The World As Will and Representation, by Arthur Schopenhauer

That's French for "the ancient system," as in the ancient system of feudal privileges and the exercise of autocratic power over the peasants. The ancien regime never goes away, like vampires and dinosaur bones they are always hidden in the earth, exercising a mysterious influence. It is not paranoia to believe that the elites scheme against the common man. Inform yourself about their schemes here.

Re: The World As Will and Representation, by Arthur Schopenh

Postby admin » Sat Feb 03, 2018 1:27 am

Part 1 of 2

CHAPTER XLVIII: On the Doctrine of the Denial of the Will-to-Live [1]

Man has his existence and being either with his will, in other words, with his consent, or without it; in the latter case such an existence, embittered by inevitable sufferings of many kinds, would be a flagrant injustice. The ancients, particularly the Stoics, and also the Peripatetics and Academics, laboured in vain to prove that virtue is enough to make life happy; experience loudly cried out against this. Although they were not clearly aware of it, what was really at the root of the attempt of those philosophers was the assumed justice of the case; he who was without guilt ought to be free from suffering, and hence happy. But the serious and profound solution of the problem is to be found in the Christian doctrine that works do not justify. Accordingly, although a man has practised all justice and philanthropy, consequently the , honestum, he is still not culpa omni carens [2] as Cicero imagines (Tusc., V, 1); but el delito mayor del hombre es haber nacido (Man's greatest offence is that he was born) as the poet Calderon, inspired by Christianity, has expressed it from a knowledge far profounder than was possessed by those wise men. Accordingly, that man comes into the world already involved in guilt can appear absurd only to the person who regards him as just having come from nothing, and as the work of another. Hence in consequence of this guilt, which must therefore have come from his will, man rightly remains abandoned to physical and mental sufferings, even when he has practised all those virtues, and so he is not happy. This follows from the eternal justice of which I spoke in § 63 of volume 1. However, as St. Paul (Rom. iii, 21 seqq.), Augustine, and Luther teach, works cannot justify, since we all are and remain essentially sinners. This is due in the last resort to the fact that, since operari sequitur esse, [3] if we acted as we ought to act, we should also necessarily be what we ought to be. But then we should not need any salvation from our present condition, and such salvation is represented as the highest goal not only by Christianity, but also by Brahmanism and Buddhism (under the name expressed in English by final emancipation); in other words, we should not need to become something quite different from, indeed the very opposite of, what we are. However, since we are what we ought not to be, we also necessarily do what we ought not to do. We therefore need a complete transformation of our nature and disposition, i.e., the new spiritual birth, regeneration, as the result of which salvation appears. Although the guilt lies in conduct, in the operari, yet the root of the guilt lies in our essentia et existentia [Google translate: the essence of existence], for the operari necessarily proceeds from these, as I have explained in the essay On the Freedom of the Will. Accordingly, original sin is really our only true sin. Now it is true that the Christian myth makes original sin arise only after man already existed, and for this purpose ascribes to him, per impossibile, a free will; it does this, however, simply as a myth. The innermost kernel and spirit of Christianity is identical with that of Brahmanism and Buddhism; they all teach a heavy guilt of the human race through its existence itself, only Christianity does not proceed in this respect directly and openly, like those more ancient religions. It represents the guilt not as being established simply by existence itself, but as arising through the act of the first human couple. This was possible only under the fiction of a liberum arbitrium indifferentiae [Google translate: Free choice of indifference], [4] and was necessary only on account of the Jewish fundamental dogma, into which that doctrine was here to be implanted. According to the truth, the very origin of man himself is the act of his free will, and is accordingly identical with the Fall, and therefore the original sin, of which all others are the result, appeared already with man's essentia and existentia; but the fundamental dogma of Judaism did not admit of such an explanation. Therefore Augustine taught in his books De Libero Arbitrio that only as Adam before the Fall was man guiltless and had a free will, whereas for ever after he is involved in the necessity of sin. The law, , in the biblical sense, always demands that we should change our conduct, while our essential nature would remain unchanged. But since this is impossible, Paul says that no one is justified before the law; we can be transferred from the state of sinfulness into that of freedom and salvation only by the new birth or regeneration in Jesus Christ, in consequence of the effect of grace, by virtue of which a new man arises, and the old man is abolished (in other words, a fundamental change of disposition). This is the Christian myth with regard to ethics. But of course Jewish theism, on to which the myth was grafted, must have received marvellous additions in order to attach itself to that myth. Here the fable of the Fall presented the only place for the graft of the old Indian stem. It is to be ascribed just to this forcibly surmounted difficulty that the Christian mysteries have obtained an appearance so strange and opposed to common sense. Such an appearance makes proselytizing more difficult; on this account and from an inability to grasp their profound meaning, Pelagianism, or present-day rationalism, rises up against them, and tries to explain them away by exegesis, but in this way it reduces Christianity to Judaism.

However, to speak without myth; as long as our will is the same, our world cannot be other than it is. It is true that all men wish to be delivered from the state of suffering and death; they would like, as we say, to attain to eternal bliss, to enter the kingdom of heaven, but not on their own feet; they would like to be carried there by the course of nature. But this is impossible; for nature is only the copy, the shadow, of our will. Therefore, of course, she will never let us fall and become nothing; but she cannot bring us anywhere except always into nature again. Yet everyone experiences in his own life and death how precarious it is to exist as a part of nature. Accordingly, existence is certainly to be regarded as an error or mistake, to return from which is salvation; it bears this character throughout. Therefore it is conceived in this sense by the ancient Samana religions, and also by real and original Christianity, although in a roundabout way. Even Judaism itself contains the germ of such a view, at any rate in the Fall of man; this is its redeeming feature. Only Greek paganism and Islam are wholly optimistic; therefore in the former the opposite tendency had to find expression at least in tragedy. In Islam, however, the most modern as well as the worst of all religions, this opposite tendency appeared as Sufism, that very fine phenomenon which is entirely Indian in spirit and origin, and has now continued to exist for over a thousand years. In fact, nothing else can be stated as the aim of our existence except the knowledge that it would be better for us not to exist. This, however, is the most important of all truths, and must therefore be stated, however much it stands in contrast with the present-day mode of European thought. On the other hand, it is nevertheless the most universally recognized fundamental truth in the whole of non-Mohammedan Asia, today as much as three thousand years ago.

Now if we consider the will-to-live as a whole and objectively, we have to think of it, according to what has been said, as involved in a delusion. To return from this, and hence to deny its whole present endeavour, is what religions describe as self-denial or self-renunciation, abnegatio sui ipsius; [5] for the real self is the will-to-live. The moral virtues, hence justice and philanthropy, if pure, spring, as I have shown, from the fact that the will-to-live, seeing through the principium individuationis, recognizes itself again in all its phenomena; accordingly they are primarily a sign, a symptom, that the appearing will is no longer firmly held in that delusion, but that disillusionment already occurs. Thus it might be said figuratively that the will already flaps its wings, in order to fly away from it. Conversely, injustice, wickedness, cruelty are signs of the opposite, that is, of deep entanglement in that delusion. But in the second place, these moral virtues are a means of advancing self-renunciation, and accordingly of denying the will-to-live. For true righteousness, inviolable justice, that first and most important cardinal virtue, is so heavy a task, that whoever professes it unconditionally and from the bottom of his heart has to make sacrifices which soon deprive life of the sweetness required to make it enjoyable, and thereby turn the will from it, and thus lead to resignation. Yet the very thing that makes righteousness venerable is the sacrifices it costs; in trifles it is not admired. Its true nature really consists in the righteous man's not throwing on others, by craft or force, the burdens and sorrows incidental to life, as is done by the unrighteous, but in his bearing what has fallen to his lot. In this way he has to endure undiminished the full burden of the evil imposed on human life. Justice thereby becomes a means for advancing the denial of the will-to-live, since want and suffering, those actual conditions of human life, are its consequence; but these lead to resignation. Caritas, the virtue of philanthropy which goes farther, certainly leads even more quickly to the same result. For on the strength of it, a person takes over also the sufferings that originally fall to the lot of others; he therefore appropriates to himself a greater share of these than would come to him as an individual in the ordinary course of things. He who is inspired by this virtue has again recognized in everyone else his own inner nature. In this way he now identifies his own lot with that of mankind in general; but this is a hard lot, namely that of striving, suffering, and dying. Therefore, whoever, by renouncing every accidental advantage, desires for himself no other lot than that of mankind in general, can no longer desire even this for any length of time. Clinging to life and its pleasures must now soon yield, and make way for a universal renunciation; consequently, there will come about the denial of the will. Now since, according to this, poverty, privations, and special sufferings of many kinds are produced by the most complete exercise of moral virtues, asceticism in the narrowest sense, the giving up of all property, the deliberate search for the unpleasant and repulsive, self-torture, fasting, the hairy garment, mortification of the flesh; all these are rejected by many as superfluous, and perhaps rightly so. Justice itself is the hairy garment that causes its owner constant hardship, and philanthropy that gives away what is necessary provides us with constant fasting.6 For this reason, Buddhism is free from that strict and excessive asceticism that plays a large part in Brahmanism, and thus from deliberate self-mortification. It rests content with the celibacy, voluntary poverty, humility, and obedience of the monks, with abstinence from animal food, as well as from all worldliness. Further, since the goal to which the moral virtues lead is the one here indicated, the Vedanta philosophy7 rightly says that, after the entrance of true knowledge with complete resignation in its train, and so after the arrival of the new birth, the morality or immorality of previous conduct becomes a matter of indifference; and it uses here the saying so often quoted by the Brahmans: Finditur nodus cordis, dissolvuntur omnes dubitationes, ejusque opera evanescunt, viso supremo illo (Sankara, sloka 32). [8] Now, however objectionable this view may be to many, to whom a reward in heaven or a punishment in hell is a much more satisfactory explanation of the ethical significance of human action, just as even the good Windischmann rejects that teaching with horror while expounding it; yet he who is able to get to the bottom of things will find that, in the end, this teaching agrees with the Christian doctrine that is urged especially by Luther. This doctrine teaches that it is not works that save us, but only faith appearing through the effect of grace, and that therefore we can never be justified by our actions, but obtain forgiveness for our sins only by virtue of the merits of the Mediator. In fact, it is easy to see that, without such assumptions, Christianity would have to teach endless punishments for all, and Brahmanism endless rebirths, and hence that no salvation would be attained by either. Sinful works and their consequence must be annulled and annihilated at some time either by the pardon of another, or by the appearance of our own better knowledge, otherwise the world cannot hope for any salvation; afterwards, however, these become a matter of indifference. This is also the , [9] the announcement of which is finally imposed by the already risen Christ on his Apostles as the sum of their mission (Luke, xxiv, 47). The moral virtues are not really the ultimate end, but only a step towards it. In the Christian myth, this step is expressed by the eating of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, and with this moral responsibility appears simultaneously with original sin. This original sin itself is in fact the affirmation of the will-to-live; on the other hand, the denial of this will, in consequence of the dawning of better knowledge, is salvation. Therefore, what is moral is to be found between these two; it accompanies man as a light on his path from the affirmation to the denial of the will, or, mythically, from the entrance of original sin to salvation through faith in the mediation of the incarnate God (Avatar): or, according to the teaching of the Veda, through all the rebirths that are the consequence of the works in each case, until right knowledge appears, and with it salvation (final emancipation), Moksha, i.e., reunion with Brahma. But the Buddhists with complete frankness describe the matter only negatively as Nirvana, which is the negation of this world or of Samsara. If Nirvana is defined as nothing, this means only that Samsara contains no single element that could serve to define or construct Nirvana. For this reason the Jains, who differ from the Buddhists only in name, call the Brahmans who believe in the Vedas, Sabdapramans, a nickname supposed to signify that they believe on hearsay what cannot be known or proved (Asiatic Researches, Vol. VI, p. 474).

When certain ancient philosophers, such as Orpheus, the Pythagoreans, Plato (e.g., in the Phaedo, pp. 151, 183 seq., ed. Bip., and see Clement of Alexandria, Stromata, iii, p. 400 seq.), deplore the soul's connexion with the body, as the Apostle Paul does, and wish to be liberated from this connexion, we understand the real and true meaning of this complaint, in so far as we recognize in the second book that the body is the will itself, objectively perceived as spatial phenomenon.

In the hour of death, the decision is made whether man falls back into the womb of nature, or else no longer belongs to her, but --: we lack image, concept, and word for this opposite, just because all these are taken from the objectification of the will, and therefore belong to that objectification; consequently, they cannot in any way express its absolute opposite; accordingly, this remains for us a mere negation. However, the death of the individual is in each case the unweariedly repeated question of nature to the will-to-live: "Have you had enough? Do you wish to escape from me?" The individual life is short, so that the question may be put often enough. The ceremonies, prayers, and exhortations of the Brahmans at the time of death are conceived in this sense, as we find them preserved in several passages of the Upanishad. In just the same way, the Christian concern is for the proper employment of the hour of death by means of exhortation, confession, communion, and extreme unction; hence the Christian prayers for preservation from a sudden end. That many desire just such an end at the present day simply shows that they no longer stand at the Christian point of view, which is that of the denial of the will-to-live, but at that of its affirmation, which is the heathen.

However, he will be least afraid of becoming nothing in death who has recognized that he is already nothing now, and who consequently no longer takes any interest in his individual phenomenon, since in him knowledge has, so to speak, burnt up and consumed the will, so that there is no longer any will, any keen desire for individual existence, left in him.

Individuality, of course, is inherent above all in the intellect; reflecting the phenomenon, the intellect is related thereto, and the phenomenon has the principium individuationis [Google translate: the individualization] as its form. But individuality is also inherent in the will, in so far as the character is individual; yet this character itself is abolished in the denial of the will. Thus individuality is inherent in the will only in its affirmation, not in its denial. The holiness attaching to every purely moral action rests on the fact that ultimately such action springs from the immediate knowledge of the numerical identity of the inner nature of all living things. [10] But this identity is really present only in the state of the denial of the will (Nirvana), as the affirmation of the will (Samsara) has for its form the phenomenal appearance of this in plurality and multiplicity. Affirmation of the will-to-live, the phenomenal world, diversity of all beings, individuality, egoism, hatred, wickedness, all spring from one root. In just the same way, on the other hand, the world as thing-in-itself, the identity of all beings, justice, righteousness, philanthropy, denial of the will-to-live, spring from one root. Now, as I have sufficiently shown, moral virtues spring from an awareness of that identity of all beings; this, however, lies not in the phenomenon, but in the thing-in-itself, in the root of all beings. If this is the case, then the virtuous action is a momentary passing through the point, the permanent return to which is the denial of the will-to-live.

It is a deduction from what has been said that we have no ground for assuming that there are even more perfect intelligences than those of human beings. For we see that this intelligence is already sufficient for imparting to the will that knowledge in consequence of which the will denies and abolishes itself. With this knowledge, individuality, and therefore intelligence, as being merely a tool of individual nature, of animal nature, cease. To us this will appear less objectionable when we consider that we cannot conceive even the most perfect possible intelligences, which we may tentatively assume for this purpose, as indeed continuing to exist throughout an endless time, a time that would prove to be much too poor to afford them constantly new objects worthy of them. Thus, because the inner essence of all things is at bottom identical, all knowledge of it is necessarily tautological. If this inner essence is once grasped, as it soon would be by those most perfect intelligences, what would be left for them but mere repetition and its tedium throughout endless time? Thus, even from this point of view, we are referred to the fact that the aim of all intelligence can only be reaction to a will; but since all willing is error, the last work of intelligence is to abolish willing, whose aims and ends it had hitherto served. Accordingly, even the most perfect intelligence possible can be only a transition stage to that which no knowledge can ever reach; in fact, such an intelligence, in the nature of things, can take only the place of the moment of attained, perfect insight.

In agreement with all these considerations, and with what was shown in the second book to be the origin of knowledge from the will, since knowledge is serviceable to the aims of the will, and in this way reflects the will in its affirmation, whereas true salvation lies in the denial of the will, we see all religions at their highest point end in mysticism and mysteries, that is to say, in darkness and veiled obscurity. These really indicate merely a blank spot for knowledge, the point where all knowledge necessarily ceases. Hence for thought this can be expressed only by negations, but for sense-perception it is indicated by symbolical signs, in temples by dim light and silence, in Brahmanism even by the required suspension of all thought and perception for the purpose of entering into the deepest communion with one's own self, by mentally uttering the mysterious Om. [*] In the widest sense, mysticism is every guidance to the immediate awareness of that which is not reached either by perception or conception, or generally by any knowledge. The mystic is opposed to the philosopher by the fact that he begins from within, whereas the philosopher begins from without. The mystic starts from his inner, positive, individual experience, in which he finds himself as the eternal and only being, and so on. But nothing of this is communicable except the assertions that we have to accept on his word; consequently he is unable to convince. The philosopher, on the other hand, starts from what is common to all, the objective phenomenon lying before us all, and from the facts of self-consciousness as they are to be found in everyone. Therefore reflection on all this, and the combination of the data given in it, are his method; for this reason he is able to convince. He should therefore beware of falling into the way of the mystics, and, for instance, by assertion of intellectual intuitions, or of pretended immediate apprehensions of the faculty of reason, of trying to give in bright colours a positive knowledge of what is for ever inaccessible to all knowledge, or at most can be expressed only by a negation. Philosophy has its value and virtue in its rejection of all assumptions that cannot be substantiated, and in its acceptance as its data only of that which can be proved with certainty in the external world given by perception, in the forms constituting our intellect for the apprehension of the world, and in the consciousness of one's own self common to all. For this reason it must remain cosmology, and cannot become theology. Its theme must restrict itself to the world; to express from every aspect what this world is, what it may be in its innermost nature, is all that it can honestly achieve. Now it is in keeping with this that, when my teaching reaches its highest point, it assumes a negative character, and so ends with a negation. Thus it can speak here only of what is denied or given up; but what is gained in place of this, what is laid hold of, it is forced (at the conclusion of the fourth book) to describe as nothing; and it can add only the consolation that it may be merely a relative, not an absolute, nothing. For, if something is no one of all the things that we know, then certainly it is for us in general nothing. Yet it still does not follow from this that it is nothing absolutely, namely that it must be nothing from every possible point of view and in every possible sense, but only that we are restricted to a wholly negative knowledge of it; and this may very well lie in the limitation of our point of view. Now it is precisely here that the mystic proceeds positively, and therefore, from this point, nothing is left but mysticism. Anyone, however, who desires this kind of supplement to the negative knowledge to which alone philosophy can guide him, will find it in its most beautiful and richest form in the Oupnekhat, in the Enneads of Plotinus, in Scotus Erigena, in passages of Jacob Bohme, and especially in the wonderful work of Madame de Guyon, Les Torrens, and in Angelus Silesius, and finally also in the poems of the Sufis, of which Tholuck has given us one collection in Latin and another translation into German, and in many other works. The Sufis are the Gnostics of Islam; hence also Sarli describes them by an expression that is translated by "full of insight." Theism, calculated with reference to the capacity of the crowd, places the primary source of existence outside us, as an object. All mysticism, and so Sufism also, at the various stages of its initiation, draw this source gradually back into ourselves as the subject, and the adept at last recognizes with wonder and delight that he himself is it. We find this course of events expressed by Meister Eckhart, the father of German mysticism, not only in the form of a precept for the perfect ascetic "that he seek not God outside himself" (Eckhart's Works, edited by Pfeiffer, Vol. I, p. 626), but also exhibited extremely naively by the fact that, after Eckhart's spiritual daughter had experienced that conversion in herself, she sought him out, in order to cry out to him jubilantly: "Sir, rejoice with me, I have become God!" (loc. cit., p. 465). The mysticism of the Sufis also expresses itself generally in this same spirit, principally as a revelling in the consciousness that we ourselves are the kernel of the world and the source of all existence, to which everything returns.

Image

Ibn Mansur Al Hallaj, the "Qu'ranic Christ," making the dangerous and fatal "ejaculation," 'ANA' L HAQ (I AM the Truth)
IF HALLAJ HAD SAID
"ALLAH AL HAZ -- GOD (IN HIS TRANSCENDENTAL ASPECT) IS THE
TRUTH, OR "HUWA AL HAQ" (HE IS THE TRUTH) IT WOULD HAVE BEEN
A COMMON STATEMENT. HOWEVER AL HALLAJ DECLARED THAT
GOD ALONE EXISTS: THEREFORE HE IS THE ONE SUBJECT AND THUS
HE ALONE CAN WITNESS HIS EXISTENCE.

-- Toward the One, by Pir Vilayat Inayat Khan

***

Take the famous utterance, 'I am God.' Some men reckon it as a great pretension; but 'I am Gael' is in fact a great humility. The man who says 'I am the servant of God' asserts that two exist, one himself and the other God. But he who says 'I am God' has naughted himself and cast himself to the winds. He says, 'I am God': that is, 'I am not, He is all, nothing has existence but God, I am pure non-entity, I am nothing.' In this the humility is greater.

-- Discourses of Rumi, translated by A. J. Arberry

***

Image
[Gozer] Are you a God?

-- Ghostbusters, directed by Ivan Reitman


It is true that there also frequently occurs the call to give up all willing as the only way in which deliverance from individual existence and its sufferings is possible; yet it is subordinated and is required as something easy. In the mysticism of the Hindus, on the other hand, the latter side comes out much more strongly, and in Christian mysticism it is quite predominant, so that the pantheistic consciousness, essential to all mysticism, here appears only in a secondary way, in consequence of the giving up of all willing, as union with God. In keeping with this difference of conception Mohammedan mysticism has a very cheerful, Christian mysticism a melancholy and painful character, while that of the Hindus, standing above both, holds the mean in this respect.

Quietism, i.e., the giving up of all willing, asceticism, i.e., intentional mortification of one's own will, and mysticism, i.e., consciousness of the identity of one's own inner being with that of all things, or with the kernel of the world, stand in the closest connexion, so that whoever professes one of them is gradually led to the acceptance of the others, even against his intention. Nothing can be more surprising than the agreement among the writers who express those teachings, in spite of the greatest difference of their age, country, and religion, accompanied as it is by the absolute certainty and fervent assurance with which they state the permanence and consistency of their inner experience. They do not form some sect that adheres to, defends, and propagates a dogma theoretically popular and once adopted; on the contrary, they generally do not know of one another; in fact, the Indian, Christian, and Mohammedan mystics, quietists, and ascetics are different in every respect except in the inner meaning and spirit of their teachings. A most striking example of this is afforded by the comparison of Madame de Guyon's Torrens with the teaching of the Vedas, especially with the passage in the Oupnekhat, Vol. I, p. 63. This contains the substance of that French work in the briefest form, but accurately and even with the same figures of speech, and yet it could not possibly have been known to Madame de Guyon in 1680. In the German Theology (the only unmutilated edition, Stuttgart, 1851), it is said in Chapters 2 and 3 that the fall of the devil as well as that of Adam consisted in the fact that the one, like the other, had ascribed to himself I and me, mine and to me. On page 89 it says: "In true love there remains neither I nor me, mine, to me, thou, thine, and the like." In keeping with this, it says in the Kural, translated from the Tamil by Graul, p. 8: "The passion of the mind directed outwards and that of the I directed inwards cease" (cf. verse 346). And in the Manual of Buddhism by Spence Hardy, p. 258, the Buddha says: "My disciples, reject the idea that I am this or this is mine." If we turn from the forms, produced by external circumstances, and go to the root of things, we shall find generally that Sakya Mum and Meister Eckhart teach the same thing; only that the former dared to express his ideas plainly and positively, whereas the latter is obliged to clothe them in the garment of the Christian myth, and to adapt his expressions thereto. This goes to such lengths that with him the Christian myth is little more than a metaphorical language, in much the same way as the Hellenic myth is to the Neo-Platonists; he takes it throughout allegorically. In the same respect, it is noteworthy that the turning of St. Francis from prosperity to a beggar's life is entirely similar to the even greater step of the Buddha Sakya Mum from prince to beggar, and that accordingly the life of St. Francis, as well as the order founded by him, was only a kind of Sannyasi existence. In fact, it is worth mentioning that his relationship with the Indian spirit also appears in his great love for animals, and his frequent association with them, when he always calls them his sisters and brothers; and his beautiful Cantico is evidence of his inborn Indian spirit through the praise of the sun, moon, stars, wind, water, fire and earth. [11]

Even the Christian quietists must often have had little or no knowledge of one another, for example, Molinos and Madame de Guyon of Tauler and the German Theology, or Gichtel of the former. Likewise, the great difference of their culture, in that some of them, like Molinos, were learned, others, like Gichtel and many more, were illiterate, has no essential influence on their teachings. Their great inner agreement, together with the firmness and certainty of their utterances, proves all the more that they speak from actual inner experience, from an experience which is, of course, not accessible to everyone, but comes only to a favoured few. This experience has therefore been called the effect of grace, whose reality, however, is indubitable for the above reasons. But to understand all this we must read the mystics themselves, and not be content with second-hand reports; for everyone must himself be comprehended before we judge of him. Therefore I specially recommend for an acquaintance with quietism Meister Eckhart, the German Theology, Tauler, Madame de Guyon, Antoinette Bourignon, Bunyan, Molinos, [12] and Gichtel. As practical proofs of the deep seriousness of asceticism, Pascal's life edited by Reuchlin together with his history of Port Royal, and also the Histoire de Sainte Elisabeth by the Comte de Montalembert and La vie de Rance by Chateaubriand are also well worth reading; yet these by no means exhaust all that is important in this class. Whoever has read such works, and has compared their spirit with that of asceticism and quietism, as it runs through all the works of Brahmanism and Buddhism and speaks from every page, will admit that every philosophy, which, to be consistent, must reject that whole mode of thought, in that it declares the representatives of it to be impostors or madmen, must on this account necessarily be false. But all European systems, my own excepted, find themselves in this position. It must truly be a strange madness which, in circumstances and among persons of the widest possible difference, expressed itself with such agreement, and was, moreover, exalted to a principal teaching of their religion by the oldest and most numerous races on earth, by some three-quarters of all the inhabitants of Asia. But no philosophy can leave undecided the theme of quietism and asceticism, if the question is put to it, since this theme is in substance identical with that of all metaphysics and ethics. Here, then, is a point on which I expect and desire every philosophy with its optimism to express itself. And if, in the judgement of contemporaries, the paradoxical and unexampled agreement of my philosophy with quietism and asceticism appears as an obvious stumbling-block, yet I, on the other hand, see in this very agreement a proof of its sole accuracy and truth, and also a ground for explaining why it has been discreetly ignored and kept secret by Protestant universities.

For not only the religions of the East, but also true Christianity has throughout this fundamental ascetic character that my philosophy explains as denial of the will-to-live, although Protestantism, especially in its present-day form, tries to keep this dark. Yet even the open enemies of Christianity who have appeared in most recent times have attributed to it the teaching of renunciation, self-denial, perfect chastity, and generally mortification of the will, which they quite rightly describe by the name of "anticosmic tendency"; and they have thoroughly demonstrated that such doctrines are essentially peculiar to original and genuine Christianity. In this respect they are undeniably right; but they set up this very thing as an obvious and patent reproach to Christianity, whereas just in this are its deepest truth, its high value, and its sublime character to be found. Such an attitude is evidence of a mental obscurity to be explained only from the fact that the minds of those men, unfortunately like thousands of others at the present time in Germany, are completely ruined and for ever confused by that miserable Hegelism, that school of dulness, that centre of stupidity and ignorance, that mind-destroying, spurious wisdom that people are at last beginning to recognize as such. Admiration of this school will soon be left to the Danish Academy alone; in their eyes, indeed, that coarse and clumsy charlatan is a summus philosophus, for whom it takes the field:

Car ils suivront la creance et estude,
De l'ignorante et sotte multitude,
Dont le plus lourd sera recu pour juge. [13]

-- Rabelais


The ascetic tendency is certainly unmistakable in genuine and original Christianity, as it was developed in the writings of the Church Fathers from the kernel of the New Testament; this tendency is the highest point to which everything strives upwards. We find, as its principal teaching, the recommendation of genuine and pure celibacy (that first and most important step in the denial of the will-to-live) already expressed in the New Testament. [14] In his Life of Jesus (Vol. I, p. 618), Strauss also says with regard to the recommendation of celibacy given in Matthew xix, 11 seq. "That in order not to represent Jesus as saying anything running counter to present-day ideas, men hasten to introduce surreptitiously the idea that Jesus commends celibacy only with regard to the circumstances of the time, and in order to leave unfettered the activity of the Apostles; but in the context there is even less indication of this than there is in the kindred passage, I Cor. vii, 25 seq. On the contrary, we have here again one of the places where ascetic principles such as were widespread among the Essenes, and probably even more so among the Jews, appear in the teaching of Jesus also." This ascetic tendency later appears more decided than at the beginning, when, still looking for adherents, Christianity did not dare to pitch its demands too high; and by the beginning of the third century it is emphatically urged. In Christianity proper, marriage is regarded merely as a compromise with man's sinful nature, as a concession, as something allowed to those who lack the strength to aspire to the highest, and as an expedient for preventing greater perdition. In this sense, it receives the sanction of the Church so that the bond may be indissoluble. But celibacy and virginity are set up as the higher inspiration of Christianity, by which one enters into the ranks of the elect. Through these alone does one attain the victor's crown, which is indicated even at the present time by a wreath on the coffin of the unmarried, as also by the wreath laid aside by the bride on the day of her marriage.

A piece of evidence on this point, coming certainly from the earliest days of Christianity, is the pregnant answer of the Lord quoted by Clement of Alexandria (Stromata, iii, 6 and 9) from the Gospel of the Egyptians: (Salomae interroganti "Quousque vigebit mors?" Dominus "Quoadusque," inquit, "vos, mulieres, paritis"). (hoc est, quamdiu operabuntur cupiditates) [15] Clement adds (c. 9) with which he connects at once the famous passage, Rom. v, 12. Further, in c. 13, he quotes the words of Cassianus: (Cum interrogaret Salome, quando cognoscentur ea, de quibus interrogabat, ait Dominus: 'Quando pudoris indumentum conculcaveritis, et quando duo facta fuerint unum, et masculum cum femina nec masculum nec femineum.'), [16] in other words, when she no longer needs the veil of modesty, since all distinction of sex will have disappeared.

