The Coming Race, by Edward Bulwer-Lytton

That's French for "the ancient system," as in the ancient system of feudal privileges and the exercise of autocratic power over the peasants. The ancien regime never goes away, like vampires and dinosaur bones they are always hidden in the earth, exercising a mysterious influence. It is not paranoia to believe that the elites scheme against the common man. Inform yourself about their schemes here.

Re: The Coming Race, by Edward Bulwer-Lytton

Postby admin » Tue Sep 22, 2015 10:01 am

Edward Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Baron Lytton
by Wikipedia

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[Not to be confused with Robert Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Earl of Lytton, Governor-General of India.]

Image
The Right Honourable, The Lord Lytto, PC
Born: 25 May 1803 (1803-05-25), London
Died: 18 January 1873 (1873-01-19)
Nationality: British
Political party: Whig Conservative
Spouse: Rosina Doyle Wheeler (1802–1882)
Alma mater: Trinity College, Cambridge; Trinity Hall, Cambridge

Edward George Earle Lytton Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Baron Lytton PC (25 May 1803 – 18 January 1873), was an English politician, poet, playwright, and prolific novelist. He was immensely popular with the reading public and wrote a stream of bestselling novels which earned him a considerable fortune. But, like many authors of the period, his style seems florid and embellished[citation needed] to modern tastes. He coined the phrases "the great unwashed", "pursuit of the almighty dollar", "the pen is mightier than the sword", and the famous opening line "It was a dark and stormy night".

Life

Bulwer-Lytton was born on 25 May 1803 to General William Earle Bulwer of Heydon Hall and Wood Dalling, Norfolk and Elizabeth Barbara Lytton, daughter of Richard Warburton Lytton of Knebworth, Hertfordshire. He had two elder brothers, William Earle Lytton Bulwer (1799–1877) and Henry (1801–1872), later Lord Dalling and Bulwer.

When Edward was four his father died and his mother moved to London. He was a delicate, neurotic child and was discontented at a number of boarding schools. But he was precocious and Mr. Wallington at Baling encouraged him to publish, at the age of fifteen, an immature work, Ishmael and Other Poems.

In 1822 he entered Trinity College, Cambridge, but shortly afterwards moved to Trinity Hall. In 1825 he won the Chancellor's Gold Medal for English verse.[1] In the following year he took his B.A. degree and printed, for private circulation, a small volume of poems, Weeds and Wild Flowers.

He purchased a commission in the army, but sold it without serving.

In August 1827, against his mother's wishes, he married Rosina Doyle Wheeler (1802–1882), a famous Irish beauty. When they married his mother withdrew his allowance and he was forced to work for a living.[2] They had two children, Lady Emily Elizabeth Bulwer-Lytton (1828–1848), and (Edward) Robert Lytton Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Earl of Lytton (1831–1891) who became Viceroy of British India (1876–1880).

His writing and political work strained their marriage while his unfaithfulness embittered Rosina;[3] in 1833 they separated acrimoniously and in 1836 the separation became legal.[3] Three years later, Rosina published Cheveley, or the Man of Honour (1839), a near-libellous fiction bitterly satirising her husband's hypocrisy.[3]

In June 1858, when her husband was standing as parliamentary candidate for Hertfordshire, she indignantly denounced him at the hustings. He retaliated by threatening her publishers, withholding her allowance, and denying access to the children.[3] Finally he had her committed to a mental asylum.[3] But, after a public outcry she was released a few weeks later.[3] This incident was chronicled in her memoir, A Blighted Life (1880).[4][5] For years she continued her attacks upon her husband’s character.

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Bulwer-Lytton in later life

The death of Bulwer-Lytton's mother in 1843, greatly saddened him. His own "exhaustion of toil and study had been completed by great anxiety and grief", and by "about the January of 1844, I was thoroughly shattered".[6][7] In his mother's room, Bulwer-Lytton "had inscribed above the mantelpiece a request that future generations preserve the room as his beloved mother had used it"; it remains essentially unchanged to this day.[8]

On 20 February 1844, in accordance with his mother's will, he changed his surname from 'Bulwer' to 'Bulwer-Lytton' and assumed the arms of Lytton by royal licence. His widowed mother had done the same in 1811. But, his brothers remained plain 'Bulwer'.

By chance he encountered a copy of "Captain Claridge's work on the 'Water Cure,' as practised by Priessnitz, at Graefenberg", and "making allowances for certain exaggerations therein", pondered the option of travelling to Graefenberg, but preferred to find something closer to home, with access to his own doctors in case of failure: "I who scarcely lived through a day without leech or potion!".[6][7]

After reading a pamphlet by Doctor James Wilson, who operated a hydropathic establishment with James Manby Gully at Malvern", he stayed there for "some nine or ten weeks", after which he "continued the system some seven weeks longer under Doctor Weiss, at Petersham", then again at "Doctor Schmidt's magnificent hydropathic establishment at Boppart", after developing a cold and fever upon his return home.[6]

In 1866 Bulwer-Lytton was raised to the peerage as Baron Lytton.

The English Rosicrucian society, founded in 1867 by Robert Wentworth Little, claimed Bulwer-Lytton as their 'Grand Patron', but he wrote to the society complaining that he was 'extremely surprised' by their use of the title, as he had 'never sanctioned such'.[9] Nevertheless, a number of esoteric groups have continued to claim Bulwer-Lytton as their own, chiefly because some of his writings—such as the 1842 book Zanoni—have included Rosicrucian and other esoteric notions. According to the Fulham Football Club, he once resided in the original Craven Cottage, today the site of their stadium.

Bulwer-Lytton had long suffered with a disease of the ear and for the last two or three years of his life he lived in Torquay nursing his health.[10] Following an operation to cure deafness, an abscess formed in his ear and burst; he endured intense pain for a week and died at 2am on 18 January 1873 just short of his 70th birthday.[10] The cause of death was not clear but it was thought that the infection had affected his brain and caused a fit.[10] Rosina outlived him by nine years. Against his wishes, Bulwer-Lytton was honoured with a burial in Westminster Abbey.[11]

His unfinished history Athens: Its Rise and Fall was published posthumously.

