c. What types of artillery have been identified within each brigade sector?
20. Where is this artillery located?
a. What is the current location of the enemy artillery writs ordered to support the defensive positions in each brigade sector?
b. What is the current location of the enemy artillery units rumored to be supporting the defensive positions in each brigade sector?
c. What is the current location of all artillery identified within each brigade sector?
21. What units will take part in the retreat?
a. What enemy units in each brigade sector have received orders to participate in a retreat?
b. What enemy units in each brigade sector are rumored to be participating in a retreat?
c. What enemy units within each brigade sector are disposed along an extended front?
d. What enemy units in each brigade sector have been notified their artillery support is moving to the rear?
e. What enemy units in each brigade sector have been notified their logistical support is moving to the rear?
22. What are the current positions of the retreating units?
a. What is the current location of enemy units in each brigade sector ordered to participate in a retreat?
b. What is the current location of enemy units in each brigade sector rumored to be participating in a retreat?
c. What is the current location of enemy units within each brigade sector disposed along an extended front?
d. What is the current location of artillery units supporting enemy units in each brigade sector?
e. What is the current location of logistical units supporting enemy units in each brigade sector?
23. When will each of the retreating units begin its movement?
a. At what time have specific enemy units in each brigade sector been ordered to begin their retreat?
b. What start times are being mentioned in rumors about the retreat of specific enemy units in each brigade sector?
24. What routes will be taken by the retreating units?
a. What movement routes have been assigned for the retreat of specific enemy units in each brigade sector?
b. What movement routes are being cited in rumors about the retreat of specific enemy units in each brigade sector?
c. What movement routes are being used or planned for use during the retreat of enemy artillery units in each brigade sector?
d. What movement routes are being used or planned for use during the retreat of enemy logistical units in each brigade sector?
25. What units have been designated the rear guard for the retreat?
a. What specific enemy units have been ordered to act as rear guard for the retreat in each brigade sector?
b. What specific enemy units are rumored to be rear guard for the retreat in each brigade sector?
26. What units have been designated the covering force for the retreat?
a. What specific enemy units have been ordered to act as covering force for the retreat in each brigade sector?
b. What specific enemy units are rumored to be covering force for the retreat in each brigade sector?
27. Where will each of the retreating units establish new positions?
a. Where are the new positions assigned to retreating enemy units in each brigade sector?
b. What are the new positions being cited in rumors about the retreat of enemy units in each brigade sector?
c. Where are the new positions assigned to retreating enemy artillery units in each brigade sector?
d. Where are the new positions assigned to retreating enemy logistical units in each brigade sector?
28. What types of artillery have been assigned to support the retreat?
a. What specific enemy artillery units have been assigned to support the retreat in each brigade sector?
b. What specific enemy artillery units are rumored to be supporting the retreat in each brigade sector?
29. What deception efforts will be made to conceal the retreat?
a. What deception efforts have been ordered in conjunction with the retreat in each brigade sector?
b. What specific enemy units are conducting deception efforts in conjunction with the retreat in each brigade sector?
c. What deception efforts are being cited in rumors about the retreat in each brigade sector?
d. What enemy units are rumored to be conducting deception efforts in conjunction with the retreat in each brigade sector?
30. What units comprise the enemy's second echelon?
a. What specific units are known to be part of the enemy's second echelon in each brigade sector?
b. What specific units are rumored to be part of the enemy's second echelon in each brigade sector?
c. How many units comprise the enemy's second echelon in each brigade sector?
d. What type of units comprise the enemy's second echelon in each brigade sector?
31. What is the combat effectiveness of the units in the enemy's second echelon?
a. How many personnel are currently fit for duty within the specific enemy units comprising the second echelon in each brigade sector?
b. How many vehicles are currently operational within the specific enemy units comprising the second echelon in each brigade sector?
c. How many weapons systems are currently operational within the specific enemy units comprising the second echelon in each brigade sector.
d. What is the morale of the personnel assigned to the specific enemy units comprising the second echelon in each brigade sector?
32. What is the direction of travel for each unit in the enemy's second echelon?
a. What is the known direction of travel for units comprising the enemy's second echelon in each brigade sector?
b. What are the known movement routes for units comprising the enemy's second echelon in each brigade sector?
c. What is the rumored direction of travel for units comprising the enemy's second echelon in each brigade sector?
d. What are the rumored movement routes for units comprising the enemy's second echelon in each brigade sector?
33. How soon will units in the enemy's second echelon begin to enter each brigade's AO?
a. What is the current known location of units comprising the enemy's second echelon in each brigade sector?
b. What is the current rumored location of units comprising the enemy's second echelon in each brigade sector?
c. What is the known rate of travel for units comprising the enemy's second echelon in each brigade sector?
d. What is the rumored rate of travel for units comprising the enemy's second echelon in each brigade sector?
34. What units within the enemy's first echelon will receive reinforcements of personnel or equipment?
a. What personnel or equipment replacement have been ordered for specific front-line enemy units in each brigade sector?
b. What specific front-line enemy units in each brigade sector are rumored to be receiving personnel or equipment replacements?
35. To what extent will these units be reinforced?
a. How many personnel replacements have been ordered for specific enemy units in each brigade sector?
b. How many personnel are cited in the rumors concerning replacements for specific enemy units in each brigade sector?
c. How much lost equipment has been ordered replaced in specific enemy units in each brigade sector?
d. How much equipment is cited in the rumors concerning replacements for specific enemy units in each brigade sector?
36. How soon will these reinforcements arrive?
a. At what time will scheduled personnel replacements arrive at specific enemy units in each brigade sector?
b. At what time will scheduled equipment replacements arrive at specific enemy units in each brigade sector?
c. What time is cited in rumors concerning personnel replacements for specific enemy units in each brigade sector?
d. What time is cited in rumors concerning equipment replacements for specific enemy units in each brigade sector?
37. By what routes will these reinforcements arrive?
a. What is the current known location of personnel and equipment replacements for specific enemy units in each brigade sector?
b. What is the current rumored location of personnel and equipment replacements for specific enemy units in each brigade sector?
c. What are the known movement routes of personnel and equipment replacements for specific enemy units in each brigade sector?
d. What are the rumored movement routes for personnel and equipment replacements for specific enemy units in each brigade sector?
38. What type of ammunition is the enemy stockpiling?
a. What type of small arms ammunition is the enemy stockpiling in each brigade sector?
b. What type of ammunition is the enemy stockpiling for crew-served weapons in each brigade sector?
c. What type of ammunition is the enemy stockpiling for armored vehicles in each brigade sector?
d. What type of artillery ammunition is the enemy stockpiling in each brigade sector?
39. What type of POL is the enemy stockpiling?
a. What type of fuel is the enemy stockpiling in each brigade sector?
b. What type of oil is the enemy stockpiling in each brigade sector?
c. What type of lubricants is the enemy stockpiling in each brigade sector?
40. Where are these supply points located?
a. Where are the enemy's ammunition supply points located in each brigade sector?
b. Where are the enemy's POL supply points located in each brigade sector?
41. What units are serviced by these supply points?
a. What ammunition supply points support specific enemy units in each brigade sector?
b. What POL supply points support specific enemy units in each brigade sector?
42. How much material is currently stockpiled at these locations?
a. How much ammunition is stockpiled at specific supply points in each brigade sector?
b. How much POL are stockpiled at specific supply points in. each brigade sector?
43. What malfunctions are occurring with the enemy's weapons?
a. What malfunctions are occurring with the enemy's small arms in each brigade sector?
b. What malfunctions are occurring with the enemy's crew-served weapons in each brigade sector?
c. What malfunctions are occurring with the enemy's artillery in each brigade sector?
44. What malfunctions are occurring with the enemy's vehicles?
a. What malfunctions are occurring with the enemy's tracked vehicles in each brigade sector?
b. What malfunctions are occurring with the enemy's wheeled vehicles in each brigade sector?
45. What malfunctions are occurring with enemy communications?
a. What malfunctions are occurring with enemy vehicle-mounted communications equipment in. each brigade sector?
b. What malfunctions are occurring with enemy manpacked communications equipment in each brigade sector?
c. What malfunctions are occurring with enemy pyrotechnic means of communication in each brigade sector?
46. What malfunctions are occurring with enemy ammunition?
a. What malfunctions are occurring with enemy small arms ammunition in each brigade sector?
b. What malfunctions are occurring with enemy artillery ammunition in each brigade sector?
c. What malfunctions are occurring with enemy ammunition for armored vehicles in each brigade sector?
d. What malfunctions are occurring with enemy ammunition for crew-served weapons in each brigade sector?
47. What are enemy main supply routes?
a. What are the known movement routes used by enemy supply convoys in each brigade sector?
b. What movement routes are rumored to be used by enemy supply convoys in each of the brigade sectors?
c. What is the known direction of travel for enemy supply convoys passing named areas of interest (NAIs) in each brigade sector?
d. What direction of travel is rumored for enemy supply convoys passing NAIs in each brigade sector?
48. How often are supplies transported over these routes?
a. How often are specific enemy units in each brigade sector resupplied?
b. How often are enemy supply convoys sighted along established movement routes in each brigade sector?
49. What transportation priority has the enemy assigned to each category of supplies?
a. What is the enemy's known transportation priority for each category of supplies in each brigade sector?
b. What is rumored to be the enemy's transportation priority for each category of supplies in each brigade sector?
c. What is the frequency with which specific enemy units in each brigade sector receive each category of supplies?
50. What choke points has the enemy identified along his own LOCs?
a. What choke points are known to exist along the enemy's LOCs in each brigade sector?
b. What choke points are rumored to exist along the enemy's LOCs in each brigade sector?

