Ecology in the 20th Century: A History, by Anna Bramwell

Re: Ecology in the 20th Century: A History, by Anna Bramwell

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Part 1 of 2

NOTES

Chapter One


1. For example, Ursula le Guin's feminist utopias; Brian Aldiss's Gaia in Helliconia Winter (London, 1986).

2. The Gaia concept was first made explicit in J.E. Lovelock, Gaia. A New Look at Earth (Oxford, 1979).

3. See Juan Martinez-Alier with Klaus Schlupmann, Ecological Economics. Energy, Environment and Society (Oxford, 1987), pp. 237-9; he also cites T. O'Riordan's bibliography of environmental writings and its focus on Britain and the U.S.A. A. Mohler, in Der Traum von Naturparadies. Anmerkungen zum okologischen Gedankengut (Munich and Berlin, 1978), p. 9, stresses the Protestant character of the 'triangle between San Francisco, Zurich and Stockholm' which he sees as the area where ecological beliefs are found.

4. Anne Chisholm, Philosophers of the Earth. Conversations with Ecologists (London, 1972), p. xi. A. Toynbee, Mankind and Mother Earth (Oxford, 1976), p. 5, introduces his world history with a discussion of the ethical and historical dilemmas offered by biological science. He places his account of great civilizations in a framework of references to the biosphere, man's place among other species as the child of Mother Earth, and man's choice between 'matricide' through misuse of technology, and the overcoming of his 'suicidal, aggressive greed', pp. 595-6. He sees the 'Oikoumene's peasants' as 'saddled with the burden of having to support a superstructure of civilization', p. 591. The sense that real values are produced only by the peasant is fundamental to the ecological thinker. But it is also something that Toynbee has effortlessly absorbed into his otherwise straightforward survey of world history.

5. The Times, 20.10.84.

6. D. Bellamy and B. Quayle, 'The Green Rustling', Sunday Times, 3.2.85. I owe this reference to Geoffrey Ahern's 1985 unpublished paper on modern ecological values.

7. Avner Offer, Property and Politics, 1870-1914 (Cambridge, 1981), chapters 20 and 21.

8. Ibid., p. 341, but d. the reference to Jefferies in Paul Meier, William Morris, the Marxist Dreamer (Hassocks, Sussex, 1978), pp. 68-9, where Jefferies is described, surely correctly, as an inspirer of Morris's utopian Socialism.

9. Mohler, Der Traum von Naturparadies, describes Friedrich Georg Junger as a founding father, although his chronology includes both Rousseau and Darwin. On p. 19, he describes how Junger protested in 1946 against the reconstruction of German industry.

10. D. Pepper, The Roots of Modern Environmentalism (London, 1985).

11. D. Worster, Nature's Economy. The Roots of Ecology (San Francisco, 1977), p. 2.

12. Martinez-Alier, Ecological Economics.

13. P. Lowe and J. Goyder, Environmental Groups in Politics (London 1983).

14. See M. Allaby and P. Bunyard, The Politics of Self-Sufficiency (Oxford, 1980), p. 20, and esp. p. 25, and p. 130, 'Carry Carlyle through to Nietzsche and it is but a short step to Hitler.' The authors are clearly disturbed by the connotations of 'back to nature' and the implications as regards Germany, p. 31.

15. F. Nietzsche, 'Ecce Homo' in L. Forster ed. The Penguin Book of German Verse (Harmondsworth, 1974), p. 374, my translation.

16. Heidegger as the metaphysician of ecologism, see G. Steiner, The House of Being', Times Literary Supplement 9.lD.81. Professor Steiner thinks that Heidegger's 'alarm' and then isolation at the prospect of world-wide pollution and alienation was influential in his brief entry into the Nazi Party. Those works of Heidegger which bear most closely on ecological issues seem to date from a later period, during the war in fact. Heidegger's most striking and pessimistic ecological criticism is 'Overcoming Metaphysics', The End of Philosophy (London, 1975), published in German in 1954 but written at the end of the Second World War. For Heidegger's demand that man become the shepherd of the earth, see p. 1099. Surprisingly for its early date, the essay also includes an attack on 'the artificial breeding of human material, based on present-day chemical research' p. 106.

17. A. Bramwell, Blood and Soil. R. Walther Dam? and Hitler's 'Green Party' (Bourne End, 1985).

18. M. Hauner. 'A German Racial Revolution?' Journal of Contemporary History, 1984, vol. 19, p. 685, n. 46.

19. See for example. H. Graml and K-D Henke, eds., Nach Hitler. Der Schwierige Umgang mit Unserer Geschichte. Beitrage van Martin Broszat (Munich, 1985); R. Bessel, ed., Everyday Life in the Third Reich (Oxford, 1987); I. Kershaw, The 'Hitler Myth'. Image and Reality in the Third Reich (Oxford, 1987).

20. T. Mann, Diaries, 1918-1933 (ed. H. Keston) (London, 1983), passim.

21. Eg., Peter Medawar, Pluto's Republic (Oxford, 1982), pp. 242-51 and 253-62, vigorously attacks the cosmology and philosophy of Teilhard de Chardin and the spiritualism of Arthur Koestler. He warmly supports the economic ecologism expressed in Barbara Ward and Rene Dubois's Only One Earth (London, 1972).

22. The Pol Pot analogy comes to mind from the current fashion for ecology among revolutionaries; e.g., the comment by a 'Senior Officer' in the National Resistance Army of Uganda, 'I have killed many men. What I want now is a degree in ecological and conservation studies.' Daily Telegraph, 1.2.86. A recent attack on nature-based values, which he links with Nazi ideology, is in R. Pois, National Socialism and the Religion of Nature (London, 1985), pp. 155-6; and see the attack on the 'New Right' by the British Association for the Advancement of Science, reported in the Times Higher Education Supplement, 30.8.85, for believing in an 'immutable nature'.

23. B. Moore, Sm., editor of The Ecologist, 1915, 'ecology ... a point of - view', quoted in Worster, Nature's Economy, p. 203; though Worster, p. 391, gives the date as 1920.

Chapter Two

1. C. Glacken, Traces on the Rhodian Shore. Nature and Culture in Western Thought from Ancient Times to the End of the Eighteenth Century (Berkeley, 1967), p. 70, and quote, pp. 704-5.

2. Ibid., p. 58.

3. D. Worster, Nature's Economy. The Roots of Ecology (San Francisco, 1977), on White passim, and for gap between name and thing, p. 192.

4. Ibid., p. 20.

5. Lowe and Goyder, Environmental Groups in Politics, p. 16.

6. Ibid., p. 19.

7. Lynn White, The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis' Science, 1967, vol. 155, pp. 1203-7.

8. J. L. Talmon, The Origins of Totalitarian Democracy (London, 1970), p. 249.

9. Susan Griffin, 'Split Culture', in S. Kumar, ed. The Schumacher Lectures (London, 1984), p. 181.

10. Glacken, Traces on the Rhodian Shore, pp. 471-2.

11. R. Bahro, The Logic of Deliverance. On the foundations of an ecological politics (Schumacher Society Lecture), 1986, p. 20.

12. T. Huxley, Science and Culture (London, 1881), pp. 241-6.

13. J.J. Bachofen, Myth, Religion and Mother Right (London, 1967). Harvey Greisman, in 'Matriarchate as Utopia, Myth and Social Theory', Sociology, 1981, vol. 15, pp. 321-6, discusses the emergence of theories of matriarchal origins of civilization, early feminist science fiction, and the re-emergence of matriarchy as part of a campaign against exploitative paternalism. Interestingly, those who toyed with matriarchal theories before Bachofen included John Ray, the biologist.

14. Jost Hermand, 'All Power to the Women: Nazi Concepts of Matriarchy', Journal of Contemporary History, 1984, vol. 19, pp. 649-50: and see P.V. Glob, The Mound People. Danish Bronze-Age Man Preserved (London, 1974).

15. C. Merchant, The Death of Nature. Women, Ecology and the Scientific Revolution (New York, 1980), p. xix.

16. See Greisman, 'Matriarchate', and Mary Daly, Gyn/Ecology (London, 1981). Caroline Merchant uses Marxist criticisms of Hobbes as legitimiser of 'possessive individualism', while glorifying mediaeval communalism.

17. Monica Sjoo, 'The Unofficial Herstory of the Externsteine, Ancient Sacred Rocks of Germany', The Pipes of Pan (Journal of Pagans Against Nukes), 1985, no. 19, p. 4.

18. See H. Adams, Mont St Michel and Chartres (New York, 1980)and The Education of Henry Adams; an Autobiography (London, 1961). See too for the cult of the Virgin Mary, Marina Warner, Alone of All Her Sex (London, 1978).

19. Bahro, Logic of Deliverance, p. 4.

20. R. Bahro, Building the Green Movement (London, 1986), p. 95 An example of the ahistorical polemic of the ecological feminist is the work of the American writer, Susan Griffin. 'Like the Inquisition and the witchburnings, the slave trade began at the time of the scientific revolution, the 16th century', 'Split Culture', p. 191. Like other feminist historical analogies, each of these is inaccurate. The Inquisition was not founded in the sixteenth century. The slave trade goes back as far as recorded human history, as anyone who has heard of the Roman and Greek empire will recall; the Phoenicians and Egyptians had slaves. If we look at the Arab slave trade in Africa, given that Griffin is exclusively concerned with 'the Jew or the Black or the women: (p. 184) as victims of patriarchal oppression, it goes back many centuries before the sixteenth century. Unfortunately, nobody seems prepared to apply the most minimally critical methodology to these polemics.

21. Griffin, 'Split Culture', p. 198.

22. Klaus Thewelweit, Mannerphantasien, 2 vols, (Frankfurt, 1977-8).

23. See B.M. Lane and L. Rupp, Nazi Ideology Before 1933 (Manchester, 1978), pp. 18-26.

24. Glacken, Traces on the Rhodian Shore, pp. 276-7.

25. Quoted by Bahro, Logic of Deliverance, p. 5.

26. Ibid., p. 5. I am not sure why free competition between Indo-European petty kings and warriors and expansion is very different from other prehistorical epochs, e.g. Papua New Guinea, which did not develop capitalism. Compare here Walther Darre, who argued that the robber-baron spirit entered North Western Europe through Teutonic knights, who caught it in Sicily from the Arabs, but claims capitalism was essentially ungermanic.

27. Bahro, Logic of Deliverance, p. 6.

28. R. Graves, The White Goddess (London, 1986), pp. 10, 486. Graves is cited by Bahro, Logic of Deliverance, p. 5.

29. Malcolm Chapman, The Gaelic Vision in Scottish Culture (London, 1978), examines the Celtic myth in Britain.

30. K. Thomas, Man and the Natural World (London, 1983), p. 89.

31. F. Hayek, The Counter-Revolution of Science. Studies in the Abuse of Reason (Glencoe, Illinois, 1952), pp. 51-2, 55-6, 110-11.

32. Ibid., and see especially Hayek's criticisms of Condorcet, Bentham and Comte.

33. H.L. Parsons, Marx and Engels on Ecology, (Westport, Conn. , 1977); M. Prenant, Biology and Marxism, (London, 1938); Prenant was Professor of Zoology at the Sorbonne, Paris. There are several recent works which deal with the need to take over the ecological movement for Marxism. Some of the essays in Joe Weston, ed., Red and Green. The New Politics of the Environment (London, 1986), argue this cause forcibly. However, I have confined my examples to Prenant and Parsons because they both, although writing from different scientific disciplines, concentrate on Marx and Engels and biology and ecology specifically. Prenant was published by Lawrence and Wishart, the party-line publishers, which lends it an extra authenticity within that context. Parson's book incorporates and discusses most of the work on Marx and ecologism. An updated New Left interpretation of Marx, ecology and modern German politics is in W. Hiilsberg, The German Greens. A Social and Political Profile (London, 1988).

34. 'Thus, Marx and Engels had an understanding of an approach to ecology before ... Haeckel coined the term Oekologie in 1869, and long before the current 'ecological crisis', Parsons, Marx and Engels on Ecology, p. xi. Engels included Haeckel in his plan of the contents of Dialectics of Nature (written 1873-1882), see Marx and Engels, Collected Works, vol. 15, (London, 1987), p. 314., but did not write the section.

35. Ibid. intro., passim.

36. Ibid., pp. 8-10.

37. F. Engels, Dialectics of Nature, pp. 330- 1, my italics. Engels argues in this work, p. 323, that the first breach with a rigid concept of nature appeared in 1755, with Kant's work, Allgemeine Naturgeschichte und Theorie des Himmels. Although Engels emphasises man's superiority over the animals in his ability to control nature, he also comments on the environmental damage done by man's actions, pp. 460-1.

38. Prenant, Biology and Marxism, p. 44. In 'The German Ideology', Marx and Engels, Collected Works, vol. 5 (London, 1976), pp. 39-40, Marx attacks Feuerbach's concept of a 'harmony of all parts of the sensuous world and especially of man and nature'. Marx comments that the natural world is 'an historical product' an ever-varying thing, created by man's labour. He argues that the 'celebrated "unity of man with nature" has always existed in industry ... and so has the struggle of man with nature, right up to the development of his productive forces on a corresponding basis.' This vision of struggle rests on a rejection of the idea of a benevolent nature. It seems to me to be opposed to ecological thinking.

39. Prenant, Biology and Marxism, pp. 47, 49.

40. F. Engels, Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State. In the Light of the Researches of Lewis H. Morgan, Marx, Engels, Selected Works, vol. 3 (Moscow, 1970), p. 331, quoted by Prenant, Biology and Marxism, p. 64. Hermand, 'All Power to the Women', p. 653, shows how Engels drew on Bachofen. Engels' own preface to the fourth German edition of Origin of the Family, op. cit., pp. 194-6, stresses the importance of Bachofen.

41. Parsons, Marx and Engels on Ecology, pp. 40-1.

42. Quoted by David Mitrany, Marx Against the Peasant. A Study in Social Dogmatism (New York, 1961), p. 91.

43. Parsons, Marx and Engels on Ecology, pp. 40-1.

44. K. Marx, 'The British Rule in India', Marx and Engels. Basic Writings on Politics and Philosophy (London, 1969), pp. 517-18; we must not forget that these idyllic village communities, inoffensive though they may appear, had always been the solid foundation of Oriental despotism, that they restrained the human mind within the smallest possible compass, making it the unresisting tool of superstition, enslaving it beneath traditional rules ... We must not forget the barbarian egotism which, concentrating on some miserable patch of land, had quietly witnessed the ruin of empires ... We must not forget that this undignified, stagnatory and vegetative life, that this passive sort of existence evoked on the other part, in contradistinction, wild, aimless, unbounded forces of destruction and rendered murder itself a religious rite ... We must not forget that these little communities were contaminated by distinctions of caste, and by slavery, that they subjugated man to external circumstances instead of elevating man into the sovereign of circumstances, that they transformed a self-developing social state into a never changing natural destiny, and thus brought about a brutalising worship of nature.

See too F. Engels, 'On Social Condition in Russia', Basic Writings, pp. 507- 8, ascribing 'Oriental despotism' in Russia, India and other nations to the low level of development induced by the communal ownership of land characteristic of peasant society.

45. Point 9 of the Communist Manifesto in Marx and Engels. Basic Writings, p. 70.

46. Parsons, Marx and Engels on Ecology, p. 42.

47. Mitrany, Marx against the Peasant, pp. 36-7.

48. M. Almond, unpublished seminar paper delivered to the Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine, Oxford, 1986, and Thomas on Schopenhauer, Man and the Natural World, p. 23.

49. K. Marx, 'On the Difference Between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature', Marx and Engels, Collected Works, vol. 1 (London, 1975), pp. 29-105. Compare to Marx's dislike of rural idiocy the telling passage in ultra-libertarian, pro-capitalist Ayn Rand's Atlas Shrugged (New York, 1957), pp. 266-7, when the heroine and her lover drive into an abandoned industrial area, covered now with trees and bushes. There are no bill-boards. They view the scene with horror. Of those who complain that bill-boards ruin the country-side, the heroine muses They're the people I hate.' Later they spot a derelict petrol pump. The horror of the trees and shrubs is all the greater. Rand fears nature as the voracious destroyer of human energy and individual initiative; Marx fears it because it endangers his vision of historically- determined progress. There is more in common between Marx and Randian libertarians than the parasitical symbiosis between Marxism and capitalism. The dislike of environmental and rural values is one such factor.

50. Quoted in Michael Allaby and Peter Bunyard, The Politics of Self-Sufficiency (Oxford, 1980), p. 45; the practical problems of ploughing virgin soil, by hand, are obviously unknown to Mumford. With a wobbly strip of upturned soil constantly falling back, grass upwards, only the most determined Freudian could have seen anything phallic in the exercise. Ploughing, in any case, followed hand cultivation; it did not precede it.

51. For example, Jean Auel's best-selling series, Earth's Children places 35,000 BC Cro Magnon man as potentially more destructive than the earlier Homo Sapiens he replaced. Her tribes inhabit a matriarchal system, based on the worship of the Mother Goddess, where rape and violence are virtually unknown. The series is well-researched and claims a certain scholarly status. In C Harness, The Paradox Men (London, 1949) the hero, in order to save mankind from nuclear extermination, returns through time to the dawn of the Palaeolithic era, to prevent the extermination of Neanderthal man by Cro- Magnon man. He believes that if this turning-point can be averted, paternalist violence will not triumph in later millenia.

Chapter Three

1. That is not to say that comparisons between human and animal societies were not made before the 1880s: Mandeville's Fable of the Bees does so, but the starting point is the fabulous nature of animals. Neither Condorcet nor Burke, for example, look at the 'natural world' as natural scientists.