On this point the heretics have certainly gone farthest, thus the Tatianites or Encratites, the Gnostics, the Marcionites, the Montanists, Valentinians, and Cassians in the second century, yet only by their paying honour to truth with reckless consistency, and therefore teaching, according to the spirit of Christianity, complete abstinence, , whereas the Church prudently declared heresy all that ran counter to her far-seeing policy. Of the Tatianites Augustine says: Nuptias damnant, atque omnino pares eas fornicationibus aliisque corruptionibus faciunt: nec recipiunt in suum numerum conjugio utentem, sive marem, sive feminam. Non vescuntur carnibus, easque abominantur. (De haeresibus ad Quodvultdeum, haer. 25). [17] But even the orthodox fathers consider marriage in the light indicated above, and zealously preach complete abstinence, . Athanasius states as the cause of marriage: (Quia subjacemus condemnationi propatoris nostri; ... nam finis, a Deo praelatus, erat, nos non per nuptias et corruptionem fieri: sed transgressio mandati nuptias introduxit, propter legis violationem Adae. Exposit. in psalm. 50). [18] Tertullian calls marriage genus mali inferioris, ex indulgentia ortum (De Pudicitia, c. 16) and says: Matrimonium et stuprum est commixtio carnis; scilicet cujus concupiscentiam Dominus stupro adaequavit. Ergo, inquis, jam et primas, id est unas nuptias destruis? Nec immerito: quoniam et ipsae ex eo constant, quod est stuprum (De Exhortatione Castitatis, c. 9). [19] In fact, Augustine himself acknowledges entirely this teaching and all its results, since he says: Novi quosdam, qui murmurent: Quid si, inquiunt, omnes velint ab omni concubitu abstinere, unde subsistet genus humanum? Utinam omnes hoc vellent! dumtaxat in caritate, de corde puro, et conscientia bona, et fide non ficta: multo citius Dei civitas compleretur, et acceleraretur terminus mundi (De bono conjugali, c. 10). And again: Non vos ab hoc studio, quo multos ad imitandum vos excitatis, frangat querela vanorum, qui dicunt: Quomodo subsistet genus humanum, si omnes fuerint continentes? Quasi propter aliud retardetur hoc seculum, nisi ut impleatur praedestinatus numerus ille sanctorum, quo citius impleto, profecto nec terminus seculi differetur (De bono viduitatis, c. 23). [20] At the same time, we see that he identifies salvation with the end of the world. The remaining passages bearing on this point from the works of Augustine are found collected in the Confessio Augustiniana e D. Augustini operibus compilata a Hieronymo Torrense, 1610, under the headings De Matrimonio, De Coelibatu, and so on. From these anyone can convince himself that in old, genuine Christianity marriage was a mere concession; moreover that it was supposed to have only the begetting of children as its object; and that, on the other hand, total abstinence was the true virtue much to be preferred to marriage. To remove all doubts about the tendency of the Christianity we are discussing, I recommend for those who do not wish to go back to the sources, two works: Carove, Ueber das Colibatgesetz (1832), and Lind, De Coelibatu Christianorum per tria priora secula (Havniae [Copenhagen], 1839). But it is by no means the views of these writers themselves to which I refer, as these are opposed to mine, but simply the accounts and quotations carefully collected by them, which merit complete trust and confidence as being quite undesigning, just because these two authors are opponents of celibacy, the former a rationalistic Catholic, and the latter a Protestant theological student who speaks exactly like one. In the first-named work we find (Vol. I, p. 166), the following result expressed in that regard: "By virtue of the Church view, as it may be read in the canonical Church Fathers, in Synodal and Papal instructions, and in innumerable writings of orthodox Catholics, perpetual chastity is called a divine, heavenly, angelic virtue, and the obtaining of the assistance of divine grace for this purpose is made dependent on the earnest entreaty therefor. We have already shown that this Augustinian teaching is found expressed by Canisius and by the Council of Trent as the invariable belief of the Church. But that it has been retained till the present day as a dogma may be sufficiently established by the June 1831 number of the periodical Der Katholik. On p. 263 it says: 'In Catholicism the observance of a perpetual chastity, for God's sake, appears in itself as the highest merit of man. The view that the observance of perpetual chastity as an end in itself sanctifies and exalts man, is, as every instructed Catholic is convinced, deep-rooted in Christianity according to its spirit and its express precept. The Council of Trent has removed all possible doubt about this.' It must certainly be admitted by every unbiassed person not only that the teaching expressed by Der Katholik is really Catholic, but also that the arguments adduced may be absolutely irrefutable for a Catholic's faculty of reason, as they are drawn directly from the fundamental ecclesiastical view of the Church on life and its destiny." Further, it is said on p. 270 of the same work: "Although Paul describes the prohibition to marry as a false teaching, and the even more Judaistic author of the Epistle to the Hebrews enjoins that 'Marriage shall be honourable in all, and the marriage bed undefiled' (Hebr. xiii, 4), yet the main tendency of these two sacred writers must not on this account be misunderstood. To both virginity was perfection, marriage only a makeshift for the weaker, and only as such was it to be held inviolate. The highest endeavour, on the other hand, was directed to complete, material casting off of self. The self should turn away and refrain from everything that contributes only to its pleasure and to this only temporarily." Finally on p. 288: "We agree with the Abbe Zaccaria, who asserts that celibacy (not the law of celibacy) is derived above all from the teaching of Christ and of the Apostle Paul."
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Re: The World As Will and Representation, by Arthur Schopenh

Postby admin » Sat Feb 03, 2018 1:27 am

Part 2 of 2

What is opposed to this really Christian fundamental view is everywhere and always only the Old Testament, with its [x]. [21] This appears with particular distinctness from that important third book of the Stromata of Clement. Arguing against the above-mentioned Encratite heretics, he there always confronts them merely with Judaism and its optimistic history of creation, with which the world-denying tendency of the New Testament is most certainly in contradiction. But the connexion of the New Testament with the Old is at bottom only an external, accidental, and in fact forced one; and, as I have said, this offered a sole point of contact for the Christian teaching only in the story of the Fall, which, moreover, in the Old Testament is isolated, and is not further utilized. Yet according to the Gospel account, it is just the orthodox followers of the Old Testament who bring about the crucifixion of the Founder, because they consider his teachings to be in contradiction with their own. In the above-mentioned third book of the Stromata of Clement the antagonism between optimism together with theism on the one hand, and pessimism together with asceticism on the other, comes out with surprising distinctness. This book is directed against the Gnostics, who taught precisely pessimism and asceticism, particularly (abstinence of every kind, but especially from all sexual satisfaction); for this reason, Clement vigorously censures them. But at the same time it becomes apparent that the spirit of the Old Testament stands in this antagonism with that of the New. For, apart from the Fall which appears in the Old Testament like an hors d'oeuvre, the spirit of the Old Testament is diametrically opposed to that of the New; the former is optimistic, and the latter pessimistic. This contradiction is brought out by Clement himself at the end of the eleventh chapter ( ), [22] although he will not admit it, but declares it to be apparent, like the good Jew that he is. In general, it is interesting to see how for Clement the New and Old Testaments always get mixed up, and how he strives to reconcile them, yet often drives out the New Testament with the Old. At the very beginning of the third chapter he objects to the Marcionites for having found fault with the creation, after the manner of Plato and Pythagoras, since Marcion teaches that nature is bad and made of bad material ( ); hence this world should not be populated, but man should abstain from marriage ( ). Now Clement, to whom the Old Testament is generally much more congenial and convincing than the New, takes this very much amiss. He sees in this their flagrant ingratitude, enmity, and resentment towards him who made the world, towards the just demiurge, whose work they themselves are. In godless rebellion "forsaking the natural disposition," they nevertheless disdained to make use of his creatures ( ). [23] Here in his holy ardour he will not allow the Marcionites even the honour of originality, but, armed with his well-known erudition, he reproaches them and supports his case with the finest quotations, that the ancient philosophers, that Heraclitus and Empedocles, Pythagoras and Plato, Orpheus and Pindar, Herodotus and Euripides, and in addition the Sibyls, already deeply deplored the wretched nature of the world, and thus taught pessimism. Now he does not notice in this scholarly enthusiasm that precisely in this way he is providing grist to the mill of the Marcionites, for he shows indeed that "All the wisest of all the ages" have taught and sung the same thing as they. On the contrary, he confidently and boldly quotes the most decided and emphatic utterances of the ancients in that sense. Of course, he is not put out by them; sages may lament the melancholy nature of existence, poets may pour out the most affecting lamentations about it, nature and experience may cry out ever so loudly against optimism; all this does not disturb our Church Father; he still holds his Jewish revelation in his hand, and remains confident. The demiurge has made the world; from this it is a priori certain that it is excellent, no matter what it looks like. It is then just the same with the second point, with the [x], by which, according to his view, the Marcionites reveal their ingratitude to the demiurge ( ), and the stubbornness with which they reject his gifts ( ). The tragic poets had already paved the way for the Encratites (to the detriment of their originality), and had said the same thing. Thus they lamented the infinite misery of existence, and added that it is better to bring no children into such a world. Again he supports this with the finest passages, and at the same time accuses the Pythagoreans of having renounced sexual pleasure for this reason. All this, however, does not worry him at all; he sticks to his principle that through their abstinence all these sin against the demiurge, since they teach that one should not marry, should not beget children, should not bring into the world new miserable beings, should not produce fresh fodder for death ( [x] c. 6). [24] Since the learned Church Father thus denounces, he does not appear to have foreseen that, just after his time, the celibacy of the Christian priesthood would be introduced more and more, and finally in the eleventh century would be passed into law, because it is in keeping with the spirit of the New Testament. It is precisely this spirit that the Gnostics grasped more profoundly and understood better than did our Church Father, who was more of a Jew than a Christian. The point of view of the Gnostics stands out very clearly at the beginning of the ninth chapter, where the following is quoted from the Gospel of the Egyptians: (Aiunt enim dixisse Servatorem: "Veni ad dissolvendum opera feminae": feminae quidem, cupiditatis,' opera autem, generationem et interitum); [25] but particularly at the end of the thirteenth chapter and at the beginning of the fourteenth. The Church, of course, had to consider how to set on its feet a religion that could also walk and stand in the world as it is, and among men; she therefore declared these men to be heretics. At the conclusion of the seventh chapter, our Church Father sets up Indian asceticism as bad in opposition to the Christian-Jewish; here is clearly brought out the fundamental difference in the spirit of the two religions. In Judaism and Christianity, everything runs back to obedience or disobedience to God's command, as befits us creatures, (nobis qui ab Omnipotentis voluntate effecti sumus) [26] c. 14. Then comes, as a second duty, to serve the Lord, to praise his works, and to overflow with thankfulness. In Brahmanism and Buddhism, of course, the matter has quite a different aspect, since in the latter all improvement, conversion, and salvation to be hoped for from this world of suffering, from this Samsara, proceed from knowledge of the four fundamental truths: (1) dolor, (2) doloris ortus, (3) doloris interitus, (4) octopartita via ad doloris sedationem. [27] Dhammapada, ed. Fausboll, pp. 35 and 347. The explanation of these four truths is found in Burnouf, Introduction a l'histoire du Buddhisme, p. 629, and in all descriptions of Buddhism.

In truth it is not Judaism with its [x], [28] but Brahmanism and Buddhism that in spirit and ethical tendency are akin to Christianity. The spirit and ethical tendency, however, are the essentials of a religion, not the myths in which it clothes them. Therefore I do not abandon the belief that the teachings of Christianity are to be derived in some way from those first and original religions. I have already pointed out some traces of this in the second volume of the Parerga, § 179. In addition to these is the statement of Epiphanius (Haereses, xviii) that the first Jewish Christians of Jerusalem, who called themselves Nazarenes, abstained from all animal food. By virtue of this origin (or at any rate of this agreement), Christianity belongs to the ancient, true, and sublime faith of mankind. This faith stands in contrast to the false, shallow, and pernicious optimism that manifests itself in Greek paganism, Judaism, and Islam. To a certain extent the Zend religion holds the mean, since it opposes to Ormuzd a pessimistic counterpoise in Ahriman. The Jewish religion resulted from this Zend religion, as J. G. Rhode has thoroughly demonstrated in his book Die heilige Sage des Zendvolks; Jehovah came from Ormuzd, and Satan from Ahriman. The latter, however, plays only a very subordinate role in Judaism, in fact almost entirely disappears. In this way optimism gains the upper hand, and there is left only the myth of the Fall as a pessimistic element, which (as the fable of Meshian and Meshiane) is also taken from the Zend-Avesta, but nevertheless falls into oblivion until it, as well as Satan, is again taken up by Christianity. But Ormuzd himself is derived from Brahmanism, although from a lower region thereof; he is no other than Indra, that subordinate god of the firmament and the atmosphere, who is frequently in competition with men. This has been very clearly shown by the eminent scholar I. J. Schmidt in his work Ueber die Verwandtschaft der gnostisch-theosophischen Lehren mit den Religionssystemen des Orients, vorzuglich dem Buddhismus. This Indra-Ormuzd-Jehovah afterwards had to pass into Christianity, as that religion arose in Judaea. But in consequence of the cosmopolitan character of Christianity, he laid aside his proper name, in order to be described in the language of each converted nation by the appellative of the superhuman individuals he supplanted, as , Deus, which comes from the Sanskrit Deva (from which also devil, Teufel is derived), or among the Gothic-Germanic nations by the word God, Gott, which comes from Odin, or Wodan, Guodan, Godan. In just the same way he assumed in Islam, which also springs from Judaism, the name of Allah, which existed previously in Arabia. Analogously to this, when the gods of the Greek Olympus were transplanted to Italy in prehistoric times, they assumed the names of the gods who reigned there previously; hence among the Romans Zeus is called Jupiter, Hera Juno, Hermes Mercury, and so on. In China the first embarrassment of the missionaries arose from the fact that the Chinese language has absolutely no appellative of the kind, and also no word for creating; [29] for the three religions of China know of no gods either in the plural or in the singular.

However it may be in other respects, that [x] [30] of the Old Testament is really foreign to Christianity proper; for in the New Testament the world is generally spoken of as something to which we do not belong, which we do not love, the ruler of which, in fact, is the devil. [31] This agrees with the ascetic spirit of the denial of one's self and the overcoming of the world. Like boundless love of one's neighbour, even of one's enemy, this spirit is the fundamental characteristic which Christianity has in common with Brahmanism and Buddhism, and which is evidence of their relationship. There is nothing in which we have to distinguish the kernel from the shell so much as in Christianity. Just because I value this kernel highly, I sometimes treat the shell with little ceremony; yet it is thicker than is often supposed.

By eliminating asceticism and its central point, the meritorious nature of celibacy, Protestantism has already given up the innermost kernel of Christianity, and to this extent is to be regarded as a breaking away from it. In our day, this has shown itself in the gradual transition of Protestantism into shallow rationalism, that modern Pelagianism. In the end, this results in a doctrine of a loving father who made the world, in order that things might go on very pleasantly in it (and in this, of course, he was bound to fail), and who, if only we conform to his will in certain respects, will afterwards provide an even much pleasanter world (in which case it is only to be regretted that it has so fatal an entrance). This may be a good religion for comfortable, married, and civilized Protestant parsons, but it is not Christianity. Christianity is the doctrine of the deep guilt of the human race by reason of its very existence, and of the heart's intense longing for salvation therefrom. That salvation, however, can be attained only by the heaviest sacrifices and by the denial of one's own self, hence by a complete reform of man's nature. From a practical point of view, Luther may have been perfectly right, that is to say, with reference to the Church scandal of his time which he wished to stop, but not so from a theoretical point of view. The more sublime a teaching is, the more open is it to abuse at the hands of human nature, which is, on the whole, of a mean and evil disposition; for this reason, the abuses in Catholicism are much more numerous and much greater than those in Protestantism. Thus, for example, monasticism, that methodical denial of the will, practised in common for the purpose of mutual encouragement, is an institution of a sublime nature. For this reason, however, it often becomes untrue to its spirit. The revolting abuses of the Church provoked in Luther's honest mind a lofty indignation. In consequence of this, however, he was led to a desire to reduce the claims of Christianity itself as much as possible. For this purpose, he first of all restricted it to the words of the Bible; for he went too far in his well-meant zeal, for he attacked the heart of Christianity in the ascetic principle. For, after the withdrawal of this, the optimistic principle of necessity soon stepped into its place. But in religions, as well as in philosophy, optimism is a fundamental error that bars the way to all truth. From all this, it seems to me that Catholicism is a disgracefully abused, and Protestantism a degenerate, Christianity. Christianity in general thus appears to have suffered the fate that falls to the lot of everything that is noble, sublime, and great, as soon as it has to exist among mankind.

However, even in the very midst of Protestantism, the essentially ascetic and Encratite spirit of Christianity has again asserted itself, and the result of this is a phenomenon that perhaps has never previously existed in such magnitude and definiteness, namely the extremely remarkable sect of the Shakers in North America, founded in 1774 by an Englishwoman, Ann Lee. The followers of this sect have already increased to six thousand; they are divided into fifteen communities, and inhabit several villages in the states of New York and Kentucky, especially in the district of New Lebanon near Nassau village. The fundamental characteristic of their religious rule of life is celibacy and complete abstinence from all sexual satisfaction. It is unanimously admitted even by English and American visitors, who in every other respect laugh and jeer at them, that this rule is observed strictly and with perfect honesty, although brothers and sisters sometimes even occupy the same house, eat at the same table, in fact dance together in church during divine service. For whoever has made that heaviest of all sacrifices, may dance before the Lord; he is the victor, he has overcome. Their hymns in church are generally cheerful; in fact, some of them are merry songs. That church dance which follows the sermon is also accompanied by the singing of the rest; it is executed rhythmically and briskly, and ends with a galopade that is carried on till all are exhausted. After each dance, one of their teachers cries aloud: "Remember that ye rejoice before the Lord for having mortified your flesh! For this is the only use that we can here make of our refractory limbs." Most of the other conditions are automatically tied up with celibacy. There is no family, and hence no private property, but community of ownership. All are dressed alike, similarly to Quakers and very neatly. They are industrious and diligent; idleness is by no means tolerated. They also have the enviable rule of avoiding all unnecessary noise, such as shouting, door-slamming, whip-cracking, loud knocking, and so on. One of them has thus expressed their rule of life: "Lead a life of innocence and purity, love your neighbours as yourself, live in peace with all men, and refrain from war, bloodshed, and all acts of violence towards others, as well as from all striving after worldly honour and distinction. Give to each what is his, and observe holiness, without which no man can see the Lord. Do good to all in so far as there is opportunity and as long as your strength lasts." They do not persuade anyone to join them, but test those who present themselves for admission by a novitiate of several years. Everyone is free to leave them; very rarely is anyone expelled for misconduct. Children by a former husband or wife are carefully educated, and only when they have grown up do they take the vow voluntarily. It is said that during the controversies of their ministers with Anglican clergy the latter often come off the worse, for the arguments consist of passages from the New Testament. More detailed accounts of them are found especially in Maxwell's Run through the United States, 1841; also in Benedict's History of All Religions, 1830; likewise in The Times of 4 November 1837, and also in the May 1831 number of the German periodical Columbus. A German sect in America, very similar to them, is the Rappists, who also live in strict celibacy and abstinence. An account of them is given in F. Loher's Geschichte und Zustande der Deutschen in Amerika, 1853. In Russia the Raskolniki are said to be a similar sect. The Gichtelians likewise live in strict chastity. We find also among the ancient Jews a prototype of all these sects, namely the Essenes, of whom even Pliny gives an account (Historia Naturalis, V, 15), and who were very similar to the Shakers, not only in celibacy, but also in other respects, even in the dance during divine service. [32] This leads to the supposition that the woman who founded the Shakers took the Essenes as a pattern. In the face of such facts, how does Luther's assertion appear: Ubi natura, quemadmodum a Deo nobis insita est, fertur ac rapitur, FIERI NULLO MODO POTEST, ut extra matrimonium caste vivatur. (Catech. maj.)? [33]

Although, in essential respects, Christianity taught only what the whole of Asia knew already long before and even better, for Europe it was nevertheless a new and great revelation. In consequence of this, the spiritual tendency of European nations was entirely transformed. For it disclosed to them the metaphysical significance of existence, and accordingly taught them to look beyond the narrow, paltry, and ephemeral life on earth, and no longer to regard that as an end in itself, but as a state or condition of suffering, guilt, trial, struggle and purification, from which we can soar upwards to a better existence, inconceivable to us, by means of moral effort, severe renunciation, and the denial of our own self. Thus it taught the great truth of the affirmation and denial of the will-to-live in the garment of allegory by saying that, through the Fall of Adam, the curse had come upon all men, sin had come into the world, and guilt was inherited by all; but that through the sacrificial death of Jesus, on the other hand, all were purged of sin, the world was saved, guilt abolished, and justice appeased. But in order to understand the truth itself contained in this myth, we must regard human beings not merely in time as entities independent of one another, but must comprehend the (Platonic) Idea of man. This is related to the series of human beings as eternity in itself is to eternity drawn out in time. Hence the eternal Idea man, extended in time to the series of human beings, appears once more in time as a whole through the bond of generation that unites them. Now if we keep in view the Idea of man, we see that the Fall of Adam represents man's finite, animal, sinful nature, in respect of which he is just a being abandoned to limitation, sin, suffering, and death. On the other hand, the conduct, teaching, and death of Jesus Christ represent the eternal, supernatural side, the freedom, the salvation of man. Now, as such and potentia, every person is Adam as well as Jesus, according as he comprehends himself, and his will thereupon determines him. In consequence of this, he is then damned and abandoned to death, or else saved and attains to eternal life. Now these truths were completely new, both in the allegorical and in the real sense, as regards the Greeks and Romans, who were still entirely absorbed in life, and did not seriously look beyond this. Whoever doubts this last statement should see how even Cicero (Pro Cluentio, c. 61) and Sallust (Catilina, c. 47) speak of the state after death. Although the ancients were far advanced in almost everything else, they had remained children in the principal matter; and in this they were surpassed even by the Druids, who indeed taught metempsychosis. The fact that one or two philosophers, like Pythagoras and Plato, thought otherwise, alters nothing as regards the whole.

Therefore that great fundamental truth contained in Christianity as well as in Brahmanism and Buddhism, the need for salvation from an existence given up to suffering and death, and its attainability through the denial of the will, hence by a decided opposition to nature, is beyond all comparison the most important truth there can be. But it is at the same time entirely opposed to the natural tendency of mankind, and is difficult to grasp as regards its true grounds and motives; for, in fact, all that can be thought only generally and in the abstract is quite inaccessible to the great majority of people. Therefore, in order to bring that great truth into the sphere of practical application, a mythical vehicle for it was needed everywhere for this great majority, a receptacle, so to speak, without which it would be lost and dissipated. The truth had therefore everywhere to borrow the garb of fable, and, in addition, had to try always to connect itself in each case with what is historically given, and is already known and revered. That which sensu proprio was and remained inaccessible to the great masses of all times and countries with their low mentality, their intellectual stupidity, and their general brutality, had to be brought home to them sensu allegorico for practical purposes, in order to be their guiding star. Thus the above-mentioned religions are to be regarded as sacred vessels in which the great truth, recognized and expressed for thousands of years, possibly indeed since the beginning of the human race, and yet remaining in itself an esoteric doctrine as regards the great mass of mankind, is made accessible to them according to their powers, and preserved and passed on through the centuries. Yet because everything that does not consist throughout of the indestructible material of pure truth is subject to destruction, whenever this fate befalls such a vessel through contact with a heterogeneous age, the sacred contents must be saved in some way by another vessel, and preserved for mankind. But philosophy has the task of presenting those contents, since they are identical with pure truth, pure and unalloyed, hence merely in abstract concepts, and consequently without that vehicle, for those who are capable of thinking, the number of whom is at all times extremely small. Philosophy is related to religions as a straight line is to several curves running near it; for it expresses sensu proprio, and consequently reaches directly, that which religions show under disguises, and reach in roundabout ways.

Now if, in order to illustrate by an example what has just been said, and at the same time to follow a philosophical fashion of my time, I wish perhaps to try to resolve the deepest mystery of Christianity, namely that of the Trinity, into the fundamental conceptions of my philosophy, this might be done in the following manner with the licence granted in the case of such interpretations. The Holy Ghost is the decided denial of the will-to-live; the person in whom this exhibits itself in concreto is the Son. He is identical with the will that affirms life, and thereby produces the phenomenon of this world of perception, i.e., with the Father, in so far as affirmation and denial are opposite acts of the same will. The ability of the will to affirm or deny is the only true freedom. This, however, is to be regarded as a mere lusus ingenii [Google translate: freak talent.] [34]

Before ending this chapter I will quote a few proofs in support of what I denoted in § 68 of the first volume by the expression , [35] namely the bringing about of the denial of the will by one's own deeply felt suffering, thus not merely by the appropriation of others' suffering and by the knowledge, introduced thereby, of the vanity and wretchedness of our existence. We can understand what goes on in a man's heart in the case of an exaltation of this kind, and of the process of purification introduced by it, if we consider what every sensitive person experiences when looking on at a tragedy, as it is of a similar nature to this. Thus possibly in the third and fourth acts such a person is painfully affected and filled with anxiety by the sight of the ever more clouded and threatened happiness of the hero. On the other hand, when in the fifth act this happiness is entirely wrecked and shattered, he feels a certain elevation of mind. This affords him a pleasure of an infinitely higher order than any which could ever have been derived from the sight of the hero's happiness, however great this might have been. Now in the weak water-colours of fellow-feeling, such as can be stirred by a well-known illusion, this is the same as that which occurs with the force of reality in the feeling of our own fate, when it is grave misfortune that finally drives man into the haven of complete resignation. All those conversions that completely transform man, such as I have described in the text, are due to this occurrence. The story of the conversion of the Abbe Rance may be given here in a few words, as one that is strikingly similar to that of Raymond Lull given in the text; moreover, it is notable on account of its result. His youth was devoted to pleasure and enjoyment; finally, he lived in a passionate relationship with a Madame de Montbazon. When he visited her one evening, he found her room empty, dark, and in disorder. He struck something with his foot; it was her head, which had been severed from the trunk because, after her sudden death, her corpse could not otherwise have been put into the leaden coffin that was standing beside it. After recovering from a terrible grief, Rance became in 1663 the reformer of the order of the Trappists, which at that time had departed entirely from the strictness of its rules. He at once entered this order, and through him it was brought back to that terrible degree of renunciation in which it continues to exist at La Trappe even at the present time. As the denial of the will, methodically carried out and supported by the severest renunciations, and by an incredibly hard and painful way of life, this order fills the visitor with sacred awe after he has been touched at his reception by the humility of these genuine monks. Emaciated by fasting, shivering, night-watches, praying, and working, these monks kneel before him, the worldling and sinner, to ask for his blessing. In France, of all the monastic orders this one alone has maintained itself completely after all the revolutionary changes. This is to be ascribed to the deep seriousness which is unmistakable in it, and which excludes all secondary purposes. It has remained untouched, even by the decline of religion, because its root is to be found deeper in human nature than is any positive doctrine of belief.

I have mentioned in the text that the great and rapid revolutionary change in man's innermost nature, which has here been considered, and has hitherto been entirely neglected by philosophers, occurs most frequently when, fully conscious, he goes out to a violent and certain death, as in the case of executions. But to bring this process much more closely before our eyes, I do not regard it as in any way unbecoming to the dignity of philosophy to record the statements of a few criminals before execution, although I might in this way incur the sneer that I encourage gallows-sermons. On the contrary, I certainly believe that the gallows is a place of quite peculiar revelations, and a watch-tower from which the person who still retains his senses often obtains a much wider view and a clearer insight into eternity than most philosophers have over the paragraphs of their rational psychology and theology. The following gallows-sermon was given at Gloucester on 15 April 1837, by a certain Bartlett who had murdered his mother-in-law: "Englishmen and fellow-countrymen! I have a few words to say, and very few they shall be. Yet let me entreat you, one and all, that these few words may strike deep into your hearts. Bear them in your minds, not only while you are witnessing this sad scene, but take them to your homes, take them and repeat them to your children and friends; I implore you as a dying man, one for whom the instrument of death is even now prepared. And these words are, that you may loose yourselves from the love of this dying world and its vain pleasures. Think less of it and more of your God. Do this: repent, repent! For be assured, that without deep and true repentance, without turning to your heavenly Father, you will never attain, nor can hold the slightest hope of ever reaching those bowers of bliss and that land of peace, to which I trust I am now fast advancing, etc." (From The Times 18, April, 1837.) Even more remarkable is a last statement of the well-known murderer Greenacre, who was executed in London on I May, 1837. The English newspaper The Post gives the following account of it, which is also reprinted in Galignani's Messenger of 6 May, 1837. "On the morning of his execution a gentleman recommended him to put his trust in God and pray to be forgiven through the intercession of Jesus Christ. Greenacre made answer that praying through the intercession of Christ was a matter of opinion: as for himself, he believed that a Mahommetan in the eyes of the supreme being was equal to a Christian and had as great a claim to salvation. He remarked that since his confinement he had turned his attention to theological matters, and had come to the conclusion: that the gallows was a pass-port to Heaven." The indifference here displayed towards positive religions is just what gives this statement greater weight, since it shows that the basis of such a statement is no fanatical delusion, but the man's own immediate knowledge. The following extract, taken from the Limerick Chronicle and given in Galignani's Messenger of 15 August, 1837, may also be mentioned: "Mary Cooney, for the revolting murder of Mrs. Anne Anderson, was executed at Gallowsgreen on Monday last. So deeply sensible of her crime was the wretched woman, that she kissed the rope which encircled her neck, and humbly implored God for mercy." Finally also this: The Times of 29 April 1845 gives several letters, written on the day before his execution by Hocker, who was condemned for the murder of Delarue. In one of them he says: "I am persuaded that unless the natural heart be broken, and renewed by divine mercy, however noble and amiable it may be deemed by the world, it can never think of eternity without inwardly shuddering." These are the outlooks into eternity mentioned above, which are disclosed from that watch-tower, and I have the less hesitation in giving them here, since Shakespeare also says:

out of these convertites
There is much matter to be heard and learn'd.

-- As You Like It, last scene.


In his Life of Jesus (Vol. I, Sec. 2, chap. 6, §§ 72 and 74), Strauss has shown that Christianity also attributes to suffering as such the purifying and sanctifying power here described, and, on the other hand, ascribes to great prosperity an opposite effect. Thus he says that the beatitudes in the Sermon on the Mount have a different meaning in Luke (vi, 21) from that which they have in Matthew (v, 3), for only the latter adds and to . [36] Thus only with him are the ingenuous, the innocent, the humble, and so on meant; with Luke, on the other hand, the really poor are meant, so that here the contrast is that between present suffering and future well-being. With the Ebionites it was a cardinal principle that whoever takes his share at the present time, gets nothing in the future, and vice versa. Accordingly, in Luke the blessings are followed by as many , woes, which are addressed to the rich, , to the satisfied, , and to those who laugh, , in the Ebionite sense. On p. 604 Strauss says that the parable of the rich man and Lazarus (Luke xvi, 19) is given in the same sense. This parable does not mention at all any transgression of the former or any merit of the latter, and takes as the standard of future requital not the good done or the wickedness practised in this life, but the evil suffered and the good enjoyed here, in the Ebionite sense. Strauss goes on to say that "a similar appreciation of outward poverty is also ascribed to Jesus by the other synoptists (Matth. xix, 16; Mark x, 17; Luke xviii, 18) in the story of the rich young man, and in the maxim about the camel and the eye of a needle."

If we go to the bottom of things, we shall recognize that even the most famous passages of the Sermon on the Mount contain an indirect injunction to voluntary poverty, and thus to the denial of the will-to-live. For the precept (Matth. v, 40 seq.), to comply unconditionally with all demands made on us, to give also our cloak to him who will take away our coat, and so on; likewise (Matth. vi, 25-34) the precept to banish all cares for the future, even for the morrow, and so to live for the day, are rules of life whose observance inevitably leads to complete poverty. Accordingly, they state in an indirect manner just what the Buddha directly commands his followers to do, and confirmed by his own example, namely to cast away everything and become bhikkhus, that is to say, mendicants. This appears even more decidedly in the passage Matthew x, 9-15, where the Apostles are not allowed to have any possessions, not even shoes and staff, and are directed to go and beg. These precepts afterwards became the foundation of the mendicant order of St. Francis (Bonaventure, Vita S. Francisci, c. 3). I say therefore that the spirit of Christian morality is identical with that of Brahmanism and Buddhism. In accordance with the whole view discussed here, Meister Eckhart also says (Works, Vol. I, p. 492): "Suffering is the fleetest animal that bears you to perfection."

_______________

Notes:

1. This chapter refers to § 68 of volume 1. Compare it also with chapter 14 of volume 2 of the Parerga.

2. "Free from all guilt." [Tr.]

3. "What we do follows from what we are." [Tr.]

4. ''The free decision of the will not influenced in any direction." [Tr.]

5. "Denial of one's own self." [Tr.]

6. On the other hand, in so far as asceticism is admitted, the statement of the ultimate motives of human conduct given in my essay On the Basis of Morality, namely (1) one's own weal, (2) another's woe, and (3) another's weal, is to be supplemented by a fourth, namely one's own woe. I mention this here incidentally merely in the interest of systematic consistency. In that essay, this fourth motive had to be passed over in silence, since the prize-question was stated in the spirit of the philosophical ethics prevailing in Protestant Europe.

7. See F. H. H. Windischmann's Sancara, sive de theologumenis Vedanticorum, pp. 116, 117 and 121-23: also Oupnekhat, Vol. I, pp. 340, 356, 360.

8. "He who beholds the highest and profoundest, has his heart's knot cut, all his doubts are resolved, and his works come to nought." [Tr.]

9. "Repentance and remission of sins." [Tr.]

10. Compare Die beiden Grundprobleme der Ethik, p. 274 (2nd edn., p. 271).

* If we keep in view this essential immanence of our knowledge and of all knowledge, which springs from its being something secondary, something that has arisen for the aims of the will -- it becomes easy to explain that all the mystics of all religions ultimately arrive at a kind of ecstasy. In this each and every kind of knowledge together with its fundamental form, object and subject. entirely ceases. Only in this sphere, lying beyond all knowledge, do they claim to have attained their highest goal, since they have reached the point where there are no longer any subject and object, consequently no kind of knowledge, just because there is no longer any will, to serve which is the sole destiny of knowledge.

Whoever has grasped this will no longer regard it as excessively extravagant for fakirs to sit down, contemplate the tip of their noses, and attempt to banish all ideas and representations, or that in many a passage of the Upanishad guidance is given to sink oneself, silently and inwardly uttering the mysterious Om, into the depths of one's own being, where subject and object and all knowledge vanish.

11. S. Bonaventure, Vita S. Francisci, c. 8; K. Hase, Franz von Assisi, ch. 10; I cantici di S. Francesco, edited by Schlosser and Steinle, Frankfurt a.M., 1842.

12. Michaelis de Molinos manuductio spiritualis: hispanice 1675, italice 1680, latine 1687, gallice in libro non adeo raro, cui titulus: Recueil de diverses pieces concernant le quietisme, ou Molinos et ses disciples. Amsterdam, 1688.

13. "For they will follow the belief and choice of the ignorant and stupid crowd whose dullest member will be welcomed as judge." [Tr.]

14. Matth. xix, 11 seq.; Luke, xx, 35-37; I Cor. vii, 1-11 and 25-40; I Thess. iv, 3; I John iii, 3; Rev., xiv, 4.

15. "When Salome asked the Lord how long death would reign, he replied 'As long as you women continue to be born'; in other words, as long as desires show their strength." [Tr.]

16. "When Salome asked at what time that which she enquired about would be known, the Lord answered: 'When you trample on the veil of modesty and when the two sexes become one, and when male as well as female are neither male nor female.''' [Tr.]

17. "They reject marriage and put it on a level with fornication and other vices; also they do not receive any married people into their ranks, either men or women. They do not eat meat and detest it." [Tr.]

18. "That the damnation of our progenitor has fallen to our lot; . . . since the aim intended by God was that we should not be born through marriage and corruption; but the transgressing of the commandment gave rise to marriage, because Adam had been disobedient." [Tr.]

19. "A kind of inferior evil resting on indulgence," -- "Marriage, like adultery, is a carnal intercourse; for the Lord has put strong desire for it on a level with adultery. Therefore can one object that you condemn also the first of all marriages, and at the time the only one? Certainly, and rightly so, for it too consists in what is called adultery." [Tr.]

20. "I know some who grumble and say: If all were to abstain from procreation, how would the human race continue to exist? Would that all wanted to abstain! provided it were done in love, from a pure heart, with a good conscience, and sincere belief, then the kingdom of God would be realized far more quickly, since the end of the world would be hastened."

"Might not the futile complaint of those who ask how the human race could continue to exist if all were to practise abstinence, perplex you in this endeavour by which you inspire many to emulate you? As though a reprieve would be given to this world for yet another reason than that the predestined number of saints was complete. But the more quickly this becomes complete, the less need is there for the end of the world to be postponed." [Tr.]