II. TARGET DEVELOPMENT AND ACQUISITION.

1. Are NBC weapons present in any of the brigade sectors?
a. Where have tracked, self-propelled rocket launchers been sighted within any of the brigade sectors?
b. What was the direction of travel of any small convoys sighted traveling under unusually heavy security in any of the brigade sectors?
c. Where have light aircraft been sighted circling over convoys moving in any of the brigade sectors?
d. Where have noncommunications emitters normally associated with NBC weapons been identified in any brigade sectors?
e. Where have installations with unusually heavy security been identified within any of the brigade sectors?
f. Where have tall, slender objects (such as towers, chimneys, or narrow trees) suddenly appeared in any of the brigade sectors?
2. Where will these NBC weapons be used?
a. Where has enemy air activity suddenly increased within any of the brigade sectors?
b. Where is unusual enemy air activity taking place within any of the brigade sectors?
c. Where is smoke being used or planned for use as cover for any front-line enemy troops in any of the brigade sectors?
d. Where has very heavy artillery been moved to within supporting distance of front-line enemy troops within any brigade sector?
e. Where has random firing of very heavy artillery occurred within any of the brigade sectors?
3. Where will the enemy attack?
a. Where are the enemy's large concentrations of mechanized infantry units within each brigade sector?
b. Where are the enemy's large concentrations of armor units within each brigade sector?
c. Where are the enemy's large concentrations of artillery units within each brigade sector?
4. What artillery groups, regimental or divisional, have been assigned to support the attack?
a. What artillery units have been ordered to support the enemy regiments or divisions assigned to conduct offensive operations in each of the brigade sectors?
b. How many artillery dispositions have been identified within supporting distance of the enemy regiments or divisions assigned to conduct offensive operations?
5. Where will the enemy establish lines of defense?
a. Where are enemy units preparing extensive field fortifications within each brigade sector?
b. Where are enemy units establishing antitank strong points within each brigade sector?
c. Where are alternate artillery positions being prepared within each brigade sector?
d. Where are obstacles being emplaced within each brigade sector?
e. Where are mines being emplaced within each brigade sector?
6. What units comprise the reaction force to counter friendly armor or heliborne assaults?
a. What is the location of the enemy units ordered to act as the reaction force for defensive positions in each brigade sector?
b. What is the location of the enemy units rumored to be the reaction force for defensive positions in each brigade sector?
7. What is the location of artillery units assigned to support the enemy's defense?
a. What is the current location of the enemy artillery units ordered to support the defensive positions in each brigade sector?
b. What is the current location of the enemy artillery units rumored to be supporting the defensive positions in each brigade sector?
8. What are the current positions of retreating enemy units?
a. What is the current location of enemy units in each brigade sector that have been ordered to participate in a retreat?
b. What is the current location of enemy units in each brigade sector that are rumored to be participating in a retreat?
c. What is the current location of enemy units within each brigade sector disposed along an extended front?
d. What is the current location of artillery units supporting enemy units in each brigade sector?
e. What is the current location of logistical units supporting enemy units in each brigade sector?
9. What routes will be taken by retreating enemy units?
a. What movement routes have been assigned for the retreat of specific enemy units in each brigade sector?
b. What movement routes are being cited in rumors about the retreat of specific enemy units in each brigade sector?
c. What movement routes are being used or planned for use during the retreat of enemy --
(1) Artillery units in each brigade sector?
(2) Logistical units in each brigade sector?
10. Where will each retreating enemy unit establish its new position?
a. Where are the new positions assigned to retreating enemy units in each brigade sector?
b. What are the new positions being cited in rumors about the retreat of enemy units in each brigade sector?
c. Where are the new positions assigned to retreating enemy artillery units in each brigade sector?
d. Where are the new positions assigned to retreating enemy logistical units in each brigade sector?
11. How soon will units in the enemy's second echelon begin to enter each brigade's AO?
a. What is the current known location of units comprising the enemy's second echelon in each brigade sector?
b. What is the current rumored location of units comprising the enemy's second echelon in each brigade sector?
c. What is the known rate of travel for units comprising the enemy's second echelon in each brigade sector?
d. What is the rumored rate of travel for units comprising the enemy's second echelon in each brigade sector?
12. By what routes will enemy reinforcements arrive?
a. What is the current known location of personnel and equipment replacements for specific enemy units in each brigade sector?
b. What is the current rumored location of personnel and equipment replacements for specific enemy units in each brigade sector?
c. What are the known movement routes of personnel and equipment replacements for specific enemy units in each brigade sector?
d. What are the rumored movement routes of personnel and equipment replacements for specific enemy units in each brigade sector?
13. Where are the enemy's supply points located?
a. Where are the enemy's ammunition supply points located in each brigade sector?
b. Where are the enemy's POL supply points located in each brigade sector?
14. What are the enemy's main supply routes?
a. What are the known movement routes used by enemy supply convoys in each brigade sector?
b. What movement routes are rumored to be used by enemy supply convoys in each of the brigade sectors?
c. What is the known direction of travel for enemy supply convoys passing NAIs in each brigade sector?
d. What direction of travel is rumored for enemy supply convoys passing NAIs in each brigade sector?
15. What choke points has the enemy identified along his own LOCs?
a. Where are choke points along the enemy's LOCs in each brigade sector known to exist?
b. Where are choke points rumored to exist along the enemy's LOCs in each brigade sector?

III. INTELLIGENCE PREPARATION OF THE BATTLEFIELD.

1. Are NBC weapons present in any of the brigade sectors?
a. Have any noncommunications emitters normally associated with NBC weapons been identified in any brigade sector?
b. What is the circular area in each brigade sector within which these noncommunications emitters are probably located?
c. What is the nomenclature or operating frequency of the noncommunications emitters identified in each brigade sector?
2. Where will these NBC weapons be used?
a. Have specific areas within any brigade sector been identified as targets for NBC weapons?
b. Have orders been received by any enemy units in any brigade sector which indicate NBC weapons might be used in support of their activities?
3. What types of systems will be used to deliver these NBC weapons?
a. What noncommunications emitters associated with very heavy artillery have been identified within each brigade sector?
b. What noncommunications emitters associated with TELs have been identified in each brigade sector?
c. What is the nomenclature or operating frequency of any noncommunications emitters identified in each brigade sector?
4. When will the enemy attack?
a. What rumors indicating future offensive operations are circulating within enemy units each brigade sector?
b. Is the enemy massing mechanized infantry units in any of the brigade sectors?
c. Is the enemy massing armor units in any of the brigade sectors?
d. Is the enemy massing artillery units in any of the brigade sectors?
e. What is the nomenclature or operating frequency of any electronic emitters belonging to enemy units preparing to conduct offensive operations in each brigade sector?
5. Where will the enemy attack?
a. What avenues of approach will be med by specific enemy units within each brigade sector?
b. Where are the enemy's large concentrations of mechanized infantry units within each brigade sector?
c. Where are the enemy's large concentrations of armor units within each brigade sector?
d. Where are the enemy's large concentrations of artillery units within each brigade sector?
e. What is the nomenclature or operating frequency of any electronic emitters belonging to enemy units preparing to conduct offensive operations in each brigade sector?
6. What units have been assigned to conduct the attack?
a. What enemy units are rumored to be preparing for offensive operations within any of the brigade sectors?
b. What enemy units have been assigned to use specific avenues of approach within each brigade sector?
c. What is the nomenclature or operating frequency of any electronic emitters belonging to enemy units preparing to conduct offensive operations in each brigade sector?
7. What artillery groups, regimental or divisional, have been assigned to support the attack?
a. What artillery units have been ordered to support the enemy regiments or divisions assigned to conduct offensive operations in each of the brigade sectors?
b. What is the nomenclature or operating frequency of noncommunications emitters belonging to the regimental or divisional artillery groups identified within each of the brigade sectors?
c. What is the nomenclature or operating frequency of communications emitters belonging to the regimental or divisional artillery groups identified within each of the brigade sectors?
8. Where will the enemy establish lines of defense?
a. Where are enemy units preparing extensive field fortifications within each brigade sector?
b. Where are alternate artillery positions being prepared within each brigade sector?
9. What enemy units have been assigned to each defensive belt?
a. What specific enemy units are preparing extensive field fortifications within each brigade sector?
b. What specific enemy units within each brigade sector are preparing alternate artillery positions?
c. What is the nomenclature or operating frequency of electronic emitters belonging to enemy units establishing lines of defense within each brigade sector?
10. What units comprise the reaction force to counter friendly armor or heliborne assaults?
a. What enemy units are rumored to be the reaction force for defensive positions in each brigade sector?
b. What enemy units are located behind, but in proximity to, the defensive positions in each brigade sector?
c. What is the nomenclature or operating frequency of electronic emitters belonging to the units which are part of the enemy's reaction force within each brigade sector?
11. What types of artillery are assigned to support the defense?
a. What artillery units are rumored to be supporting the enemy's defensive positions in each brigade sector?
b. What is the current location of the enemy artillery units rumored to be supporting the defensive positions in each brigade sector?
c. What is the nomenclature or operating frequency of electronic emitters belonging to the artillery units rumored to be supporting the enemy's defensive positions in each brigade sector?
12. What enemy units will take part in a retreat?
a. What enemy units in each brigade sector are rumored to be participating in a retreat?
b. What enemy units in each brigade sector have been notified their --
(1) Artillery support is moving to the rear?
(2) Logistical support is moving to the rear?
c. What is the nomenclature and operating frequency of electronic emitters belonging to retreating enemy units in each brigade sector?
13. What are current positions of retreating units?
a. What is the current location of enemy units in each brigade sector rumored to be participating in a retreat?
b. What is the current location of artillery units supporting enemy units in each brigade sector?
c. What is the current location of logistical units supporting enemy units in each brigade sector?
14. When will each of the retreating units begin its movement?
a. At what time have specific enemy units in each brigade sector been ordered to begin their retreat?
b. What start times are being mentioned in rumors about the retreat of specific enemy units in each brigade sector?
15. What routes will be taken by the retreating units?
a. What movement routes are being cited in rumors about the retreat of specific enemy units in each brigade sector?
b. What movement routes are being used or planned for use during the retreat of enemy artillery units in each brigade sector?
c. What movement routes are being used or planned for use during the retreat of enemy logistical units in each brigade sector?
16. Where will each of the retreating units establish new positions?
a. Where are the new positions being cited in rumors about the retreat of enemy units in each brigade sector?
b. Where are the new positions assigned to retreating enemy artillery units in each brigade sector?
c. Where are the new positions assigned to retreating enemy logistical writs in each brigade sector?
17. What writs comprise the enemy's second echelon?
a. What specific writs are rumored to be part of the enemy's second echelon in each brigade sector?
b. How many writs comprise the enemy's second echelon in each brigade sector?
c. What type of writs comprise the enemy's second echelon in each brigade sector?
d. What is the nomenclature and operating frequency of electronic emitters belonging to writs in the enemy's second echelon in each brigade sector?
18. What is the direction of travel for each writ in the enemy's second echelon?
a. What is the rumored direction of travel for writs comprising the enemy's second echelon in each brigade sector?
b. What are the rumored movement routes for writs comprising the enemy's second echelon in each brigade sector?
19. How soon will writs in the enemy's second echelon begin to enter each brigade's AO?
a. What is the current rumored location of writs comprising the enemy's second echelon in each brigade sector?
b. What is the rumored rate of travel for writs comprising the enemy's second echelon in each brigade sector?
20. How soon will enemy reinforcements arrive?
a. What times are being cited in rumors about the arrival of personnel replacements at specific enemy writs in each brigade sector?
b. What times are being cited in rumors about the arrival of equipment replacements at specific enemy units in each brigade sector?
21. By what routes will enemy reinforcements arrive?
a. What are the current locations of replacement personnel and equipment cited in rumors about specific enemy writs in each brigade sector?
b. What are the movement routes of replacement personnel and equipment cited in rumors about specific enemy writs in each brigade sector?
22. What specific enemy writs are serviced by enemy supply points?
a. What ammunition supply points support specific enemy writs in each brigade sector?
b. What POL supply points support specific enemy writs in each brigade sector?
c. What is the nomenclature or operating frequency of electronic emitters belonging to enemy supply points in each brigade sector?
23. What malfunctions are occurring with enemy communications?
a. What malfunctions are occurring with enemy vehicle-mounted communications equipment in each brigade sector?
b. What malfunctions are occurring with enemy manpacked communications equipment in each brigade sector?
c. What is the nomenclature or operating frequency of enemy communications equipment which is malfunctioning?
24. What are major enemy supply routes?
a. What are the known movement routes used by enemy supply convoys in each brigade sector?
b. What movement routes are rumored to be used by enemy supply convoys in each of the brigade sectors?
c. What is the known direction of travel for enemy supply convoys passing NAIs in each brigade sector?
d. What direction of travel is rumored for enemy supply convoys passing NAIs in each brigade factor?
25. What choke points have the enemy identified along their own LOCs?
a. What choke points along enemy LOCs in each brigade sector are known to exist?
b. What choke points are rumored to exist along enemy LOCs in each brigade sector?