Career

Bulwer-Lytton began his career as a follower of Jeremy Bentham. In 1831 he was elected member for St Ives in Cornwall, after which he was returned for Lincoln in 1832, and sat in Parliament for that city for nine years. He spoke in favour of the Reform Bill, and took the leading part in securing the reduction, after vainly essaying the repeal, of the newspaper stamp duties. His influence was perhaps most keenly felt when, on the Whigs’ dismissal from office in 1834, he issued a pamphlet entitled A Letter to a Late Cabinet Minister on the Crisis.[12] Lord Melbourne, then Prime Minister, offered him a lordship of the admiralty, which he declined as likely to interfere with his activity as an author.

Jeremy Bentham, by Wikipedia

Jeremy Benthamm, 15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. He became a leading theorist in Anglo-American philosophy of law and a political radical whose ideas influenced the development of welfarism. He is best known for his advocacy of utilitarianism and animal rights,[1] and the idea of the panopticon.

His position included arguments in favour of individual and economic freedom, usury, the separation of church and state, freedom of expression, equal rights for women, the right to divorce, and the decriminalising of homosexual acts.[2][3] He argued for the abolition of slavery and the death penalty and for the abolition of physical punishment, including that of children.[4] Although strongly in favour of the extension of individual legal rights, he opposed the idea of natural law and natural rights, calling them "nonsense upon stilts."[5]

He became the most influential of the utilitarians, through his own work and that of his students. These included his secretary and collaborator on the utilitarian school of philosophy, James Mill; James Mill's son John Stuart Mill; John Austin, legal philosopher; and several political leaders, including Robert Owen, a founder of modern socialism. He is considered the godfather of University College London.

Life

Bentham was born in Spitalfields, London, into a wealthy Tory family. He was reportedly a child prodigy: he was found as a toddler sitting at his father's desk reading a multi-volume history of England, and he began to study Latin at the age of three.[6]

He attended Westminster School and, in 1760, at age 12, was sent by his father to The Queen's College, Oxford, where he took his Bachelor's degree in 1763 and his Master's degree in 1766. He trained as a lawyer and, though he never practised, was called to the bar in 1769. He became deeply frustrated with the complexity of the English legal code, which he termed the "Demon of Chikane".

When the American colonies published their Declaration of Independence in July 1776, the British government did not issue any official response but instead secretly commissioned London lawyer and pamphleteer John Lind to publish a rebuttal.[7] His 130-page tract was distributed in the colonies and contained an essay titled "Short Review of the Declaration" authored by Bentham, a friend of Lind's, which attacked and mocked the Americans' political philosophy.[8]

Among his many proposals for legal and social reform was a design for a prison building he called the Panopticon. Although it was never built, the idea had an important influence upon later generations of thinkers. Twentieth-century French philosopher Michel Foucault argued that the Panopticon was paradigmatic of a whole raft of 19th-century 'disciplinary' institutions. It is said that Mexican prison "Lecumberri" was designed on the basis of this idea.[9]

Bentham was in correspondence with many influential people. Adam Smith, for example, opposed free interest rates before he was made aware of Bentham's arguments on the subject. As a result of his correspondence with Mirabeau and other leaders of the French Revolution, he was declared an honorary citizen of France. Bentham was an outspoken critic of the revolutionary discourse of natural rights and of the violence that arose after the Jacobins took power (1792). Between 1808 and 1810, he held a personal friendship with Latin American Independence Precursor Francisco de Miranda and paid visits to Miranda's Grafton Way house in London.

In 1823, he co-founded the Westminster Review with James Mill as a journal for the "Philosophical Radicals"–a group of younger disciples through whom Bentham exerted considerable influence in British public life.[10]

Bentham is frequently associated with the foundation of the University of London, specifically University College London (UCL), though he was 78 years old when UCL opened in 1826 and played no active part in its establishment. It is likely that without his inspiration, UCL would not have been created when it was. Bentham strongly believed that education should be more widely available, particularly to those who were not wealthy or who did not belong to the established church, both of which were required of students by Oxford and Cambridge. As UCL was the first English university to admit all, regardless of race, creed or political belief, it was largely consistent with Bentham's vision. He oversaw the appointment of one of his pupils, John Austin, as the first professor of Jurisprudence in 1829. An insight into his character is given in Michael St. John Packe's, The Life of John Stuart Mill:

“During his youthful visits to Bowood House, the country seat of his patron Lord Lansdowne, he had passed his time at falling unsuccessfully in love with all the ladies of the house, whom he courted with a clumsy jocularity, while playing chess with them or giving them lessons on the harpsichord. Hopeful to the last, at the age of eighty he wrote again to one of them, recalling to her memory the far-off days when she had 'presented him, in ceremony, with the flower in the green lane' [citing Bentham's memoirs]. To the end of his life he could not hear of Bowood without tears swimming in his eyes, and he was forced to exclaim, 'Take me forward, I entreat you, to the future – do not let me go back to the past.'[11]


In 1841, he left Parliament and didn't return to politics until 1852; this time, having differed from the policy of Lord John Russell over the Corn Laws, he stood for Hertfordshire as a Conservative. Lord Lytton held that seat until 1866, when he was raised to the peerage as Baron Lytton of Knebworth in the County of Hertford. In 1858 he entered Lord Derby's government as Secretary of State for the Colonies, thus serving alongside his old friend Disraeli. In the House of Lords he was comparatively inactive. He took a proprietary interest in the development of the Crown Colony of British Columbia and wrote with great passion to the Royal Engineers upon assigning them their duties there. The former HBC Fort Dallas at Camchin, the confluence of the Thompson and Fraser Rivers, was renamed in his honour by Governor Sir James Douglas in 1858 as Lytton, British Columbia.[13]

Literary works

Bulwer-Lytton's literary career began in 1820 -- with the publication of a book of poems -- and spanned much of the nineteenth century. He wrote in a variety of genres, including historical fiction, mystery, romance, the occult, and science fiction. He financed his extravagant life with a varied and prolific literary output, sometimes publishing anonymously.[3]

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1849 printing of Pelham with Hablot K. Browne (Phiz) frontispiece: Pelham's electioneering visit to the Revd. Combermere St Quintin, who is surprised at dinner with his family.

