THE ARYAN CHRIST: THE SECRET LIFE OF CARL JUNG

That's French for "the ancient system," as in the ancient system of feudal privileges and the exercise of autocratic power over the peasants. The ancien regime never goes away, like vampires and dinosaur bones they are always hidden in the earth, exercising a mysterious influence. It is not paranoia to believe that the elites scheme against the common man. Inform yourself about their schemes here.

Re: THE ARYAN CHRIST: THE SECRET LIFE OF CARL JUNG

Postby admin » Thu Jun 25, 2015 10:06 pm

Anything which tries to go beyond intuitive acceptance, and presses deeper into the nature and substance of the Whole, is no longer religion, and when it tries to get itself accepted as religion, inevitably sinks to empty mythology.
-- Friedrich Schleiermacher, "Lectures on Religion" (1799)


Acknowledgments

I wrote the bulk of this book between May and August 1996, but many institutions and individuals were helpful to me over the preceding years of my primary research on C. G. Jung and his movement.

I wish to thank Richard Wolfe of the Countway Library of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, for permission to reproduce photographs and quote from the following materials in the rare books and manuscripts collection: selections from the unpublished diaries and notebooks of Fanny Bowditch Katz, Constance Long, and Christiana Morgan; selections from the letters of Fanny Bowditch Katz, Maria Moltzer, James Jackson Putnam, and C. G. Jung in the Fanny Katz papers; and selections from the interviews in the C. G. Jung Biographical Archives.

Nina Murray generously gave me permission to read and quote from the restricted materials in the Henry A. Murray Papers in the Harvard University Archives.

Cynthia Knight, archivist at the McCormick-International Harvester Collection at the State Historical Society of Wisconsin in Madison, was extremely generous with her time and impressive in her knowledge of the materials in her archive. I wish to thank her and her institution for permission to quote from the papers of the McCormick family and for the 1917 family photographs of Edith Rockefeller McCormick, Harold Fowler McCormick, and their children.

The friendly staff of the Rockefeller Archive Center, Pocantico Hills, North Tarrytown, New York, kept their institution open just for me despite the problems created by one of the worst blizzards in the past century. In particular, Darwin Stapleton, the director of the center, and Tom Rosenbaum were extraordinarily generous to me and regularly made sure I had all the materials and soup that I needed. I thank that institution for permission to quote from the letters of the Rockefeller family.

The Kunsthaus Zurich in Switzerland kindly supplied me with photographs and provided me with permission to reproduce them here. Dr. Harald Szeemann graciously provided me with copies of every existing photo of Otto Gross, as well as photos of Hermann Hesse and Fidus. I could not use all of them here, but I will treasure my copies always.

Erika Krause and Olaf Breidbach of Ernst Haeckel Haus in Jena, Germany, have been extraordinarily kind to me over the course of my visits there to research the life of Ernst Haeckel. I thank Ernst Haeckel Haus for permission to reproduce the photos of Haeckel, Isadora Duncan, and Haeckel' s drawings of radiolaria that appear in this book.

Martin Green has been my steadfast friend and continual inspiration for this project. He graciously shared unpublished material relating to Otto Gross that will appear in a biography of Gross that he is now finishing.

Steven Borack prepared all photographic material for me, often under tight deadlines, and for this I am very grateful.

Kurt Almqvist kindly supplied me with his copy of Jung's disturbing 1913 letter to Poul Bjerre from the Kungliga Biblioteket in Stockholm. I wish to thank Lars Holm for informing me of the existence of this letter.

My literary agent for this book, John Brockman, is to be given credit for its provocative title. I wish to thank him and Katinka Matson, also of Brockman, Inc., for their considerable efforts in making this book possible.

This book would have been far worse without the careful attention of my editor at Random House, Ann Godoff, and my editor at Macmillan (U.K.), Georgina Morley. The designers at Random House and Macmillan did a wonderful job, and I thank them all. Timothy Mennel copyedited the manuscript and suffered through the Yogi Berra syndrome of "deja vu all over again."

Others who have clarified my thinking or inspired me in numerous ways during the course of this project are: Paul Bishop, Alan Elms, Frank Sulloway, Richard Webster, Frank McLynn, Steve Wasserstrom, Leonard George, Vivian Alie, David Ulansey, Katherine Ramsland, Nelson dos Reis, Lucia Maria Gonzales Barbosa, Leonardo Boff, Pam Donleavy, Elizabeth Knoll, Robert Richards, Ralph Raffio, Jim Pawlik, Wyatt Reed, and Stosh, Jerzy, and Ignaz.

Due to the international controversy provoked by my previous book, The Jung Cult: Origins of a Charismatic Movement (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994), I was privileged to lecture, discuss, and debate my research on Jung before audiences on three continents. I wish to thank the hosting institutions and audiences in the following cities: Stockholm, London, New York, Boston, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Vancouver, and, of course, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

A week-long cyberseminar on Jung that I was invited to host in January 1997 survived some rather vigorous attempts by Jungian analysts in America, Canada, and England to organize a boycott against the efforts of Professor John Hollwitz of Creighton University (the sponsor of the JUNG-PSYC mailing list). I wish to thank Professor Hollwitz for standing firm in the face of bullying by some prominent Jungian analysts and for not posting their bizarrely false (indeed libelous) comments about me on the Internet. The lengths to which some Jungian analysts will go to prevent me from openly presenting my views to "Jungians" not only speaks volumes about their fear of having their traditional authority challenged but also demonstrates their incredibly bad manners. The Jung cult is alive and well, I'm afraid. Grow up, guys.

My parents, Richard and Betty Noll, and my sisters, Linda, Lori, Barbara, and Beverley, all played a role in keeping me motivated to finish this project and get on with my fiction-writing career. Memories of my grandmother, Belle Marie (Tipinski) Adamczak, also sustained me.

This book is dedicated to Susan Naylor, who once again weathered my temporary bout with graphomania and who always reminds me of what is really important in life.

Richard Noll Cambridge, Massachusetts March 1997
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 29753
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: THE ARYAN CHRIST: THE SECRET LIFE OF CARL JUNG

Postby admin » Thu Jun 25, 2015 10:06 pm

PART 1 OF 2

Notes

Key to Abbreviations


Archives

CLM: Rare Books Department, Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts

HL: Houghton Library, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts

HUA: Harvard University Archives, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts

FBK: Fanny Bowditch Katz papers, CLM

JBA: C. G. Jung Biographical Archives, CLM

KB: Kungliga Biblioteket, Stockholm, Sweden

LC: Bollingen Archives, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

MIH: McCormick-International Harvester Corporation Collection, State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin

RAC: Rockefeller Archive Center, Pocantico Hills, North Tarrytown, New York

Texts
CW: The Collected Works of C. G. Jung, ed. Herbert Read, Michael Fordham, and Gerhard Adler; exec. ed., William McGuire; trans. R.F.C. Hull and others (Princeton: Princeton University Press). 20 vols. and supplements, 1953-1992.

ETG: Erinnerungen, Triiume, Gedanken von C. G. Jung, Aufgezeichnet und herausgegeben von Aniela Jaffe. Ninth special edition, 1995 (Solothurn and Dusseldorf: Walter-Verlag, 1971).

FJ: The Freud/Jung Letters, ed. William McGuire; trans. Ralph Manheim and R.F.C. Hull (London: Hogarth Press and Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1974).

GW: Gesammelte Werke von C. G. Jung, ed. Lilly Jung-Merkur, Marianne Niehus-Jung, Lena Hurwitz-Eisner, Franz RikIin, Elisabeth Ruf, and Leonie Zander (OIten and Freiburg im Breisgau, 1960-1983). 20 vols.

JC: Richard Noll, The Jung Cult: Origins of a Charismatic Movement, 2d printing, revised, with corrections (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994). See also the further revised and corrected paperback edition, with a new introduction (New York: The Free Press, 1997).

JL: C. G. Jung: Letters. Vol. 1: 1906-1950; Vol. 2: 1951-1961, selected and ed. Gerhard Adler in collaboration with Aniela Jaffe; trans. R.F.C. Hull and Jane A. Pratt (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973, 1975).

MDR: Memories, Dreams, Reflections, by C. G. Jung, recorded and ed. Aniela Jaffe, trans. Richard and Clara Winston (New York: Pantheon, 1962).

Introduction

1. Vladimir Nabokov, Speak, Memory: An Autobiography Revisited (New York: Vintage, 1967 [1951]), 19.

2. Photographs of Jung's fantastic art nouveau paintings of his visions appear in two large-format picture books: Aniela Jaffe, ed., C. G. Jung: Bild und Wort (Olten, Switz.: Walter-Verlag, 1977), published in the United States as C. G. Jung: Word and Image, ed. Aniela Jaffe, trans. Krishna Winston (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979), and Gerhard Wehr, An Illustrated Biography of C. G. Jung, trans. Michael Kohn (Boston: Shambhala, 1989). See additional material in Aniela Jaffe, "The Creative Phases in Jung's Life," Spring (1972): 162-90. The German edition of Jung's "autobiography" includes a closing statement added to the "Red Book" by Jung in the autumn of 1959 (ETG, 387).

3. Repeated written requests for access to the Honegger papers sent to Zurich to the late C. A. Meier (to whom Jung gave the papers), to Franz Jung (Jung's only son), and to Beat Glaus, the director of the C. G. Jung Archives at the Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Bibliothek in Zurich, all went unanswered -- a story familiar to almost every scholar who has attempted to conduct biographical research on Jung. For a brief summary of what might be available, see Beat Glaus, "Autographen und Manuskripten zur ETH- und zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte: Aus den wissenschaftshistorischen Sammlung der ETH-Bibliothek Zurich," Gesnerus 39 (1982): 4437-42. My own unsuccessful attempts to gain access to the Honegger papers are summarized in the following newspaper articles: Jessica Marshall, "In the Name of the Father," Lingua Franca, May/June 1995, 15; Dinitia Smith, "Scholar Who Says Jung Lied Is at War with Descendants," The New York Times, June 3, 1995, AI, A9; NY Times Service, "Scholar Denied Access to Jung Papers: Did Psychoanalyst Fake Key Data?" Chicago Tribune, June 4, 1995; Ben Macintyre, "Harvard Scholar Says Jung Was Fraud," The Times (London), June 5, 1995, overseas news section; Hella Boschmann, "'Lugner des Jahrhunderts' US-Forscher entlarvt C. G. Jung als Hilscher seiner eigenen Theorie," Die Welt (Hamburg), June 8, 1995; Domink Wichmann, "Dreiste Mogelpackung," Suddeutsche Zeitung (Munich), Aug. 26/27, 1995, V2/34; Martin Stingelin, "Mithras auf der Couch -- Geheimnis der Erde: Das Unbewusste als antikes Mysterium," Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, July 19, 1995, N5; Scott Heller, "Flare-up over Jung: Dispute Involves an Author, a University Press, and a Psychoanalyst's Heirs," Chronicle of Higher Education, June 16, 1995, 10E, and my letter in response, "Controversy over Jung," Chronicle of Higher Education, Sept. 15, 1995, B6; Jose Luiz Silva, "Umareligiao moderna: Psicologo ataca ideia de inconsciente coletivo em 'O Culto de Jung,'" Folha de Sao Paulo (Sao Paulo, Brazil), May 26, 1996; and Claudio Figueiredo, "A velha nova era de Carl Gustav Jung," Jornal de Brasil (Rio de Janeiro), May 28, 1996. On August 7,8,9, 11, 14, and 15, 1995, the Svensko. Dagbladet (Stockholm) published a wide-ranging analysis and discussion of my work in a series titled "Jungkulten." After I gave a series of lectures in Stockholm in October 1995, the following articles appeared in the Svenska Dagbladet: Peter Ostman, "Jungkult har blivit religion," Oct. 24, 1995; Kay Glans, "Under Strecket: Sokandet efter C G Jung i historien," Nov. 10, 1995; and Kay Glans, "'Jungs teori en seglivad myt:' Den amerikanske idenhistorikern Richard Noll till frontalangrepp motjungianismen," Nov. 11, 1995.

4. Alan Elms, "The Auntification of C. G. Jung," chap. 4 of his Uncovering Lives: The Uneasy Alliance of Biography and Psychology (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994),51-70. There is a sad anecdote in this chapter concerning Aniela Jaffe, who had faithfully -- and often selflessly -- served Jung and his memory for decades. Although Jaffe had essentially written most of MDR, when Elms visited her in 1991 in her Zurich apartment, she told him that the Jung family "had repeatedly tried to deprive her of the title-page credit and the royalties she deserved for co-authoring the autobiography" (54).

5. Eugen Bohler interview, May 1970, JBA, 5.

6. Although my JC was an intellectual history written from the perspectives of the history of science and the history of medicine, it aroused the attention of people interested in Jung from a religious perspective and brought a response from the conservative Roman Catholic community in the United States. See the following articles in The Wanderer (a national Catholic weekly), all by Paul Likoudis: "The Jung Cult ... The Church's Greatest Threat Since Julian the Apostate," Dec. 29, 1994, 1,6; "Jung Replaces Jesus in Catholic Spirituality," Jan. 5, 1995, 1, 6; "Jungians Believe Traditional Catholics Impede 'Renewal,' " Jan. 5, 1995, 7.

7. R.F.C. Hull interview, May 25,1971, JBA, 16-18.

1: The Inner Fatherland

1. On the origins of Philemon in Gnostic and Mithraic symbolism, see Richard Noll, "Jung the Leontocephalus," Spring 53 (1993): 38-39.

2. On Philemon, see the chapter "Confrontation with the Unconscious," in MDR. All quotations here are from the English translation of MDR.

3. Ibid., 232.

4. Ibid., 35.

5. Ibid., 233.

6. Eyewitness accounts of the 1817 Wartburgfest can be found in Heinrich Ferdinand Massmann, Kurze und Wahrhaftige Beschreibung des grossen Burschenfestes auf der Wartburg bei Eisenach (n.p., 1817), and in Beschreibung des Festes auf der Wartburg, Ein Sendschreiben an die gutgesinnten (n.p., 1818). See also the contextua1ization in George Mosse, The Nationalization of the Masses: Political Symbolism and Mass Movements in Germany from the Napoleonic Wars through the Third Reich (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1975), as well as the special volume of papers on the Wartburg festival in Klaus Malettke, ed., Darstellungen und Quellen zur Geschichte der deutschen Einheitsbewegung im neunzehnten und zwanzigsten Jahrhundert, vol. 14, 175 Jahre Wartburgfest 18. Oktober 1817-18. Oktober 1992. Studien zur politischen Bedeutung und zum Zeithintergrund der Wartburgfeier (Heidelberg, 1992).

7. On the student societies, see loachim Bauer, "Studentische Verbindungen zwischen Revolution und Restauration. Von den Landsmannschaften zur Burschenschaft," in Friedrich Stark, ed., Evolution des Geistes: Jena um 1800. Natur und Kunst, Philosophie und Wissenschaft im Spannungsfeld der Geschichte (Stuttgart: Kelin-Cotta, 1994).

8. Heinrich Heine, Religion and Philosophy in Germany: A Fragment, trans. John Snodgrass (London: Trubner, 1882).

9. This drawing by Ernst Fries, a landscape painter from Heidelberg, is in a private collection. A reproduction appears in Huldrych M. Koelbing, "Die Berufung Karl Gustav Jungs (1794-1864) nach Basel und ihre Vorgeschichte," Gesnerus 34 (1977): 321.

10. Schoenbrun's remarks and those by him that follow are from Friedrich Rintelen, "Zur Personlichkeit Karl Gustav Jungs," Gesnerus 39 (1982): 237.

11. On Arndt, see Alfred Pundt, Arndt and the Nationalist Awakening in Germany (New York: Columbia University Press, 1935).

12. Carl Jung mentions his grandfather's baptismal certificate and black, red, and gold ribbon in a letter to Huldrych M. Koelbing dated October 27, 1954. See Koelbing, "Die Berufung Karl Gustav Jungs," 328.

13. A limited edition of selections from Karl Gustav's diary from 1849 to 1864 was published by his son Ernst Jung (Aus dem Tagebiichern meines Vaters [Basel, 1910]). References to Karl's earlier life experiences abound, but the story of his religious conversion and political activism is incomplete. Unlike the testimonies of the Pietists, the diary contains references to God on almost every page, yet Karl Jung does not appear to have been a particularly pious or introspective man. "He was," Friedrich Rintelen concluded, "too self-centered, too extraverted" ("Karl Gustav Jungs," 241).

14. On this complex religious movement I am indebted to the following: Gerhard Kaiser, Pietismus und Patriotismus im Literarischen Deutschland: Ein Beitrag zum Problem der Saekularisation (Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner Verlag, 1961), from which I borrowed the chapter title "Das innere Vaterland"; and Koppel Pinson, Pietism as a Factor in the Rise of German Nationalism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1934). A useful summary is also found in Liah Greenfeld, Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993), 314-22. According to Greenfeld, the German Romantic movement is "a direct heir of Pietism" that "secularized central Pietist notions" (322).

15. On the psychological techniques of introversion or introspection in Pietist practice, see Kaiser, Pietismus, 11,47; and Pinson, Pietism, 57, citing Schleiermacher's Monologen: "As often as I turn my gaze inward upon my inmost self, I am at once within the domain of eternity. I behold the spirit's action which no one can change and no time can destroy but which itself creates both world and time."

16. Pinson, Pietism, 52.

17. Nicholas Boyle, Goethe: The Poet and the Age, vol. 1, The Poetry of Desire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991), 12-13.

18. See Kaiser, Pietismus, 40-57; also Jost Hermand, Old Dreams of a New Reich: Volkish Utopias and National Socialism, trans. Paul Levesque (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992), 7, originally published as Der alte Traum von neuen Reich: Volkische Utopien und Nationalsozialismus (Frankfurt am Main: Athenaeum, 1988).

19. Cited in Pundt, Arndt, 166.

20. For a complete list of the books in Jung's library that survived with him until the end of his life (some doubtless disappeared over the years), see C. G. Jung Bibliothek: Katalog (Kusnacht-Zurich, 1967).

21. For a well-illustrated introduction to the man and his science career, see Douglas Botting, Humboldt and the Cosmos (New York: Harper and Row, 1973).

22. "Ich bin kein Deutscher meht." Cited in Rintelen, "Karl Gustav Jungs," 240.

23. A brief but useful history of Freemasonry in Switzerland published during Karl Jung's lifetime is Carl Ludwig von Haller, Freymaurerey und ihr Einfluss in der Schweitz (Schaffhausen: Hurter'sche Buchhandlung, 1840).

24. The fantasy of the pristine theologians (prisci theologi) is an essential element of all modem occultism. For the origins and Renaissance revival of this idea, see D. P. Walker, The Ancient Theology: Studies in Christian Platonism from the Fifteenth to the Eighteenth Century (London: Duckworth, 1972).

25. The best work on Rosicrucianism thus far remains Frances Yates, The Rosicrucian Enlightenment (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1972).

26. Cited in Boyle, Goethe: The Poet and the Age, 1:274.

27. Ibid.

28. My reference text for Die Geheimnisse: Ein Fragment (1816) is J. W. von Goethe, Goethes Werke, vol. 2, Gedichte und Epen, 7th ed., with textual criticism and notes by Erich Trunz (Hamburg: Christian Weger Verlag, 1965), 271-81. The translations are my own. This poem has been an inspiration for occultist organizations and Volkish German secret societies.

29. The Rosicrucian ritual room or chapel was emulated at the Swiss cult site where Luc Jouret's Solar Temple members were found dead in October 1994. See Tom Post, "Suicide Cult," Newsweek, international edition, Oct. 17, 1994. On the similarities in symbolism and psychological dynamics between this group and Jung's inner circle of disciples, see Richard Noll, "The Rose, the Cross, and the Analyst," The New York Times, Oct. 15, 1994, A19.

30. For the complete text, see JC, 250-54.

31. C. G. Jung, Analytical Psychology: Notes of the Seminar Given in 1925, ed. William McGuire (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989), 37, 82.

32. "Es stroemte wie ein Wunderbalsam in meine Seele" MDR, 60.

33. Letter to Max Rychner, Feb. 28, 1932, JL 1:89.

34. MDR, 60.

35. Ibid., 319.

36. Transcripts of unpublished interviews with Jung by Aniela Kaffe are in the Bollingen Foundation Archives at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., but quoting directly from them is not permitted.