IV. FORCE PROTECTION.

1. Where will NBC weapons be used?
a. Have specific areas within any brigade sector been identified as targets for NBC weapons?
b. Have orders been received by any enemy units in any brigade sector which indicate that NBC weapons might be used in support?
c. Where has enemy air activity suddenly increased within any of the brigade sectors?
d. Where is unusual enemy air activity taking place within any of the brigade sectors?
e. Where has very heavy artillery been moved to within supporting distance of front-line enemy troops within any brigade sector?
f. Where has random firing of very heavy artillery occurred within any of the brigade sectors?
2. What is the main objective of enemy attack?
a. What objectives have been assigned to specific enemy units in each brigade sector for their offensive operations?
b. How many enemy units within each brigade sector have been assigned the same objectives?
c. What measures are the enemy using to conceal the offensive's objectives in each brigade sector?
3. What units have been assigned to conduct the attack?
a. What enemy units are rumored to be preparing for offensive operations within any of the brigade sectors?
b. What special operations elements are attached to enemy units preparing for offensive operations in each brigade sector?
c. What is the nomenclature or operating frequency of any electronic emitters belonging to enemy units preparing to conduct offensive operations in each brigade sector?
4. What enemy units have been assigned to defensive belts?
a. What specific enemy units are preparing extensive field fortifications in each brigade sector?
b. What special operations elements have been attached to enemy units establishing lines of defense in each brigade sector?
c. What is the nomenclature or operating frequency of electronic emitters belonging to enemy units establishing lines of defense within each brigade sector?
d. What measures are employed to conceal defensive preparations in each brigade sector?
5. What units comprise the reaction force to counter friendly armor or heliborne assaults?
a. What enemy units are rumored to be the reaction force for defensive positions in each brigade sector?
b. What enemy units are located behind, but in proximity to, the defensive positions in each brigade sector?
c. What special operations elements have been attached to the units in enemy reaction force in each brigade sector?
d. What is the nomenclature or operating frequency of electronic emitters belonging to the units which are part of the enemy's reaction force within each brigade sector?
6. What enemy units will take part in a retreat?
a. What enemy units in each brigade sector are rumored to be participating in a retreat?
b. What special operations elements are attached to retreating enemy units in each brigade sector?
c. What enemy units in each brigade sector have been designated as stay-behind elements?
d. What efforts have been made to recruit stay-behind agents from the local populace in each brigade sector?
e. What is the nomenclature or operating frequency of electronic emitters belonging to retreating enemy writs in each brigade sector?
7. What deception efforts will be made to conceal the retreat?
a. What deception efforts have been ordered in conjunction with the retreat in each brigade sector?
b. What specific enemy writs are conducting deception efforts in conjunction with the retreat in each brigade sector?
c. What special operations elements are involved in the deception efforts being conducted in each brigade sector?
d. What deception efforts are being cited in rumors about the retreat in each brigade sector?
e. What enemy writs are rumored to be conducting deception efforts in conjunction with the retreat in each brigade sector?
8. What units comprise the enemy's second echelon?
a. What specific writs are rumored to be part of the enemy's second echelon in each brigade sector?
b. How many writs comprise the enemy's second echelon in each brigade sector?
c. What type of writs comprise the enemy's second echelon in each brigade sector?
d. What special operations elements are attached to writs in the enemy's second echelon?
e. What is the nomenclature and operating frequency of electronic emitters belonging to units in the enemy's second echelon in each brigade sector?

V. BATTLE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT.

1. What production loss has the enemy sustained?
a. How long will it take to recuperate?
b. What was the extent of battle damage?
c. What was the attack's total effect?
d. How much warfighting stock was lost?
e. How many personnel were lost?
f. What type, and how many pieces, of warfighting equipment were destroyed or damaged?
g. How many craters are visible?
h. Where was the detonation point?
i. What contingency plans have been put into effect?

VI. INDICATIONS AND WARNING.

1. How stable is the current government?
a. What anti-allied demonstrations are planned?
b. Who, or what organization, is responsible for the unrest?
c. How well financed is the opposition?
d. What outside help is the opposition receiving?
e. What is the current economic situation?
f. What kind of treatment can foreign citizens expect?

Figure B-2. Sample overall objective statement (IEW tasks).
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Re: FM 34-52 Intelligence Interrogation, by Army Headquarter

Postby admin » Fri May 17, 2019 2:06 am

APPENDIX C: S2 TACTICAL QUESTIONING GUIDE AND BATTLEFIELD EXPLOITATION OF CAPTURED ENEMY DOCUMENTS AND EQUIPMENT

History shows that EPWs, CEDs, and CEE are critical sources of combat intelligence. It has also shown the usefulness of information is directly proportionate to how fast a commander can get it.

OPERATIONS URGENT FURY, JUST CAUSE, and DESERT STORM proved that without workable procedures to handle captured persons or items, our combat effectiveness suffers because the evacuation chain jams the forward resupply effort. We also suffer because we have not exploited combat information sources at a low enough echelon to do that commander any good.

This guide is for battalion and brigade S2s. It explains standard procedures on what to do when the S2 --

• Receives an enemy soldier.
• Detains a civilian.
• Finds an enemy document.
• Discovers an unusual enemy weapon during tactical operations.

PERSONNEL HANDLING

There are two types of persons captured on the battlefield: combatants and noncombatants. PM 27-10 defines the two types. The capturing unit treats all combatants and noncombatants as EPWs until the division forward collecting point segregates them by category. This is whether they are soldiers, clergy, or medics (see Chapter 3).

Noncombatants are handled, questioned, detained, evacuated, and released in accordance with theater policy.

At the EPW's capture point, the capturing element performs the following steps, with the senior soldier responsible for ensuring they are done. The steps are referred to as the "five S's."

STEP 1. SEARCH

The POC unit's first job is to disarm, then search all EPW or detainees, and tie their hands behind their back. They gather all loose enemy documents and equipment in the area. They evacuate them with the EPW. Documents and personal and protective military equipment stay with the prisoner unless otherwise directed by the battalion S2.

STEP 2. SILENT

The capturing unit instructs or signals EPWs to be silent. If that does not work, the EPW is gagged. Guards give orders to EPWs, but do not talk nor give them comfort items.

STEP 3. SAFEGUARD

The POC unit immediately moves the EPWs out of the fire zone. They protect EPWs from reprisals and give them medical care as necessary. The POC unit tries to preserve the shock of capture until brigade interrogators have a chance to question the EPWs.

STEP 4. SEGREGATE

The POC unit orders the EPWs to sit on the ground. It separates officers from enlisted, senior from junior, male from female, and civilian from soldier. It prepares a captive tag and puts one on each EPW (Figure 3-4). Tagging procedures are discussed under equipment handling procedures below.

STEP 5. SPEED TO THE REAR

Lastly, the POC unit moves EPWs to the unit supply point for evacuation. All captured documents, personal effects, and portable enemy equipment go with the EPW. Also, one escort guard should know the EPW's circumstances of capture.

CAPTURED ENEMY DOCUMENTS FOUND ON ENEMY PRISONER OF WAR

The battalion S2, and subordinate unit commander, ensures CEOs found on EPWs are handled as follows. The POC unit will --

• Search each EPW.
• Return identification documents to EPW.
• Write the following on the top and bottom half of the EPW captive tag: Number of documents taken; date and time, location and circumstances of capture; capturing unit's designation.
• Put CED in a waterproof bag, one per EPW.
• Affix Part C of the captive tag to the bag (see Figure 3-4).
• Give CEDs to senior escort.
• Direct senior escort to evacuate CEDs with the EPW.

CAPTURED ENEMY DOCUMENTS FOUND ON THE BATTLEFIELD

An example of CEDs found on the battlefield is paperwork discovered in an overrun CP, but not on an EPW's person. The POC unit will --

• Put CEDs in a waterproof bag.
• Follow the same procedures described above, and tag the bag.
• Evacuate to battalion S2.
• Battalion S2 evacuates all CEDs along EPW evacuation channels.