21."[And God saw] all [that he had made, and behold it] was very good." [Tr.]

22. "That Paul (by words like Rom. vii, 18) puts himself in opposition to the Creator." [Tr.]

23. "Since they resist him who has created them, ... persisting in their hostility to their creator, in that they do not wish to make any use of his creatures, . . . and in wanton and wicked conflict with God, they forsake the natural disposition." [Tr.]

24. "For through their abstinence they sin against creation and the holy Creator, against the sole, almighty God; and they teach that one should not enter into matrimony and beget children, should not bring further unhappy beings into the world, and produce fresh fodder for death." [Tr.]

25. "For they say that the Saviour himself said: 'I have come that I may bring to nought the works of woman'; of woman, in other words of desire; but the works are generation and destruction." [Tr.]

26. "Us, who have been created by the will of the Almighty." [Tr.]

27. The Four Noble Truths of Buddhism. [Tr.]

28. "All was very good." [Tr.]

29. Cf. On the Will in Nature, second edition, p. 124.

30. "All was very good." [Tr.]

31. For example, John xii, 25 and 31; xiv, 30; xv, 18, 19; xvi, 33; Coloss. ii, 20; Eph. ii, 1-3; I John ii, 15-17, and iv, 4, 5. Here is an opportunity to see how, in their efforts to misinterpret the text of the New Testament in conformity with their rationalistic, optimistic, and unutterably shallow world· view, certain Protestant theologians go to the length of positively falsifying this text in their translations. Thus, in his new Latin version, added to the Griesbach text of 1805, H. A. Schott translates the word , John xv, 18, 19 by Judaei, I John iv, 4 by profani homines, and Coloss. ii, 20 by elementa Judaica; whereas Luther everywhere renders the word honestly and correctly by "world."

32. Bellermann, Geschichtliche Nachrichten uber Essaer und Therapeuten, 1821, p. 106.

33. "Where nature, as implanted in us by God, is carried away, then it is in no way possible for a chaste life to be lived outside matrimony." [Tr.]

34. "Playful fancy." [Tr.]

35. "The next best course." [Tr.]

36. "In spirit" to "blessed are the poor"; "after righteousness" to "those who hunger." [Tr.]
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Re: The World As Will and Representation, by Arthur Schopenh

Postby admin » Sat Feb 03, 2018 1:29 am

CHAPTER XLIX: The Road to Salvation

here is only one inborn error, and that is the notion that we exist in order to be happy. It is inborn in us, because it coincides with our existence itself, and our whole being is only its paraphrase, indeed our body is its monogram. We are nothing more than the will-to-live, and the successive satisfaction of all our willing is what we think of through the concept of happiness.

So long as we persist in this inborn error, and indeed even become confirmed in it through optimistic dogmas, the world seems to us full of contradictions. For at every step, in great things as in small, we are bound to experience that the world and life are certainly not arranged for the purpose of containing a happy existence. Now, while the thoughtless person feels himself vexed and annoyed hereby merely in real life, in the case of the person who thinks, there is added to the pain in reality the theoretical perplexity as to why a world and a life that exist so that he may be happy in them, answer their purpose so badly. At first it finds expression in pious ejaculations such as, "Ah! why are the tears beneath the moon so many?" and many others; but in their train come disquieting doubts about the assumptions of those preconceived optimistic dogmas. We may still try to put the blame for our individual unhappiness now on the circumstances, now on other people, now on our own bad luck or even lack of skill, and we may know quite well how all these have worked together to bring it about, but this in no way alters the result, that we have missed the real purpose of life, which in fact consists in being happy. The consideration of this then often proves to be very depressing, especially when life is already drawing to an end; hence the countenances of almost all elderly persons wear the expression of what is called disappointment. In addition to this, however, every day of our life up to now has taught us that, even when joys and pleasures are attained. they are in themselves deceptive, do not perf form what they promise, do not satisfy the heart, and finally that their possession is at least embittered by the vexations and unpleasantnesses that accompany or spring from them. Pains and sorrows, on the other hand, prove very real, and often exceed all expectation. Thus everything in life is certainly calculated to bring us back from that original error, and to convince us that the purpose of our existence is not to be happy. Indeed, if life is considered more closely and impartially, it presents itself rather as specially intended to show us that we are not to feel happy in it, since by its whole nature it bears the character of something for which we have lost the taste, which must disgust us, and from which we have to come back, as from an error, so that our heart may be cured of the passion for enjoying and indeed for living, and may be turned away from the world. In this sense, it would accordingly be more correct to put the purpose of life in our woe than in our welfare. For the considerations at the end of the previous chapter have shown that the more one suffers, the sooner is the true end of life attained, and that the more happily one lives, the more is that end postponed. Even the conclusion of Seneca's last letter is in keeping with this: bonum tunc habebis tuum, quum intelliges infelicissimos esse felices, [1] which certainly seems to indicate an influence of Christianity. The peculiar effect of the tragedy rests ultimately on the fact that it shakes that inborn error, since it furnishes a vivid illustration of the frustration of human effort and of the vanity of this whole existence in a great and striking example, and thereby reveals life's deepest meaning; for this reason, tragedy is recognized as the sublimest form of poetry. Now whoever has returned by one path or the other from that error which is a priori inherent in us, from that [2] of our existence, will soon see everything in a different light, and will find that the world is in harmony with his insight, though not with his wishes. Misfortunes of every sort and size will no longer surprise him, although they cause him pain; for he has seen that pain and trouble are the very things that work towards the true end of life, namely the turning away of the will from it. In all that may happen, this will in fact give him a wonderful coolness and composure, similar to that with which a patient undergoing a long and painful cure bears the pain of it as a sign of its efficacy. Suffering expresses itself clearly enough to the whole of human existence as its true destiny. Life is deeply steeped in suffering, and cannot escape from it; our entrance into it takes place amid tears, at bottom its course is always tragic, and its end is even more so. In this there is an unmistakable touch of deliberation. As a rule, fate passes in a radical way through the mind of man at the very summit of his desires and aspirations, and in this way his life then receives a tragic tendency, by virtue of which it is calculated to free him from the passionate desire of which every individual existence is a manifestation, and to bring him to the point where he parts with life without retaining any desire for it and its pleasures. In fact, suffering is the process of purification by which alone man is in most cases sanctified, in other words, led back from the path of error of the will-to-live. Accordingly, the salutary nature of the cross and of suffering is so often discussed in Christian devotional books, and in general the cross, an instrument of suffering not of doing, is very appropriately the symbol of the Christian religion. In fact, even the Preacher, Jewish indeed but very philosophical, rightly says: "Sorrow is better than laughter: for by the sadness of the countenance the heart is made better" (Eccles. vii, 3). Under the expression [3] I have presented suffering to a certain extent as a substitute for virtue and holiness; but here I must state boldly that, having carefully considered everything, we have to hope for our salvation and deliverance rather from what we suffer than from what we do. Precisely in this sense Lamartine very finely says in his Hymne a la douleur, apostrophizing pain:

Tu me traites sans doute en favori des cieux,
Car tu n'epargnes pas les larmes ames yeux.
Eh bien! je les recois comme tu les envoies,
Tes maux seront mes biens, et tes soupirs mes joies. Je sens qu'il est en toi, sans avoir combattu,
UNE VERTU DIVINE AU LIEU DE MA VERTU,
Que tu n'es pas la mort de l'ame, mais sa vie,
Que ton bras, en frappant, guerit et vivifie. [4]


Therefore, if suffering has such a sanctifying force, this will belong in an even higher degree to death, which is more feared than any suffering. Accordingly, in the presence of every person who has died, we feel something akin to the awe that is forced from us by great suffering; in fact, every case of death presents itself to a certain extent as a kind of apotheosis or canonization. Therefore we do not contemplate the corpse of even the most insignificant person without awe, and indeed, strange as the remark may sound in this place, the guard gets under arms in the presence of every corpse. Dying is certainly to be regarded as the real aim of life; at the moment of dying, everything is decided which through the whole course of life was only prepared and introduced. Death is the result, the resume, of life, or the total sum expressing at one stroke all the instruction given by life in detail and piecemeal, namely that the whole striving, the phenomenon of which is life, was a vain, fruitless, and self-contradictory effort, to have returned from which is a deliverance. Just as the whole slow vegetation of the plant is related to the fruit that at one stroke achieves a hundredfold what the plant achieved gradually and piecemeal, so is life with its obstacles, deluded hopes, frustrated plans, and constant suffering related to death, which at one stroke destroys all, all that the person has willed, and thus crowns the instruction given him by life. The completed course of life, on which the dying person looks back, has an effect on the whole will that objectifies itself in this perishing individuality, and such an effect is analogous to that exercised by a motive on man's conduct. The completed course gives his conduct a new direction that is accordingly the moral and essential result of the life. Just because a sudden death makes this retrospect impossible, the Church regards such a death as a misfortune, and prayers are offered to avert it. Because this retrospect, like the distinct foreknowledge of death, is conditioned by the faculty of reason, and is possible in man alone, not in the animal, and therefore he alone actually drains the cup of death, humanity is the only stage at which the will can deny itself, and completely turn away from life. To the will that does not deny itself, every birth imparts a new and different intellect; until it has recognized the true nature of life, and, in consequence, no longer wills it.

In the natural course, the decay of the body coincides in old age with that of the will. The passion for pleasures easily disappears with the capacity to enjoy them. The occasion of the most vehement willing, the focus of the will, the sexual impulse, is the first to be extinguished, whereby the man is placed in a position similar to the state of innocence which existed before the genital system developed. The illusions that set up chimeras as exceedingly desirable benefits vanish, and in their place comes the knowledge of the vanity of all earthly blessings. Selfishness is supplanted by love for children, and in this way the man begins to live in the ego of others rather than in his own, which soon will be no more. This course is at any rate the most desirable; it is the euthanasia of the will. In the hope of this, the Brahmin, after passing the best years of his life, is ordered to forsake property and family, and to lead the life of a recluse (Manu, VI, 2). But if, on the contrary, the desire outlives the capacity to enjoy, and we then regret particular pleasures missed in life, instead of seeing the emptiness and vanity of it all; and if money, the abstract representative of all the objects of desire, for which the sense is dead, then takes their place, and excites the same vehement passions that were formerly awakened more excusably by the objects of actual pleasure, and thus, with deadened senses, an inanimate but indestructible object is desired with equally indestructible eagerness; or even if, in the same way, existence in the opinion of others is to take the place of the existence and action in the real world, and now kindles the same passions; then the will has been sublimated and etherealized in avarice and ambition. In this way, however, it has cast itself into the last stronghold, in which it is still besieged only by death. The purpose of existence is missed.

All these considerations furnish a fuller explanation of the purification, the turning of the will, and salvation, which were denoted in the previous chapter by the expression , [5] and which are brought about by the sufferings of life, and are undoubtedly the most frequent; for they are the way of sinners, as we all are. The other way, leading to just the same goal by means of mere knowledge and accordingly the appropriation of the sufferings of a whole world, is the narrow path of the elect, of the saints, and consequently is to be regarded as a rare exception. Therefore, without that first path, it would be impossible for the majority to hope for any salvation. But we struggle against entering on this path, and strive rather with all our might to prepare for ourselves a secure and pleasant existence, whereby we chain our will ever more firmly to life. The conduct of ascetics is the opposite of this, for they deliberately make their life as poor, hard, and cheerless as possible, because they have their true and ultimate welfare in view. Fate and the course of things, however, take care of us better than we ourselves do, since they frustrate on all sides our arrangements for a Utopian existence, whose folly is apparent enough from its shortness, uncertainty, emptiness, and termination in bitter death. Thorns upon thorns are strewn on our path, and everywhere we are met by salutary suffering, the panacea of our misery. What gives our life its strange and ambiguous character is that in it two fundamental purposes, diametrically opposed, are constantly crossing each other. One purpose is that of the individual will, directed to chimerical happiness in an ephemeral, dreamlike, and deceptive existence, where, as regards the past, happiness and unhappiness are a matter of indifference, but at every moment the present is becoming the past. The other purpose is that of fate, directed obviously enough to the destruction of our happiness, and thus to the mortification of our will, and to the elimination of the delusion that holds us chained to the bonds of this world.

The current and peculiarly Protestant view that the purpose of life lies solely and immediately in moral virtues, and hence in the practice of justice and philanthropy, betrays its inadequacy by the fact that so deplorably little real and pure morality is to be found among men. I do not wish to speak of lofty virtue, noble-mindedness, generosity, and self-sacrifice, which are hardly ever met with except in plays and novels, but only of those virtues that are everyone's duty. He who is old should think back to all those with whom he has had any dealings, and ask himself how many people whom he has come across were really and truly honest. Were not by far the greater number of them, to speak plainly, the very opposite, in spite of their shameless indignation at the slightest suspicion of dishonesty, or even of untruthfulness? Were not mean selfishness, boundless avarice, well-concealed knavery, poisonous envy, and devilish delight at the misfortunes of others, so universally prevalent, that the slightest exception was received with admiration? And philanthropy, how extremely rarely does it extend beyond a gift of something so superfluous that it can never be missed! Was the whole purpose of existence supposed to lie in such exceedingly rare and feeble traces of morality? If, on the other hand, we put this purpose in the complete reversal of this nature of ours (which bears the evil fruits just mentioned), a reversal brought about by suffering, the matter assumes a different aspect, and is brought into agreement with what actually lies before us. Life then presents itself as a process of purification, the purifying lye of which is pain. If the process is carried out, it leaves the previous immorality and wickedness behind as dross, and there appears what the Veda says; Finditur nodus cordis, dissolvuntur omnes dubitationes, ejusque opera evanescunt. [6] In agreement with this view, the fifteenth sermon of Meister Eckhart will be found well worth reading.

_______________

Notes:

1. "Then will you have for yourself your own good, when you see that the lucky ones are the unhappiest of all." [Tr.]

2. "First false step." [Tr.]

3. "The next best course." [Tr.]

4. "Doubtless you treat me as heaven's favourite, for you do not spare my eyes their tears. Well, these I receive as sent by you. Your woes will be my weal, your sighs my joys. Without a fight, I feel in you virtue divine instead of mine. You are not the death, but the life of the soul, and the blows of your arm revive and heal." [Tr.]

5. ''The next best course." [Tr.]

6. "Whoever beholds the highest and profoundest, has his heart's knot cut, all his doubts are resolved, and his works come to nought." [Tr.]
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Re: The World As Will and Representation, by Arthur Schopenh

Postby admin » Sat Feb 03, 2018 1:30 am

CHAPTER L: Epiphilosophy

At the conclusion of my discussion, a few remarks on my philosophy itself may find place. As I have already said, this philosophy does not presume to explain the existence of the world from its ultimate grounds. On the contrary, it sticks to the actual facts of outward and inward experience as they are accessible to everyone, and shows their true and deepest connexion, yet without really going beyond them to any extramundane things, and the relations of these to the world. Accordingly, it arrives at no conclusions as to what exists beyond all possible experience, but furnishes merely an explanation and interpretation of what is given in the external world and in self-consciousness. It is therefore content to comprehend the true nature of the world according to its inner connexion with itself. Consequently, it is immanent in the Kantian sense of the word. But for this reason it still leaves many questions untouched, for instance, why what is proved as a fact is as it is and not otherwise, and others. But all such questions, or rather the answers to them, are really transcendent, that is to say, they cannot be thought by means of the forms and functions of our intellect; they do not enter into these. Our intellect is therefore related to them as our sensibility is to the possible properties of bodies for which we have no senses. After all my explanations, it can still be asked, for example, from what this will has sprung, which is free to affirm itself, the phenomenal appearance of this being the world, or to deny itself, the phenomenal appearance of which we do not know. What is the fatality lying beyond all experience which has put it in the extremely precarious dilemma of appearing as a world in which suffering and death reign, or else of denying its own inner being? Or what may have prevailed upon it to forsake the infinitely preferable peace of blessed nothingness? An individual will, it may be added, can direct itself to its own destruction only through error in the choice, hence through the fault of knowledge; but how could the will-in-itself, prior to all phenomenon, and consequently still without knowledge, go astray, and fall into the ruin of its present condition? In general, whence comes the great discord which permeates this world? Further, it may be asked how deeply in the being-in-itself of the world do the roots of individuality go. In any case, the answer to this might be that they go as deeply as the affirmation of the will-to-live; where the denial of the will occurs, they cease, for with the affirmation they sprang into existence. We might even put the question: "What would I be, if I were not the will-to-live?" and more of the same kind. To all such questions the reply would have to be, first, that the expression of the most universal and general form of our intellect is the principle of sufficient ground or reason (Grund), but that, on this very account, this principle finds application only to the phenomenon, not to the being-in-itself of things; but all whence and why rest on this principle alone. In consequence of the Kantian philosophy, it is no longer an aeterna veritas, but merely the form, i.e., the function, of our intellect. This intellect is essentially cerebral, and originally a mere instrument in the service of our will; and this will, together with all its objectifications, is therefore presupposed by it. But our whole knowing and conceiving are bound to the forms of the intellect; accordingly, we must conceive everything in time, consequently as a before and an after, then as cause and effect, and also as above, below, as whole and parts, and so on. We cannot possibly escape from this sphere, in which all possibility of our knowledge is to be found. But these forms are quite inappropriate to the problems here raised, and even supposing their solution were given, it would not be such as to be capable of being grasped. With our intellect, with this mere instrument of the will, we therefore come up against insoluble problems everywhere, as against the walls of our prison. But besides this it may be assumed, at any rate as probable, that not only for us is knowledge of all that has been asked about impossible, but that such knowledge is not possible in general, hence not ever or anywhere possible; that those relations are not only relatively but absolutely inscrutable; that not only does no one know them, but that they are in themselves unknowable, since they do not enter into the form of knowledge in general. (This is in keeping with what Scotus Erigena says de mirabili divina ignorantia, qua Deus non intelligit quid ipse sit. Bk. II.) [1] For knowableness in general, with its most essential, and therefore constantly necessary, form of subject and object, belongs merely to the phenomenon, not to the being-in-itself of things. Where there is knowledge, and consequently representation, there is also only phenomenon, and there we already stand in the province of the phenomenon. In fact, knowledge in general is known to us only as a brain-phenomenon, and we are not only not justified in conceiving it otherwise, but even incapable of doing so. What the world is as world may be understood; it is phenomenon, and we can know what appears in this world directly from ourselves, by virtue of a thorough analysis of self-consciousness. But by means of this key to the inner nature of the world, the whole phenomenon can be deciphered according to its continuity and connexion, and I believe I have succeeded in doing this. But if we leave the world, in order to answer the questions indicated above, then we have left the whole ground on which not only connexion according to reason or ground and consequent, but even knowledge in general is possible; everything is then instabilis tellus, innabilis unda. [2] The essence of things before or beyond the world, and consequently beyond the will, is not open to any investigation, because knowledge in general is itself only phenomenon, and therefore it takes place only in the world, just as the world comes to pass only in it. The inner being-in-itself of things is not something that knows, is not an intellect, but something without knowledge. Knowledge is added only as an accident, as an expedient for the phenomenal appearance of that inner being; it can therefore take up that inner being itself only in accordance with its own nature which is calculated for quite different ends (namely those of an individual will), and consequently very imperfectly. This is why a perfect understanding of the existence, inner nature, and origin of the world, extending to the ultimate ground and meeting every requirement, is impossible. So much as regards the limits of my philosophy and of all philosophy.

The , [3] in other words, that the inner essence in all things is absolutely one and the same, has by my time already been grasped and understood, after the Eleatics, Scotus Erigena, Giordano Bruno, and Spinoza had taught it in detail, and Schelling had revived this doctrine. But what this one is, and how it manages to exhibit itself as the many, is a problem whose solution is first found in my philosophy. From the most ancient times, man has been called the microcosm. I have reversed the proposition, and have shown the world as the macranthropos, in so far as will and representation exhaust the true nature of the world as well as that of man. But obviously it is more correct to learn to understand the world from man than man from the world, for we have to explain what is indirectly given, and thus external perception, from what is directly given, self-consciousness, not vice versa.

Now it is true that I have that in common with the Pantheists, but not the , [4] because I do not go beyond experience (taken in the widest sense), and still less do I put myself in contradiction with the data lying before me. Quite consistently in the sense of pantheism, Scotus Erigena declares every phenomenon to be a theophany; but then this concept must be applied also to terrible and ghastly phenomena: fine theophanies! What further distinguishes me from the Pantheists is principally the following: (1) That their is an x, an unknown quantity; the will, on the other hand, is, of all possible things, the one most intimately known to us, the only thing immediately given, and therefore exclusively fitted for explaining everything else. For what is unknown must everywhere be explained from what is better known, not vice versa. (2) That their manifests himself animi causa, in order to display his glory and majesty, or even to let himself be admired. Apart from the vanity here attributed to him, they are thus put in the position of having to sophisticate away the colossal evils in the world. The world, however, remains in glaring and terrible contradiction with that fancied eminence. With me, on the other hand, the will arrives at self-knowledge through its objectification, however this may come about, whereby its abolition, conversion, and salvation become possible. Accordingly, with me alone ethics has a sure foundation, and is completely worked out in agreement with the sublime and profound religions Brahmanism, Buddhism, and Christianity, not merely with Judaism and Islam. The metaphysics of the beautiful is also first fully cleared up as a result of my fundamental truths, and no longer needs to take refuge behind empty words. Only with me are the evils of the world honestly admitted in all their magnitude; this is possible, because the answer to the question of their origin coincides with the answer to the question of the origin of the world. On the other hand, since all other systems are optimistic, the question of the origin of evil is the incurable disease ever breaking out in them anew. Affected with this complaint, they struggle along with palliatives and quack remedies. (3) That I start from experience and the natural self-consciousness given to everyone, and lead to the will as what alone is metaphysical; thus I take the ascending, analytic course. The Pantheists, on the other hand, go the opposite way, and take the descending, synthetic course. They start from their , which they get by entreaty or defiance, although occasionally under the name of substantia or absolute; and then this wholly unknown thing is supposed to explain everything better known. (4) That with me the world does not fill the entire possibility of all being, but that in this world there is still left much room for what we describe only negatively as the denial of the will-to-live. Pantheism, on the other hand, is essentially optimism; but if the world is what is best, then we must leave the matter at that. (5) That the world of perception, the world as representation, is to the Pantheists just an intentional manifestation of God dwelling within it. This contains no proper explanation of the world's appearance, but rather itself requires explanation. With me, on the other hand, the world as representation appears merely per accidens, since the intellect with its external perception is primarily only the medium of motives for the more perfect phenomena of will, and this medium is gradually enhanced to that objectivity of perceptibility in which the world exists. In this sense, a real account of its origin is given as of an object of perception, and certainly not, as with the Pantheists, by means of untenable fictions.

In consequence of Kant's criticism of all speculative theology, almost all the philosophizers in Germany cast themselves back on to Spinoza, so that the whole series of unsuccessful attempts known by the name of post-Kantian philosophy is simply Spinozism tastelessly got up, veiled in all kinds of unintelligible language, and otherwise twisted and distorted. Therefore I wish to indicate the relation in which my teaching stands to Spinozism in particular, after I have explained its relation to Pantheism in general. It is related to Spinozism as the New Testament is to the Old; that is to say, what the Old Testament has in common with the New is the same God-Creator. Analogously to this, the world exists, with me as with Spinoza, by its own inner power and through itself. But with Spinoza his substantia aeterna, the inner nature of the world, which he himself calls Deus, is also, as regards its moral character and worth, Jehovah, the God-Creator, who applauds his creation, and finds that everything has turned out excellently, . [5] Spinoza has deprived him of nothing more than personality. Hence for him the world with everything in it is wholly excellent and as it ought to be; therefore man has nothing further to do than vivere, agere, suum Esse conservare, ex fundamento proprium utile quaerendi (Ethics iv, prop. 67): [6] he should just enjoy his life as long as it lasts, wholly in accordance with Ecclesiastes ix, 7-10. In short, it is optimism; hence its ethical side is weak, as in the Old Testament, in fact it is even false, and in part revolting. [7] With me, on the other hand, the will, or the inner nature of the world, is by no means Jehovah; on the contrary, it is, so to speak, the crucified Saviour, or else the crucified thief, according as it is decided. Consequently, my ethical teaching agrees with the Christian completely and in its highest tendencies, and no less with that of Brahmanism and Buddhism. Spinoza, on the other hand, could not get rid of the Jews: quo semel est imbuta recens servabit odorem. [8] His contempt for animals, who, as mere things for our use, are declared by him to be without rights, is thoroughly Jewish, and, in conjunction with Pantheism, is at the same time absurd and abominable (Ethics IV, appendix, c. 27). In spite of all this, Spinoza remains a very great man; but to form a correct estimate of his worth, we must keep in view his relation to Descartes. This philosopher had divided nature sharply into mind and matter, i.e., into thinking and extended substance, and had also set up God and the world in complete contrast to each other. As long as Spinoza was a Cartesian, he taught all this in his Cogitata Metaphysica, c. 12, in the year 1665. Only in his last years did he see the fundamental mistake of that twofold dualism; consequently, his own philosophy consists mainly in the indirect abolition of these two antitheses. Yet, partly to avoid hurting his teacher, partly to be less offensive, he gave it a positive appearance by means of a strictly dogmatic form, although the contents are mainly negative. Even his identification of the world with God has only this negative significance. For to call the world God is not to explain it; it remains a riddle under the one name as under the other. But these two negative truths were of value for their time, as for all times in which there are still conscious or unconscious Cartesians. In common with all philosophers before Locke, he makes the great mistake of starting from concepts without having previously investigated their origin, such, for example, as substance, cause, and so on. In such a method of procedure, these concepts then receive a much too extensive validity. Those who in most recent times were unwilling to acknowledge the Neo-Spinozism that had arisen, were scared of doing so, like Jacobi for example, principally by the bugbear of fatalism. By this is to be understood every doctrine that refers the existence of the world, together with the human race's critical position in it, to some absolute necessity, in other words, to a necessity incapable of further explanation. On the other hand, those afraid of fatalism believed it to be all-important to deduce the world from the free act of will of a being existing outside it; as though it were certain beforehand which of the two would be more correct, or even better merely in reference to us. But in particular, non datur tertium [9] is here assumed, and accordingly, every philosophy hitherto has represented the one or the other. I am the first to depart from this, since I actually set up the Tertium, namely that the act of will, from which the world springs, is our own. It is free; for the principle of sufficient reason or ground, from which alone all necessity has its meaning, is merely the form of the will's phenomenal appearance. Just on this account, this phenomenal appearance is absolutely necessary in its course, when once it exists. In consequence of this alone can we recognize from the phenomenon the nature of the act of will, and accordingly eventualiter will otherwise.

_______________

Notes:

1."About the wonderful, divine ignorance, by virtue of which God does not know what he himself is." [Tr.]

2. "Land on which one cannot stand, water in which one cannot swim." [Tr.]

3. "One and all." [Tr.]

4. "All is God." [Tr.]

5. "All was very good." [Tr.]

6. "Man should live, act, maintain his existence, since ultimately he seeks his own advantage." [Tr.]

7. Unusquisque tantum juris habet, quantum potentia valet. Tractatus Politicus, c. 2, § 8. Fides alicui data tamdiu rata manet, quamdiu ejus, qui fidem dedit, non mutatur voluntas. Ibid. § 12. Uniuscujusque jus potentia ejus definitur. Ethics iv, prop. 37, schol. 1 -- ("Each is right in proportion to his might." -- "A given promise remains valid as long as the will of the person who gave it does not change." -- "Each man's right is determined by the might which he has." [Tr.]). In particular chap. 16 of the Tractatus Theologicopoliticus is the true compendium of the immorality of Spinoza's philosophy.

8. "(A smelling bottle) long retains the smell of that which filled it." [Tr.]

9. "There is no third possibility." [Tr.]
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Re: The World As Will and Representation, by Arthur Schopenh