2. R.C Stauffer, 'Haeckel, Darwin and Ecology', Quarterly Review of Biology, 1957, vol. 32 pp. 138-44. The OED gives 1873 as the first mention of the word, while Worster, Nature's Economy, p. 192, gives 1866. CJ. van der K1aauw's detailed search for the origins of ecology gives similar definitions under the title of ethology and economy, but no earlier use of the word, in CJ. van der Klaauw, 'Zur Geschichte der Definition der Oekologie .. .', Sudhoffs Archiv fur die Geschichte Medizin, 1936, vol. 29, pp. 136- 77. The authorities seem to agree on Haeckel as the first user of the word, and a date of either 1866 or 1873. However, Thoreau mentions 'Ecology', in conjunction with Botany and in a context that suggests a plant or geological science. This reference appears in a letter written in 1858 (see his collected Letters (New York, 1958) p. 502) but was not published until 1958. The OED 1971 Supplement contains it. Thoreau was a classical Greek scholar - he translated Sophocles' Seven Against Thebes. Did he coin the word himself from the Greek root Gikos, meaning home? K1aauw suggests that one early meaning of ecology is bio-geographics, the homeland of the plant and animal, and this meaning would explain the parallel 'invention' of the word. Another possibility is that the word was already in use in America, but had escaped the notice of dictionaries and historians of biology. D. Worster's examination of Thoreau's link with ecology, Nature's Economy, pp. 59-111, does not refer to a contemporary use of 'ecology'. F. Egerton comments in 'A Bibliographical Guide to the History of General Ecology and Population Ecology', History of Science 1977, vol 15, p. 195 that, according to Walter Harding, one of the editors of Thoreau's correspondence, the correct reading of the manuscript shows 'Geology' and not 'Ecology'.

3. Stauffer, 'Haeckel, Darwin and Ecology', p. 140. See also D.R. Stoddard, 'Darwin's Impact on Geography', Annals of the Association of American Geographers 1966, vol 56, p. 688, which has a reference to 'Haeckel's new science of ecology' dated 1869.

4. See D.F. Owen, What is Ecology (Oxford, 1980), pp. 1-28.

5. Worster, Nature's Economy, p. 198.

6. Van der Kiaauw, 'Zur Geschichte', pp. 139-40.

7. Ibid.

8. Ibid.

9. M.B. Petrovich, The Emergence of Russian Pan-Slavism, 1856-1870 (New York, 1956), p. 66.

10. A Yanov, The Russian Challenge (Oxford and New York, 1987), p. 47. This collection is given the title 'Political and Economic Essays' (the Russian title in both references varies accordingly) in Robert MacMaster's bibliography in Danilevsky. A Russian Totalitarian Philosopher (Cambridge, Mass., 1967), p. 319. Danilevsky is discussed at greater length in Chapter Four.

11. Worster, Nature's Economy, p. 193.

12. W. Johnson, Gilbert White (London, 1928, this edition 1978), p. 58, and see also Keith Tribe, Land, Labour and Economic Discourse (London, 1978), pp. 81-2, on Aristotle and the oekonomie of the French physiocrats.

13. J. Durant, 'Innate Character in Animals and Man: a Perspective on the Origins of Ethology', in C. Webster, ed., Biology, Medicine and Society, 1840-1940 (Cambridge, 1981), p. 162.

14. Wilhelm B6lsche, Haeckel, His Life and Work (London, 1909); R. Chickering, We Men who feel most German. The Pan- German League, 1886-1914 (London, 1984), pp. 146 and 150n; P. Weindling, "Darwinism us' and the Secularization of German Society', in J.R. Moore, ed., The Humanity of Evolution. Perspectives in the History of Evolutionary Naturalism (Cambridge, 1989). For his early Protestantism, see E. Haeckel, Story of the Development of a Youth. Letters to his Parents, 1852-1856 (New York, 1923).

15. E. Haeckel, The Wonders of Life (London, 1905), p. 157.

16. E. Haeckel, Monism as Connecting Religion and Science. The Confession of Faith of a Man of Science (London and Edinburgh, 1894), pp. 1-5.

17. Haeckel, Monism as Connecting Religion and Science, pp. 7, 9.

18. Ibid., pp. 16-24.

19. Ibid., pp. 17, 49-50, 62-3.

20. E. Haeckel, The Riddle of the Universe (London, 1900), p. 363.

21. Haeckel, Riddle, pp. 359-60, 365, 389.

22. J. Durant argues that Catholicism was more anti-nature, in 'The Meaning of Evolution. Post-Darwinian Debates on the Significance for Man of the Theory of Evolution, 1858-1908', Ph.D. Thesis, Cambridge, 1977;C. Merchant, Death of Nature, pp. l0-11, 16-18, describes a Neoplatonist tradition of a female cosmos, and an alchemist belief in an androgynous god deriving from gnostic texts.

23. Worster, Nature's Economy, p. 27.

24. Glacken, Traces on the Rhodian Shore, pp. 152-3.

25. R. Gruner, 'Science, Nature and Christianity', Journal of Theological Studies, 1975 vol. 26, pp. 55-81. A recent example is P. Santmire, Travail of Nature. Ambiguous Ecological Promises of Christian Theology (n. p. , 1985), which argues that the view of Christianity as anti-ecological is over-simplified, and that pro-ecological strands exist. I owe this reference to Trevor Williams, of Trinity College, Oxford. See Sean McDonagh, To Care for the Earth (London, 1986), who argues that the Catholic Church should take up the challenge of ecological decay. This book, by a Franciscan monk, has a good historical summary of naturist ideas. David C. Lindberg and Ronald L. Numbers, eds, God and Nature. Historical Essays on the Encounter Between History and Science (Berkeley and London, 1986), survey the debate to this date.

26. Worster, Nature's Economy, p. 29.

27. Durant, 'The Meaning of Evolution', p. 10.

28. C. Darwin, The Origin of Species (London, 1859), p. 63.

29. T. Huxley, quoted in Durant, 'The Meaning of Evolution', p. 19.

30. Ibid., p. 31.

31. See for Carrel p. 121 below; P. Carus, The Surd of Metaphysics (Chicago and London, 1905), pp. 75-7, and The Monist, 1890-1, vol. 1, pp. 229ff, 552ff.

32. N.R. Holt, Ernst Haeckel's Monist Religion'. Journal of the History of Ideas, 1971, vol. 32, p. 272.

33. T.H. Huxley, Science and Culture (London, 1881), pp. 232-3, 241-6.

34. Martinez-Alier, Ecological Economics, p. 202; Bolsche described as a reactionary, p. 203.

35. Joseph le Comte, The Monist, 1890-1, vol.1, pp. 334-5.

36. Haeckel, Monism as Connecting Religion and Science, p. 64.

37. Haeckel, The Wonders of Life, pp. 48-50.

38. Ibid.

39. Haeckel, Monism as Connecting Religion and Science, pp. 64.

40. Ibid., p. 82; Haeckel, Riddle of the Universe, p. 352.

41. Haeckel, The Wonders of Life, p. 137.

42. A. Kelly, The Descent of Darwin. The Popularization of Darwin in Germany, 1890-1914 (Chapel Hill, 1981), p. 121.

43. Ibid., pp. 17-18; the reference to Vogt and terrorism I owe to Mark Almond, of Wolfson College, Oxford.

44. Ibid., pp. 38-9, 127.

45. Ibid., pp. 39, 108, 127.On August Fore/, D. Gasman, The Scientific Origins of National Socialism. Social Darwinism in Ernst Haeckel and the German Monist League (London and New York, 1971), pp. 103 n. 52, 145.

46. For Ossietsky and Hirschfeld, see Kelly, Descent of Darwin, pp. 120-1; W. Ostwald, Natural Philosophy (London and New York, 1911), p. 185, 'the present social order is 'barbarous' ... 'progress depends much less upon the leadership of a few distinguished individuals than upon the collective labor of all workers.' He foretold 'a time ... when the social organization therefore demands and strives for as thorough an equalization as possible in the conditions of existence of all men'.

47. Schopenhauer, in The World as Will and Idea, vol 2, quoted in H. Driesch, The History and Theory of Vitalism (London, 1914), p. 121.

48. C.K. Ogden, intro. to Driesch, History and Theory of Vitalism, p. v; Soil Association members and Driesch, see V. Payne, 'A History of the Soil Association', M.A. Thesis, University of Manchester, 1971, p. 59.

49. K. Popper, Unended Quest. An Intellectual Biography (London, 1982) p. l37. Popper describes Schrodinger as inspired by Schopenhauer, p. 135.

50. Ibid.

51. Ibid.

52. Coincidentally, a von Uexkull is today a representative of the German Greens, and founder of a Right Living Foundation at Bradford University. See p. 272 below.

53. W. Kohler, The Mentality of Apes (London, 1973). Lorenz himself, in Behind the Mirror. A Search for a Natural History of Human Knowledge (New York and London, 1977), p. I28, ascribes this comment to Karl Bohler.

54. A. Nisbett, Konrad Lorenz (London, 1976), p. 21.

55. Conversation with Sir Charles Elton, January, 1987.

56. K. Lorenz, On Aggression (London 1966); ibid., King Solomon's Ring. New Light on Animal Ways (London, 1952). In the introduction to the latter by W. Thorpe, Lorenz is quoted as saying that behaviourists could never have asserted that complex behaviour patterns were conditioned if they had only once reared a young bird in isolation, and referred to his disillusionment at finding out that the 'great authorities' were wrong, p. xviii. Bruce Chatwin in 1974 (Sunday Times, 1.12.74) suggested that a 1942 article of Lorenz's, which was decorated with pictures of Greek statues, expressed Nazi ideology about race, Aryans and physical beauty. The question of Lorenz's Nazi membership after 1938, and his articles of that period, is discussed by Alec Nisbett, Konrad Lorenz. He argues, pp. 81-5, 87, that serious mistranslations and selective quotations by North American scientists of a 1940 paper were the basis for attacks on Lorenz but adds, pp. 134-5, that Lorenz's war-time work uses Nazi terminology. Theodora Kalikow adopts Gasman's misleading interpretation of Haeckel as a volkisch, anti-Enlightenment precursor of Nazism. She argues that Lorenz certainly read of Haeckel via Bolsche, and therefore shares his proto-Nazi qualities, in 'Die ethologische Theone von Konrad Lorenz', in, H. Mehrtens and S. Richter, eds., Naturwissenschaft, Technik und NS-Ideologie. Beitrage zur Wissenschaft des Dritten Reichl's (Frankfurt-am-Main, 1980), p. 198. As an example of the allegations, Lorenz's 1935article suggesting that domesticated animals become over-specialised and need influxes of 'wild' genes to improve them is presented as a Nazi theory. But the Nazis did not think that domesticated man should be improved by genes from wild stock, quite the contrary. If Lorenz is supposed to have been implicitly and subtly toadying to Nazi ideas, why should he not have done so openly and explicitly? Lorenz's use of physical beauty as a genetic marker in 1940and 1942 was not presented as an exclusivist racial argument but as an argument against domesticisation.

57. See papers by Eibl-Eibesfeldt, 'Ritual and ritualization from a biological perspective' and by Paul Ekman, 'About brows; emotional and conversational signals', in M. von Cranach, K. Fopa, W. Lepenies and D. Ploog, eds., Human Ethology. Claims and Limits of a New Discipline (Cambridge and Paris, 1979).

58. Lorenz, Behind the Mirror, pp. 178, 233.

59. Ibid., pp. 174-82.

60. Ibid., pp. 175, 178-9, 245.

61. Ibid., p. 245.

62. Ibid.

63. Ibid., pp. 129, 183, 248-9.

64. Nisbett, Konrad Lorenz, p. 176. Since writing this book, Konrad Lorenz's The Waning of Humaneness (London, 1988), has appeared, in which he specifically addresses environmental and ecological questions, and stresses his ecological sympathies.

65. Lorenz, Behind the Mirror, p. 21; nature of man, 148-9.

66. Ibid., pp. 148-9.

67. D. Stoddard, Oil Geography (Oxford, 1986), p. 240.

68. Ibid., p. 237.

69. Chisholm, Conversations with Ecologists, p. 237; K. Boulding, The Economics of the Coming Spaceship Earth' in H. Jarret, ed., Environmental Quality in a Growing Economy (Baltimore, 1966).

70. Quoted in Stoddart, On Geography, pp. 231-7.

71. J. Grinevald, 'Vernadsky and Lotka as source for Georgescu-Roegen's Economics', draft paper delivered to the Second Vienna Conference on Economics and Ecology, Barcelona, 1987.

72. For the pessimism of Henry Adams and an account of Bernard Brunhes, see Martinez-Alier, Ecological Economics, p. 126.

73. For Henry Adams' theory of history and energy, see The Education of Henry Adams (London, 1961), pp. 474-98.

74. For the argument that trees have standing, see CD. Stone, 'Should Trees have Standing?', Southern California Law Review, 1972, vol. 45, cited and discussed in Thomas, Man and the Natural world, p. 302,; the standard text on animal rights is P. Singer, Animal Liberation (London, 1976), while J. Passmore, Man's Responsibility for Nature. Ecological Problems and Western Traditions (London, 1974), sets the problem in philosophical perspective. The argument that affection for the weak and powerless is linked with aggression is made by Yi-Fu Tuan in Dominance and Affection. The Making of Pets (New Haven, 1984). His point is that domesticating and civilizing natural objects, even rivers, streams and plants, involves force and a violent change to their nature that expresses a fundamental sadism on the part of the perpetrator (farmer, gardener). To anyone who has shuddered at the sight of a bonsai tree the argument carries a certain force.

Chapter Four

1. On the implication of the second law of thermo-dynamics, a considerable literature has appeared since the late 1960s. A good source for the contemporary discussion is N. Georgescu-Roegen. The Entropy Law and the Economic Process (Cambridge, Mass., 1971). His theory resembles the earlier work discussed in H. Daly The Economic Thought of Frederick Soddy', History of Political Economy, 1980, vol 12, pp. 469-88. Georgescu-Roegen wrote the afterword to J. Rifkind and T. Howard's Entropy. A New World View (London, 1985), which delivers the ecological energy critique in a green context; see Chapter 11 below. See too J. Raumoulin, 'L'Homme et la Destruction des Ressources Naturelles. La Raubwirtschaft au tournant du siecle', Annales, Intersciences, 1984, vol. 39, pp. 798-819.

2. W. Ostwald, Natural Philosophy (London and New York, 1911), p. 184.

3. The eighteenth-century writer, Jean Baptiste Say; his 'law' that factors of production must always equal factors of consumption (the so-called circular-flow theory) helped to confirm the optimistic assumptions of the neoclassical economists about the long-term efficiencies of the market.

4. M. Breitbart, 'Peter Kropotkin, the Anarchist Geographer', in D.R. Stoddart, ed., Geography, Ideology and Social Concern (Oxford, 1981), p. 40.

5. Podolinsky, the Ukrainian landowner, populist and socialist, constructed a table of energy inputs and concomitant production for French agriculture. He allowed 2550 kcal. per kilogramme of wood, hay and straw, and 3750 kcal. per kilogramme of wheat. The energy inputs of man and horses were also granted a calorific value. He concluded that forest and natural pastures produced wood and hay for nil energy input, while sown hay and wheat produced roughly twenty and ten times as much respectively as the calorific value of the energy used in the production process. See Martinez-Alier, Ecological Economics, p. 48. For Bernal and Muller, see W.H. G. Armytage, Yesterday's Tomorrows (London, 1968), pp. 150-2.

6. Pseudo J.J. Conington, Nordington's Million (London, 1923). One unintentionally ironic passage shows a recruiting agent sent to a cannibalistic, famine-ridden London. The hero travels from one side of London to the other in safety, through the simple expedient of wearing a Red Cross armband.

7. A. Trollope, He Knew He Was Right (St Lucia, Queensland, 1974), pp. 220-1, expressed the more conventional point of view: that of the Victorian gentleman faced with intensive Italian peasant cultivation, catch-crops and intercropping. On this side of the house the tilled ground, either ploughed or dug with the spade, came up to the windows. There was hardly even a particle of grass to be seen .... The occupiers of Casalunga had thought more of the produce of their land than of picturesque or attractive appearance.

8. E. de Lavelaye, 'Land System of Belgium and Holland' in (Cobden Club), Systems of Land Tenure in Various Countries (London, 1870), pp. 242-3.

9. Allaby and Bunyard, The Politics of Self-Sufficiency, p. 31.

10. De Lavelaye, op. cit., p. 229.

11. Readers who have encountered Marx's animadversions on capitalist agriculture, which plundered the graveyards of Europe for bones to nourish the soil of England, will be relieved that this adventurism was not in fact confined to the likes of Turnip Townshend.

12. On Rousseau and the peasants, and his erroneous observation on the living conditions of free and unfree peasants on the two sides of Lake Geneva, see D.G. Charlton, New Images of the Natural in France. A Study in European Culture (Cambridge, 1984), p. 192.

13. K. Hamsun, Growth of the Soil (tr. W. Worster) (London, 1980), pp. 316-17.

14. De la Vigne Eckmannsdorf, 'Blut und Boden', paper sent to Walther Darre, 7.12.31, Federal Archives, Koblenz, NL94/1.

15. Von Bernhardi, Versuch einer Kritik der Grunde die fur grosses und kleines Grundeigentum sprechen (St Petersburg, 1849); examples of the doctoral theses are, Huschke, 'Landwirtschaftliche Reinertragsberechnungen bei Klein- Mittel- und Grossbetriebe' (lena, 1902); Luberg, 'Vergleichende Untersuchungen uber Wirtschaftsergebnisse und Wirtschaftsbedingungen kleiner, mittlerer und grosser Besitzungen unter dem Einfluss niedriger Getreidepreise' (Allenstein, 1898); Stumpfe, 'Uber die Konkurrenzfahigkeit des kIeinen und mittleren Grundbesitzes genentiber dem Grossgrundbesitze', Thiels Landwirtschaftliche Jahrbucher (1896); Klawki, 'Uber die Konkurenzfahigkeit des landwirtschaftlichen Kleinbetriebes', Thiels Landwirtschaftliche Jahrbucher (1899);Dr Julius Faucher on the Russian mir, 'Russian Agrarian Legislation of 1861', in (Cobden Club), op. cit., R. Drill, 'Soll Deutschland seinen ganzen Getreide bedarf selbst produzieren?' Inaug. Diss., Munich and Stuttgart, 1895.