EQUIPMENT HANDLING PROCEDURES

CEE includes all types of foreign materiel found on an EPW or on the battlefield that may have military application. The POC unit --

• Evacuates equipment with the EPW.
• Confiscates, tags, and evacuates weapons and other equipment found on an EPW the same as CEDs.

ITEMS OF TECHINT VALUE

The capturing unit may recognize certain CEE as having possible TECHINT value. Such items include --

• New weapons.
• Radios.
• Track vehicles.
• Associated manuals.
• All CEE known or believed to be of TECHINT interest.

The capturing unit's primary job when capturing a TECHINT item is to secure and report the capture to its S2 for disposition instructions. Figure C-1 provides a scenario for TECHINT items.

FIRST ECHELON BATTLEFIELD TECHINT EXPLOITATION

It is conceivable, although not likely, that the capturing unit leader or S2 may need to do field exploitation of a piece of CEE. If this happens --

• It will usually be at the request of the battlefield TECHINT team attached to corps headquarters.
• The small-unit leader or S2 follows the same procedures used to exploit a CED.

TAGGING PROCEDURES

There are two capture tags: A CEE tag and an EPW tag with a smaller tear-off document tag. The POC unit tags all captured personnel, CEDs, and CEE at the POC.

The battalion S2 or company commander is responsible for having sufficient CEE and EPW document tags as well as and waterproof bags prior to an operation.

When no standard tag forms are available, the following procedures will be used for expediency:

• Use meals, ready-to-eat (MRE) cardboard or other type of paper.
• Write the capturing unit's designation.
• Write date and time of capture.
• Write POC coordinates.
• Write circumstances of capture.
• Identify EPW, CED, or CEE captured.
• Put tag, without damaging the CED, in a waterproof bag.
• Attach EPW and CEE tags so they will not come off.

FROM THE FOXHOLE TO THE CMEC

The soldier either captures or observes an item of possible TECHINT interest The soldier quickly reports the encounter through his or her command to the Battalion S2. The soldier then either safeguards the item or continues the mission as directed.

Upon learning that a forward platoon or company has captured or encountered an item of possible TECHINT Interest, the Battalion S2 promptly --

• Coordinates security or continued observation of the item with the S3 and ensures the item is not tampered with in any way. Components, control knobs, and switches on C-E equipment should not be touched until the equipment is photographed or positions recorded.
• Examines and screens the item against PIR and IR and determines whether the item is known or believed to be of TECHINT interest; or, whether, in the soldier's opinion, the item deserves initiative reporting.
• Spot reports the capture or encounter in the SALUTE format through higher headquarters to the first Battlefield TECHINT element in the chain of command.
• Coordinates continued security or observation of the item until receipt of further instructions.
• Identifies items requiring immediate screening for combat information by other supporting MI elements. This could include C-E system items like code books, radios, or technical documents such as operator manuals.

Intermediate echelons of command continue forwarding the spot reported encounter or capture to their supporting Battlefield TECHINT element.

The supporting Battlefield TECHINT element receives the spot report and compares the information to requirements and the existing data base to see if collection is necessary. The element then decides further action and notifies the capturing unit accordingly. The CMEC or Battlefield TECHINT team's options at this point include, but are not limited to --

• Requesting the capturing unit to provide further information, such as detailed descriptions, sketches, photographs, or documents captured with the item.
• On-site screening or exploiting.
• Destroying the item.
• Abandoning the item unharmed.
• TECHINT team-supervised or routine evacuating.
• Priority evacuating to EAC.
• Recommending turning over initial exploitation to other MI elements, such as target exploitation or interrogators, for immediate tactical information screening.


TACTICAL QUESTIONING

This section provides "how to" instructions to enable the S2 to do tactical questioning (TQ) on EPWs. Following these will --

• Achieve usable results.
• Preserve the source for subsequent formal interrogation.
• Keep the S2 from breaking the law.

WARNING

Improper, unlawful, or inept attempt at field exploitation can harm or destroy possible critical intelligence sources, and send US soldiers to prison. Any decision to attempt these procedures is a command responsibility, and only done by the S2.

Figure C2 is an example of the front and reverse sides of a CEE tag. It should be included as a tab to the TECHINT appendix in the Intelligence annex of an OPLAN plan or operations order (OPORD).

The purpose of TQ is to obtain combat information of immediate use to the battalion or subordinate unit by the S2. Sources of information can be an EPW and local or friendly civilians encountered in the operational area. (S2s use established procedures when questioning local or friendly civilians.)

LANGUAGE REQUIREMENT

TQ can be done only under one of following circumstances:

• The S2 speaks the EPW's language well enough to ask direct questions and understand the answers. A language qualified interpreter is available to assist the S2.

WHERE TQ IS DONE

TQ is done as soon as possible after removing the EPW from fire zones. However, battalion or brigade commanders forced to deal with heavy EPW input may set up an organized TQ effort at the unit's EPW collecting point.

WHO ASKS THE QUESTIONS

Only the S2 is authorized to conduct TQ. The S2 asks every question himself, even when using another soldier or local national as an interpreter. If augmented by interrogators, the interrogation team supervises the TQ effort.

TIME CONSIDERATIONS

TQ is designed to be a quick procedure, lasting from 5 to 20 minutes. A command decision is required if source questioning interferes with mission accomplishment or delays a priority evacuation.

ITEMS NEEDED FOR TQ

TQ is authorized for collection of combat information critical to successful mission accomplishment. The questioner needs to know what information headquarters requires. Other items required for TQ are --

• Maps.
• Vehicle and aircraft identification guides.
• Target language dictionary.
• Report forms, stationery, capture tags, waterproof bags.
• Interpreter or translator.

THE EXPLOITATION PROCESS

The exploitation process, discussed in Chapter 3, is the basis for all personnel examinations, to include TQ. It consists of three parts: screening, questioning, and reporting.

Image
Figure C-2. Front and Reverse sides of CEE tag.

SCREENING

If there is more than one EPW, the quickest method to pick who to question first is to --

• Check the captive tag to see if your unit recently captured the EPW with unusual equipment; for example, a sniper rifle or booby trap in an area of operational interest.
• Observe for high rank, key enemy unit patches, and unusual behavior.
• Use established guidelines and rank the most likely EPWs first for questioning.

QUESTIONING

The key to questioning is brevity. Tactical questioners work fast until they find an EPW who will give useful combat information. To do this, the tactical questioner --

• Ensures the EPW is under guard.
• Briefs interpreter as necessary.
• Has the EPW searched and obtains identity document.
• Looks over EPW's identity document and CEDs.
• Makes a mental questioning plan.
• Presents military bearing. Preserves the shock of capture.
• Asks military questions, intermixing biographical questions so as not to arouse the EPW's security training.
• Compares answers given on the identity card and other items found on the EPW to check for truthfulness.
• Ends questioning if the EPW stops or refuses to answer military questions.
• Ends questioning if the EPW intentionally or unintentionally provides so much irrelevant military information instead of information pertinent to the tactical questioner's combat mission.
• Never promises anything that cannot be delivered.

REPORTING

Tactical questioners report acquired information in SALUTE format (Figure 3-5). To do this, they --

• Obtain combat information using the direct questioning technique (see Chapter 3).
• Record combat information of interest to headquarters. This is recorded in SALUTE format as relevant answers are obtained.
• Attempt to fill in all SALUTE report blanks before moving to another collection requirement or before ending the questioning.
• End questioning by telling the EPW they will talk again, and return required items, such as the EPW's ID.

THE TACTICAL QUESTIONING PLAN

The questioning plan used during TQ is short, simple, and standard. The questioner can use it to uncover spot reportable information on any subject. An easy way to remember it is through the phrase "BIG 4 and JUMP."

• BIG 4 is a nickname for the Geneva Convention's "name, rank, service number, and date of birth."
• JUMP is an acronym for job, unit, mission, PIR, IR, and SIR, which is the sequence of the TQ plan.

More specifically, the TQ plan covers the following topics in sequence. Figure C-3 shows examples of the BIG 4 and JUMP questions.

• EPW biographical data.
• EPW duty position or job.
• EPW unit or employer.
• EPW present and future mission at time of capture.
• Commander's collection requirements in order of priority.

BATTLEFIELD DOCUMENT EXPLOITATION

Battlefield DOCEX is a capturing unit procedure done by the S2 before interrogator exploitation. A combat unit without language-qualified personnel can perform limited battlefield DOCEX, mainly on maps and overlays. Units with linguists have the advantage of being able to do more.

What is your last name? First name? Middle name?
What is your rank? Service number? Dale of Birth?
****
What is your position (or job) in your unit (or firm)?
What unit are you in (or who do you work for)?
What was your mission (or what type of work were you doing) when you were captured?
What would your future mission have been (or what jobs or projects would you have had) had you not been captured? What other missions would you have had if you had not been captured?
****
Follow up on all given information items; in particular, ensure you have the source's full unit designation and thoroughly follow up on the source's missions. A good rule of thumb is to ask Who, What, When, Where, How, and Why to fully develop whatever information you obtain.
NOTE: Continue to ask questions based on collection requirements, phrasing them as direct questions. For example, "Where is the GATO cell's arm caches?' or "When will your unit attack SAN PABLO?"

Figure C-3. BIG 4 and JUMP question examples.


After capturing an EPW or enemy CP, the capturing unit needs to look for maps, encrypted items, OPORDs, overlays, and other documents. The capturing unit then notifies headquarters to request disposition instructions.

The small-unit leader safeguards the items pending disposition instructions. At the same time he --

• Looks over the document.
• Does not mark or harm it in any way.
• Uses whatever resources are available to decipher it; for example, dictionaries and enemy map symbol guides. An example of Soviet and non-NATO symbols is at Figure C-5.
• Looks for information that has a direct bearing on his current mission.

After finding information of possible value to the mission, the S2 extracts the combat information and uses the SALUTE format as a template to organize the information (see Figure 3-5).

