Kabuliwala, by Rabindranath Tagore

Re: Kabuliwala, by Rabindranath Tagore

Postby admin » Tue Jul 02, 2019 6:02 am

Meaning of Dui Bigha Jomi, by Rabindranath Tagore
by PoetandPoem.com
Accessed: 7/1/19

Shudhu bighe-dui Dui Bigha Jomi
, chhilo mor bhui, ar shobi gechhe rine
Babu bolilen, ‘bujhechho upen? e jomi loibo kine.’
Kohilam ami, ‘tumi bhu-shhami, bhumir onto nai –
Cheye dekho mor achhe borojor moribar moto thai’
Shuni raja kohe, ‘bapu, jano to he, korechhi bagankhana,
Pele dui bighe prosthe o dighe shoman hoibe tana –
Ota dite hobe.’ Kohilam tobe bokkhe juria pani,
Shojol chokkhe, ‘korun rokkhe goriber bhitekhani.
Shopto-purush jethay manush she mati shonar bara,
Doinner daye bechibo she ma-ye emni lokkhi chhara!’
Akhi kori lal raja khonokal rohilo mounobhabe,
Kohilen sheshe kruro hashi heshe, ‘achchha, she dekha jabe.’

Pore mash-dere bhite mati chhere bahir hoinu pothe-
Korilo dikri shokoli bikri mittha denar khote.
E jogote hay shei beshi chay ache jar bhuri bhuri,
Rajar hosto kore shomosto kangaler dhon churi.
Mone bhabilam, more bhogoban rakhibe na moho-gorte,
Tai likhi dilo bishsho-nikhil du-bighar poriborte.
Shonnashi beshe firi deshe deshe hoia shadhur shishsho –
Koto herilam monohor dham, koto monorom drishsho.
Bhudhore shagore bijone nogore jokhon jekhane bhromi
Tobu nishidine bhulite pari ne shei dui bigha jomi.
Hate mathe bate eimoto kate bochhor ponero-sholo,
Ekdin sheshe firibare deshe boroi bashona holo.

Nomonomo nomo, shundori momo jononi bongobhumi,
Gongar tir snigdho shomir jibon jurale tumi.
Obarito math, gogon-lolat chume tobo pododhuli –
Chhaya shunibir shantir nir chhoto chhoto gramguli.
Pollob-ghono amro-kanon, rakhaler khela geho –
Stobdho otol dighi kalojol nishith-shitol-sneho.
Buk-bhora modhu bonger bodhu jol loye jay ghore –
Ma bolite pran kore anchan, chokhe ashe jol bhore.
Dui din pore ditio prohore probeshinu nij grame –
Kumorer bari dokkhine chhari, broth-tola kori bame,
Rakhi hat-khola nondir gola, mondir kori pachhe
trishatur sheshe pouchhenu eshe amar barir kachhe.

dhik dhik ore, shoto dhik tore, nilaj kulota bhumi,
jokhoni jahar tokhoni tahar – ei ki jononi tumi!
She ki mone hobe ekdin jobe chhile doridromata
Achol bhoria rakhite dhoria folful shak pata!
Aj kon rite kare bhulaite dhorechho bilash besh –
Pach-ronga pata onchole gatha, pushpe khochito kesh!
Ami tor lagi firechhi bibagi grihohara shukh-hin,
Tui hetha boshi ore rakkhoshi, hashia katash din!
Dhonir adore gorob na dhore! Etoi hoyechho bhinno –
Konokhane lesh nahi oboshesh she diner kono chinho!
Kollanmoyi chhile tumi oyi, khudha-hara shudha-rashi,
Joto hasho aj, joto koro shaj, chhile debi – hole dashi.

Bidirno-hiya firia firia chari dike cheye dekhi –
Prachirer kachhe ekhono je ache shei am-gachh eki.
Boshi tar tole noyoner jole shanto hoilo betha,
Eke eke mone udilo shorone balok-kaler kotha.
Shei mone pore, joishther jhore ratre nahiko ghum,
Oti bhore uthi taratari chhuti am kurabar dhuum.
Shei shumodhur stobdho dupur, pathshala polayon –
Bhabilam hay, ar ki kothay fire pabo she jibon.