In 1828 Pelham brought him public acclaim and established his reputation as a wit and dandy.[3] Its intricate plot and humorous, intimate portrayal of pre-Victorian dandyism kept gossips busy trying to associate public figures with characters in the book. Pelham resembled Benjamin Disraeli's recent first novel Vivian Grey (1827).[3]

Bulwer-Lytton admired Benjamin’s father, Isaac D’Israeli, himself a noted author. They began corresponding in the late 1820s and met for the first time in March 1830, when Isaac D'Israeli dined at Bulwer-Lytton’s house (also present that evening were Charles Pelham Villiers and Alexander Cockburn. The young Villiers was to have a long parliamentary career, while Cockburn became Lord Chief Justice of England in 1859).

Bulwer-Lytton reached the height of his popularity with the publication of Godolphin (1833). This was followed by The Pilgrims of the Rhine (1834), The Last Days of Pompeii (1834), Rienzi, Last of the Roman Tribunes (1835),[3] and Harold, the Last of the Saxons (1848).[3] The Last Days of Pompeii was inspired by Karl Briullov's painting, The Last Day of Pompeii, which Bulwer-Lytton saw in Milan.

He also wrote The Haunted and the Haunters or The House and the Brain (1859), which is included in Isaac Asimov's anthology, Tales of the Occult.[14] It also appears in The Wordsworth Book of Horror Stories.[15]

Bulwer-Lyton penned many other works, including The Coming Race or Vril: The Power of the Coming Race (1871), which drew heavily on his interest in the occult and contributed to the birth of the science fiction genre. Its story of a subterranean race waiting to reclaim the surface of the Earth is an early science fiction theme. The book popularised the Hollow Earth theory and may have inspired Nazi mysticism.

His play, Money (1840), was produced at Prince of Wales's Theatre in 1872.

Legacy

Quotations


Bulwer-Lytton's most famous quotation, "the pen is mightier than the sword", is from his play Richelieu where it appears in the line

beneath the rule of men entirely great, the pen is mightier than the sword


In addition, he gave the world the memorable phrase "pursuit of the almighty dollar" from his novel The Coming Race.

He is also credited with "the great unwashed". He used this rather disparaging term in his 1830 novel Paul Clifford:

He is certainly a man who bathes and ‘lives cleanly’, (two especial charges preferred against him by Messrs. the Great Unwashed).


The Last Days of Pompeii has been cited as the first source, but inspection of the original text shows this to be wrong. However, the term "the Unwashed" with the same meaning, appears in The Parisians: "He says that Paris has grown so dirty since the 4 September, that it is only fit for the feet of the Unwashed." The Parisians, though, was not published until 1872, while William Makepeace Thackeray's novel Pendennis (1850) uses the phrase ironically, implying it was already established. The Oxford English Dictionary refers to "Messrs. the Great Unwashed" in Lytton's Paul Clifford (1830), as the earliest instance.

Bulwer-Lytton is also credited with the appellation for the Germans "Das Volk der Dichter und Denker", the people of poets and thinkers.

Contest

Bulwer-Lytton's name lives on in the annual Bulwer-Lytton Fiction Contest, in which contestants think-up terrible openings for imaginary novels, inspired by the first seven words of his novel Paul Clifford:

It was a dark and stormy night; the rain fell in torrents—except at occasional intervals, when it was checked by a violent gust of wind which swept up the streets (for it is in London that our scene lies), rattling along the housetops, and fiercely agitating the scanty flame of the lamps that struggled against the darkness.


Entrants in the contest seek to capture the rapid changes in point of view, the florid language, and the atmosphere of the full sentence. The opening was popularized by the Peanuts comic strip, in which Snoopy's sessions on the typewriter usually began with It was a dark and stormy night. The same words also form the first sentence of Madeleine L'Engle’s Newbery Medal-winning novel A Wrinkle in Time.

Operas

Several of Bulwer-Lytton's novels were made into operas, one of which, Rienzi, der Letzte der Tribunen by Richard Wagner, eventually became more famous than the novel. Leonora by William Henry Fry, the first opera composed in the United States of America, is based on Bulwer-Lytton's play The Lady of Lyons.

Magazines

In 1831 Bulwer-Lytton became the editor of the New Monthly but he resigned the following year. In 1841, he started the Monthly Chronicle, a semi-scientific magazine. During his career he wrote poetry, prose, and stage plays; his last novel was Kenelm Chillingly, which was in course of publication in Blackwood’s Magazine at the time of his death in 1873.

Translations

Bulwer-Lytton's works of fiction and non-fiction were translated in his day and since then into many languages, including Serbian, German, Norwegian, Swedish, French, Finnish, and Spanish. In 1878, his Ernest Maltravers was the first complete novel from the West to be translated into Japanese.

Works by Edward Bulwer-Lytton

Novels

• Leila: or The Siege of Granada
• Calderon, the Courtier
• The Pilgrims of the Rhine
• Falkland (1827)[3]
• Pelham: or The Adventures of a Gentleman (1828)[3]
• The Disowned (1829)
• Devereux (1829)
• Paul Clifford (1830)
• Eugene Aram (1832)
• Godolphin (1833)
• Falkland (1834)
• The Last Days of Pompeii (1834)
• Rienzi, the last of the Roman tribunes (1835)[3]
• The Student (1835)
• Ernest Maltravers (1837)
• Alice (1838)
• Night and Morning (1841)
• Zanoni (1842)
• The Last of the Barons (1843)
• Lucretia (1846)
• Harold, the Last of the Saxons (1848)[3]
• The Caxtons: A Family Picture (1849)[3]
• My Novel, or Varieties in English Life (1853)[3]
• The Haunted and the Haunters or The House and the Brain (1859)
• What Will He Do With It? (1858) [3]
A Strange Story (1862)
• The Coming Race or Vril: The Power of the Coming Race (1871)
• Kennelm Chillingly (1873)
• The Parisiens (1873 unfinished) [3]

Verse

• Ismael (1820)[3]
• The New Timon (1846) (An attack on Tennyson published anonymously)[3]
• King Arthur (1848-9) [3]

Plays

• The Lady of Lyons (1838)
• Richelieu (1839) adapted for the 1935 film Cardinal Richelieu
• Money (1840)