Image
Figure C-4. Soviet and non-NATO map symbols.
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Re: FM 34-52 Intelligence Interrogation, by Army Headquarter

Postby admin » Fri May 17, 2019 2:11 am

APPENDIX D: PROTECTED PERSONS RIGHTS VERSUS SECURITY NEEDS

The articles in this Appendix are extracted from the Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War of August 12, 1949.

The GC attempts to balance the necessity of the proper treatment of protected persons with the needs of security by the Detaining or Occupying Power. The GC applies to the whole of the populations of the countries in conflict, without any adverse distinction based, in particular, on race, nationality, religion, or political opinion. It is the design of the Convention to alleviate the sufferings caused by war (Article 13).

At the outbreak of a conflict, many protected persons become displaced persons. They move within their own country to areas where hostilities are not a threat or a power is able to protect them. They may become refugees, fleeing into neighboring countries seeking a safe haven. The GC provides that protected persons who desire to leave at the outset of, or during a conflict, should be allowed to do so, unless their departure is contrary to the national interest of the State (Article 35). However, in light of possible threats to the security of the State receiving the refugees or a Detaining Power, the Geneva Convention does recognize a State's right to take appropriate action to insure security.

The most typical security measure taken in such cases is the establishment of some manner of screening camps where the people may be identified and screened. During the process, useful intelligence may be obtained from legitimate displaced persons or refugees, and from potential threats, such as covert agents, who may be identified and interrogated.

In most cases, interrogators or linguists will conduct the screening operations while working closely with CI personnel to identify those protected persons of CI interest. Other military intelligence personnel may be required to participate in this screening process because of the large numbers of refugees and/or the lack of other qualified personnel.

Internment of a protected person occurs when the Detaining Power determines that confinement or assignment of residences to certain protected persons is absolutely necessary to the security of the Detaining Power (Articles 41 and 42). A civilian internee is defined by the Department of Defense (DOD) as a civilian who is interned during an armed conflict of occupation for security reasons or for protection or because he has committed an offense against the Detaining Power.

GENEVA CONVENTION PROVISIONS CONCERNING PROTECTED PERSONS

It is critical that the GC provisions concerning protected persons be strictly adhered to in the quest to identify legitimate threats and gain needed intelligence. Specifically:

(a) Article 5 provides that if a party to the conflict is satisfied that an individual protected person is suspected of or engaged in activities hostile to the security of the State, such individual shall not be entitled to claim rights or privileges under the convention, if the exercise of that right would be prejudicial to that State. However, such individuals must be humanely treated during internment and the pendency of any investigation and/or prosecution. A limitation of rights or privileges may include the withholding of the right to communicate with members of their family or representatives of their government. Such restrictions would be appropriate in a case involving spying.

(b) Article 29 places the responsibility for the treatment accorded protected persons upon the Party in whose hands they are found. This is in addition to any personal responsibility incurred by an agent of that Party. This is an affirmative duty upon commanders to insure their subordinates are not mistreating protected persons or their property. The command and the government will ultimately be held responsible for any mistreatment.

(c) Article 31 prohibits physical or moral coercion against protected persons to obtain information from them or from third parties. Prohibited coercion may be obvious, such as physically abusing the subject of the screening or interrogation. It may also be more subtle, such as threats to turn the individual over to hostile forces; subjecting the individual to humiliating or degrading treatment; implying harm to the individual or his property, or implying a deprivation of rights guaranteed by international law because of a failure to cooperate; threatening to separate parents from their children; or forcing a protected person to perform guide services.

(d) Article 32 prohibits corporal punishment, torture or taking any measure of such character as to cause the physical suffering or extermination of protected persons in your control. This prohibition not only applies to actions taken by the Detaining Party against the protected persons, but also any adverse action that others may take.

(e) Article 33 prohibits collective punishments, penalties, reprisals, or pillaging of protected persons and their property. The principle behind this provision is that protected persons should only be held liable for offenses they personally commit. This prohibition includes all measures of intimidation or terrorism.

(f) Article 41 allows the Power, in whose hands the protected persons are found, to intern or force assigned residence to protected persons, if the other measures of control permitted by the convention are inadequate. Some persons may demand internment (for example, protected persons who may be threatened by others). Internment must be provided when the situation renders this step necessary (Article 42).

(g) If interned or forced into assigned residences, protected persons have the right to have any such determination reconsidered and reviewed on a periodic basis (Article 43).

(h) In connection with the above, Article 44 prohibits the Detaining Power from automatically interning or forcing an assigned residence against refugees who are nationals of an Enemy State, exclusively on the basis of their nationality, who do not, in fact, enjoy the protection of any government. The purpose of this article is to insure that refugees, who may only technically remain enemy aliens, are not, on that basis alone, automatically subject to control measures, notwithstanding the fact that they are not protected by their government. An example of this would be interning Iraqi refugees based solely on their status as Iraqis. This prohibition, however, does not in any way deny the right of a Slate to intern such persons or subject them to legitimate controls when there is an additional basis for taking such action in the interest of security of the State.

(i) Article 45 prohibits the transfer of protected persons into the custody of a Power not a signatory to the convention. The transferring Power must insure that protected persons transferred from their custody will be treated in accordance with the conventions. In the event that the transferring Power discovers that the protected persons are not being treated in accordance with the convention, they shall request that the protected persons be returned to their custody.
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Re: FM 34-52 Intelligence Interrogation, by Army Headquarter

Postby admin » Fri May 17, 2019 2:11 am

APPENDIX E: REPORTS

In addition to reports previously covered, there are other reports prepared or used by interrogators in tactical and strategic units. DIAM 58-13 is the authority for format and preparation of intelligence information reports (IIRs), biographic reports, and knowledgeability briefs (KBs). Local SOPs guide the interrogator in preparing other reports.

Message Text Format (MTF) Editor is software used by the military services, National Security Agency (NSA), and Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA).

MTF Editor --

• Creates, formats, edits, stores, prints, and transmits United States Message Text Formatting (USMTF) messages.
• Is designed to run on Z-150, AN/UYK-83, Z-248, IBM PC compatibles, and other standard and nonstandard systems.
• Requires minimum 320K random access memory (RAM), microsoft (MS) or personal computer (PC) disk operating system (DOS) version 2.1 or higher, and 5.25-inch disk drive.

• Is "user friendly," as it employs many of the same commands available in commercial word processors.
The SALUTE report format contains relevant information necessary to alert higher commands of an incident or relevant information obtained. It answers all basic interrogatives: Who, What, When, Where, How, and Why.

Figures of sample reports, formats, and tags used by interrogators are listed below:

• Figure E-1, Spot report voice message template.
• Figure E-2, Battlefield TECHINT spot report.
• Figure E-3, Tactical interrogation report.
• Figure E-4, Captive tag (STANAG 2044).
• Figure E-5, IIR.
• Figure E-6, Biographic report.
• Figure E-7, Knowledgeability brief.
• Figure E-8, Interrogation report.

TACTICAL INTERROGATION REPORT

The TIR (Figure E-3) serves as written summary of initial or subsequent interrogations. The term "tactical interrogation report" was adopted under NATO STANAG 2033. The TIR --

• Eliminates information duplication of effort in later EPW interrogations.
• Disseminates information to the intelligence officers of the immediate command, those of other appropriate commands, and interrogators who will conduct further interrogations.
• Serves as an intelligence value assessment of EPWs, documents, and equipment carried by him at time of capture.
• Consists of Part I, Intelligence Potential of EPW, and Part II, information obtained.

In the heading, the EPW will be classified according to one of four categories explained in Chapter 4 under document exploitation.

The first section of the report contains the source's name and category, interrogation serial number, date, report number, interrogator's name and unit, maps and language used, and interpreter's name (if one is used).

The second section, Part 1, contains the EPW's personal particulars, career, assessment of intelligence value, capture data from the captive tag, and documents and equipment found on the EPW.

The third section, Part II, lists information obtained from the EPW during the interrogation regarding missions, composition, strength, dispositions, tactics, training, logistics, combat effectiveness, electronic technical data, and miscellaneous data.

BIOGRAPHIC DATA ENTRIES

The following data prosigns are used in biographic reporting. If available, biographic information will fit in the summary of the IIR; the text entry will be NONE.

Should the reportable information exceed the limitations of the summary, entries will be made in the text. When making entries, ensure that the numbers and prosigns shown here are those used in the biographic report; if you have no data for a particular item, skip it and list the next item for which you have a data entry. Items skipped are not listed on the report.

The paragraph classification follows the biographic prosign. Do not use colons to separate the prosign and data entries. Minimum essential data (MED) prosigns are asterisked.

SUMMARY INTERROGATION REPORT

The rationale behind the summary interrogation report, shown at Figure E-8, is to preclude duplication of effort. In DESERT STORM, as EPWs were being evacuated up the chain, the gaining interrogator would ask questions only to be told the same questions had already been asked by somebody else at a previous location. This is embarrassing, and does not foster rapport building, because the gaining interrogator had no previous EPW screening or interrogation reports. It was assumed this was the first time the EPW was questioned.

If the previous echelon received EPW information pertaining only to their immediate tactical situation, with no reports being forwarded, it would have been to the gaining interrogators advantage to be apprised of what transpired at the lower echelon; hence the summary interrogation report. This report is simple in design and purpose, but reveals EPW information that gives the gaining interrogator insight as to what was developed at the previous echelon.

Image
Figure E-1. Spot report voice message template.

Image
Figure E-2. Sample battlefield TECHINT spot report.

Image
Figure E-3. Sample TIR.

Image
Figure E-3. Sample TIR (continued)

Image
Figure E-3. Sample TIR (continued).

Image
Figure E-3. Sample TIR (continued).

Image
Figure E-3. Sample TIR (continued).

Image
Figure E-4. Standardized EPW and personal equipment and document captive tag (STANAG 2044).

Image
Figure E-5. Format for intelligence information report (IIR).

Image
Figure E-6. Format for biographic report.

Image
Figure E-6. Format for biographic report (continued).

Image
Figure E-6. Format for biographic report (continued).

Image
Figure E-7. Format for a knowledgeability brief.

Image
Figure E-7. Format for a knowledgeability brief (continued).