Postby admin » Sat Feb 03, 2018 1:31 am

Part 1 of 3

INDEX

A

A posteriori, I, 11, 64, 98, 100, 113,
213, 222, 289, 290, 302, 323, 418,
427, 448, 464f., 480f., 485, 503;
II, 10, 42, 97, 127, 182, 195f., 209,
240, 289, 370f., 499.
A priori, I, 3f., II, 13, 23, 25, 42, 50,
52, 64f., 66-7, 71f., 74f., 98, 100,
104, 121, 123, 128, 154, 172, 174,
222, 245, 247, 262, 289, 296, 302,
316, 323f, 342, 418, 421, 427,
430-1, 436f., 453, 457, 462f., 472f.,
480f., 493f., 495, 497, 502f., 522f.,
528f.; II, 11, 21f., 32f., 65, 82, 85,
89, 97, 111, 121, 127, 130, 176,
179f., 194f., 204, 240, 277, 285,
289f., 301, 305f., 314f., 320, 348,
413-14, 420, 427, 465, 474, 562,
574, 622, 635.
A propos, II, 133.
Abortion, II, 563.
Absent, I, 192.
Absolute, I, 26, 273, 483-4, 521; II,
43, 82, 185, 351, 644.
Abstract, I, 6, 35f., 39f., 45. 51f., 62,
82, 84f., 95, 100, 102, 109, 111,
116, 151, 178, 186f., 190, 193, 213,
234-5, 237f., 240, 242, 261f., 271-
2, 275, 281, 285, 297f., 333, 335,
354, 365, 367f., 383-4, 404, 431,
437, 439, 441, 448f., 466f., 473f.,
485, 519, 530, 532; II, 5, 20, 23, 44,
59f., 63f., 7If., 85, 88, 9If., 103f.,
186, 192, 205, 208, 276f., 366, 369,
406, 409, 450, 494, 572, 629.
Abstracta, I, 41, 263; II, 41, 73, 82-3,
85, 105, 120, 180, 193, 305, 379,
442, 494, 591.
Absurd, I, x, xxvii, 324f., 437, 465,
474, 483, 485, 509, 526; II, 4, 9,
69, 87, 92, 96-7, 121, 124, 130,
162, 166, 181, 192, 230, 265, 267,
302-3, 321, 344, 378, 423, 426, 431,
467, 474, 476, 482, 493, 502, 506,
581, 590f., 645.
Abyss, II, 323, 325, 599.
Abyssinia, n, 69, 226.
Academics, II, 603.
Academies, I, 513; II, 268.
Accident (see Chance).
Accounts, II, 218.
Achilles, I, 238; II, 172, 449.
Acids, II, 546.
Acoustic Figures (in Sand), II, 109,
301.
Actio in distans, II, 326.
Actors, I, 225, 228, 266; II, 262, 400,
456.
Actu and Potentia, I, 500; II, 47, 54,
66, 140.
Acuteness, I, 22; II, 77-8, 89.
Adagio, I, 261.
Adam, I, 328-9, 405, 604, 613, 628.
Adams, J. Q., II, 596.
Adelung, J. C., II, 378.
Adultery, II, 518, 540, 542, 552-3.
Advantage, II, 217, 241.
Advice, II, 218-9.
Aelian, C., II, 216.
Aenesidemus (see Schulze).
Aeschylus, II, 434, 569.
Aesthetics, I, 45, 195-6, 199f., 239,
256, 271, 327, 363, 368, 390, 515,
527, 530; II, 122, 244, 291, 368f.,
374f.
Aevum, II, 502.
Affectation, I, 236.
Affirmation (of the Will), I, 285,
308, 326, 328f., 340f., 354, 362,
366, 370f., 379f., 392, 398, 401,
405; II, 419, 437, 462, 479, 529,
568ff., 585, 608f., 641.
Africa, I, 159.
African Deys, I, 364.
Agamemnon, I, 152; II, 449.
, I, 374-5.
, I, 603.
Agrippa von Nettesheim, I, 93.
Agrippina, II, 520.
Ahriman, I, 199; II, 172, 623.
, II, 502.
Air, I, 159, 160, 304; II, 27, 315.
, I, 520.
Alba, Duke of, II, 520.
Alchemy, I, 416.
Alciati, A., I, 239.
Alcinous, I, 211.
Alcohol, I, 387.
Aleman, M., II, 551.
Alembert, J. le R. d', II, 523.
Alexander the Great, II, 519.
Alexander VI, Pope, II, 520.
Alfieri, V., I, 189, 191.
Algebra, I, 55, 75, 425; II, 40, 73, 88,
127, 173, 179, 314.
Alkalies, I, 148; II, 114, 546.
Allah, II, 624.
Allegory, I, 237f.; II, 166f., 422, 580,
628f.
Allegro, I, 261; II, 456.
Alma mater, I, xxvi.
Alms, I, 152, 196, 295, 390.
Alphabet, II, 184.
Althof, L. C., II, 524.
Alton, E. J. d', II, 128.
Ambition, I, 315; II, 221, 236, 638.
America, I, 204; II, 30, 95, 312, 50S,
627.
Amor, I, 330; II, 602.
Amorous, II, 431, 533f., 537.
Ampere, A. M., II, 302.
Amphibians, II, 253, 312, 330.
Amphiboly, I, 357, 475-6, 481; II,
328.
Amsterdam, II, 381.
Anacreon, I, 249; II, 569.
, II, 320.
Analysis, I, 73, 235, 286; II, 62, 179.
Anarchy, I, 343.
Anatomy, I, 143; II, 123, 298, 329,
497.
Anaxagoras, I, 477; II, 269f., 294,
324, 329, 579.
Ancestors, II, 446.
Anchor of Hope, I, 239.
Anchorite, I, 386.
Ancient Languages, II, 67, 122, 124,
127.
Ancients (the), I, 208, 225, 229, 254,
426, 488, 495, 498, 509, 518, 521f.;
II, 80, 100, 124, 129, 149f., 186-7,
192, 216, 412, 416f., 426, 428, 431,
434f., 461, 492, 555-6, 561, 603,
621, 628.
Androgyne, II, 546.
Anecdotes, II, 134.
, II, 238.
Anencephalus, II, 21.
Angeli, II, 94.
Angelus Silesius, I, 129, 249, 381; II,
612.
Anger, I, 377, 382', 390; II, 204, 208,
211, 213, 215, 225, 232, 236, 262,
265, 438.
Angle, II, 92.
Anima, II, 238, 349.
Animal metaphysicum, II, 160.
Animals, I, 20, 35f., 40, 51, 62, 68,
84-5, 90, 97, 105, 108, 110, 114,
116f., 123, 125, 128, 131f., 137-8,
142-3-4, 146f., 150f., 155f., 159,
160, 161, 164, 172, 177, 182, 193,
212, 219, 220, 223-4, 258-9, 277,
281, 297f., 3IOf., 329, 343, 361,
372, 376, 379f., 404, 439, 448,
451, 454, 469, 475, 485, 489, 518f.;
II, 9, 20, 28, 59f., 98, 113-14, 142,
148, 160, 171, 199, 203f., 221f.,
256, 272, 274, 278f., 291, 312,
328f., 333, 340f., 347f., 353f., 363,
376, 382, 386, 404, 445, 463, 465,
472, 474, 476f., 482f., 512, 515,
51-8, 538, 540f., 571, 583, 614, 637,
645.
Animi impotentia, II, 149.
Animi perturbatio, II, 149, 216, 238.
Animus, II, 238.
Annihilation (of Matter), I, 473; II,
17.
Anodyne, I, 362.
Anquetil-Duperron, A. H., I, 269,
388.
Anselm (of Canterbury), I, 508.
Ant-eaters, II, 332.
Anticipation (of the Beautiful), I,
222, 223; II, 419f.
Anticosmic Tendency, II, 615.
Antinomy, I, 29, 30, 471, 483, 493f.,
531; II, 8·9, 303, 493.
Antinous, I, 225. '
Antisthenes, I, 87; II, 154.
Ant-lions, I, 114, 160; II, 342.
Antonio (and Tasso), II, 387.
Antonius Maria Zaccaria, n, 620.
Ants, I, 114, 160; II, 345f., 353, 516,
541.
Anwari Soheili, II, 101.
Anxiety, I, 87, 89, 154, 202, 303, 315,
322, 373, 390; II, 207, 217, 349,
351, 354, 359, 465.
Apagogic Proof, I, 70, 438; II, 106,
121-2.
Apelles, I, 405.
Apercu, I, 21, 448; II, 32, 109, 472.
Aphis, II, 337.
Aphrodite, II, 537.
Apis terrestris, II, 347.
Apollo Belvedere, I, 178, 225.
Apperception, I, 440, 442, 446, 451;
II, 33, 149.
Apuleius, II, 154.
Archaeus, II, 483.
Arches, I, 214; II, 411, 415, 417.
Architecture, I, 203, 210, 211f., 214f.,
255, 430; II, 408ft., 421, 431, 453f.
Ares, I, 228.
Argumentum ad rem and ad hominem, II, 119.
Ariosto, L, II, 95.
Aristarchus, I, 419.
Aristippus, II, 129, 163.
Aristocracy, I, 343; II, 146-7.
Aristolochia Clematitis, II, 337.
Ariston of Chios, II, 129.
Aristophanes, I, 273, 494.
Aristotle, I, xx, 48, 72, 109, 143, 147,
185, 190, 211, 259, 293, 330, 345,
368, 428, 462, 466, 470, 475, 477,
489, 496-7, 500, 511, 514, 517, 530,
533; II, 33, 35, 39f., 44f., 71, 82,
87, 102, 106, 11I, 116, 121, 129,
131, 142, 150f., 160, 163, 175, 239,
255, 270, 294f., 331, 333f., 339,
34Of., 349, 356, 360, 365, 383, 404,
435, 439, 56lf.
Arithmetic, I, 28, 54, 75, 77, 122,
256, 407; II, 34f., 45, 127, 177,
179, 185, 379, 450.
Arjuna, I, 284, 388.
Arms (of Body), I, 146; II, 38, 54,
211, 242-3, 246, 331.
Armour, II, 80.
Army, II, 218.
Arnauld, A., I, 407.
, II, 571.
Arsenic, II, 335.
Art, I, 57f., 60, 152, 184f., 189, 195,
199, 207f., 210, 212, 217, 221,
230-1, 233, 235, 237, 239, 240,
243f., 249, 252, 260, 266-7, 271,
274, 288, 304, 314, 320, 324, 368,
376, 411, 529f.; II, 30, 74, 118,
128, 221, 233, 315, 370f., 382, 384,
404, 406f., 419f., 442, 451, 545.
Art, Work of, I, 35, 187, 189, 192,
194, 195, 227, 234-5, 237-8, 240,
257, 527, 529; II, 126, 186, 328,
335, 367, 369f., 373, 376, 378f.,
406f., 420.
Asceticism, I, 91, 206-7, 371, 38Of.,
386, 392, 40lf.; II, 155, 159, 607,
613, 615f., 620, 623f., 626, 638.
Aseity, II, 320.
Ashes, II, 472.
Asia, I, 424, 484; II, 313, 505-6, 564,
585, 605, 615, 627.
Asiatic Journal, II, 508.
Asiatic Researches, I, 4, 48, 381, 388;
II, 169f., 503, 505, 608.
Asmus (See M. Claudius).
Assertion, II, 121.
Association (of Ideas), II, 97, 123,
133f., 137, 140, 417-18.
Assyrians, I, 487.
Astonishment (philosophical), I, 32;
II, 160, 170f., 184, 203, 501, 579.
Astronomy, I, 66, 77, 149, 487; II, 53,
127, 146, 265, 295, 297, 583.
Asymptote, I, 57.
, I, 86, 88, 519; II, 159.
, I, 520.
Athanasius, II, 618.
, I, 520.
Atheism, I, 361, 385, 512; II, 7, 162,
175, 444.
Athene, I, 228, 239; II, 79.
Atmosphere, I, 304; II, 583, 592.
Atoms, I, 122, 141-2, 492, 497; II, 15,
143, 302-3, 311, 314f.
Attraction and Repulsion, I, 149; n,
47, 512.
Augustine, A., I, 126, 201, 387, 405f.,
422; II, 151, 167, 202, 359, 603f.,
617f.
Australia, I, 147, 486; n, 312, 505.
Austrian, II, 96.
Authority, I, 234, 236; II, 164-5.
Authors, I, 229, 248; II, 67, 128, 144,
407-8.
Auto-da-fe, II, 69.
Avarice, I, 315; II, 236, 593, 638·9.
Avatar, II, 608.
Axioms, I, 71, 74f., 430; II, 3, 120.

B

Babirussa, II, 329.
Babylonians, I, 487.
Bacchus, I, 225.
Bachmann, C. F., I, 512.
Bacon, Lord, I, 83, 105, 145, 384,
513; II, 41, 218, 228-9, 232, 282,
337, 339, 341, 391, 426, 525.
Bad, I, 359f., 362-3, 365, 367, 370,
397; II, 90, 230, 235, 507, 590, 608.
Baillet, II, 132, 243.
Balconies, II, 412.
Ballad, I, 249f.
Bank of Issue, II, 71, 78.
Bankrupt, II, 78, 150, 311, 353, 574.
Barbarians, I, 52, 487; II, 446.
Barberry, II, 337.
Barbers' Assistants, II, 123, 177.
Barrenness, II, 543, 550.
Basilidians, II, 506.
Bass (Notes), I, 154, 210, 214, 258·9,
265, 477; II, 140, 233, 452.
Bastards, II, 351.
Bath, II, 368.
Bats, I, 36, 521; II, 353, 440.
Baumgarten, A. G., I, 530.
Baumgartner, K. H., II, 255.
Bayle, P., I, 401, 407.
Beards, II, 236, 335, 544.
Beasts of Burden, I, 372.
Beasts of Prey, II, 31, 312, 581.
Beautiful (Beauty), I, 57, 146, 194-5,
196f., 200f., 214, 229f., 240, 267,
297, 314, 360, 363, 383, 390, 451,
529f., 531-2; II, 30, 232, 291, 368,
374, 403f., 419f., 422, 539, 541-2,
544, 643.
Beavers, I, 46, 160.
Beccaria C., II, 597.
Beer, I, 208; II, 328.
Bees, I, 160; II, 43, 61, 342f., 353,
394, 541.
Beethoven, L. van, II, 450.
Beetroot, II, 203.
Beggars, I, 196, 198, 353, 390, 398.
Beginning, I, 366, 420-1, 495, 498; II,
42f., 173, 287, 306, 319, 476, 487,
490.
Belecznai, Count, II, 521.
Belief (see Faith).
Bell, C., I, 514; II, 273.
Bellermann, J. J., II, 627.
Bellori, G. P., I, 239.
Benedictines and Augustins, II, 156.
Benefactor, II, 375.
Berg, F., I, 459.
Berkeley, G., I, xxiii, 3, 38, 424, 434·5,
444, 447; II, 3f., 8, 12, 313, 472.
Bernouillis (the), II, 522.
Berzelius, J. J., II, 303.
Bestiality, II, 464.
Bhagavadgita, I, 284, 388; II, 326,
473.
Bhikkhus, II, 633.
Bible, I, 230, 348, 358, 381, 387; II,
506, 586, 625.
Bichat, M. F. X., II, 203, 247, 253,
261f., 272, 393, 499.
Bigotry, II, 338.
Bile, II, 345.
Billiards, I, 56.
Biography, I, 247-8, 384-5; II, 390.
Bion of Borysthenes, II, 129.
Biot, J. B., II, 143.
Birds, I, 114, 131, 160, 304, 469; II,
61, 312, 331, 334, 342f., 353, 473,
476, 516, 541, 557.
Birth, I, 275, 311, 356, 397; II, 200.
Black (and White), II, 266.
Blame, II, 229.
Blind, I, 12, 20, 531; II, 28, 209.
Bliss, I, 89, 91, 374, 391-2, 407, 524;
II, 150, 167, 551.
Blister, I, 317.
Blondes, II, 547.
Blood, II, 81, 207, 251f., 333, 393.
Bloodthirstiness, I, 364.
Blow (Stroke), I, 335.
Boccaccio, G., II, 553.
Body, I, 19f., 99f., 107f., 125, 145f.,
169, 175, 177f., 200f., 206, 224,
228, 275, 277, 311f., 317, 326f.,
334-5, 337, 340, 362-3, 380, 382,
390-1, 398-9, 402f., 447, 477, 489;
II, 6, 25, 36f., 88, 120, 136, 159,
174, 201, 214, 238, 246, 248f.,
270f., 294, 308, 468, 495f., 498,
500, 511, 514, 570, 609, 634, 637.
Boehme, J., I, 146, 220, 309; II, 612.
Boerhaave, H., II, 525.
Bohrahs, II, 505.
Boileau, N., II, 532.
Boldness, I, 183.
Boleyn, Anne, II, 520.
Bolingbroke, Lord, II, 584.
Bombex, II, 347.
Bonaventure, I, 384; II, 614, 633.
Bones, I, 145.
Books, I, 198; II, 39, 71-2, 74, 78f.,
141, 147.
Boredom, 1, 164, 204, 260, 311f., 327,
350, 364; II, 281, 357f., 492, 575,
597.
Borgia, C., II, 520.
Boswell, J., II, 228.
Botany, I, 63, 81, 96; II, 127-8, 174.
Boundary Stone, I, 410; II, 359.
Bourignon A., II, 614.
Bouterwek, F., I, 174.
Bouts-rimes, II, 430.
Braggarts, II, 156, 185.
Brahma, I, 276, 399, 495; II, 169, 489.
Brahman, I, 411; 486; II, 463, 608.
Brahmanism, I, 356, 484, 486; II, 162,
434, 444, 463, 488f., 505, 580, 601,
604, 607f., 610, 615, 623f., 628,
633, 637, 643, 645.
Brain, I, 116, 131, 150, 176, 203, 330,
418, 421, 452; II, 3f., 8f., 19f., 26,
28f., 47, 65, 79, 81f., 135, 141, 174,
177, 186, 191f., 195f., 211f., 233f.,
245f., 270f., 326, 329, 332-3, 343,
367f., 373, 377, 392f., 401, 468,
491, 495, 499f., 511, 525f., 528,
541, 642.
Brandis, C. A. (1790-1867), II, 86.
Brandis, J. D. (1762-1846), II, 260.
Bravery, II, 519.
Brazil, II, 310.
Bread, I, 208.
Breathing, I, 116, 311; II, 247, 257,
337.
Bridge of Asses, II, 566.
Bridgewater, Earl, II, 338.
Bridle (and Bit), 11, 213.
Brockhaus, 11, 524.
Brook, I, 182; II, 9, 352.
Brother and Sister Marriages, II, 529.
Brougham and Vaux, Lord, II, 338.
Brown, T., II, 36-7, 338.
Brucker, J. J., I, 395.
Bruno, G., I, 26, 284, 375, 422, 496;
II, 33, 45, 87, 308-9, 350, 381, 383,
642.
Brutality, I, 57.
Buddhism, I, 356, 381, 383f., 411,
484, 486; II, 115, 169, 275, 400,
434, 444, 463, 467, 488, 502f., 508,
529, 560, 580, 584, 604, 607f.,
614f., 623, 625, 628, 633, 643, 645.
Buffon, G. L. L., I, 23; II, 73, 523.
Buffoonery, I, 509; II, 101, 124.
Buhle, J. G. G., I, 174.
Buildings, I, 178, 210, 214f.; II, 388,
412, 415, 453.
Bulldog-ants, I, 147.
Bumble-bees, II, 347.
Bunglers, II, 383, 408, 416, 422, 429.
Bunyan, J., II, 614-5.
Burdach, K. F., II, 241, 252f., 337,
345f., 478, 510, 516, 526.
Burger, G. A., II, 524, 531.
Burke, E., I, 530; II, 67.
Burlesque (of Life), II, 438.
Burmese, II, 169, 509.
Burning Glass, II, 89.
Burnouf, E., II, 623.
Butterflies, II, 334.
Byron, Lord, I, 181, 191, 251; 11, 81,
146, 217, 237, 392, 433, 526, 545,
570, 576-7, 585, 588.

C

Cabanis, P. J. G., I, 514; II, 81, 175,
211, 272.
Cadenza, II, 454, 456.
Caesar, Julius, 11, 505.
Calchas, I, 416.
Calculation, II, 40.
Calculus, I, 54.
Calderon, Don Pedro, I, 17, 253-4,
354-5; II, 431, 536, 552, 603.
Calembour, I, 61.
Caliban, intellectual (Hegel), I, xxi.
Caligula, II, 519.
Callisthenes, T, 48.
Calves, II, 280.
Camels, I, 159; II, 86, 312.
Camera obscura, I, 266, 530; II, 281.
Camerarius, J., I, 239.
Campe, J. H., II, 163.
Canaille, II, 146.
Cannibalism, I, 335, 369; II 69, 520.
Canova, A., II, 421.
Capillary Tubes, I, 116, 142.
Capital Punishment, I, 349; II, 598.
Capuchins, II, 156.
Caput mortuum, II, 317.
Caravaggio, M. M. da, II, 422.
Carbon, I, 148.
Card-playing, I, 231, 314; II, 61, 79.
Cardanus, H., II, 523.
Cares, I, 35, 299, 313, 317-18, 322,
373, 390; II, 98, 149, 354, 368, 373,
375, 568, 575.
Caricature, I, xxv, 225.
Caritas, I, 374; II, 602, 606.
Carove, F. W., II, 619.
Carracci, Annibale, I, 237, 239; II,
525.
Casper, J. L., II, 503.
Cassandra, I, 416.
Cassians, II, 617.
Cassianus, J., II, 617.
Cassinis (the), II, 522.
Castes, I, 355-6.
Castles, I, 99.
Castles in the Air, I, 123, 187; II, 5,
315.
Castration, II, 69, 163, 511, 527-8.
Cats, II, 34, 265, 353, 482.
Categorical Imperative, I, 345, 376,
463, 504f., 522f.
Categories (Kantian), I, 44, 429f.,
439, 440f., 476f., 492, 502; II, 181.
Caterpillars, II, 330, 343, 346, 485.
Catholicism, II, 619f., 625f.
Causa efficiens, I, 82.
Causa finalis, I, 82.
Causa sui, I, 76.
Causality, I, 8, 13f., 15, 19f., 34, 36,
40, 51, 66f., 78-9, 81, 98, 102, 104,
115, I 19f., 124, 126, 134f., 144,
147f., 157, 160-1, 169f., 176f.,
189, 213, 266, 276, 301, 337, 418,
420, 425, 436, 438, 443f., 457f.,
472-3, 489f., 495, 502f., 516, 533;
II, 8f., 14f., 19f., 27, 36f., 121, 127,
133, 180, 193, 197, 201, 247, 249,
27lf., 285f., 305f., 315, 319f., 328,
338, 360, 403, 471, 489, 537, 599.
Cause, I, 8f., 20f., 23, 38, 53, 77f.,
96f., 100, 104, 112, 115, 130-1,
134, 138, 139f., 163, 165, 172, 179,
183, 189, 192, 233, 288, 292, 297,
302, 395, 402, 444, 445f., 455,
458f., 464f., 482, 497f., 506, 533;
II, 6, 9, 22f., 36f., 136, 173f., 176,
299f., 319, 329, 33lf., 339, 341,
403, 471, 641.
Celibacy, II, 607, 616f., 622, 625f.
Cellini, B., I, 395.
Celsus, A. c., II, 511.
Centaur, II, 168.
Centre of Gravity, I, 406, 460; II,
299.
Centrifugal Force, I, 148, 164.
Cerebrum abdominale, 11, 255.
Certainty, I, 50, 150-1; II, 4, 32, 35,
38, 76, 89, 121, 130, 176, 180f.
Cervantes, S. M. de, I, 240; II, 73, 97.
Cessio bonorum, 11, 469.
Cetacea, II, 330, 337.
Chaff, II, 553.
Chain, I, 27, 48lf., 499; II, 39, 44, 59,
6~86, 173, 176, 24~301, 319, 380,
471, 489, 508, 581.
Chair, I, 187, 211.
Chamfort, N., II, 390-1, 552.
Champollion, J. F., I, 242.
Chance (Hazard), I, 253-4, 306, 312,
322, 324, 350f., 368, 374, 379, 382,
385, 464, 512; II, 155f., 32lf., 379,
433f., 473, 483.
Chandala, I, 356.
Change, I, 10, 96, 114, 120, 131, 163,
169, 175, 184" 277, 292, 296, 353,
459f., 472, 473, 490; II, 16, 39,
42f., 173, 299, 471.
Character, I, 60, 100, 106f., 113f.,
118, 124, 126, 130f., 133, 138-9,
152, 155-6, 158f., 206, 220, 224-5,
230, 245, 271, 287f., 298, 3ODf.,
319, 327, 359, 363, 366f., 397,
402f., 463, 505f.; II, 77, 173, 197,
203, 224, 227, 23lf., 239, 246,
263·4, 280, 299, 319f., 342f., 419,
502, 507-8, 517f., 522, 527f., 536f.,
544f., 592, 597f., 609.
Charlatanism, I, xxi, 508; 11, 13, 70,
87, 185, 616.
Charming, I, 207.
Chastity, I, 380, 388, 400; II, 566,
615, 619.
Chateau briand, II, 615.
Chatham, Lord, II, 522.
Chatin, I, 161.
Chavin de Mallan, E., I, 384.
Cheerful, I, 316-17.
Chemistry, I, 29, 63, 81, 97-8, 115,
122, 126, 130, 136, 141-2, 145,
148, 149, 243, 251, 416, 534; II,
47, 110, 127, 173, 182, 209, 265,
297, 546.
Cherries, II, 226, 478.
Cherubs (winged), I, 99; II, 394.
Chess, I, 231, 390, 516.
Chevreul, M. E., II, 315.
Chicanery, II, 86, 92, 226.
Children, I, 251, 272, 293, 299, 306,
327, 371, 400, 405, 411; II, 60-1,
79f., 95, 98, 162, 165f., 186-7, 208,
21lt., 216, 233f., 238, 242, 280,
347, 393f., 416, 473, 481, 496, 503,
517f., 535f., 544f., 563-4, 569, 619,
622, 637.
Chiliasts, II, 69.
Chimeras, I, 488, 520; II, 69, 84, 234,
315, 538, 554, 637.
Chimpanzees, II, 312.
China and Chinese, I, 27, 144, 239,
265, 486; II, 75, 119, 404, 429, 561,
624.
Chivalry, II, 124.
Chladni, E., I, 266.
Chlorine, II, 108.
Chord, I, 65, 72.
Christianity, I, xxvi, 86, 91, 213, 232,
233, 239, 242, 293, 326, 328, 355,
358, 383-4, 386f., 403f., 486, 512,
515, 522, 524f.; II, 150, 159, 167f.,
176, 187, 199, 287, 418, 431, 434f.,
444, 488f., 504, 506, 580, 584f.,
603f., 607f., 613f., 619f., 623f.,
632-3, 635f:, 643, 645.
Christina of Sweden, I, 340.
Chronos, I, 31.
Chrysippus, I, 88, 89, 302, 467; II,
151.
Church, I, 368, 387, 395, 403-4-5,
408, 504; II, 617, 623, 625, 637.
Chyle, II, 251.
Chyme, II, 252.
Cicero, M. T., I, 88, 89, 191, 302,
345, 467, 517-8, 520-1; II, 91, 92,
150f., 158f., 226, 383, 466, 561,
603, 628.
Ciphers, II, 184, 445.
Circles, I, 42, 72, 71, 247, 407; II, 92,
110, 477, 481.
Circulation (of Blood), I, 115; II,
216, 240, 253, 255, 262, 280, 333.
368, 393, 470, 526.
Circulus vitiosus, I, 459.
Civilization, I, 37, 312; II, 164, 585.
Clairvoyance, I, 151; II, 186, 255.
Clarke, S., I, 407, 509.
Claudius, Gens Claudia, II, 519.
Claudius, Emperor, II, 237.
Claudius, M., I, 394-5, 398, 403.
Clay, II, 173.
Cleanthes, I, 89, 510.
Clement of Alexandria, I, 329. 487,
520; II, 32, 608, 617, 620f.
Climate, I, 132, 156, 159, 216-7, 322.
364; II, 404, 416, 420.
Clocks (Clockwork), I, 322; II, 35.
171, 213, 319, 358, 402.
Clothing, I, 229, 306, 471f.; II,
280.
Cloud Cuckoo-land, I, 273.
Clouds, I, 142, 182-3, 185, 461; II,
72, 236, 375, 442-3, 573.
Clowns, I, 60; II, 95, 101.
Codrus, I, 375.
Coexistence, I, 10, 120, 441. 462,
472; II, 185.
Cohesion, I, 80, 122, 125, 126, 142,
214f., 533; II, 298, 304, 314, 414.
Coins, I, 71, 306, 425; II, 8, 76, 78,
125.
Colebrooke, H. T., I, 381-2, 488, 505,
508.
Colour (Theory of Colour), I, 21,
123, 189, 199, 226, 239, 531; II,
26, 28, 89, 143, 218, 315, 375, 423,
433.
Colour Organ, II, 31.
Columns, I, 214; II, 411f.
Comedy, I, 249, 322, 331, 333, 358;
II, 96, 437, 442, 531, 553, 581.
Comets, II, 390.
Commodus, L. A. A., II, 521.
Common, I, 187, 385; II, 73, 101,
124, 138, 380, 382.
Common Sense, I, 406; II, 7.
Commonwealth, I, 337.
Communism, II, 596.
Company (Society), I, 198; II, 231.
Compass, I, 85.
Compassion, I, 295, 324, 374, 526; II,
435, 592f., 601-2.
Compendiums (Fabricator of), II,
461.
Composers, I, 57, 260, 263; II, 449,
455.
Composure, I, 85, 327, 379, 387, 519;
II, 212, 215, 374, 389, 456, 508,
568, 635.
Compound, I, 496.
Compressibility, II, 304.
Compulsion (Right of), I, 340.
Concave Mirror, I, 24, 488.
Concepts, I, 6, 21f., 28, 34, 35f., 38f.,
50f., 65, 68, 72, 78, 82, 84-5, 89,
95-6, 11If., 113, 128, 151, 174,
177-8, 184, 187, 190, 213, 233f.,
237f., 241-2, 244, 260, 262f., 271,
278f., 289, 296f., 304, 361, 368,
376, 383, 410, 431, 433f., 442f.,
457, 466, 474f., 508, 518f.; II, 15,
23, 40f., 44, 59, 63f., 7 If., 76f.,
82f., 94, 98f., 109f., 120, 134, 141f.,
148f., 178f., 192, 196, 249f., 276,
286, 365-6, 369, 378, 406, 408f.,
440, 442, 448f., 572, 629, 645.
Concertos, II, 453.
Concionatio, II, 102.
Concreta, I, 41, 243; II, 43, 65, 72.
Condillac, E. B. de M. de, II, 12, 21,
302.
Conditio sine qua non (of· the
World), II, 581.
Condition, I, 481f., 493, 497f.
Condorcet, A., Marquis de, II, 21.
Condors, II, 312.
Conduct, I, 60, 84, 86, 89, 110, 130,
163, 190, 210, 240, 244, 247, 271-2,
285, 287-8, 292f., 299f., 308, 324,
326, 341f., 355, 357, 359, 361,
368f., 374, 378, 383f., 403, 422,
425, 433, 463, 504f., 514, 518f.; II,
61, 63f., 75f., 148, 150, 167, 184,
223, 232, 285, 319f., 507-8, 590,
604, 607, 637.
Conductor (and Orchestra), II, 129.
Confidant, II, 210.
Conjuring Trick, I, 70; II, 316.
Conquerors, I, 138, 358, 386, 515; II,
578.
Conscience, I, 240, 297, 300, 335-6,
341, 357, 365f., 373-4, 392, 400,
517; II, 130, 166, 235, 289, 566.
Consciousness, I, 51, 64, 84, 103, 109,
112, 113, 119, 126, 151, 162-3, 174,
176, 178f., 186, 195f., 198f., 202,
204-5, 209, 226, 249, 250, 259, 261,
266-7, 277, 281-2, 288-9, 290, 298,
309f., 317, 327f., 353, 358, 365,
372, 403, 419, 431, 436, 439, 446,
449, 483, 490, 503f., 518; II, 3f.,
14f., 22, 32, 59f., 66, 74, 82, 128,
133f., 171, 178, 182f., 192, 195f.,
198-9, 201ff., 245f., 250f., 258,
270-1, 277f., 285, 290, 294, 300,
313f., 317f., 349f., 364f., 375, 380,
382, 442, 445-6, 452, 467f., 484,
490f., 495f., 510, 535, 540, 559,
600, 611, 640, 642f.
Consensus naturae, I, 159; II, 337.
Consequence (and Sequence), I, 460;
II, 180.
Consolation, I, 306, 315, 348; II, 167,
589, 612.
Constitution, I, 343, 526, 529.
Consumption (Disease), II, 334.
Contemplation, I, 178f., 184f., 194f.,
250, 267, 271, 327, 363, 388, 390;
II, 72, 369, 387, 406, 432.
Contemporary, I, x, 236, 324; II, 385,
390-1.
Contentment, I, 306, 317, 325,
361f.
Continent (Continental), I, 52; II;
312.
Contingency, I, 463f.; II, 170.
Continuance (after death), I, 277,
282; II, 161, 199, 467, 471, 486,
488, 493f., 508, 559.
Continuum, I, 447; II, 10, 39, 303.
Contract, I, 338, 347.
Contradictio in adjecto, I, 523; II, 34,
295.
Contradiction, I, 30, 48, 50, 70, 73-4,
75, 82, 90, 266, 272, 288, 301, 306,
333f., 361, 362, 380, 394, 399,
402-3, 406f., 431, 434, 439, 441,
452f., 463f., 476, 479, 486, 493,
508, 524f.; II, 5, 8, 16f., 33, 103,
130, 166, 184f., 194, 215, 289, 332,
440, 495, 498, 634, 643.
Convent, II, 527, 549.
Conversation, I, 190, 247; II, 102,
146, 225, 228, 390, 431.
Conversion (Religious), I, 394; II,
630.
Conviction II, 118, 165f.
Cool-headed, I, 194; II, 389.
Copernicus, N., I, 419.
Copper, II, 300.
Copper Coins, II, 574.
Copperplate, II, 25.
Copula, I, 47Sf.; IT, 64, 104-5, 110,
117.
Coriolanus, G. M., I, 516.
Corneille, P., I, 255; II, 426.
Corpses, I, 277, 322; II, 470, 636-7.
Correggio, A. A. da, I, 232, 237-8,
411.
Correlative, I, 11, 14, 19, 34f., 40,
135, 179, 194, 199, 209, 276, 279,
282, 343, 363, 390, 452, 472; II,
15f~ 219, 365, 484, 498, 514.
Cosine, I, 55.
Cosmogony, I, 273; II, 324.
Cosmology, II, 285, 612.
Cotton-spinning, II, 578.
Counterpoint, II, 100, 452.
Counting, I, 8, 54, 75, 80; II, 34.
Courage, II, 220, 544.
Court (Tribunal), IT, 89, 109, 226,
229, 399.
Cousin, Y., II, 302.
Crabs, I, 208; II, 485.
Crates, II, 154.
Craziness, I, 389; II, 238.
Crime (Criminal), I, 281, 348, 357,
369, 370, 400, 518; II, 187, 528,
569, 596f.
Criminal Code, I, 344; II, 598.
Criticism, I, 421, 427; II, 172.
Cross, I, 239, 386; II, 584, 636.
Crown, I, 158, 183.
Crucibles (and Retorts), II, 178, 316.
Cruelty, I, 348, 363; to animals: 373;
II, 556, 578, 606.
Crusades, II, 69.
Crutches, I, 69, 71.
Cryptograph, II, 182.
Crystals, I, 110, 118, 132, 136, 144-5,
148, 155, 182, 259, 534; II, 194,
293, 296f., 303, 327, 417, 472.
Csoma Korosi, A., II, 169.
Cucumbers, II, 337.
Culture, I, 235, 272; II, 69, 77, 131,
146, 164, 171, 23If., 263, 407, 425.
Cunning, I, 337f.; II, 165, 221, 577.
Cupid, II, 549, 556.
Cure, I, 397; II, 602, 635.
Curiosity (Neugier), I, 325.
Curves, I, 54f., 77, 430; II, 629.
Custom, I, 193, 293, 368, 389; II,
29, 60, 69, 263.
Cuvier, F., Baron (1773-1838), II,
525.
Cuvier, G. F. D., Baron (1769-1832),
I, 132; II, 34, 128, 253, 344, 392,
396, 525.
Cynics (Cynicism), II, 150f.