Shohosha batash kheli gelo shash shakha dulaia pachhe,
Duti paka fol lobhilo bhutol amar koler kachhe.
Bhabilam mone, bujhi etokhone amare chinilo mata,
Sneher she dane bohu shommane barek thekanu matha.

Henokal hay jomdut-pray kotha hote elo mali,
Jhutibadha ure shoptom shure parite lagilo gali.
Kohilam tobe, ‘ami tou nirobe diyechhi amar shob –
duti fol tar kori odhikar, eto tari kolorob?’
Chinilo na more, nie gelo dhore, kadhe tuli lathigachh,
Babu chhip hate parishod-shathe dhorite chhilen machh –
Shuni biboron krodhe tini kon, ‘maria koribo khun’
Babu joto bole parishod dole bole tar shotogun.
Ami kohilam, ‘shudhu duti am, bhikh magi mohashoy!’
Babu kohe heshe, ‘beta shadhu-beshe paka chor otishoy!’
Ami shune hashi, akhi-jole bhashi, ei chhilo mor ghote –
Tumi moharaj shadhu hole aj, ami aj chor bote ||


Poem

The poem "Dui bigha jomi’’ is a masterpiece of Rabindranath Tagore’s creation. This poem has been taken from the novel ‘Chitra’ and has been first published in ‘Kotha o Kahini’. The poem gives a vivid description of a poor farmer of Bengal – Upen. The poet here describes the ‘zamindari pratha’ of Bengal and how the innocent and poor peasants were brutally tortured and abused by the cruel and rich zamidars (land lords). The poet himself being a landlord was quite acquainted with the brutal behavior of the other zamindars which he never accepted. It inspired him to write this very poem.

Background

Rabindranath generally had spent most of his time writing ,composing poems and stories etc. But in his early adulthood he was sent to Shilaidaho presently in Bangladesh to look after his family business as a zamindar there. The poet was very deeply hurt by seeing the ruthless attitude towards the mere poor peasants. During these days an incident moved him very much which provoked him to write this poem. As a zamindar he deeply saw and felt the poverty and the misery of the poor peasants working under him , on the other hand he saw the lavishness and the ruthless attitude of the zamindars towards the peasants. This created a deep wound in the poets heart which compelled him to compose a real incident in the form of a poem.

Structure of the poem

This is basically a story written in the form of a poem. The poet has constructed the poem so beautifully that a series of picturesque images comes alive before the reader’s eyes. The poet provides a beautiful scenery of a village in Bengal, creating a rural atmosphere in the poem which the reader can clearly visualize throughout the whole poem. The poet has also used many figure of speeches like simile, metaphore etc. that creates a mesmerizing imagery to the readers. This poem is a great example of a lyrical ballad as well which has a song like motive and a great tale to tell behind it.

Analysis

"Shudhu bighe-dui
chhilo mor bhui, ar shobi gechhe rine
Babu bolilen, ‘bujhechho upen? e jomi loibo kine.’
Kohilam ami, ‘tumi bhu-shhami, bhumir onto nai’’

The poet here speaks about the pitiful condition of the poor farmer who has lost everything due to huge amount of loan as well as poverty and possess no wealth except a little piece of land which he thinks is the only wealth he has. The landlord came to the poor farmer (Upen) and proposed him to sell that little land to the landlord, in behalf of money. Then the farmer (Upen) told that the landlord is the owner of huge property. He has endless lands.

"Cheye dekho mor achhe borojor moribar moto thai’
Shuni raja kohe, ‘bapu, jano to he, korechhi bagankhana,
Pele dui bighe prosthe o dighe shoman hoibe tana –
Ota dite hobe.’ Kohilam tobe bokkhe juria pani,"

The poor farmer (Upen) told the landlord that he possess nothing but only the land, which is the only wealth he has. The place of his rest of life and death is this. This is a protesting language according to the owner. So he told the farmer that he wants to built a beautiful garden there and ordered the farmer to give him his land so that the area of his garden becomes equal in length and breadth. After listening to the orders given by the landlord the farmer became completely disheartened. The emotions came in this poem in very sensual manner. The farmer protest but that doesn’t reach in cruel level. The logic and truth are present in these lines.