16. For a discussion of Gladstone and Ireland, and Balfour's support of state-aided land purchase for English smallholders in 1909, see Offer, Property and Politics, p. 357; example of Irish land reform, and need to avert possible Socialism in Great Britain by land redistribution, Long to Balfour, September, 1910, Offer, op. cit., p. 362; Lord Salisbury supports Joseph Chamberlain and the Smallholding Act of 1892, Offer, op. cit., p. 353.

17. Offer, Property and Politics, p. 351; J.S. Mill on emigration scheme, E.S. Halevy, The Philosophic Radicals (London, 1972), pp. 60-2.

18. Outline of Lloyd George's proposals, Offer, Property and Politics, p. 360. The comparison with the British Union of Fascists is my own.

19. Breitbart, 'Kropotkin, Anarchist Geographer', p. 140, describes how Kropotkin was honoured by a special banquet of the Royal Geographical Society of Great Britain in the 1890s. See G. Woodcock and I. Avakumovic, Kropotkin, the Anarchist Prince (London, 1950) p. 59, for Kropotkin's reaction to the failure to carry out other reforms he advocated, through vested interests, bureaucratic sloth and squandering of money.

20. Ludwig von Mises attacked Kropotkin for this interpretation in Socialism. An Economic and Sociological Analysis (London 1936), p. 319; 'a fact which clearly exposes the decay of sociological thought in recent decades is that people now begin to combat sociological Darwinism by pointing to examples of mutual aid (symbiosis). Kropotkin, a defiant antagonist of liberal social theory, ... found among animals the rudiment of social ties and set these in opposition to conflict.'

21. Breitbart, 'Kropotkin, Anarchist Geographer', p. 139.

22. Cf. Resurgence, 1986, no. 118. The whole number is devoted to 'Education on a Human Scale'.

23. Lewis Mumford, The Culture of Cities (London, 1940), refers to Kropotkin, pp. 339-40. C Ward, in a stimulating commentary on and introduction to P. Kropotkin, Fields, Factories and Workshops (London, 1985), p. v, discusses Kropotkin's relevance to today's ecologists; also p. 195 on Ebenezer Howard; p. 81 on Blatchford.

24. Thomas Jefferson, communication from Heinz Haushofer; J.Q. Adams, Letters from Silesia (London, 1800).

25. J. von Thunen, The Isolated State (London, 1966), pp. 229, 246. 26. Attack on marginalist economics, see K. Tribe and A. Hussein, unpublished paper presented at a Conference on German Rural History, University of East Anglia, 1979; N. Vlengels, 'Thunen als deutscher Sozialist', Jahrbuch fiir National-Oekonomie, 1941, vol. 153, pp. 339-62. The University of Rostock organized a bicentennial celebration of Von Thunen in 1982.

27. Von Thunen expressed a stadial theory of history. In his introduction to the second part of The Isolated State, pp. 246-58, he argued that: An ancient myth pervades our agricultural writings that whatever the stage of social development, there is one valid farming system only, - as though every system that is more simple, every enterprise that adopts extensive methods to economise on labour, were proof of the practising farmer's ignorance ... A human being changes at the various stages of his life - how much more so will the succeeding generations be different from their predecessors.

28. Ibid., p. 194.

29. Ibid., p. 252.

30. Ibid., pp. 245-7.

31. For the debate in Germany over protectionism and agriculture versus industry, see K. Barkin, The Controversy over German industrialisation 1890-1902 (Chicago, 1972); for Rodbertus, the only English work is C. Gonner, The Social Philosophy of Rodbertus (London, 1899); G. Ruhland wrote a pamphlet on the evils of speculation and the futures market, which is supposed to have caused the closing down of the Berlin futures market, see CW. Smith, introduction to G. Ruhland, The Ruin of the World's Agriculture and Trade (London, 1896). For Ehrenberg and the Thunen-Archiv, see Haushofer, Ideengeschichte der Agrarwirtschaft und Agrarpolitik, vol. 2, Vom Ersten Weltkrieg bis zur Gegenwart (Bonn, 1958), p. 40.

32. C. Rose, 'Wilhelm Dilthey's Philosophy of Historical Understanding. A Neglected Heritage of Continental Humanistic Geography', in Stoddart, Geography, Ideology and Social Concern, p. 99.

33. Details about Ratzel and other geographers are from Raumoulin, 'L' Homme et la Destruction', pp. 798- 801. The comments are my own.

34. G.S. Dunbar, 'Eli see Reclus, an Anarchist in Geography', in Stoddart, Geography, Ideology and Social Concern, p. 157.

35. G. Woodcock, Anarchism. A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements (Harmondsworth, 1975), p. 150; T. Zeldin, France, 1848-1945. Intellect and Pride (Oxford, 1980), p. 35; Dunbar, 'Eli see Reclus', op. cit., pp. 156, 161-2. I am grateful to Lord Beloff for the reference to Reclus and the Russian geographers.

36. Raumoulin, 'L' Homme et la Destruction', pp. 799-800.

37. Ibid., pp. 803 ff. Colin Ross, Das Unvollendete Kontinent (Leipzig, 1930), and see Modris Ekstein, 'When Death was Young ... German Modernism and the Great War', in H. Pogge von Strandmann, A. Nicholls, et. aI., eds., Ideas into Politics (London, 1985), pp. 25, 33.

38. Raumoulin, 'L' Homme et la Destruction', pp. 803, 807.

39. R. MacMaster, Danilevsky. A Russian Totalitarian Philosopher (Cambridge, Mass., 1967), p. 80. See also pp. 17, 22-7, 51, 78-9; the stadial theory of human history, pp. 7, 81-2, 93, 95, 102-3; Danilevsky abandons Comte, p. 169; on evolution, p. l72.

40. For Danilevsky as a major figure in Pan-Slavism, theoretician of history, botanist and ichthyologist, see M. B. Petrovich, The Emergence of Russian Panslavism, 1856-1870 (New York, 1956), esp. pp. 65-75.

41. P. Boardman, The Worlds of Patrick Geddes (London, 1978), pp. 9, 404-5.

42. Ibid., p. 405.

43. P. Geddes, Cities in Evolution (London, 1915), passim; P. Mairet, Pioneer of Sociology. The Life and Letters of Patrick Geddes (Westport, Conn. , 1979), pp. 153-5. Notes to pp. 74-83

44. Geddes' two articles are quoted and discussed in Boardman, Worlds of Patrick Geddes, pp. 404-5.

45. L. Mumford, The Culture of Cities (London, 1940), p. 302.

46. Ibid., p. 495-6.

47. B.T. Robson, 'Geography and Social Science. The Role of Patrick Geddes', in Stoddart, Geography, Ideology and Social Concern, pp. 187, 204. On the other hand, Mairet, Pioneer of Sociology, p. 204, stresses Geddes' support for the cottage garden city ideal as opposed to apartment settlements: he preferred cottages to flats.

48. Robson, 'Geography and Social Science', p. 204.

49. Boardman, Worlds of Patrick Geddes, p. 405; on Graser, see M. Green, Mountain of Truth. The Counter Culture Begins. Ascona, 1900-1920 (Hanover and London, 1986), p. 53.

50. Mairet, Pioneer of Sociology, p. 155.

51. N. Pevsner, quoted in David Watkin, Morality and Architecture (Oxford, 1977), p. 95. Pevsner was an advocate of Jugendstil, or Art Nouveau. The style was attacked in its day as decadent, alien and destructive. Pevsner became a Modernist, emigrated to Britain, and ended as a famous architectural savant and historian. He ceaselessly argued on behalf of unpopular modern architecture. More damagingly, he tried to write out of history those English architects who did not accept this tradition, or who, like Lutyens, could not be fitted into this picture.

52. Watkin, Morality and Architecture, p. 95. Watkin stresses that Pevsner would not have wished to identify himself with either Bolshevism or National Socialism.

53. Ibid., p. 88.

54. Ibid., p. 89.

55. H. Agar with Lewis Mumford, City of Man. A Declaration of World Democracy (New York, 1940).

56. Mumford, Culture of Cities, p. 388, and see also ppA95-6.

57. Mumford, Culture of Cities, pp. 495-6.

58. G. Auty, Spectator, 26.10.85.

59. Daly, 'The Economic Thought of Frederick Soddy', p. 469. See also Martinez- Alier, Ecological Economics, pp. 140-1.

60. F. Soddy, Cartesian Economics (London, 1922), p. 2; Martinez-Alier, Ecological Economics, pp. 129-35.

61. Soddy does not seem to have speculated that the 'capital' aspect of corn lay in its use as seed corn, and the long-term planning and activity needed to plant and harvest it.

62. Gasman, Scientific Origins of National Socialism, p. 69, see especially connection between Ostwald's remarks on the sun and poems and solstice ceremonies. For the complex connections between mysticism and scientific materialism, see N. Goodrick-Clarke's discussion of Lanz von Liebenfels attraction to 'idealistic monism', The Occult Roots of Nazism (London, 1985), p. 102. For Ostwald's theories of energy, see Martinez-Alier, Ecological Economics, pp. 183-6.

63. Soddy, Cartesian Economics, pp. 22, 30.

64. Daly, 'Economic Thought of Frederick Soddy', pp. 476-81.

65. For Soddy and solar energy, see Martinez-Alier, Ecological Economics, pp. 136-7.

66. Ibid., p. 142.

67. Soddy, Cartesian Economics, p. 7.

68. Ibid., p. 15. Soddy paraphrased Ruskin's Unto This Last as follows; Ruskin appears to have had a very much clearer conception of the real nature of wealth than either earlier or later economists. He points out ... that the art of becoming rich was to get more relatively than other people, so that those with less may be available as the servants and employees of those with more. In this acute and original analysis of the real nature of the individual's wealth-power over the lives and the labour of others - Ruskin disclosed probably the most important difference between the interests of the individual and the interests of the State, and the main reason why the mastery of man over nature has hitherto resulted in so meagre a contribution to the perfection of human life. ... Of what use are the discoveries of scientific men of new modes and more ample ways of living so long as the laws of human nature turn all the difficultly won wealth into increased power of the few over the lives and labours of the many?

69. Ibid., p. 32.

70. Martinez-Alier, Ecological Economics, pp. 144-8. He argues, pp. 145-7, that the resource economics technocrats 'realised that the ecological approach' led to 'egalitarian principles of distribution. '

71. K. Popper, Unended Quest. An Intellectual Biography (London, 1982), pp. 11, 127. See also pp. 12-13, where Popper mentions that 'Popper-Lynkeus had a considerable following among the Monists of Vienna'; a comment which adds weight to my interpretation of Monist politics, see Chapter 3 above.

72. See J. Weston, ed., Red and Green. The New Politics of the Environment (London, 1986), and M. Bookchin, Post-Scarcity Anarchism (Berkeley, 1971).

73. Wolf-Dieter Hasenclever, Speaker for the green section in the Baden-Wurttemberg Landtag between 1980 and 1984, Die Zeit, 2.5.86.

74. Martinez-Alier, Ecological Economics, pp. 199-206.

75. Early anarchist programmes are described in A. Masters, Bakunin (London, 1975), pp. 250-2, 'On Building the New Social Order', programme by James Guillaume, and Bakunin's The Revolutionary Catechism, pp. 168-9. Masters discusses Bakunin's sympathy for peasants, greater than that of Marx, pp. 103-4.

76. A.V. Chayanov, A Theory of Peasant Economy (ed. D. Thorner et al.) (Madison, Wisconsin, 1986).

77. Information in a paper circulated by A. Stobart.

78. G. Stapledon, Disraeli and the New Age (London, 1943), pp. 116-17.

79. Ibid., p. 20.

80. Ibid., pp. 49-50.

81. Ibid., p. 133.

82. Ibid.

83. Ibid., p. 115.

84. Ibid., p. 1l6. Stapledon's biographer, Robert Waller, argues in his introduction to Stapledon's Human Ecology (London, 1964), p. 34, that by 1945 Stapledon had changed his 1912 belief in technology as a weapon of construction, and no longer defined himself as a social engineer. However, on p. 62 of his 1964 book, written some years before publication, Stapledon called for more planning. His aim was to 'steer a middle course between the all-out. .. ruralism and craftsmanship of the countryside as depicted by ... men like Hugh Massingham and Rolf Gardiner and ... the all-out mechanization of agriculture and industrialization and urban alienation'. He wanted to define the correct balance between land and nature on the one hand, and 'concrete, the artificial and creature comforts' on the other. Stapledon's belief that the destiny of man trembled in the balance until this dilemma was solved is an example of early apocalyptic nullity.

85. Stapled on, Disraeli, p. 123.

86. See for example, J. Beresford, The Long View (London, 1944).

Chapter Five

1. See W.H.G. Armytage, Yesterday's Tomorrows. A Historical Survey of Future Societies (London, 1968), and F.E. and F.P. Manuel, Utopian Thought in the Western World (Oxford, 1979), for an interesting survey of utopias; the Manuels' book looks most closely at Europe between 1500-1800, with some coverage of the nineteenth century.

2. For a contemporary account of radical communities of the United States in the nineteenth century, see Charles Nordhoff, The Communistic Societies of the US (New York, 1875; this edition New York, 1960). For the Doukhoubours, see George Woodcock and Ivan Avakumovic, The Doukhoubours (London, 1968).

3. Andrew Rigby, Communes in Britain (London, 1974), pp. 2-3. A study of these groups would be informative for the sociologist or anthropologist, but such studies have for the most part been undertaken by 'believers' (as with Andrew Rigby, historian of alternative hippy communes, whose books are redolent of such phrases as 'where it's at', and 'getting it together'). The excellent study by Lawrence Veysey, The Communal Experience. Anarchist and Mystical Counter-Cultures in America (New York, 1973), is an exceptionally open, honest and well-informed work which combines an overview of American radicalism with anthropological descriptions of communes, observed over some years.

4. H.D. Thoreau, Walden, or Life in the Woods (first published 1854:this edition New York, 1961), pp. 24, 32 (he borrows an axe), 34, 38.

5. R. Bahro, 'Fundamental Thoughts on the Crisis of the Greens', in Building the Green Movement (London, 1986), p. 159.

6. Veysey, Communal Experience, p. 32.

7. Ibid., p. 23.

8. Ibid., p. 3.

9. See discussion in Everett Webber, Escape to Utopia. The communal movement in America (New York, 1959), pp. 418-19.

10. Arthur Christy, The Orient in American Transcendentalism. A Study of Emerson, Thoreau and Alcott (New York, 1932).

11. See G, Orwell, 'Helen's Babies', in Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters, vol. 4. In Front of Your Nose (Harmondsworth, 1970), p. 286, 'uncorrupted ... integrity or good morale, founded partly on an unthinking piety ... an underlying confidence in the future, a sense of freedom and opportunity'.

12. H. George, Progress and Poverty (London, 1951), p. 2: 'Could he have conceived of the hundred thousand improvements which these only suggest, what would he have inferred as to the social condition of mankind? .. How could the vice, the crime, the ignorance, the brutality, that spring from poverty and the fear of poverty, exist where poverty had vanished? Who should crouch where all were freemen? Who oppress where all were peers?' (my italics).

George briskly disposes of Malthusian prophecies; man is the only animal who has the ability to increase his food production with his population increase, pp. 55, 59. George's opposition to Darwinian evolution is based here on the presumption that man is quantitatively superior to the animals in technology and reasoning; it is not based on a moral distaste for competition, see also Offer, Property and Politics, pp. 344-5, on George's 'pantheistic religion'.

13. W.H.G. Armytage, Heavens Below. Utopian Experiments in England, 1560- 1960 (London, 1961), p. 308.

14. Ibid., p. 316; Veysey, Communal Experience, p. 45; and see Offer, Property and Politics, chapters 20 and 21.

15. Veysey, Communal Experience, p. 10. G. Woodcock, though, in his standard work Anarchism. A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements (Harmondsworth, 1975), omits this aspect of anarchy.

16. See Armytage, Heavens Below, p. 292, and see Jan Marsh, Back to the Land. The Pastoral Impulse in Victorian England, 1880 to 1914 (London, 1982) for a detailed study of Ruskin-inspired communes and the Salvation Army land colonies. Clark C. Spence, The Salvation Army Farm Colonies (Tucson, 1985) is a fascinating account.

17. Paul Meier, William Morris, the Marxist Dreamer (Hassocks, Sussex, 1978), pp. 68-9.

18. Armytage, Heavells Below, p. 307.

19. H. Rider Haggard, A Farmer's Year (London, 1899), pp. 421, 439.

20. A.N. Wilson, Hilaire Belloc (Harmondsworth, 1984), pp. 292-3.

21. Ibid., p. 293.

22. Orwell often referred to Chesterton's hopeless lack of progressive spirit. The most accessible account is in Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters, vol. 4, In Front of Your Nose, pp. 123-4.