D

Da capo, I, 264.
Daemon, I, 271, 304.
Damnation, I, 199, 271.
Danaides, I, 196, 318, 362.
Dance Music, I, 260-1.
Danish Academy, II, 70, 616.
Dante Alighieri, I, 199, 325; II, 126,
426, 578.
Dates (Fruit), II, 391.
David (King), I, 306.
Davis, I. F., II, 429.
Day, I, 281, 367; II, 38.
Deaf-mutes, II, 28, 66.
Death, I, 37, 91, 146, 261, 275f.,
311f., 322, 324f., 352, 355-6, 372,
375, 377, 382, 391-2, 394, 396-7-8,
405; Ii, 61, 85, 150, 160f., 170,
172, 199, 238f., 325, 349, 351, 358,
463ff., 511, 560, 569, 571, 574,
577f., 583f., 586, 601, 605f., 609,
628, 636-7, 640.
Death Sentence, II, 351.
Debts, I, 519; II, 580.
Deception, I, 338, 350; II, 27, 104,
148, 573.
Decimal Fractions, II, 106.
Decius Mus, I, 375; II, 519.
Decoy-birds, II, 573.
Deduction, I, 64, 68; II, 122.
Deliberation, I, 85, 151, 291, 296-7,
300, 513, 515, 518; II, 6lf., 120,
138, 150, 207, 251, 408, 497, 519.
Delirium, I, 192.
Delusion, I, 152, 317; II, 69, 135, 145,
336, 357, 538, 540, 606, 639.
Demagogues, II, 227.
Dementi (of the Individual), II, 501.
Demiurge, I, 510; II, 16, 621f.
Democritus, I, 26, 122, 123, 191, 513,
520, 533; 11, 14, 174, 315, 317, 341.
Demon, II, 225.
Denial (of the Will), I, 285, 308, 326,
329, 334-5, 339, 341f., 362, 367,
370f., 378, 380, 382f., 387f., 391f.;
II, 369, 419, 437, 500f., 508, 529,
560, 572, 584, 603ff., 641, 644.
Denner, B., I, 57.
Depravity, I, 518; n, 228-9.
Descartes, Rene, I, 3, 122, 127, 141,
292, 298, 407, 422-3, 429, 432,
508; II, 4, 32, 54, 132, 192, 238,
243, 265f., 313, 476, 645.
Deserts, I, 204, 395, 461.
Design, II, 338.
Desire, I, 87f., 164, 196f., 202, 250,
260, 300, 313f., 318f., 354, 363f.,
375, 379, 382, 390, 392, 411, 519;
II, 61, 141, 155f., 202f., 205, 209f.,
221, 237, 247, 276, 294f., 358,
368L, 394, 455L, 469, 498, 514,
540, 550f., 559, 568, 573L, 58Of.,
636, 638.
Despair, I, 299, 313, 327, 392, 395,
402, 428; II, 159, 213, 225, 437,
466.
Despotism, I, 343, 346.
Determinism, II, 321.
Deus, II, 624, 644.
, I, 392; n, 630, 636,
638.
Devil, I, 392; II, 172, 328, 350, 372,
578, 613, 624.
Dhammapadam, II, 623.
Dialectic, I, 47; II, 73, 102, 121.
Dialecticians, I, 71.
Dialogue, II, 102.
Diamonds, I, 133; II, 107, 116, 226,
388, 391.
Diana, II, 375.
Dianoiology, II, 289.
Diastole and Systole, n, 241.
Dice, II, 158, 473.
Dictum de omni et nullo, I, 48, 454.
Diderot, D., II, 145, 448, 481.
Digestion, I, 115, 146; II, 174, 199,
214, 246, 252, 345.
Dignity (of Man), I, 90, 520.
Diodorus, I, 467.
Diogenes Laertius I, 89, 116, 130,
294; II, 129, 153f., 163, 468.
Diogenes of Sinope, I, 116; II, 153f.,
577.
Dionysius the Areopagite, II, 86.
Disappointment, II, 634.
Discs, II, 143, 2"81.
Discorso, I, 37.
Discovery, I, 21, 437; II, 29.
Discretion (Age of), II, 234.
Disdain, II, 155, 233.
Disease, I, 70, 315, 320, 356, 378,
399; II, 260, 359, 468f., 485.
Dishonesty, n, 53, 218, 236, 384, 639.
Disputation, I, 47; II, 102.
Dissatisfaction, I, 89, 307.
Dissimulation, I, 57, 131, 156, 219,
247, 306, 519; II, 61, 335.
Dissonance, II, 324, 451, 455-6.
Distinction, I, 458.
Distraction, II, 137f.
Divisibility, I, 490-1, 496f.; II, 177,
303.
Docetae, I, 405.
Doctor (Physician), I, 70; II, 69.
Doggerel, II, 408, 429.
Dogmas, I, 58, 137, 281-2, 285, 293,
304, 328, 361, 368f., 383, 389, 394,
401, 404, 406, 408, 422-3; II, 77,
161f., 166f., 604.
Dogmatism, I, 13f., 388, 416, 420-1,
426-7-8, 490, 502; II, 85, 182,
288-9, 350.
Dogs, I, 23, 193; II, 30, 60-1, 98, 222,
265, 476, 483, 516, 577.
Dolphins, II, 330.
Domenichino, D. Z., II, 419.
Domes, I, 215; II, 418.
Domitian, T. F., I, 364; II, 521.
Donatello, II, 419.
Doors, II, 30, 411, 415.
Drama, I, 213, 223, 228, 249, 251-2,
320f.; II, 235, 298, 371, 395, 421,
427, 431f., 436, 449, 531, 535, 575.
Drapery, I, 229.
Dreams, I, 16, 99, 197, 278, 281, 314,
322, 324, 353, 365, 391, 398, 411,
419f., 425; II, 4, 18, 134, 139, 177,
208, 242, 326, 344-5, 399, 433,
443, 468f., 492, 500-1, 573.
Drinks (alcoholic), II, 368.
Dross, II, 639.
Drudgery, II, 357, 568.
Druids, II, 505, 628.
Drums, II, 452.
Dryden, J., I, 191.
Dryness (of Style), I, 428.
Ducks, n, 516.
Duel, I, 85.
Duet, II, 261.
Duns Scotus, J., I, 84; n, 65.
Duration, I, 10, 120, 177, 460, 472.
Durer, A., II, 545.
and , I, 316.
Dust, II, 472.
Dutch, I, 197, 207-8, 210, 230; II,
213.
Duty, I, 272, 345, 376, 526.
Dynamics, I, 497; II, 52, 302, 304.

E

Ears, I, 447; II, 26, 28f., 332, 428·9.
Earth, I, 110, 118, 129, 131, 160, 177,
214, 232, 281, 309, 312, 390, 396,
419, 468, 518, 528; II, 27, 55, 149,
192, 296, 299f., 313, 335, 614.
Earthquake, II, 583.
Ebionites, II, 632-3.
Eccentricity, t, xix, 11, 387, 396.
Ecclesiastes, t, 310; II, 636, 644.
Eckermann, J. P., I, 280; II, 454.
Eckhart, Meister, I, 381, 387; II, 612,
614, 633, 639.
Eclectics (pre-Kantian), II, 476.
Eclipse, I, 292.
Ecliptic, I, 154, 160; II, 581.
Ecstasy, I, 410; II, 186, 611.
Edda, II, 505.
Eden, II, 394.
Edinburgh Review, II, 131, 229.
Education, II, 60, 95, 124, 597.
Edward II (of England), II, 520.
Effect, I, 9, 13f., 23, 38, 53, 77, 79,
96-7, 104, 112, 115, 130-1, 134,
140, 172, 179, 183, 189, 192, 297,
302, 395, 455, 458, 460f., 464,
473, 482, 497f., 506, 533; II, 6, 9,
22, 24f., 36f., 173, 301, 403, 471,
641.
Efflorescence, II, 142, 237, 243, 275f.
Eggs, I, 95, 431; II, 147, 258, 274,
310f., 331, 477, 557.
, II, 617, 620, 622.
Ego, I, 33, 171, 372; II, 139, 197f.,
239, 251, 259, 270, 277-8, 377,
486, 490f., 500f.
Egoism, I, 57, 104, 152, 253, 282,
295, 320, 331f., 339, 342f., 349,
362f., 369, 373, 374, 378f., 407f.,
524f.; II, 193, 206, 215, 220, 236,
492, 507, 538, 558, 578, 595, 599f.,
610.
Egypt, I, 137, 206, 217, 231, 356,
486-7; II, 446, 488, 505, 617, 622.
(Platonic Idea), I, 170: II, 365,
510, 512.
Elasticity, I, 122, 130, 149, 164, 533;
II, 27, 173-4, 298.
Eleatics, I, 26, 47, 71, 477, 498; II,
86, 480, 642.
Elective Affinity, I, 110, 122, 148; II,
174, 297-8.
Elective Decision, I, 297-8, 301, 404.
Electricity, I, 118, 122-3, 124-5-6,
130, 133, 138, 141-2-3, 163, 300,
309, 534; II, 47, 173, 176, 301, 471.
Elephants, I, 23, 306; II, 62, 66, 312,
332, 389, 476, 479.
Elgin Marbles, I, 219.
Elizabeth, St., II, 422, 615.
Elizabeth I of England, II, 520.
Emblem, I, 239, 242.
Embryo, II, 241, 253, 255, 331, 536,
541, 543.
Emeritus, I, 362.
Emoluments, I, 510.
Emotions, I, 38, 101, 107, 190, 195,
197, 225, 231, 244, 250, 264, 296,
328, 519, 526; II, 61, 141, 149,
204f., 211, 216, 224, 231, 235,
238-9, 247, 261, 276, 280f., 367f.,
389, 438, 448, 450, 469, 498f., 593.
Empedocles, I, 147, 222, 410; II, 274,
294-5, 341, 480, 621.
Emperors, II, 391.
Empiricism, I, 447; II, 175, 178.
Encratites, II, 617, 620, 622.
End, I, 366, 420-1; II, 306.
Endosmosis, I, 142.
Enemies, II, 148, 163, 215, 217, 231.
, II, 45, 47.
Englishmen, I, 52, 348, 356, 424, 486,
488, 513; II, 21, 37, 53, 101, 125,
169, 199, 212, 336, 338, 426, 430-1,
464, 506.
Ens extramundanum, II, 183.
Ens perfectissimum, II, 357.
Ens ration is, II, 270, 349.
Ens realissimum, I, 508-9.
Entasis, II, 413.
Entities (of the Scholastics), I, 140.
Entozoa and Epizoa, II, 310.
Envy, I, 206, 234, 315, 363, 390; II,
224, 228, 426, 438, 578, 639.
Epagoge (Inductio), II, 106, 122.
Epic, I, 246, 249, 251-2, 320f.; II, 298,
410, 432, 436, 531, 575.
Epictetus, I, 87, 88, 299; II, 152,
156-7.
Epicurus, I, 26, 29, 89, 196, 496, 513,
519, 524, 533; II, 14, 175, 468,
472.
Epidemics, II, 503.
Epilepsy, II, 257.
Epiphanius, II, 623.
Epitaph, II, 93, 95, 153.
Equilibrium, I, 290, 460; II, 54, 299,
412.
Equivocation, I, 61; II, 94-5.
Erdmann, J. E., I, 421.
Erection, I, 116; II, 257.
Erigena, T. S., II, 129, 612, 64lf.
Eris, I, 333, 350.
Eristic, II, 102.
Eros, I, 330, 376.
Erotomania, II, 401.
Errors, I, 24, 35f., 78-9, 141, 152,
183, 253, 254, 294, 298, 324, 351,
375, 379, 434; II, 68, 70, 89f., 104,
145, 198, 206, 218, 285f., 433f.,
491, 507, 634f.
Erudition, I, 61, 63; II, 32, 74f., 141,
145, 231, 233.
Esoteric, I, 355.
Esquirol, II, 359, 402, 525.
Essenes, II, 616, 627.
Essentia aeterna, II, 552.
Essentia and Existentia, I, 465; II,
43, 45, 184, 534, 604.
Eternity, I, 176, 273, 279, 280; II,
42f., 230, 271, 325, 365, 484, 487f.,
499, 628.
Ether, I, 123, 127; II, 315f.
Ether Drum-beating Theory, II, 28,
315.
Ethics (see Morality).
, I, 293.
Etiology, I, 96f., 107f., 112, 121-2,
124-5-6, 131, 135, 136, 139f.,
184.
Euchel, I. A., I, 487.
Euclid, I, 52, 55, 63, 69f., 189, 438;
II, 3, 130.
Eudaemonism, I, 91, 523; II, 151,
159, 443.
, II, 577.
Eulenspiegel, I, 299.
Euler, L, I, 42, 127; II, 10, 22f., 145.
Euripides, I, 254, 351; II, 434, 437,
556, 587, 592, 621.
Europe, I, 191, 357, 388, 395, 422,
424; II, 53, 122f., 169, 187, 221,
463f., 476, 506, 531-2, 547, 562,
564, 607, 627.
Eusebius, I, 487.
Euthanasia, II, 469, 637.
Evangelists, Animals of, I, 239.
Evidence, I, 65, 68-9, 76, 85, 438,
453; II, 130.
Evil, I, 87, 221, 283, 296, 306, 313f.,
326, 335, 348, 350, 352, 354, 358f.,
364, 375, 382, 388, 394, 406f.; II,
157, 165, 17lf., 395, 434, 463f.,
576f., 583, 585, 590f., 595, 606,
643.
Example, I, 368; II, 69.
Exchange (Bill of), I, 295.
Excluded Middle, I, 48, SO, 479; II,
103.
Excretion, I, 277, 330.
Execution (penal), I, 85, 325, 395;
II, 465, 631.
Existence, I, 7f., 146f., 153, 164, 177,
181-2, 220, 253-4, 267, 279, 281,
310f., 313, 319f., 351, 397, 400,
405, 420, 434, 445; II, Sf., 42, 45,
160, 170f., 184-5, 204, 271, 350f.,
359, 406, 449, 465, 475, 489, 498,
501, 508, 570, 575f., 580, 585, 60S,
622, 630, 635, 639.
Exoteric, I, 355.
Expediens, I, 521; II, 172.
Experience, I, 6f., 50f., 65, 67-8, 77-8,
97, 140, 171-2, 185, 189, 193, 22lf.,
244, 262, 289, 302f., 323f., 333,
342, 358, 379, 384, 389, 410, 42Of.,
426f., 437, 439f., 44lf., 472, 502,
50S, 522f., 532; II, 9f., 15f., 33f.,
45f., 63, 74, 85, 88-9, 128, 180f.,
193, 227, 234, 266, 273, 306f., 309,
427, 440, 517, 561, 640, 643.
Experiment, I, 77; II, 89, 147, 267,
316, 517.
Explanation, I, 73, 80f., 97f., 110,
121, 124-5, 136, 139f., 142, 159,
161, 264, 420, 422, 428, 448, 460,
466, 506f., 533; II, 12, 14, 21, 136,
161, 172f., 178, 181, 183, 299, 301,
312f., 329, 332, 334, 336, 337, 351,
484, 530, 579, 640, 644.
Exspatiatur, II, 436.
Extract, II, 244.
Eyes, I, 57, 84, 159, 198, 327, 447;
II, 6, 9, 24, 26f., 28f., 79, 129, 137,
287, 330f., 347, 403, 421, 428, 479,
491, 544.
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Re: The World As Will and Representation, by Arthur Schopenh

Postby admin » Sat Feb 03, 2018 1:32 am

Part 2 of 3

F

Fabius, Gens Fabia, II, 519.
Fabricius, Gens Fabricia, II, 519.
Face (Countenance), I, 226, 244, 313,
363; II, 77, 129, 335, 404, 421,
543f.
Factory Workers, II, 464.
Fainting, II, 467f.
Fait generalise, I, 141.
Faith, I, 368, 406f., 510f., 524, 526;
II, 7-8, 164f., 230, 607, 631.
Fakirs, II, 611.
Fall (of Man), I, 329, 407; II, 580,
604f., 620f., 628.
False Coin, I, 77, 306.
Fame, I, 238-9; II, 90, 386.
Family, II, 231.
Famine, I, 313.
Fanaticism, I, 361-2, 401, 423; II, 69,
293.
Fancy (of each other), II, 536.
Fasting, I, 382, 401; II, 607.
Fatalism, I, 306; II, 646.
Fatality, II, 171, 640.
Fate, I, 139, 253-4-5, 302, 315, 319,
322, 325, 352, 374, 377, 385, 392,
396, 426; II, 99, 159, 319, 321, 434,
436, 522, 636, 638-9.
Father, I, 378; II, 107, 288, 393, 410,
490, 502, 517f., 525f., 536f., 544,
550, 554, 569.
Fatigue, II, 211, 242-3.
Fatuitas, I, 192.
Faun, I, 225.
Fausboll, V., II, 623.
Faustina, A. G., II, 521.
Favourites, II, 217.
Fear, I, 183, 196-7, 202, 226, 390,
519; II, 61, 98, 141, 149, 204,
210f., 215-6, 219, 221, 435, 456,
465, 476, 484, 498, 575.
Feder, J. G. H., I, 473.
Feelers, II, 25, 256, 258.
Feelings, I, 51f., 58, 61, 82, 85, 109,
200, 235, 238, 251, 259, 262, 271,
283, 298, 310, 334-5, 357, 367; II,
6, 27, 38, 118, 135, 237-8, 295,
404, 448f.
Fees (Earner of), II, 461.
Feet, I, 108; II, 259, 543.
Fencing, I, 56, 516.
Fenelon, F. de S. de la M., I, 387.
Fernow, K. L., I, 227.
Fertility (of Human Race), II, 503.
Feuerbach, A. V., I, 349.
Fichte, J. G., I, xxi, 13, 32f., 123,
429, 436; II, 12f., 278.
Figs., II, 391.
Fire, I, 461; II, 27, 369, 614.
Fish, I, 159, 304, 469; II, 112-13, 241,
242, 330, 473, 485.
Fit Arari, II, 226.
Flagellants, II, 69.
Fleas, II, 389.
Flesh, I, 145.
Florence, I, 219; II, 336, 419, 422,
424.
Flourens, M. J. P., I, 514; II, 205,
247, 253, 265f., 396, 523.
Flowers, II, 64, 322, 333, 404.
Fluidity, I, 122, 130, 182, 210, 214,
217, 308, 533; II, 27, 297.
Fly (Insect), II, 335, 478.
Foe-Koue-Ki, I, 381.
Folly, I, 60f., 192, 324-5; II, 69, 77,
92, 96, 157, 214, 229, 235, 387,
638.
Foolishness, I, 24, 399.
Fools, II, 148, 150, 231, 436, 443.
Footman, II, 209.
Force II, 44, 54, 174.
Forehead, I, 57.
Forest, II, 82.
Forgetfulness, II, 140, 246, 401.
Form, I, 96, 123; II, 42f., 180, 201,
288, 296, 302, 305, 308f., 314.
Forma accidentalis, I, 143, 211.
Forma substantialis, I, 124, 143, 211.
Fortress, I, 104; II, 195, 373.
Foscolo, U., II, 532, 551.
Fossils, I, 232; II, 584.
Foucaux, P. E., II, 400.
Foxes, I, 23; II, 221-2.
Francis of Assisi, I, 384; II, 614, 633.
Franciscans, II, 156.
Frauenstadt, J. C. M., II, 52.
Freak (of Nature), I, 142-3.
Frederick the Great, I, 514; II, 163.
Free Choice (Willkur), I, 404, 407;
II, 248, 258, 380.
Freedom (of Thought), II, 186, 593.
Freedom (of the Will), I, 113, 155,
272, 285f., 297-8, 300f., 326, 345,
386, 391, 395, 402, 404t, 493,
50lf., 523, 528; II, 3, 34, 172f.,
320f., 331, 461, 488, 507-8, 530,
629.
Freezing to Death, I, 278.
French, I, 26, 143, 189, 232, 395, 488;
II, 12, 21, 125, 143, 169, 199, 253,
272, 277, 290, 302, 315, 404, 428,
430, 436, 456.
Frenzy, II, 70, 402.
Freycinet, II, 516.
Friends (Friendship), I, 376; n, 148,
231-2, 537, 558.
Fright, II, 215, 401.
Frivolity, I, 183.
Frogs, II, 473, 476.
Froriep, II, 38.
Froth and Vapour, II, 500.
Fruit (painted), I, 208.
Fuga vacui, II, 79.
Functions (Animal, Natural, Vital),
I, 107-8, 115, 142, 144, 146, 151,
157; II, 216, 240f., 250, 255, 258,
332, 479, 511.
Fungus, II, 296, 311.
Furor brevis, II, 225.
Fury, II, 70, 225.
Future, I, 7, 36, 84, 151, 278f., 284,
299, 311, 316-17, 348, 350, 359,
360, 364, 366, 453; II, 59f., 98, 150,
347-8, 353, 402, 442, 445, 467,
477f., 57lf.

G

Galen, C., II, 111.
Galilee, I, 357.
Gall, F. J., II, 70, 235, 246, 265f.,
272.
Gallows, II, 631.
Galvanism, I, 110, 133, 136, 148,
309; II, 28, 472.
Ganges, I, 422.
Ganglia, I, 150; II, 25, 240f., 256,
326, 344, 392, 541.
Gapers, II, 449.
Garrick, D., II, 97, 284.
Gastrobrancus caecus, II, 330.
Geese, II, 527, 545.
Genealogical Tree, I, 242.
Generatio aequivoca, I, 141, 145; II,
310-11, 326, 350.
Geneva, II, 129.
Genitals, I, 108, 156, 203, 330, 334,
380, 403; II, 234, 259, 295, 335f.,
394, 510f., 514, 571, 637.
Genius I, 57f., 183-4, 185f., 222-3,
234-5, 246, 248-9, 260, 267, 271,
310, 321, 396, 413, 415, 527; II, 67,
72, 74-5, 143, 145f., 203f., 219f.,
230-1-2, 235f., 282f., 291-2, 370f.,
376ff., 409f., 424, 522, 525f., 544-5,
598.
Genre Painting, I, 231; II, 480.
Genus, I, 68, 111; II, 312, 334, 365,
442.
Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire, E., II, 128,
331, 336.
Geognosy, II, 65.
Geology, I, 96; II, 127, 182.
Geometry, I, 8, 28, 52, 54, 73f., 77,
122, 262, 438, 487; II, 34, 45, 82,
127, 131, 179, 414.
Germans, I, 173, 189, 222, 246, 249,
387, 424, 426, 429, 486, 513, 515;
II, 21, 43, 68, 70, 95, 101, 122f.,
192-3, 199, 213, 315, 356, 412, 430,
464, 528, 584, 616, 644.
Geuns, van, II, 520.
Ghosts, II, 302, 531.
Giant (and Dwarf), II, 168.
Gichtel, J. G., II, 614, 627.
Gifts (mental), II, 230.
Gilbert, L. W., II, 28.
Giordano, L., II, 422.
Glass, I, 134, 149.
Gleditsch, J. G., II, 346, 353.
Glow-worms, II, 336.
Gnostics, II, 506, 612, 617, 620, 622.
, II, 210.
God, I, 90, 140, 212, 326, 387, 406f.,
410, 416, 431, 486f., 508-9, 510f.,
524; II, 34, 82, 115, 349f., 356-7,
449 528, 577, 591, 608, 613, 623f.,
644f.
Goethe, J. W. von, I, xxv, 21, 123,
145, 186, 189, 191, 194, 221, 227,
228, 241, 246, 250, 253, 255, 280,
284, 294, 329, 379, 385, 393, 396,
416, 418, 423, 429, 529; II, 1, 29f.,
53, 108, 128, 139, 142, 144, 168,
179, 189, 214, 218, 228, 235, 243,
282-3, 297f., 333, 372, 374, 380,
383, 386·7, 389, 391, 393, 395·6,
409f., 420, 423, 426, 431, 433-4,
437, 454, 500-1, 524, 531-2, 551,
556, 569, 574, 597.
Gold, 1, 475, 527; II, 72, 306.
Goldoni, C., II, 437.
Good, I, 86, 89, 196, 199, 292, 359f.,
367f., 382, 405, 519, 524, 527; II,
172, 465, 508, 590, 608.
Goodness (of Heart), I, 368f., 375,
377f., 388, 392-3; II, 146, 227-8,
23lf., 544, 598.
Gordian Knot, I, 293.
Gorgias, I, xxvii; II, 99, 102.
Gothic, I, 217, 430; II, 416f., 431.
Gozzi, C., Count, I, 183; II, 95, 401.
Grace (Election by), I, 293, 368, 391,
403f., 527; II, 605, 607, 6i4.
Grace (Graceful), I, 224f., 229f.; II,
404, 414, 419f.
Gracian, B., I, 241; II, 75, 216, 227,
588.
Grammar, I, 477f.; II, 67, 122, 126.
Granite, II, 65.
Grapes, II, 407.
Grass, I, 143.
Graul, C., II, 613.
Gravitas, II, 387.
Gravity, I, 11, 21, 66-7, 80, 97, 110,
118, 122, 124-5·6, 127, 130-1, 133,
135-6, 138, 143-4, 146, 149, 163-4,
182, 210, 214f., 255, 308, 460, 497,
533; II, 44, 52f., 173-4, 293, 297f.,
302, 304, 308, 314, 341, 414, 417,
448, 471, 582.
Great (and Small), II, 385, 555.
Greeks (and Greece), I, 217, 222·3,
232, 239, 276, 293, 323, 329f., 385,
387, 430, 486f.; II, 63, 67, 79,
122f., 134, 163, 170, 238, 416f.,
419f., 429, 431, 437, 446, 489, 505,
511, 521, 532, 561, 564-5, 585, 605,
614, 623, 628.
Griesbach, J. J., II, 624.
Growth, I, 97, 108, 115, 161, 277;
II, 255, 284, 294.
Guicciardini, F., II, 229.
Guilt. I, 156, 254, 352, 354·5, 357,
406; II, 170, 488, 569, 580-1, 590,
601, 603f., 625, 627f.
Gulf, I, 234, 363, 365, 372, 383; II,
146, 178, 192, 204, 231, 273, 447,
527, 529.
Gun, I, 468; II, 38, 54.
Gunas (three), I, 321.
Guyon, Mad. de, I, 385, 391; II,
612f.
Gynander, II, 546.
Gypsies, II, 186, 547.

H

, II, 618.
Hair, II, 335.
Hairy Garment, II, 607.
Haiti, II, 583.
Hall, Marshall, I, 116, 514; II,
256·7-8, 273.
Hallelujahs, II, 581.
Haller, A. v., II, 253, 260, 525.
Hallucinations, II, 40 I.
Hamann, J. G., 11, 582.
Hamilcar, II, 520.
Hamilton, Sir W., II, 131.
Hammer, I, 142; II, 54, 225.
Hands, I, 108, 447; II, 6, 23, 33, 246,
250, 258, 270, 331.
Hannibal, II, 520.
Happiness, I, 86-7, 88, 164, 196-7,
206, 255, 260-1, 309, 314, 316f.,
353, 361-2-3, 375, 424, 520, 524f.,
526f.; II, 150f., 159, 368, 390, 394,
443-4, 455, 489, 492, 513f., 540,
553, 555t, 573, 575t, 584, 630,
634, 638-9.
Hard-hearted, I, 377; II, 464.
Hardness, I, 214; II, 173-4, 302.
Hardy, R. Spence, I, 384; II, 503-4,
508, 614.
Hares, II, 221.
Harmonia praestabilita, II, 582.
Harpies, II, 577.
Hase, K., II, 614.
Hatred, I, 183, .206, 234, 315, 378,
386, 394; II, 204, 217, 236, 262,
555, 610.
Hauy, R. J., II, 303.
Hay, II, 310.
Haydn, F. J., I, 263; II, 525.
Haziness, I, 204; II, 144.
Head, 1, 177, 188, 251, 421; II, 3, 8f.,
19, 21-2, 27, 67, 75, 108, 144, 193,
211, 218, 222, 229f., 262, 335, 393,
444, 499, 510, 526, 545.
Health, I, 146, 327; II, 543, 575.
Hearing (Sense of), I, 101, 199; II,
26f., 63, 275, 428-9.
Heart, I, 78, 251, 321, 373, 526; II,
207, 214, 217-8, 222, 229f., 240f.,
243, 247, 252, 262, 389, 393, 444,
449, 451, 456, 499, 517, 525-6,
544f., 550, 559, 576.
Heat, I, 122, 142, 160, 203, 461; II,
27, 47, 108, 138, 173, 201, 301-2,
393.
Heat (Rut), II, 510f.
Heathen, I, 52, 486-7; II, 170, 350,
605, 609, 623.
Heaven, I, 312, 325, 369, 396, 468,
528; II, 9, 605, 607.
Heavenly Bodies, I, 66, 141, 148;
II, 3.
Hedysarum gyrans, I, 116.
Hegel, G. W. F., I, xviii, xxi, xxiv,
223, 419, 429, 437; 11, 13, 34, 40f.,
65, 70, 84, 87, 192, 303, 442-3, 464,
582, 590, 616.
Hegemonicon, II, 208, 212, 258.
Heine, H., II, 100.
Hell, I, 255, 312, 325, 356, 394·5;
II, 577f., 581, 607.
Helvetius, C. A., I, 223; II, 80, 226,
228, 274.
, 318, 642f.
Henry VIII, II, 520.
Hens, II, 247, 258, 311, 332.
Heraclitus, I, 7; II, 80, 586, 621.
Herbart, J. F., II, 582.
Hercules, I, 225, 415; II, 565.
Herder, J. G. v., I, 40, 530; II, 395,
594.
Heredity, II, 393, 481, 502, 517ff.
Heretics, I, 52, 369; II, 69, 506. 520,
617.
Hermaphroditism, II, 546.
Hermes Trismegistus, II, 490.
Herodotus, I, 284, 324; II, 149, 444,
505, 585, 621.
Heroes, II, 237, 385-6, 552.
Herrings, I, 208.
Herschels (the), II, 522.
Hesiod, I, 330.
Hibernation, I, 137; II, 242, 477.
Hiccough, II, 257.
Hicetas, I, 419.
Hierarchy (of Concepts), II, 64.
Hieroglyphics, I, 97, 237-8, 241; II,
422, 446.
Hieronymus Torrensis, II, 619.
Hilaire, St., A., II, 310.
Himalaya, I, 388.
, II, 551.
Hinds, II, 516.
Hindus, I, 220, 323, 330, 371f., 383,
388, 389, 417, 486, 495, 498, II,
446, 467, 470, 529, 547, 561, 613.
Hippias, I, xxvii; II, 99.
Hippocrates, II, 233.
Hirt, A. L., I, 227.
History, I, 28, 63, 81, 182-3-4, 230-1,
244, 245f., 273, 286, 323f., 333,
345, 385; II, 77, 128, 182, 227, 358,
439ff., 478, 517, 519.
Hobbes, T., I, 17, 280, 303, 333, 342,
345, 349; II, 227, 233.
Holbach, P. H. D., Baron v., II, 12.
Holberg, L., Baron v., II, 175.
Holiness, I, 58, 91, 152, 232, 247,
267, 274, 288, 326, 367, 383, 388,
397, 407-8, 411, 514, II, 609, 627,
636.
Holy Ghost, I, 526; II, 525, 629.
Home, H., Lord Kames, I, 530; II, 91.
Homer, I, 85-6, 183, 228, 240, 243,
251, 306, 315; II, 178, 237, 242,
410, 436, 471, 478, 587, 592.
Homogeneity, I, 29, 64.
Honestum, II, 603.
Honour, I, 304; II, 431, 596.
Honours (and Awards), I, 510, 515.
Hooke, R., I, 21; II, 53.
Hope, I, 87, 239, 323, 379, 392, 411;
II, 141, 216-7, 219, 573.
Horace, Q. H. F., I, 90, 190, 246, 318,
519f.; II, 94, 155, 315, 323, 370,
410, 426, 431, 488, 519, 532, 545,
562, 645.
Horizon, I, 185, 203, 468; II, 143,
185, 280, 591.
Horror mortis, II, 240, 468, 498, 500,
569.
Horses, 11, 213, 221-2, 547.
Horticulture, II, 404.
Hottentots, II, 126.
House of Cards, II, 356.
Houses, I, 468; II, 333.
Houttuyn, I, 401.
Huber, F., II, 346.
Hueck, A., II, 38.
Hufeland, C. W. F., I, 401; II, 550.
Humanism, II, 585.
Humanity (Study of), II, 124.
Humboldt, A. V., I, 461; II, 354.
Humbug, I, xxi, 26, 123, 173, 338,
419; II, 84, 163.
Hume, D., I, 13f., 40, 68, 418, 510f.,
532; II, 10, 37f., 338, 506, 524,
58If., 591.
Humiliation, I, 305, 515; II, 208.
Humility, I, 234; II, 155, 426, 607,
630.
Humour, II, 100.
Hunchback, II, 227.
Hunger, I, 108; II, 353, 484, 575.
Hutcheson, F., II, 91.
Hybrids, I, 444, 474; II, 168, 536.
Hydra, I, 147.
Hydraulics, I, 116, 218, 252; II, 297.
Hydrophobia, II, 257. 265.
Hyperbola, I, 53, 61.
Hyperbole, II, 322.
Hypochondria, I, 101; II, 359.
Hypospadaeus, II, 546.
Hypothesis, I, 66, 77; II, 5, 53, 121,
184, 217, 219, 301-2, 315.
, II, 198.