Image
Figure E-8. Sample summary interrogation report.
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Re: FM 34-52 Intelligence Interrogation, by Army Headquarter

Postby admin » Fri May 17, 2019 3:07 am

APPENDIX F: COMMAND LANGUAGE PROGRAM

Foreign language knowledge is a perishable skill. Without constant reinforcement, this knowledge quickly fades. In a combat situation, this knowledge will be most critical. It is incumbent on the commander to establish and maintain an effective CLP.

STANDARDS

The goal for any language maintenance program is to have all linguists perform critical wartime mission tasks proficiently. Scoring 2/2/2 or better on the listening, reading, and speaking portion of the Defense Language Proficiency Test (DLPT) is the minimum standard for foreign language proficiency. However, there are several reasons why this should not be the sole criteria for judging the effectiveness of a language maintenance program nor an individual's proficiency.

Languages have different degrees of difficulty. The Defense Language Institute, Foreign Language Center (DLIFLC) has divided languages into four categories according to difficulty for an English speaker. The romance languages belong to Category I (easiest), while most of the Asian languages belong to Category IV (hardest). Therefore, a 2 on the DLPT for Korean does not correspond to a 2 for French.

There are several versions of the DLPT for each language. A 2 result on a version I examination is not the same as a 2 result on a version III examination, even in the same language. There are different forms (For example, A, E, or C) within each examination version.

Nevertheless, unless there is a qualified native speaker who can evaluate language proficiency, the DLPT can be used to evaluate language maintenance program effectiveness.

METHODS

The best method of learning and maintaining a foreign language is total immersion. Opportunities for total immersion include in- country temporary duty and teaching institutions. Unfortunately, in-country experience is not readily available for all languages, and immersion courses can be cost prohibitive.

A substitute for immersion training is one-on-one instruction or conversation with a native speaker. This can be part of the formal instruction at DLIFLC, Presidio of Monterey, CA; at the Foreign Language Training Center, Europe (FLTCE), Garmisch, Germany; and university refresher training courses or a DA-sponsored institute. It can also be done through hiring native speakers at unit locations.

The most prevalent, but probably least effective, method is through self-study materials, such as US Army Forces Command Language Maintenance Refresher and Improvement Course (FLAMRIC) and foreign language tapes. Most of these materials are available from DLIFLC or local language learning centers.

There is satellite communications for learning which transmits in-language news broadcasts from countries around the world.

An effective CLP begins with the commander. He must have a clear and accurate picture of his language mission requirements and be accountable for the CLP.

A command language council is formed to assist the commander. Council recommendations should become policy following command endorsement. This council --

• Consists of unit members who have a CLP interest.
• Consists of members who are appointed on orders.
• Should meet at least quarterly and follow an agenda.
• Should prepare and disseminate meeting minutes to unit linguists.

The CLP manager (CLPM) chairs the CLP council. Units commanded by a colonel should have a full-time CLPM. In lieu of rank and duty position, the CLPM should be appointed based on academic credentials or experience. The CLPM's tenure should be at least one year or longer.

The CLPM should maintain an individual linguist data base, with the following information:

• Duty assignment.
• Primary military occupational specialty (MOS).
• On-going language training.
• Post-DUFLC language training.
• Expiration term of service (ETS) date.
• Permanent change of station (PCS) and date eligible for return from overseas (DEROS) date (if applicable).
• Foreign language proficiency pay (FLPP) status.
• DLPT dates and scores, to include which version.
• Required DLPT test.
• Individual training plan.
• Year-to-year test results.
• Current DA Form 330 (Language Proficiency Questionnaire).

The command should have a detailed SOP covering all CLP aspects. It should be specific in task assignments and self- explanatory. It is updated regularly and becomes an integral part of the unit or command SOP.

Unit language training time, governed by AR 611-6, is designated at regular intervals on the training schedule, and should take priority over competing and unscheduled training. Each linguist should have the opportunity to attend a specified amount of language training with established objectives and goals.

Units should have a refresher language training program. Self-study materials should be available, and off-duty use encouraged.

The CLPM should be aware of adult language education courses in the community. Both duty-hour and off-duty hour attendance are encouraged.

Opportunities for operational readiness training (REDTRAIN) should be used in support of the CLP. These opportunities include, but are not limited to, forward area training, live environment training, and summer language programs.

Monetary support for language maintenance programs comes mainly from REDTRAIN funds. These funds are normally located at major Army commands and are available to subordinate units. However, this should not preclude use of a unit's regular funds to support language sustainment when available.

Funding to support CLPs must be identified and documented regularly. These requirements must be addressed in annual budget planning. The CLP should also be represented in long-range budget planning. CLP requirements should be separate from other training budgets.

A good incentive is the FLPP for qualified linguists, depending on how they score on their DLPT. Only qualified linguists are eligible to receive FLPP.

A state-of-the-art language training vehicle is the teletraining network, or commonly referred to as video teletraining (VTT).

The VTT system was used by DLIFLC to teach Arabic to troops being deployed to Southwest Asia. DLIFLC broadcasts Arab language instruction to Fort Hood and Fort Huachuca. Other critical instruction was passed through the system.

The VTT is versatile and has many applications. Video and audio can be transmitted from one site to any number of receiving sites. In a two-way interactive mode, two sites can hold a bidirectional video and audio conference. In the multipoint mode, up to eight locations can hold a conference. The host site transmits the video and audio, while other locations receive the host's audio and video, plus all audio from the remaining sites. Any site can request, during the conference, to become the host site.

DLIFLC is committed to the VTT concept. It is ready to assist units having VTT capability with their remedial foreign language sustainment and enhancement programs.

For information concerning VTT language training, contact DLIFLC's Distance Education Division at DSN 878-5746/5747; Commercial (408) 647-5746/5747; or FAX at DSN 878-5512 or Commercial (408) 647-5512.

VTT is a proven cost effective and viable language training tool; for example, training soldiers in their units with qualified native speakers, which dramatically reduces travel and per diem costs.
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Re: FM 34-52 Intelligence Interrogation, by Army Headquarter

Postby admin » Fri May 17, 2019 3:10 am

APPENDIX G: INDIVIDUAL AND COLLECTIVE TRAINING

"In no other profession are the penalties for employing untrained personnel so appalling or so irrevocable as in the military." -- General Douglas MacArthur.

Interrogator employment during OPERATION DESERT STORM demonstrated that units whose mission training plans (MTPs) were battle focused and based on the principles of training outlined in FM 25100 and FM 25-101, accomplished the EPW and DOCEX mission more efficiently and timely.

The commander bears the ultimate responsibility for training his soldiers to fight and win. This appendix is designed to make the interrogation unit commander aware of aspects to consider when developing unit training programs.

There are no commissioned interrogation officers. The commissioned interrogation specialty was eliminated in 1970. The interrogation Warrant Officer (351E), and the Senior Enlisted Interrogator (97E4L) advise the commander on the training and employment of interrogators. They provide the technical expertise required to develop the unit mission-essential task list (METL) and training plans and exercises to support that METL.

MISSION•ESSENTIAL TASK LIST

To train interrogators in the areas critical to the unit's mission accomplishment, the commander (CI/Interrogation Company or I&S Company) develops a complete and accurate METL. During the METL development process, the commander --

• Analyzes the MI battalion commander's restated wartime mission and approved METL; identifies specified and implied tasks.
• Uses situation training exercises (STXs) and field training exercises (FTXs) in ARTEP 34-298-10-MTP to determine collective tasks in support of critical wartime missions.
• Sequences collective tasks as he expects them to occur during the execution of the company's wartime mission.
• Obtains battalion commander's approval of the company METL.
• Briefs company leadership (officers and NCOs); uses soldiers training publications, soldiers manuals, and MTPs to identify leader and soldier tasks to support the collective critical tasks which comprise the METL.

When developing the METL, the commander keeps in mind, regardless of echelon, that interrogators have a mission to perform at the next lower echelon as GS or DS. For this reason, they must train and practice performing their mission at the assigned and lower echelon, and deploy with both echelons.

In addition to understanding the METL of your unit, you must be familiar with the METL of supported staffs and units. Other unit METLs to consider are --

• Supported S2s and the maneuver brigade and battalion staffs to which they belong. Train with these staffs during FTXs and command post exercises (CPXs) to facilitate team cohesiveness for combat. The S2 should know and train with his interrogation support team to prepare for wartime operations.
• Train and deploy with CI personnel. Interrogation and CI personnel should cross-train on each others respective wartime critical tasks.
• Train with combat arms units. Interrogators should train and emphasize the importance of tagging and evacuating EPWs and CEDs. Stress that EPWs and CEDs provide information that saves lives.

JOINT MILITARY INTELLIGENCE AND MILITARY POLICE TRAINING

OPERATIONS URGENT FURY, JUST CAUSE, and DESERT STORM demonstrated the need for interrogators and MP to conduct integrated training with regard to EPW and civilian internee operations.

For effective, meaningful training to occur, commanders must plan, develop, and coordinate many tasks. Interrogators must be familiar with the METL of the MP unit assigned to your echelon with regard to EPW operations. Without integrating the two METLs, you cannot develop scenarios that allow soldiers to train in a battle-focused environment. The two units must learn to work together and understand the requirements and functions each unit will have to perform in wartime. Members of the band are trained and may be employed as augmentees to the holding area perimeter security force.

EXERCISE REQUIREMENTS

In addition to normal personnel and equipment required of any unit exercise, the following must be planned for and considered.

SCENARIO

The most time consuming and complicated portion of an interrogation exercise is scenario development. Included in the scenario must be reasonable actions of enemy and friendly forces.

Stories must be developed for EPWs and civilian internees; for example, as in the technical support packages and interrogator comprehensive evaluation. These stories should be entered into an automated HUMINT data base, and should interact with each other at least minimally. For example:

• Units should cross match.
• Missions should fit together.
• Some degree of personality (names of leaders and soldiers) should be shared by personnel.

It is not necessary that all EPWs and civilian internees have stories that include information of intelligence value or that stories be complete in all aspects. There should be enough material in the stories to provide a realistic 'skeleton' on which role players can build.

If possible, interrogators should develop or assist with story development. The stories should tie into real world exercise play and provide indicators of enemy COAs to the G2. Tying EPW and CI stories to exercise play facilitates incorporating EPW play into G2 exercise planning and execution. This will help identify and fix many shortcomings in the stories.