References

1. Bulwer [post Bulwer-Lytton], Edward George [Earle] Lytton in Venn, J. & J. A., Alumni Cantabrigienses, Cambridge University Press, 10 vols, 1922–1958.
2. World Wide Words - Unputdownable
3. Drabble, Margaret (2000). The Oxford Companion to English Literature (sixth edition) pp.147. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-1986-6244-0.
4. Lady Lytton (1880). A Blighted Life. London: The London Publishing Office. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/A_Blighted_Life. Retrieved 28 November 2009. (Online text at wikisource.org)
5. Devey, Louisa (1887). Life of Rosina, Lady Lytton, with Numerous Extracts from her Ms. Autobiography and Other Original Documents, published in vindication of her memory. London: Swan Sonnenschein, Lowrey & Co. http://www.archive.org/details/liferosi ... 00devegoog. Retrieved 28 November 2009. Full text at Internet Archive (archive.org)
6. Lord Lytton (Published posthumously, 1875). "Confessions of a Water-Patient". in Pamphlets and Sketches (Knebworth ed.). London: George Routledge and Sons. pp. 49–75. http://www.archive.org/stream/pamphlets ... 8/mode/2up. Retrieved 28 November 2009. Full text at Internet Archive (archive.org)
7. Bulwer (April 1863). "Bulwer's Letter on Water-Cure". in R.T. Trall (ed.). The Herald of Health, and The Water-cure journal (see title page of January edition, pp.5). vol.35-36. New York: R.T. Trall & Co. pp. 149–154 (see pp.151). http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=m ... 41;num=149. Retrieved 26 November 2009.
8. "Mrs. Bulwer-Lytton's Room", Knebworth House Antique Photographs, http://www.knebworthhouse.com/specialto ... page7.html, retrieved 28 November 2009
9. R. A. Gilbert, 'The Supposed Rosy Crucian Society', in Caron et. al. (eds.), Ésotérisme, Gnoses et Imaginaire Symbolique, Leuven: Peeters, 2001, pp. 399.
10. Mitchell, Leslie George (2003). Bulwer Lytton: the rise and fall of a Victorian man of letters, pp. 232. London, New York: Hambledon Continuum. ISBN 1852854235.
11. Westminster Abbey monuments and gravestones
12. Lord Lytton (Published posthumously, 1875). "The Present Crisis. A Letter to a Late Cabinet Minister". Pamphlets and Sketches (Knebworth ed.). London: George Routledge and Sons. pp. 9–48. http://www.archive.org/stream/pamphlets ... i/mode/2up. Retrieved 28 November 2009. Full text at Internet Archive (archive.org)
13. The Canadian Press (17 August 2008). "Toff and prof to duke it out in literary slugfest". CBC News. http://www.cbc.ca/arts/books/story/2008 ... g-bad.html. Retrieved 18 August 2008.
14. Asimov (Ed.), Isaac (1989). Tales of the Occult. Prometheus. ISBN 0-87975-531-8.
15. The Wordsworth Book of Horror Stories. ISBN 1-84022-056-2.

*****************

Edward Bulwer-Lytton
by Wikipedia
Accessed: 11/3/19

Image
The Right Honourable
The Lord Lytton
PC
Edward George Earle Lytton Bulwer Lytton, 1st Baron Lytton by Henry William Pickersgill.jpg
Secretary of State for the Colonies
In office
5 June 1858 – 11 June 1859
Monarch Victoria
Prime Minister The Earl of Derby
Preceded by Lord Stanley
Succeeded by The Duke of Newcastle
Personal details
Born Edward George Earle Lytton Bulwer[1]
25 May 1803
London
Died 18 January 1873 (aged 69)
Torquay
Nationality British
Political party Whig (1831–1841)
Conservative (1851–1866)
Spouse(s) Rosina Doyle Wheeler (m. 1827)
Children 2, including Robert
Parents William Earle Bulwer
Elizabeth Barbara Warburton-Lytton
Alma mater Trinity College, Cambridge
Trinity Hall, Cambridge

Edward George Earle Lytton Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Baron Lytton, PC (25 May 1803 – 18 January 1873) was an English writer and politician. He served as a Whig MP from 1831 to 1841 and a Conservative MP from 1851 to 1866. He was Secretary of State for the Colonies from June 1858 to June 1859, choosing Richard Clement Moody as founder of British Columbia. He declined the Crown of Greece in 1862 after King Otto abdicated. He was created Baron Lytton of Knebworth in 1866.[2][1] Bulwer-Lytton's works were popular and paid him well. He coined the phrases "the great unwashed", "pursuit of the almighty dollar", "the pen is mightier than the sword", and "dweller on the threshold". Then came a sharp fall in his reputation, so that he is little read today. The sardonic 1982 Bulwer-Lytton Fiction Contest claimed to seek the "opening sentence of the worst of all possible novels".[3][4][5][6]

Life

Bulwer was born on 25 May 1803 to General William Earle Bulwer of Heydon Hall and Wood Dalling, Norfolk and Elizabeth Barbara Lytton, daughter of Richard Warburton Lytton of Knebworth House, Hertfordshire. He had two older brothers, William Earle Lytton Bulwer (1799–1877) and Henry (1801–1872), later Lord Dalling and Bulwer.[7]

When Edward was four, his father died and his mother moved to London. He was a delicate, neurotic child and discontented at a number of boarding schools. However, he was precocious and a Mr Wallington, who tutored him at Ealing, encouraged him to publish, at the age of 15, an immature work, Ishmael and Other Poems. About this time Bulwer fell in love, but the girl concerned was induced by her father to marry another man. She died about the time that Bulwer went to Cambridge and he declared that her loss affected all his subsequent life.[7]

In 1822 Bulwer-Lytton entered Trinity College, Cambridge, where he met John Auldjo, but soon moved to Trinity Hall. In 1825 he won the Chancellor's Gold Medal for English verse.[8] In the following year he took his BA degree and printed for private circulation a small volume of poems, Weeds and Wild Flowers.[7] He purchased an army commission in 1826, but sold it in 1829 without serving.[9]

Image
Edward Bulwer-Lytton. His Harold, the Last of the Saxons (1848) was the source for Verdi's opera Aroldo.