I

Ice, I, 182.
I-Ching, I, 27, 144, 265.
Ichneumon Flies, I, 147; II, 539.
Ichthyosaurus, II, 288.
, II, 365, 512.
Idealism, I, 13, 95-6, 418, 424, 434-5,
444, 447, 50If.; II, 3f., 19, 23, 46,
52, Inf., 301, 320, 472, 486, 492-3.
Ideas (Platonic), I, 40, 129, 130,
132f., 142f., 145f., 150, 153, 155f.,
169f., 274f., 287, 297, 321, 328f.,
354, 359, 363, 366, 390. 399, 403,
405, 451, 477, 488, 492; II, 75, 77,
80f., 131, 141, 219, 291, 352,
363ff., 370f., 376, 379f., 404-5,
408f., 414, 422, 425, 427, 422-3,
448, 475, 479, 482f., 504, 510, 536,
628.
Identitas Indiscernibilium, II, 65, 582.
Identity, I, 50, 456f., 479; II, 103.
Identity (Philosophy of), I, 26.
Idol, I, 318; II, 69.
Idyll, I, 249, 320.
Iffland, A. W., II, 213, 437.
Ignoring (and secreting), I, xx, xxv,
xxvii; II, 163.
IIIgen, C. F., II, 70.
II1umination, I, 410.
Illusion, I, 24, 35, 71, 75, 77, 79, 88,
151, 199, 281-2, 284, 316, 330, 379,
397, 419, 434; II, 27.
Imagination, I, 39, 51, 186-7, 198,
202, 228, 240, 243, 261, 278, 281,
283, 295, 323, 377, 39~ 442~, 445,
449, 450, 492-3, 495; II, 23, 63,
67, 72, 92, 135, 207, 234, 283, 370,
376, 379, 407f., 424f., 449, 572,
583, 593f.
Imbecility, II, 143, 213, 242, 246.
Imitation, I, 33, 221-2, 235f., 263,
306; II, 86, 378, 391, 421.
Immanent, I, 65, 173, 272; II, 43,
159, 173, 181, 183, 286, 289, 382,
611, 640.
Immorality, I, 516; II, 215, 277.
Immortality, I, 282; II, 161, 270, 325,
463f., 477, 479, 482, 487f., 499,
506, 511, 549.
Impact, I, 97, 110, 122, 127; II, 54,
173, 214, 298, 302, 314, 316.
Impenetrability, I, 97, 122, 124-5,
130, 135, 141-2, 149, 164, 418; II,
47, 52, 174, 298, 302, 308, 314.
Improbable, II, 522.
Improvement (Moral), I, 301, 368;
II, 223, 597.
Incapacity, I, 306.
Inclination, II, 592-3.
Incumbencies, II, 159.
Independence, II, 154, 156.
Indestructibility, I, 276f.; II, 85, 199,
271, 463ff., 559.
India, I, 8, 91, 217, 232-3, 274-5, 330,
352, 355, 356-7, 383-4, 388f., 397,
408, 4Il, 419, 436, 486, 524; II, 69,
159, 403, 463, 475, 479, 488f., 505,
5Il, 531, 547, 605, 613f., 623.
Indignation, II, 213.
Individual (Individuality), I, 96, 99f.,
104, 113, 118, 128-9, 131-2-3, 150,
152, 153, 154f., 16If., 169, 174f.,
178f., 181, 183, 184, 186, 194-5,
197f., 204-5, 209f., 212, 214, 216,
219f., 224, 231, 234, 243, 246, 248,
257, 261, 275, 276f., 300, 305, 311,
324, 330, 332, 342, 352-3, 355, 359,
365f., 373-4, 376, 378, 385, 390,
392, 399f., 443-4, 503, 52a; II, 6,
18, 64, 131, 141, 145, 219, 283,
321, 325f., 351f., 364f., 371f., 377,
439f., 445f., 470, 473f., 482f.,
490f., 499f., 507, 510f., 517, 534f.,
549, 553, 557, 564, 584, 591, 600,
602, 609f., 637, 641.
Individuation (Principium Individuationis),
I, 112f., 127-8, 149, 169,
213, 253, 257, 275, 301, 328, 331-
2-3, 342, 352-3-4, 357-8, 363, 365-6,
370f., 394, 397-8, 403, 408; II,
274f., 482, 496, 501, 559, 569, 601,
606, 609.
Indra, II, 624.
Induction, I, 66-7, 77, 78, 290, 454.
Inertia (Force of), I, 66, 80, 148; II,
213, 297, 300, 314.
Inexplicable, I, 81, 108, 122, 124; II,
173, 174, 176, 194, 287, 301, 313f.,
342, 536.
Infants, 11, 211, 233·4, 241, 265, 503,
538, 543, 585.
Infinite, I, 273, 465, 484, 494f.; II, 9,
33, 39, 42, 82, 143, 319.
Influxus physicus, II, 326.
Infusoria, I, 310; II, 310f., 478.
Ingenia praecocia, II, 235.
Injury, I, 335, 337.
Innocence, I, 156, 253, 296; II, 61,
295, 394f., 566, 568, 637.
Inorganic, I, 20, 115, 117f., 124, 126,
132, 141, 142f., 148, 149, 150, 151,
153-4, 156, 157-8, 161, 169, 210,
212, 258, 275; II, 9, 296f., 313,
316, 322, 329, 334·5, 336, 339,
341, 447, 452, 474.
Inquisition, I, 361.
Insane (Insanity), I, 191-2-3; II,
399f.
Insects, I, 30, 147, 160, 310, 373; II,
146, 206, 221, 257, 321, 328, 337,
343f., 353, 473, 476f., 511, 539,
541, 556, 599.
Insight, I, 318, 516; II, 9, 64, 77f.,
108, 141, 218, 224f., 267, 610.
Inspiration, I, xxi, 188, 190, 235, 249,
260; II, 108, 207, 380, 408-9.
Instability, I, 519; II, 159.
Instantia in contrarium, II, 106.
Instinct, I, 23, 114, 116, 151, 161; II,
59, 257, 269, 342ff., 512, 515,
538f., 54lf., 556, 560, 564, 566.
Instruction, I, 294; II, 69, 213, 218,
234, 527.
Instrument, I, 292; II, 205, 214, 220,
225, 229f., 258, 280, 388, 398.
Intellect, I, 57, 173, 191, 204, 234,
290-1, 298, 310, 355, 385, 417, 421,
426, 433, 436f., 468, 513, 522, 532;
II, 4f., 9, 13, 15f., 37, 40, 45, 59f.,
71, 81, 88f., 120, 136, 137ff., 160f.,
176, 180, 182, 185, 196ff., 245f.,
258f., 269f., 272ff., 301, 305f.,
314f., 317, 323, 327f., 343, 346,
363f., 367f., 376-7, 380f., 390, 394,
399f., 420, 451, 475, 479f., 492,
495f., 502f., 517f., 52Of., 526f.,
536f., 544f., 550, 571, 594, 601,
609, 637, 640f., 644.
Intellectual Intuition, I, xxi, 26, 419,
484, 511, 521; II, 186, 192, 289,
611.
Intelligence, I, 512f.; II, 30, 75, 161,
202f., 222, 246, 269f., 280, 283,
291, 324, 392, 394f., 470, 515f.,
521, 581, 610.
Interest, I, 186, 196; II, 30, 137,
140f., 219, 222, 369, 374, 379,
400.
Interesting, I, 177, 314; II, 372.
Intestinal Worms, II, 178.
Intestines, II, 251-2, 255, 262, 510.
Intoxication, II, 213.
Intrigues, I, 22, 369; II, 148.
Intuition, I, 61, 63, 66f., 71, 73-4, 75,
151, 174, 247, 370, 383, 430f., 439,
441, 444f., 452f., 473, 483, 519,
527; II, 7, 20, 33, 46, 72, 76, 121,
131, 162, 275, 308, 322, 402, 427.
Iris, II, 337.
Iron, I, 118, 136, 146, 148, 472, 518;
II, 149, 168, 300.
Iron Pyrites, II, 194.
Irony, II, 89, 95, 99f., 583.
Irrational, I, 38, 190, 259, 303; II,
113.
Irresolution, I, 58, 152; II, 149, 219.
Irritability, I, 107; II, 243, 248f., 290,
392, 394, 470, 527.
Isabella (daughter of Philip II), I,
516
Isabella (daughter of Philip IV), II,
520.
Isaiah, II, 221.
Islam (see Mohammed).
Italians (and Italy), I, 232, 323; n,
333, 412, 418, 425, 430.
Ixion (Wheel of), I, 196.

J

Jachmann, R. B., II, 243.
Jacobi, F. H., I, xvi, 173; n, 7-8, 646.
Jagganath, I, 389.
Jaguars, n, 312.
Jains, II, 608.
Jatakas, II, 504.
Jealousy, I, 315; II, 552, 593.
Jean Paul (Richter)-see Richter.
Jehovah, I, 306; II, 623, 644-5.
Jerome, St., II, 419.
Jesus Christ, I, 91, 232, 329, 379, 381,
387, 405, 515; II, 419, 422, 553,
604, 608, 616, 620, 628, 645.
Jesus ben Sirach, II, 543.
Jews (and Judaism), I, 232, 254, 293,
387-8, 406, 484f.; II, 113, 168, 170,
373, 444, 488, 504f., 562, 580, 582,
604f., 616, 620, 622f., 643, 645.
Job, II, 586.
Johannes Secundus, II, 421.
John the Baptist, II, 419.
Johnson, S., I, 253; II, 228.
Jokes, II, 99f., 164, 513, 532.
Jones, Sir William, I, 4, 48, 388.
Joseph n, II, 523.
Journalists, II, 90, 126, 532.
Jubilation, II, 159, 204, 209, 215,
237, 262, 281, 351.
Judgement (Power of), I, 24, 63f.,
67, 88, 140, 189, 236, 298, 368,
432-3, 436, 440, 493, 529f., 531f.;
II, 64, 69f., 88f., 104, 109f., 121,
162, 164, 192, 217, 226, 302, 373,
466.
Judgement of Taste, I, 471, 531.
Judgements (Theory of), I, 44, 50,
65, 235, 292, 298, 430f., 441, 448f.,
452f., 463f., 478f., 489, 531; n, 34,
83, 103, 100f., 120.
Julian, I, 273; II, 152, 163.
Julien, S. A., II, 459.
Junghuhn, F. W., II, 354.
Jung-Stilling, J. H., II, 70.
Junius, H., II, 516.
Jupiter (Planet), II, 324.
Jurisprudence, I, 345, 528; II, 128,
594, 598.
Jus talionis, I, 348; II, 597-8.
Justice (and Injustice), I, 206, 253-4,
295, 331, 336, 345, 350, 353f.,
364f., 370f~ 373, 375f., 398, 406f.,
528, 568f., 578, 591, 593, 602f.,
606, 610, 639.
Justin Martyr, II, 506.

K

Kabbala, I, 144.
Kahgyur, II, 169.
Kaleidoscope, II, 478.
Kangaroos, II, 330.
Kanne, J. A., I, 384.
Kant, Immanuel, I, xiv, xv, xix, xxi,
xxiii, xxiv, xxvi, 3, 6, 8, II, 16f., 30,
32f., 38, 44, 48, 60, 64f., 67, 71,
77, 78, 84, 85, 86, 98, 106, 113,
119, 120, 121, 130, 134, 143,
148-9, 153, 155, 157, 170f., 200,
205, 271-2, 274, 289f., 336, 345,
347-8, 356, 366, 376, 409, 41511.;
II, 3, 7f., 19f., 29, 32, 33f., 40f.,
65, 82-3, 86, 91, 113, 139, 142, 144,
148, 163, 167, 173f., 177f., 191f.,
214, 240, 243, 251, 259, 272f., 276f.,
285f., 301, 303, 309, 313, 315, 323,
328, 335, 338f., 350, 393, 416, 427,
437, 443, 467, 475, 484, 489, 493f.,
505, 524f., 533, 582, 597, 64Of., 644.
Kantakana, I, 381.
, II, 159.
Kemble, C., I, 228.
Kepler, J., I, 66-7, 71, 105-6; n, 300.
Kerner, J., II, 255.
Key (to metaphysical knowledge), I.
100, 105, 109, 117, 126, 434; II,
173, 179, 181, 184, 196, 352, 642-
Kielmeyer, K. F., II, 128.
Kieser, D. G., II, 134, 344.
Kiesewetter, J. G. K. C., I, 443.
Kingdoms (and Farms), I, 247; n,
437.
Kings, I, 198; II, 282.
Kirby and Spence, II, 337, 345f.
Klaproth, H. J., I, 388.
Kleist, E. C. von., I, 240.
Klettenberg, S. K., Frl. von, I, 385.
Knebel, K. L. von, II, 214.
Knowledge, I, 20, 23, 28, 30, SO, 51,
53, 67, 69, 7If., 80, 88, 103f., 107,
109, 11If., 115, 117, 118, 12Of., 125,
128, 133f., 149f., 156, 169f., 174f.,
184, 186f., 195f., 203f., 216, 222,
233-4, 245, 250, 253, 266-7, 272,
274-5, 280, 285, 287f., 292f., 300-1,
307f., 314, 321, 327f., 337, 34lf.,
354, 364f., 373, 378, 380, 383, 386,
392, 394, 397, 400f., 415, 418,
426f., 437f., 450f., 458, 474f., 503,
508, 519, 523, 53Of.; II, 7, 8f., 19f.,
32f., 41, 62, 63f., 71f., 88, 104,
107f., 140f., 148, 183, 185f., 191,
194f., 201, 208, 219, 223f., 237,
243, 258f., 274f., 284f., 297, 322,
338, 346, 348, 352, 367f., 395, 466,
468, 493, 500, 512, 579, 581, 600,
608f., 638, 64lf.
Koppen, II, 503.
Koran, II, 162.
Kosack, C. R., I, 73.
Kotzebue, A. F. F. V., II, 213, 437.
Kraus, C. J., II, 543.
, II, 83.
Krishna, I, 284, 388; II, 473.
Kural, II, 613.

L

Labyrinth, II, 139, 177.
Lactantius, L. C. F., I, 487.
Ladder, II, 80.
Lalita Vistara, II, 400.
Lamarck, J-B. P. A. M. de, I, 142;
II, 128, 175.
Lamartine, A., II, 636.
Lambert, J. H., I, 42; II, 53, 116.
Lamps, I, 188; II, 223, 258, 499.
Lampyris, II, 336.
Landscape, I, 178, 197, 248; II, 374,
381, 403-4.
Landscape Gardening, I, 210, 218.
Language (see Speech).
Languor, I, 164, 260, 320; II, 456.
Laocoon, I, 226f.; II, 423.
Lao-tse, II, 459.
Laou-sang-urh, II, 429.
Laplace, P. S., Marquis de, I, 148; II,
52-3, 323-4.
Larks (Birds), II, 516.
La Rochefoucauld, F., Duc de, I, 333;
11, 210, 240, 531.
Latin, II, 37, 79, 122f., 238, 421, 428,
430.
Laughter, I, 59f., 376; II, 91f., 386,
438.
Lauk, Eva, II, 38.
Laune, II, 100.
Laurel, I, 239, 396.
Lavater, J. K., I, 241.
Lavoisier, A. L., I, 21.
Law, I, 333, 336, 342f., 359, 374,
523, 525, 526f.; II, 604.
Lazy, I, 187, 485, 498; II, 79, 213-4.
Lead (Metal), I, 527; II, 306.
Leaves, II, 477-8, 511.
Lee, Ann, II, 626.
Legislation, I, 344f., 528; II, 578.
Leibniz, G. W. v., I, 38, 50, 84, 173,
256, 264-5, 407, 418, 421, 474f.,
481, 509-10, 521; II, 65, 184, 338,
582f.
Leisure, II, 154, 164, 284, 390.
Lenocinium, II, 428.
Leonidas, I, 375.
Leopardi, G., II, 588.
Leroy, C. G., II, 62, 221.
Lesage, I, 122.
Lessing, G. E., I, 226-7, 425, 530;
II, 7, 437, 505, 579, 581.
Lethe, II, 401, 501.
Letter (Epistle), I, 248; II, 136, 373.
Letters, I, 182, 300; II, 124-5, 127,
184.
Leucippus, II, 14, 174, 315, 317.
Levers, I, 53, 122, 135; II, 54, 146.
Levity, II, 77, 229.
Lexicon, I, 477.
Liberum arbitrium indifferentiae, I,
290f., 402; II, 521, 604.
Lice, II, 310, 334.
Lichen, II, 296.
Lichtenberg, G. C., I, 499; II, 10, 30,
228, 284, 426, 506, 528, 531.
Liebig, J. v., II, 300.
Lies, I, 247-8, 337; II, 518.
Life, I, 16f., 37, 51, 81, 85, 87f., 125,
142, 146, 154, 161, 183, 185-6,
188, 195, 203, 220, 223, 230-1, 233,
235, 239, 241, 246, 248, 25lf., 255,
259, 261-7, 275f., 278-9, 281, 285,
289, 292f., 304, 308, 309f., 32lf.,
342, 362, 365f., 375, 377f., 387,
390, 396, 397f., 415, 518-9; II, 35,
77, 85, 150, 159, 161, 164, 174,
204, 224, 233, 239, 296f., 350,
352f., 360, 374, 381, 406f., 427,
433, 435f., 449f., 465f., 492, 498,
511, 528, 559f., 568f., 573ff., 606,
634f.
Light, I, 122-3, 153, 159, 160, 199,
200, 203, 210, 214, 216, 327, 366;
11, 24, 27f., 37, 47, 143, 199f., 277,
284, 301-2, 315, 332, 334, 375, 393,
403.
Lightning, I, 204; II, 10, 29, 139.
Limbs, II, 25, 29, 36, 250f., 284, 332,
345, 420.
Limerick Chronicle, II, 632.
Lind, P. E., II, 619.
Line, I, 342; II, 137.
Lingam, I, 276, 330; II, 511.
Linnaeus, K. V., II, 527.
Lions, II, 97, 280, 312, 483.
Lisbon, II, 583-4.
Litmus, I, 148.
Liver, II, 262, 345.
Livy, T., I, 386; II, 519.
Llamas, II, 312.
Locke, J., I, 38, 418, 447, 474, 476,
520-1; II, 10l., 19f., 40f., 82, 193,
272, 285, 302, 313, 582, 585, 645.
Logarithms, I, 54, 77.
Logic, I, 28, 42, 45f., 50, 62, 64, 68,
77-8, 121, 189, 409, 441f., 449,
452, 459, 477, 479f., 489; II, 89,
102f., 121f., 127, 181, 403.
, I, 37, 521.
, I, 37; II, 63.
Loher, F., II, 627.
London, I, 199, 206, 228.
Lotus, I, 436; II, 326.
Love, I, 183, 315, 373f., 386, 388,
392, 398, 408, 524, 526; II, 204,
217, 262, 401, 420, 422, 462, 492,
510, 531ff., 602.
Love Affairs, II, 237, 534f., 539f.,
553f., 559.
Love-letters, II, 373.
Lucrece Neutonien, I, 122.
Lucretius, C. T., I, 312, 318, 320; II,
337, 339, 426, 513.
Ludicrous, I, 59f., 264; II, 91f., 465.
Luggage, II, 64.
Lull, Raymond, I, 394; II, 17, 630.
Lungs, I, 159; II, 247, 254, 262, 333.
Lusus ingenii, II, 629.
Luther, M., I, 387, 405, 407, 524; II,
167, 580, 603, 607, 625, 627.
Lye (purifying), II, 639.
Lynx-eyed, II, 217.
Lyrics, I, 248-9; II, 409, 431-2, 531.

M

Macanthropos, II, 642.
Machiavelli, N., I, 516; II, 391.
Machine, I, 56, 135-6, 140, 164, 235,
442; II, 62, 66, 319f.
Madcaps, II, 393.
Madhouses, I, 104, 429; II, 402.
Madness, I, 24, 190f., 429; II, 70,
135, 213, 229, 238-9, 387, 38~
399ff., 470, 525, 549, 554, 593,
615.
Magendie, F., II, 253, 273.
Magic, I, 198, 487; II, 325f., 356, 602.
Magic Lantern, I, 153; II, 138.
Magnetic Needle, II, 148.
Magnetism, I, 110, 118, 122, 124-5,
130, 136, 143, 146, 148, 518, 534;
II, 179, 602.
Magnifying Mirror, I, 444.
Mahavakya, I, 220, 355.
Maine de Biran, F. P. G., II, 36-7, 44.
Major and Minor Keys, I, 261; II,
171, 418, 456.
Malebranche, Nicolas de, I, xxiii, 137,
138, 404, 407, 424.
Malum culpae, I, 355.
Malum poenae, I, 355.
Man (Mankind), I, 36f., 57, 80-1,
83, 85f., 89, 91, 105, 110, 113f.,
118, 125-6, 128-9, 130f., 138, 144,
146f., 151, 152f., 162, 177, 182-3,
189, 191, 194, 198, 203, 207, 210,
212, 220f., 224-5, 230-1, 236, 240,
244f., 259, 262, 265, 271-2, 275f.,
287f., 297f., 309f., 321, 326, 329f.,
357f., 372, 374f., 387, 389, 399,
404f., 415, 424, 475, 485, 489, 502,
510, 518, 520f., 527; II, 43, 59, 61,
68, 85, 116, 145, 148f., 160, 171,
174, 179, 199f., 276, 279f., 284,
295, 312, 318l., 335, 343l., 354,
357, 365, 404, 439, 441, 443-4,
448, 463f., 474f., 485, 494, 501,
512f., 540, 571-2, 577f., 580f., 594,
599, 603, 625, 628, 637, 642.
Man of the World, n, 74, 76, 214.
Mania sine delirio, II, 213, 402.
Manichaeans, II, 506.
Mannerisms, I, 235f.; II, 384.
Manu (Laws of), I, 336, 388; II,
637-8.
Manufactured Articles (of Nature), I,
187; II, 365, 426.
Manumission (of the Intellect), II,
380.
Manzoni, A., II, 155.
Marble, I, 98, 222, 227; II, 83, 452.
Marcionites, II, 506, 617, 621f.
Marcus Aurelius, II, 157, 163, 521.
Maria Theresa, II, 523.
Marksman, II, 391.
Marmot, I, 160.
Marriage, II, 231, 535, 538f., 544-5,
557-8, 594, 616f., 621.
Marsyas, I, 246.
Mary I of England, II, 520.
Masks, I, 363, 370; II, 195, 318, 535,
541, 554.
Mass (Music), II, 453.
Masses (of People), I, 511f.; IT, 69,
164, 166f., 214, 239, 283, 350, 357,
385, 591, 612, 629, 638.
Masterpiece, I, 399, 415; II, 322.
Materialism, I, 26f., 33, 123, 512f.;
II, 12f., 45, .162, 175, 177, 187, 272,
313f., 472f., 486.
Materiality, I, 445; II, 45.
Mathematics, I, 50, 54, 63f., 66, 69f.,
76f., 81, 85, 95-6, 121, 144, 189,
222, 247, 342, 346, 431, 449, 465,
469, 480; II, 34, 72, 85, 89, 106,
121, 130f., 143, 179f., 195, 328, 379.
Matter, I, 8, 10, 12, 27f., 34, 40, 67,
81, 96, 97, llO, 115, 120, 123, 130,
134f., 147f., 149, 161, 163-4,
213-14, 258, 277, 308, 399, 445,
458f., 471f., 484, 489f., 496; II, 3,
8, 12f., 40, 42, 44f., 47-51, 122,
131, 177, 193, 201, 247, 288, 296,
302ff., 471f., 479, 487, 512, 537,
550, 645.
Maupertuis, P. L. M. de, II, 52.
Maxims, I, 58, 60, 85, 86, 89, 106,
238, 272, 300, 305, 308, 388, 453,
516, 519, 526; II, 75.
Maximus Tyrius, IT, 86.
May (Month), II, 81.
Maya, I, 8, 17, 253, 274, 284, 330,
352, 365, 370, 373, 378f., 397, 399,
419, 420, 495; II, 321, 601.
Meal, I, 311.
Mecca, I, 295.
Mechanics, I, 56, 81, 97, 115, 122,
126, 135, 141-2, 462, 497, 534;
II, 54, 127, 145, 297f., 335, 341,
345.
Mechant, I. 361.
Meckel, J. F., I, 142.
Medicina mentis, 1, xxiv;
Medicine, I, 91, 318.
433, 582.
Meditation, II, 382.
Medulla oblongata, II, 29, 241, 243,
247, 257.
Megarics, I, 47f., 71, 467, 477.
Meister, J. C. F., I, 529.
Melancholy, I, 192, 319; II, 217, 359,
381, 383, 389, 395, 568.
Melissus, II, 46, 86, 480.
Melons, II, 337.
Memnon, II, 29.
Memory, I, 24, 63, 75, 192f., 285;
II, 31, 59f., 74f., 123, 133f., 139,
140f., 221-2, 234f., 271, 399f., 501.
Mendelssohn, M., I, 420.
Mendicants, I, 384; II, 155, 633.
Menenius Agrippa, I, 241.
Menstruation, II, 542.
Mentor, II, 150.
Mentum prominulum, II, 543-4.
Merchants, II, 381.
Merck, J. H., II, 228, 424.
Merit, 1, 234, 304, 329, 407, 417, 422,
424f., 434, 510, 524, 526f., 529;
11, 40, 183, 185, 226, 313, 396, 426,
522.
Meshian and Meshiane, II, 624.
Metals, II, 33, 114, 168, 304.
Metamorphosis, I, 155, 160, 277.
Metaphor, I, 240, 440, 442; II, 278,
326, 349, 377, 546, 551, 614.
Metaphysics, I, 140, 262, 264, 265,
400, 424, 426f., 437, 445, 459, 465,
470, 513; II, 7, 14, 41, 128, 159,
160ff., 237f., 288-9, 291, 299, 302,
313, 317, 339, 503, 507, 533, 558,
615.
Metempsychosis, I, 356, 365; II. 480,
502f., 600f., 628.
Meteorite, I, 324.
Method, II, 121-2.
Metre, II, 422, 427-8.
Metrodorus (of Chios) , I, 496.
Mexicans, II, 586.
Mice, II, 547.
Microcosm and Macrocosm, I, 162,
332; II, 281, 385, 443, 486, 591,
642.
Microscope, II, 389.
Midas, I, 189.
Midday, I, 280-1.
Middle Ages, I, 48, 488, 507; n, 124,
418, 428, 446, 562.
Migratory Birds, II, 61, 343.
Milan, II, 386.
Miltiades, II, 520.
Milton, J., II, 410.
Mimicry, II, 379.
Mimosa pudica, I, 116.
Mind, I, 129, 178-9, 185, 192-3, 197,
223, 225, 229, 234-5, 237-8, 245,
250, 252, 273-4, 281, 300, 302-3,
306, 311, 317-18, 376, 379, 394,
428, 446, 452, 463, 509; II, 20,
28f., 34, 78f., 89, 122, 13lf., 139,
144f., 159, 165, 227, 23lf., 283,
335, 369, 426, 456, 467, 511, 522,
645.
Mine, II, 316.
Mineralogy, I, 96; II, 122, 127.
Minerva (see Athene).
Ministers (Statesmen), I, 231; II, 283.
Miracles, I, 102, 251, 512; 11, 36, 164-
5-6, 203, 248f., 313, 482.
Mirror, I, 152, 165, 178, 186, 245,
249, 252, 266, 274-5, 278, 288, 300,
30~ 32~ 325, 331, 351, 36~ 36~
382, 385, 390, 410, 518; II, 140,
202, 206, 216, 226, 256, 277-8,
282, 311, 324, 367, 373-4, 380, 436,
498, 529, 584, 600.
Misers, I, 152; II, 222.
Misery, I, 323f., 35lf., 366, 373,
378-9, 380, 397, 400f., 516; II, 161,
164, 184, 359, 449, 492, 555, 568f.,
573, 575, 579f., 584f., 591, 622,
638.
Missionaries, II, 624.
Missouri, I, 147.
Mist, I, 317, 484; II, 407.
Mithra, I, 242.
Mnemonics, II, 133f.
Mob, I, 234-5; II, 146, 148, 268, 426.
Mock existence, II, 358.
Modality, I, 44, 463f., 471, 473, 479,
493; II, 110.
Models, II, 414.
Modesty, 1, 234; II, 426, 617.
Mohammed, 1, 295, 302, 346; II, 113,
425, 444, 505, 561, 605, 613, 623t,
643.
Moksha, II, 608.
Molecules, II, 302.
Moles, I, 304; II, 330, 353-4.
Molinos, M. de, II, 614.
Moloch, II, 69.
Monads, II, 582.
Monarchy, I, 343; II, 595.
Money, II, 638.
Money-lender, II, 236.
Monkeys, I, 23; II, 97, 280, 312f.,
396, 476.
Monogram, I, 450.
Monologue, II, 102.
Monstrum per defectum, II, 377.
Monstrum per excessum, II, 89, 377.
Mont Blanc, I, 25; II, 383.
Montaigne, M. E. de, I, 358; II, 126,
243, 569.
Montalembert, C. R., II, 615.
Montanists, II, 617.
Montbazon, Mme., II, 630.
Monuments, II, 445-6.
Mood, I, 146, 316; II, 63, 100, 138,
140, 207, 374, 389, 404, 456.
Moon, I, 24, 35, 216, 292; II, 9, 79,
215, 299f., 374-5, 614.
Moore, T., II, 555.
Morality, I, 45, 60, 84, 86, 90, 265,
271, 284, 293, 307, 333, 341f.,
358f., 367, 385f., 399, 408, 422,
424f., 494, 523f.; II, 85, 128, 150f.,
159, 162, 175, 187, 215, 230, 232f.,
384, 443, 461, 492, 500, 564, 589ff.,
615, 639, 643.
Moravian Community, I, 356; II, 30.
Morphology, I, 96-7, 141, 184.
Mortal (Man), I, 186; II, 503.
Mosaic, I, 57, 59; II, 335.
Moses, I, 231, 487.
Most, G. F., II, 265.
Mote in Sunbeam, I, 124; II, 319.
Mother, II, 70, 107, 160, 265, 351,
392-3, 410, 474, 490, 502, 514,
517f., 525f., 536f., 544f., 550, 554.
Motion, I, 67, 97, 122-3, 148, 150,
163, 223, 224-5, 419; II, 20, 54,
65, 133, 192, 298, 303, 316.
Motives (Motivation), I, 28, 37, 86,
100, 102, 103, 105f., 111, 113f.,
124f., 133, 138-9, 140, 150f., 158,
1631 183-4, 188-9, 196, 233, 247-8,
253, 261, 285, 287f., 290f., 294-5,
297f., 300f., 308, 327, 334, 337,
344, 368f., 379, 402f., 407, 463,
498, 505, 518, 520, 523f.; II, 38,
68, 108, 135f., 140, 142, 149, 161,
173, 176, 184, 204, 206f., 219, 223,
235, 248f., 278f., 285f., 298f.,
319f., 331, 342f., 354, 357f., 363,
369, 376, 386, 395, 402, 432, 449,
480, 508, 537, 592f., 598, 637, 644.
Mountaineers, I, 239.
Mountains, I, 206, 461; II, 296, 404.
Mouth, I, 57; II, 335, 381, 543.
Mozart, W. A., II, 17l, 395, 410,
452, 522.
Muller, J., II, 253.
Muller, Prof. F. Max, I, 432, 505.
Multiplying Glasses, II, 504.
Munchhausen, K. F. H., Baron V., I,
27; II, 97.
Mundus phaenomenon, II, 286.
Murder, I, 193, 335f., 344, 349, 369,
400, 516; II, 187, 536, 556, 598.
Murena caecilia, II, 330.
Mus typhlus, II, 330.
Musagetes, II, 463.
Musca vomitoria, II, 541.
Muscicapa tyrannus, II, 516.
Muscles, I, 108, 1I7; II, 27, 36f., 243,
248f., 290, 470, 511, 547.
Muses, I, 178, 246.
Music, I, 154, 184, 228, 256f., 321;
11, 28, 31, 122, 128, 315, 324, 388,
404f., 414, 425, 429, 432, 447ft
Mussels, I, 239; II, 379.
Mutilation, I, 335.
Mysteries, I, 387; II, 166f., 174, 195,
315, 418, 474, 483, 489, 493, 505,
605, 610, 629.
Mysticism (Mystic), I, 249, 386f.,
404; II, 176, 287, 610f.
Myths (Mythology), 1, 31, 275, 328-9,
355-6, 361, 383, 388, 394, 405,
411, 495; II, 431, 532, 572, 580,
604f., 614, 623, 628f.

N

Naive (Naivety), I, 156, 430, 443,
512-13: II, 62, 73, 395, 404.
Naked (Nakedness), I, 208, 229; II,
420.
Narrowness (of Mind), II, 214, 227,
341, 472, 475, 482.
Nasse, C. F., I, 401.
Nations, II, 357, 591.
Native Land, I, 375.
Natura naturans and Natura naturata,
II, 175, 322, 571.
Natural Forces, I, 80-1, 97, 108, 110,
Ill, 1I7, 1I8, 121, 123-4, 125,
130-1, 132f., 139f., 143, 146, 155,
161, 163, 169, 182, 204, 215, 221,
258, 287f., 297, 309, 399f., 410,
420, 511, 533-4; II, 14, 44f., 136,
149, 172-3, 174, 176-7, 249, 269,
293f., 306, 309, 313f., 317f., 323f.,
334, 336, 358, 402, 471, 473, 583.
Natural Laws, I, 66, 81, 97, 99, 108,
1I7, 1I8, 133, 141, 292, 402f., 441,
464f., 466, 493, 507; II, 172, 176,
293, 298, 324, 452.
Natural Science (see Physics).
Naturalism, II, 174, 176-7, 187, 288,
317, 473.
Nature, I, 75, 83, 88, 89, 98, 109, 114,
123, 127, 131, 133, 135, 139, 14lf.,
147, 149, 154f., 160, 161, 165, 181,
186, 193, 195, 197f., 201, 204-5,
210, 214, 218f., 235-6, 244, 248-9,
261-2, 276, 281-2, 286, 292, 309,
321, 328f., 372, 380, 400, 404f.,
426, 441, 464, 489, 507, 512f.,
532-3; II, 62, 118, 142, 145f., 160f.,
174f., 178, 183, 196, 215, 230, 269,
279f., 283, 287f., 293ff., 318, 322,
326f., 335, 342, 346, 351f., 356,
374, 403f., 44lf., 447, 450, 464,
472f., 479, 482, 485, 497, 540,
562-3, 566, 599f., 605.
Natus et denatus, II, 495.
Nautilus, I, 159.
Navigator, I, 85.
Nazarenes, II, 623.
Necessary (Necessity), I, 42, 73, 76-7,
97, 1I3f., 1I6f., 122, 126, 154, 155,
285f., 301, 306-7, 326, 395, 402-3,
408, 420, 460, 463, 466, 503; 11, 44,
170, 173, 319f., 488, 530, 585, 646.
Necrophorus VespiIlo, II, 346, 353.
Need, I, 312f., 320, 327.
Negroes, I, 1I6; II, 95, 105, 334, 505,
578.
Nemesis, I, 239, 373.
Nemesius, II, 505.
Neo-Platonists, II, 364, 614.
Neri, St. Philip, I, 385.
Nero, L. D., I, 364; II, 519f.
Nerves, I, 101, 116, 176, 310; II, 10,
20, 25, 36, 135, 138, 201, 205, 243,
249f., 255, 279, 284, 290, 392.
Neumann, K. G., II, 242.
New-Academicians, I, 71.
New Testament, I, 232, 326, 386f.,
405f.; II, 391, 488, 562, 580, 584,
608, 616, 620, 622, 624, 627, 632-3,
644.
New Zealand, II, 69.
Newton, Sir I., I, 21, 50, 123, 127,
143, 189; II, 53, 55, 89, 142-3, 315,
582-3.
Night, I, 280f., 366-7; II, 38, 185.
Nightingale, I, 469.
Nightmare, II, 469.
Nirvana, I, 356, 411; II, 504, 508-9,
560, 608f.
Nissen, G. N. v., II, 395.
Nitzsch, C. L., II, 478.
Noble, I, 37, 45, 240, 271, 324, 356,
358, 370, 372, 375, 378, 396-7, 422,
514-5-6, 527; II, 232f., 436-7, 466,
492, 528, 600, 626, 639.
Noise, II, 29f., 626.
Noluntas, II, 369.
Nominalism, I, 477; II, 64, 366.
, II, 604.
Non-existence, I, 324; II, 171, 199,
465f., 475, 489, 498, 576, 578.
Norma (Opera), II, 436.
North Pole, I, 110, 118.
Nothing, I, 27, 275, 279, 356, 366,
409f.; II, 172, 198, 288, 463f., 474,
476f., 485f., 497, 501, 506, 508,
580, 603, 608, 612, 640.
Noumenon, I, 71, 469, 474, 476-7.
Nourishment, I, 108, 277, 401, 454;
II, 69, 80, 136, 216, 242, 247, 280,
353f., 510, 543.
, I, 522; II, 16, 238, 269f., 579.
Novel (Work of Fiction), I, 187, 249,
25lf.; II, 238, 374, 576, 639.
Numbers, I, 54f., 75-6, 80, 121, 256,
262, 265-6; II, 35, 182.
Numenius, I, 487.
Nunc stans, I, 175, 279-80; II, 480-1,
489, 571.
Nurse, n, 208, 216, 247.
Nuts, I, 158, 183.