PERSONNEL

Additional personnel must be employed to make an interrogation exercise successful. Personnel will be needed to serve as EPWs, civilian internees, medical personnel, interpreters, CI teams, and EPW civilian internee guards for lower echelon units. The numbers of personnel needed can be varied and personnel may be reinserted any number of times, in any number of roles.

The minimum number of personnel serving as EPWs and civilian internees at any one time should not be allowed to go below 10 to 15. Personnel should be able to speak a foreign language; preferably, languages of assigned interrogators. This allows for optimum training and practice in performing the actual job of an interrogator.

Possible sources for linguistically capable EPW and civilian internee role players include --

• Other interrogation units.
• EW and CI personnel.
• PYSOP personnel.
• MP personnel.
• CA personnel.

Linguistically capable personnel may also be in other MOSs and units not normally associated with foreign language capabilities.

Another source of linguistic support is the US Army Reserve (USAR) and the Army National Guard (ARNG) units for AC units and vice versa. A few personnel with languages not indigenous to the unit should be included so interpreters can be trained when used.

If possible, at least one insertion of mass numbers of EPWs and civilian internees should occur. The number of personnel should be at least double the number of available interrogators. One way of simulating this is to --

• Insert a large quantity of individuals.
• Allow a short time for MP and interrogator personnel to work with this.
• Remove a portion of the personnel.
• Immediately reinsert them as new EPWs and civilian internees. The knowledgeability and cooperativeness of the sources should be mixed; for example, some may be of CI interest, some may have no information, and a few may refuse to break.

DOCUMENTS

Documents present another time consuming and difficult consideration for interrogation operation exercises. Documents should be in foreign languages; numerous documents should be relevant to scenario documents which are developed to interact with the EPWs and civilian internees and as stand-alone intelligence sources.

The number of documents used during an exercise should be excessive; large quantities of documents should be input into the scenario at the same time EPWs are being inputted. This allows simulation of EPWs and civilian internees, and documents arriving on the same sources of transportation.

MULTIPLE EXERCISE LOCATIONS

In order to exercise evacuation of EPWs and civilian internees, support to lower echelons' multiple exercise locations is necessary. These locations do not need to be drastically separated, but should not be within sight of each other.

For example, location to simulate a medical aid station should also be included along with personnel to simulate medical personnel. This allows personnel to practice interrogating EPWs and civilian internees in the medical evacuation system. Having multiple locations serves several purposes.

• Both Interrogation and MP units have functions that must be performed at a lower echelon.
• Interrogators must be able to support the lower echelons with interrogations. This means teams must be able to deploy and act without normal unit leadership.
• Coordination must be affected with the supported lower echelon unit.
• Reports must be transmitted to the supported unit and accompany EPWs being evacuated.
• MP must receipt and receive EPW and civilian internees from lower echelons and guard them during the evacuation process from lower echelon to assigned echelon.

There is also a need to practice having multiple EPW and civilian internee facilities at the assigned echelon. When these are established, MP and interrogation assets must be divided in order to operate the additional facilities.

An additional aspect of using additional locations is training of interrogation and MP units to function with reduced staffing necessitated by performing multiple missions simultaneously.

OTHER SUPPORT

For corps interrogation platoon exercises, a food services section of the HHS company should be deployed in support of the exercise. This allows the food service section to practice operating two separate mess facilities required by doctrine.
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Re: FM 34-52 Intelligence Interrogation, by Army Headquarter

Postby admin » Fri May 17, 2019 3:44 am

GLOSSARY

AC Active Component
ACE analysis and control element
ACR armored cavalry regiment
ADA air defense artillery
AI area of interest
AIRDOC Air Force document
AO area of operations
armd armored
ARNG Army National Guard
ARTEP Army Training Evaluation Program
ASAS All-Source Analysis System
ASPS all-source production section
ATGM antitank guided missile
BICC battlefield information control center
BIRTCRTY birth country
BIRTCITY birth city
BIRTDT birth date
bn battalion
BSA brigade support area
BT message break indicator
CA Civil Affairs
CAP civic action program
C3command, control, and communications
C31command, control, communications, and intelligence
C-E communications-electronics
C&E collection and exploitation
CEE captured enemy equipment
CCIF combined corps interrogation facility
CED captured enemy document
CEM captured enemy materiel
CHA central holding area
CI counterintelligence
CID Criminal Investigation Division
CIF Corps Interrogation Facility
CLP Command Language Program
CLPM Command Language Program Manager
CM&D collection management and dissemination
CMEC Captured Materiel Exploitation Center
CMO civil-military operations
co company
COA course of action
coll collection
CONUS continental United States
CP command post
CPR common point of reference
CPT captain
CPX command post exercise
CS combat support
CSS combat service support
DA Department of the Army
DCPR destination common point of reference
DECL declassify
DEROS date eligible for return from overseas
DIA Defense Intelligence Agency
DISCOM division support command
DISUM dally intelligence summary
div division
DLEA drug and law enforcement agency
DLPT Defense Language Proficiency Test
DLIFLC Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center
doc document
DOCEX document exploitation
DOD Department of Defense
DOI date of information
DOS disk operating system
DPOB date and place of birth
DPRK Democratic People's Republic of Korea
DS direct support
DSA division support area
dsg designation
DSN digital support network
DST decision support template
DTG date-time group
ea each
EAC echelons above corps
ECB echelon corps and below
ECM electronic countermeasures
EM enlisted member
encl enclosure
engr engineer
EPW enemy prisoner of war
equip equipment
ETS expiration term of service
EW electronic warfare
FAX facsimile
Feb February
FEBA forward edge of the battle area
FIS foreign intelligence and security
FLAMRIC US Army Forces Command Language Maintenance Refresher and Improvement Course
FLPP foreign language proficiency pay
FLTCE Foreign Language Training Center, Europe
FM field manual
FS fire support
FTX field training exercise
G1 Assistant Chief of Staff (Personnel)
G5Assistant Chief of Staff (Civil Affairs)
GAZ Soviet truck
GC Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War of August 12, 1949
GPW Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of August 12, 1949
GS general support
GSR ground surveillance radar
GWS Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces In the Field of August 12, 1949
hq headquarters
HHC headquarters and headquarters company
HHS headquarters, headquarters and service
HIC high-intensity conflict
HPT high-payoff target
H/S hearsay
HUMINT human intelligence
HVT high-value target
hwy highway
ICF Intelligence Contingency Fund
ICPR initial common point of reference
I&E interrogation and exploitation
IEW intelligence and electronic warfare
IHA initial holding area
IIR Intelligence information report
IMINT Imagery intelligence
info information
intg interrogation
INTSUM intelligence summary
INTREP intelligence report
IO information objectives
IPB intelligence preparation of the battlefield
IPW prisoner of war interrogation
IR intelligence requirements
I&S intelligence and surveillance
I&W indications and warning
J5Plans and Policy Directorate
JCMEC Joint Captured Materiel Exploitation Center
JIF Joint Interrogation Facility
JTF joint task force
jr junior
JUMP job, unit, mission, and PIR, IR, and SIR
k thousand
KB knowledgeability briefs
LANGCOMP language competency
ldr leader
LIC low-intensity conflict
LLSO low-level source operations
loc location
LN local national
LRS long-range surveillance
LZ landing zone
MASINT measurement and signature intelligence
mbr member
MDCI multidiscipline counterintelligence
MED minimum essential data
METL mission essential task list
METT-T mission, enemy. troops, terrain, and time available
MHz megahertz
MI military intelligence
MIC mid-intensity conflict
MID military intelligence detachment
mil military
misc miscellaneous
MN/I middle name or initial
MOS military occupational specialty
MP military police
MRC motorized rifle company
MRD motorized rifle division
MRR motorized rifle regiment
MRS motorized rifle squad
MS microsoft
MSR main supply route
MTF Message Text Format
NA not applicable
NAI named area of interest
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NAVDOC Navy document
NBC nuclear, biological, and chemical
NCA national command authority
NCO noncommissioned officer
NCOIC noncommissioned officer in charge
NEO noncombatant evacuation operations
no number
NSA National security Agency
OADR Originating Agency's Determination Required
OB order of battle
OBSTINTEL obstacle intelligence
OCONUS outside continental United States
OCS officer candidate school
off officer
OP observation post
OPCON operational control
OPLAN operations plan
OPORD operations order
OPSEC operations security
PC personal computer
PCS permanent change of station
PERINTREP periodic intelligence report
pers personnel
PHA permanent holding area
PIR priority intelligence requirements
plt platoon
PM Makarov pistol (Soviet)
PO political officer
POC point of capture
POL petroleum, oils, and lubricants
prep preparation
proj project
PSA post-strike assessment
PSYOP psychological operations
PW prisoner of war
QSTAG Quadripartite Standardization Agreement
RAM random access memory
RC Reserve Components
REC radio electronic combat
recon reconnoiter
REDTRAIN readiness training
RIF reconnaissance in force
S&T scientific and technical
S2 Intelligence Officer
SALUTE size, activity, location, unit, time, equipment
sec section
SFG Special Forces Group
SFGA Special Forces Group (Airborne)
SJA staff judge advocate
SIGINT signals intelligence
SIR specific information requirements
SITMAP situation map
SOF special operations forces
SOP standing operating procedure
SOI signal operation instruction
SOR specific operational requirement
sqd squad
sr senior
srchno search number
SSO special support office
STANAG Standardization Agreement
STX situation training exercise
SUPINTREP supplementary intelligence report
SVD Soviet rifle
SW southwest
TCAE technical control and analysis element
TE tactical exploitation
TECHDOC technical document
TECHINT technical intelligence
TEL transporter-erector-launcher
THA temporary holding area
TIF Theater Interrogation Facility
TIR tactical interrogation report
TOC tactical operations center
TOE tables of organization and equipment
TQ tactical questioning
TRADOC United States Army Training and Doctrine Command
TSA technical support activity
UCMJ Uniform Code of Military Justice
U/I unit of issue
unk unknown
USAR United States Army Reserve
USMTF United Slates Message Text Format
UTM universal transverse mercator (grid)
vic vicinity
VTT videoteletraining
w with
XO executive officer
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Re: FM 34-52 Intelligence Interrogation, by Army Headquarter

Postby admin » Fri May 17, 2019 3:45 am

REFERENCES

SOURCES USED


These are the sources quoted or paraphrased in this publication.