23. Cited in Armytage, Heavens Below, p. 407.

24. Ibid., p. 395.

25. Marsh, Back to the Land, passim.

26. Paul Weindling, unpublished lectures at the Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine, Oxford, 1985.

27. See Ulrich Linse, ed., Zuruck o Mensch zur Muller Erde. Landkommunen in Deutschland, 1890-1933 (Munich, 1983), intr., and for George and the single tax in England, see Offer, Property and Politics, p. 345.

28. For a full account see B. Zablocki, The Joyful Community. The account of the Bruderhof. A Communal Movement now in its Third Generation (Baltimore, 1971).

29. See Bundesarchiv, Koblenz, Artamanen file, NS 1285. They talk, too, about 'awakened racial consciousness', an unusual phrase for the period. The passage runs:

Artam - tillers of the soil, fighters for honour, ... land and Lebensraum. Artam means the renewal of the people ... The most holy revolutionary will was expressed by the first Artamanen in the deed. (zur Tat) Youth's early instinct ... led us to Mother Earth. Without programmes, or great speeches the blood-red swastika banner was the symbol of awakened racial consciousness'; quoted in Linse, op. cit., p. 331, my translation. This extract was published in a 1934 document, and may therefore not be entirely reliable.

30. See R. Sheldrake, 'Mother of All', in S. Kumar, ed., Schumacher Lectures (London, 1984) pp. 219-51.

31. Quoted in Rigby, Communes in Britain pp. 109-10.

32. See John Higham, 'The Reorientation of American Culture in the 1890s', in John Weiss, ed., The Origins of Modem Consciousness (Detroit, 1965), who saw continuity since the 1890s in 'back to nature' ideals; and an interesting account of individualistic anarchists who started with calls for general strikes, and became neo-fascist in a Sorelian spirit, in Michael Wreszin, 'Albert Jay Nock; the Anarchist Elitist Tradition in America', American Quarterly, 1969, vol. 21, pp. 165-89.

33. Veysey, Communal Experience, p. 469.

34. See Arthur E. Morgan, The Small Community (New York, 1942) and Newlyn R. Smith, Land for the Small Man. English and Welsh Experience with Publicly Supplied Smallholdings, 1860- 1937 (New York, 1946).

35. Veysey, Communal Experience, p. 43.

36. Webber, Escape to Utopia, pp. 418-19; Veysey, Communal Experience, pp. 317- 20.

37. See C.E. Ashworth, 'Flying Saucers, Spoon-Bending and Atlantis: a Structural Analysis of New Mythologies', Sociological Review, 1980, vol. 28, pp. 353-76. In The World and I (Washington, 1987), pp. 627-643, Richard Rubinstein writes on 'Religion and the Rise of Capitalism; the Case of Japan': 'Unlike every nation of Judaeo- Christian inheritance, the Japanese alone remained in contact with their oldest sources of religious and cultural values' (p. 638). Rubinstein is writing about nationalism, but the point is valid generally.

38. W.A. Hinds, American Communities and Co-operative Colonies (Philadelphia, 1978); Webber, Escape to Utopia, pp. 418-19.
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Re: Ecology in the 20th Century: A History, by Anna Bramwell

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Part 2 of 2

Chapter Six

1. See J.M. Winter, 'Military Fitness and Civilian Health in Britain during the First World War', Journal of Contemporary History, 1980, vol. 15, pp. 211- 45.

2. A. Sutcliffe, Towards the Planned City. Germany, Britian, the United States and France, 1780-1914 (Oxford, 1981), p. 77.

3. Lowe and Goyder, Environmental Groups in Politics, pp. 15-21.

4. C. Barnett, The Audit of War (London, 1987), pp. 12-14.

5. Worster, Nature's Economy, pp. 329- 31.

6. J.L. Finlay, 'John Hargrave, the Green Shirts and Social Credit', Journal of Contemporary History, 1970 vol.5, p. 54; J. Hargrave, The Confession of the Kibbo Kift. A Declaration and General Exposition of the Work of the Kindred, (London, 1927); the work begins with a quotation from Lao-Tzu, 'production without possession, action without self-assertion, development without domination'.

7. D. Prynn, The Woodcraft Folk and the Labour Movement, 1925-1970', Journal of Contemporary History, 1983, vol. 8, pp. 79-95.

8. Finlay, 'John Hargrave,' p. 54.

9. M. Green, Mountain of Truth. The Counter-Culture Begins. Ascona, 1900- 1920 (Hanover and London, 1986), pp. 29-31, and passim.

10. M. Straight, After Long Silence (New York and London, 1983), pp. 32, 34.

11. F. Grover, Drieu la Rochelle and the Fiction of Testimony (Berkeley, 1958), p. 45; M. Young, The Elmhirsts of Dartington (London, 1982), pp. 89-90.

12. According to B. Morris, 'Ernest Thompson Seton and the Origin of the Woodcraft Movement', Journal of Contemporary History, 1970, vol. 5, p. 193, Paul, the founder of the Woodcraft Folk, was more pacifist.

13. Finlay, 'John Hargrave', p. 55; Morris, 'Ernest Thompson Seton', p. 189; Prynn, 'The Woodcraft Folk', p. 84.

14. C.B. Macpherson, Democracy in Alberta. Social Credit and the Party System (Toronto, 1962), p. 113, and see his chapters IV and V for an exposition of Douglas's theories and their effect on Hargrave; see also pp. 108-9.

15. Ibid.; pp. 108-9.

16. See H. Kenner's description of Pound's interpretation of Douglas, The Pound Era (London, 1975), pp. 301-18.

17. Finlay, 'John Hargrave', pp. 56, 63.

18. MacPherson, Democracy in Alberta, p. 134 n. 69.

19. I am grateful to S. Cullen, of Nuffield College, Oxford, for this information.

20. J. Webb, The Occult Establishment, vol. 2, The Flight from Reason (Glasgow, 1981), pp. 89-91. In 1976 a rock musical appeared at the Edinburgh Festival called 'Kibbo Kift!', occasioning a one-page, sympathetic interview with Hargrave, in The Guardian, 10.6.1976.

21. Quoted in H.R. Gardiner, World Without End (London, 1932), p. 37.

22. D.H. Lawrence, Kangaroo (London, 1923), p. 106.

23. R. Ebbatson, Lawrence and the Nature Tradition (Hassocks, Sussex, 1980), pp. 38, 71, 240.

24. Green, Mountain of Truth, p. 230.

25. E.g., D.H. Lawrence, Women in Love (London, 1980), pp. 26-8; idem, The Captain's Doll (London, 1980), p. 507.

26. D.H. Lawrence, The Rainbow (London, 1980) p. 861.

27. Lawrence, Womell in Love, p. 49.

28. H.R. Gardiner, Water Springing From the Ground (ed. by A. Best) (Fontmell Magna, Dorset, 1972), p. xi.

29. W.J. Keith, The Rural Tradition (Hassocks, Sussex, 1975), p. 257.

30. Gardiner, World Without End, pp. 36- 7.

31. Keith, The Rural Tradition, p. 255.

32. H.R. Gardiner, The English Folk Dance Tradition (London, 1923), p. 29.

33. Ibid., pp. 30.

34. Ibid., p. 24.

35. Ibid., p. 12.

36. Ibid., p. 19.

37. H.R. Gardiner and H. Rocholl, eds., Britain and Germany. A Frank Discussion (London, 1928), pp. 121-2.

38. Gardiner, English Folk Dance Tradition, p. 30.

39. Ibid., p. 5.

40. Gardiner, World Without End, pp. 33- 4.

41. H.R. Gardiner, England Herself. Ventures in Rural Restoration (London, 1943), p. 14.

42. Griffiths, Fellow Travellers of the Right, p. 144.

43. Gardiner, England Herself, p. 14.

44. Ibid., p. 87.

45. Gardiner, Britain and Germany, p. 127.

46. Gardiner, World Without End, pp. 41- 3.

47. Ibid., p. 43.

48. Gardiner, Britain and Germany, pp. 261, 134; other contributors to the symposium, passim.

49. Gardiner on the Nordic Race, 'A Common Destiny', in Britain and Germany, p. 256. A bizarre footnote to the theme of race, empires and planning is afforded by Bio-Economics (London, 1938) by Joseph Yahuda, a barrister and supporter of eugenics, who had written earlier criticising democracy as a basis for government. He argued that economic and social principles rested on evolutionary biology, and that society was divided not only into classes but into categories of fitness (Upper Fit, Upper Unfit; Lower Fit and Lower Unfit). He offered a programme of 'regeneration of the human stock', based on sound natural economy, which, unlike 'economic individualism' depended more on the qualities of virtue and duty. He saw industry and civilization as sapping racial vitality. The 'racial reserves' and 'racial resources' of Britain had been drained by her role as world leader. Yahuda argued for planned British emigration to the Dominions, in conjunction with immigration into Britain from Europe. He attacked the 'grotesque racialism' of National Socialism (while admiring what he saw as its cult of physical health and classlessness), but hoped that a new world order based on peaceful co-existence with the fascist countries would emerge. This little-known author used a language of 'racial survival' and decay associated today with social Darwinism. He opposed economic individualism and democracy. But his suggestions for reallocating human and physical resources throughout British-ruled territory rested on the same belief in planning, public service and duty as that of the Fabians. Yahuda's combination of biology and economics had an ecological quality, although he does not use the term.

50. Earl of Portsmouth, A Knot of Roots (London, 1965), p. 126; R. Thurlow, Fascism in Britain. A History, 1918- 1985 (Oxford, 1987), p. 44; Webb, The Occult Establishment, vol 2, pp. 102, 134.

51. Griffiths, Fellow Travellers of the Right, pp. 324-6.

52. New Pioneer, 1939 vol. 1, pp. 152, 163.

53. Ibid, 1939, vol. 1, p. 199.

54. New Pioneer, 1938, vol. 1, p. 2.

55. Ibid., p. 6. This article is unsigned, but is in Gardiner's prose style.

56. Ibid.

57. Portsmouth, Knot of Roots, pp. 89-90; Biologists in Search of Material. An Interim Report on the Work of the Pioneer Health Centre, Peckham (London, 1938).

58. New Pioneer, 1938, vol. 1, p. 16.

59. Ibid., pp. 17ff.

60. G. V. Jacks and R.O. Whyte, The Rape of the Earth (London, 1939), pp. 80, 82, 163, 180, 251.

61. G.T. Wrench, The Wheel of Health (London, 1938), p. 51.

62. Ibid., p. 52.

63. Portsmouth, Knot of Roots, p. 37.

64. Ibid., p. 85.

65. The first meeting of the Kinship in Husbandry was in Blunden's rooms. All kinds of fantastic rumours were attached to the members of Kinship in Husbandry after the Second World War, because of the cross-membership between them and the English Mistery and English Array. George Thayer, in The British Political Fringe (London, 1965), pp. 104-6, reports a rumour that the Array plotted together to murder Britain's Jews. No source is given for this allegation, which was also not mentioned in Blunden's obituary when he died in 1974. Some such rumour may have been responsible for his relinquishment of his Merton Fellowship during the Second World War. He was not interned during the war. He went to the Far East soon after it, and, indeed, spent most of his working life abroad. Thayer's book, while castigated by Skidelsky for its treatment of Mosley and British fascism, does offer a glimpse into the mentality and political assumptions of his time and place. He associates 'Nature, the sun, the soil' with the post-war far right, and claimed that 'a belief in Soil, Health and Organic Farming ... Muck and Mysticism' characterised the antidemocratic, anti-Communist, antisemitic and anti-banking lobbies.

66. Michael Beaumont was later to be on the board of the Rural Reconstruction Association. For information on the Rockefeller file on Carrel, I am grateful to Paul Weindling, of the Wellcome Unit for the History of Medicine, Oxford.

67. Anglo-German Review, 1939, vol. 3, p. 142.

68. C. Ward, commentary on Fields, Factories and Workshops, pp. 115, 119, n.

69. Maurice Hewlett, Rest Harrow (London, 1912).

70. Maurice Hewlett, Song of the Plow: a Chronicle of England (London, 1917) p. viii.

71. Ibid., p. 222.

72. Webb, The Occult Establishment, vol. 2, p. 89.

73. S.L. Bensusan, in Latter-Day Rural England, 1927 (London, 1928), took the Rural Reconstruction League, 'largely Labour in its sympathies', as 'ample evidence that Labour is learning' the importance of the agricultural sector; p. 220.

74. M. Fordham, Rebuilding of Rural England (London, 1924), p. 66.

75. M. Fordham, The Restoration of Agriculture (London, 1945), pp. 4-5.

76. Ibid., p. 18.

77. Ibid, p. 21; M. Fordham, The Land and Life. A Survey prepared for the R.R.A (London, 1942), p. 84.

78. Fordham, Rebuilding, pp. 50, 205-6.

79. Fordham, Rebuilding, introduction; idem., Land and Life, p. 23.

80. H.J. Massingham, Remembrance. An Autobiography (London, 1941), pp. 59- 60.

81. H.J. Massingham, The Tree of Life (London, 1943), p. 166.

82. Ibid., p. 62.

83. Massingham, Remembrance, p. 62.

84. Ibid, p. 6.

85. Ibid.

86. Ibid., pp. 31-3.

87. Ibid., p. 42; R. Tomalin, W.H. Hudson, A Biography, (Oxford, 1984), pp. 25, 146-9.

88. Massingham, Remembrance, p. 42.

89. Ibid.

90. H. Rauschning, Make or Break with the Nazis (London, 1941), pp. 123-5, 212ff.

91. Massingham, Tree of Life, p. 176.

92. Massingham, Remembrance, pp. 142-3.

93. Ibid., pp. 143-4.

94. Ibid., p. 144.

95. Ibid., p. 146.

96. F. Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth (London, 1965), pp. 27-74, 169-70.

97. H. Carpenter, J.R.R. Tolkien. A Biography (London, 1977), p. 51.

98. Ibid., pp. 21, 89-90.

99. J.R.R. Tolkien, letter to Milton Waldman, of Collins, not dated, probably late 1951, in H. Carpenter, ed., with assistance from Christopher Tolkien, The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien (London, 1981), pp. 144-5.

100. Carpenter, Tolkien, p. 187.

101. J.R.R. Tolkien to Michael Tolkien, 9.6.41, Letters, pp. 55-6.

102. M. Green, Mountain of Truth, p. 231.

Chapter Seven

1. Chronicles such as that by R.K. Delderfield, to the aficionado of Williamson, seem but stale imitations. Compare the treatment of a remembered idyll in John Fowles' Daniel Martin with any similar passage in Williamson's books to see how original and precise the latter's work is. On the pre-First World War, and its glow of remembered sunlight, the unsentimental and non-rural Rebecca West, in This Real Night (London, 1984), refers to the post-war period as 'the Lent that was to endure all our lives' after 'this time of Carnival', p. 217.

2. See Introduction above, notes 5 and 6.

3. Ebbatson, Lawrence and the Nature Tradition, p. 2, and on Jefferies, pp. 129-37.

4. All quotes from Nature and Eternity are taken from Edward Thomas, Richard Jefferies (London, 1978), pp. 176-7. The essay is also to be found in R. Jefferies, The Hills and the Vale (Oxford, 1980), pp. 284-305.

5. Ebbatson, Lawrence and the Nature Tradition, pp. 129, 137.

6. Keith, The Rural Tradition, p. 15.

7. Thurlow, Fascism in Britain, who discusses Williamson's politics and his involvement with Mosley, argues that 'Williamson's romanticism and nature-worship ... was to owe much to the books of Richard Jefferies, in particular the sunlight imagery of much of his work', p. 42; Keith, The Rural Tradition, pp. 14-15, 140; J.W. Blench, who is writing a critical study of Williamson's work, has given a detailed account of this issue in 'The Influence of Richard Jefferies on Henry Williamson', Part I, Durham University Journal, 1986, vol. 79, and Part II, Durham University Journal, 1987, vol. 79. He stresses Williamson's desire to bring Jefferies' Hodge up-to- date, and examines the debt Williamson's apprentice nature writings owed to Jefferies. He traces a continuous line of inspiration through The Flax of Dream and the later novels.

8. H. Williamson, The Phoenix Generation (London, 1965), pp. 144-5

9. H. Williamson, Young Phillip Maddison (London, 1985), p. 30.

10. Williamson, Phoenix Generation, p. 48.

11. H. Williamson, Donkey Boy (London, 1984), p. 122, my italics.

12. Williamson, Young Phillip Maddison, p. 72.

13. H. Williamson, Lucifer Before Sunrise (London, 1967), pp. 423-4.

14. H. Williamson, The Labouring Life (London, 1932), p. 109.

15. Williamson was briefly interned at the beginning of the Second World War, and by 1944, the BBC had forbidden him to broadcast. See copy of BBC memo, published in The Henry Williamson Society Journal, 1983, p. 21. Thurlow, in Fascism in Britain, pp. 26-7, thinks that 'it is his support for Mosley which goes some way to account for the continuing neglect of his work by much of the literary establishment', and adds that a writer specialising in First World War literature, Paul Fusil, ignores Williamson's war books. Thurlow regrets this, commenting that Williamson's accurate reporting of social classes under the impact of war helps to explain why 'idealists and embittered individuals' should have turned to fascism between the wars.

16. Williamson, Phoenix Generation, pp. 373-24.

17. Williamson, Lucifer p. 313.

18. Williamson, Phoenix Generation, p. 307.

19. Ibid., p. 376.

20. Ibid., pp. 144-5.

21. Ibid., p. 150.

22. Williamson, Lucifer, p. 76.

23. Ibid., p. 313.

24. Ibid., p. 467.

25. Ibid., p. 498.

26. Keith, The Rural Tradition, pp. 213-31, esp. p. 229, and see note 15, above. Williamson's dedication to Hitler was in the 1930s, and Good-bye West Country (London, 1937), carried a favourable account of the Nuremberg Rally, but the climate of opinion was different before the war, when many dignitaries like Lloyd George visited Nazi Germany and expressed approval of the country and its policies.