O

Oaks, I, 128, 147, 455; II, 105.
Object (and Subject), I, 5, 12, 13, 25,
31, 33, 36, 84, 95, 98-9, 100, 102f.,
107, 109f., 112, 119f., 128, 150,
162, 169, 171, 175f., 185f., 195,
205, 207, 279f., 363, 380, 410f.,
421, 434, 438-9, 442, 444, 447f.,
451, 483, 490, 492, 499, 503, 523,
530; II, Sf., 14, 18, 177, 197, 202,
316, 322, 367, 486. 641.
Objectivity (of the Will) , I, 100f.,
107f., 112, 126, 128f., 13lf., 140f.,
149, 15H., 157f., 169f., 242f., 275f.,
284, 286f., 312, 321, 325f., 335,
351-2, 366, 382, 385, 391, 399, 410,
507, 533; II, 160, 198, 20lf., 245ft.,
275f., 291ft., 308f., 324, 356, 364,
371, 383, 404, 411, 448, 468, 479f.,
499, 510, 514, 554, 570, 609.
Obligation, II, 209.
Oblivion, II, 239, 446.
Obry, II, 504, 508.
Obscenity, I, 61; II, 99, 570.
Obscurantism, II, 338, 525, 585.
Obstinacy, II, 236.
Ocellus Lucanus, I, 498.
Odin, II, 624.
Odour, I, 200; II, 23, 27, 31.
Oken, L., II, 335.
Old Age, I, 315, 336, 356, 378; II,
213-4, 224, 232, 234f., 242, 359,
396, 427, 468f., 503, 574, 637.
Old Testament, I, 232, 326; II, 488,
562, 580, 620f., 644f.
Olympians, I, 27.
Olympiodorus, II, 364.
Olympus, I, 183; II, 624.
Om, II, 611.
Omens, II, 336.
Omnipotence (of the Will), I, 307;
II, j20, 326.
Omniscience, I, 428; II, 160, 591.
Ontology, I, 426, 446; II, 46, 285,
289.
, I, 170, 171.
Opera operata, I, 368-9, 407, 526.
Operari and Esse, I, 406; II, 172,
320f., 508, 530, 590, 603-4.
Operas, I, 261, 263; II, 410, 448f.
Opinion, I, 38, 325; II, 89, 99, 118,
141, 231, 464, 638.
Opium, II, 368.
Opposites, I, 207, 367.
Optics, II, 145.
Optimism, I, 254, 325-6, 389, 406;
II, 168, 170f., 184, 187, 442f., 570,
579f., 584f., 605, 615, 620f., 634,
643f.
Oracle, II, 268, 474.
Orangoutans, I, 23; II, 66, 312, 396f.
Orchestra, II, 129.
Orcus, I, 281.
Organic, I, 115, 117, 122, 136, 141,
143f., 148, 154, 157, 204, 210,
399; II, 296, 336, 447.
Organism, I, 108, 125, 142, 145-6,
148, 151, 154f., 157-8, 164, 169,
176, 235, 309, 454, 461, 469, 532-3;
II, 80, 200f., 212, 214, 216, 224,
240f., 244f., 269f., 296, 313, 32lf.,
327f., 345, 368f., 392, 468, 497,
499f., 514.
Organon, I, 28, 475.
Original Sin, I, 254, 329, 355, 405f.;
II, 506-7, 585, 604, 608.
Originality, I, xvi, 235; II, 73, 79.
Ormuzd, I, 199; II, 172, 623f.
Orpheus, II, 505, 561, 608, 621.
Orthography, II, 124.
Osiander, F. B., I, 116.
Osiris, II, 513.
Ossian, I, 183, 251.
Ossification, I, 145.
Ought (Sollen), I, 272, 374, 505,
522f.
Oupnekhat, I, 181, 206, 269, 283,
355, 388; II, 361, 457, 508, 607,
612f.
Overcomer (of the World), I, 91, 386.
Over-population, I, 350.
Ovid Naso, P., I, 307, 518; II, 88,
426, 642.
Owen, J., II, 421.
Owen, Sir R., I, 513; II, 33, 331, 333,
338.
Owls, I, 36, 239; II, 353.
Oxen, II, 304.
Oxford, I, 486.
Oysters, I, 208; II, 386.
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Re: The World As Will and Representation, by Arthur Schopenh

Postby admin » Sat Feb 03, 2018 1:32 am

Part 3 of 3

P

Padlocks, II, 109.
Pain, I, 88-9, 90, 101, 107, 146, 200,
212, 221, 226, 228, 253, 261, 264.
267, 283, 299, 304f., 310, 312f.,
317f., 333, 352, 357, 363. 365, 372,
376f., 389, 390f.; II, 25f., 152, 170,
237, 243, 248, 271, 276, 294, 358f.,
451, 456, 55lf., 575. 580f., 635.
639.
Paine, T., I, 179.
Painlessness, II, 15Of., 158, 357, 575.
Painting, I, 57, 59, 79, 184, 208,
212-13, 218f., 226, 229f., 244, 252;
II, 25, 75, 292, 371, 378-9, 382,
385, 388, 406, 408, 410.419, 421f.,
453.
Palaces, I, 217.
Palaeotherium, II, 288.
Palin genesis, II, 502f.
Palm, I, 239, 415.
Panacea, I, 262; II, 638.
Pander, C. H., II, 128.
Panegyric, II, 102.
Pangs of Conscience, I, 365-6-7. 373;
II, 224, 487.
, II, 620, 623f., 644.
Pantheism, I, xx; II, 159, 170, 349,
357, 590f., 643f.
Pantheon (Rome), II, 418.
Paper, II, 39.
Paper Money, II, 8, 76.
Papuans, II, 505.
Parable, I, 240.
Parabola, I, 53.
Paracelsus, T., II, 487, 550.
Paradise, I, 198, 264, 295, 325; II,
394, 466, 573.
Paradox, I, xvii, 170, 374-5, 498; II,
5, 45, 52, 91, 146, 293, 308, 311,
342, 462, 471, 480, 562, 567, 615.
Parallelism (of Knowledge). II, 46,
447.
Parallelogram (of Forces), II. 47.
Parallels, II, 130.
Paralogisms, I, 71, 488; II, 286.
Paralysis, II, 38, 250, 402.
Paraphrase (of the Body), I, 327; II,
569, 634.
Parasite, I, 235; II. 201, 216. 244,
246, 288. 392.
Parcae, I, 329.
Parents, I, 328, 400; n, 107, 481, 510,
514f., 526, 536f., 550, 557-8, 563,
599.
Pariah, I, 356.
Paris, Apple of, I, 239.
Parmenides, I, 71, 109, 330; n, 32,
480.
Parnassus, n, 75.
Parody, n, 95.
Paroxysm, II, 229.
Parricide, II, 43, 521.
Parrot-faces, II, 548.
Parsimony (Law of), II, 279f., 283,
485.
Parsons, I, 486; n, 338, 506, 625,
627.
Partes orationis, I, 477.
Particles, I, 477; II, 104, 126.
Particular, I, 62f., 68, 78, 88, 129,
177f., 180, 184f., 209, 230, 231f.,
262, 283, 343, 379, 390, 396, 433,
443, 455, 469, 485, 508; II, 64f.,
74, 76, 88, 105, 115, 121f., 141,
309, 343, 379, 389, 427, 439f., 449,
475, 599.
Pascal, B., I, 371; II, 615.
Passions, I, 38, 49, 107, 132, 183,
190, 197, 225, 250, 259, 296, 299,
321, 328, 385, 394, 398, 519; II,
118, 141, 203, 205f., 216, 224, 231,
235, 237f., 246, 261, 266, 276, 280,
368, 373, 394, 419, 437, 441, 448f.,
462, 469, 510, 518f., 532, 534,
536f., 546, 549f., 559, 592f., 638.
Past, I, 31, 36, 84, 192-3, 198, 278f.,
284, 311, 348, 364, 366-7, 453, 494;
II, 59f., 98, 149, 402, 441, 445, 467,
480, 571f., 638.
Pastime, I, 313, 323.
Patent of Nobility, II, 388.
Pathology, II, 127, 260.
Patois du pays, II, 475.
Patriotism, II, 519.
Paul (Saint), I, 294, 329; II, 603f.,
620.
Paws (of Man), II, 404.
Peace, I, 196, 202, 203f., 322, 390,
391f.; II, 28, 326, 357, 513.
Peace of Mind, I, 86, 89, 205, 212,
219, 250, 261, 303, 319, 335, 398,
411, 519; II, 233, 370.
Pearls (String of), II, 251, 432.
Peasants, II, 231.
Pedantry, I, 60f., 84; II, 77.
Pederasty, II, 541, 560f.
Peep-show, II, 576, 581.
Pelagianism, I, 406; II, 167-8, 605,
625.
Pendant, I, 431, 449, 514; 11, 34.
Pendulum, I, 312, 461; II, 470-1, 590.
Penelope, II, 129, 178.
Penitentiary System, 1, 313; II, 597.
Perception (intuitive), I, 11f., 24,
35, 38, 52f., 55, 57f., 62, 65, 67f.,
73f., 75f., 79, 84-5, 95, 99f., 107,
112, 119, 121, 151f., 165, 175, 178,
181-2, 185-6, 190, 192, 197f., 199,
200, 213, 216, 231, 237, 239, 242f.,
247, 250-1, 256, 263-4, 266, 296-7,
298-9, 417f., 434f., 450f., 474f.,
490, 508, 520, 530f.; II, 5, 11, 15,
19f., 26, 33, 37, 40f., 60, 64f., 71f.,
77, 88, 91, 98f., 120f., 130, 137,
141, 148, 179, 185f., 192f., 205, 221,
243, 247, 273f., 284, 295, 305,
308f., 317, 325, 354, 366f., 372,
374f., 406f., 445, 499, 611, 643f.
Perfection, I, 424-5; II, 129, 184.232.
321f., 443, 633.
Perfidy, I, 338.
Pericles, II, 527.
Perihelion (and Aphelion), II, 300.
Peripatetics, I, 89, 517, 524; II, 563,
603.
Perpetuum mobile, I, 462; II, 316,
319, 583.
Persephone (Proserpina), I, 241, 329.
Persians, I, 48; II, 101.
Personality (Person), I, 131, 185-6,
194, 195, 198, 221, 229, 248, 288.
353, 373, 379, 387, 407; II, 6,
222-3, 225, 238, 495, 504, 507.
Perspective, I, 252; II, 403.
Persuasion, I, 49.
Perversity, I, 70, 253, 324, 373; II,
69, 214.
Pessimism, I, 323f.; II, 170, 356, 620f.
Pestalozzi, J. R., II, 35.
Petitio principii, I, 27, 427, 465, 496,
498; II, 121, 180, 314, 317, 350.
Petit-Thouars, Admiral, II, 310.
Petrarch, F., I, xxvi, xxviii, 377, 396;
II, 126, 432, 551, 556-7, 576.
Petronius, G., I, 512.
Petulance, II, 393.
Pfeiffer. F., I. 381. 387; n. 612.
Phalaris, II, 150.
Phallus, I, 330; II, 513.
Phantasm, I, 7, 16, 187, 449; II, 63,
84, 193.
Phantasmagoria (of the World), I,
420.
Phantom, I, 104, 119, 123, 278, 405,
484; II, 148, 226.
Phenomenon, I, 8, 30, 32, 71, 81-2,
97-8, 106f., 11Of., 120f., 128f.,
133f., 140, 144, 146, 148, 153,
155, 157f., 170f., 180f., 189, 203,
213, 214, 22lf., 244-5, 253, 257f.,
261-2, 273-4, 286f., 300, 309f.,
326f., 35lf., 365f., 372, 379f.,
391, 394f., 417f., 434-5, 453, 473,
50lf., 513; II, 3f., 15f., 43, 160,
173f., 178, 182f., 191, 195f., 206,
247, 259, 270, 273, 276, 286, 288,
307f., 314, 320f., 331, 360, 364,
369, 403, 442f., 474f., 486, 494f.,
507, 570, 589, 592, 599f., 610,
64lf.
Pherecydes, I, 330.
Phidias, II, 420.
Philadelphia, I, 313.
Philadelphia (Juggler), I, 499.
Philanthropy, I, 371, 386f.; II, 602f.,
606f., 610, 639.
Philip IV of France, II, 520.
Philistines, I, 52, 515; II, 124, 396,
444, 590.
Philolaus, I, 419; the legislator, II,
561.
Philosophasters, I, 511, 521; II, 68,
84.
Philosophers, I, 90, 99, 173, 240, 289,
359, 369, 383, 386, 420, 426, 504,
519f.; II, 12, 41, 69, 83, 122, 129,
166, 192, 198f., 206, 210, 218, 237,
283, 313, 350, 382, 462, 495, 522,
532, 611.
Philosophers' Stone, I, 527.
Philosophy, I, 37, 45f., 81-2, 95, 104,
111, 125-6, 140-1, 205, 264, 271,
273f., 323, 347, 357, 361, 368,
383-4, 399, 403, 408, 410, 416,
419f., 422f., 436, 453, 486, 494,
503-4, 510, 515, 522, 532-3; II, 3f.,
39f., 74, 82-3, 122, 128, 147, 163,
166f., 170f., 182f., 192, 313, 316f.,
320, 325, 360, 371, 376, 378, 384,
388, 406f., 427, 439, 44lf., 463,
486, 492, 499, 579, 590f., 61lf.,
629, 642.
Philosophy of Religion, II, 168.
Phineus, II, 577.
Phlegmatic, II, 282, 393.
Phoronomy, I, 122; II, 46.
Phthiriasis, II, 310.
Physiatrics, II, 260.
Physics, I, 28, 50, 63, 72, 77-8, 80f.,
90, 95f., 97f., 121-2, 127, 131,
140f., 149, 222, 265, 424, 465, 470,
480; II, 14, 41, 78, 127, 172f., 179,
181f., 299, 303, 313f., 329, 339,
341, 473.
Physiognomy, I, 56, 131, 156, 225,
261, 446; II, 144, 421, 598-9.
Physiology, I, 29, 77, 96-7, 107-8,
141-2, 144, 164, 430; 11, 127, 250,
298, 314, 328, 334, 377.
Pico de Mirandola, II, 68.
Pictet, A., II, 505.
Picturesque, II, 370.
Pieta, I, 376.
Pietists, I, 384.
Pillars, I, 214; II, 411f.
Pindar, I, 17; II, 621.
Pinel, P., II, 402.
Pitt, W., II, 522.
Plagiarism, II, 52, 226.
Planets, I, 66-7, 105-6, 148, 154, 160,
258, 350; II, 52, 171, 177, 296, 301,
312, 323, 359, 390, 581, 583.
Plantigrade, II, 543.
Plants, I, 20, 23, 51, 62, 110, 115,
117, 128, 132, 137, 142-3, 146-7-8,
153, 154f., 159, 160, 182, 212,
218-19, 223-4, 258, 277, 309f., 461,
489; II, 110, 142, 174, 202, 205,
225, 278, 281, 284, 290, 293f., 321,
333, 337, 359, 404, 472, 474, 478,
637.
Platner, E., II, 91, 533, 582.
Plato, I, xv, xx, 7, 17, 32, 48, 63, 71,
78, 82, 86, 111, 129, 130, 134,
167, 170f., 176, 181, 185, 190-1,
211-12, 233, 241, 259, 271, 274,
286, 316, 343, 349, 356, 366, 372,
395, 409, 417, 419, 420, 423, 451,
477, 487-8, 490, 521, 524, 527; II,
13, 32, 39, 80f., 84, 86, 102, 121-2,
131, 141-2, 150, 159, 167, 171,
175, 216, 291, 294, 352, 364f.,
376, 379, 408, 414, 422, 427,
442-3-4, 465, 475, 483, 504-5, 510,
521, 527, 532, 536, 541, 555, 561,
565, 586, 608, 621, 628.
Plautus, I, 147.
Pleasure, I, 88, 101, 107, 196, 199,
200f., 206, 215f., 219f., 253, 256,
261, 267, 277, 295, 299, 304-5, 314,
316, 319, 333, 352, 363, 365, 373,
379, 388, 390, 395, 397-8-9, 519,
530; II, 148, 150, 152, 159, 271,
294, 354, 368f., 451, 497f., 513,
539, 557, 568, 574f., 634, 637f.
Plebeians, II, 146.
, II, 479.
Pliny, I, xii; II, 569, 587, 627.
Plot, II, 432.
Plotinus, II, 45, 308, 309, 484, 612.
Ploucquet, G., I, 42.
Plurality, I, 5, 112f., 120, 127f., 132,
134, 137, 150, 153, 155, 157, 169f.,
175, 180, 184, 233f., 257f., 288,
331, 339, 342, 345, 351, 374; II,
274f., 321f., 328, 365, 443, 610.
Plutarch, I, 87, 386, 487; II, 129,
151, 365, 480, 565, 585.
Poaching, II, 596.
Poetry, I, 184, 190, 210, 212, 216,
223, 228, 240-1, 242f., 263, 320f.,
385, 393; II, 73f., 122, 133, 147,
164, 292, 369f., 374, 376, 378f.,
384f., 406, 408f., 424ff., 444, 448f.,
453, 455, 524, 551, 555f~ 635.
Poets, I, 57, 191, 194, 243, 245f.,
249, 251-2, 254, 320, 324; II, 122,
218, 237, 283, 298, 370, 382, 407,
420, 522, 531f., 535, 537, 551, 561,
575.
Point, I, 342; II, 46, 52.
Poison, I, 90, 337, 344; II, 236.
Polar Regions, II, 335.
Polarity, I, 143, 275; II, IS, 202,
335.
Pole Star, I, xx, xxi, xxvi; II, 124, 167.
Polier, Mad. de, I, 384, 388, 495.
Politeness, I, 57.
Politics, I, 516, 525; II, 357.
Polygamy, II, 565.
Polynesia, II, 311.
Polyps, I, 235; II, 204, 290, 326, 485.
Pompeii, II, 513, 583.
Pons Varolii, II, 29.
Poor (Poverty), I, 306, 316, 327, 371,
381, 387, 389, 515; II, 607, 633.
[675 ]
Pope, A., I, 191; II, 79, 229, 584.
Pores, II, 302-3.
Port Royal, II, 615.
Portent, II, 145, 392.
Position, I, 8, 34, 121-2-3, 224-5.
Possible (Possibility), I, 183, 365-6,
463f.; II, 61, 69, 583.
Posterity, I, x, ·236, 423, 429; II, 53,
126, 385, 446, 522, 554.
Posthumous Fame, II, 386.
Pouchet, II, 311.
Poussin, N., I, 237.
Powder Magazine, II, 344.
Prabodha Chandro Daya, II, 17, 503.
Practice, I, 282; II, 282f., 289, 384.
Prairies, I, 204.
Praise, I, 234; II, 222, 229.
Prajna Paramita, I, 412; II, 275.
Praxiteles, II, 420.
Prayers, I, 323, 326; II, 609.
Precept, I, 272, 374, 386-7-8, 408,
515-6.
Precipitates, I, 243; II, 298.
Predestination, I, 293, 406.
Pregnancy, II, 334, 541.
Prejudice, I, 324, 442, 493; II, 70, 89,
122, 217, 234, 272, 338, 340.
Preoccupation (Right of), I, 337.
Presence of Mind, II, 215, 387.
Present, I, 7, 36, 85, 151, 186, 190,
192, 193, 278f., 284, 296, 298f.,
311, 359, 366, 379, 397, 404, 485,
494, 498, 518-9; II, 43, 59f., 98,
142f., 148f., 348, 441, 445, 477,
479f., 489f., 57lf., 638.
Presidency (of State), II, 595.
Pressure, I, 117, 122; II, 302.
Pride, II, 155, 222, 233, 425.
Priestley, J., I, 289, 497; II, 52, 303.
Priests, I, 37, 361, 375, 381, 423; II,
124, 162, 166, 187, 293, 338, 506,
622.
Primum mobile, I, xix; II, 214, 223,
237, 240, 255, 258, 358.
Principles, I, 432-3, 469, 480, 522;
II, 75f., 85, 183.
Printing, I, 277; II, 169, 328, 446.
Prisons, I, 197, 217, 325; II, 235,
597, 641.
Proclus, I, 71, 330; II, 41, 83-4, 86,
121, 364.
Procreation, I, 96, 141, 164, 276f.,
328f., 399, 405; II, 269, 336, 354,
484f., 496, 502, 507, 51lf., 517,
529, 540, 542f., 550, 563-4, 569f.
Procrustean Bed, I, 430, 470, 492.
Prodigies, II, 235.
Professors of Philosophy, I, xix, xxv,
xxvi, xxvii, 424, 429, 512, 514; II, 7,
34, 38, 43, 104, 123, 145, 163, 277,
284, 567, 582.
Progress, II, 184.
Promise, I, 340; II, 210.
Proofs, I, 64f., 68, 76, 78, 82f., 104,
494f., SI0f.; II, 33, 77, 106, 109,
121, 130, 218.
Propagation, I, 312, 327f.; II, 204,
280, 284, 310, 357, 485, 543,
546.
Proper Names, II, 104, 134, 246.
Propertius, S., II, 517.
Property (Possessions), I, 335f., 347,
370f., 381, 389, 396, 515, 529; II,
154, 575, 596, 598, 607, 626.
Prophets, II, 506.
Prose, II, 427f.
Protagoras, II, 99.
Protestantism, I, 254; II, 607, 615,
619, 625f., 639.
Proteus, I, 327.
Proteus anguinus, II, 330.
, I, 438; II, 198, 314,
585, 635.
Prototype, I, 76, 129, 171, 177, 212,
384; II, 202.
Proverbs, I, 145, 436; II, 164, 221,
227, 403, 557.
Prudence, I, 22, 188-9, 295, 353; II,
61, 150, 216, 230, 235, 381, 420,
436, 577.
Prudentia, I, 518.
Prussic Acid, I, 116.
, II, 238, 349, 502.
Psychology (Rational), I, 423, 471,
488; II, 128.
Ptolemy, C., I, 50; II, 265, 295.
Puberty, II, 212, 234, 395.
Pubes, II, 335.
Public, I, 246, 425; II, 41, 122, 126,
147.
Plickler-Muskau, Prince, II, 339.
Pufendorf, S., Baron v., I, 349.
Pun, I, 61; II, 93, 95.
Punctum pruriens, II, 172.
Punctum saliens, II, 371, 536, 571.
Punishment, I, 313, 344, 347f., 357f.,
369, 405, 523, 529; II, 150, 230,
492, 507, 528, 580, 597f., 607f.
Pupil (of Eye), I, 116; II, 24, 332.
Puppet-show, I, 453; II, 321, 357f.,
386.
Puranas, I, 8, 17, 388, 419, 495.
Purpose, I, 532-3; II, 61-2, 218, 322,
327, 344f., 349, 35If., 372, 377,
388, 416, 492, 535, 539f., 579,
634f., 637f., 639.
Pyramids, I, 153, 206, 430; II, 445-6,
462, 485.
Pyrrho of Elis, I, 71.
Pythagoras, I, 27, 66, 70, 72, 144,
265, 356, 419; II, 129, 295, 341,
365, 505, 608, 62If., 628.

Q

Quack Remedies, II, 643.
Quakers, II, 626.
Qualitas occulta, I, 72, 80, 122, 125,
127, 131, 140; 11, 14, 249, 314, 317,
334.
Quantity, I, 96, 121.
Quarterly Review, II, 596.
Question, II, 105.
Quid pro quo, I, 61.
Quiddities (of the Scholastics), I,
140; II, 295.
Quieter (of the Will), I, 233, 253,
267, 285, 308, 334, 379, 383, 391,
397, 400, 403f.
Quietism, I, 384; II, 613f.
Quintessence, I, 261; II, 81, 570.

R

Rabble, II, 146, 426.
Rabelais, F., II, 616.
Races (of Men), II, 312.
Racine, J-B., I, 189.
Rack (Torture), II, 150.
Radiata, I, 310.
Radius, J. W. M., II, 21, 24.
Rain, I, 461.
Rainbow, I, 185, 209, 278, 399; II,
479, 483.
Rameau, J. P., I, 45.
Rance, A. J. Ie B. de, I, 395; II, 615,
630.
Rape, II, 535-6, 540.
Raphael, I, 228, 232, 267, 411; II,
237, 394, 425, 522.
Rappists, II, 627.
Rapture, II, 380.
Rashness, II, 212, 215.
Raskolniki, II, 627.
Ratio (Reason), I, 37, 518; II, 165.
Rational, I, 38, 188, 233, 283, 288,
291; II, 115, 395.
Rational Knowledge (Wissen), I, 51f.,
55, 62f., 82, 102, 152, 190, 301;
II, 148, 150, 183, 192, 289, 440,
442.
Rationalism, I, 71, 254, 406; II, 167-8,
605, 625.
Razors, I, 56.
Reading, I, 39, 246; II, 23-4, 28f., 72,
78-9, 369.
Reagents, I, 251; II, 113, 1I6, 174,
209.
Realism, I, 13, 416, 418, 424, 477;
II, 3f., 46, 64, 104, 192f., 366,
442-3, 590.
Realitiit, I, 9.
Reality, I, 24, 104-5, 122, 195, 252,
263-4, 278, 295, 323, 365-6, 384,
391, 420, 443, 456, 463f., 467, 508,
519; II, 3f., 7f., 19, 99, 104, 148,
184f., 193, 269, 320, 351, 370, 407,
483, 487, 500, 507.
Reason (Grund), I, 14, 18, 32, 34,
37f., 75f., 120f., 128, 170, 286f.,
298, 328, 415, 459, 463f., 465, 468,
482f., 498; II, 42, 89, 103, 530, 641.
Reason (Vernunft), I, 6, 2If., 25,
34, 37f., 45, 50f., 57f., 60, 64, 79,
83f., 86, 90, 100, 102, Ill, 131,
151, 156, 178, 190, 192, 234-5, 259,
262, 271, 275, 283, 285, 291, 296f.,
301, 303, 315, 342l, 356, 368f~
372, 383f., 394, 409, 415, 420, 426,
430f., 452f., 480f., 484f., 508, 516,
518, 520, 531; II, 27, 59f., 63f., 75,
88, 98, 102f., 148ff., 168, 205, 233,
276, 328, 369, 402, 445, 463, 519,
572.
Rebirth, I, 356, 366, 368, 387, 403f.,
527; II, 502, 604, 608.
Reciprocal, I, 459f., 473.
Recollection, I, 192, 198; II, 59f., 66,
73, 133f., 140f., 222f., 369, 399,
490, 496, 502, 571.
Rectitude, I, 37.
Reflection, I, xxi, 35, 36, 40, 56f., 65,
85, 100, 1I0, 132, 151, 154, 226,
281, 296, 306, 376, 383, 424, 431,
434, 448, 451, 453-4, 468, 518; II,
5, 6If., 72, 77, 111, 115, 160, 164,
205, 213, 239, 251, 298, 321, 358,
406, 409, 465, 497, 515, 519, 571-2,
575, 593.
Refutation, II, 106.
Regression (infinite), I, 493, 499f.;
II, 42, 173, 176.
Regula falsi, II, 21.
Regulus, I. 375.
Reid, T., II, 20-1, 24, 36, 67.
Reil, J. C., I, 108, 122.
Reiz, I, 384.
Relation, I, 176-7, 184f., 193f., 206,
209, 244, 274, 430, 446, 456f., 471,
479, 486, 488, 493; II, 9, 19, 29,
120, 176, 185, 201, 247, 258, 277,
284f., 363f., 372, 376, 380f., 388.
Relief (high), I, 79, 238.
Religion, I, 37, 199, 289, 329, 355,
357, 361, 368, 399f., 422f., 484f.;
II, 161, 164, 166f., 186, 230, 463,
466, 499, 504, 564, 606, 610, 629.
Remorse, I, 35, 296f., 300, 304, 321,
335; II, 98, 212, 592f.
Remusat, J. P. A., I, 381.
Reni, G., 11, 423.
Renunciation, I, 255, 299, 301, 327,
334, 371, 379, 383, 386, 388, 391,
527; II, 150, 154f., 434, 577, 606f.,
615, 628, 630.
Representation, I, 3f., 8, 14, 18, 25,
28, 30, 34f., 51, 58, 65, 67, 82, 84,
95, 98f., 100l, 105-6, 107, 109f.,
1I2f., 1I9f., 123, 125, 128, 135,
140f., 150, 157, 162, 169, 174-5,
179f., 196, 199, 205-6, 213, 219,
237, 243, 257, 264, 266-7, 274-5,
279, 285, 287, 298, 330, 332, 342,
365f., 370, 391, 404, 4IOf., 426,
43If., 455f., 474, 500l, 520; II, 3f.,
l3f., 16f., 26, 63, 67, 91, 133, 139,
191, 193f., 245, 248, 252, 259,
269f., 285f., 305f., 327, 352, 360,
380, 383, 451, 486, 494, 496f., 507,
512, 514, 589, 600, 64If.
Reproduction (animal), I, 115; II,
392, 394, 470.
Reptiles, II, 242, 312, 355-6.
Republics, I, 343.
Resignation, I, 152, 233, 253, 267,
356, 367, 371, 379, 381, 387, 390f.;
II, 434, 437, 606f., 630.
Resolutions, I, 100, 291, 300, 302; II,
135, 138, 148f., 209f., 220, 247f.,
251.
Responsibility (moral), II, 184, 608.
Restitutio in integrum, II, 508.
Restoration (of all things), II, 489.
Resume (of Life), II, 637.
Retaliation, I, 348, 350, 358; II, 598.
Retina, I, 116, 123; II, 24f., 37, 276,
332, 375, 421, 491.
Reuchlin, H., II, 615.
Revelation, I, 38, 486, 509, 522; II,
164f., 622.
Revelation of John, I, 242.
Revenge, I, 348, 357f., 393, 516; II,
464, 593.
Revolutions, I, 395, 425; II, 187, 441.
Reward, I, 369, 408, 523f.; II, 230,
353, 357f., 386, 492, 499, 607.
Rhetoric, I, 49; II, 102, 118-19.
Rhine, II, 381.
Rhode, J. G., II, 623.
Rhythm, I, 243-4; II, 427-8, 452f.
Richter, J. P. F., I, 429; II, 29, 91,
100, 378, 380-1.
Riemer, F. W., II, 395.
Right, I, 336, 339f., 361, 364, 370,
516, 528; II, 594f.
Rigidity, I, 97, 118, 122, 126, 130,
135, 138, 149, 164, 210, 214f., 255,
308, 533; II, 297f., 414, 417.
Rishis, II, 162.
Ritter, H., II, 158.
Rivers, II, 402.
Robber, I, 340.
Robespierre, M. M. I., I, 364.
Rodents, I, 131; II, 128.
Rods, II, 110, 116.
Romanticism, II, 124, 431.
Rombergs (the), II, 525.
Rome, I, 206, 217, 218, 228, 232, 241,
276, 323, 486, 516; II, 67, 124,
149, 170, 387, 431, 446, 519, 561,
564, 624, 628.
Room, II, 144.
Roots, II, 203, 510.
Rope-ladders, II, 373.
Rosch, K., II, 253-4.
Roses, I, 239; II, 388.
Rosenkranz, J. C. F., I, 156, 432,
435, 501, 504-5, 524-5-6; II, 34, 40,
44, 52, 173, 533.
Rosini, G., II, 229.
Rossini, G. A., I, 262.
Rousseau, J.-J., I, 1, 191, 265, 517;
II, 155, 350, 523, 531, 533, 551,
584f.
Royalty, II, 595.
Ruins, I, 206, 216, 218; II, 454.
Rules, I, 432-3, 480, 485; II, 75f., 106,
122, 282, 330, 343, 406, 440, 449.
Ruminants, 1, 42; II, 33, 86, 105, 341.
Rumination, II, 137.
Russians, II, 456.
Rutilius Lupus, II, 102.
Ruysdael, J. van, I, 197.