In August 1827, he married Rosina Doyle Wheeler (1802–1882), a noted Irish beauty, but against the wishes of his mother, who withdrew his allowance, forcing him to work for a living.[7] They had two children, Lady Emily Elizabeth Bulwer-Lytton (1828–1848), and (Edward) Robert Lytton Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Earl of Lytton (1831–1891) who became Governor-General and Viceroy of British India (1876–1880). His writing and political work strained their marriage and his infidelity embittered Rosina.[10] In 1833 they separated acrimoniously and in 1836 the separation became legal.[10] Three years later, Rosina published Cheveley, or the Man of Honour (1839), a near-libellous fiction satirising her husband's alleged hypocrisy.[10] In June 1858, when her husband was standing as parliamentary candidate for Hertfordshire, she denounced him at the hustings. He retaliated by threatening her publishers, withholding her allowance and denying her access to their children.[10] Finally he had her committed to a mental asylum,[10] but she was released a few weeks later after a public outcry.[10] This she chronicled in a memoir, A Blighted Life (1880).[11][12] She continued attacking her husband's character for several years.[13]

Image
Bulwer-Lytton in later life

The death of Bulwer's mother in 1843 meant his "exhaustion of toil and study had been completed by great anxiety and grief," and by "about the January of 1844, I was thoroughly shattered."[14][15] In his mother's room at Knebworth House, which he inherited, he "had inscribed above the mantelpiece a request that future generations preserve the room as his beloved mother had used it." It remains hardly changed to this day.[16] On 20 February 1844, in accordance with his mother's will, he changed his surname from Bulwer to Bulwer-Lytton and assumed the arms of Lytton by royal licence.[13] His widowed mother had done the same in 1811. His brothers remained plain "Bulwer".

By chance Bulwer-Lytton encountered a copy of "Captain Claridge's work on the "Water Cure", as practised by Priessnitz, at Graefenberg", and "making allowances for certain exaggerations therein", pondered the option of travelling to Graefenberg, but preferred to find something closer to home, with access to his own doctors in case of failure: "I who scarcely lived through a day without leech or potion!".[14][15] After reading a pamphlet by Doctor James Wilson, who operated a hydropathic establishment with James Manby Gully at Malvern, he stayed there for "some nine or ten weeks", after which he "continued the system some seven weeks longer under Doctor Weiss, at Petersham", then again at "Doctor Schmidt's magnificent hydropathic establishment at Boppart" (at the former Marienberg Convent at Boppard), after developing a cold and fever upon his return home.[14]

When Otto, King of Greece abdicated in 1862, Bulwer-Lytton was offered the Greek Crown, but declined.[17]

The English Rosicrucian society, founded in 1867 by Robert Wentworth Little, claimed Bulwer-Lytton as their "Grand Patron", but he wrote to the society complaining that he was "extremely surprised" by their use of the title, as he had "never sanctioned such."[18] Nevertheless, a number of esoteric groups have continued to claim Bulwer-Lytton as their own, chiefly because some of his writings — such as the 1842 book Zanoni — have included Rosicrucian and other esoteric notions. According to the Fulham Football Club, he once resided in the original Craven Cottage, today the site of their stadium.

Bulwer-Lytton had long suffered from a disease of the ear, and for the last two or three years of his life lived in Torquay nursing his health.[19] After an operation to cure deafness, an abscess formed in the ear and burst; he endured intense pain for a week and died at 2 am on 18 January 1873, just short of his 70th birthday.[19] The cause of death was unclear but it was thought the infection had affected his brain and caused a fit.[19] Rosina outlived him by nine years. Against his wishes, Bulwer-Lytton was honoured with a burial in Westminster Abbey.[20] His unfinished history Athens: Its Rise and Fall was published posthumously.

Political career

Image
Caricature by Ape published in Vanity Fair in 1870

Bulwer began his political career as a follower of Jeremy Bentham. In 1831 he was elected member for St Ives, Huntingdonshire, after which he was returned for Lincoln in 1832, and sat in Parliament for that city for nine years. He spoke in favour of the Reform Bill and took the lead in securing the reduction, after vainly essaying the repeal, of the newspaper stamp duties. His influence was perhaps most keenly felt when, on the Whigs' dismissal from office in 1834, he issued a pamphlet entitled A Letter to a Late Cabinet Minister on the Crisis.[21] Lord Melbourne, then Prime Minister, offered him a lordship of the Admiralty, which he declined as likely to interfere with his activity as an author.[13]

Bulwer was created a Baronet, of Knebworth House in the County of Hertford, in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom, in 1838.[22] In 1841, he left Parliament and spent much of his time in travel.[13] He did not return to politics until 1852, when having differed from Lord John Russell over the Corn Laws, he stood for Hertfordshire as a Conservative. Bulwer-Lytton held that seat until 1866, when he was raised to the peerage as Baron Lytton of Knebworth in the County of Hertford. In 1858 he entered Lord Derby's government as Secretary of State for the Colonies, thus serving alongside his old friend Disraeli. He was comparatively inactive in the House of Lords.[13]

British Columbia

When news of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush reached London, Bulwer-Lytton, as Secretary of State for the Colonies, requested that the War Office recommend a field officer, "a man of good judgement possessing a knowledge of mankind", to lead a Corps of 150 (later increased to 172) Royal Engineers, who had been selected for their "superior discipline and intelligence".[23] The War Office chose Richard Clement Moody, and Lord Lytton, who described Moody as his "distinguished friend",[24] accepted the nomination in view of Moody's military record, his success as Governor of the Falkland Islands, and the distinguished record of his father, Colonel Thomas Moody, Knight at the Colonial Office.[25] Moody was charged to establish British order and transform the newly established Colony of British Columbia (1858–66) into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west"[26] and "found a second England on the shores of the Pacific."[23] Lytton desired to send to the colony "representatives of the best of British culture, not just a police force": he sought men who possessed "courtesy, high breeding and urbane knowledge of the world,"[27] and decided to send Moody, whom the Government considered to be the archetypal "English gentleman and British Officer."[28] at the head of the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, to whom he wrote an impassioned letter.[24]

The former HBC Fort Dallas at Camchin, the confluence of the Thompson and Fraser Rivers, was renamed in his honour by Governor Sir James Douglas in 1858 as Lytton, British Columbia.[29]

Literary works

Bulwer-Lytton's literary career began in 1820, with the publication of a book of poems, and spanned much of the 19th century. He wrote in a variety of genres, including historical fiction, mystery, romance, the occult, and science fiction. He financed his extravagant life with a varied and prolific literary output, sometimes publishing anonymously.[10]

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1849 printing of Pelham with Hablot K. Browne (Phiz) frontispiece: Pelham's electioneering visit to the Rev. Combermere St Quintin, who is surprised at dinner with his family.