37. MDR, 317.

38. This claim is made in several interviews in JBA.

2: Summoning the Spirits

1. This chapter of Jung's life remains largely uncharted due to a lack of access to primary-source material (namely, Jung's notes of the spiritualist seances and his own diaries). I have relied on the following secondary sources: Stephanie Zumstein-Preiswerk, C. G. Jungs Medium: Die Geschichte der Helly Preiswerk (Munich: Kindler Verlag, 1975); although submitted to Jung himself for correction during his lifetime, the discussion of Jung's spiritualist experiments in Henri Ellenberger, The Discovery of the Unconscious (New York: Basic Books, 1970), is historically inaccurate and is corrected by Ellenberger in his 1991 paper on the subject: "C. G. Jung and the Story of Helene Preiswerk: A Critical Study with New Documents [1991]," in Mark Micale, ed., Beyond the Unconscious: Essays of Henri F. Ellenberger in the History of Psychiatry (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993); lames Hillman, "Some Early Background to Jung's Ideas: Notes on C. G. Jungs Medium by Stephanie Zumstein-Preiswerk," Spring (1976): 123-36; Aniela laffe, "Parapsychology: Experience and Theory," in From the Life and Work of C. G. Jung, trans. R.F.C. Hull (New York: Harper Colophon, 1971), first published as Aus Leben und Werkstatt von C. G. Jung: Parapsychologie, Alchemie, Nationalsozialismus, Erinnerungen aus den letzten Jahren (Zurich: Rascher and Cie, 1968); and F. X. Charet, Spiritualism and the Foundations of C. G. Jung's Psychology (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993). Jung's 1902 doctoral dissertation -- his first publication -- is the most extensive public statement by Jung concerning his spiritualist experiments, but, as Ellenberger has pointed out, it conflicts markedly with the account given by Zumstein- Preiswerk: "On the Psychology and Pathology of So-Called Occult Phenomena," CW 1. It was originally published as C. G. Jung, Zur Psychologie und Pathologie sogennanter occulter Phiinomene. Eine psychiatrische Studie (Leipzig: Oswald Mutze, 1902). The first English translation, by M. D. Eder, appears in Constance Long, ed., Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology (New York: Moffat, Yard; London: Bailliere, Tindall and Cox, 1916). Jung also discusses his experience with Helene Preiswerk at the outset of a seminar given in English in 1925: C. G. Jung, Analytical Psychology: Notes of the Seminar Given in 1925, ed. William McGuire (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989). The story Jung tells in MDR (106-7) is obviously false and serves only to deflect any public perception that he had initiated or was deeply involved in seances.

2. Ellenberger, Discovery, 687.

3. C. G. Jung, "The Swiss Line in the European Spectrum [1928]," in CW 10. The original is C. G. Jung, "Die Bedeutung der schweitzerischen Linie im Spektrum Europas," Neue Schweitzer Rundschau (Zurich) 34 (1928): 1-11,469-79.

4. See James Mearns, "Preiswerk, Samuel," in J. Julian, ed., A Dictionary of Hymology. (1907, reprint, New York: Dover, 1957),2: 907-8; B. Pick, "Preiswerk, Samuel, Dr.," in John McClintock and James Strong, eds., Cyclopedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature. (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1879), 8: 505. On the history of the Preiswerk family through the centuries, including fifty genealogical tables, see Ernst Schopf-Preiswerk, Die Basler Familie Preiswerk (Basel: Verlag Friedrich Reinhard, 1952), which was updated with supplements in 1961 and 1979.

5. Aniela Jaffe, "Parapsychology," 2.

6. Zumstein-Preiswerk, C. G. Jungs Medium, 53. The following translations of passages concerning the earliest seances are all from this work, 53-58. All translations from this book are my own.

7. On these changes, see ibid., 59-65.

8. For an introduction to many of these figures, see Alan Gauld, The Founders of Psychical Research (New York: Schocken, 1968).

9. Johann C. F. Zoellner, Transcendental Physics: An Account of Experimental Investigations, From the Scientific Treatises, trans. Charles Carlton Massey (London: W. H. Harrison, 1880).

10. Immanuel Kant, Dreams of a Spirit-Seer and Other Related Writings, trans. John Manolesco (New York: Vantage, 1969), originally published in German in 1766.

11. Arthur Schopenhauer, "Essay on Spirit-Seeing and Everything Connected Therewith [1851]," in Parega and Paralipomena: Short Philosophical Essays, trans. E.F.J. Payne (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1974), 1:282.

12. Ibid., 287.

13. Johann Heinrich Jung-Stilling, Theorie der Geister-Kunde (Nuremberg: Raw, 1808). This book appeared in English as Theory of Pneumatology, trans. Samuel Jackson (London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Breen and Longman, 1834).

14. Jung-Stilling, Theory of Pneumatology, 370-87.

15. Ibid., 371.

16. Ibid., 373.

17. Ibid., 225.

18. Justinius Kerner, Die Seherin von Prevorst, Eroffnungen aber das innere Leben des Menschen und aber das hereinragen einer Geisterwelt in die unsere, pt. 2 (Stuttgart: J. G. Cotta' scher, 1829). The first English edition is The Seeress of Prevorst; being revelations concerning the inner life of Man, and the interdiffusion of a world of spirits in the one we inhabit, trans. Mrs. Crowe (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1845).

19. Kerner, Seeress, 49.

20. Ibid., 20.

21. Ibid., 24.

22. Ibid., 26.

23. Ibid., 28.

24. Ibid., 119.

25. The publication later that year of Die Seherin von Prevorst aroused such interest that in 1831 Kerner founded a journal, Blatter von Prevorst, to publish similar reports of spiritualist and paranormal phenomena from around Europe. It was, perhaps, the first journal devoted specifically to parapsychology. Hermann Hesse compiled an anthology of selections from this early publication, published as Blatter aus Prevorst: Eine Auswahl von Berichten aber Magnetismus, Hellsehen, Geistererscheinungen aus dem Kreise lustinius Kerners und seiner Freunde (Berlin: S. Fischer Verlag, 1926).

26. Zumstein-Preiswerk, C. G. Jungs Medium, 74.

27. C. G. Jung, The Zofingia Lectures, CW A, trans. Jan van Heurck (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983). Jung delivered five lectures to his fraternity between November 1896 and January 1899.

28. Camille FIammarion, Astronomie populaire (Paris: Marpon and FIammarion, 1881).

29. MDR, 104-6.

30. Jung, Analytical Psychology, 5-6.

31. On Jung' s early adoption of "vitalism" and his merger of this concept with speculations on the independence of the human soul, see C. G. Jung, "Some Thoughts on Psychology [May 1897]," in The Zofingia Lectures, 31, 38-40.

32. Zumstein-Preiswerk, C. G. Jungs Medium, 100.

33. I strongly disagree here with Henri Ellenberger, who attributes Jung's later, more disingenuous public attitudes to the young medical student when he claims that Jung "understood fully that he was not dealing with the voice of the disembodied in these seances, but rather with projections of unconscious material, that is, with what he called 'psychological realities'" in Micale, Beyond the Unconscious, 304.

3: Hidden Memories

1. For a magical evocation of the Munich that Jung saw in 1900, see the short story by Thomas Mann, "Gladius Dei" (1902), of which there are many German editions. The translation here is my own. Another version appears in Thomas Mann, Stories of Three Decades, trans. H. T. Lowe-Porter (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1936). On Munich cultural life at the turn of the century, see also Thomas E. Willey, "Thomas Mann's Munich," in Gerald Chapple and Hans Schulte, eds., The Turn of the Century: German Literature and Art 1890-1915 (Bonn: Bouvier, 1981). On the relationship between Mann and Jung and on the influence of Jungian concepts on Mann, including a bibliography of the secondary literature, see Paul Bishop, " 'Literarische Beziehungen haben nie bestanden?' Thomas Mann and C. G. Jung," Oxford German Studies 23 (1994): 124-72.

2. Extensive information about Jung's foreign travels can be found in "Appendix IX. Travels" in the unpublished English typescript of MDR at CLM. Neither ETG nor the published version of MDR contain much of this information.

3. On the bohemian subculture and its haunts in Munich, see Dirk Heisserer, Wo die Geister wandern: Eine Topographie der Schwabinger Boheme um 1900 (Munich: Eugen Diederichs Verlag, 1993); and Hermann Wilhelm, Die Munchner Boheme: Von der Jahrhundertswende bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg (Munich: Buchendorfer Verlag, 1993).

4. MDR, 111.

5. Information on Jung's reading of Nietzsche can be found in Paul Bishop, "Jung's Annotation of Nietzsche's Works: An Analysis," Nietzsche-Studien: 1nternationales Jahrbuchfiir die Nietzsche-Forschung, vol. 24 (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1995).

6. On the Munich Secession, see Ekkehard Mai, "Akademie, Sezession und Avantgarde -- Munchen urn 1900," in Thomas Zacharias, ed., Die Miinchener Kunstakademie zwischen Aujklarung und Romantik: Ein Beitrag zur Kunsttheorie und Kunstpolitik unter Max I. Joseph, Miscellanea Bavarica Monacensia, no. 123, eds. Karl Bosl and Richard Bauer (Munich: Stadtarchiv Munchen, 1984); and Maria Makela, The Munich Secession: Art and Artists in Turn-of-the-Century Munich (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990).

7. See Edwin Becker, Franz von Stuck, 1863-1928: Eros and Pathos (Amsterdam: Van Gogh Museum, 1995).

8. On the fin-de-siecle reinterpretation of religious imagery, see Friedrich Gross, Jesus, Luther, und der Papst im Bilderkampf 1871 bis 1918, Zur Malereigeschichte der Kaiserzeit (Marburg, 1989).

9. "Sometimes the snake creeps into the mouth, sometimes it bites the breast like Cleopatra's legendary asp, sometimes it comes in the role of the paradisical snake, or in the variations of Franz Stuck, whose pictures of snakes bear the significant titles 'Vice,' 'Sin,' 'Lust.' The mixture of lust and anxiety is expressed incomparably in the very atmosphere of these pictures, and far more brutally, indeed, than in Marike's charming poem [The Maiden's First Love Song]." C. G. Jung, Psychology of the Unconscious: A Study of the Transformations and Symbolisms of the Libido, trans. Beatrice M. Hinkle (New York: Moffat, Yard, 1916),10-11.

10. See MDR, 112-49.

11. Eugen Bleuler, "Die Prognose der Dementia Praecox-Schizophreniengruppe," Allegemeine Zeitschrift fur Psychiatrie 65 (1908): 436-64; Eugen Bleuler, Dementia Praecox oder die Gruppe der Schizophrenien (Leipzig: Franz Deuticke, 1911). A translation of Bleuler's 1908 article can be found in J. Cutting and M. Shepherd, eds., The Clinical Roots of the Schizophrenia Concept: Translations of Seminal European Contributions on Schizophrenia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987).

12. MDR, 112.

13. Richard W. Semon, Die Mneme als erhaltendes Prinzip im Wechsel des organischen Geschehens (Leipzig: Engelmann, 1904); Richard W. Semon, Die mnemischen Empfindungen (Leipzig: Englemann, 1909). On Semon's life and work, see the following: Daniel Schachter, Stranger Behind the Engram (Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1982); and Daniel Schachter, J. E. Eich, and E. Tulving, "Richard Semon's Theory of Memory," Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 17 (1978): 721-43.

14. Ewald Hering, "Uber das Gediichtniss als eine allgemeine Function der organisirten Materie," Almanach der kaiserlicheneten Akademie der Wissenschaften (Vienna) 20 (1870): 253-78.

15. See CW 2. See also William McGuire, "Jung's Complex Reactions (1907): Word Association Experiments Performed by Binswanger," Spring (1984): 1-34. For the intellectual background to the word-association studies, see Marielene Putscher, "Storung der Erinnerung: Die Assoziation in Neurologie (S. Freud) und Psychiatrie (c. G. Jung 1904/05)," in Gunter Mann and Rolf Winau, eds., Medizin, Naturwissenschaft, Technik und das Zweite Kaiserreich. Studien zur Medizingeschichte des 19. Jahrhunderts, vol. 8 (Gottingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 1977).

16. For Bleuler's formal approval of Jung, see H. R. Wilhelm, "Carl Gustav Jung: Promotionsakten. Dokumente aus dem Staatsarchiv des Kantons Zurich," Sudhoffs Archiv zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 79 (1995), 231-33. For the history of the French dissociationist school of psychiatry, see Henri Ellenberger, The Discovery of the Unconscious (New York: Basic Books, 1970).

17. C. G. Jung, "On the Psychology and Pathology of So-Called Occult Phenomena [1902)," trans. M. D. Eder, in Constance Long, ed., Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology (New York: Moffat, Yard; London: Bailliere, Tindall and Cox, 1916), 69. I have consulted the copy of this work once owned by Johann Katz, a participant in Jung's circle in Zurich during the First World War.

18.lbid., 69-70.

19. Theodore Flournoy, Des Indes a la Planete Mars: Etude sur un cas de somnambulisme avec glossolalie (Paris, 1899). The first English translation, abridged, was From India to the Planet Mars: A Study of a Case of Somnambulism with Glossolalia, trans. Daniel Vermilye (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1900). An anonymously translated German edition appeared in 1914.

20. See Robert Baker, Hidden Memories: Voices and Visions from Within (Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1992); Elizabeth Loftus and Katherine Ketcham, The Myth of Repressed Memory: False Memories and Allegations of Sexual Abuse (New York: St. Martin's, 1994); and Frederick Crews et al., The Memory Wars: Freud's Legacy in Dispute (New York: NYREV, 1995). Contemporary research on cryptomnesia by cognitive scientists is conducted as part of the study of the larger phenomenon of implicit memory. See Daniel Schacter, "Implicit Memory: History and Current Status," Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition 13 (1987): 501-18; Daniel Schacter, "Memory Distortion: History and Current Status," in D. L. Schacter, J. T. Coyle, C. D. Fischbach, M. M. Mesulam, and L. E. Sullivan, eds., Memory Distortion: How Minds, Brains and Societies Reconstruct the Past (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995); and Daniel Schacter, Searching for Memory: The Brain, the Mind, and the Past (New York: Basic Books, 1996).

21. On this issue, see Richard Noll, "Max Nordau's Degeneration, C. G. Jung's Taint," Spring 55 (1995): 67-79.

22. Henri Ellenberger reports the existence of three letters from Jung to Helly written between November 1902 and January 1903 that were discovered by Stephanie Zumstein-Preiswerk, although their present location is not indicated. See Henri Ellenberger, "C. G. Jung and the Story of Helene Preiswerk: A Critical Study with New Documents [1991]," in Mark Micale, ed., Beyond the Unconscious: Essays of Henri F. Ellenberger in the History of Psychiatry (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993),303.

23. Jung, "Cryptomnesia [1905]," CW 1.

24. Jung and Rhine met only once, in New York City in October 1937. See William Sloane, "Jung and Rhine: A Letter by William Sloane," in Quadrant 8 (Winter 1975): 73-78. On Rhine, see Denis Brian, The Enchanted Voyager: The Life of J. B. Rhine (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1982). On the history of psychical research and parapsychology, see Seymour Mauskopf and Michael McVaugh, The Elusive Science: Origins of Experimental Psychical Research (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980).

25. Jung, "Cryptomnesia."

4: Religion Can Only Be Replaced by Religion

1. MDR, 146-47.

2. For the text of this letter and a discussion, see Bernard Minder, "Jung an Freud 1905: Ein Bericht uber Sabina Spielrein," Gesnerus 50 (1993): 113-20.

3. On the relationship of Nietzsche and Wagner, and on nineteenth-century conceptions of genius, see Carl Pletsch, Young Nietzsche: Becoming a Genius (New York: The Free Press, 1991).

4. MDR, 112-13.

5. Sander Gilman, "Sexology, Psychoanalysis and Degeneration: From a Theory of Race to a Race of Theory," in J. Edward Chamberlin and Sander Gilman, eds., Degeneration: The Dark Side of Progress (New York: Columbia University Press, 1985), 89.

6. Emil Kraepelin, Psychiatrie: Ein Lehrbuch fur Studierende und Arzte (Leipzig: Verlag von Johann Ambrosius Barth, 1896).

7. Josef Breuer and Sigmund Freud, Studien uber Hysterie (Leipzig and Vienna: Franz Deuticke, 1895). The English translation by James Strachey appears as Studies on Hysteria (New York: Basic Books, 1982).

8. This was published in an English translation by William Alanson White as Wish-Fulfillment and Symbolism in Fairy Tales, Nervous and Mental Disease Monograph Series, no. 21 (New York: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1915).

9. John B. Watson, "Content of a Course in Psychology for Medical Students," Journal of the American Medical Association (March 30, 1912), 916.

10. Robert S. Woodworth, letter to the editor, The Nation 103 (1916): 396.

11. Knight Dunlap, Mysticism, Freudianism, and Scientific Psychology (St. Louis: Mosby, 1920), 8.

12. See my JC.

13. Philip Rieff, The Triumph of the Therapeutic: Uses of Faith after Freud (New York: Harper and Row, 1966); Richard Webster, Why Freud Was Wrong: Sin, Science, and Psychoanalysis (New York: Basic Books, 1995).

14. Cited in Webster, Why Freud, 362.

15. Ibid., 355.

16. Ibid., 362-63.

17. Ibid., 355.

18. Georg Weisz, "Scientists and Sectarians: The Case of Psychoanalysis," Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 11 (1975): 350-64.

19. Frank Sulloway, "Reassessing Freud's Case Histories: The Social Construction of Psychoanalysis," Isis 82 (1991): 245-75.

20. Rodney Stark and William Sims Bainbridge, The Future of Religion: Secularization, Revival and Cult Formation (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1985), 185. The definition of what constitutes a "cult" varies slightly depending on the source. See, for example, William Sims Bainbridge and Rodney Stark, "Cult Formation: Three Compatible Models," Sociological Analysis 40 (1979): 283-95; Marc Galanter, Cults: Faith, Healing and Coercion (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989); and Bryan Wilson, The Social Dimensions of Sectarianism: Sects and New Religious Movements in Contemporary Society (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990). On the related issue of how humans can be deliberately influenced by others (and why intelligence and education make little difference), see Robert Cialdini, Influence: Science and Practice, 3d ed. (New York: HarperCollins College Publishers, 1993).

21. Stark and Bainbridge, Future of Religion, 419.

22. FJ, 95.

23. John Kerr, A Most Dangerous Method: The Story of Jung, Freud, and Sabina Spielrein (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993), 171.

24. Jolande Jacobi interview, December 1969, JBA, 42-43.

25. Eva Brabant, Ernst Falzeder, and Patricia Giampieri-Deutsch, eds., The Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Sandor Ferenczi, vol. 1, 1908-1914, trans. Peter T. Hoffer (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993), 434.

26. Jolande Jacobi interview, JBA, 44-45.

27. Ibid., 45-46.

28. John Gedo, "Magna Est Vis Veritas Tua et Pravalebit," The Annual of Psychoanalysis, vol. 7 (New York: International Universities Press, 1979); Peter Homans, Jung in Context: Modernity and the Making of a Psychology (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1979).

29. Kerr, A Most Dangerous Method, 296-318.

30. F. X. Charet, Spiritualism and the Foundations of C. G. Jung's Psychology (Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, 1993), 171-230.

31. FJ, 294.

32. Ibid., 295.

33. Ibid., 296.

34. Ibid., 345.

5: Polygamy

1. FJ, 184.

2. The best single source on Gross is Michael Raub, Opposition und Anpassung: Eine individualpsychologische Interpretation von Leben und Werk des friihen Psychoanalytikers Otto Gross (Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 1994). In English the best source is Jennifer Michaels, Anarchy and Eros: Otto Gross' Impact on German Expressionist Writers (New York: Peter Lang, 1983). Martin Green is almost single-handedly responsible for resurrecting Otto Gross from obscurity with his books The von Richthofen Sisters: The Triumphant and the Tragic Modes of Love (New York: Basic Books, 1974) and Mountain of Truth: The Counterculture Begins, Ascona 1900-1920 (Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 1986). Green is now completing the first full biography of Gross. On Gross's treatment by Jung and for his place in the psychoanalytic movement, see Emanuel Hurwitz, Otto Gross: "Paradies" -- Sucher zwischen Freud und Jung (Zurich: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1979). New information on Gross also appears in Janet Byrne, A Genius for Living: The Life of Frieda Lawrence (New York: HarperCollins, 1995).

3. FJ, 126. On Gross's early psychiatric publications, see Michael Turnheim, "Otto Gross und die deutsche Psychiatrie," in his Freud und der Rest. Aufstitze zur Geschichte der Psychoanalyse (Vienna: Verlag Turia and Kant, 1994).