27. Williamson, Lucifer, p. 466.

28. Ibid., p. 480-1.

29. Ibid., p. 466.

30. Ibid., p. 490.

31. Ibid., p. 101.

32. Ibid., p. 487.

33. H. Williamson, The Children of Shallowford (London, 1939), p. 227.

34. Ibid., p. 34.

35. Williamson, Goodbye West Country, p. 283.

36. H. Williamson, The Gold Falcon (London, 1933), p. 142.

37. Ibid., p. 33.

38. H. Williamson, Story of a Norfolk Farm (London, 1941), and cf. Admiral Sir Barry Domvile, Mosley follower interned during the war, who sent his two children to Dartington Hall in the 1920s. According to Michael Straight, After Long Silence, p. 43, Domvile withdrew them after what he claimed were Black Magic practices came to light. A libel writ ensued.

39. Williamson, A Clear Water Stream (London, 1958), pp. 33-4, 71.

40. Ibid., pp. 40, 83.

41. Ibid., pp. 205-6, 222.

42. Williamson, Lucifer, p. 515.

43. R. Mortimore, 'Henry Williamson and 'A Chronicle of Ancient Sunlight': an Appreciation', in B. Sewell, ed., Henry Williamson. The Man, the Writings. A Symposium (Padstow, Cornwall, 1980), p. 135.

44. T. Hughes, 'A Memorial Address', in B. Sewell. ed., Symposium, p. 162.

45. Cf. T.H. White, The Fifth Book of Merlin (London, 1948), pp. 144-5, for lessons drawn from the wild geese. White's The Sword in the Stone shows Arthur being prepared for kingship by living among animals, and comparing their different societies. White admired the wild geese, because they had no nations and no frontiers. He wanted man to become a migrant again and thereby avoid property and territoriality, which White saw as the causes of war. Although Williamson was a nationalist, there were similarities between him and White, especially in their internal contradictions. After discussing 'natural morality', Merlin concludes' I am an anarchist, like any sensible person', p. 172. White's book is almost embarrassing in its English patriotism (presumably flavoured by the war, which he spent in Ireland); e.g., a hedgehog, representing the spirit of the English agricultural labourer, sings Jerusalem to Arthur, who has a vision of the land of England.

46. T. Mann, Diaries, 1918-1939 (ed. H. Keston) (Londdon, 1983),pp. 42-3, 44- 6; entries for 31.3.1919 and 12.4.1919, my italics.

47. K. Hamsun, The Wanderer (tr. O. and G. Stallybrass) (London, 1975), p. 250.

48. R. Ferguson, Enigma. The Life of Knut Hamsun (London, 1987), p. 119.

49. Hamsun, Wanderer, pp. 247, 245.

50. A. Gustafson, Six Scandinavian Novelists: Lie, Jacobsen, Heidenstam, Selma Lagerloj, Hamsun, Sigrid Unset (London, [1968]), p. 248.

51. Ibid., pp. 240-1.

52. Robert Ferguson, Enigma, and T. Hansen, Der Hamsun Prozess (Hamburg, 1979).Translations from Hansen's book are by me.

53. Hansen, Der Hamsun Prozess, pp. 50-1.

54. Ibid., pp. 50-3.

55. Gustafson. Six Scandinavian Novelists, p. 267; Ferguson, Enigma, pp. 262-3. Hamsun spent his Nobel Prize and writing money during the 1920s and 1930s restoring an old mansion, and reclaiming the surrounding moorland, Ferguson, Enigma, pp. 270-1.

56. Hansen, Der Hamsun Prozess, p. 56-7.

57. Ferguson, Enigma, pp. 94, 96, Hamsun wore black ribbons in mourning for the executed anarchists.

58. Hansen, Der Hamsun Prozess, pp. 365-7.

59. K. Hamsun, Growth of the Soil (tr. W. Worster) (London, 1980) p. 312.

60. Gustafson, Six Scandinavian Novelists, p. 284.

61. K. Hamsun, Wayfarers (tr. J. McFarlane) (London, 1982), p. 279.

62. Ibid., p. 375.

63. Ibid., pp. 373-5.

64. Ibid., p. 376.

65. Hamsun, Growth of the Soil, pp. 316-17, my italics.

66. Ferguson, Enigma, pp. 293-4, and passim.

Chapter Eight

1. B. Moore, Jr., Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. Lord and Peasant in the Making of the Modern World (Harmondsworth, 1974), pp. 491-6.

2. E. Nolte, Three Faces of Fascism (New York, 1969), pp. 537-42; fascism historically specific, p. 570 and passim. Nolte's use of 'transcendental' seems not to be connected with Emersonian Transcendentalism.

3. A. Polonsky, The Little Dictators (London, 1975), pp. 35-6.

4. Ibid., p. 7.

5. S. Cullen, 'Leaders and Martyrs. Codreanu, Jose Antonio and Mosley', History, 1986, vol. 71, pp. 408-30.

6. Ibid., p. 8.

7. Not only Rumania but other post-imperial states can be compared with post-colonial Third World nationalism, a comparison I drew in an earlier work, Blood and Soil. R. Walther Dam! and Hitler's Green Party (Bourne End, Bucks, 1985), pp. 6, 199.

8. R. Wohl, The Generation of 1914 (London, 1980), pp. 128-9 and p. 272, n. 31.

9. H. Thomas, ed., Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera. Selected Writings, (London, 1972), p. 30.

10. Ibid., p. 10.

11. Ibid., pp. 101, 102, 132.

12. Ibid., pp. 75-6.

13. Quoted in Cullen, 'Leaders and Martyrs', p. 7.

14. See S. Cullen, 'The Development of the Ideas and Politics of the British Union of Fascists, 1932-1940', Journal of Contemporary History, 1987, vol. 22, pp. 115-136.

15. Mr Cullen kindly made available to me transcripts of his interviews with ex-members of the B.U.F. A more detailed account of this issue can be found in S. Cullen, 'The Development of the Ideas and Policies of the B.U.F.' M.Litt thesis, Oxford, 1987.

16. H.R. Gardiner, World Without End (London, 1932), pp. 36-7.


17. E.g., the editor and deputy director of Flight magazine, Donald Campbell, whose Bluebird flew the Fascist flag along with the Union Jack when it broke the world speed record: Saunders, of Sander Roe aircraft, and modernizing military strategists.

18. R. Skidelsky, Oswald Mosley (London, 1981), p. 302; Webb, The Occult Establishment, p. 127.

19. J. Jenks, The Land and the People. The British Union Policy for Agriculture (London, no date).

20. Fascism and Agriculture, British Union pamphlet (London, no date).

21. Jenks, Land and the People, p. 7.

22. J. Jenks, 'The Homestead Economy', in H. Massingham, ed., The Small Farmer (London, 1947), pp. 163-4.

23. Compare here the pleasure in fast motorcycles and sports cars taken by Henry Williamson's hero in the Chronicles of Ancient Sunlight; Maddison's lifestyle even after buying a run-down farm in Norfolk requires constant visits to London and Devon. These are accomplished by fast driving along empty roads, an experience repetitively and lovingly described.

24. P. Derrick, Rural Economy, March, 1949, quoted in L. Easterbrook, Feeding the Fifty Million, London, 1950, pp. 73-4.

25. Ibid. passim.

26. Ibid., pp. 69-70.

27. J. Jenks, Spring Comes Again (no place, 1939), p. 60.

28. D. Mack Smith, Mussolini (London, 1983), pp. 60, 140, 285.

29. Mussolini, Autobiography (London, 1935), p. 37, describes how his stay in Switzerland (to attend Pareto's lectures) left him unaffected by its scenic beauty or political economy. Switzerland confirmed him in his belief in 'the function of Latinity'.

30. H.S. Harris, The Social Philosophy of Giovanni Gentile (Urbana, Illinois, 1960), pp. 18-19: 'It is in this sense that actual idealism affirms transcendence ... experience begets reality.'

31. Ibid., pp. 40-1.

32. Ibid., p. 78.

33. G. Gentile, Genesis and Structure of Society (Urbana, Illinois, 1966), p. 135.

34. Ibid., pp. 116-7.

35. Harris, Social Philosophy, p. 109n. 84; anarchy, pp. 180-1.

36. Gentile, Genesis and Structure, p. 171.

37. O. Ohlendorf, Testament (Nuremberg, 1947), p. 17; d. R. Pois, National Socialism and the Religion of Nature (London, 1985), pp. 66-7, Nazis against totalitarianism.

38. N. Goodrick-Clarke, The Occult Roots of National Socialism (Wellingborough, 1985), p. 190; J. Evola, The Doctrine of Awakening (London, 1937).

39. Mack Smith, Mussolini, p. 216.

40. C. Malaparte, The Volga Rises in Europe (London, 1957), p. 47.

41. Quoted by R. Winegarten, 'The Fascist Mentality - Drieu la Rochelle', in H.A. Turner, ed., Reappraisals of Fascism (New York, 1975), p. 216.

42. Quoted by R, Traz in his introduction to Maurice Barres, La Colline Inspiree (Geneva, 1912), p. 13.

43. Ibid., p. 325 my translation.

44. Ibid., p. 326.

45. Ibid., p. 327 my translation.

46. Drieu la Rochelle, Gilles (Paris, 1939), p. 604.

47. I am grateful to Dr Peter Tame, of Queen's University, Belfast, for this reference, and for discussion on the role of nature in French fascist literature of the period.

Chapter Nine

1. H. Schnadelbach, Philosophy in Germany, 1831-1984 (Cambridge, 1984), p. 149.

2. R. Wohl, The Generation of 1914 (London, 1980), p. 240.

3. Ludwig Klages, 1931, quoted in Schnadelbach, Philosophy in Germany, p. 150.

4. Green, Mountain of Truth, p. 140. A 1913 essay by Klages 'Mensch und Erde', in Mensch und Erde (Jena, 1929) pp. 1- 41, contains most of the themes of today's ecologists; that matriarchy is better than patriarchy, that numberless animal species have been exterminated by man, that the fur and feather trade is wicked, that civilisation and Kultur kills the spirit, that economics is opposed to real values. This popular collection of essays was reprinted several times in the 1920s. In his foreword to the 1920 edition, reprinted in the edition cited above (p. 8), Klages points out that he foresaw the First World War in 1913 when he wrote of the 'unbounded exterminatory urge inherent in civilization' ('Die "Zivilisation" tragt die Zuge entfesselter Mordsucht' ... ).

5. Ibid., pp. 140-1.

6. For Klages, George and matriarchy, ibid., pp. 161-2. For Fechter see Jost Hermand, 'All Power to the Women. Nazi Concepts of Matriarchy', Journal of Contemporary History, 1984, vol. 19, pp. 649-68, esp. pp. 649-50.

7. R. Graves, The White Goddess (London, 1986), pp. 461-2, 486.

8. Green, Mountain of Truth, pp. 10, 199.

9. B. Pasternak, Doctor Zhivago (London, 1963) p. 506.

10. Green, Mountain of Truth, p. 151.

11. There is a nice continuity in the fact that Rudolf Bahro wrote his doctoral thesis on Becher, the Marxist Wandervogel.

12. J. Fox, 'Jews in Weimar Germany', unpub. paper, Conference on European and Middle East Refugees, Oxford, August 1985.

13. Green, Mountain of Truth, pp. 1l2, 165. For Evola, see p. above.

14. L. Klages, Der Geist als Widersacher der Seele, 2 vols, (Munich and Bonn, 1954), vol. 1, pp. 342-445. Vol. 2, pp. 1251- 1400, discusses the so-called Pelasgian tradition, a prehistoric matriarchal world which Klages sees as distorted by Greek and Roman patriarchy. 15. M. Heidegger, Nietzsche. vol. 4, Nihilism (New York, 1982), pp. 96-7, Heidegger's italics, and see Heidegger, The Origin of the Work of Art', Poetry, Language, Thought (New York, 1975), p. 23.

16. Schnadelbach, Philosophy in Germany, p. 219; D. Levy, 'Max Scheler: Truth and the Sociology of Knowledge', Continuity, 1981, vol. 3, pp. 91-104.

17. M. Heidegger, Being and Time (Oxford, 1967), p. 76.

18. Ibid., p. 30.

19. Heidegger, Nihilism, pp. 1l6-17, 100.

20. Heidegger, 'What are Poets For?', in Poetry, Language, Thought, pp. 114-15.

21. Schnadelbach, Philosophy in Germany, p. 151.

22. G. Sorel, From Georges Sorel (ed. by J. Stanley) (New York, 1976), pp. 51-2, 53-4.

23. Ibid., p. 290, Sorel's italics.

24. Cited from K. Prumm, Die Literatur des Nationalismus, vol. 1, p. 376, in J. Herf, Reactionary Modernism. Technology, Culture and Politics in Weimar and the Third Reich (Cambridge, 1984), p. 39.

25. O. Spengler, 5.4.36, Briefe, 1913-36 (Munich, 1963), p. 773, my translation; see also p. 538, Spengler to E. Forster- Nietzsche, on Steiner.

26. D. Levy, The Anthropological Horizon. Max Scheler, Arnold Gehlen and the Idea of a Philosophical Anthropology', Journal of Anthropological Studies at Oxford, 1985, vol. 16, p. 170, note 2.

27. Ibid., p. 177, and see Lorenz on Gehlen, Chapter Three.

28. Ibid., p. 182.

29. H. Rauschning, quoted in Kelly, The Descent of Darwin, p. 121. While Rauschning is not a reliable guide for exact quotations, as he was seldom present at his 'reported' conversations, he was good at collecting gossip, and there is probably substance to this comment.

30. F. Schiller, 'Das Verschleierte Bild zu Sais' Samtliche Werke, Erster Band, Gedichte, Dramen I, Munich, 1958, p. 224.

31. F. Nietzsche, The Uses and Abuses of History for Life', Untimely Meditations (Cambridge, 1983), pp. 122-3.

32. H. Arendt, 'Truth and Politics', in P. Laslett and W.G. Runciman, eds., Philosophy, Politics and Society (Oxford, 1969), p. 133.

33. Fidus was the pseudonym for Hugo Hoppener. See J. Hermand, 'Meister Fidus. Jugendstil-Hippie to Aryan Faddist', Comparative Literary Studies, 1975, vol. 12, p. 301.

34. Heidegger, 'The Origin of the Work of Art', pp. 33-4.

35. Heidegger, The Thinker as Poet', in Poetry, Language, Thought, p. 8.

36. O. Spengler, The Decline of the West, vol. 2 (London, 1971), p. 96.

37. Quoted in U. Linse, Zuruck O Mensch zur Mutter Erde. Landkommunen in Deutschland, 1890-1933 (Munich, 1983), pp. 343-5.

38. Quoted in J. Leishman, introduction to Rilke. New Poems (London, 1979), p. 17.

39. Rilke, 'Sonnets to Orpheus' no. xxix, Duineser Elegien. Die Sonette an Orpheus (Ulm, 1976), p. 88, my translation.

40. K. von Klemperer, Germany's New Conservatism (Princeton, 1968), p. 29.

41. F.E. and F.P. Manuel, Utopian Thought in the Western World (Oxford, 1979), introduction and passim.

42. The desire for new institutions is emphasised in Jerry Muller, The Other God that Failed. Hans Freyer and the Deradicalization of German Conservatism (Princeton, N.J., 1987), p. 53.

43. Ibid., p. 20.

44. Julius Langbehn's famous Rembrandt als Erzieher (Leipzig, 1888), a work which helped to inspire the Youth Movement, contained no anti-semitic passages in its first two editions (1888 and 1890). Such passages were added after pressure from Langbehn's publisher. On the other hand, Marx's attacks on Jews appeared as early as 1844; see 'On the Jewish Question', Collected Works, vol. 3 (London, Moscow and New York, 1975), pp. 146-75. The inventor of the term 'anti-semitism', Wilhelm Marr, was a radical socialist, expelled from several European countries for left revolutionary activity.

45. U. Linse, Barfussige Propheten (Berlin, 1983), pp. 33, 52.

46. R. Musil, The Man Without Qualities, quoted in J.M. Ritchie, Periods in German Literature (London, 1953, pp. 230-1.

47. B. Brecht, 'Yom armen B.B.', in, L. Forster, ed., Penguin Book of German Verse (Harmondsworth, 1974), pp. 439- 40.

48. Ibid.

Chapter Ten

1. Hitler's and Himmler's vegetarianism is widely known. What is less widely known is their opposition to Hess and Darre on a wide range of 'Green' issues, extending to Heydrich's arrest of Darre and others of the Hess circle after Hess's flight to England, and his harassment of the organic farmers.

2. Roosevelt's smallholder programme achieved a mere 3000 settlements, which demonstrates a substantial difference between Roosevelt's New Deal and Nazi policy on this issue, despite similarities of rhetoric, see J. Garratty, 'The New Deal, National Socialism and the Great Depression', American Historical Review, 1973, vol. 78, pp. 907-43.

3. For the Bormann quote, see J. von Lang, The Secretary (New York, 1979), pp. 160-1. For Fritz Todt, see K. Ludwig, Technik und Ingenieure im Dritten Reich (Munich, 1975), pp. 337-40. See, too, Bramwell, Blood and Soil. R. Walther Darre and Hitler's 'Green Party', pp. 171-80, 195-200.

4. Ludwig, Technik and Ingenieure, p. 339.

5. Federal Archives, Coblenz, hereafter referred to as BA (Bundesarchiv), Darre papers, II/1.

6. Ludwig, Technik und Ingenieure, p. 338. There were disagreements between Todt and Seifert over Seifert's attacks on technology and his 'fanatical attitude' to landscape protection; Todt told Seifert that their joint enemies were the bureaucrats and lawyers; ibid., p. 339.