In the year of his marriage he published Falkland, a novel which was only a moderate success.[7] But in 1828 Pelham brought him public acclaim and established his reputation as a wit and dandy.[10] Its intricate plot and humorous, intimate portrayal of pre-Victorian dandyism kept gossips busy trying to associate public figures with characters in the book.[7] Pelham resembled Benjamin Disraeli's recent first novel Vivian Grey (1827).[10] The character of the villainous Richard Crawford in The Disowned, also published in 1828, borrowed much from that of the banker and forger Henry Fauntleroy, who was hanged in London in 1824 before a crowd of some 100,000.[30]

Bulwer-Lytton admired Disraeli's father, Isaac D'Israeli, himself a noted author. They began corresponding in the late 1820s and met for the first time in March 1830, when Isaac D'Israeli dined at Bulwer-Lytton's house. Also present that evening were Charles Pelham Villiers and Alexander Cockburn. The young Villiers was to have a long parliamentary career, while Cockburn became Lord Chief Justice of England in 1859.

Still writing while in Parliament, Bulwer-Lytton reached the height of his popularity with the publication of Godolphin (1833).[13] This was followed by The Pilgrims of the Rhine (1834), The Last Days of Pompeii (1834), Rienzi, Last of the Roman Tribunes (1835),[10] Leila; or, The Siege of Granada (1838) and Harold, the Last of the Saxons (1848).[10] The Last Days of Pompeii was inspired by Karl Briullov's painting, The Last Day of Pompeii, which Bulwer-Lytton saw in Milan.[31]

His New Timon lampooned Tennyson, who responded in kind.[13] Bulwer-Lytton also wrote the horror story "The Haunted and the Haunters" or "The House and the Brain" (1859).[32] Another novel with a supernatural theme was A Strange Story (1862), which was an influence on Bram Stoker's Dracula.[33]

Bulwer-Lytton penned many other works, including The Coming Race or Vril: The Power of the Coming Race (1871), which drew heavily on his interest in the occult and contributed to the early growth of the science fiction genre.[34] Its story of a subterranean race waiting to reclaim the surface of the Earth is an early science fiction theme. The book popularised the Hollow Earth theory and may have inspired Nazi mysticism.[35] His term "vril" lent its name to Bovril meat extract.[36] Adopted by theosophists and occultists since the 1870s, "vril" would develop into a major esoteric topic, and eventually become closely associated with the ideas of an esoteric neo-Nazism after 1945.[37]

His play Money (1840) was first produced at the Theatre Royal, Haymarket, London, on 8 December 1840. The first American production was at the Old Park Theater in New York on 1 February 1841. Subsequent productions include the Prince of Wales's Theatre's in 1872 and as the inaugural play at the new California Theatre (San Francisco) in 1869.[38]

Among Bulwer-Lytton's lesser-known contributions to literature was that he convinced Charles Dickens to revise the ending of Great Expectations to make it more palatable to the reading public, as in the original version of the novel, Pip and Estella do not get together.[39]

Legacy

Quotations


Bulwer-Lytton's most famous quotation, "The pen is mightier than the sword", is from his play Richelieu where it appears in the line:

beneath the rule of men entirely great, the pen is mightier than the sword


In addition, he popularized the phrase "pursuit of the almighty dollar" from his novel The Coming Race.[40]

He is also credited with "the great unwashed", using this disparaging term in his 1830 novel Paul Clifford:

He is certainly a man who bathes and "lives cleanly", (two especial charges preferred against him by Messrs. the Great Unwashed).[41]


The Last Days of Pompeii has been cited as the first source, but inspection of the original text shows this to be wrong. However, the term "the Unwashed" with the same meaning, appears in The Parisians: "He says that Paris has grown so dirty since 4 September, that it is only fit for the feet of the Unwashed." The Parisians, though, was not published until 1872, while William Makepeace Thackeray's novel Pendennis (1850) uses the phrase ironically, implying it was already established. The Oxford English Dictionary refers to "Messrs. the Great Unwashed" in Lytton's Paul Clifford (1830), as the earliest instance.

Bulwer-Lytton is also credited with an appellation for the Germans: "Das Volk der Dichter und Denker" (The people of poets and thinkers).

Theosophy

The writers of theosophy were among those influenced by Bulwer-Lytton's work. Annie Besant and especially Helena Blavatsky incorporated his thoughts and ideas, particularly from The Last Days of Pompeii, Vril, the Power of the Coming Race and Zanoni in her own books.[42][43]

Contest

Further information: Bulwer-Lytton Fiction Contest

Bulwer-Lytton's name lives on in the annual Bulwer-Lytton Fiction Contest, in which contestants think up terrible openings for imaginary novels, inspired by the first line of his 1830 novel Paul Clifford:[44]

It was a dark and stormy night; the rain fell in torrents—except at occasional intervals, when it was checked by a violent gust of wind which swept up the streets (for it is in London that our scene lies), rattling along the housetops, and fiercely agitating the scanty flame of the lamps that struggled against the darkness.


Entrants in the contest seek to capture the rapid changes in point of view, the florid language, and the atmosphere of the full sentence.[citation needed] The opening was popularized by the Peanuts comic strip, in which Snoopy's sessions on the typewriter usually began with It was a dark and stormy night.[45] The same words also form the first sentence of Madeleine L'Engle's Newbery Medal-winning novel A Wrinkle in Time. Similar wording appears in Edgar Allan Poe's 1831 short story, The Bargain Lost, although not at the very beginning. It reads:

It was a dark and stormy night. The rain fell in cataracts; and drowsy citizens started, from dreams of the deluge, to gaze upon the boisterous sea, which foamed and bellowed for admittance into the proud towers and marble palaces. Who would have thought of passions so fierce in that calm water that slumbers all day long? At a slight alabaster stand, trembling beneath the ponderous tomes which it supported, sat the hero of our story.


Operas

Several of Bulwer-Lytton's novels were made into operas, one of which, Rienzi, der Letzte der Tribunen (1842) by Richard Wagner, eventually became more famous than the novel. Leonora (1846) by William Henry Fry, the first European-styled "grand" opera composed in the United States, is based on Bulwer-Lytton's play The Lady of Lyons, as is Frederic Cowen's first opera Pauline (1876). Verdi rival Errico Petrella's most successful opera, Jone (1858), was based upon Bulwer-Lytton's The Last Days of Pompeii, and was performed all over the world until the First World War. Harold, the Last of the Saxons (1848) was the source for Verdi's opera Aroldo in 1857.