4. Ernest Jones, Free Associations: Memories of a Psychoanalyst (New York: Basic Books, 1959), 173-74.

5. For Gross's attitude toward degenerates and how to get rid of them (a colony in German Southwest Africa was one solution), see Hurwitz, Otto Gross, 35-48. Many of Gross's statements on degeneration appeared in the Archiv fur Kriminalanthropologie und Kriminalistik, which he founded, edited, and published in Leipzig from 1899 until his death in 1915. Gross devoted an entire chapter to Gypsies in his textbook, Handbuch fur Untersuchungsrichter (Munich, 1893). In the third edition of this book (1898) he coined the term "criminalistics." For his handling of a case of suspected ritual murder of Christians by Jews, see Arthur Nussbaum, "The 'Ritual Murder' Trial of Polna," Historia Judaica 9 (1950): 57-74.

6. Waldemar Kampffert, "The Crime-Master and How He Works," Mc- Clure's 43 (June 1914): 99-111, 144. For further biographical information, see Erich Doehring, "Hans Gross," Neue Deutsche Biographie 7 (1966): 139-41; and Roland Grassberger, "Hans Gross," Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science 47 (1956-7): 397-405.

7. Hurwitz, Otto Gross, 45.

8. Otto Gross, Compendium der Pharmaco-therapie /iir Polykliniker und junge Arzte (Leipzig, 1901); Otto Gross, "Zur Phyllogenese der Ethik," Archiv fur Kriminalanthropologie und Kriminalistik 9 (1902): 100-103.

9. Hurwitz, Otto Gross, 137.

10. Ibid.

11. Otto Gross, Das Freud'sche Ideogenitatsmoment und seine Bedeutung im manisch-depressiven Irrsein Kraepelins (Leipzig: Vogel, 1907).

12. Richard Seewald, Der Mann von gegenueber (Munich: List, 1963), 138. See his discussion of the Cafe Stefanie, 137-43. See also the poem by Johannes Becher, "Cafe Stefanie 1912," in Johannes R. Becher (Berlin: Aufbau-Verlag, 1960),2:227-28. A more detailed description of Gross and the bohemian circuit of Schwabing-Ascona appears in JC, 151-69.

13. Seewald, Mann, 140.

14. Leonhard Frank, Links wo das Herz ist (Munich: Nymphenburger Verlagshandlung, 1952), 49.

15. See the original and the English translation of Erich Miihsam's May 28, 1907, letter to Freud in Kurt Eissler, Victor Tausk's Suicide (New York: International Universities Press, 1983),277-84. See also Erich Miihsam, Tegebucher 1910-1924, ed. Chris Hirte (Munich: DTV, 1994). His diaries and other papers are in the Maxim Gorki Institute in Moscow.

16. Jones, Free Associations, 173-74.

17. On the Asconan counterculture see Green, Mountain of Truth; Harald Szeeman, Monte Verita -- Berg der Wahrheit. Austellungskatalog (Milan, 1978); and an early view by Erich Muhsam, Ascona. Eine Broschuere (Locarno: Verlag Birger Carlson, 1905; reprint, Zurich, 1979). A sociological analysis of the antibourgeois or nonbourgeois subcultures of Europe is provided by Helmut Kreuzer, Die Boheme: Beitrage zu ihre Beschreibung (Stuttgart: J. B. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1968).

18. Max Brod, Das grosse Wagnis (Leipzig: Kurt Wolff, 1918).

19. Marianne Weber, Max Weber: A Biography, trans. Harry Zorn (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1988), 380. The original edition is Marianne Weber, Max Weber: Ein Lebensbild (Tubingen: Mohr, 1926). On this connection, see Nicholas Sombert, "Max Weber and Otto Gross: On the Relationship Between Science, Politics and Eros in Wilhelmine Germany," History of Political Thought 8 (1987): 131-52; Nicholas Sombert, "Gruppenbild mit zwei Darnen: Zum VerhiHtnis von Wissenschaft, Politik und Eros im wilhelminischen Zeitalter," Merkur 30 (1976): 972-90; and Eduard Baumgarten, "Uber Max Weber: Ein Brief an Nicholas Sombart," Merkur 31 (1977): 296-300.

20. See Green, von Richthofen Sisters.

21. Weber, Max Weber, 374.

22. Else von Richthofen, when literally on her deathbed, summoned Martin Green to Germany to give him the love letters, largely undated, between Otto Gross and Frieda. The originals are in the archives of Tufts University in Medford, Mass. See the translations by John Turner and Cornelia Rumpf-Worthen and Ruth Jenkins in the D. H. Lawrence Review 22 (Summer 1990). The letter quoted here appears on 188-89.

23. Weber, Max Weber, 375.

24. Selections from these letters are in Hurwitz, Otto Gross, 133-34.

25. FJ, 90.

26. R. Andrew Paskauskas, ed., The Complete Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Ernest Jones, 1908-1939 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993), 1.

27. Wilhelm Stekel, An Autobiography of Wilhelm Stekel: The Life Story of a Pioneer Psychoanalyst, ed. Emil Gutheil (New York: Liveright, 1950), 122. See also Stekel's posthumous appreciation of Otto Gross, "In Memoriam," Psyche and Eros (New York: n.p., 1920), 49.

28. The original report of this interview -- in Jung's own handwriting -- and all of Otto Gross's clinical-progress notes were recovered from the archives of the Burgholzli in 1967 by an assistant physician, Emanuel Hurwitz. More than a decade later Hurwitz reproduced these documents in Otto Gross, after determining that Gross had no living descendants who would contest the publication of this very private information. I have checked Hurwitz against photocopies of the original Burghozli documents. The report by Frieda Gross and its attached supplement are reproduced in Hurwitz, Otto Gross, 139-44. Translations are mine.

29. Hurwitz reproduces most of the regular progress notes by Jung and all of the relevant ones. I have freely translated using photocopies of the originals checked against ibid., 144-47.

30. FJ, 155.

31. Hurwitz's discovery of these documents surprised Manfred Bleuler, who had followed in his father's footsteps and was then clinical. director of the Burgholzli. Here, in the handwriting of Jung, Freud, and Hans Gross, was evidence of a botched psychoanalytic treatment. Fearing even the slightest potential of a scandal, he immediately gathered the originals from Hurwitz. For many years Bleuler kept them locked in his private office.

32. Paskauskas, Freud/Jones, 3-4.

33. Sandor Ferenczi had a racialist interpretation of the prevalence of dementia praecox in Aryans such as Otto Gross and, as many psychoanalysts later claimed, Jung himself. In a letter to Freud dated July 15, 1915, Ferenczi said he remarked to a friend "how remarkable it was that Nordic writers ... have such an excellent understanding of dementia praecox. I also said that it struck me that in the Zurich mental hospitals dementia praecox was so much more prevalent than in Hungarian ones. This illness is evidently the natural condition, as it were, of Nordic man, who has not yet completely overcome the last period of the Ice Age." Ernst Falzeder and Eva Brabant, eds., The Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Sandor Ferenczi, vol. 2, 1914-1919, trans. Peter Hoffer (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996), 67.

34. FJ, 153.

35. Ibid., 156.

36. On Bachofen, see Karl Meuli, "J. J. Bachofens Alterswerk," in Karl Meuli, Gesammelte Schriften, ed. Thomas Gelzer (Basel: Schwabe, 1975), 2: 1125-38. See also the discussion of Bachofen's influence on Jung in JC, 161-76.

37. Friedrich Engels, The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State, trans. Evelyn Reed (New York: Pathfinder Press, 1972). This work was originally published in Zurich in 1884.

38. Jung first used the terms "introversion" and "extraversion" in public at the 1913 psychoanalytic congress in Munich. This speech was published in a French translation in a well-known psychological (not psychoanalytic) journal. See C. G. Jung, "Contribution a l'etude des types psychologiques," Archives de Psychologie (Geneva) 13 (December 1913): 289-99. It appears in translation in CW 6.

39. See, for example, John C. Loehlin, Genes and Environment in Personality Development (Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage, 1992), 9.

40. C. G. Jung, Psychological Types, or, The Psychology of Individuation, trans. H. Godwin Baynes (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1923), 352-53. Jung discusses these ideas in the chapter on "The Type Problem in Psychology," 337-57. See also the translation in CW 6. The development of Jung's theory of psychological types is documented in his extensive correspondence with Hans Schmid-Guisan. See Hans Konrad, Zur Entstehung von C. G. Jungs "Psychologischen Typen": Der Briefwechsel zwischen C. G. Jung und Hans Schmid-Guisan im Lichte ihrer Freundschaft (Aarau, Switz.: Sauerlander, 1982).

41. Falzeder and Brabant, Freud/Ferenczi, 2: 261.

42. Aldo Carotenuto, A Secret Symmetry: Sabina Spielrein Between Jung and Freud. The Untold Story of the Woman Who Changed the Early History of Psychoanalysis, trans. Arno Pomerans, John Shepley, and Krishna Winston (New York: Pantheon, 1982), 107. For an expanded narrative of these relationships, see John Kerr, A Most Dangerous Method: The Story of Jung, Freud, and Sabina Spielrein (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993). Spielrein's diaries for 1907 and 1908 were found later and appear in Mireille Cifali, "Extraits inedits d'unjournal: De l'amour, de la mort et de la transformation," Le Bloc-Notes de la Psychoanalyse 3 (1983): 149-70.

43. The diaries of Sabina Spielrein between 1909 and 1912, her correspondence with Freud, and copies of some of her letters to Jung constituted the rest of the documents. There are also thirty-four letters from Jung to Spielrein. These papers were edited and published by Aldo Carotenuto in Diario de una segreta simmetria (Milan: Casa Editrice Astrolabio, 1980); The German edition, Tagebuch einer heimlichen Symmetrie: Sabina Spielrein zwischen Jung und Freud (Freiburg in Breisgau: Kore, 1896), contains some of Jung's letters to Spielrein. The Englishlanguage edition (Carotenuto, Secret Symmetry) does not.

44. This letter is reproduced in full, with commentary, by Bernard Minder, "Jung an Freud 1905: Ein Bericht uber Sabina Spielrein," Gesnerus 50 (1993): 113-20. The translation here is mine. All of the Burgholzli documents pertaining to Spielrein's treatment have been reproduced, with photos of the original documents, in Bernard Minder, "Sabina Spie1rein. Jungs Patientin am Burgholzli," Luzifer-Amor. Zeitschrift zur Geschichte der Psychoanalyse 7, no. 14 (1994): 55-127. This article produced most of Minder's 1992 doctoral dissertation for the medical faculty of the University of Bern. I would like to thank Minder, who is currently a staff psychiatrist at the BurghOlz1i, for generously sending me copies of all his publications.

45. FJ, 207.

46. Ibid., 289.

47. Different editions of Spielrein's work currently exist: Sabina Spielrein, Samtliche Schriften (Freiburg im Breisgau: Kore, 1987); and Sabina Spielrein, Ausgewahlte Schriften (Berlin: Brinkman and Bose, 1986). Her most famous work, an essay that reflects her deep involvement in Jung's mythological researches, is Sabina Spielrein, "Die Destruktion als Ursache des Werdens," Jahrbuch fur psychoanalytische und psychopathologische Forschungen (1912) 4. This has been reprinted in Sabina Spielrein, Die Destruktion als Ursache des Werdens, ed. Gerd Kimmerle (Tubingen: Edition Diskord, 1986). An English translation by Kenneth McCormick appears as Sabina Spielrein, "Destruction as the Cause of Coming into Being," Journal of Analytical Psychology 39 (1994): 187-90.

48. In the spring of 1996, her relationships with Freud and Jung were the subject of a play performed off-Broadway in New York City entitled, simply, Sabina. Written by Willy Holtzman and directed by Melia Bensussen, it ran for several months at the Primary Stages theater.

49. FJ, 207-8.

50. Kristie Miller, "The Letters of C. G. Jung and Medill and Ruth McCormick," Spring 50 (1990): 21-22. For further background, see Kristie Miller, Ruth Hanna McCormick: A Life in Politics (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1992).

51. Aline Valangin interview, Sept. 2, 1970, JBA, 4-5, 7.

52. Tina Keller, "Recollections of My Encounter with Dr. Jung," JBA, B 12. Keller had originally been interviewed in 1968 but asked that the transcript be destroyed and her own memoirs put in its place.

53. Forrest Robinson, Love's Story Told: A Life of Henry A. Murray (Cam bridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1992). This is the most reliable scholarly treatment of the relationship between Murray and Morgan.

54. Ritual manuals and detailed descriptions of a new personal mythology can be found in the personal papers of Christiana Morgan at CLM.

55. Susanne Trub interview, Sept. 21, 24, 1970, JBA, 20, 29.

56. The whereabouts of Toni Wolff's diaries today remain a mystery, although they clearly existed in September 1970, when Susanne Trub was interviewed for the C. G. Jung Biographical Archives Project.

57. Trub interview, JBA, 73-74.

58. FJ, 440.

59. See the original transcripts in the LC.

60. Keller statement, JBA, D5.

61. John Layard interview, Dec. 17, 1969, JBA, 34.

62. This is according to Henry A. Murray, interview, 1970, JBA.

63. Trub interview, JBA, 15-16.

M. Carl A. Meier interview, Sept. 11, 15,22, 1970, JBA, 26-27.

65. Layard interview, Dec. 17, 1969, JBA, 59.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 29753
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: THE ARYAN CHRIST: THE SECRET LIFE OF CARL JUNG

Postby admin » Thu Jun 25, 2015 10:07 pm

6: Sun Worship

1. MDR, 158-59.

2. C. G. Jung, Analytical Psychology: Notes of the Seminar Given in 1925, ed. William McGuire (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989), 23.

3. E. A. Bennett, Meetings with Jung: Conversations Recorded During the Years 1946-1961 (Zurich: Daimon, 1985), 117-18.

4. FJ, 251-52.

5. Ibid., 258.

6. Ibid., 296.

7. Ibid., 308.

8. Ibid., 483-84.

9. Ibid., 269.

10. Ibid., 279.

11. C. G. Jung, Uber die Psychologie der Dementia praecox: Ein Versuch (Halle: Carl Marhold, 1907). The first English edition was The Psychology of Dementia Praecox, trans. Frederick W. Peterson and A. A. Brill (New York: The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1909). It appears in CW 3.

12. Sabina Spielrein, "Uber den psychologischen Inhalt eines Falls von Schizophrenie," Jahrbuch fur psychoanalytische und psychopathologische Forschungen 3 (1912): 329-400; Jan Nelken, "Analytische Beobachten iiber Phantasien eines Schizophrenen," Jahrbuch fur psychoanalytische und psychopathologische Forschungen 4 (1912): 504-62; and Carl Schneiter, "Archaische Elemente in den Wahnideen eines Paranoiden," in C. G. Jung, ed., Psychologische Abhandlungen (Leipzig: Franz Deuticke, 1914).

13. Jahrbuch fur psychoanalytische und psychopathologische Forschungen 3 (1911): 120-227; 4 (1912): 162-464. C. G. Jung, Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido: Beitrage zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Denkens (Leipzig: Franz Deuticke, 1912). The first English translation was C. G. Jung, Psychology of the Unconscious: A Study of the Transformations and Symbolisms of the Libido, trans. Beatrice M. Hinkle (New York: Moffat, Yard, 1916). This translation was reissued in 1991 as CW B. All English-language citations here are to the 1916 edition.

14. For a detailed analysis of Wandlungen, see JC, 109-37.

15. Frank Miller, "Some Instances of Unconscious Creative Imagination," Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research 1 (1907): 287-308. For photographs, see Sonu Shamdasani, "A Woman Called Frank," Spring 50 (1990): 26-56.

16. MDR, 85.

17. Ernst Haeckel, Die Radiolarien (Rhizopoda radiaria): Eine Monograph (Berlin: G. Reimer, 1862). Haeckel's best-known book, which contains a discussion of the phylogeny of psychology, is Die Weltratzel: Gemeinverstandliche Studien uber Monistische Philosophie (Bonn: E. Strauss, 1899), first translated as The Riddle of the Universe, trans. Joseph McCabe (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1900).

18. Jung Psychology of the Unconscious, 104.

19. Ibid., 96.

20. Ibid., 508.

21. Ibid., 501.

22. Eva Brabant, Ernst Falzeder, and Patrizia Giampieri-Deutsch, eds., The Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Sandor Ferenczi, vol. 1, 1908-1914, trans. Peter T. Hoffer (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1992), 399.

23. Jung, Psychology of the Unconscious, 128.

24. See Leon Poliakov, The Aryan Myth: A History of Racist and Nationalist Ideas in Europe, trans. Edmund Howard (New York: Basic Books, 1974); Maurice Oleander, The Languages of Paradise: Race, Religion and Philology in the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1992); and J. P. Mallory, In Search of the Indo-Europeans (London: Thames and Hudson, 1989).

25. Suzanne Marchand, Down from Olympus: Archaeology and Philhellenism in Germany, 1750-1970 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996); Eliza Marian Butler, The Tyranny of Greece Over Germany: A Study of the Influence Exercised by Greek Art and Poetry Over the Great German Writers of the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Centuries (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1935); and Anthony La Vopa, "Specialists Against Specialization: Hellenism as Professional Ideology in German Classical Studies," in Geoffrey Cocks and Konrad Jarausch, eds., German Professions, 1800-1950 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990).

26. MDR, 29.

27. Ernest Jones, Free Associations: Memoirs of a Psychoanalyst (New York: Basic Books, 1959), 35.

28. Jung, Analytical Psychology, 25.

29. Richard Dorson, "The Eclipse of Solar Mythology," in Thomas Sebeok, ed., Myth: A Symposium (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1968).

30. Friedrich Max Muller, India: What Can It Teach Us? A Course of Lectures Delivered before the University of Cambridge (New York, 1883), 216.

31. F. Max Muller, Lectures on the Science of Language, Delivered at the Royal Institution of Great Britain in February, March, April and May, 1868, 2d series (New York: Scribner's, 1869), 520.

32. R. Andrew Paskauskas, ed., The Complete Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Ernest Jones, 1908-1939 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993), 180.

33. Ibid., 182.

34. Brabant et al., Freud/Ferenczi, 1: 490-91.

35. Lou Andreas-Salome, The Freud Journal, trans. Stanley Leavy (London: Quartet Books, 1987), 138.

36. FJ, 386.

37. Poul Bjerre, The History and Practice of Psychoanalysis, trans. Elizabeth Barrow (Boston: Richard Badger, 1916).

38. C. G. Jung to Poul Bjerre, Nov. 10, 1913. Poul Bjerre Papers, KB. I am indebted to Kurt Almqvist, who discovered this letter, and Lars Holm, who alerted me to its existence. Although it is clear that this batch of letters was consulted by the editors of the two volumes of Jung's collected letters (see JL), this letter is conspicuously absent there.

39. FJ, 550.

40. Jung to Bjerre, Nov. 10, 1913, KB.

41. JC, 75-108.

42. For background, see lost Hermand, Old Dreams of a New Reich: Volkish Utopias and National Socialism (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992); Richard Hamann and lost Hermand, Stillkunst um 1900 (Munich: Nymphenburger Verlagshandlung, 1973); lost Hermand, "The Distorted Vision: Pre- Fascist Mythology at the Turn of the Century," in Walter Wetzels, ed., Myth and Reason: A Symposium (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1973); George Mosse, The Crisis of German Ideology: Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich (New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1964); Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, The Occult Roots of Nazism: Secret Aryan Cults and Their Influence on Nazi Ideology (New York: New York University Press, 1995); Peter Levenda, Unholy Alliance: A History of Nazi Involvement with the Occult (New York: Avon Books, 1995); Karlheinz Weissmann, Schwarze Fahnen, Runenzeichen: Die Entwicklung der politischen Symbolik der deutschen Rechten zwishen 1890 und 1945 (Dusseldorf: Droste Verlag, 1991); Hermann Gilbhard, Die Thule Gesellschaft: Vom okkulten Mummenschanz zum Hakenkreuz (Munich: Kiessling Verlag, 1994); and Rene Freund, Braune Magie? Okkultismus, New Age und Nationalsozialismus (Vienna: Picus Verlag, 1995).