Army Publications

AR 310-50. Authorized Abbreviations and Brevity Codes. 15 November 1985.
DA Form 330. Language Proficiency Questionnaire. July 1985.
AR 350-30. Code of Conduct/Survival, Evasion, Resistance and Escape (SERE) Training. 10 December 1985.
AR 380-5. Department of the Army Information Security Program. 25 February 1988.
FM 21-26. Map Reading and Land Navigation. 30 September 1987.
FM 21-31. Topographic Symbols. 19 June 1961.
(C)FM 21-78. Resistance and Escape (U). 15 June 1989.
FM 34-2. Collection Management. 20 October 1990.
FM 34-3. Intelligence Analysis. 15 March 1990.
FM 34-54. Battlefield Technical Intelligence. 5 April 1990.
FM 34-60. Counterintelligence. 5 February 1990.
FM 34-130. Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield.. 23 May 1989.
FM 100-20. Low Intensity Conflict. 5 December 1990.
FM 101-5-1. Operational Terms and Symbols. 21 October 1985.
STP 21-1-SMCT. Soldier's Manual of Common Tasks, Skill Level 1. 1 October 1990.
STP 21-24-SMCT. Soldier's Manual of Common Tasks, Skill Levels 2-4. 10 January 1989.
STP 34-97EI-SM. Soldier's Manual, Skill Level l, MOS 97E, Interrogator. 27 June 1990.

DOCUMENTS NEEDED

These documents must be available to the Intended users of this publication.

DA Form 1132-R. Prisoner's Personal Property List - Personal. April 1986.
DA Form 2028. Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms. February 1974.
DA Form 2662-R. United States Army EPW Identification Card. May 1982.
DA Form 4237-R. Prisoner of War Personnel Record. August 1985.
DA Form 5976. Enemy Prisoner of War Capture Tag. January 1991.
DODD 5100.77. Department of Defense Law of War Program.
AR 381-10. US Army Intelligence Activities. 1 July 1984.
AR 12-15. Joint Security Assistance Training (JSAT) Regulation. 28 February 1990.
AR 190-8. Enemy Prisoners of War - Administration, Employment, and Compensation. 1 June 1982.
AR 190-57. Civilian Internees - Administration, Employment, and Compensation. 4 March 1987.
AR 210-174. Accounting Procedures for Prisoners' Personal Property and Funds. 17 September 1986.
AR 500-51. Emergency Employment of Army and Other Resources Support to Civilian Law Enforcement.
1 July 1983.
AR 611-6. Army Linguist Management. 16 October 1985.
FM 19-4. Enemy Prisoners of War, Civilian Internees, and Detained Persons. 23 May 1984.
FM 25-100. Training the Force. 15 November 1988.
FM 25-101. Battle Focused Training. 30 September 1990.
FM 27-10. The Law of Land Warfare. 18 July 1956.
FM 34-1. Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Operations. 2 July 1987.
(S-NF) PM 34-60A Counterintelligence Operations (U). 6 June 1989.
FM 71-101. Infantry, Airborne, and Air Assault Division Operations. 26 March 1980.
FM 100-5. Operations. 5 May 1986.
(S)TC 34-5. Human Intelligence Operations (U). 3 October 1988.
ARTEP 34-298-10-MTP. Mission Training Plan for Interrogation Platoon Military Intelligence Battalion Light
Infantry Division. 8 October 1991.
STP 34-97E24-SM-TG. Soldier's Manual, Skill Levels 2/3/4 and Trainer's Guide, MOS 97E, Interrogator.
27 June 1990.
(S-NF)DIAM 58-13. Defense Human Resources Intelligence Collection Procedures (U). 28 March 1988.

Standardization Agreements (STANAGs)

2033. Interrogation of Prisoners of War. Edition 6.
2044. Procedures for Dealing with Prisoners of War. Edition 5.
2084. Handling and Reporting of captured Enemy Equipment and Documents, Edition 5.
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Re: FM 34-52 Intelligence Interrogation, by Army Headquarter

Postby admin » Fri May 17, 2019 3:46 am

Index

A
approach phase. See also interrogation phases.

approach combinations, 3-13 through 3-20
developing rapport, 3-12, 3-13
part of interrogation phase, 3-5, 3·10
rapport postures, 3-11

B

battle damage assessment (BDA). See IEW tasks.

BEST MAPS, 3-32, 3·33

briefings, 3-30

C

captured enemy documents

accountability of, 4-6
as sources of information, 2-17, 3-1, 4-1, 4-13
definition and types of, 1·12,4-1,4.9
disposal of, 4-13
evacuation of, 4-4, 4-12,4-14
exploitation of, C-l
grouping of, 4-12
inventory of, 4-7
logging of, 4-7, 4-8
tracing of, 4-7
transmittal of, 4-6, 4-12

CEO. See captured enemy documents.

Command and Language Program (CLP), F-l

conflicts

types of, 1-16

Corps Interrogation Facility (CIF), 2-10, 2-11, 4-5

counter-drug operations

use of interrogators, 1·5

D

debriefings

OPSEC requirement, 3-31
responsibilities during, 3-31
strategic, 3-31

E

enemy. See METT-T factors.

enemy prisoner of war (EPW)

as sources of information, 2-17
at CIF, 2-10
at TIF, 2-12
evacuating and guarding, 2-9
when wounded, 2-12

F

force protection. see IEW tasks.

G

Geneva Conventions. see GWS, GPW, and GC.

GWS, GPW, and GC, 1-14, 1-16

command responsibilities, 1-7, 1-9
coordinating with SJA, 1-9, 3-14
definition of, iv, v, 1-11
posting Articles of, 3-14
protected persons rights vs, security needs, D-1
violations of, 3·16

H

hearsay information, 3-9, 3·24

high-intensity conflict (HIC). see conflicts.

human Intelligence (HUMlNT), 1-2

I

IEW tasks

BDA, 1-5
force protection, 1-5
I&W, 1-3
IPB, 1-3, 1-4
overall objective statement samples B-11, B-13
situation development, 1-5
target development and target acquisition, 1-5

imagery intelligence (IMINT), 1-2

indications and warning (I&W). see IEW tasks.

Individual and collective training, G-1

Information objectives, 3-31

Intelligence Information Report (IIR). See reports.

Intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB). see IEW tasks.

intelligence requirements (IR)

screening for, 3-2

interrogation operations

cultural aspects on, 1-5
factors affecting, 1-5, 1-6
IEW support in, 1-1
offensive and defensive, 1-5

interrogation phases, 3-5, 3-7 through 3-28

interrogations

architecture, 2-1
debriefing, 3-31
in armored and mechanized Infantry operations, 2-16
strategic, 3-31
objective of, 1-7, 1-17
prohibition against use of force, 1-7
types of, 1-7 through 1-9
with interpretors, 3-29

interrogation support in LIC, 2-21

Interrogators

characteristics of, 1-12 through 1-16
functions of, 3·1
in defensive operations, 2-20
in GS and DS role, 2·23
in offensive operations, 2-18

Interrogators Guide, 3-23

K

Knowledgeability Brief (KB). See Reports.

L

leads

hot and cold, 3-24

M

Message Text Format (MTF), E-1

METT-T factors

enemy, 1-6
mission, 1-5
terrain, 1-6
time available, 1-6
troops, 1-6

mission essential task list (METL), G-1

mission support. see METT-T factors.

military police, 2-1, 2-9, 2-13, 2-24, 3-2, 4-5, 4-13

P

planning and preparation, 3-5, 3-7 through 3-10. see also interrogation phases.

Prisoner of War Information System (PWIS), 2-1

Q

Quadripartite Standardization Agreements (QSTAGs), v

questioning phase, 3-7, 3-20 through 3-26. See also

Interrogation phases.
hearsay information, 3-24
Interrogators Guide, 3-23
leads,3-24
questioning guides, B-1, C-1
questions to avoid, 3-23
sequencing, 3-24 through 3-26
spot reportable information, 3-23, 3·24
techniques, 3-21, 3-22, C4

R

reporting phase, 3-28. see also interrogation phases.

Reports

Biographic Report, E-1 E-13
Captive Tag, E-1, E-11
captured document log format, 4-8
captured document tag format, 4-4
CED transmittal, 4-6
Detainee Personnel Record, 3-3
EPW Capture Tag, 3-8
EPW ID Card, 3-27
IEW process, 1-16, 2-1
IIR, E-l, E-12
Interrogation Report, E-l, E-18
Knowledgeability Brief, E-1, E-16
SALUTE Report, 1-6, 3-21, E-1, E-3
screening format, 3-6
TECHINT Spot Report, E-1 E-4
TIR, E-1, E-5

responsibilities of

capturing unit, 2-9, 4-5
commanders, 1-9, 2-1, 2-21
Provost Marshal, 2-10
team leaders, 2-1, 4-5

S

screening

CI interest in, 3-2
definition and types of, 3-2 through 3-6
priorities, 3-7

signals intelligence (SIGINT), 1-2

situation development. see IEW tasks.

size, activity, location, unit, time, equipment (SALUTE). see reports.

sources

assessing, 3-5
breaking points of, 3-13
definition and types of, 1-10

Special Forces, 2-14

spot reportable information, 3-23, 3-29, E-1, E-4

Standardization Agreements (STANAGs)

1059, iv, 4-4
2033, iv
2044, v
2084, v, 4-1
assessment codes, 3-29

strategic intelligence components, 3-32, 3-33

strategic intelligence cycle, 3-33

T

Tactical Interrogation Report (TIR). See Reports.

target development and target acquisition. See IEW tasks

technical documents (TECHDOCs), 4-5, 4-9

TechnicaI Intelligence (TECHINT). See Reports.

termination phase. See also interrogation phases.

procedures, 3-26
reasons for, 3-28

terrain. See METT-T factors.

terrorists, 2-18

Theater Interrogation Facility (TIF)

functions of, 2-12
mission, 2-22

time available. See also METT-T factors.

at operational and strategic levels, 1-6
at tactical level, 1-6

translations

reports, 4-10
types of, 4-9

troops. See METT-T factors.

U

UCMJ, iv, 1-9, 1-12

Extract, A-1
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