Magazines

In addition to his political and literary work, Bulwer-Lytton became the editor of the New Monthly in 1831, but he resigned the following year. In 1841, he started the Monthly Chronicle, a semi-scientific magazine. During his career he wrote poetry, prose, and stage plays; his last novel was Kenelm Chillingly, which was in course of publication in Blackwood’s Magazine at the time of his death in 1873.[13]

Translations

Bulwer-Lytton's works of fiction and non-fiction were translated in his day and since then into many languages, including Serbian (by Laza Kostic), German, Russian, Norwegian, Swedish, French, Finnish, and Spanish. In 1879, his Ernest Maltravers was the first complete novel from the West to be translated into Japanese.[46]

Place names

In Queensland, Australia the Brisbane suburb of Lytton is to be found on Bulwer Island which today is home to the Port of Brisbane. Also in Queensland on Moreton Island (Moorgumpin) is located another settlement by the name of Bulwer. The township of Lytton, Quebec (today part of Montcerf-Lytton) was named after him[47] as was Lytton, British Columbia, and Lytton, Iowa. Lytton Road in Gisborne, New Zealand was named after the novelist. Later a state secondary school, Lytton High School, was founded in the road.[48]

Portrayal on television

Bulwer-Lytton was portrayed by the actor Brett Usher in the 1978 television serial Disraeli.

Works by Edward Bulwer-Lytton

Novels


• Falkland (1827)[10]
• Pelham: or The Adventures of a Gentleman (1828)[10] Available online
• The Disowned (1829)
• Devereux (1829)
• Paul Clifford (1830) Available online
• Eugene Aram (1832) Available online
• Godolphin (1833)
• Asmodeus at Large (1833)
• The Last Days of Pompeii (1834) Available online
• The Pilgrims of the Rhine (1834)
• Rienzi, the last of the Roman tribunes (1835)[10] Available online
• The Student (1835)
• Calderon, the Courtier (1838)
• Leila; or, The Siege of Granada (1838) Available online
• Zicci: a Tale (1838) Available online
• Night and Morning (1841) Available online
• Zanoni (1842) Available online
• The Last of the Barons (1843) Available online
• Lucretia (1846) Available online
• Harold, the Last of the Saxons (1848)[10] Available online
• The Caxtons: A Family Picture (1849)[10] Available online
• A Strange Story (1850) Available online
• My Novel, or Varieties in English Life (1853)[10]
• The Haunted and the Haunters or The House and the Brain (novelette, 1859) Available online
• What Will He Do With It? (1858)[10]
• The Coming Race (1871), republished as Vril: The Power of the Coming Race Available online
• Kenelm Chillingly (1873)
• The Parisians (1873)[10]
• Pausanias, the Spartan - Unfinished (1873)

Series

1. Ernest Maltravers (1837)
2. Alice, or The Mysteries (1838) A sequel to Ernest Maltravers Available online

Verse

• Ismael (1820)[10]
• The New Timon (1846), an attack on Tennyson published anonymously[10]
• King Arthur (1848–1849)[10]

Plays

• The Duchess de la Vallière (1837)
• The Lady of Lyons (1838)[49]
• Richelieu (1839), adapted for the 1935 film Cardinal Richelieu
• Money (1840)
• Not So Bad as We Seem, or, Many Sides to a Character: A Comedy in Five Acts (1851)
• The Rightful Heir (1868), based on The Sea Captain, an earlier play of Lytton's
• Walpole, or Every Man Has His Price
• Darnley (unfinished)