7. A. Ludovici, 'Skizze zur Gliederung der Bodenordnung', no date, probably 1935, BA NS2/272.

8. Ludovici submitted papers to Hitler's Adjutant, BA NS2/53; for articles by Ludovici on ecological themes, see BA NS26/948.


9. Backe papers; BA NL75/10, undated addition to letter of 19.4.40, possibly misfiled, but certainly 1939 or later.

10. 24.1.40, BA, NS10/37.

11. C.W. Guillebaud, The Economic Recovery of Germany, 1933-1938 (London, 1939), p. 143.

12. Financial Times, 14.9.83.

13. Heinz Haushofer, Ideengeschichte der Agrarwirtschaft und Agrarpolitik im delltschen Sprachgebiet, vol. 2, Vol. 2, Vom ersten Weltkrieg bis zur Gegenwart (Bonn, 1958), p. 260.

14. Ibid., pp. 260-1.

15. Ibid., p. 87.

16. BA NS2/296.

17. For discussion of relations between followers of Steiner and the regime, I am grateful to Anthroposophist members of Darre's staff and others for interview.

18. Haushofer, Ideengeschichte, p. 270.

19. Darre's diary, 10.11.37; the original of this diary was read by various historians and the archivists at Coblenz. It was then bought back by Darre's second wife and burnt. The typed version consists of passages preserved and edited by friends and colleagues of Darre. It is lodged in the City Archive, Goslar. The point about Hess is confirmed in a letter from Dr Hans Merkel to the author, 21.7.81.

20. BA, Darre's papers, II/1a; Darre to Hess, 17.1.40, ibid., Hans Merkel to the author, 21.7.81, Haushofer, Ideengeschichte, p. 270, and K. Meyer, 'Unsere Forschungsarbeit im Krieg, 1941- 3' (mimeographed report in Koblenz Federal Archive).

21. Questionnaire response, BA, Darre's papers, II/1a.

22. Interview with Mrs Backe, 6.1.81.

23. Memo by von Zitzewitz-Kottau, 12.11.37, BA NS10/103.

24. Mrs Backe's diary (in her possession), 19.6.40.

25. A.C. Bramwell, 'Small Farm Productivity under the Nazis', Oxford Agrarian Studies 1984, vol. 13, pp. 1-19.

26. Darre's diary, 18.6.40.

27. Darre papers, BA, II/1a.

28. Ibid.

29. P. Brugge, 'Die Weltplan vollzieht sich unerbitterlich', Der Spiegel, 28.6.84.

30. BA NS19(neu)/1632, undated report.

31. BA NS19(neu)/1313, 22.3.41.

32. BA NS19(neu)/222, 4.1.38.

33. BA NS19(neu)129111.3.43.

34. BA NS19(neu)/578, 11.8.42.

35. See for an example of this attraction K.R. Manning's biography, Black Apollo of Science. The Life of Ernest Everett lust (New York and Oxford, 1983). Just spent some years working in the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in the 1920s, and claimed to have received more intellectual stimulus and appreciation there than in the USA, pp. 188, 194. Although he left Germany for Italy after the Nazi takeover, he 'made excuses' for and produced rationalisations for Germany in 1936, p. 290.

36. See, e.g., K. Barkin, 'From Uniformity to Pluralism; German Historical Writing since World War One', German Life and Letters, 1980-1, vol. 34; d. R. Pois on the surprising degree of scientific openness at German universities after 1933, National Socialism and the Religion of Nature (London, 1985), p. 74, and see G. Cocks, The Goring Institute (New York, 1984), which shows how despite the destruction of Freudian analytical science, psycho-therapy and analysis continued, with papers by Karen Horney being read as late as 1936.

37. Darre, notes on forming a German version of the Soil Association, to be called Mensch und Heimat, Goslar, 19- 20.2.52, p. 2, in author's possession.

38. Webb, The Occult Establishment, p. 103. 39. Darre, memorandum to W. Willikens, 27.6.34, BA, NS26/946.

Chapter Eleven

1. B. Ward and R. Dubos, Only One Earth (London, 1972). This chapter can only be an overview of events in the ecological movement after the Second World War. In order to examine the roots of a movement the shape of the movement has to be indicated. A comprehensive treatment would require a book to itself.

2. G. Hardin, 'The Tragedy of the Commons', Science, 1968 vol. 162, pp. 1243- 8, offered a model of the effect of overpopulation on a limited resource. The 'Spaceship Earth' concept stressed the finite nature of land compared to population. Economic ecologists were hostile to the 'Lifeboat syndrome', because they saw excessive and unequal use of resources by the rich countries as the real threat, a theme that became more prominent from 1972, before the oil crisis. E. Goldsmith's 'Blueprint for Survival' issue of the Ecologist, January 1972,argued that expansion of numbers and resource use could not continue indefinitely. E.F. Schumacher,. in a speech given to the Human Rights Society (published as Population and World Hunger (London, 1973) thought (pp. 2-3) there was no clear link between 'population and world hunger'. 'There would still be a population problem, even if the possibilities of food production were infinite, which of course they cannot be; and there would still be a food-production problem, even if the population were stationary or shrinking.' On p. 8 he identified as a more serious problem 'a consumption-explosion among the rich: which threatened us all with 'pollution, resource-depletion: ... For the same point, using the thermo-dynamic argument, see J. Rifkind with T. Howard, Entropy. A New World View (London, 1985), pp. 238-40.

3. See G. Thayer, The British Political Fringe (London ,1965), discussed in note 65, p. 264 above. For many, Cold Comfort Farm demolished the pretensions of the English blood-and-soil novel typified by Mary Webb; this process of jeering the rural novel out of fashion seems not to have happened in Germany, where peasant novels continued to appear throughout the 1920s. For a conservative attack on growth, one not taken up or publicised much at the time, see E.J. Mishan, The Costs of Economic Growth (London, 1967) and idem., Growth. The Price We Pay (London, 1969).

4. E.F. Schumacher, Small is Beautiful (London, 1973). For biographical details of Schumacher's life, see Barbara Wood, Alias Papa (London 1984). Ironically, German ecologism was itself American-oriented. Nearly 400,000copies of Global 2000 were sold in Germany; see H. Mewes, The West German Green Party' New German Critique, 1983, vol. 28, p. 78.

5. C. Barnett, The Audit of War. The Illusion and Reality of Britain as a Great Nation (London, 1987), p. 21, my italics.

6. Worster, Nature's Economy, p. 330. Some socialists claim, however, that Beveridge and Attlee produced an environmental improvement, see P. Pender, quoted by David Pepper in 'Environmentalism and Labour', in Joe Weston, ed., Red and Green. The New Politics of the Environment (London, 1986). p. 118. Pepper argues on pp. 1l7- 20 that Porritt's claim that decentralisation and internationalism is uniquely green ignores Kropotkin, Godwin, Proudhon, Morris and Robert Owen. While this is true, the British Labour Party's post-war policies emphasised overall state planning, extreme collectivism and hostility to the individual. The 'white-heat of technology' and industrial growth at all cost, appear unrelated to the ideas of Kropotkin, Godwin, Proudhon, Morris or Robert Owen.

7. C. Elton, Animal Ecology (London, 1935), p. vii.

8. Lowe and Goyder, Environmental Groups in Politics, pp. 152-7, threats to the biosphere, p. 155.

9. See John Papworth, New Politics (New Delhi, 1982), for a statement of his position.

10. The information about the structure and membership of the Soil Association comes from V. Payne, 'A History of the Soil Association', M.A. Thesis, University of Manchester, 1971. Payne does not mention the previous political affiliations of the Council members, but discusses their pre-war ecological writings. Colin Ward refers to Easterbrook's book in his edition of Kropotkin's Fields, Factories and Workshops Tomorrow (London, 1985), p. 119.

11. Payne, 'History of the Soil Association', p. 59.

12. Hardin, 'The Tragedy of the Commons'.

13. J. Seymour, The Forgotten Arts (London, 1977); Payne, 'A History of the Soil Association', pp. 36-40.

14. Interviews with green supporters, 1985-6.

15. J. Becker, Hitler's Children (London, 1977).

16. J. Esser. 'The Future of the Greens in West Germany', unpublished paper delivered at All Souls College, Oxford, 25.2.86.

17. G. Langguth, The Green Factor in German Politics. From Protest Movement to Political Party (Boulder, Colorado, 1986), pp. 4, 6. See too Elim Papadakis, The Green Movement in West Germany (London, 1984).

18. Langguth, The Green Factor, pp. 8-9.

19. Die Zeit, 2.5.86. According to Mewes, 'West German Green Party', p. 63, only six out of the forty-eight pages of the Green programme discuss environmental issues such as 'the protection of air, water, plant and animal species and specific natural or [sic] ecosystems'.

20. Financial Times, 12.11.84; The Times, 25.6.85.

21. P. Kelly, Fighting for Hope (London, 1984), p. 107; see also pp. 105-7. Possibly Kelly believes that all the researchers and officials concerned with the development of thalidomide were men, although she does not offer any evidence to this effect. It may be fair to suggest that the development and testing of drugs takes place in a male-dominated environment. How things would be different in a non-male dominated environment is not explained. Would there be no new drugs? Would they be tested on humans instead of animals, as thalidomide was? Would the process of testing and development be more efficient? Would pregnant women be discouraged from taking drugs - something that could be done even in a patriarchal society? Or would women not need tranquilisers in a society where they were dominant? The picture of passive pregnant women and a male-dominated medical/ drugs establishment, who do not care whether their drugs produce deformed babies or not, is not proven. Certainly, to take drugs while pregnant may be wrong, but it is feminists who insist that women have the right to ease their mental and physical suffering at whatever cost.

22. taz (Berlin-based journal of the Green movement), 21.5.86 and 10.5.86. In an interview in Green Line (May, 1987, no. 51), p. 4, the Oxford-based Green alternative voice, one Green representative, Jacob von Uexkiill, said surprisingly bluntly that the Greens in Germany had deliberately chosen to seek out minority groups and keep left, because commentators had pointed out that ecological statements had been made by Nazi and Fascist governments.

23. taz, 10.5.86, an interview with Antje Vollmer.

24. Ibid.

25. The Times, 15.12.84.

26. See Janine Chasseguet-Smirgel's paper to the Institute of Contemporary Arts, The Green Theatre' (1986), pp. 10-11, 21-24. and her emphatic criticism on page 27, 'the Jews are never mentioned in the brochures of the Green Movement. A strange silence reigns over the Jewish question'. (Underlining in original). She interprets the German ecological movement, especially its antinuclear stance, as a sub-conscious attempt to pretend that Germans can be victims as well as villains.

27. taz, 10.2.86.

28. See Bahro's main books, Building the Green Movement (London 1986), and The Alternative in Eastern Europe (New York, 1979).His Schumacher Lecture of 1986refers to Rilke, H6lderlin, Thoreau, Joachim di Fiore, Thomas Munzer, etc. 29. See New Internationalist, 1987, no. 171, pp. 10-11. The issue was devoted to Green politics.

30. Ibid., p. 1 and passim.

31. E. Goldsmith, Blueprint for Survival (London, 1972);E. Callenbach, Ecotopia (London, 1977).

32. E.g., see the prophecies of mass famine by 1985 made in 1966, quoted in Armytage, Yesterday's Tomorrows (London, 1968), p. 204: world food production could not increase by more than one per cent a year, while population would double in thirty-three years, so calorie intake would have to fall. Peter Medawar, Pluto's Republic, p. 280, quotes Barbara Ward's Only One Earth approvingly.

The two worlds of man-the biosphere of his inheritance, the technosphere of his creation - are out of balance, indeed potentially in deep conflict. And man is in the middle. This is the hinge of history at which we stand, the door of the future opening onto a crisis more sudden, more global, more inescapable and more bewildering than any ever encountered by the human species and one which will take decisive shape within the life span of children who are already born.

The vein of apocalyptic nullity referred to earlier is even more noticeable here. Ward compares two worlds, which in her metaphor balance, with man in the middle. The 'technosphere' is not really a world, but a capability; the analogy between two worlds - even on a metaphorical level - is false. The conflict between the biosphere and the technological capacity is not explained, though the inherent opposition is assumed. The crisis glimpsed through the door opening on the hinge of history is so vaguely expressed as to be meaningless. Peter Medawar examined the opposition to Ward and Dubos, in J. Maddox, The Doomsday Syndrome (London, 1972), but concluded that Maddox was 'hopelessly sanguine', p. 283. It is an interesting example of the gullibility of trained scientists that Medawar thought that 'death by starvation and infectious disease is already commonplace in over-populated parts of the world', p. 283. Death by starvation takes place in areas less highly populated than Europe. There are no famines in Britain or Holland today. The toll of infectious disease is substantially lower in the Third World than in 1900. The startling rise in population in Third World countries this century alone is evidence that something is wrong with these assumptions. In comparison, many European countries took three hundred years to regain the loss of population following the Black Death. J. Simon and H. Kahn, in. eds., The Resourceful Earth (Oxford, 1984) examined in detail the prophecies of doom made in Global 2000 Report to the President, a 1980 American report. In their introduction, pp. 1-49, Simon and Kahn concluded that where prophecies were expressed in precise form or could be quantified, the evidence showed that the predictions were false.

33. Neues Deutschland, 4.1.82, speech inaugurating the XII Bauernkongress; I am grateful to L.R. Colitt for this information.

34. Financial Times, 15.8.85. Alec Douglas- Home recalled Khrushchev's disillusionment with professional agronomists, who advised him to plough up large tracts of Central Russia. A local peasant told him not to, as the top-soil would blow away: the land was ploughed, and the top-soil did blow away. (27.12.83, interview with Alec Douglas-Home, British Overseas Service, Time Remembered').

35. F. Muller-Rommel, 'Ecology Parties in Western Europe', Western European Politics, 1982, vol. 5, pp. 68-74.

36. J-F. Pilat, 'Democracy or Discontent? Ecologists in the European Electoral Arena', Government and Opposition, 1982, vol. 17, pp. 222-33. At cantonal level in spring, 1987, Green candidates in Eastern France received ten per cent of the vote, while the Fronte Nationale had about six per cen!. A poll on second preferences showed that only one per cent of the two parties would support the other, Le Monde, 27.5.87.

37. Sunday Telegraph, 11.11.84.

38. Lowe and Goyder, Environmental Groups in Politics, pp. 72-3.

39. See Schumacher Society Book List, 1986. A recent (and welcome) initiative by Green Books Ltd has altered the balance. The works of H.J. Massingham together with an anthology of the writings of several early organic farmers are among the 'Green Classics' to be published by them in September 1988.

40. The Times, 20.10.84.

41. George Orwell, Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters, vol. 2, My Countn) Right or Left, (Harmondsworth, 1970), pp. 168 -9. 'The energy that actually shapes the world springs from the emotions - racial pride, leader worship, religious belief, love of war - which liberal intellectuals mechanically write off as anachronisms', p. 168. Orwell did not particularly approve of these qualities; he was arguing that a view of life which included them had a better prophetic and explanatory power than one which did not.

42. Ibid, p. 168.

43. An example of war-time patriotism is the English Association's England (ed. by Harold Nicolson) (London 1944). The English Association was established to study and preserve the language. The anthology deals with English qualities such as humour, character, courage, etc.

44. See e.g., editorial in New Internationalist as cited above which admits to omitting mystical elements in green ideas, and typical tongue-in-cheek interview with Porrill, Sunday Telegraph, 17.4.83.

45. See note 17, p. 251, above.

46. Quoted in Scorpion, June, 1984, no. 5, p. 8.

47. F. Thomson, The Chosen One (California International Award Press, no place, 1966).

48. See for example S. Devi, Pilgrimage (Calcutta, 1958). D. Pepper in The Roots of Modern Environmentalism, pp. 204-13, describes survivalists, Hardin and Ecotopias as 'ecofascism'. The category is surely beller kept for real ecofascists and econazis.

49. Yanov, The Russian Challenge, p. 135.

50. Ibid., pp. 135-7, 149-51.

51. Weston, ed., Red and Green, p. 118.

Conclusion

1. E. Kohak, The Ember and the Stars. A Philosophical Enquiry into the Moral Sense of Nature (Chicago, 1984), p. 80.

2. Allaby and Bunyard, Politics of Self- Sufficiency, pp. 39-40.
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Re: Ecology in the 20th Century: A History, by Anna Bramwell

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Bibliography

Journals


Anglo-German Review
Anthroposophical Review
Demeter
Green Line
Journal of the Soil Association
Mother Earth
Nature et Progres
Resurgence
Rural Economy
taz
The Monist
The Ecologist
The New Pioneer

Manuscript sources

Information on ecological ideas under the Third Reich came from the private papers and letters of Walther Darre and Herbert Backe, both lodged at the Federal Archives, Coblenz. The Backe papers are restricted. Walther Darre's diary is in the City Archives, Goslar; it too is restricted. The diary consists of an edited, typed, version produced after Darre's death from an original which was read by archivists and historians, then repossessed by Darre's widow and burnt. I have not relied on it as a source unless there was confirmatory material elsewhere. I am grateful to former colleagues of Darre for supplying me with a copy of Darre's handwritten notes on the formation of a German Soil Association, and to Mrs Backe, who permitted me to read and quote from her diary. Material from the Himmler file on organic farms and similar matters together with mimeographed reports by A. Ludovici and others referred to in the text and notes is to be found at the Federal Archives, Coblenz, as is other unpublished material concerning the Third Reich.

Books, theses and articles

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G. Cavaliere, The Rural Tradition in the English Novel, London, 1977.