43. On the transformation of nineteenth-century German cultural fantasies about the nature religion of the ancient Germans and on ancient German religion and the so-called mysteries of Odin/Woden/Wotan, see the following: Karl-Heinz Kohl, "Naturreligion: Zur Transformationsgeschichte eines Begriffs," in Richard Faber and Renate Schleiser, eds., Die Restauration der Gotter: Antike Religion und Neo-Paganismus (Wurzburg: Koenigshausen and Neumann, 1986). Also in this same volume see Ekkehard Hieronimus, "Von der Germanen-Forschung zum Germanen-Glauben: Zur Religionsgeschichte des Prafaschismus." In English, see the works of Hilda Ellis Davidson: "Germanic Religion," in C. Jouco Bleeker and George Widengred, eds., Historia Religionum: Handbook for the History of Religions, vol. 1 (Leiden: E. 1. Brill, 1969); "The Germanic World," in Michael Loewe and Carmen Blacker, eds., Divination and Oracles (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1981); and The Lost Beliefs of Northern Europe (London: Routledge, 1993). Also useful are the chapters on "The Germanic Peoples" and "Late Germanic Religion" in Prudence Jones and Nigel Pennick, A History of Pagan Europe (London: Routledge, 1995).

44. Cited in Mosse, Crisis of German Ideology, 59.

45. "Sonnwendfest," Der Monismus: Zeitschrift fur einheitliche Weltanschauung und Kulturpolitik 5 (1910): 126. For a representative Aryanist view on sun worship and the sun cults by one of Jung's contemporaries, see Leopold von Schroeder, Arische Religion (Leipzig: H. Haessel Verlag, 1916), vol. 2, which discusses the sun, sun gods, and the Sonnenkult der Arier and their sun and fire festivals. For a national socialist perspective on related festivals, see Jakob Wilhelm Hauer, Fest und Feier aus deutscher Art (Stuttgart: K. Gutbrod, 1936).

46. Paul Bramwell Means, Things That Are Caesar's: The Genesis of the German Church Conflict (New York: Round Table Press, 1935), 166.

47. "Eine geistige Bewegung, ein Niveau, eine Richtung, em Protest, ein neuer Kult oder vielmehr der Versuch, aus uralten Kulten wieder neue religiOse Moglichkeiten zu gewinnen." Franziska zu Reventlow, Von Paul zu Pedro/Herrn Dames Aufzeichnungen: Zwei Romanen, ed. Else Reventlow (Frankfurt am Main: Verlag Ullstein, 1976), 128-29. On her life and work, see Richard Faber, Franziska zu Reventlow und die Schwabinger Gegenkultur (Vienna: Boehlau, 1993).

48. Reventlow, Herrn Dames Aufzeichnungen, 154.

49. On Fidus, see Janos Frecot, Johann Friedrich Geist, and Diethart Kerbs, Fidus 1868-1948: Zur asthetischen Praxis burgerlicher Fluchtbewegungen (Munich: Rogner and Bernhard, 1972).

50. Von Werth sometimes wrote under the pseudonyms Maximilian Ferdinand and G. Herman. See Maximilian Ferdinand, D.I.S. "Sexualreligion." Enthuellungen, 3 vols, Sexual-Mystik, Sexual Moral, Sexual-Magic, Bilderschmuck von Fidus. (Leipzig: Wilhelm Friedrich, 1897); and Maximilian Ferdinand, Wanidis. D.I.S. Die arische "Sexualreligion" als Volks-VeredeJung in Zeugen, Leben, und Sterben. Bilder von Fidus. Mit einemAnhang uber "Menschenzuchtung" von Carl du Prel. (Leipzig: Wilhelm Friedrich, 1897).

51. Aleister Crowley, The Confessions of Aleister Crowley: An Autobiography, eds. John Symonds and Kenneth Grant (New York: Bantam, 1969), 889.

7: The Mystery of Deification

1. Most of this chapter (as well as the portions of chapter 6 dealing with Max Muller's solar mythology and philology in general) is taken from two previous works of mine, one published and one almost published. The first of these is my article "Jung the Leontocephalus," which appeared in Spring 53 (1992). I wish to thank Charles Boer, the editor of Spring, for kindly giving permission to reproduce parts of it. The second source for this chapter is my introduction to my selections from Jung's work in the ill-fated anthology Mysteria: Jung and the Mysteries, which was to appear in print in the spring of 1995 but was canceled by my publisher due to objections by the Jung family. I wish to thank Princeton University Press for graciously reverting to me all legal rights to my essay.

Throughout this chapter, all citations from Jung's 1925 seminar on analytical psychology were checked against an archival copy of the original November 1925 multigraph compiled directly from written notes taken during the lectures by Cary F. de Angulo. I have altered the punctuation slightly to make the English a bit more readable, but the meaning of the text has not been changed. For the sake of convenience, I have provided the page numbers of the 1989 published version of the second edition (1939) of Cary de Angulo's notes. This version is C. G. Jung, Analytical Psychology: Notes of the Seminar Given in 1925 by C. G. Jung, ed. William McGuire (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989), hereafter in this chapter known as AP. The opening epigraph appears in AP, 97-98.

2. MDR, vii.

3. Ibid., 170-99.

4. Ibid., 181.

5. AP, 89.

6. MDR, 182.

7. AP, 95. Jung's deification experience, outlined in this lecture from June 8, 1925, can be found in AP, 95-99.

8. AP, 96.

9. Ibid., 98.

10. Ibid., 99.

11. Ibid., 92. 12. C. G. Jung, Nietzsche's "Zarathustra": Notes of the Seminar Given in 1934-1939, ed. James L. Jarrett, 2 vols. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988), 1: 460-61. 13. See Friedrich Creuzer, Symbolik und Mythologie der alten Volker, besonders der Griechen, 4 vols. (Leipzig: Heyer and Leske, 1810-1812). On Creuzer, see Arnoldo Mornigliano, "Friedrich Creuzer and Greek Historiography," Journal of the Wartburg and Courtald Institutes 9 (1946): 152-63; A. Momigliano, "Ancient History and the Antiquarians," Journal of the Wartburg and Courtald Institutes 13 (1950): 285-318; Martin Donougho, "Hegel and Friedrich Creuzer: Or, Did Hegel Believe in Myth?" in David Kolb, ed., New Perspectives on Hegel's Philosophy of Religion (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992). In German, see the discussion in Alfred Baumler, "Einleitung," in Der Mythus von Orient und Occident: Eine Metaphysik der Alten Welt, aus den Werken von J. J. Bachofen, ed. Alfred Baumler (Munich: C. H. Beck'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1926). Baumler's introductory essay provides a useful overview not only of the mythological researches of Creuzer, but also those of Goerres, Savigny, Grimm, K. O. Mueller, Ranke, and Bachofen, as well as the mythological and philosophical interests of the Romantic movement.

14. FJ, 258.

15. Jung owned and absorbed the following works by Dieterich: Abraxas: Studien zer Religionsgeschichte des spatern Altertums (Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1891); Nekyia: Beitrage zur Erklarung derneuentdeckten Petrusapokalypse (Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1905); Mutter Erde: Ein Versuch uber Volksreligion (Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1905); and Eine Mithrasliturgie (Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1903).

16. Walter Burkert, Ancient Mystery Cults (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1987), 1.

17. In his later alchemical writings, Jung did acknowledge the role that Reitzenstein played in drawing his attention to the similarities of Hermetic, Gnostic, and alchemical symbolism in such books as Poimandres: Studien zur griechischaegyptische und fruchristlischen Literatur (Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1904) and Die hellenistischen Mysterienreligionon nach ihren Grundgedanken und Wirkungen (Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1910). See also the English translation by John Steely of the 1926 third edition of this latter work, Hellenistic Mystery Religions: Their Basic Ideas and Significance (Pittsburgh: Pickwick Press, 1978).

18. Franz Cumont, Textes et monumentes figures relatifs aux mysteres de Mithra, 2 vols. (Brussels: H. Lamertin, 1896, 1899). In Wandlungen, Jung refers to Franz Cumont, Die Mysterien des Mithra: Ein Beitrag zur Religionsgeschichte der romischen Kaiserzeit, trans. H. Gehrich (Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1903).

19. K.H.E. De Jong, Das Antike Mysterienwesen in religionsgeschichtlicher, ethnologischer und psychologischer Beleuchtung (Leiden, E. J. Brill, 1909).

20. Ibid., 269.

21. See A. J. Festugiere, Personal Religion Among the Greeks (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1954). Other useful sources on the ancient mysteries are Luther Martin, Hellenistic Religions: An Introduction (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987); Marvin Meyer, ed., The Ancient Mysteries: A Sourcebook (San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1987); Arthur Darby Nock, Conversion: The Old and New in Religion from Alexander the Great to Augustine of Hippo (London: Oxford University Press, 1933); and Walter Burkert, Greek Religion, trans. John Raffan (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1985), which originally appeared as Griechische Religion der archaischen und klassischen Epoche (Stuttgart: Verlag W. Kohlhammer, 1977). For an informative portrait of the pagan Hellenistic world of late antiquity, see Robin Lane Fox, Pagans and Christians (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1989).

22. Burkert, Ancient Mystery Cults, 11-12.

23. Ibid., 8.

24. The concept of a stage model of rites of initiation was first put forth to describe this form of ritual behavior by a contemporary of Jung, Arnold van Gennep, in his Les rites de passage (Paris: Nourry, 1908). See also especially Victor Turner, The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1969). Also useful is Mircea Eliade, Rites and Symbols of Initiation: The Mysteries of Birth and Rebirth (New York: Harper Colophon, 1958).

25. Burkert, Ancient Mystery Cults, 3.

26. "It could be held that the quest for the mystery texts is essentially futile for more basic reasons: no Nag Hammadi library of mysteries will ever be discovered because it never existed, and there was not even a shipwreck as imagined by Cumont." Ibid., 69.

27. See JC, 69.

28. This is a slightly altered version of the translation of the passage by J. Gwen Griffiths, Apuleius of Madauros: The Isis-Book (Metamorphoses Book XI) (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1975), 23.

29. Franz Cumont, The Mysteries of Mithras, trans. Thomas McCormick (New York: Open Court, 1903), 43.

30. Cumont's and Jung' s view that certain features of the Mithraic ritual were incorporated into the rituals of the Christian church is treated more skeptically by scholars today. See J. P. Kane, "The Mithraic Cult Meal in Its Greek and Roman Environment," in J. Hinnells, ed., Mithraic Studies, vol. 2 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1975).

31. See David Ulansey, "The Mithraic Mysteries," Scientific American 261 (Dec. 1989): 130-35; "Mithras and the Hypercosmic Sun," in John Hinnells, ed., Studies on Mithraism (Rome: L'Erma di Bretschneider, 1996); and The Origins of the Mithraic Mysteries (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989). For additional perspectives on the Mithraic mysteries, see Roger Beck, Planetary Gods and Planetary Orders in the Mysteries of Mithras (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1988); Roger Beck, "Mithraism Since Franz Cumont," Aufsteig und Niedergang der romischen Welt, vol. 2 (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1984); R. L. Gordon, "Franz Cumont and the Doctrine of Mithraism," in 1. Hinnells, ed., Mithraic Studies, vol. 1 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1971); R. L. Gordon, "Reality, Evocation and Boundary in the Mysteries of Mithras," Journal of Mithraic Studies 3 (1982): 19-99. The most comprehensive work in German is Reinhold Merkelbach, Mithras: Ein persisch-romischer Mysterienkult (Koenigstein: Verlag Anton Hain Meisenheim, 1984).

32. Ulansey, Origins, 103-12.

33. C. G. Jung, Psychology of the Unconscious, trans. Beatrice M. Hinkle (New York: Moffat, Yard, 1916), 222.

34. FJ, 326. In Psychology of the Unconscious, Jung wrote that "Julian the Apostate made the last, unsuccessful attempt to cause the triumph of Mithracism over Christianity," Psychology of the Unconscious, 498. In a letter to Freud of June 26, 1910, Jung seemed to ally himself with Julian when he wrote, "That is why Julian the Apostate attempted, meritoriously and with the utmost energy, to oppose the Christian mystery with that of Mithras (because of its favorable outcome)," FJ, 337.

35. Ulansey, Origins, 93.

36. Jung, Psychology of the Unconscious, 474.

37. FJ, 334. This quote is from an undated fragment from Freud to Jung, probably written and posted circa June 22, 1910.

38. Ibid., 337. This letter is dated June 26, 1910.

39. Ibid.

40. Ibid., 427.

41. Jung, Psychology of the Unconscious, 557.

42. Gordon, "Reality, Evocation and Boundary," 32.

43. Cumont, The Mysteries of Mithras, 155.

44. Jung, Psychology of the Unconscious, 494; C. G. Jung, Mysterium Coniunctionis, CW 14, par. 168.

45. Howard Jackson, "The Meaning and Function of the Leontocephaline in Roman Mithraism," Numen 32 (1985): 29.

46. C. G. Jung, "The Tavistock Lectures," CW 18.

47. Jackson, "Meaning and Function," 34.

48. MDR, 182-83.

49. JL, 1:40-41.

50. Jung, Psychology of the Unconscious, 78.

51. Ibid., 82-83.

52. Ibid., 80.

53. Cumont, The Mysteries of Mithras, 4.

54. For a view of the assumptions about the religion of the ancient Aryans by Jung's contemporaries, see the following: Leopold von Schroeder, Arische Religion, 2 vols. (Leipzig: Hassel Verlag, 1914, 1916); Hermann Brunnhofer, Arische Urzeit, Forschungen auf dem Gebeite des Altexten Vorder- und Zentralasiens nebst Osteuropa (Bern: A. Francke, 1910); Rudolph Otto, Gotheit und Gottheiten der Arier (Giesen: Alfred Topelmann Verlag, 1932); Jakob Wilhelm Hauer, Das religiose Artbild der Indogermanen und die Grundtypen der indo-arischen Religion (Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer, 1937). See also Jung's extensive footnotes in Wandlungen.

55. Dieterich, Eine Mithrasliturgie, ix, 161. This view is echoed in what George Moose once called the bible of the Volkish movement, Houston Stewart Chamberlain, The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century, 2 vols., trans. John Lees (London: John Lane, 1911). In his discussion of "The Mythology of Inner Experience," Chamberlain says that "the central idea in all Indo-Iranian religions" (and he includes his Aryanized view of Christianity) is "the longing for redemption, the hope of salvation; nor was this idea of redemption strange to the Hellenes; we find it in their mysteries." On the other hand, "this idea has always been and is still strange to Jews; it absolutely contradicts their whole conception of religion," 2:31.

56. Chamberlain, Foundations, I :211-12. The original German edition is Die Grundlagen des Neunzehnten Jahrhunderts, 2 vols. (Munich: F. Bruckmann Verlag, 1899). For background on Chamberlain's life and work, see Geoffrey Field, Evangelist of Race: The Germanic Vision of Houston Stewart Chamberlain (New York: Columbia University Press, 1981). For an example of the high regard in which Chamberlain was held during the Third Reich, see Hugo Meyer, Houston Stewart Chamberlain als volkischer Denker (Munich: F. Bruckmann Verlag, 1939).

57. Chamberlain, Foundations, 1:200.

58. Jung, Psychology of the Unconscious, 499.

59. See the discussions of Parsifal in Peter Wapnewski, "The Operas as Literary Works," and Dieter Borchmeyer, "The Question of Anti-Semitism," in Ulrich Mueller and Peter Wapnewski, eds., Wagner Handbook, trans. ed. John Deathridge (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1992). The original edition is Richard-Wagner-Handbuch (Stuttgart: Alfred Kroner Verlag, 1986).

60. See Leopold von Schroeder, Die Vollendung des Arischen Mysteriums in Bayreuth (Munich: J. F. Lehmann, 1911).

61. George Mosse, The Crisis of Germany Ideology: Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich (New York: Schocken, 1981 [1964]), 43.

62. See Felix Genzmer, Heliand und die Bruchstucke der Genesis (Stuttgart: Reclam, 1982), regarded as one of the best translations. For a nineteenth-century Volkish interpretation of the Heliand, see A.F.C. Vilmar, Deutsche Alterturmer im Heliand als Einkleidung der evangelischen Geschichte (Marburg: N. G. EIwert'sche Universitats-Buchhandlung, 1845). In English, see the translation from the original Old Saxon by G. Ronald Murphy, SJ., The Heliand: The Saxon Gospel (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992). See also G. Ronald Murphy, SJ., The Saxon Savior: The Transformation of the Gospel in the Ninth-Century Heliand (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989).

63. MDR, 313-14.

64. Eugen Bohler interview, May 1970, JBA, 5,10.

65. See the photo of a Turstkreuze and the accompanying article, "Wotans wilde Jagd: Archaische Nachtgespenster im Luzemer Hinterland," Neue Zurcher Zeitung, Dec. 12, 1995, 44.

66. Murphy, The Heliand, 54-55.

8: Zurich 1916: Abraxas and the Return of the Pagan Gods

1. C. G. Jung's Septem Sermones ad Mortuous (Seven sermons to the dead) did not appear in the first printings of MDR but did appear as an appendix in subsequent editions. I wish to thank Random House, Inc., and Pantheon Books, a division of Random House, for allowing me to reproduce Sermo VII in its entirety. The sermons appear as an appendix in all German editions of ETG. For a useful interpretation, see Stephan A. Hoeller, The Gnostic Jung and the Seven Sermons to the Dead (Wheaton, Ill.: The Theosophical Publishing House, 1982).

2. "Die grossen Probleme der Menschheit wurden noch nie durch allgemeine Gesetze, sondern immer nur durch die Erneuerung der Einstellung des Einzelnen gelost." C. G. Jung, Die Psychologie der unbewussten Prozesse: Ein Uberblick uber de moderne Theorie und Methode der analytischen Psychologie (Zurich: Verlag von Rascher & Cie, 1917), 7. The first English translation appeared in C. G. Jung, Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology, 2d ed., ed. Constance Long (New York: Moffat, Yard, 1917) under the title, "The Psychology of Unconscious Processes," trans. Dora Hecht.

3. Ernest Jones, "Der Gottmensch-Komplex; der Glaube, Gott zu Sein, und die daraus folgenden Charaktermerkmale," Internationale Zeitschrift fur artzliche Psychoanalyse 1 (1913): 313-29. An English translation, "The God Complex: The Belief That One Is God and the Resulting Character Traits," appears in Ernest Jones, Essays in Applied Psychoanalysis, vol. 2 (New York: International Universities Press, 1964).

4. Alphonse Maeder interview, Jan. 28, 1970, JBA, 18, 10.

5. Tina Keller interview manuscript, "Recollections of My Encounter with Dr. Jung," 1968, JBA, A2, B12, A5. Keller's statement is the best single source of information about Jung's psychotherapeutic techniques during these early years.

6. An untitled transcript of a translation of Jung's probable talk to the Psychology Club in 1916 is among the papers of Fanny Bowditch Katz at CLM. The typewritten copy contains corrections in an unknown hand, and these have been included in the portions of the text cited here. The references to the founding of a Club and to the paper on the "Transcendental Function" date this document to 1916 and make it highly probable that it is Jung who is speaking. In the upper right-hand comer of the first page "Frl. Moltzer" is handwritten, perhaps indicating that Maria Moltzer is the translator. By 1916, Moltzer had long established herself as Jung's most competent translator into English, and until further documentation appears that conclusively proves otherwise, I assume that this is a translation and not a document written by Jung himself in English. The full transcript of this document appears in JC, 250-54. Despite the fact that the Jung estate gave Princeton University Press permission in 1994 to print this "Lecture on Goethe" (as they called it), they have not provided proof that this is, indeed, a talk by C. G. Jung. It could very well be that this document is more Moltzer than Jung. Perhaps a German original will appear one day to settle the matter.

7. C. G. Jung, The Transcendent Function, trans. A. R. Pope (Zurich: The Students' Association, C. G. Jung Institute, 1957). This translation includes material that does not appear in the version of this essay in CW 8.

8. Jung used the term "guiding fictions" in his 1913 essay on psychological types. It echoes very similar concepts by Alfred Adler.

9. E. O. Lippman, Entstehung und Ausbreitung der Alchemie, vol. 1 (Berlin: Springer, 1919); and Julius Ruska and E. Wiedemann, "Beitrage zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften, LXVII: Alchemistische Decknamen," Sitzungsberichte der physikalisch-medizinischen Sozietat in Erlangen 5 (1923): 1-23, 6 (1924): 17-36. In his later work, Jung even attempted to Aryanize alchemy by claiming that the common figure of Mercurius was in fact also Wotan -- a difficult argument to make, since no alchemical text exists that refers to Wotan or equates the two. For a useful critique of Jung's ahistorical and excessively psychological approach to alchemy, see Barbara Obrist, Les debuts de l'imagerie alchemique (XIVe-XVe siecles) (Paris: Le Sycomore, 1982).