See also

• Bulwer-Lytton and Theosophy
• Hollow earth theory
• Lytton, Queensland

References

1. Brown, Andrew (23 September 2004). "Lytton, Edward George Earle Lytton Bulwer [formerly Edward George Earle Lytton Bulwer], first Baron Lytton". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
2. "No. 23137". The London Gazette. 13 July 1866. p. 3984.
3. McCrum, Robert (17 May 2012). "Dickens, Browning and Lear: what's in a reputation?". Archived from the original on 29 March 2018. Retrieved 28 March 2018 – via http://www.theguardian.com.
4. Christopher John Murray (13 May 2013). Encyclopedia of the Romantic Era, 1760-1850. Routledge. pp. 139–. ISBN 1-135-45579-1.
5. Nevins, Jess. "An Appreciation of Lord Bulwer-Lytton". io9. Archived from the original on 13 February 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
6. [1].
7. Waugh 1911, p. 185.
8. "Bulwer [post Bulwer-Lytton], Edward George [Earle] Lytton (BLWR821EG)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
9. [2] Archived 30 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine History of Parliament Online article.
10. Drabble, Margaret (2000). The Oxford Companion to English Literature (sixth edition), pp. 147. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866244-0.
11. Lady Lytton (1880). A Blighted Life. London: The London Publishing Office. Archived from the original on 26 February 2010. Retrieved 28 November 2009. (Online text at wikisource.org)
12. Devey, Louisa (1887). Life of Rosina, Lady Lytton, with Numerous Extracts from her Ms. Autobiography and Other Original Documents, published in vindication of her memory. London: Swan Sonnenschein, Lowrey & Co. Archived from the original on 28 June 2011. Retrieved 28 November 2009. Full text at Internet Archive (archive.org)
13. Waugh 1911, p. 186.
14. Lord Lytton (Published posthumously, 1875). "Confessions of a Water-Patient". in Pamphlets and Sketches (Knebworthed.). London: George Routledge and Sons. pp. 49–75. Archived from the original on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 28 November2009. Check date values in: |year= (help) Full text at Internet Archive (archive.org)
15. Bulwer (April 1863). "Bulwer's Letter on Water-Cure". In R. T. Trall (ed.). The Herald of Health, and The Water-cure journal (see title page of January edition, p. 5). 35–36. New York: R. T. Trall & Co. pp. 149–154 (see p. 151). Archived from the original on 19 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2009.
16. "Mrs. Bulwer-Lytton's Room", Knebworth House Antique Photographs, archived from the original on 13 July 2011, retrieved 28 November 2009
17. Stoneman, Richard; Erickson, Kyle; Netton, Ian Richard (13 March 2012). "The Alexander Romance in Persia and the East". Barkhuis – via Google Books.
18. R. A. Gilbert, "The Supposed Rosy Crucian Society", in Caron et al., eds., Ésotérisme, Gnoses et Imaginaire Symbolique, Leuven: Peeters, 2001, p. 399.
19. Mitchell, Leslie George (2003). Bulwer Lytton: The Rise and Fall of a Victorian Man of Letters. London, New York: Hambledon Continuum. ISBN 1-85285-423-5.
20. pixeltocode.uk, PixelToCode. "Famous people / organisations". Westminster Abbey. Archived from the original on 7 January 2008. Retrieved 29 August 2008.
21. Lord Lytton (1875). "The Present Crisis. A Letter to a Late Cabinet Minister". Pamphlets and Sketches (Knebworth ed.). London: George Routledge and Sons. pp. 9–48. Archived from the original on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2009.Full text at Internet Archive (archive.org).
22. "No. 19631". The London Gazette. 3 July 1838. p. 1488.
23. Jean Barman, The West Beyond the West: A History of British Columbia, (Toronto: University of Toronto), p. 71.
24. Drummond, Sir Henry (1908). "XXIII". Rambling Recollections, Vol. 1. Macmillan and Co., London. p. 272.
25. "Entry for Richard Clement Moody in Dictionary of Canadian Biography". 2002. Archived from the original on 11 October 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
26. Donald J. Hauka, McGowan's War, Vancouver: 2003, New Star Books, p. 146.
27. Scott, Laura Elaine (1983). The Imposition of British Culture as Portrayed in the New Westminster Capital Plan of 1859 to 1862. Simon Fraser University. p. 13.
28. Scott, Laura Elaine (1983). The Imposition of British Culture as Portrayed in the New Westminster Capital Plan of 1859 to 1862. Simon Fraser University. p. 19..
29. The Canadian Press (17 August 2008). "Toff and prof to duke it out in literary slugfest". CBC News. Archived from the original on 16 January 2009. Retrieved 18 August 2008.
30. Richard Davenport-Hines, "Fauntleroy, Henry (1784–1824)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford, UK: OUP, 2004 Retrieved 12 October 2017.
31. Harris, Judith (2007). Pompeii Awakened: A Story of Rediscovery. I. B. Tauris. p. 166. ISBN 978-1-84511-241-7.
32. This is included in Isaac Asimov's anthology, Tales of the OccultIsaac Asimov; Martin Harry Greenberg (1989). Asimov, Isaac(ed.). Tales of the Occult. Prometheus. ISBN 0-87975-531-8. and in The Wordsworth Book of Horror Stories.Various; Wordsworth Editions, Limited (5 January 1998). The Wordsworth Book of Horror Stories. Wordsworth Classics. ISBN 1-84022-056-2.
33. Bulwer-Lytton, Edward (5 March 2007). "The Coming Race". Wesleyan University Press – via Google Books.
34. Nevins, Jess. "May Day, 1871: The Day "Science Fiction" Was Invented". io9.
35. Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke (1985–2004). The Occult Roots Of Nazism. I. B.Tauris & Co Ltd. ISBN 1-86064-973-4.
36. "Bovril". Unilever.co.uk. Archived from the original on 11 April 2012. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
37. Julian Strube. Vril. Eine okkulte Urkraft in Theosophie und esoterischem Neonazismus. München/Paderborn: Wilhelm Fink 2013.
38. Don B. Wilmeth 2007) The Cambridge Guide to American Theatre
39. John Forster's biography of Dickens
40. Edward Bulwer Lytton Baron Lytton, The Coming Race (London, England: William Blackwood and Sons, 1871), page 2Archived 27 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
41. Edward Bulwer Lytton Baron Lytton; Eric Robinson (1838). Paul Clifford. Baudry's European Library. p. x, footnote. Archived from the original on 8 May 2017. Retrieved 7 June 2016.
42. Edward Bulwer-Lytton, The Coming Race, Introduction by David Seed, Wesleyan University Press, 2007, p. xlii Archived8 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
43. Brian Stableford, The A to Z of Fantasy Literature, Scarecrow Press, 2009, "Blavatsky, Madame (1831–1991)".
44. Edward Bulwer Lytton, Paul Clifford (Paris, France: Baudry's European Library, 1838), page 1 Archived 27 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
45. "It Was a Dark and Stormy Night". Television Tropes & Idioms. Archived from the original on 8 November 2012. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
46. Keene, Donald (1984). Dawn to the West: Japanese Literature of the Modern Era. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. p. 62. ISBN 0-03-062814-8.
47. "Lytton". Banque de noms de lieux du Québec (in French). Commission de toponymie du Québec. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
48. Meade, Geoffrey Thomas (1986). History of the school, 1961-1985: Lytton High School. Thomas Adams Printing. p. 3.
49. Lytton, Edward Bulwer Lytton (1 January 2001). "The Lady of Lyons; Or, Love and Pride". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 2 October 2014 – via Project Gutenberg.
Further reading[edit]
• Christensen, Allan Conrad (1976). Edward Bulwer-Lytton: The Fiction of New Regions. Athens, Georgia: The University of Georgia Press. ISBN 0-8203-0387-9.
• Christensen, Allan Conrad, ed. (1976). The Subverting Vision of Bulwer Lytton: Bicentenary Reflections. Newark, Delaware: The University of Delaware Press. ISBN 0-87413-856-6.
• Escott, T. H. S. (1910). Edward Bulwer, First Baron Lytton of Knebworth; a Social, Personal, and Political Monograph. London: George Routledge & Sons.
• Mitchell, L. G (2003). Bulwer Lytton: The Rise and Fall of a Victorian Man of Letters. London & New York:: Hambledon and London. ISBN 1-85285-423-5. (Distributed in the United States and Canada by Palgrave Macmillan)
• This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Waugh, Arthur (1911). "Bulwer-Lytton, Edward". In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 17 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 185–186.
• Whittington-Egan, Molly (2013) Arthur O'Shaughnessy: Music Maker (publisher Bluecoat Press)

External links

Bulwer-Lytton ebooks


• Works by Edward Bulwer-Lytton at Project Gutenberg
• Works by or about Edward Bulwer-Lytton at Internet Archive
• Works by Edward Bulwer-Lytton at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)

Other links

• Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Lord Lytton
• Edward George Earl Bulwer-Lytton (1803–73)
• John S. Moore's essay on Bulwer-Lytton
• Edward Bulwer-Lytton biography and works
• Complete Works of Edward Bulwer-Lytton (Delphi Classics)
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