"Shojol chokkhe, ‘korun rokkhe goriber bhitekhani.
Shopto-purush jethay manush she mati shonar bara,
Doinner daye bechibo she ma-ye emni lokkhi chhara!’
Akhi kori lal raja khonokal rohilo mounobhabe,
Kohilen sheshe kruro hashi heshe, ‘achchha, she dekha jabe."

The poor farmer cannot ignore the orders given by the landlord and cried in front of the owner and told him that in this land he has lots of memories. Moreover his seven ancestors are born and brought up in this very land. This land is more valuable that the gold for him. In response to his pitiful condition the landlord totally ignored the whole thing and told him that he will think this later. The land is the mother of society. The poet uses the imagery of respected females through these lines.

"Pore mash-dere bhite mati chhere bahir hoinu pothe-
Korilo dikri shokoli bikri mittha denar khote.
E jogote hay shei beshi chay ache jar bhuri bhuri,
Rajar hosto kore shomosto kangaler dhon churi.
Mone bhabilam, more bhogoban rakhibe na moho-gorte,
Tai likhi dilo bishsho-nikhil du-bighar poriborte.
Shonnashi beshe firi deshe deshe hoia shadhur shishsho –
Koto herilam monohor dham, koto monorom drishsho.
Bhudhore shagore bijone nogore jokhon jekhane bhromi
Tobu nishidine bhulite pari ne shei dui bigha jomi.
Hate mathe bate eimoto kate bochhor ponero-sholo,
Ekdin sheshe firibare deshe boroi bashona holo."

The landlord completely ignored the pitiful condition of the farmer which compelled him to leave his own home. The landlord filed a false case in behalf of the farmer and did not give him a single penny and forced him to leave his own home. As the owner of that little land is less powerful so he bound to give his piece of heart. Then the poet gave prove of his philosophical thoughts. He says that the farmer thinks that, he gets the whole land of earth on behalf of his little land. The farmer travelled in many beautiful places for several years and became a hermit but he could not forget his own land. At last after a long period he thought to return back to his native. In this line the poet takes the poor man back to own land. Readers can connect this with the call of the poet for their people to return in their land.

"Nomonomo nomo, shundori momo jononi bongobhumi,
Gongar tir snigdho shomir jibon jurale tumi.
Obarito math, gogon-lolat chume tobo pododhuli –
Chhaya shunibir shantir nir chhoto chhoto gramguli.
Pollob-ghono amro-kanon, rakhaler khela geho –
Stobdho otol dighi kalojol nishith-shitol-sneho.
Buk-bhora modhu bonger bodhu jol loye jay ghore –
Ma bolite pran kore anchan, chokhe ashe jol bhore.
Dui din pore ditio prohore probeshinu nij grame –
Kumorer bari dokkhine chhari, broth-tola kori bame,
Rakhi hat-khola nondir gola, mondir kori pachhe
trishatur sheshe pouchhenu eshe amar barir kachhe."

These lines describe the beautiful natures of Bengal. Through the imageries of river, trees and fields the poet penned the attraction of Bengal. The little houses of villages, little jungles, mango-tress and others are attracting that poor man. The poor man wants to come back in his village but after a few days his dreams got shattered when he could not find out the same place he had left fifteen years back. And after the painful roam he reached at his own land. In this roaming the poor man remembers the past incidents and emotionally touched through those.

"dhik dhik ore, shoto dhik tore, nilaj kulota bhumi,
jokhoni jahar tokhoni tahar – ei ki jononi tumi!
She ki mone hobe ekdin jobe chhile doridromata
Achol bhoria rakhite dhoria folful shak pata!
Aj kon rite kare bhulaite dhorechho bilash besh –
Pach-ronga pata onchole gatha, pushpe khochito kesh!
Ami tor lagi firechhi bibagi grihohara shukh-hin,
Tui hetha boshi ore rakkhoshi, hashia katash din!
Dhonir adore gorob na dhore! Etoi hoyechho bhinno –
Konokhane lesh nahi oboshesh she diner kono chinho!
Kollanmoyi chhile tumi oyi, khudha-hara shudha-rashi,
Joto hasho aj, joto koro shaj, chhile debi – hole dashi."