10. See C. G. Jung, "The Conception of the Unconscious," in Long, Collected Papers, for the first English version. It first appeared in print in a French translation by M. Marsen from Jung's original German manuscript. See C. G. Jung, "La Structure de I'inconscient," Archives de psychologie (Geneva) 16 (1916): 152-79. See also CW 7 for a different English translation.

11. Jung, "Conception of the Unconscious," 458.

12. See n. 2, above. I have used the personal copy of Fanny Bowditch, who had it in her possession in Zurich in 1917.

13 "Diese Dominanten sind die Herrschenden, die Gatter." Jung, Die Psychologie der unbewussten Prozesse, 117.

14. MDR, 189-91.

15. For a full-page color reproduction, see Aniela Jaffe, C. G. Jung: Word and Image (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979), 76.

9: Fanny Bowditch Katz -- "Analysis Is Religion"

1. See Nathan Hale, ed., James Jackson Putnam and Psychoanalysis: Letters Between Putnam and Sigmund Freud, Ernest Jones, William James, Sandor Ferenczi, and Morton Prince, 1877-1917 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1971).

2. FJ, 352.

3. This and other letters are in the papers of Fanny Bowditch Katz, CLM. In this chapter, I provide within the body of the text the dates of all letters that I cite from this collection. I have therefore not footnoted each letter as I quote from it. Cited letters include those from Fanny to Jung and James Jackson Putnam, from Jung and Putnam to Fanny, from Maria Moltzer to Fanny and Rudolf Katz, and from Jung to Selma Bowditch. Fanny's 1916 diary of her analysis consists of a group of pages beginning in June 1916 that are in a separate file from the 1916 notebook itself. There is also an analysis notebook from 1917. There are no page numbers in these notebooks, but I indicate the date of the entry from which material is taken. There are also notebooks from 1912 and 1913 with class notes from seminars from Jung and Prof. Hausherr. These also do not have page numbers.

4. Reference to this remark appears in several JBA interviews.

5. R. Andrew Paskauskas, ed., The Complete Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Ernest Jones, 1908-1939 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993), 186.

6. Eva Brabant, Ernst Falzeder, and Patrizia Giampieri-Deutsch, eds., The Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Sandor Ferenczi, vol. 1, 1908-1914 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1992), 446.

7. Jolande Jacobi interview, JBA, 110.

8. Hale, James Jackson Putnam and Psychoanalysis, 33.

9.Paskauskas, Freud/Jones, 296. 10. Ernst Falzeder and Eva Brabant, eds. The Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Sandor Ferenczi, vol. 2, 1914-1919, trans. Peter Hoffer (Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996), 10.

11. Tina Keller statement, 1968, JBA, B19.

12. Ibid.

13. Ibid., B3.

14. Ibid., D1.

15. Alphone Maeder interview, Jan. 28, 1970, JBA, 11.

16. "Ihr Blick klart sich aber nur, wenn Sie in Ihr eignese Herz sehen."

17. "Dort wurde ich wie der kleinste Embryo, nur eine CelIe, rund und klein, -- sofort kam die Erinnerung an die Erfahrung in der Narkose wortiber ich nie mit Dr. Jung gesprochen hatte." She did not elaborate on this experience.

10: Edith Rockefeller McCormick -- The Rockefeller Psychoanalyst

1. Richard Noll, "Styles of Psychiatric Practice, 1906-1925: Clinical Evaluations of the Same Patient by James Jackson Putnam, Adolph Meyer, August Hoch Emil Kraepelin, and Smith Ely Jelliffe," History of Psychiatry, forthcoming.

2. This description comes from her obituary, "End of a Princess," Time Sept. 5, 1932, 12, a wry summation of Edith's eccentricities and the basis of some of the information that I relate here.

3. See Harold F. McCormick, "An Account of Our Hungarian Trip," probably written in 1913, in box 29 of the Harold F. McCormick Papers, Correspondence, Series IF: 1892-1947 (and n.d.), 90 boxes, including 12 vols. MIH. Hereafter these papers are designated HFM Corr.

4. HFM to John D. Rockefeller, Sr. (hereafter JDR), Sept. 22, 1911, folder 248, box 32, family correspondence, Record Group (hereafter RG), Senior III 2A Rockefeller Family Archives (hereafter RFA), RAC.

5. See Kristie Miller, "The Letters of C. G. Jung and Medill and Rut McCormick," Spring 50 (1990): 1-25.

6. HFM to Nettie Fowler McCormick (hereafter NFM), HFM Corr., box 28, MIH.

7. HFM to NFM, July 12, 1912, NFM Corr. (incoming), box 127, MIH.

8. Ibid.

9. HFM to JDR, July 13, 1912, folder 248, box 32, family corr., RG Senior III 2A, RFA, RAC.

10. Edith Rockefeller McCormick (hereafter ERM) to NFM, Sept. 4, 1912, NFM Corr. (incoming), box 127, MIH.

11. C G. Jung to NFM, Oct. 8, 1912, Stanley R. McCormick Papers, general correspondence, Series 1G: 1881-1931 (and n.d.), box 4, MIH.

12. Anita McCormick Blaine (hereafter AMB) to NFM, Oct. 11, 1912, NFM Corr. (incoming), box 125, MIH.

13. HFM to AMB, Oct. 14, 1912, NFM Corr. (incoming), box 127, MIH.

14. Eva Brabant, Ernst Falzeder, and Patrizia Giampieri-Deutsch, eds., The Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Sandor Ferenczi, vol. 1, 1908-1914, trans. Peter T. Hoffer (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1992), 464.

15. Ibid., 473.

16. Ibid., 474.

17. Fowler McCormick (hereafter FM) to JDR, Aug. 10, 1913, folder 249, box 32, family corr., RG Senior III 2A, RFA, RAC.

18. FM interview, April 14, 1969, JBA, 7-8.

19. ERM to NFM, Nov. 22, 1913, NFM Corr. (incoming), box 131, MIH.

20. HFM to NFM, Dec. 9, 1913 (copy), folder 249, box 32, family corr., RG Senior III 2A, RFA, RAC.

21. HFM to JDR, Dec. 28,1913, ibid.

22. HFM to Muriel McCormick, May 9, 1914, HFM Corr., box 29, MIH.

23. Muriel McCormick to HFM, July 13, 1914 (copy), NFM Corr. (incoming), box 137, MIH.

24. ERM to JDR, June 25, 1914, folder 249, box 32, family corr., RG Senior III 2A, RFA, RAC.

25. Alexander Legge, "Comments on European War," Aug. 29, 1914, HFM Corr., box 29, MIH.

26. HFM to JDR, Oct. 3, 1914, folder 249, box 32, family corr., RG Senior III 2A, RFA, RAC.

27. HFM to NFM, Oct. 12, 1914, NFM Corr. (incoming), box 137, MIH.

28. Ibid., Oct. 20, 1914.

29. Ibid., Oct. 28, 1914.

30. Ibid., Nov. 28, 1914.

31. For Paul Mellon's view of Jung, see Paul Mellon (with John Baskett), Reflection in a Silver Spoon: A Memoir (New York: William Morrow, 1992), chap. 9, "C. G. Jung, Zurich, and Bollingen Foundation," 157-82.

32. HFM to NFM, April 14, 1915, NFM Corr. (incoming), box 144, MIH.

33. ERM to JDR, April 14, 1915, folder 250, box 32, family corr., RG Senior III 2A, RFA, RAC.

34. HFM to NFM, May 31,1915, NFM Corr. (incoming), box 144, MIH.

35. Ibid.

36. Ibid., June 3, 1915.

37. FM to NFM, June 18, 1915, in ibid.

38. HFM to NFM, July 9, 1915, in ibid.

39. Ibid., July 15, 1915.

40. FM interview, April 14, 1969, JBA, 3-4.

41. HFM to JDR, June 18, 1915, folder 250, box 32, family corr., RG Senior III 2A, RFA, RAC.

42. HFM to NFM, Aug. 31, 1915, NFM Corr. (incoming), box 144, MIH.

43. Ibid., Sept. 1, 1915.

44. HFM to JDR, Sept. 1, 1915, folder 250, box 32, family corr., RG Senior III 2A, RFA, RAC.

45. HFM to NFM, Sept. 14, 1915, NFM Corr. (incoming), box 144, MIH.

46. Ibid., Oct. 12, 1915.

47. Ibid., Sept. 6, 1915

48. Ibid., Sept. 14, 1915.

49. HFM to JDR, Oct. 31, 1915, folder 250, box 32, family corr., RG Senior III 2A, RFA, RAC. The article that Harold recommended is Max Eastman, "Exploring the Soul and Healing the Body," Everybody's Magazine 32 (June/July 1915): 741-50. This article did much to introduce Freud, Jung, and psychoanalysis to the lay public in America.

50. JDR to ERM and HFM, Jan. 26, 1916, folder 251 in ibid.

51. HFM to JDR, Feb. 16, 1916, in ibid.

52. FM to NFM, Dec. 1915, NFM corr. (incoming), box 144, MIH.

53. HFM to NFM, Feb. 7, 1916, in ibid., box 152.

54. ERM to JDR, Jan. 31, 1916, folder 251, box 32, family corr., RG Senior III 2A, RF A, RAC.

55. Ibid., July 20, 1916.

56. ERM to NFM, Dec. 6,1916, NFM corr. (incoming), box 152, MIH.

57. Eva Brabant and Ernst Felzeder, eds., The Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Sandor Ferenczi, vol. 2, 1914-1919, trans. Peter Hoffer (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1996), 126.

58. These two proposals can be found in multiple copies among Harold McCormick's papers at MIH.

59. For background, see Arlen J. Hansen, Gentlemen Volunteers: The Story of the American Ambulance Drivers in the Great War, August 1914-September 1918 (New York: Arcade, 1996).

60. HFM, "The Welfare of the Psychology Club," McCormick Estates Papers, HFM, box 8, file 7. HFM's original foundation notes, handwritten MS., a first typed draft, and a final typed draft are included in this file.

61. Arthur Edward Waite, The Hidden Church of the Holy Grail, Its Legends and Symbolism, Considered in Their Affinity with Certain Mysteries of Initiation and Other Traces of a Secret Tradition in Christian Times (London: Rebman, 1909), 611. Many turn-of-the-century Theosophists saw the Grail legends related to the ancient Hellenistic mystery-cult traditions. See the selections from Waite and others in James Webb, ed., A Quest Anthology (New York: Arno, 1976).

62. Waite, Hidden Church, 632.

63. Ibid., 642.

64. In Germany at the turn of the century, the role of the Grail seeker was a common script through which spiritual seekers sought renewal, and Jung's cult can be counted among these Grail cults. See Jost Hermand, "Gralsmotiv um die Jahrhundertswende," Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift fur Literaturwissenschaft und Geistesgeschichte 36 (1962): 521-43.

65. ERM to JDR, Dec. 5, 1916, folder 251, box 32, family corr., RG Senior III 2A, RFA, RAC.

66. HFM to NFM, Jan. 18, 1917, NFM Corr. (incoming), box 158, MIH.

67. Ibid., Sept. 25, 1917.

68. ERM to JDR, Nov. 26,1917, folder 252, box 33, family corr., RG Senior III 2A, RFA, RAC.

69. Ibid., Nov. 18, 1918.

70. Ibid., March 27, 1919, folder 253.

71. HFM to Emma Jung, June 29, 1919, NFM Corr. (incoming), box 168, MIH.

72. HFM to NFM, Aug. 12, 1919, HFM Corr., box 30, MIH.

73. Beatrice Hinkle to HFM, Sept. 26, 1919, NFM Corr. (incoming), box 166, MIH.

74. Medill McCormick to HFM, March 5, 1920, HFM Corr., box 31, MIH.

75. Hermann Mueller interview, May 4, 1970, JBA, 4.

76. Emma Jung to HFM, Sept. 1, 1932, HFM Corr., box 48, MIH.

77. Toni Wolff and C. G. Jung to HFM, Aug. 27, 1932, in ibid.

11: The Passion of Constance Long

1. Most of these are republished in Constance Long, Collected Papers on the Psychology of Phantasy (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1924).

2. H. C. Abraham and E. L. Freud, eds., A Psycho-Analytic Dialogue: The Letters of Sigmund Freud and Karl Abraham, 1907-1926 (London: Hogarth Press, 1965), 34.

3. A. R. Orage, The New Age 7 (May 12, 1910): 26. See Philip Mairet, A. R. Orage: A Memoir (New Hyde Park, N.Y.: University Books, 1966); Louise Welch, Orage with Gurdjieff in America (Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1982); and Wallace Martin, The New Age Under Osage: Chapters in English Cultural History (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1967).

4. Sigmund Freud, On Dreams, trans. M. D. Eder, from the 2d German edition, introduction by W. Leslie Mackenzie (New York: Rebman, 1914).

5. C. G. Jung, Psycho-Analysis. A Paper Read Before the Psycho-Medical Society (Cockermouth, U.K.: Psycho-Medical Society, 1913). This is reprinted from Transactions of the Psycho-Medical Society 4 (1913), pt. 2, and appeared in CW 4 under the title "General Aspects of Psychoanalysis."

6. R. Andrew Paskauskas, ed., The Complete Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Ernest Jones, 1908-1939 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993), 242.

7. Ibid., 244.

8. On Beatrice Hinkle, see Nancy Hale, "Beatrice Moses Hinkle (Oct. 10, 1874-Feb. 28, 1953)," in John A. Garraty, ed., Dictionary of American Biography. Supplement Five, 1951-1955 (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1977), which includes a useful but incomplete listing of her publications. Hale also wrote a series of articles in the 1950s about a psychotherapist who resembled Hinkle. They were published as Heaven and Hardpan Farm (1957).

I hope that biographies of both Long and Hinkle will be written one day. For those interested, some of Hinkle's personal papers are in the Kristine Mann Library at the C. G. Jung Center in New York City and also in the Library of the C. G. Jung Institute in San Francisco. There are a few materials relating to Long in these collections. Hinkle's only book, which contains revisions of many of her writings up to that point, is Beatrice Hinkle, The Re-Creating of the Individual: A Study of Psychological Types and Their Relation to Psychoanalysis (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1923). The dedication reads, "To the memory of my beloved friend Constance E. Long, M.D. this book is affectionately dedicated."

9. Beatrice Hinkle, "Jung's Libido Theory and the Bergsonian Philosophy," New York Medical Journal, May 30, 1914, 1080-86.

10. Long, Psychology of Phantasy, 126.

11. Ernest Jones to Sigmund Freud, Feb. 15, 1914, in Paskauskas, Freud/ Jones, 288.

12. C. G. Jung, Psychology of the Unconscious: A Study of the Transformations and Symbolisms of the Libido, trans. Beatrice Hinkle (New York: Moffat, Yard, 1916).

13. C. G. Jung, Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology, ed. Constance Long (London: Bailliere, Tindall and Cox, 1916; 2d ed., 1917).

14. Ibid., vi.

15. The 1919-22 diary of Constance Long is in the CLM. The pages are not numbered, but significant entries are often dated. Where possible, I have given the entry date of each citation in the text. As there is so much material on Ouspensky and Gurdjieff in Long's diary, I am sure this will prove to be a useful primary source for those studying the early movement of these two men. I must confess I know next to nothing about the greater metaphysical systems of these men, and I beg the forgiveness of those who do know more than I.

16. See "The Psychology of the Unconscious Processes," in Jung, Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology, 2d ed., 426-36.

17. For personal information on H. G. Baynes, see Michael Fordham interview, Feb. 17, 1969, JBA.

18. These lectures were published as "On the Problem of Psychogenesis in Mental Disease," CW 3; "Instinct and the Unconscious," CW 8; and "The Psychological Foundation of a Belief in Spirits," CW 8.

19. Long, Psychology of Phantasy, 132.

20. Ibid., 26.

21. Ibid., 138, 141, 143.

22. In 1922, Corrie published "Personal Experience of the Night-Sea Journey Under the Sea," British Journal of Psychology, Medical Section 2 (1922) 303-12. The night-sea journey is one of Jung's metaphors for the terrifying encounter with the mythological contents of the unconscious, which is also likened to heroic myths about the sun. Corrie's paper is the first extensive use of the night-sea metaphor in print by one of Jung's disciples. She also published ABC of Jung's Psychology (London: Kegan Paul, 1927), a primer that was translated into German by Fanny Altherr-Rutishauser as C. G. Jung's Psychologie im Abriss (Zurich: Bascher, 1929).

23. Jung may have given Long a copy of "Seven Sermons to the Dead" when he saw her in July 1919, and they may have discussed it when he came to England again in September 1920, for it is in them that references to Abraxas appear in her journal. Until the appearance of original letters by Jung that correspond to the passages in Long's fantasy-laden diary, we must consider them a kind of "hearsay."

24. H. Godwin Baynes, "Translator's Preface," in C. G. Jung, Psychological Types, or The Psychology of Individuation (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner; New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1923), xx.

25. For historical background on Ouspensky and Gurdjieff, see James Webb, The Occult Establishment (La Salle, Ill.: Open Court, 1976); and Peter Washington, Madame Blavatsky's Baboon: A History of the Mystics, Mediums, and Misfits Who Brought Spiritualism to America (New York: Schocken, 1995).

26. Read was not impressed with Ouspensky. "After a trial run of a dozen lectures I turned away," he remembered. See James King, The Last Modern: A Life of Herbert Read (New York: St. Martin's, 1990), 73.

27. C. G. Jung, "Uber das Unbewusste," Schweizerland: Monatshefte fur Schweizer Art und Arbeit (Zurich) 4 (1918): 464-72, 548-58; CW 10.

28. George Mosse, The Crisis of German Ideology: Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich (New York: Schocken, 1981 [1964]), 16.

12: From Volkish Prophet to Wise Old Man

1. Heinz Gess, Vom Faschismus zum Neuen Denken: C. G. Jung's Theorie im Wandel der Zeit (Luneburg: zu Klampen, 1994).

2. JL, 1:39-40.

3. Beatrice Hinkle, The Re-Creating of the Individual: A Study of Psychological Types and Their Relation to Psychoanalysis (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1923), 128-29. The two illustrations -- figs. 5 and 6 -- appear between these two pages.

4. See "From Esther Harding's Notebooks: 1922-1925," in William McGuire and R.F.C. Hull, eds., C. G. Jung Speaking: Interviews and Encounters (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977).

5. See JC, 99-103.

6. Christiana Morgan, "The Gods and Their Representation in the House" (notebook), Christiana Morgan Papers, CLM.

7. Christiana Morgan, "Notebook. Zurich 1925," Christiana Morgan Materials: Letters and Personal Writings, 1910-1980, box 2, HUGFP 97.75, Henry A. Murray Papers, HUA.

8. Christiana Morgan, "Notebook. Dreams, Analysis, June 8, 1926 to October 20,1926." Christiana Morgan Papers, CLM.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid.

11. Henry A. Murray interview, November 1968, JBA, 56.

12. Ernest Harms interview, November 1968, JBA, 16-17.

13. C. G. Jung, Seelenprobleme der Gegenwart (Zurich: Rascher, 1931). This volume contains many of Jung's most Volkish essays.

14. See McGuire and Hull, C. G. Jung Speaking, 433-35.

15. C. G. Jung, Psychology of the Unconscious: A Study of the Transformations and Symbolisms of the Libido, trans. Beatrice M. Hinkle (New York: Moffat, Yard, 1916), 108-9. On Honegger, see Hans Walser, "An Early Psychoanalytical Tragedy: J. J. Honegger and the Beginnings of Training Analysis," Spring (1974):

16. For Jung's "revised" versions, see ''The Structure of the Psyche" (1928/1931), in CW 8, para. 319; and especially "The Concept of the Collective Unconscious" (1936), CW 9, i, para. 105.

17. Jung, Psychology of the Unconscious, 109.

18. G.R.S. Mead, A Mithraic Ritual (London: Theosophical Publishing Society, 1907).

19. Albrecht Dieterich, Eine Mithrasliturgie (Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1903; 2d ed., Leipzig, 1910).

20. See CW 9, i, para. 105 n. 5.

21. For context, see Elizabeth Eisenstein, The Printing Press as an Agent of Change, 2 vols. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979). The prevalence of Theosophical literature in the popular culture of Europe for almost three decades before Jung and his associates began amassing evidence for a collective unconscious at the Burgholzli provides a sufficient and plausible alternate hypothesis for the presence of mythological motifs and Gnostic/alchemical/ Hermetic symbols in the dreams of twentieth-century individuals in Jung's Switzerland.