M. Chapman, The Gaelic Vision in Scottish Culture, London, 1978.

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W. Cobbett, Rural Rides, Harmondsworth, 1967.

--, Cottage Economy, Oxford, 1965.

(Cobden Club), Systems of Land Tenure in Various Countries, London, 1870.

J. Collings, Land Reform, London, 1906.

R.G. Collingwood, The Idea of Nature, Oxford, 1945.

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Sir W.E. Cooper, The Murder of Agriculture. A National Peril. Disastrous Results to the Nation. Being an Earnest Appeal to the People to demand Land, Tariff and Poor Law Reform, Letchworth, 1908.

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Ibid., The Origin of Species,. London, 1859.

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--, 'The Meaning of Evolution. Post-Darwinian Debates on the Significance for Man of the Theory of Evolution 1858-1908', Cambridge Ph D. Thesis, 1977.

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--, Forestry or Famine?, London, 1949.

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--, World Without End, London, 1932.

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J. Garratty, 'The ew Deal, ational Socialism and the Great Depression', American Historical Review, 1973, vol. 78, pp. 907-45.

D. Gasman, The Scientific Origins of National Socialism. Social Darwinism in Ernst Haeckel and the German Monist League, London and New York, 1971.

P. Geddes, Cities in Evolution, London, 1915.

A. Gehlen, Der Mensch: seine Natur und seine Stellung in der Welt, Berlin, 1940.

G. Gentile, tr. H.S. Harris, Genesis and Structure of Society, Urbana, Illinois, 1966.

A. George, 'Back to the Land', M. Sc Thesis, Oxford, 1979.

H. George, Progress and Poverty, London, 1951.

C. Glacken, Traces all the Rhodian Shore. Nature and Culture in Western Thought from Ancient Times to the End of the Eighteenth Century, Berkeley, 1967.

E. Goldsmith, Blueprint for Survival, London, 1972.

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Re: Ecology in the 20th Century: A History, by Anna Bramwell

Postby admin » Wed Jan 24, 2018 2:29 am

Index

Acid rain 221
Adams, Henry 27, 62, 256
Adams, John Quincy 71, 258
aesthetic movement, the 100
Agar, Herbert 81
alienation 15, 60
Allaby, Michael 35, 218, 246
Allsop, Kenneth 148
Amish, the 93, 235
anarchism 18, 87-8, 102, 150-1, 161, 170, 239
anarcho-syndicalism 163
Anglo-German Fellowship, the 122
Anglo-Saxon nationalism 106, 117
animal rights movements 3, 196
'anthrobiology' 185
anthropology 53, 115, 184
philosophical 7, 42, 177, 181, 184-5
anthropo morphism 56
Anthroposophy 100, 198, 200-1, 204-5, 217-18,
223, 226, 235, 270
anti-anthropomorphism 57, 60-1, 112
anti-naturism 29-31
anti-peasant policies 69
anti-semitism 26, 34, 84-5, 108, 118, 126-7, 224,
270
anti-speciesism 58
anti-vivisectionism 26, 199, 237
Antonio, Jose 163-4
Ardrey, Robert 102
Arendt, Hannah 187
Arnold, Matthew 9
Artamanen, the 180
Arts and Crafts Movement, the 81
Ascona, artists colony at 107, 113, 115, 179-80
Astor, Viscount 67, 119
atheism 24-6, 42, 86
Australia 95
Austria 56
Greens in 8, 228
autarky, ecological 11, 67, 92, 134, 151, 224

BUF see British Union of Fascists, the
Backe, Herbert 117, 198, 202-4, 270
Bachofen, J.J. 27, 178, 251-2
Bacon, Francis 25, 87, 239
Baden Powell, Robert 105-6
Bahro, Rudolf 25, 27, 29, 35, 116, 221-2, 225,
244-5, 251, 261, 269, 273
Balfour, Arthur 216, 258
Balfour, Eve 166, 205, 216-17, 229
Balfour, Harold, 121
Ballod-Atlanticus, Karl 87-8, 240
banking system, reform of the 83-5
Barr, Margaret 115
Barres 172
Barrington Moore 161
Bavarian Peasants league 71
Beaumont, Michael 121, 124, 264
Bebel, August 52
Becher, Johannes 179, 269
Beckett, John 118
behaviourism 41
Belgium 71, 232
Greens in 8, 228
Bellamy, Edward 97
Belloc, Hilaire 98
Bentham, Jeremy 30, 187
Bergson 10, 54, 61, 177, 182-3, 217
Bernal, J.D. 65, 238, 240
Bernhardi, Count 69
Beveridge, William 196, 272
bio-dynamic farming 121, 197, 199-203, 205, 217
see also organic farming
biological ecology 10, 61-3, 65
biological holism 15, 39-62
Bismarck, Count 99, 193
Blake, William 132
Blatchford, Robert 71, 258
'blood and soil' nationalism 123, 163-6, 180. 191,
271
Blunden, Edmund 121, 264
Blythe, Ronald 114
Bodin, Jean 28
Boehme, Jacob 99
Bogdanov, A.A. 87
Bolsche, Wilhelm 48, 51-2, 57, 204
Bookchin, Murray 87, 225
Bormann, Martin 197, 199, 201, 203, 207
Boulding, Kenneth 61
Boy Scout movement, the 93, 105-6
Brandt, Peter 232
Brandt, Willy 232
Brazil 236
Brecht, Bertolt 177, 194
Britain 5, 46, 70, 194
Ecology party of 8
fascism in 11, see also British Union of Fascists,
the Green Party of 8, 20, 87, 228, 240
British Union of Fascists 26, 70, 110, 112, 118, 122,
124-5, 145, 164-8, 205, 258, 267-8
Bruderhof groups 99-100
Bruhnes, Bernard 62, 256
Bruno, Giordano 44
Bryant, Sir Arthur 121
Buddhism 26, 45, 150, 171, 180, 204, 213, 223, 226,
243
Bulgaria 162, 206, 227
Bunyard, Peter 35, 246
Burke, Edmund 186, 253
Butler, R.A. 121

CND see Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, the
Cadogan, Peter 232
Cambrensis, Giraldus 28
Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, the 231-2
Canada 23
capitalism 24, 26, 28-30, 33-4, 70, 129-30, 147,
207
Carlyle, Thomas 97, 249
Carr, E.H. 213
Carrel, Dr Alexis 47, 121
Carson, Rachel 66, 120, 225
Carus, Dr Paul 47
catholicism 17, 98, 109, 126, 130, 254
'Catonis!' 161, 164, 169
Celts 29, 97
celtic inheritance 231
Chamberlain, Houston Stewart 29, 51-2
Chasseguet-Smirgel, Jannine 224
Chayanov, A.V. 88
Chernobyl disaster, the 223
Chesterton, A.K. 118
Chesterton, G.K. 25, 98, 108, 262
Chomsky, oam 19, 59
Christianity 24-6, 29-30, 44-5, 102, 115, 128, 248
patriarchal 25
Church of England, the 8
Club of Rome, the 211, 220
Cobbett, William 3, 17, 98, 125, 128-9, 161, 226
Cobden, Richard 69, 126
Cohn-Bendit, Danny 225
collectivism, 80, 148, 194, 235, 242, 247
Coleridge, S.T. 92
Collis, John Stewart 114
Commoner, Barry 225
Committee for the Protection of Russian
Monuments, the, see Pamyat, 233
communes 66, 92-104, 18, 237, 261
bio/dynamic 100
in Bengal 107
in England 93
in Israel 99
rural settings of 92
self-sufficiency and 226
state-run 97
in United States of America 5-7, 93-5, 101-3
utopian 94
youth 100
communism 88, 189
Comte, August 30, 53, 75-6, 78, 91, 96, 247
Condorcet, Marquis de 195, 253
Conservation Society, the 228
consumerism 11, 17, 182, 243, 245
constructivist rationalism 187
Coomaraswamy, Ananda K. 121, 229
Council for the Protection of Rural England, 105
Czechoslovakia 162, 179, 227,
peasants in, 162

da Vinci, Leonardo 25
Daly, Mary 27 .
Damaschke, Adolf 99
'Danikenism' 102
Danilevsky, ikolai 40, 76-7, 259
Darn', Walther 68, 117, 155, 171, 178, 180, 197-8,
201-95, 208, 251, 270-1
Dartington Hall 107, 115, 266
Darwin, Charles 9, 41, 46, 52, 77, 86, 94, 125-6
Davis, William Morris 76
de Bary, Anton 40
de Triboulet, Francois 75
decentralisation 80
Dee, John 25
deforestation 76, 78, 83
Denmark 168, 227
Folk Schools of 126
peasants in 68
Descartes, Rene 48, 191
determinism 238
geographic 28-9
racial 28-9
di Fiore, Joachim 17
Dickens, Charles 153
Dickinson, H.N. 123
Diderot, Denis 195
Diederichs, Eugen 113, 178-9
diffusionism 125-6
Dilthey, Wilhelm 52, 74, 185, 259
Disraeli, Benjamin 20
Distributism 68, 98, 130
Distributist League, the 98
Dorgeres, Henri 173
Dorman-Smith, Reginald 118
Douglas, Major c.H. 84, 108-9, 114
Doukhoubours, the 93, 235
Driberg, Tom 110
Driesch, Hans 10, 54-5, 61, 163, 177, 217, 255
Drieu la Rochelle 107, 172-3
Druid cult, the 231
Dubos, Rene 211
Duhring, Eugen 19
Duncan, Ronald 121

East Germany 227
Easterbrook, Laurence 217
Eckmannsdorf, de la Vigne 68
ecologism 6, 104, 122
fascist 161-74
in Germany 5
new age of 209-48
political implications of 13-21, 35
ecology:
biological 61-3
definition of 3-21
and fascism 15
formulation of 10
in Germany 175-208
and the Greens 8-12
286
historigraphy of 22
and manichaeanism 22-36
and Marx 31-6
as a movement 3
and National Socialism 11, 15
human 70
normative 3-4
origins of, as word 39-42, 253-4
political theory {)f13-21
Ecology Party, the 8, 228-9
Ehrenberg, Richard 74, 259
Ehrlich, Paul 61, 225
Eichberg, Hennig 232
Eibl-Eibesfeldt, Irenaus 58, 238, 256
Ellis, Havelock 106-7
Elmhirst, Leonard 107
Elton, Sir Charles 57, 214
Emerson 9, 94, 136, 267
energy economics 4, 64-91
Engels, Friedrich 19, 32, 52, 86, 252
England 56, 100, 154, 243
communes in 93
organic farming in 215-19, 264
peasants in 123, 165
English Array, the 117, 264
English Country Dance Association, the 165
English Folk Dance Society, the 114
English Land Colonization Society, the 98
English Mistery, the 117, 124, 264
English nationalism 122-5, 212
Enlightenment, the 24-5
rejection of the ideas of 23, 50
entropy 60-2
environment, changing attitudes to the 7
environmentalism 22-3, 104
Epstein 126
ethology 41, 56-60, 63
Lorenz and 56- 60
eugenics 49, 52, 65, 85, 99, 106, 108, 173, 193, 264
euro-centrism 85, 87, 91, 246
European Parliament, Greens in 8, 221, 228
eurythmics 107, 115
euthanasia 49, 193
Evola, Julius 171, 180
existentialism 55

Fabians, the 52, 67, 78, 105, 264
Fanon, Franz 130
fascism 181, 191, 196
in Britain 11
ecological ideas in 15, 161-74
in France 172
in Italy 170-2, 200
in Spain 172
see, also National Socialism
Fechter, Paul 179
Feder, Gottfried 84, 109
feminism 26-7, 100, 179, 212, 222, 226, 231, 251,
272
Feuerbach 26, 34, 252
Fichte Johann Gottfried 99
Fidus (Hugo Hoppener), 188
Findhorn Community. the 100-1
Finland, Greens in 8, 228
First World War, the 15, 41, 43, 52, 75-6, 78,
95-6, 99, 104, 106, 109, 122, 124, 130, 134,
136-9, 142, 154-5, 163, 172-4, 189, 193, 196,
206, 246, 265, 268
Fischer, Ernst 76
Fischer, Joshka 22
Flanders, peasants in 66, 68
Flurscheim, Michael 99
folk dance 114-5
Ford, Henry 87
Fordham, Montagu 85, 122-4
Fore!, August 52
Forster, E.M. 134, 232
Forster, Bernard 99
Fourier Charles 75, 77
France, 23, 56, 70, 173, 228, 232
fascism in 172
Francis of Assisi 17, 25, 45
Franco, General 163
free market economics 69, 73, 129, 147, 154-5
French, Marilyn 27
Fried, Ferdinand 113
Friedman, Milton 221
Friends of the Earth, the 87, 228-30
Fuller, Buckmaster 102
Fuller, Major-General J.F.C. 118
Fusil, Paul, 216

'Gaia', concept of 5, 249
Galsworthy, John 137
Galton, Francis 46
Galtung, Johan 28
Gandhi, M.K. 71, 100, 180
garden cities 82, 259
Gardiner, Rolf 85, 107-8, 112-17, 124, 126, 128,
165, 216-17, 229, 260, 263-4
Gasman, Daniel 50, 256
Gasset, Ortegay 54, 163
Gaudier-Brzeska 126
Geddes, Patrick 46, 77-81, 90, 106, 259
Gehlen, Arnold 184-5
Gentile, Giovanni 169-70
George, Henry 95, 99, 122, 261
George, Stefan 178, 180
German nationalism 145, 178
German Peace Movement, the 43
German Trade Council, the 171
German Youth Movement, the 106-7, 113, 116,
154, 178-80, 186, 188, 269
Germany 23, 46, 70, 75, 95, 99-100, 111-12, 125,
130, 142, 145, 150, 161, 163, 166, 173, 178,
200, 232, 242-3
ecologism in 5, 175-208
Green Party in 20, 52, 196, 219-25, 227, 243
naturism in 177-94
peasants in 67, 118, 127-8, 186, 203, 208, 223,
241
rural art in 186
Gesell, Silvio 84
Gide, Andre 150
Gill, Eric 98
Glacken, Clarence 22, 25, 30, 45
Gobineau, Count Arthur de 29, 82, 232
Godwin, William 234, 272
Goebbels, Josef 185, 197
Goering, Hermann 121, 151, 197, 201, 203
287
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von 10, 44, 59, 79, 99,
184, 238
Goldmann, Emma 94
Goldsmith, Edward 218-9, 226, 228, 271
Gorki, Maxim 150
Goyder, Philip 10, 23
Graham, Martha 115
Graser, Arthur 79, 179
Graves, Robert 27, 29, 145, 179, 225
Green, Martin 132, 179
Green Party:
in Austria 8, 228
in Belgium 8, 228
in Britain (see also Ecology Party) 8, 20, 228-9,
246
in European Parliament 8, 221, 228
in Finland 8, 228
in Germany, 20, 82, 87, 196, 219-25, 227, 243
as a movement, in the USA 225-7
Green Parties 241
Green Revolution 246
Green Shirts, the 105-12, 162
Green, T.H. 19
green tendency 9
Greenpeace 229-30
Greens, the 6, 130, 140, 178, 183
and ecologists 8-12
radical left and 7
Griffiths, Richard 114, 121
Gruhl, Herbert 219-21, 228, 223
guild socialism 85, 97, 113, 124
Gunther, Hans, F.K. 152
Gurdjieff, Georgy lvanovich 102

Haeckel, Ernst 4, 19, 39-41, 61, 80, 112, 119, 148,
177, 185, 204, 244, 252-3, 256
background of 43-5,
as ecologist 42-3
ideas of 43-5
influence of, on Hitler 50-1
nature and 48-51
religious beliefs of 45-8
social Darwinism and 48-5~
Hahn, Eduard 75
Hall, Stanley G, 108
Hamsun, Knut 68, 129, 133-4, 150-60, 244
Hansen, Thorkild 154
Hardin, Garrett 217
Hargrave, John 85, 106-11, 117, 131, 263
Hauptmann, Gerhard 193
Haushofer, Karl 74, 258
Hayek, Friedrich 30-1, 96, 187
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich 28, 32, 169, 170,
186
Heidegger, Martin 10-11, 16, 181-2, 188, 190,
192, 245, 250, 269
Hemingway, Ernest 150
Henderson, Lawrence 76
Henry Doubleday Association, the 216
Herder, Johann 50
Hertzka, Theodore 99
Hess, Rudolf 195, 197, 199, 201, 205, 270
Hesse, Hermann 107
Hewlett, Maurice 122-3
Heydrich, Reinhard 203, 205, 270
'High Tories' 104-5, 122, 125
Himmler, Heydrich 196, 201-2, 204, 270
Hinduism 243
Hirschfeld, Magnus, 52, 255
Hitler, Adolf 88, 112, 128, 131, 145, 146, 151, 153,
171, 185, 195-6, 201, 204-5, 266, 270
and Haeckel, 50-1
Hobbes, Thomas 25, 125, 128, 130, 196, 251
Hodgson, Ralph, 126
Hogben, Lancelot 31
Hodge 123, 141
Holderlin, Johann 225, 245, 273
holism 26, 79, 238
and biology 39-63
scientific 56
holistic tradition 9
holistic medicine 10, 212
holistic world-view 43
homeopathy 10, 197
Howard, Sir Albert 121, 214
Howard, Ebenezer 71
Hudson, W.H. 134, 136
Hughes, Ted 150
Hugo, Victor 151
Hulme, T.E. 126
humanism 19
Humboldt, Alexander von 61
Humboldt, Wilhelm von 59
Hungary 162, 206
Huxley, Julian 41, 106
Huxley, T.H. 26, 46-7, 58, 77, 98, 125