The farmer became very shocked to see the complete change of the atmosphere of his poor mother land. His mind was filled with hatred when he thought that his poor condition and the present condition of his land. The poet showed the control ability of him. He wrote that the farmer make the land responsible for this betrayal. So the poor man expresses his anger on the land. The character became rich with such lines because generally people blamed the person but here this character blames his own property. This is a remarkable thinking of the poet.

"Bidirno-hiya firia firia chari dike cheye dekhi –
Prachirer kachhe ekhono je ache shei am-gachh eki.
Boshi tar tole noyoner jole shanto hoilo betha,
Eke eke mone udilo shorone balok-kaler kotha.
Shei mone pore, joishther jhore ratre nahiko ghum,
Oti bhore uthi taratari chhuti am kurabar dhuum.
Shei shumodhur stobdho dupur, pathshala polayon –
Bhabilam hay, ar ki kothay fire pabo she jibon.

Shohosha batash kheli gelo shash shakha dulaia pachhe,
Duti paka fol lobhilo bhutol amar koler kachhe.
Bhabilam mone, bujhi etokhone amare chinilo mata,
Sneher she dane bohu shommane barek thekanu matha."

The whole change of the place shocked the poor man and he started to find out any piece which he knows. After a long search he saw the old mango tree and became nostalgic and recollected all the golden memories of his childhood as well as youth days. He became tired and sat under that mango tree. Here he began to think about the past happenings regarding this tree and some convulsed into emotional mood. During this thinking a fruit fell in his lap, his mind was filled with joy and he thought that his tree has recognized him and gave him the blessing. The poet relates this incident with the adorable hands of mother. This poor man believes that the fruit is the part of his mother’s love.

"Henokal hay jomdut-pray kotha hote elo mali,
Jhutibadha ure shoptom shure parite lagilo gali.
Kohilam tobe, ‘ami tou nirobe diyechhi amar shob –
duti fol tar kori odhikar, eto tari kolorob?’
Chinilo na more, nie gelo dhore, kadhe tuli lathigachh,
Babu chhip hate parishod-shathe dhorite chhilen machh –
Shuni biboron krodhe tini kon, ‘maria koribo khun’
Babu joto bole parishod dole bole tar shotogun.
Ami kohilam, ‘shudhu duti am, bhikh magi mohashoy!’
Babu kohe heshe, ‘beta shadhu-beshe paka chor otishoy!’
Ami shune hashi, akhi-jole bhashi, ei chhilo mor ghote –
Tumi moharaj shadhu hole aj, ami aj chor bote ||"

In these lines the poet brought the villain of the story. The introduction started with the imagery of devil. The poet described this man with ponytail in hair and loud in voice. This is the gardener who came and took the farmer to the landlord for stealing the mango from the tree. The landlord accused him as a thief. The farmer heart was filled with sorrow. The poet proved the level of this poem in these lines. The farmer didn’t blame anybody. He just smiles on the fallacies of society. This is a remarkable thinking for a character.

Summary

Kabiguru Rabindranath Tagore has depicted the poor and miserable condition of the poor farmer and his love for his land in contrast to the brutal and inhuman behavior of the capitalists who used to treat the peasants as mere animals. The imagery of lady in many guises came at different part of the poem and enriched the dimensions. This poem is a tale and has lot to tell behind it.

Importance of the poem

The poet here gives a message to the readers that want is never satisfied. The more we get, the more we want and in the urge of want people. They do inhuman work. So the poet gives us the message that we should end up our greed and be satisfied with what we have. This must be the character of a true human. As the lady is the most respected representative of many culture as well as Bengali and Indian culture. Indians believe that the country has a mother. So the lady is very important in this culture. Apart from it, there are many examples where cultures destroyed due to decrease of respect of land and lady. So the poet took this two essential part of culture and two classes to express the reality of a time. The time has changed but the reality is still appears repeatedly in different guises.
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