22. C. G. Jung, "A Study in the Process of Individuation," CW 9, i, para. 542.

23. On Kristine Mann, her Swedenborgian upbringing, and her exposure to alchemical ideas, see James Webb, The Occult Establishment (La Salle, Ill.: Open Court, 1976), 388-94.

24. Michael Fordham interview, Feb. 17, 1969, JBA, 21-22.

25. John Layard interview, Dec. 17, 1969, JBA, 67.

26. James Hillman interview, Jan. 1, 1970, JBA, 32.

27. Irene Champernowne interview, Dec. 19, 1969, JBA, 56.

28. According to Ernst Hanfstangl, one of Hitler's closest associates during his rise to power, "We got to talking about the Party flag, which he [Hitler] had taken great care to design himself. I told him I did not like the use of black for the swastika, which was a sun symbol and should be in red." Ernst Hanfstangl, Hitler: The Missing Years (New York: Arcade, 1994 [1957]). It was in Hanfstangl's house that Hitler hid after his 1923 Munich putsch. Coincidentally, just prior to the First World War, Hanfstangl was a personal assistant and lower-level manager for Harold McCormick and the International Harvester Company. Letters from Hanfstangl to McCormick can be found scattered among the papers in the HFM Corr. at MIH. See also Malcolm Quinn, The Swastika: Constructing the Symbol (London: Routledge, 1994).

29. Wilhelm Bitter interview, Sept. 10, 1970, JBA, 17.

30. Jolande Jacobi interview, Dec. 26, 1969, JBA, 53.

31. C. G. Jung, "Wotan," Neue schweizer Rundshau 3 (March 1936): 657-69. See also CW 10.

32. Jolande Jacobi interview, Dec. 23, 1969, JBA, 24.

33. Michael Fordham interview, Feb. 1969, JBA, 1-2.

34. Cornelia Brunner interview, Jan. 8, 1970, JBA, 26-27.

35. Irene Champernowne interview, Dec. 19, 1969, JBA, 58.

36. Ibid., 60.

37. Aline Valangin interview, Sept. 2, 1970, JBA, 13.

38. Mary Elliot interview, Dec. 1969, JBA, 22.

39. Lilane Frey interview, Dec. 1969, JBA, 4.

40. Jane Wheelwright interview, Dec. 1968, JBA, 15.

41. Jolande Jacobi interview, Dec. 23, 1969, JBA, 27-28.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 29753
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: THE ARYAN CHRIST: THE SECRET LIFE OF CARL JUNG

Postby admin » Sun May 17, 2020 7:29 am

Index

Page numbers in italics refer to illustrations.

Abraham, Karl, 59, 108, 238
Abraxas, 127, 161-62, 251, 254, 266, 318n
F. B. Katz and, 185-86, 188, 193
active imagination, 24, 121, 137, 155, 266
Adler, Alfred, 57, 59, 259, 312n
Adler, Gerhard, 274
Africa, CGJ in, 96
Ahnenerbe, 4, 245
see also collective unconscious; inner
fatherland
Aion (Deus Leontocephalus), iv, 121, 123, 124,
138-39, 143
alchemy, 7, 14-15, 16, 130, 271
CGJ's interest in, xiv, 131, 138, 139, 159,
17I, 244, 277-78, 307n, 312n
Alcock, J. M., 257
Almqvist, Kurt, 304n
Also Sprach Zarathustra (Nietzsche), 51, 126
American Society of Psychical Research, 166
Amsterdam, 182, 195, 196
analytic psychology, 23, 120, 121, 148-60,
311n-12n
collectivity of, 156, 157
in England, 236, 239, 241-44, 246-47,
252-55, 258, 260, 276
guiding fiction and, 157-58, 228, 230, 312n
initiatory process in, 141
intellectual education and, 170-71, 207, 209
H. F. McCormick on allure of, 215-21
Roman Catholicism compared with, 141, 157
in United States, 206, 241, 248, 249-50, 265,
277
women's attraction to, 165-66
see also specific concepts and people
ancestor possession, 19-21
Ancient Mystery Cults (Burkert), 127, 129, 130
Andreae, Johann Valentin, 14
Andreas-Salome, Lou, 57, 113
anima, 95, 118, 122, 156, 242, 248, 267
animal magnetism, 32-36, 51
animus, 95, 118, 242, 248, 254, 267
anti-Semitism, 108, 112, 114, 143, 145, 146,
259, 273-77
Antike Mysterienwesen in
religionsgeschichtlicher, ethnologischer
und psychologischer Beleuchtung, Das
(De Jong), 128
anxiety, 47, 82, 84
Apollo, 86, 132
Apuleius, 131-32
archeology, 85, 127
CGJ's interest in, 42, 43-44, 64, 100-103,
110, 125, 138
of Mithraeums, 132, 136
archetypes, xiii, 3, 54, 95, 126, 160, 179, 181,
210, 242, 246-47
Archiv fur Kriminalanthropologie und
Kriminalistik, 297n-98n
Arminius, 10, 107
Arndt, Ernst Moritz, 8, 10-11, 115-16, 288n
art, 124, 133
CGJ's interest in, 42, 44-45
psychoanalytic interpretation of, 57-58
Aryan Christ, 143-46, 153, 155-56, 164, 179,
208, 252, 277
Aryans, iv, xvi, 66, 107-16, 125, 141-47, 259,
263-64, 273-78, 309n-l0n
dementia praecox in, 300n
sun worship of, 68, 111-12, 114-18, 194, 263
Ascona, 75, 79, 84, 85, 86, 114, 117, 118-19,
155, 271, 298
astrology, 128, 130, 133, 135-36, 141
in Jungian therapy, 193, 234
astronomy, 133, 134-35, 141
Austria-Hungary, 57, 59, 71-72, 88, 108
"Autobiographical Fragment" (von Humboldt), vii
autobiographies, xi
spiritual, I I, 30
see also Memories, Dreams, Reflections
automatic writing, 155, 166

Baader, Franz von, 37
Bachofen, Johann Jakob, 85-86, 106, 126, 300n,
307n
Bailey, Ruth, 96-97
Bainbridge, William Sims, 61
Baldur, II6
Ball, Hugo, 74
Basel, 12-13, 100
Basel, University of, 7, 12, 29
Basilides of Alexandria, 139, 161
Bauman, Gret Jung, 69, 234
Baumler, Alfred, 307n
Baur-Celio, Bernhard, 140
Bavaria, 13-14, 42-45, II4
Baynes, Helton Godwin (Peter), 246, 252, 254,
258, 260
Bayreuth, 144, 145
Becher, Johannes, 74
Bell, Mary, 243, 254
Bennett, E. A., 100
Beresford, J. D., 257
Bergson, Henri, 239, 241
Berlin, 8, 10, 11-12, 274
O. Gross in, 79, 88, 89
Bertine, Eleanor, 250, 254
"Betender Knabe" (Fidus), 68
Bible, personal, 189, 190, 192-95, 198, 266
Binet, Alfred, 30, 48
Bing, Henri, 74
biology, biological theories:
evolutionary, 30, 46, 86, 102, 104-6, 108, III
as historical science, 105
Lamarckian, 20, 46, 105, 108, 112, 265
spirituality and, 19-20, 99, 277
Bitter, Wilhelm, 273-74
Bjerre, Poul Carl, 113-14
Blaine, Anita McCormick, 201, 205-6
Blatter von Prevorst, 292n
Blavatsky, Madame, 126, 127
Bleuler, Eugen, 45, 47, 51, 69, 77, 294n
psychoanalysis and, 56, 57, 64
Bleuler, Manfred, 299n
Boddinghaus, Martha, 168
Boehme, Jakob, 30
Boer, Charles, 306n
bohemians, bohemian life, 72-77, 84, 85, 87,
96, 100, 298n
O. Gross's arrest and, 88
Wandlungen and, 104, II7, 118-19
Bohler, Eugen, xiv-xv, 146-47
Bollingen, Jung's Tower in, 3-4, 15, 96,
122-23, 235
Borngraber, Otto, 164
bourgeoisie, bourgeois life, 69-76, 88, 100
of CGJ, 69-70, 78, 87, 90, 96
Bowditch, Fanny, see Katz, Fanny Bowditch
Bowditch, Henry Pickering, 166, 167
Bowditch, Selma, 167, 168, 172, 196-97
Boyle, Nicholas, 10
Breuer, Josef, 56
Brill, A. A., 239
Brod, Max, 75, 88
Brunner, Cornelia, 275-76
Bruno, Giordano, 109
Bryan, William Jennings, 205
Burgholzli Psychiatric Clinic, 50, 53, 55-57, 69,
112, 299n
O. Gross at, 70, 73, 77-84, 87, 89, 299n
CGJ's resignation from, 101
CGJ's start at, 31, 42, 45-47
psychoanalysis and, 45, 56, 57, 8 I-84, 87,
89-90
Spielrein's treatment at, 89-90, 30ln
Burkert, Walter, 127, 129, 130

Cafe Stefanie, 74, 76, 298n
Campbell, Joseph, xvi
capitalism, progressive reaction against, 114-15
Carus, Carl Gustav, 30
"Cash Value of Ultimate Peace Terms" (H. F.
McCormick), 226
Cerebrale Sekundaifunktion, Die (O. Gross), 88
C. G. Jung Biographical Archives Project,
62-63, 90, 152, 170, 208, 272, 302n
C. G. Jungs Medium (Zumstein-Preiswerk), 26
Chamberlain, Houston Stewart, 144-45, 273,
309n-1On
Champernowne, Irene, 272-73, 276
Charcot, J. M., 30
Charet, F. X., 64
Chicago, III., 202-7, 218, 223, 234-35
Christianity, 171-72, 239, 277-78
mystery cults compared with, 130, 132, 133,
308n
Stuck's paintings and, 44-45
see also Judeo-Christian tradition;
Protestants, Protestantism; Roman
Catholicism, Roman Catholics
Chymische Hochzeit Christiani Rosencreutz
(Andreae), 14
civilization, 102, II2, 115
Jews and, 143, 263-64, 275
repression and, 76, 78, 86
clairvoyance, 25, 31-32, 35, 37, 51, 150
Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology
(Jung), 212, 241, 242, 246
Collected Works (Jung), xii, xvi, 159, 270, 271
collective unconscious, xiii, 47, 54, 99-104,
121, 126, 159, 242, 246
arguments in support of, 37, 265
individuation and, 153-54
CGJ's fact bending and, 271-72
origin of theory of, 3, 100
phylogeny and, 99, 101-6, 133, 138
positive vs. negative sides of, 153
Wolff and, 95, 96
complexes, 49, 81, 102, 181, 191
"Conception of the Unconscious, The" (Jung),
159-60, 312n
Confessio (pamphlet), 14
Congress for Neuro-Psychiatry (1907), 77-78
consciousness, 46, 48, 49, 220, 244
active imagination and, 155
change and, 100, 113
Corrie, Joan, 250, 253, 254, 26O, 264, 318n
Cosmic Circle, 85
creativity, 50-51, 74-75, 86-87, 96, 104, 118,
188
Creuzer, Friedrich, 126-27, 306n-7n
Crews, Frederick, 58
Criminalistic Institute, 71
criminology, 47, 71-72, 297n-98n
Crookes, William, 31
cross, as symbol, 5, 6, 14-18, 149, 157
Crowley, A1eister, 119
cryptomnesia, 39, 41-52, 104, 125, 138, 265,
270, 292n-95n
"Cryptomnesia" (lung), 50-51
cults, 64, 114, 117-19, 278, 296n
psychoanalysis compared with, 58-61,
64-66, 99-100, 112-13, 150-51
cultural evolution, 85-86, 105, 106
Cumont, Franz, 127-28, 135, 141, 142, 230,
307n
Christianity compared to mystery cults by,
130, 132, 133, 308n
on Mithraic initiation process, 137, 138
Cusanus, Nicholas, 30

Dada movement, 74, 89
Dana, Charles, 240
Darwin, Charles, 30, 110-11
Darwinism, 104-5
Dead, the, 33, 125
individuation and, 153-54
CGJ's encounters and discussions with, xii, xiii,
xvi, 3-4, 22-29, 34, 38-41, 154, 161-62
Seeress of Prevorst and, 35, 38
de Angulo, Cary F., 120, 306n
death, life after, xiii, 20, 31, 176
degeneracy, 264
at Burgholzli, 45
H. Gross's views on, 71-72, 75, 297n-98n
hereditary, 45, 50, 55-56
De Jong, Karel Hendrik Eduard, 128
dementia praecox, 45, 56, 83, 84, 102, 103, 142,
205, 3OOn
Demeter, 86, 129
depression, 91, 204, 232
of F. B. Katz, 167, 196
of E. R. McCormick, 202-4
Des Indes a la planete Mars (From India to the
Planet Mars) (Flournoy), 48-49, 294n
Deus Leontocephalus (Aion), iv, 121, 123, 124,
138-39, 143
Dialogues et fragments philosophiques (Renan),
107
diaries:
of CGJ, xii, 123, 290n; see also "Red Book"
of Emilie Jung, 25
of Karl Gustav Jung, 288n
of F. B. Katz, 182-86, 188-91, 193, 194-95,
244
of Long, 237, 242-47, 250, 252-60, 317n.
318n
of Spielrein, 3OOn-301n
ofC. Wagner, 145
of Wolff, 93, 302n
Diederichs, Eugen, 116
Dieterich, Albrecht, 127, 143, 169, 307n
Dionysus, 43, 86, 106, 117
mystery cult of, 126, 128, 129, 130, 142,
165
diphtheria, 237-38
dissociation, 34, 36, 47-48, 54, 94, 149
divorce, 92, 96, 202, 203, 233
dominants, 54, 95, 160, 181, 246
see also archetypes
dreams, 32, 39, 111, 171, 220, 239, 272
of CGJ, 20, 94, 99, 100, 101, 105, 122-25,
139, 146-47, 149, 151
of Emilie Jung, 25
of Kerner, 37-38
of Long, 236, 243, 245, 250, 254, 255
of Morgan, 266-67
prophetic, 172
Dreams of a Spirit-Seer (Kant), 31
Drewerman, Eugen, xvi
Duke University, 51
Dunlap, Knight, 58
Durer, Albrecht, 44

Eastman, Max, 221, 315n
Eckhardt, Meister, 20, 21, 30
Eder, Edith, 239, 241
Eder, M. David, 213, 239, 241, 246, 257
Edward VII, King of England, 238
ego, 49, 135, 155, 244
Eitington, Max, 78
Eleusinian mysteries, 86, 128, 129, 130, 142, 150
Elijah, 122, 123, 133, 134, 139, 155, 160
Eliot, T. S., 257
Ellenberger, Henri, 23, 290n, 292n, 295n
Ellenville, N.Y., 204-5, 206
Elliot, Mary, 276-77
Ellis, Havelock, 257
Elms, Alan, xiii, 287n
Empedocles, 30
Engels, Friedrich, 85, 300n
England, 9, 138-39, 250-60
analytic psychology in, 236, 239, 241-44,
246-47, 252-55, 258, 260, 276
psychoanalysis in, 236-41, 246, 257, 258
Enlightenment, Freemasonry and, 13, 14, 15
Eranos conference, 271
Eschenmayer, Adam Carl August von, 37
Essay on Spirit-Seeing (Schopenhauer), 32
eugenics, 115, 118
Everybody's Magazine, 221, 315n
evolution, 99, 125
biological, 30, 46, 86, 102, 104-6, 108, 111
cultural, 85-86, 105, 106
O. Gross's views on, 72-73, 76, 84-86
extrasensory perception (ESP), 51
extraversion, 87-88, 181, 219, 220-21, 242,
248, 300n

fairy tales, psychoanalytic interpretation of,
57-58, 296n
false memory syndrome, 49
Fama (pamphlet), 14
Faust (Goethe), 16, 20, 140, 150, 196
Favill, Dr., 206
Fechner, Gustav, 30
feeling type, 181, 219, 221, 242
Feminine principle, 118, 150, 194
Ferenczi, Sandor, 59, 238
Freud's correspondence with, 63, 88, 108,
109, 112-13, 170, 179, 206, 207, 225, 300n
Putnam's correspondence with, 173
Fidus (Karl Hoppner), 2, 68, 117-18, 164, 194,
262, 265, 305n
Fiechter, Ernst, 70
Flarnmarion, Camille, 39
Floumoy, Theodore, 23, 30, 48-49, 54, I04, 294n
Foord, Dr., 204, 205, 206
Fordham, Michael, 272, 275
France, 9, 32, 260
CGJ in, 40, 42
Karl Gustav Jung in, 12, 13
in Napoleonic wars, 5, 6, 7, 14
Frank, Leonhard, 74, 88
freelove, 76-77, 86-87
see also polygamy; sexual liberation
Freemasons, Freemasonry, 5, 13-19, 66, 127,
130, 157, 289n
see also Rosicrucians, Rosicrucianism
Freud, Sigmund, 23, 46, 53-66, 70, 100-103, 145,
215, 238, 239, 259, 264, 295n-97~ 315n
Ferenczi's correspondence with, 63, 88, 108,
109, 112-13, 170, 179, 206, 207, 225, 300n
O. Gross and, 71-81, 83, 84, 88
Haeckeland, 105, 106
Jones's correspondence with, 78, 83, 112,
170, 179, 240
CGJ compared with, 41, 54, 64-66, 97, 99,
106, 135, 158
CGJ's correspondence with, xii, 53, 62-66,
77-81, 83, 84, 89-91, 93-94, 101-2, 108,
113-14, 126, 134, 135, 309n
CGJ as heir apparent of, 53-54, 65-66, 69, 108
CGJ's "religious crush" on, 61-64
CGJ's split with, 53-54, 66, 99, 107-9, 112-13,
135, 136, 166, 173, 177, 236, 238, 241
E. R. McCormick and, 206, 207, 225
M. McCormick and, 204
Mithraism and, 133, 135-36
Nietzsche compared with, 74, 76, 78, 79
Putnam and, 167, 173, 182, 240
sexual theory of, 54, 56, 99, 106, 109, 113, 136
Frey, Liliane, 278
Fries, Ernst, 288n
From India to the Planet Mars (Des Indes a la
planete Mars) (Flournoy), 48-49, 294n

Gedo, John, 64
Geheimnisse, Die (Goethe), 17-18, 289n
genius, 21, 55, 71, 74, 79, 89, 295n
of Goethe, 18, 20
hidden memories and, 50-51
of CGJ, 102-3, 271
"Gentlemen Volunteers, " 226
George, Stefan, 43, 85
Germany, 5-16, 32, 214, 263-64
Freemasonry in, 13-16
Graecophilia in, 110, 303n
Nazism in, xvi, 264, 273-77
sun worship in, 114-17
unification of, 115
see also nationalism, German; specific cities
Gess, Heinz, 264
Gilman, Sander, 55
"Gladius Dei" (Mann), 42, 292n-93n
Glaus, Beat, 286n
Gnostics, Gnosticism, xvi, 127, 130, 131,
16O-62, 185, 251, 252, 307n
Philemon and, 3-4, 139, 287n
God, 21
CGJ's conception of, xiv-xv, 104, 106-7
Pietism and, 9-11
"Gods and Their Representation in the House,
The" (Morgan), 266
Goerres, Josef, 30, 37, 307n
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 12, 16-21, 30, 38,
43, 105, 109, 110, 140, 150, 157, 196, 289n
CGJ as reincarnation of, 18-21
Karl Gustav Jung as illegitimate son of, 18, 19
Gordon, R. L., 137
Graf, Max, 59
Great Mother Goddess, 85, 86, 117, 129, 130,
142, 182, 183
Greece, ancient, 85-86, 142
Germany and, 1I0, 303n
Greek Magical Papyri, 269, 270
Green, Martin, 299n
Greenfeld, Liah, 288n-89n
Gross, Frieda, 73, 77, 79-80, 82, 83, 88
Gross, Hans, 71-72, 73, 75, 77, 78, 88, 89,
297n-98n
Gross, Otto, 70-91, 97, 98, ll7, 238, 297n-300n
arrest of, 88
at Burgholzli, 70, 73, 77-84, 87, 89, 299n
death of, 79, 88, 89
as drug addict, 71, 73, 78-81, 83, 88
CGJ analyzed by, 83-84, 87
CGJ's dislike of, 77, 78, 83
CGJ's notes on, 79-83, 91, 299n
polygamy and, 70, 76-79, 85-87, 89-91, 97,
99, I97, 299n
Gross, Peter, 77, 88
Gross-Cophta, Der (Goethe), 16
Grundlagen des Neunzehnten Jahrhunderts, Die
(Chamberlain), 144-45
guiding fiction, 157-58, 228, 230, 312n
Gurdjieff, George Ivanovitch, 256-58, 260,
317n, 318n
Gypsies, 71-72, 298n