It see Intermediate Technology
Ibsen, Hendryk 151
Illich, Ivan 71
India 78, 95, 107, 109, 121, 193, 216, 229, 233
peasants in 69
Indonesia 236
Intermediate Technology 215
Ireland, peasants in 69
Israel, communes in 99
Italy, 169, 173, 180, 228, 232
fascism in, 170-2, 200

Jefferson, Thomas 71, 258
Jefferies, Richard 9, 97, 108, 113, 116, 123, 134-6,
138-9, 141, 249, 265-6
Jenks, Jorian 124, 149, 166-8, 217, 268
Jevons, W. Stanley 72
Johnson, Walter 41
Joyce, William 118
Judaism 24
Junger, Ernst 9, 54, 80, 163, 177
Junger, Friedrich Georg 9, 249

Kaldor, Nicholas 213
Kalevala, the 131
Kant, Immanuel 44, 181, 252
Kautsky, Karl 86
Kelly, Petra 222, 272
Keyserling, Count 193, 200
Kenstler, Dr Georg 180
Kenya 122
Keynes, John Maynard 108-9, 114
Kibbo Kift Kin, the 77, 106-11, 114, 123, 263
kibbutz movement, the 99
Kinship in Husbandry organisation, the 120, 125,
128, 165, 216, 264
Klages, Ludwig 178-82, 185, 268-9
Klemperor, Klemens von 191
Kohler, W. 56
Kollontai, Alexandra 150
Korea 236
Kropotkin, Prince Peter 16, 19, 49, 65, 67, 70-1,
74, 78, 87, 98, 122, 242, 258, 272

Laban, Rudolph 107, 115, 179
labour, mobility of 72
Lagerlof, Selma 106
Land Restoration League, the 95
land settlement programmes 74-82, 95, 104-31,
206
land use and planning 66-7, 198
Lao-Tzu 17, 225, 243, 263
Laski, Harold 213
Lawrence, D.H. 29, 42, 51, 98, 105, 107-8,
111-13, 116, 134, 136
Lawrence, T.E. 145
laws of thermo-dynamics, first and second 64, 76,
83, 256-7
Le Corbusier 81- 2
Lenin, Vladimir llyich 12, 87-8, 179, 244
Lethaby, William 80
Lewis, C.S. 26, 115, 131
Lewis, Wyndham 129
Liebig, Justus von 74
Linnaeus, Carl 46, 50
Lloyd, J. William 94
Lloyd George, David 69, 258, 266
Locke, John 25
Lorenz, Konrad 41, 56-61, 204, 238, 255-6
ethology and 56-60
Lowe, Jane 10, 23
Lymington, Lord (Gerard Wallop, 9th Earl of
Portsmouth), 7, 112, 117-18, 120, 124, 165,
206, 216-17, 229
Lucretius, 44
Ludovici, Antony 197, 270
Luxembourg, Rosa 179

Mackinder, Halford 61, 74
Macmillan, Harold 124
Maine, Sir Henry 19
Malaparte, Curzio 171-2
Malawi (formerly Nyasaland) 113
Malraux, Andre 172
Malthus, Thomas 9, 126
man, equality with animals of, 62
allegedly benevolent nature of 242
alleged dual nature of 238
as part of nature 49, 125
as shepherd of the earth 8, 11, 16, 60
Mann, Thomas 12, 150, 154, 193
Mao Tse-Tung 71
Marais, Eugene 56, 238-9
Marcuse, Herbert 225
Marsh, George Perkins 22, 74, 78
Martin, Kingsley 117
Martinez-Alier, Juan 10, 48
Marx, Karl 17, 26, 41, 82, 86-7, 91, 108, 244-5,
252-3, 257
anthropocentricity of 33
as an ecologist 31-6
idea of nature, and 252-3
view of peasants, and 252
Marxism 78, 97, 132, 140, 215, 222, 230, 233, 237,
247, 251
Massingham, Hugh J. 7, 25-6, 85, 98, 122,
125-30, 134, 167, 260
matriarchy 9, 26-7, 29, 178-9, 226, 231, 244, 251,
253, 268
McNabb, Father Vincent 98
Merchant, Caroline 26-7
Medawar, Peter 273
Menger, Carl 72
Mexico 95
Mill, John Stuart 69
Miller, Henry 150
mir, Russian 69
Mitford, Mary 134
modernism 80, 259
Moeller van den Bruck, Arthur 184
Mohler, Armin 9
Moleschott, Jakob von 51
Monism 43-4, 47, 49, 50, 53-4, 77, 94, 250
politics of 51-3
Monist League, the 42, 51-2
Monod, Jacques 19
More, Henry 46
Morgan, Lewis 75
Morris, William 80, 82, 91, 94, 96-7, 107, 135, 213,
272
Mosley, Sir Oswald 11, 26, 118, 142, 144-5,
147-8, 164, 168, 217, 264-6,
see a/so BUF
Muller, Hermann 65, 238
Muller, Jo 223
Muller, Max 193
Mumford, Lewis 35, 71, 79, 81, 90, 102, 226, 253,
258
Munzer, Thomas 225
Murry, John Middleton 98
Mussolini, Benito 164, 169, 171, 200, 268
mystical ruralism 10

NATO see North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
National Bolsheviks in Germany 183, 189
National Front 9, 229
National Socialsim 12, 24, 27-8, 72, 129, 154", 169,
173
in Britain 121
ecological ideas in 11, 15, 195-208 passim
in Germany 5, 50, 152, 162-3, 166, 171, 177,
185, 196, 204-5, 208, 242
growthof7
in Norway 151-2, 159
racialist theories of 126
National Socialist League, the 118
nationalism, Anglo-Saxon 106, 117
German 145, 178
Polish 162
Romantic 164, 230-2
natural law 46-7, 185
natural sciences 39
growth of the 30
natural theology 46
nature, changing attitudes to 7-8, 18-19
absolute 160
as guide 47, 65, 186, 191
benevolent 125
embodying eternal reality 17, 186-7
logic and 169
man and 7-8
mysticism and 112
role in German literature and poetry 185-6
Rousseau and 243
spirit and 170
spirit of46
state as enemy of 170
transcendence and 161, 205, 243
yearned for 194
Nature Conservancy Council, the 55, 214
naturism, German 177-94
azis, see National Socialism
Neill, AS 148
neo-Lamarckian concepts 47, 49, 50, 57, 177
Netherlands, the 56, 121, 227
New Deal, the 101, 196, 270
New Zealand 112
Newton, Isaac 25
Niekisch, Emst183
Nietzsche, Friedrich 10-11, 49, 60, 107, 177, 179,
181, 187, 249
Nolte, Ernst 161, 267
Nordic League, the 231
nordic racialism 107, 117, 126-7, 132, 152
Nordic Society, the 155
Norman, Sir Montagu 110
normative ecology 4
origins of3
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation 160
Northbourne, Lord 26, 216
Norway 150-1, 157, 159, 160
National Socialism in 151-2, 159
peasants in 150, 152
Nouvelle Droite, the 232, 244
nuclear power, opposition to 12, 223, 228, 230-6
nudism 100, 205

Oakeshott, Michael 186, 190
Oberlander, Theodore 206
Obst, Erich 117
Ocampo Victoria 107
Oekonomie 15, 23, 41
Oekologie 14, 40, 252
oil crisis, of 1973-4, 91, 208, 211, 212
Oneida commune 92
Orange, A.R. 84, 126
Order of Woodcraft Chivalry, the 106, 117
organic farming 100, 107, 112, 114, 116, 142, 168,
201-5, 218, 270
in England 215-19, 264
Orwell, George 95, 98, 230, 262, 274
Ossietsky, Carl von 52
Ostwald, Wilhelm 31, 43, 52, 64, 77, 83, 260
Ouspensky 102
Owen, Robert 234, 272

PA see Pagans Against Nukes
pacifism 12, 86, 98, 110, 128, 150, 178, 216, 232, 263
paganism 114, 230-6, 245
Pagans Against Nukes (PAN) 27, 320-1
Paine, Tom 95
Pamyat223
Parsons, H.L. 31-2, 34
pan-Aryanism 193, 205
pan-Slavism 40, 233, 259
Pancke, Gustav 204
pantheism 41, 45, 47, 106, 144
Papworth, John 214, 232, 234
Paraguay 100
Pasternak, Boris 179
Paton, John Brewer 98
patriarchal societies 26, 28, 66, 268
pre-patriarchal 9
Paul, Leslie Allen 107-8, 263
Payne, Stanley 172
peasants 67-8
as historyless 189
bestiality or pleasantness of 4
bug-ridden 71
Danish 68
destruction of 33, 230, 233
disappearance of 75
encouragement of 128, 130, 252
English 123, 165
era of the 200-8
Flemish 66, 68
forward-looking 68
German 67, 118, 127-8, 186, 208, 223, 241
glorified 68
hard work of 69-70
in Czechoslovakia 162
Indian 69, 252
Irish 69
orthern 160
Norwegian 150, 162
patriotism and 68-71
revolts by 12
role of 68, 257
Russian 77, 88
self-sufficiency of 88
support for 122
Third World today, in 208
yeoman 163
Peasant Party, Polish 162
Penty 124
Pepper, David 9
Perry, W.J. 125
Persia 154
Petrie, Eduard 75
Petty, William 82
Pevsner, Nikolaus 80, 259
Pfeiffer, Ehrenfried 102, 121, 206, 218
philosophical anthropology 7, 42, 177, 181, 184-5
physiocrats, the 83
Pilsudski, Marshall 162
planning, ideals of 88-91, 239
lack of 147
land use and 66-7, 198
productivity and 66-7
of towns 78-9, 82, 259
Ploetz, Alfred 52, 99
Plievier, Theodore 179
Plumage Bill campaign the 127
Podolinsky, Serge 86, 240, 257
290
Polish nationalism 162
pollution 43, 102, 147, 232, 247
Pol Pot 12, 242, 250
Poland 162, 180, 199, 200-1, 204, 206-7
Political ecology 3, 7-8, 13
Popper, Karl 55, 86, 260
Popper-Lynkeus, Josef 86-7, 221, 260
population, growth of 211, 218-19
Porritt, Jonathan 229, 272
Portsmouth, Earl of see Lymington, Lord
Pound, Ezra 126
Prenant, Marcel 31, 33, 251
Prigogine, lIya 19
Progressive party, the 50
Protestantism 45, 75, 109, 129, 154, 230, 242
Prussian Settlement Commission, the 99
Public Order Art, 1936, 110

Quakers, the (Society of Friends) 17, 67, 100,
106-7, 110, 112, 124, 129

racial theories, and National Socialism 126
Radionic Association, the 114
Ramakrishna, Sri 94
Ramblers Association 105
rationalism 24
Rationalist Press Association, the 41
Ratzel, Friedrich 61, 74-5, 259
Rauschning, Hermann 51, 127, 269
Ray, John 23, 46, 251
Reclus, Elisee 75, 78, 259
Reich, Charles 225
resources, non-renewable 4
exhaustible 86
finite, 66, 80, 91, 211, 271
natural 74
predictions about 273
re-organisation of 90
scarce 4, 64-5
to be shared 211
Ricardo 86
Rider Haggard, H. 97
Rilke, Rainer Maria 17, 190, 192, 225, 243
Ritter, Carl 61
Rodbertus-Jagetzow, Karl Johann von 74
Romantic nationalism 164, 230-2
Roosevelt, President Franklin D, 101, 240, 270
Rosenberg, Alfred 132, 152, 155, 178, 185, 195
Ross, Colin 75, 259
Rousseau, Jean Jacques 68, 243, 257
Rowntree, Seebohm 67, 119, 167
Rowntree Trust, the 229
Ruhland, Gustav 74, 258
Rumania 162-3, 173, 267
Rural Reconstruction Association, the 122, 124,
264-5
Ruskin, John 75, 78, 81, 96, 98, 213, 243, 260, 262
Russell, Bertrand 53
Russell, George (AE) 78
Russia 95

Saint-Hilaire, Isidore 40
Salomon, Ernst von 113
Salvation Army, the 99, 262
Saunders, Robert 168
Saxon Kinship, concept of 112-22
Say, Jean Baptiste 108, 257
scientism 24-5
Scheler, Max 181, 184-5
Schiller, Johann von 186
Schily, Otto 221, 223, 225
Schopenhauer, Arthur 25-6, 34, 54
Schrodinger, Erwin 55
Schumacher, E.F. 129, 213-14, 218-42, 271
Schumacher Society, the 71, 213, 215, 229
Scott, J. Robertson 141
second law of thermo-dynamics 64, 256-7
Second World War 5, 15, 26, 54, 59, 72, 98, 101,
114, 121, 128, 130, 148, 149, 153-5, 167-8,
178-9, 216, 230, 250, 264, 266, 271
Seifert, Alwin 197-8, 203-4, 270
'Selbourne cult', the 23
self-sufficiency 92-3, 102-3, 152, 200, 218, 226,
240
of peasants 88
Seton, Ernest Thompson 93, 105
Seymour, John 218
Shaler, Nathaniel Southgate 76
Shaw, George Bernard 19, 146
Sheldrake, Rupert 101
shepherd of the earth, concept of man as, 8, 11,
16, 60
Sik, Ota225
Small Holdings and Allotments Act, 190769
Smith, Adam 126
Social Credit 84-5, 107-9, 113, 126, 130
Social Credit Party of Great Britain 100
social Darwinism 7, 12, 66, 91, 153, 264
Haeckel and 48-51
Social Democratic Party of Germany, the 51-2, 70
'social energetics' 31
Soddy, Frederick 53, 82-5, 96, 107, 124, 240, 242,
259, 260
Soil Association, the 54, 112, 114, 124, 165-6, 205,
213, 216-18, 228-9, 255, 271-2
soil erosion 43, 74, 104-5, 112, 118-20, 216
soil infertility 3, 43, 75, 87, 118, 128, 144, 153, 216,
246
soil pollution 104, 118, 216
solar power 64-5, 102
Sorel, Georges 170, 182, 269
Soviet Union 227
Spain 163-4, 169, 173
fascism in 172
speciesism 34
Spencer, Herbert 19, 46, SO, 69, 78, 80, 95, 98
Spengler, Oswald 28, 178, 184, 187-8, 269
Spinoza, Baruch 26, 45, 191
Spranger, Eduard 184
St George's Guild 96
Stapledon, Sir George 89-90, 121-2, 124, 216,
260
Stapledom, Olaf 25
Stefansson, Vilhjalmar 106
Steiner, George 11
Steiner, Rudolf 100, 116, 121, 193, 195-208, 216,
223, 270
Stewart A.J. 66
Stirner, Max 49
Straight, Dorothy Whitney 107
Strindberg, August 151
291
Strickland, David 218
Stukely, D. 168
Student Christian Movement, the 99
Suess, Eduard 62
sun-worship 10, 83, 107, 238
Surell74
Sweden 23, 227-8
Switzerland 23, 51, 99, 228, 268
peasants in 68

Tagore, Rabindranath, 78, 106-7, 180, 193
Talmon, J. 25
Tanzania 242
Taoism 180
Tawney, R. 124
teleology 54
Terboven, Josef 151
Teviot, Lord 217
Theilhard de Chardin, P. 62, 250
Theosophy 95, 106
Thewelweit, Klaus 28
Third Reich 5, 10-11, 51-2, 88, 105, 184, 195-7,
205-7, 213
Thomas, Keith 30
Thompson, Francis 139
Thoreau, Henry David 3, 9, 91, 93-5, 108, 225,
253-4, 261
Thunen, Johann von 64, 71-4
Todt, Fritz 197, 270
Tolkien, J.R.R. 26, 106, 130-2, 137, 232
Tolstoy, 71, 88, 99, 100, 137, 180, 189
Town and Country Planning Act 1932105
towns, planning of 78-9, 82, 105, 259
Toynbee, Arnold 59, 249
Tucker, Benjamin 94

Uexkiill, Jacob von 56, 255, 273
United Nations Organisation, the 90, 211
Conference on the Human Environment 211
Food and Agriculture Organisation 240
United States of America, the 23, 56, 71, 95, 100,
154, 215, 243
communes in 5-7, 93-5, 101-3
Green movement in 225-7
utilitarianism 24
utopianism 85-8, 135, 191, 213

vegetarianism 3, 100, 193, 196, 237
Vernadsky, Vladimir I, 62
Veysey, Lawrence 234
Virchow, Rudolf 50, 80
Virgin Mary, cult of the 27
vitalism 41, 47, 61, 79, 177
materialism and 53-5
vitamins 10
Voeikof, Alexander 75
Vogt, Karl 51-2
Vollmer, Antje 223
Voltaire, Francois-Marie Arouet de 195

Wagner, Adolf 74
Wagner, Richard 145-6
Wallace, Alfred 19, 95, 122
Ward, Barbara, 211, 273
Warming, Eugenius 40
Watkin, David 80
Waugh, Evelyn 138
Webb, Sidney 124
Weininger Otto 86
Wells, H.G. 19, 28, 53, 106, 114, 125, 150, 166,
230-1
Westlake, Ernest 106
Wheat Act, 1932, 124
White, Gilbert 23, 41, 134
White, Lynn, 24
White, T.H. 150, 266-7
Whitman, Charles 41, 94, 107, 238
whole food 112, 219, 248
Williamson Henry 96, 109, 126, 133-4, 136-7,
140-8, 150-3, 156-7, 160, 167, 173, 265-6,
268
Willikens, Warner 198
Woltmann, Ludwig 52
Woodcraft Folk 105-8, 111-12, 263
World Bank, the 90, 240
Worster, Donald 9, 23
Wrench, DrG.T. 120

Yates, Lamartine 67, 167
Yeats-Brown, Francis 26
Youth magazine 108, 113

Zola, Emile 153
Zweig, Stefan 150
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