Haeckel, Ernst, 30, 46, 104-6, 109, 111, 116,
303n
Hall, Stanley, 217
Handbuch fur Untersuchungsrichter (H. Gross),
298n
Hanfstangl, Ernst, 320n
Harding, Mary Esther, 250, 254, 265
Harms, Ernest, 268
Hartmann, Eduard von, 30
Harvard University, 166, 167, 277
Hauffe, Friedericke (Seeress of Prevorst),
35-39, 48
Hausheer, Irene, 207
Hecht, Dora, 241
Heidelberg, 7-8, 76, 83, 84
Heine, Heinrich, 5-6, 43
Helios, 132, 133
Hellenes, 144, 310n
Hennings, Emmy, 74
Heraclitus, 20, 30
Herder, J. G., 8, 115
hereditary degeneration, 45, 50, 55-56
Hering, Ewald, 46-47
Hermand, Jost, 115
hermaphrodites, hermaphroditism. 195, 244, 248
Hermes, 146, 154
Hermeticism, 15, 130, 307n
Herrn Dames Aufzeichnungen (Reventlow), 117
Herzensreligion, 9
Herzl, Theodor, 25
Hesse, Hermann, 9, 1I8, 185, 195, 292n
hetairism, 85, 106
Hidden Church o/the Holy Grail, The (Waite),
229-30
hieros logos, 129
Hinkle, Consuela, 240
Hinkle, Walter Scot, 240
Hinkle-Eastwick, Beatrice, 94, 206, 232-33,
248, 250, 254-55, 265, 317n
analysis of, 195
background of, 240-41
CGJ translated by, 212, 241, 270
Long's friendship with, 240, 260
Hitler, Adolf, xvi, ll6, 277
Holm, Lars, 304n
Holtzman, Willy, 30ln
Holy Grail, 15, 116, 145, 149, 155, 159, 190,
195, 227, 230, 254, 315n, 316n
Holy Spirit, 9, 146, 156
Homans, Peter, 64
homosexuality, 62-63, 248, 249
Honegger, Johann Jakob, 102, 103, 127, 142,
269
papers of, xii, 286n-87n
suicide of, 63, 93, 269 .
Hoppner, Karl, see Fidus
Hull, R.F.C., xvi
Humboldt, Alexander von, 12, 289n
Humboldt, Wilhelm von, vii
Hungary, 203, 313n
Hurwitz, Emanuel, 299n
"Hymn to King Helios" (Julian), 98, 109, 134
Hymn to the Mother of the Gods (Julian), 67
hypnosis, 30, 34, 128
hysteria, 25, 30, 45, 55, 56, 90, 128
spiritualism and, 33, 34, 48, 50, 51

I Ching, 193, 234
Illuminati, 13, 15, 16, 19, 66
imagination, 104
active, 24, 121, 137, 155, 266
India, 114, 142
individuation, xiii, 54, 64, 95, 122, 141, 153-54,
157, 180, 198
of F. B. Katz, 182, 194
inner fatherland, 3-21, 41, 109, 129, 287n-90n
ancestor possession and, 19-21
Freemasonry and, 13-19, 289n
Pietism and, 8-11, 19, 288n-89n
Wartburgfest and, 5-7, 287n-88n
International Conference of Women Physicians
(1919), 247-50
International Harvester Company, 201, 202,
211, 232, 234, 320n
International Order for Ethics and Culture,
64-65
International Psychoanalytic Association:
CGJ as president of, 57, 158, 173
conferences of, 57, 78-79, 93-94, 113, 114,
150-51, 168, 300n
Interpretation of Dreams, The (Freud), 53, 113,
239
introversion:
Pietism and, 9, 289n
as psychological type, 87-88, 110, 181, 219,
220-21, 242, 248, 251, 300n
intuition, xvi, 9, 115, 125, 131, 146, 181, 242
Iran, 114, 126, 142
Isis, 127, 128, 129, 131-32, 137, 142-43

Jackson, Howard, 139
Jacobi, Jolande, 62, 97, 170, 274, 275, 278
Jaffe, Aniela, xvi, 278
Memories, Dreams, Reflections and, xii,
94-95, 120, 122, 160-61, 287n
Jaffe, Edgar, 76
Jaffe, Else von Richthofen, 76, 77, 83, 84, 299n
Jaffe, Peter, 77
Jahn, Friedrich Ludwig, S, 8, 115
James, William, 23, 31, 166
Janet, Pierre, 23, 30, 48, 54
Jerome, 136
Jesus Christ, xvi, 30, 44, 107, 112, 123, 133, 278
apostles of, 156
death of, 135, 153
descent into Hell by, 154
Pietism and, 9, 10-11
as Wotan, 146
see also Aryan Christ
John XXII, Pope, 21
Jones, Ernest, 59, 110, 238, 241
Freud's correspondence with, 78, 83, 112,
170, 179, 240
O. Gross and, 71, 75, 78, 83
CGJ criticized by, 150
Putnam's correspondence with, 172, 173
Jouret, Luc, 289n
Joyce, James, 231
Judaism, Jews, xv, 25, 72, 143-46, 156,
263-64, 267, 298n
civilization and, 143, 263-64, 275
psychoanalysis and, 55, 57, 58, 59, 108-9,
112-13, 238, 259
Judeo-Christian tradition, 30, 64-65, 115
CGJ's hostility toward, xv-xvi, 61, 99,
106-7, 141-43, 151
Mithraism as rival of, 132, 141
Julian the Apostate, Emperor of Rome, xv-xvi,
67, 98, 109, 134, 309n
Jung, Agathe (daughter), 25, 69
Jung, Carl Gustav:
as Aion, iv, 121, 123, 124, 139, 143
anti-Semitism of, 112, 114, 145, 146, 273-77
betrayals, omissions, and lies of, 40, 50, 88,
94-95, 269-72
birth of, xii, 7
bourgeois life of, 69-70, 78, 87, 90, 96
death of, xii
diaries of, xii, 123, 290n; see also "Red Book"
doctoral dissertation of, 34, 47-50, 128,
290n-91n, 294n
dreams of, 20, 94, 99, 100, 101, 105, 122-25,
139, 146-47, 149, 151
education of, 12, 29, 42, 105, 110
fame of, xii, 46, 69, 88, 158, 200, 213
family background of, 6-9, 11-19, 24-30,
157, 291n
fantasies of, 66, 99, 10 I, 108, 144
finances of, 29, 42, 70
foreign travels of, xii, 40, 42-45, 53, 55, 91,
96, 108, 109, 113, 150-51, 169, 205-6,
207, 234, 239, 242, 246-47, 254-55, 277,
293n, 295n
in historical perspective, xiii, xiv, xvi, 100,
114-19, 272-77
initiation and deification of, iv, xiii-xvi,
120-25, 133, 138-41, 143, 144, 150, 151,
153, 155-56, 158, 179, 208, 252, 306n
inner fatherland of, 3-21, 41, 109, 287n-91n
lectures and seminars of, xii, 11, 19, 31, 33,
38, 51-52, 100, 109, 120-25, 138-39,
149-60, 171, 239, 246-47, 252, 253, 254,
265, 271, 274, 277, 291n, 292n. 306n
as Leo, 137
masks of, 158-60, 251-52, 253
in medical corps, 181, 188, 211, 242
military interests of, 42, 43
myth of, xiii, xiv, 120, 121, 171
nickname of, 96
number one personality of, 20, 24
number two personality of, 4, 24, 50
paganism of, xv-xvi, 3, 11, 87, 100, 103, 104,
117, 121-25, 133, 148-62, 171-72,
184-86, 239-41, 268, 274-75, 311n-12n
paintings of, xii, 3-4, 15, 151, 152, 162, 266
physical appearance of, 22, 62
polygamy of, 70, 87, 89-97, 158, 191-92,
197, 227
problems in writing biography of, xii-xiii
professional disengagement of, 10 1, 158
psychoanalysis and, 53-66, 69, 89-94,
102-14, 121, 135, 171, 173, 204
reading and library of, 11, 30-38, 125-28,
130-33, 289n, 307n
religion-building proclivities of, xiv-xvi,
64-66, 87, 99-100, 112-13, 149-58, 160,
171-72, 175-77, 180, 184-86, 219,
227-31, 239-41, 251, 268, 277-78
religious background of, 29, 44
sexuality of, 3, 61-63, 87, 89-91, 94, 98, 121
skepticism of, 30, 41, 51, 123
spiritualism and, 22-41, 51, 54, 58, 64, 87,
108, 121, 290n-92n
spiritual rebirth of, xiii, 11, 97-100, 104,
120-25, 149-50, 151, 179
synthesizing abilities of, 102-3, 104, 128, 252
violent language of, 187
visions of, iv. xii, 3-4, 45, 94, 102, 121-25,
138, 141, 149, 151, 154, 179, 208, 286n
Jung, Emilie Preiswerk (mother), 24, 29, 40, 42
death of, 146
as hysteric, 25, 50
Jung, Emma Rauschenbach (wife), xii, 45, 69,
89, 93, 94, 216, 228, 254, 272
death of, 97, 146
CGrs affairs and, 90, 96, 227
H. F. McCormick's correspondence with,
232, 235
Jung, Ernst (uncle), 288n
Jung, Franz Ignaz (great-grandfather), 7
Jung, Franz Karl (son), 69, 207, 286n
Jung, Gertrud (sister), 7, 29, 42
Jung, Gret (daughter), 69, 234
Jung, Johann Heinrich, see Jung-Stilling,
Heinrich
Jung, Johann Paul Achilles (father), 7, 19, 62
death of, 23, 24, 27, 29, 30
Jung, Karl Gustav (grandfather), 6-9, 11-19,
28, 157
baptismal certificate of, 8, 288n
drawing of, 7, 288n
exile and homesickness of, 12-13
as Freemason, 13-16
as Goethe's illegitimate son, 18, 19
imprisonment of, 11-12
religious conversion of, 8, 12, 288n
Jung, Maria Josepha (great-grandmother), 7, 38
Jung, Sigismund von (great-great uncle), 7
Jung Cult, The (Noll), 64, 287n
Jung-Stilling, Heinrich (Johann Heinrich Jung),
11, 30, 32-34
Jung's Turm, 3-4, 15, 96, 122-23, 235
"Jung the Leontocephalus" (Noll), 306n

Kafka, Franz, 88-89
Kahane, Max, 57
Kandinsky, Wassi1y, 43
Kant, Immanuel, 23, 30, 31-32, 218
Katz, Fanny Bowditch, 165-99, 236, 255, 259,
312n-13n
depression of, 167, 196
descent into underworld by, 195
diary of, 182-86, 188-91, 193, 194-95, 244
drawings of, 180-81, 188-90, 193, 194, 195,
197, 199
family background of, 166-67
CGJ's analysis of, 167-81, 240
CGrs correspondence with, 187-88, 196
marriage of, 165, 182, 190-92, 194, 197-98
Moltzer's analysis of, 168, 170, 174, 180,
182, 185-95
Putnam's correspondence with, 168-70,
172-80, 184-85, 192
sacrifice of, 182-85
Katz, Johann Rudolf, 182, 186, 190-95,
197-98, 255, 256, 294n
Keller, Adolph, 152, 180, 227, 235
Keller, Tina, 92, 95, 152, 179-80, 186-87,
301n, 311n
Kerner, Justinius, 34-39, 48, 51, 292n
Kerr, John, 64
Keyser1ing, Count Hermann, 264
Klages, Ludwig, 85, 117
Knapp, Albert, 64-65
Konig Friedwahn (Borngraber), 164
Kraepelin, Emil, 73, 81, 83
Krenn, Edwin, 233, 234
"Kreuzlingen gesture" incident, 63
Kusnacht, 3, 70, 96, 101-2, 117, 121, 215, 218,
235, 278

Laban, Rudolph von, 118
Lamarck, Chevalier de, 30
Lamarckian biology, 20, 46, 105, 108, 112, 265
Land of the Dead, 3, 23, 41, 122-25, 129, 146,
154, 159-60, 195, 208
Lao-dze, 218
Lawrence, D. H., 77
Lawrence, Frieda von Richthofen, 76, 77, 84,
299n
Layard, John, 95, 97, 272
Lectures on the Origins and Growth of Religion
(Muller), 98
Legge, P.lexander, 211
Lenin, V. 1., 43
Leo, 137, 138, 139
leo, grade of, 136-38
libido, 98, 99, 105-7, 109-10, 135, 136,
141-42, 181, 194, 241, 245, 246, 249, 251
"Lichtgebet, " 68, 118, 265
"Liebe" (Fidus), 2
lions, 124, 136-38
Lombroso, Cesare, 3 I
London Psycho-P.nalytic Society, 238, 246
Long, Constance, 165-66, 236-60, 264,
316n-18n
analysis of, 195, 241, 254
"MKB" and, 243, 253, 255, 256
diary of, 237, 242-47, 250, 252-60, 317n,
318n
dreams and visions of, 236, 243, 245, 250,
254, 255
health problems of, 237, 246, 250, 260
at International Conference of Women
Physicians, 247-50
CGJ's break with, 255-56
CGJ's correspondence with, 237, 250-52,
258-59
CGJ translated by, 241
Ouspensky and, 255-60, 317n
in Zurich, 236, 239-41
Ludendorff, Erich, I 16
Lusitania, 214, 215
Luther, Martin, 5-6, 9
Lutheranism, 6, 9, 10

McClure's, 72
McCormick, Adah Wilson, 233
McCormick, Anita, 20 I, 205-6
McCormick, Anne Urquhart Stillman (Fifi), 234
McCormick, Cyrus, Jr., 201-2, 213
McCormick, Cyrus Hall, Sr., 201
McCormick, Editha, 200, 202
McCormick, Edith Rockefeller, 165-66, 195,
200-236, 240, 313n-16n
agoraphobia of, 201, 205, 207, 218, 224, 231
analysis of, 200, 204, 206, 207, 213, 218
as analyst, 200, 202, 207, 224, 231-32, 234
causes funded by, 224, 225, 226, 231, 234
death of, 234-35
divorce of, 202, 233
dreams of, 218
in Ellenville, 204-5, 206
Hungarian trip of, 203, 313n
intellectual nature of, 201, 202, 207
return to United States by, 233, 234
translation of CGJ's works and, 212-13, 225,
241
McCormick, Ganna Walska, 233
McCormick, Harold Fowler, Jr., 200, 202, 203,
207-12, 215, 222-23, 232
analysis of, 226-27
CGJ's relationship with, 207-8, 234
marriage of, 233-34
McCormick, Harold Fowler, Sr., 200-206,
208-24, 226-35, 320n
analysis of, 195, 212, 226-27
family background of, 201-2
CGJ's relationship with, 209, 212, 215, 218
on Psychological Club, 228-29
Psychological Club building selected by,
223-24
return to United States by, 232
walking trip of, 216-17, 218
McCormick, John D. Rockefeller, 200, 202, 203
McCormick, Mary Virginia, 201, 203, 217
McCormick, Mathilde, 200, 202, 203, 208, 212,
227, 238
McCormick, Medill, 91, 203-4, 205, 233
McCormick, Muriel, 200, 202, 203, 207, 212, 233
analysis of, 195, 210, 217, 226-27
education of, 208, 213
father's correspondence with, 210
personality of, 208, 209, 211, 217
McCormick, Nancy Fowler (Nettie), 201, 202,
205-6, 211-14, 216-19, 232-33
Edith's correspondence with, 225
Fowler's correspondence with, 222-23
Harold's correspondence with, 204, 208, 211,
212, 213-14, 216-17, 218, 226, 231
McCormick, Ruth Hanna, 91
McCormick, Stanley, 201, 202, 203, 205-6, 226
Maeder, Alphonse, 113, 150-51, 152, In, 180,
182, 187, 227
Mainz, 7
mandalas, 114, 162, 242, 244, 266, 271
Mann, Kristine, 250, 271
Mann, Thomas, 42, 292n-93n
Mars, Martians, 39, 48-49
Masculine principle, 118, 189, 194
matriarchy, 72, 74, 85-86, 106
Mazdean religion, 132
Mead, G.R.S. 131, 269-70
Meier, Carl A., 97
Mellon, Mary, 213
Mellon, Paul, 213
memories, 125
Burgholzli research on, 46-47
Freud's views on, 56
hidden, 39, 41-52, 104, 125, 138, 265, 270,
292n-95n
"implicit, " 49
organic, 46
Memories, Dreams, Reflections (MDR) (Jung),
xii-xiv, 7, 24, 29, 160-61, 293n
classical education in, 110
"Confrontation with the Unconscious" in,
120, 122
dreams in, 100, 105
falsifications in, 291 n
German edition of, xiii, 286n
hereditary statistics in, 55
Jaffe's role in writing of, xiii, 120, 287n
"On Life After Death" in, 20-21
Philemon in, 3, 139
stone tablets in, 4
Wiedergeburt testimonies compared with, II
Wolff and, 94-95
men, CGJ's problems with, 22, 62-63
Menschwerdung, 155, 156, 157
Mercurius, 278, 312n
Metamorphoses (Apuleius), 131-32
Meyrink, Gustav, 74
Miller, Miss Frank, 104, 106, 112
Minder, Bernard, 30ln
Mithraeums, 132, 136, 137
Mithraic Liturgy, 127, 132, 143, 269-70
Mithraic mysteries, iv, 121, 124, 125, 127-28,
132-43, 230, 269-70, 306n-9n
Christianity compared with, 132, 133, 308n
initiation into, 132, 136-37, 138
Philemon and, 3-4, 287n
tauroctony in, 132-36
Mithraic Ritual, A (Mead), 269-70
Mithras, 121, 125, 132
as kosmokrator, 133
as Sollnvictus, 132
tauroctony and, 132-36
Mithrasliturgie, Eine (Dieterich), 269-70
Moltter, Maria, 94, 185-98, 239, 241, 245, 31In
CGJ analyzed by, 170
CGJ's alleged affair with, 94, 170, 191-92,
198, 206
Katt compared with, 181, 191-92
Katz's correspondence with, 195-98
Katt's treatment with, 168, 170, 174, 180,
182, 185-95
McCormick family and, 206, 207, 217, 227
Monistenbund, 116
Monologen (Schleiermacher), 289n
monotheism, xv, 30, 99, 172, 277
see also God
Morgan, Christiana, 92, 266-68, 302n
Morganblatt, 18
Moses, B. Frederick, 240
Mosse, George, 146, 259
"Moth to the Sun, The" (Miller), 106
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 180
Muhsam, Erich, 74-75
Muller, Friedrich Max, 98, 111-12, 114, 306n
Muller, Herman, 234
Mueller, K. 0., 307n
Munich, 85, 88, 292n-93n
O. Gross in, 73-75, 77, 81, 83, 84
CGJ in, 42-45, 70, 113, 114, 150-51, 300n
1913 psychoanalytic congress in, 113, 114,
150-51, 300n
Schwabing counterculture in, 74-75, 84, 117,
182
Munich Secession, 44, 293n
Murray, Henry A., 92, 266-68, 277, 301n-2n
music, 6, 114
psychoanalytic interpretation of, 57-58
Wagner's operas and, 18, 23, 57-58, 116,
145, 155-56, 180, 185, 227, 239, 254,
310n
Mutterrecht, Das (Bachofen), 85
Myers, F.W.H., 31
Mysteria (Noll's unpublished anthology), 306n
Mysteries of Mithras, The (Cumont), 132, 137
Mysterium Coniunctionis (Jung), 137
mystery cults, xiv, 120-43, 176, 306n-9n, 315n
at Bayreuth, 145
Christianity compared with, 130, 132, 133,
308n
of Dionysus, 126, 128, 129, 130, 142, 165
Eleusinian, 86, 128, 129, DO, 142, 150
initiation stages in, 129-30, 132, 136-37,
138, 308n
CGJ's sources on, 125-28, 306n-7n
Mithraic, see Mithraic mysteries
passion for secrecy in, 131-32, 140-41, 251
mystery of deification, 120-47, 196, 244-45,
306n-10n
CGJ's account of, 122-25, 306n
see also mystery cults
mysticism, 9, 21, 30, 115-16, 118, ISO, 185, 241
myth, xvi, 10
Freud/Jung, 53-54
Greek, 43-44, 86, 98-99, 101, 110, 126
ofCG1, xiii, xiv, 120, 121, 171
CGJ's interest in, 64, 65, 81-82, 98-99, 101,
103, 106, 107, 109-12, 125-28, 184, 301n
of mystery cults, 129, 130, 132
psychoanalysis and, 57-58
psychosis and, 102, 103, 104, 127, 142
Roman, 110, 206
of Rosicrucians, 14
solar, 98, 106, 107, 109, 111-12
in Stuck's work, 44-45

Nabokov, Vladimir, xi
Naeff, Erna Wolff, 93
Nameche, Gene, 63, 90, 95, 272, 273, 274, 276
Napoleon I, Emperor of France, S, 6
Napoleonic wars, S, 6, 7, 14
narcissism, 150
nationalism, German, 5-11, 108
Pietism and, 8-11
nature, 115, 141, 143, 264
Nazism, xvi, 264, 273-77
Nelken, Jan, 103, 127, 142
Neumann, Erich, 274
neuroses, 99, 102, 109, 219
New Age, 238-39, 256
New Man, 155, 158
New Testament, S, 146
New York Analytical Psychology Club, 250
New York City, International Conference of
Women Physicians in, 247-50
Nicoll, Maurice, 246, 254, 257, 258, 260
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 30, 43, 44, 51, 215, 222,
239, 293n
O. Gross and, 73-74, 76, 77, 78, 79, 84
as CGJ's source, 126
Wagner's relationship with, 55, 295n
night-sea journey, 124, 318n
Numa Pompilius, 206

Oczeret, Herbert, 91-92
Odin, see Wotan
On Dreams (Freud), 239, 241
"On the Psychology and Pathology of So-Called
Occult Phenomena" (lung), 34, 47-50,
128, 290n-91n, 294n
"ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny, " 104-6
Orage, A. R., 238-9, 256-57
Osiris, 143
Otto, Rudolph, 9
Otto Gross (Hurwitz), 299n
Ouija boards, 27-28
Ouspensky, P. D., 255-60, 317n. 318n
Oxford Club, 180

paganism, 10, 43-44, 98-162, 239-41,
302n-12n
of CGJ, xv-xvi, 3, 11, 87, 100, 103, 104, 117,
121-25, 133, 148-62, 171-72, 184-86,
239-41, 268, 274-75, 31In-12n
of Stuck, 44
see also mystery cults; sun worship; specific
deities
Pallas, 136-37
Pan, 44
Pantheon, xiii
"Paralysis by Analysis, " 232
Paris, 12, 13, 40, 50
Parsifal (Wagner), 18, 23, 116, 145, 155-56,
180, 185, 227, 239, 254, 310n
patriarchy, xv, 71-74, 85, 86, 106
Persephone, 129, ISO
Persia, ancient, 132
persona, 95, 159, 160, 242, 244, 245
personality, multiple, 30, 34, 48, 49, 50
Peter, Saint, 133, 139
Pfister, Oskar, 225
Philemon, 3-4, 18, 31, 122-23, 134, 139, 149,
151, 16O, 161, 254, 287n
philology, 144
comparative, 102-3, 104, 107, 108, 110-12,
114
Philosopher's Stone (Word of God), IS
philosophy, 110
CGJ's readings in, 30-32
phylogeny, of psychology, 99, 101-6, 108-9,
126, 133, 138, 142, 303n
Pieta (Stuck), 44
Pietism, 8-11, 19, 29, 30, 107, 175, 288n-89n
plagiarism, unconscious, 51
Plato, 9, 30, 179
Plotinus, 30
Pocantico Hills, N.Y., 206, 212, 213, 222, 233
political liberation, 10, 72, 89, 99
polygamy, 76-79, 85-87, 99, 297n-302n
of CGJ, 70, 87, 89-97, 158, 191-92, 197, 227
CG1's recommending of, 91-92, 204, 233,
267
of 1. R. Katz, 190-92, 197-98
Porphyry, 136-37
Prague, 71, 88-89
Preiswerk, Augusta Faber, 25, 26, 38, 40
Preiswerk, Auguste (Aunt Gusteli), 30
Preiswerk, Bertha, 27
Preiswerk, Celestine (Dini), 28
Preiswerk, Eduard, 29-30
Preiswerk, Helene (Helly), 23, 25-30, 34,
37-41, 94, 290n-91n, 295n
death of, 40, 93
Ivenes and, 39, 48, 149
in CGJ's dissertation, 47-48, 50, 51, 128
Preiswerk, Louise (Luggy), 25, 26, 29
Preiswerk, Rev. Samuel (father), 24-27, 38
Preiswerk, Rudolph, 23-24, 25, 27, 29
Preiswerk, Samuel (son), 29, 38
Preiswerk family:
history of, 24-25, 291n
CGJ aided by, 29-30
CGJ's problems with, 29, 40, 50, 51
prisci theologi, 14, 289n
projection, 219, 221
Protestants, Protestantism, xv, 30, 44, 156
Karl Gustav Jung's conversion to, 8, 12, 288n
Lutheranism, 6, 9, 10
Pietism and, 8-11, 19, 29, 30, 107, 175,
288n-89n
Prussia, 8, 10, 11-12
psychoanalysis, psychoanalytic movement, 45,
53-66, 69, 87-94, 102-14, 121, 171, 173,
204, 315n
Aryan-Semite split in, 103, 108-9, 112-13
cultural creations and, 57-58, 135
cultural revitalization and, 54, 84, 99-100,
104, 113
in England, 236-41, 246, 257, 258
O. Gross and, 71, 73-84, 87, 88, 299n
Jews and, 55, 57, 58, 59, 108-9, 112-13, 238,
259
CGJ's enemies in, 150, 177
CGJ's synthesizing project and, 102-3, 104
as religion or cult, 58-61, 64-66, 99-100,
112-13, 150-51
sexual intimacies with patients and, 56, 59
as Weltanschauung, 54, 57
Psychological Club, 18, 96, 97, 180, 182,
186-87, 195, 197
building for, 223-24, 226
CGJ's 1916 talks to, 149-60, 311n
E. F. McCormick and, 223-29
pro-German sympathizers in, 276-77
psychological tests, 47, 49, 69, 71, 102-3, 294n
psychological types, 54, 87-88, 92, 95, 121,
123, 242-43, 248, 3OOn
overcoming limits of, 156
see also specific types
Psychological Types (Jung), 88, 95, 300n
Psychological Wednesday Evening Circle, 57, 5'
Psychologie der unbewussten Prozesse, Die
(Jung), 159-60
Psychology of the Unconscious (Jung), see
Wanderlungen und Symbole der Libido
Psycho-Medical Society, 239
psychosis, 50, 99, 109, 112
myth and, 102, 103, 104, 127, 142
Putnam, James Jackson, 167-70
Freud and, 167, 173, 182, 240
CGJ's loss of support of, 181-82
F. B. Katz's correspondence with, 168-70,
172-80, 184-85, 192

radiolaria, 105
rational thought (reason), xvi, 99, 115, 125
Raub, Michael, 72
Rauschenbach, Emma, see Jung, Emma
Rauschenbach
ravens, as symbol, 146
Read, Herbert, 257
Re-Creating of the Individual, The (Hinkle), 26
"Red Book" (lung), xii, 4, 123, 134, 139, 151,
152, 189, 271, 286n
redemption, xiv-xv, 104, 106-7, 153, 185, 239
251, 278, 31On
Reimer, Georg Andreas, 8
reincarnation, 18-21
Reitler, Rudolph, 57
Reitzenstein, Richard, 127, 130, 307n
religion:
CGJ's building of, xiv-xvi, 64-66, 87,
99-100, 112-13, 149-58, 160, 171-72,
175-77, 180, 184-86, 219, 227-31,
239-41, 251, 268, 277-78
psychoanalysis as, 58-61, 64-66, 99-100,
112-13, 150-51
see also specific religions
religious imagery, fin-de-siecle reinterpretation
of, 44-45, 293n
Renan, Ernest, 3D, 107, 109, Ill, 112, 114, 141
repression, 72-74, 112, 115, 135, 141, 217, 221
hysterical, 102
sexual, 72, 76, 78, 86, 87, 184
resistance, 221, 243
Reventlow, Franziska Gratin zu (Fanny), 117,
182
Rhine, J. B., 51, 295n
Ribot, Theodule, 30, 48
Richthofen, Else von, see Jaffe, Else von
Richthofen
Richthofen, Frieda von, see Lawrence, Frieda
von Richthofen
Rieff, Philip, 59
Rildin, Franz, 57, 64, 167-68, 176, 215
Rilke, Rainer Maria, 43, 113
Rintelen, Friedrich, 288n
Robinson, Forrest, 92, 301n-2n
Rockefeller, Edith, see McCormick, Edith
Rockefeller
Rockefeller, John. D., Jr., 233, 234-35
Rockefeller, John. D., Sr., 200-203, 207,
213-16, 226, 233
Edith's correspondence with, 210, 214, 222,
224-25, 230-32
Harold's correspondence with, 202, 203, 205,
209, 211, 215-22, 230
Rockefeller, Laura, 203, 210, 213-14
"Role of the Unconscious, The" ("Uber das
Unbewusste") (Jung), 259
Roman Catholicism, Roman Catholics, xv, 7, 8,
12, 44, 60, 72, 156, 278, 287n
Jungian analysis compared with, 141, 157
Mithraism compared with, 132
Romans, ancient, 10, 85, 110, 142, 206
Romanticism, German, 8, 9, 12, 19, 105, 110,
266, 289n, 307n
Roosevelt, Theodore, 205
rose, as symbol, 5, 14-18, 149, 157, 182, 183
Rosenbaum, Ema, 272
Rosenbaum, Vladimir, 276
Rosicrucians, Rosicrucianism, 7, 14, 15, 130,
157, 289n
Rothermere, Lady, 257
runes, 116, 118, 147, 149, 273

Sabazios mystery cult, 129
Sabina (Holtzman), 301n
sacrifice, 6, 116, 135-36, 149
ofF. B. Katz, 182-85
Salome, 122, 123, 124, 155, 160
Salzburg, 57, 78-79
Schama, Simon, xiv
Schelling, Friedrich W. J., 30, 37
Schiller, Johann Christoph Friedrich von, 43,
110
Schlegel, August Wilhelm, 8
Schlegel, Friedrich, 8
Schleiermacher, Friedrich, 7, 8-9, 11, 12, 37,
107, 115, 279, 289n
Schmid, Hans, 181, 227
Schmitz, Oskar, 264
Schneiter, Carl, 103, 142
Schoenbrun (chemist), 7, 288n
Schopenhauer, Arthur, 23, 30, 31, 32, 215
Schubert, Gotthilf von, 37
Schweizer Illustrierten, 234
Schwyzer, E. (Solar Phallus Man), 268-71
seances, 22-29, 38-40, 47-49, 165, 166,
290n-91n
Sebaldt von Werth, Max Ferdinand, 118,
305n-6n
Secret Church, 230, 254
Seelenprobleme der Gegenwart (Jung), 268
Seewald, Richard, 74
Seherin von Prevorst, Die (Kerner), 34-39, 48,
292n
Semites, 107-12, 142-46
Semon, Richard, 46-47, 294n
sensation, 181, 242
Septem Sermones ad Mortuous (Jung), 148-49,
161-62, 186, 251, 253, 311~ 318n
sexuality, 45, 115, 267
creativity and, 86-87
Freud-Jung relationship and, 61-63
Freud's theory of, 54, 56, 99, 106, 109, 113,
136
of CGJ, 3, 61-63, 87, 89-91, 94, 98, 121
repression and, 72, 76, 78, 86, 87, 184
spirituality and, 87, 95, 99
tauroctony and, 135, 136
sexual liberation, 70, 72, 76-78, 84, 88
shadow, 95, 242
Sharp, Clifford, 257
Siegfried, 10, 44, 89, 98, 107, 117
"Smith, Helene, " 48-49
snakes, 138, 139
in CGJ's initiation, 122, 123, 124
in Stuck's work, 44, 293n
Society for Psychoanalytic Endeavors, 168
Solar Temple, 289n
"Sonnenwanderer" (Fidus), 262n
Sonnwendfest, 114, 115-16, 305n
Spielrein, Sabina, 53, 70, 103, 127, 142,
300n-301n
as CGJ's lover, 70, 89-91, 94, 98, 170
spiritualism, 19, 22-41, 47-52, 54, 58, 64, 108,
115, 121, 166, 290n-92n
animal magnetism and, 32-36, 51
hysteria and, 33, 34, 48, 50, 51
CGJ's philosophical reading and, 30-32
seances and, 22-29, 38-40, 47-49, 165, 166,
290n-91n
Seeress of Prevorst and, 34-38
Spring 53, 306n
Stark, Rodney, 61
Steiger, Heinrich, 97
Stekel, Wilhelm, 57, 78-79, 88
Stillman, Anne Urquhart, 234
Stoics, 134-35
Stone, Herbert, 214
Strauss, David Friedrich, 30, 37
"Struktur der Seele, Die" (lung), 268
Stuck, Franz, 44-45, 293n
student fraternities, 5, 288n
Studies on Hysteria (Freud and Breuer), 56
"Study in the Process of Individuation, A" ("Zur
Empirie des Individuationsprozesses")
(lung), 271
suicide, 60, 70, 79, 149, 196, 214
of Honegger, 63, 93, 269
Sulloway, Frank, 60
Sunde, Die (Stuck), 44-45
sun worship, 68, 98-119, 194, 263, 265,
302n-6n
in German Europe, 114-17
Mithras and, 133
Muller and, 98, 111-12, 306n
of Murray, 92
Renan's views on, 107
swastika, 118, 273
Sweden, psychoanalysis and, 113
Swedenborg, Emanuel, 30, 31, 32, 271
Switzerland, xii
Freemasonry in, 13, 15
Karl Gustav Jung in, 12-13
split in psychoanalytic movement in, 103,
108-9, 112-13
sun worship in, 114
Turstkreuze in, 147
see also specific cities
Symbolik und Mythologie der alten Volker
besonders der Griechen (Creuzer), 126
Symbolism, in art, 44-45
symbolism, symbols, 146
Bachofen's views on, 85-86
cross as, 5, 6, 14-18, 149, 157
of Freemasons, 5, 7, 14-18
Mithraic, 124-25, 133, 135-38, 142
rose as, 5, 14-18, 149, 157, 182, 183
Rosicrucian, 7, 14, 15
of sun worship, 114, 118

Taft, William H., 205
Tannenberg Foundation, 116
tauroctony, 132-36
Taurus, 134, 135, 136
Temple of Solomon, 14-15
Teutons, ancient, 6, 10, 98, 107, 116, 142, 143
Theorie der Geister-Kunde (Jung-Stilling),
32-33, 34
Theosophical Publishing Society, 270
Theosophy, 117, 118, 127, 128, 165, 270, 315n,
319n
thinking type, 181, 219, 221, 242
Thor, 116
Thuringia, 114
Tieck, Ludwig, 8
Tower:
of CGJ, 3-4, 15, 96, 122-23, 235
of Murray, 92, 266, 267
Transcendental Physics (Zoellner), 31
transcendent function, 193, 196, 254
Transcendent Function, The (Jung), 155, 312n
transference, 91, 219, 221, 228
of F. B. Katz, 169, 173, 179-80, 182-83, 19'
Tree of Life, 149, 157, 184
Triumph o/the Therapeutic, The (Rieff), 59
Trub, Hans, 152, 227, 235
Trub, Susanne Wolff, 93, 96, 302n
Turstkreuze, 147

"Uber das Unbewusste" (''The Role of the
Unconscious") (lung), 259
Ubermensch, spiritual, 155
Ulansey, David, 133, 134
Ullman, Regina, 79
unconscious, 41, 150, 220, 244-47
artistic productions and, 80
collective, see collective unconscious
evolution of, 99
Freud's view of, 41, 56
hidden memories and, 49-51
CGJ's descent into, 122-24
myth and, 82
personal, 159
plagiarism and, 51
sources of CGJ's views on, 3, 31
threats to life and, 95
United States, 9, 166-67, 173, 199, 200, 232-3
analytic psychology in, 206, 241, 248,
249-50, 265, 277
CGJ in, 55, 91, 108, 109, 169, 205-6, 207,
234, 277, 295n
in World War 1, 226
Urreligion, 126, 143, 263
utopianism, of CGJ, 156, 158, 228-30, 277

Valangin, Aline, 91-92, 276
Vie de Jesus (Renan), 107
Vienna, 42, 53, 57, 78, 88, 108, 181
Villa Stuck, 44
Visible Church, 229-30
visions, 11, 33, 35, 51, 104
of CGJ, iv, xii, 3-4, 45, 94, 102, 121-25, 13~
141, I49, I51, I54, I79, 208, 286n
of F. B. Katz, 189, 195-96
vital force, 40, 292n
see also libido
Volk, Volkish elements, 4-9, 11-12, 18, 21, 24,
115, 252, 259-60, 263-66, 273-75, 277
Aryan Christ and, 143-46
CGJ's return to, 109
F. B. Katz and, 182-85
mystery cults and, 129
Pietism and, 9
sun worship and, 114-17

Wagner, Cosima, 145
Wagner, Richard, 44, 89, 144, 157
Nietzsche's relationship with, 55, 295n
operas of, 18, 23, 57-58, 116, 145, 155-56,
180, 185, 227, 239, 254, 310n
Waite, Arthur Edward, 229-30
Walska, Ganna, 233
Wanderer, 287n
Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido
(Psychology of the Unconscious) (Jung),
44, 93, 98, 103-11, 128, 135-38, 145, 171,
270, 307n
as counterculture success, 104, 117, 118-19
English translation of, 212, 241
Mithraism in, 133, 135, 136, 137, 141, 309n
part 1 of, 106-7, 268
part 2 of, 109-11, 117
"Sacrifice" in, 135, 136
Wartburgfest, 5-7, 287n-88n
Watson, John B., 58
Weber, Marianne, 76-77, 84
Weber, Max, 76, 77, 88
Webster, Richard, 59, 60
Weekly, Frieda von Richthofen, see Lawrence,
Frieda von Richthofen
Weimar, 16
1911 psychoanalytic conference in, 93-94, 168
Weisz, George, 60
Weizmann, Chaim, 267
Wheelwright, Jane, 278
Why Freud Was Wrong (Webster), 59, 60
Wigman, Mary, 118-19
Will to Power, The (Nietzsche), 222
Wilson, Adah, 233
Wilson, Woodrow, 205, 226
Wolff, Antonia (Toni), 92-97, 151, 160, 216,
232
as CGJ's collaborator, xii, 70, 93, 95-96, 136,
181
as CGJ's lover, xii, 3, 70, 93, 121, 170, 197,
227, 234, 235, 267
CGJ's treatment of, 92-94
women, CGJ's relationship with, 22, 89-97,
165, 170-71, 210, 227
see also specific women
Woodworth, Robert, 58
word-association test, 47, 49, 69, 102-3, 171,
181, 213, 220, 294n
World War I, xiv, 3, 23, 88, 141, 149, 152,
210-12, 214, 231, 232, 241-42
H. F. McCormick's proposal for ending of,
226
women and, 247, 249
World War II, 276-77
Wotan (Odin), 98, 116, 274-75, 278, 305n
in CGJ's dreams, 146-47
F. B. Katz's sacrifice to, 182-85
as Mercurius, 312n
as psychopompos, 146, 153
self-sacrifice of, 6, 149

Yale University, 277
Young, James, 254, 257, 258, 260

Zarathustra, 126, 254
Zauberflote, Die (Mozart), 180
Zeus, 137
Zinzendorf, Count Nikolaus Ludwig von, 9, 107
Zionists, 25, 108
Zoellner, J.C.F., 31
Zofingia Students Association, 23, 29, 31, 38,
292n
Zoroastrianism, 126
Zumstein-Preiswerk, Stephanie, 26, 40
Zur Befreiung Deutschlands ("On the Liberation
of Germany") (Arndt), 11
"Zur Empirie des Individuationsprozesses"
("A Study in the Process of Individuation")
(Jung), 271
Zurich, 24, 88, 119
CGJ's move to, 30, 31
see also Burgholzli Psychiatric Clinic
Zurich School, xiv, 3, 18, 96, 97, 117, 121, 142,
149, 150, 165-236, 277-78
E. R. McCormick and, 165-66, 195,
200-201, 207-35
F. B. Katz and, 167-95, 199

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

RICHARD NOLL, a clinical psychologist, is Lecturer in the History of Science at Harvard University. He is a former resident fellow of the Dibner Institute for the History of Science and Technology at MIT. His book The Jung Cult won the 1994 Best Book in Psychology award from the Association of American Publishers.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 29753
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Previous

Return to Ancien Regime

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 1 guest