S

Sabbath, I, 196.
Sabdapramans, II, 608.
Sack, II, 225.
Sacrifices, I, 323, 343, 376, 378f., 519;
II, 232, 350, 549, 552, 606, 625-6.
Sadi, II, 562, 612.
Sadness, I, 396; II, 208, 262, 281, 456.
Sailors, II, 231, 407.
Saint (see Holiness).
Salic Law, II, 524.
Saliva, II, 265.
Sallust, II, 86.
Sallust, C. G., 11, 628.
Salts, I, 534; II, 108, 377, 546.
Salvation, I, 152, 199, 233, 266, 271,
274, 326, 328, 330, 374, 382, 392-3,
397f., 399f., 405f.; II, 170, 357,
529, 567, 604f., 608, 610, 618, 623,
625, 628, 634ff., 643.
Samana Religions, II, 605.
Samsara, I, 412; II, 509, 608f., 623.
Sangermano, II, 503, 509.
Sannyasis, I, 326, 384, 389; II, 155,
614.
Sansculottism (Literary), II, 127.
Sanskrit, I, 220, 382, 387; II, 508-9,
624.
Sap, I, 115.
Saphir, M. G., II, 94.
Saracen, II, 416.
Sarcophagus, I, 276-7.
Satan, II, 570, 623-4.
Satisfaction, I, 164, 196, 207, 213,
221, 260, 283, 308-9, 312, 314,
318f., 327f., 360, 362f., 373, 375,
382, 392, 397, 403; II, 155, 233,
358, 406, 434, 451, 454f., 497, 510,
513f., 532, 537f., 549, 551, 557f.,
568, 573, 575, 620, 626.
Saturn, II, 422.
Saturn (Planet), II, 324.
Satyrs, I, 276.
Saurians, II, 330.
Savages, I, 56, 134, 343; II, 311, 328.
Saviour (see Jesus Christ).
Scaffold, I, 358, 393; II, 187, 373.
Scale (Balance), I, 352, 355, 460; II,
54-5, 149, 187.
Scale (Music), I, 128, 153, 258,
265-6; II, 281, 412, 452, 454.
Scaligers (the), II, 522.
Scalpel, II, 199.
Scepticism, I, 13f., 104, 423, 510; II,
4, 162, 168, 172, 181, 338.
Sceptics, I, 71, 95-6, 519; II, 168.
Schelling, F. W. J. von, I, xxi, 143,
144, 429, 437, 501; II, 7, 13, 65,
84, 316, 642.
Schiller, J. C. F. von, I, 61, 247,
253-4-5, 484, 526; II, 95-6, 130,
435, 524, 554.
Schlegel, A. W. v., II, 525.
Schlegel, C. W. F. v., II, 326, 525,
585.
Schleiermacher, F. E. D., I, 52; II, 84,
582.
SchlichtegroIl, A. H. F. v., II, 395.
Schlosser and Steinle, II, 614.
Schmidt, I. J., I, 412; II, 169, 275,
508, 624.
Schnurrer, F., II, 503.
Schoemann, G. F., I, 330.
Scholasticism and Scholastics, I, 27,
32f., 48, 63, 112f., 124, 130, 140,
143, 152, 205, 211, 263, 279, 280,
295, 384, 416, 422, 425, 429, 433,
456, 477, 486, 488, 507f., 514; II,
39f., 42, 64, 71, 178, 287, 293, 295,
310, 366, 431.
School, II, 235.
Schopenhauer's Philosophy, II, 88,
184-5, 191, 199, 267, 293, 296f.,
461, 495, 504, 530, 558, 567, 579f.,
589, 591, 600, 612, 615, 629, 640,
642f.
Schott, H. A., II, 624.
Schubert, F. W., II, 524, 582.
Schultz, C. H., II, 255.
Schulze, G. E., I, 436, 438, 459, 473;
II, 123.
Schwab, G., II, 524.
Science, I, 28, 37, 39, 45, 57, 62f.,
81, 123, 177, 184-5, 188, 196, 233,
235, 238, 240, 304, 453, 470, 530;
II, 3f., 77, 88-9, 120f., 143, 161,
165, 177, 226, 298, 380, 422, 427,
439f., 444.
Scientia and Sapientia, II, 129.
Scipios (the) II, 520.
Scopas, II, 420.
Scoresby, W., II, 515.
Scorn, II, 99, 148, 232.
Scott, Sir W., II, 214, 236, 524, 576,
586.
Scottish School, II, 7.
Scoundrels, II, 236, 527f.
Scribblers, II, 70, 124-5, 316, 584.
Sculpture, I, 184, 186, 208, 215, 219f.,
222, 225f., 239, 245, 383; II, 83,
378, 406f., 416, 419f., 453.
Sea, I, 160, 204, 232, 332, 352; II,
336, 58I.
Sea-elephants, II, 515.
Sea-otters, II, 515.
Sea-Water, II, 336.
Seal (of a Letter), II, 373.
Seals (Animals), I, 159; II, 515.
Secret, I, 125; II, 72, 139, 179, 210,
298, 318.
Secretion, I, liS, 145, 148; II, 216,
241, 254, 345, 469, 514.
Seeds, I, 136-7, 164, 276, 309, 400;
II, 351, 485, 550, 584.
Self-control, I, 372, 519; II, 335.
Self-denial, I, 288, 392; II, 367, 615,
625.
Self-mortification, I, 381-2; II, 607,
613, 615.
Self-preservation, I, 329, 399; II, 201,
298-9, 465, 568.
Selfishness, I, 183, 338, 376; II, 637,
639.
, I, 360.
Seneca, I, 9, 57, 190, 294, 299, 349,
527; II, i, 63, 150f., 157f., 237, 635.
Sensation, I, 19, 52, 171, 199, 436,
443f., 447, 451, 471, 474f., 502;
II, 11, 19f., 25, 26f., 37f., 65, 193,
275, 285, 294, 368, 375, 421, 435.
Senses, I, 71, 77, 79, 101, 151, 171,
173, 190, 199, 418f., 431, 436, 440,
443f., 523, 530; n, 6, 11, 19f., 26f.,
37, 63, 65f., 82, 133f., 178, 193,
201, 205, 236, 241, 247, 258, 27lf.,
275f., 347, 378f., 407-8, 451, 640.
Sensibility (pure), I, 11, 35, 36, 53,
176, 310, 430, 435, 444f., 449f.,
474, 480; n, 68, 193, 249f., 275f.,
290, 389, 392, 427-8, 452, 470, 499,
527, 640.
Sensible, II, 30, 212.
Sensualism (of the French), II, 12,
21.
Sentimentality, I, 396.
Sentry, II, 241.
Serenity, I, 373-4, 390, 411; n, 380,
456, 483.
Serfdom, I, 346.
Series, I, 465, 482-3, 485, 494-5, 497f.
Serious, I, 32, 264, 267, 327; II, 98f.,
160, 186-7, 233, 357f., 384f., 395,
404, 449, 463, 51H., 534-5, 548,
631.
Sermons, I, 368.
Sextus Empiricus, I, 48, 71, 265, 477,
510.
Sexual Impulse, I, 108, 132, 315,
328-9, 330, 334, 380, 386, 403; II,
99, 237, 351, 353, 374, 395, 420,
462, 485, 510f., 531ft., 568, 571,
602, 620, 626, 637.
Sexus potior and sequior, II, 517.
Shadow, I, 153, 257, 275, 279, 453-4,
482; II, 248, 403, 469, 473, 483,
498, 573, 605.
Shaftesbury, Lord, II, 584.
Shakers, II, 30, 626-7.
Shakespeare, W., I, 17, 193, 207, 223,
253-4-5, 267, 324, 395; II, 67, 78,
93, 100, 119, 126, 142, 168, 233,
235, 298, 409f., 426, 43Of., 436f.,
469, 519, 523, 531, 545, 551, 554f.,
587, 599, 632.
Shallowness, I, 385, 389.
Sham Fight, I, 493.
Shame, I, 328; II, 118, 569f.
Shankara, II, 508, 607.
Shaving, II, 256.
Sheep, I, 360; II, 78, 473, 555.
Shenstone, W., n, 94-5.
Ship, II, 344-5.
Shiva, I, 276, 331, 399; II, 511.
Shrieking, I, 228; II, 211, 234, 423.
Sibyls, n, 621.
Sick, I, 315, 397f.; II, 68, 239, 260,
359, 468f., 485.
Sideroxylon, I, 30, 272, 523; II, 17.
Sight (Sense of), I, 101, 199; II, 22f.,
26f., 275, 468.
Signatura rerum, I, 56, 220.
Silenus, I, 225.
Silliness, I, 24, 65; II, 78, 233f.
Silver (Gleam of), I, 393.
Similes I, 240; n, 73, 325-6, 378, 472.
Simonians, II, 506.
Simpletons, II, 356, 436.
Simplicius, I, 533.
Sin, I, 254, 328-9, 405f.; n, 506, 581,
583, 603f., 608, 628.
Sincerity, I, 248; II, 211, 219.
Sine, I, 54f., 458.
Singing, I, 56.
Skeletons, II, 128, 330, 543-4.
Skin, II, 10, 22, 38, 74, 274, 297, 547.
Skulls, n, 74, 203, 237, 273, 331, 333,
392.
Slaves (Slavery), I, 325, 335, 343,
485, 487, 518; II, 79, 212, 578.
Sleep, I, 146, 197, 240, 277-8, 311;
11, 4, 135, 138, 142, 206, 214, 239f.,
245, 247, 257, 261, 324f., 368, 445,
467f., 476f., 501, 586.
Slyness, I, 183; II, 146.
Smile, II, 92, 100.
Smith, I, 142; II, 225.
Smoke, II, 369.
Snails, I, 114; II, 246, 473.
Snares, II, 152.
Sneezing, II, 256-7.
Snowflakes, II, 328.
Soap-bubbles, I, 311; II, 535.
Sociability, I, 313.
Socialists, II, 464.
Society, II, 94.
Socrates, I, 162, 223, 265, 375, 494;
11, 99, 163, 186, 270, 344, 419, 463,
465, 545, 561, 586, 590-1.
Solar System, I, 149.
Solid, II, 52.
Solitude, I, 198, 203-4, 267, 313, 388.
Sommering, S. T., II, 284.
Somnambulism, I, 151, 260; II, 134,
244, 255, 324, 326, 344, 601.
Sonatas, II, 453.
Sonnets, II, 430.
Sophistry, I, xx, xxiv, 49f., 68, 71, 87,
104, 123, 284, 361, 399, 406, 430,
436, 472, 487, 489, 492f., II, 12,
86f., 119, 226, 286, 303, 583, 590.
Sophists, I, xx, xxiv, 47, 71; II, 99,
163.
Sophocles, I, 17, 193, 228, 254; II,
434, 560, 586.
'I, II, 594.
Sorrow, I, 164, 250, 261-2, 319, 322,
393, 395, 398, 411; II, 152, 167,
204, 281, 371, 373, 375, 451, 569,
635.
Soul, I, 127, 292, 361, 416, 431, 471,
486, 488f., 508f.; II, 34f., 174, 198,
206, 214, 240f., 262, 266, 270, 273,
276f., 295, 349, 378, 467, 470, 521,
582, 608.
Sounding Board, II, 199, 202, 212.
Sounding Lead, II, 407.
Sounds, I, 199; II, 23, 26f., 37, 63,
109, 302.
Southey, R., II, 214.
Sovereignty (of the Brain), 11, 257.
Space, I, 7, 8f., 34, 40, 54, 63, 66-7,
71f., 73f., 81, 84, 96, 98, 104, 112f.,
119f., 127f., 129, 131, 132, 134f.,
144, 149, 150, 155, 157, 161, 169f.,
177, 184, 189, 205, 209, 223, 266,
276, 280, 289, 297, 311, 321f., 331,
352, 365f., 399, 410f., 418, 420,
425, 430, 435f., 444f., 463, 465,
471f., 490, 492, 495, 502, 533; II,
3f., 7f., 15, 17, 19f., 27f., 32f., 42,
45, 47-51, 87, 131, 170, 173, 177,
180, 193f., 247, 271f., 285f., 30lf.,
314f., 322, 325, 328, 364, 414, 453,
482, 494, 496, 504, 550, 569, 600.
Space-occupation, I, II, 122, 495; D,
6-7, 47, 87, 271, 305-6, 308.
Spallanzani, L., D, 246.
Spanish (and Spain), 1, 323, 358, 361;
II, 212, 227, 416, 557.
Spanish Boots, II, 430.
Spark, D, 108, 117.
Sparrows, II, 226.
Spasms, II, 252, 257.
Species, I, 68, 81, Ill, 131-2, 144,
ISO, 152, 154, 155f., 158, 159f.,
169, 179, 195, 197, 219, 220, 224-5,
258, 276, 300, 303, 328, 330, 351,
399; II, 283, 291, 312, 330, 334-5,
351f., 364f., 369, 372, 427, 440,
442, 463, 476, 479, 48lf .• 490, 496,
501, 51Off., 517, 534, S36f., 548f.,
602.
Species rerum, II, 364.
Specification (Law of), I, 64.
Speech (Language), I, 37, 39, 40f.,
62, 433, 455, 477-8, 480, 485, 520,
522; II, 64f., 98, 122, 126, 134,
144, 169, 233, 445, 448.
Spelling, II, 24.
Sperm, II, 511, 514, 563, 565.
Sphere, I, 278, 498; II, 54, 196, 325.
Spiders, I, 114, 160; II, 342f.
Spinal Cord, II, 201, 243, 246, 249f.,
284, 290, 333, 344, 392.
Spinner, II, 470.
Spinoza, B. de, I, 7, 26, 76, 82, 84,
87, 126, 179, 284, 292, 298, 367,
376, 384-5, 422, 426, 476, 503;
II, 7, 13, 16, 68, 87, 17Of., 184,
337, 339, 340, 350, 357, 487, 495,
533, 577, 590, 594, 642f., 645.
Spiral, I, 53.
Spirit, II, 65.
Spirit World, I, 261, 323; II, 148.
Spiritualism, II, 13f., 187.
Spleen, II, 329, 359.
Sprengel, C. C., II, 337.
Spring (elastic), II, 342.
Spring-tide (of Intellect), II, 373.
Spur (of the Will), II, 220f., 384.
Spying (and Prying), I, 188.
Square, II, 33.
Squirrels, I, 274, 420; II, 355-6.
Stag-beetles, I, 114, 161.
Stahl, G. E., I, 50; II, 265.
Stake (the) I, 362, 375, 422; II, 165,
350.
Stalactites, I, 142.
Stanislaus Leszczynski, II, 426.
Stars, I, 149, 205-6; II, 9, 35, 140,
477, 581, 601, 614.
Starvation, I, 339, 401; II, 354.
State (the), I, 37, 337, 341, 343f.,
350, 357, 359, 369f., 526, 529; D,
8, 442, 578, 594f.
Statesmen, II, 220, 283, 522.
Statics, II, 54.
Statues, I, 237; II, 406, 424.
Steam-engines, II, 443.
Steelyard, D, 55.
Stern, S., I, 480.
Stewart, D., II, 53, 67.
Stimulus, I, 23, 100, 108, 115f., 138,
149, 233, 330; n, 249f., 285, 290,
319, 344.
Stobaeus, J., I, 86, 88, 89, 223, 293,
351, 496, 517; II, 45, 129, 151, 153,
238, 437, 480, 490, 521, 561, 563.
Stoic (Stoicism), I, 86f., 90, 226, 294,
315, 318, 467, 519, 524; II, 148f.,
154f., 208, 434, 561, 577, 603.
Stomach, II, 65, 174, 199, 214, 241,
246, 251f., 259, 262, 326, 392.
Stones, I, 80, 97, 105, 110, 125-6,
128, 131, 138, 140, 203, 206, 214f.,
404, 489, 503-4; II, 43, 107-8, 116,
174, 299, 303, 453.
Storks, II, 516.
Storm, I, 185.
Strauss, D. F., II, 616, 632-3.
Strength, I, 305f., 338.
String, II, 199, 202.
Striving, I, 308f., 321, 379, 394, 397;
II, 295, 606.
Students, I, 52; II, 145, 396, 464.
Study, II, 78f., 108.
Stupidity, I, 22, 24, 57, 183, 429,
436; II, 146, 204, 207, 213, 221,
227f., 284, 528, 598, 616.
Sturmin, B., I, 384.
Stuttering, II, 257.
Style, I, 229, 428, 446; II, 73, 123f.,
141, 144.
Suarez, F., I, 63, 113, 124, 152, 422,
488.
Subject, I, 3, 13, 25, 31, 33, 36, 42,
82, 95, 98-9, 100, 102, 103f., 109,
112, 119f., 123, 128, 141, 150, 162,
169, 175, 178, 180, 184, 194f.,
205f., 216, 234, 248f., 275, 278f.,
286, 291, 317, 332, 380, 410f.,
420f., 434-5, 442f., 483, 490, 492,
499, 501, 523, 530; II, 4f., 13, 15,
18f., 33, 35, 177, 194f., 278, 313f.,
322, 367ff., 468, 486, 500, 641.
Sublime, I, 91, 194-5, 199, 200f., 249,
359, 392, 532; II, 100-1, 374-5, 394,
404, 433, 555, 626.
Substance (see Matter).
Substantia, I, 76; II, 71, 644.
Succession, I, 8, 34, 120, 441, 46Of.,
473; II, 35, 38f., 185.
Suetonius, C. S. T., II, 519f.
Suffering, I, 87f., 90-1, 103, 154, 164,
191, 193, 196, 199, 216, 240, 253,
255, 260, 267, 283, 295, 298f.,
305f., 318f., 322f., 329, 331f.,
342f., 351f., 363f., 370, 372, 375,
379, 382, 390, 392f., 411, 526; II,
60-1, 150, 158, 161, 239, 354, 368,
371, 380, 435, 437, 451, 492, 501,
551, 560, 569, 573ff., 590f., 603,
605f., 623, 627f., 630, 632f., 635f.
Sufism, II, 605, 612.
Suicide, I, 85, 90-1, 116, 281, 299,
313, 316, 324-5, 366, 398-9, 400;
II, 240, 359, 401-2, 506, 521, 532,
549, 554, 556.
Suidas, I, 487; II, 153.
Suitability, I, 154f., 157f., 513, 531,
533; II, .322, 324, 327f., 336, 338-9,
342, 416.
Sulphur, II, 577.
Sultan, II, 207.
Sulzer, J. G., I, 521.
Summer, II, 243, 282.
Summum bonum, I, 362.
Sun, I, 3, 35, 64, 110, 118, 149, 154,
188, 203, 209, 216, 280-1, 284,
292, 412, 419; II, 9, 29, 70, 202,
215, 232, 236, 300, 323, 359, 375,
491, 601, 614.
Sunbeam, I, 185; 11, 89.
Sunday, I, 313.
Sunset, I, 197, 203, 280, 366; II,
375.
Superior, II, 63, 75, 77, 147, 215,
227, 228, 233, 268, 390.
Supersensuous, I, 273; II, 68.
Superstition, I, 37, 152, 322-3, 383,
385-6, 401; II, 339.
Surface, II, 177.
Surgeon, II, 373.
Suspension (Music), II, 455.
Suspicion, II, 219.
Swallows, II, 282, 482, 516.
Swift, J., I, 241; II, 214, 586.
Swindlers, II, 125.
Sybarites, II, 30.
Syllogisms, I, 44, 46f., 63, 65f., 68,
71, 78, 91, 111, 430f., 463, 469,
486, 492, 508; II, 83, 102-3, 107f.,
120.
Symbolism, I, 239, 242.
Symmetry, I, 215f., 43Of., 448, 450,
456, 459, 465, 469f., 479, 485f.,
488, 492f., 508, 514, 528, 531; II,
413f., 453f.
Sympathy (see Compassion).
Symphony, I, 262; II, 450, 453.
Synthesis, I, 73, 235.

T

Tables, I, 211.
Tabula rasa, II, 135.
Tail-wagging, II, 98.
Talents, II, 221, 376, 378f., 386, 390f.,
522.
Talmud, II, 506.
Tangent, I, 65, 279; II, 92, 325.
Tantalus, I, 196.
Tapirs, II, 312.
Tares (and Wheat), II, 147.
Target, II, 391.
Taste, I, 200, 246; II, 23, 27.
Tat tvam asi, I, 220, 355, 374; II,
600.
Tauler, J., I, 387, 389; II, 614.
Taylor, J., II, 503.
Teaching and Learning, II, 32.
Technology, II, 127.
Teeth, I, 108; II, 543.
Teething, II, 347.
Telegraphs, I, 39; II, 443.
Teleology, I, 24, 108, 156, 161, 265,
513, 532f.; II, 327ff., 581.
Telescope, II, 137, 140, 144-5.
, I, 362.
Temperament, I, 316; II, 206.
Temples, I, 217, 323; II, 162, 166,
388, 418, 610.
Temptation, I, 367, 371, 391-2.
Tencin, Claudine de, II, 523.
Tennemann, W. G., I, 52, 422.
Terence, II, 557.
Termini technici, II, 122-3-4.
Termites, II, 332, 342, 485.
Tersteegen, G., I, 384.
Tertullian, Q. S. F., I, 405; II, 167,
506, 618.
Tetanus, II, 257.
Teutomania, II, 123.
Thales, I, 26, 162.
Thamyris, II, 561.
Theatre, I, 228, 232, 429; II, 22, 79,
146, 406.
Theft, II, 53, 596.
Theism, I, 486-7, 510f.; II, 162, 17lf.,
339, 590f., 605, 612, 620.
Theodicy, II, 582.
Theognis, II, 586.
Theologia Germanica, I, 387.
Theology, I, xxvi, 293, 406f., 422f.,
509f., 524; 11, 83, 270, 285, 289,
337, 339, 340f., 612, 631, 644.
Theon (of Smyrna), II, 513.
Theophany, II, 349, 590f., 643.
Theorem, II, 121, 130.
Theory, I, 61, 84, 282; II, 282, 289,
384, 527.
, II, 83, 624, 643.
Therapeutics, II, 127.
Thermometer, I, 341; II, 108.
Theseus, II, 557.
Thilo, L., II, 391.
Thing-in-itself, I, 8, 19, 30f., 81, 1l0f.,
113, 119f., 123, 128, 134f., 142,
144, 153f., 155, 157f., 162f., 170-1,
174f., 245, 262, 274f., 286f., 301,
327f., 352-3, 357-8, 366, 370, 379,
399f., 417f., 434f., 474, 50lf., 513,
534; II, 3, 7, 10, 12f., 136, 173f.,
182f., 191ff., 206, 214, 245, 247,
259, 288, 294, 299, 302, 305, 307f.,
314, 316ff., 334f., 348, 364, 443,
472, 478, 484f., 489, 494f., 507,
530, 550, 559, 579, 589, 599f.,
610.
Thirst, I, 312, 327, 364, 389; II, 336,
575.
Thirty Years' War, II, 441.
Tholuck, F. A. D., II, 612.
Thomas Aquinas, II, 40.
Thoracic Duct, II, 251.
Thorough-bass, I, 45; II, 122, 128,
411.
Thorwaldsen, B., II, 421.
Thought, I, 46, 69, 79, 178, 192, 229,
231-2, 238, 240, 244, 272, 282,
285-6, 297f., 324, 326f., 409, 423,
428, 431, 438f., 452-3, 456f., 474f.,
518; II, 20f., 28f., 45, 60, 62, 66,
7lf., 79f., 98, 102f., 116, 12lf.,
135f., 164f., 174, 186, 192, 205f.,
224, 243, 270, 273, 276, 287, 291,
305, 369, 378-9, 385, 403, 610.
Thoughtfulness, I, 36, 151, 163, 188,
195, 219, 222, 253, 300; II, 59, 89,
133, 280, 381-2, 386.
Thracians, I, 487; II, 585.
Thread, I, 390, 502; II, 4: 222, 251,
299, 399, 432.
, II, 238.
Thyestes, I, 373.
Tiberius, II, 519.
Tiedemann, F., II, 246.
Tieftrunk, J. H., I, 444.
Tien, I, 486.
Tigers, II, 312'.
Time, I, 7, 8f., 31, 34, 40, 54, 67, 71,
75, 81, 84, 96, 98, 101, 112f., 119f.,
127f., 129, 131, 132, 134f., 144,
149, 150, 155, 157, 159, 161, 169f.,
176f., 184, 189, 205, 209, 223, 231,
238, 243, 266, 273-4, 275-6, 280f.,
296-7, 311, 32lf., 331, 350f., 362,
365f., 399, 410f., 418f., 435, 439,
444f., 463, 465, 468, 472f., 49Of.,
496, 502, 533; II, 3, 7f., 15, 17,
20f., 27f., 32f., 42, 45, 47-51, 66,
137, 139f., 170, 173, 177, 180, 193,
196f., 247, 271, 274f., 285f., 301,
303f., 313f., 322, 325f., 348, 364f.,
422, 427, 443, 446, 452f., 467, 477,
479f., 489, 493f., 504, 510, 512,
550, 569, 574f., 600, 641.
Times, The (Newspaper), I, 137, 389;
11, 238, 505, 627, 631-2.
Tischbein, J. H. W., I, 310; II, 101.
Titus, F. V., n, 521.
Toads, I, 137; II, 144, 330.
Tolerance, II, 186.
Top (spinning), II, 359.
Topographical Notes, I, 187.
Torches, II, 185, 232.
Tortoises, I, 239; II, 246, 354.
Torture, I, 325-6.
Touch (Sense of), I, 101, 200; II, 27.
Touchstone, II, 151, 476.
Tour de passe-passe, II, 474.
Tourtual, C. T., II, 21.
Towers, I, 453; II, 417, 426.
Town, I, 42; II, 370-1.
Toys, II, 316.
Tragedy, I, 213, 232, 249, 252-3-4,
322, 331, 358, 393; II, 240, 429,
433f., 465, 531, 554, 581, 585,
605, 630, 635.
Tragi-comedy, I, 322, 331, 358; II,
357-8.
Training, I, 37, 259; II, 60, 69, 207,
212f.
Traitors, II, 534, 560.
Transactions of the Asiatic London
Society, II, 488, 508.
Transcendent, I, 65, 273, 490, 492,
504, 513; II, 43, 159, 181, 183,
198f., 232, 286, 289, 302, 318f.,
332, 493, 515, 528, 534, 55lf., 554,
640.
Transcendental, I, 173, 290, 421,
437., 440f., 458, 501, 506f.; II, 8,
19, 23, 139, 181, 285, 290, 320,
492.
Transitoriness, II, 574.
Transparency, II, 302, 375.
Trappists, I, 395; II, 630.
Travelling, I, 49, 515; II, 371.
Treachery, I, 338; II, 195, 231, 235.
Trees, I, 132, 153, 178, 209, 221,
289, 430, 455; II, 9, 81, 165, 274,
311, 337, 388, 404, 414f., 477,
485, 510f., 570, 608.
Trembley, J., I, 147.
Treviranus, G. R., II, 246, 295.
Triangle, I, 54, 69-70, 72, 80, 289,
448, 469; II, 33f., 182, 440, 481,
487.
Tribunal (of the World), I, 352.
Trigonometry, I, 54; II, 62, 179.
Trimurti, I, 276, 399.
Trinity, II, 629.
Truth, I, xvii, xix, xx, xxi, xxvi, 24,
35f., 52, 64, 68f., 73, 76f., 78, 86,
102, 137, 141, 238, 241, 244, 245,
248, 251, 294, 355-6, 365, 374-5,
383, 405, 411, 419f., 424, 427, 430,
434, 436f., 459, 480, 494, 510, 512,
529f., 531, 533; II, 3f., 12, 72, 74,
99, 102, 104, 109, 128, 166, 168,
187, 196, 199, 216, 226, 267, 319,
429, 461, 472, 476, 482, 562, 60S,
628f.
Tumbler, II, 61.
Turks, I, 369; II, 113, 212.
Twins, II, 503, 526, 542.
Type (of Species), II, 330, 539f.,
545f.
Tyrants, I, 333.

U

Ugolino, I, 325.
Ulcer, II, 68.
Unbelief, I, 361, 395; II, 165.
Unction (extreme), II, 609.
Understanding (Verstand), I, 11. 13,
15, 19f., 24, 35f., 38, 52f., 55, 60,
64, 67, 77, 79, 101, 135, 151, .157,
173, 190, 192, 199, 229, 266, 282,
429f., 43lf., 434, 438f., 452, 454f.,
472, 475, 480, 490f., 499, 502, 516,
522, 531; II, 5f., 16, 19f., 27f.,
37, 43f., 59, 68, 75, 77, 143-4, 146,
164, 193, 208, 225, 230, 232, 236,
247, 27lf., 283, 295, 306f., 393,
530, 545.
Undulations, II, 315.
Ungewitter, F. H., II, 505.
Unhappiness, I, 197, 316, 363, 524;
II, 157f., 555, 557, 638.
Union (with God), I, 410.
Unitas post rem (and ante rem), I,
235.
Unite de Plan, I, 96, 143; II, 331.
Universal, I, 62f., 68, 78, 82, 88,
140-1, 177, 184, 231-2, 239, 243-4,
262f., 323f., 396, 405, 433, 439,
443, 455, 469, 485, 508; II, 64f.,
74, 88, 105, 115, 121f., 128, 141,
161, 309, 343, 372, 377, 379, 389,
427, 439f., 449, 475, 599f.
Universalia, I, 263; II, 66, 192, 276,
366.
Universalitas and Universitas, I, 485.
Universe, I, 129, 205-6, 308, 492,
499.
University Philosophy, I, 510, 512;
II, 163, 615.
Unrest, I, 364.
Unzelmann, K. W. F., II, 93.
Upanishads, I, xv, xvi, 181, 205, 355;
II, 162, 475, 609, 611.
Upham, E., I, 484; II, 488.
Utopia, I, 350; II, 527, 638.

V

Valentinians, II, 506, 617.
Valet, II, 385-6.
Vallisneria spiralis, I, 160.
Vanini, L., II, 293, 350.
Vanity, I, 325, 333, 379, 385, 392,
394, 396·7; II, 164, 219, 222, 233,
236, 435, 444, 573ft., 630, 635.
Vapour, I, 308; II, 27.
Vases, II, 388.
Vatican, I, 219.
Vaudeville, I, 263.
Vauvenargues, L. de C., Marquis de,
11, 76.
Vedanta, I, 4, 389; II, 508, 607.
Vedas, I, xv, 8, 17, 86, 181, 205, 283,
355-6, 374, 380, 388, 419, 495; II,
162, 457, 475, 505, 508, 608, 613,
639.
Velocity, II, 54f.
Venice, I, 219.
Ventriloquists, II, 433.
Verbosity, II, 124.
Veretillum, II, 326.
Veritates aeternae, I, 27, 32, 33,
420-1, 424, 426; II, 276, 641.
Vermin, II, 178.
Vertebrates, I, 310; II, 290, 330, 482.
Vespasian, T. F., II, 521.
Vibrations, II, 28f., 31, 302, 315,
450f., 48lf.
Vice, I, 520; II, 231, 518.
Vicq d'Azyr, I, 132.
Villeinage, I, 346.
Violence, I, 337-8, 340.
Virgil, I, 226-7, 236; II, 410, 561.
Virtue, I, 45, 58, 84, 86, 89, 90, 91,
152, 271f., 304, 354f., 358, 361-2,
367-8, 370, 374, 376, 378f., 397,
407, 411, 433, 514f., 517f.; II, 77,
150, 167, 230f., 492, 499, .518,
528, 600, 603, 606, 608, 610, 636,
639.
Virtuosos, I, 57.
Vis a tergo, II, 253, 300.
Vis naturae medicatrix, II, 214, 241,
260, 346, 485.
Vishnu, I, 276, 399, 495.
Visions, I, 192.
Vita propria, I, 221; II, 257, 345.
Vital Force, I, 123, 136, 142, 146;
II, 172, 214, 238, 260, 296, 311,
313f., 359, 392, 471, 473, 511, 526.
Vitruvius Pollio, M., II, 414.
Vivisection, I, 373; II, 268.
Voices, II, 212, 447-8.
Volscians, I, 516.
Voltaic Pile, II, 117, 213, 259, 316.
Voltaire, F. M. A. de., I, 253-4, 413,
533; II, 96, 214, 246, 339, 408, 576,
582f., 591.
Voluntas, II, 369.
Voluptuousness, I, 239, 249, 388, 399;
II, 224, 236, 497f., 507, 539f., 548,
557, 568, 622, 626.
Voluspa., II, 505.
Vomit, I, 116; II, 256·7.
Vortex (of Descartes), I, 122.
Voss, J. H., I. 250.
Vows, I, 516.
Vox humana, II, 448.
Vulgarity, I, 187; II, 73, 124, 380,
416.
Vyasa, I, 4.

W

Walking, I, 311.
Walls, II, 61, 411f.
Want (Privation), I, 87, 309, 312f.,
319, 328, 352, 363, 372, 375, 382,
389; II, 152, 155, 279, 349, 354,
357f~ 388, 416, 492, 56~ 573,
584, 607.
War, I, 333, 340, 350; II, 26, 187,
357, 513, 549, 556.
Wasps, I, 241; II, 347, 541, 566.
Watch-maker, II, 129.
Water, I, 118, 139, 148, 154, 159, 200,
204, 210, 217, 252, 304, 454, 534;
II, 27, 52, 135, 138, 216, 297, 304,
315, 336, 352, 404, 614.
Water-colours, II, 630.
Waterfall, I, 185, 217, 278; II, 213,
479, 483.
Wax Figures, II, 408.
Weakness, I, 305f., 338, 376, 417; II,
242, 280.
Weal and Woe, I, 376, 379; II, 202,
278, 382, 534-5, 549, 607.
Wealth, I, 295, 304, 316, 327.
Weeds, II, 186.
Weekday, I, 313.
Weeping, I, 299, 376-7; II, 464, 592.
Weight (see Gravity).
Well-being, I, 196, 260, 309, 316-17,
320, 345, 354, 362f., 365, 370, 372,
374f., 525f.; II, 204, 384, 575f.
Wenzel, J., I, 132.
Werft, A. van der, I, 57.
West, I, 361, 387, 420, 422.
Whales, II, 112-13, 331, 337, 515.
Wheel, I, 185; II, 150, 481.
Whewell, W., II, 131.
Whip, I, 313, 324; II, 359.
Whip-cracking, II, 30, 626.
White Lie, I, 341.
Whitethroats, II, 516.
Whole (and Parts), I, 493, 495-6, 501.
Why, I, 69f., 72, 75, 80f., 274, 483;
II, 530, 579, 641.
Wickedness, I, 86, 138, 253-4, 320,
324f., 333, 338, 348, 352f., 363f.,
372, 378, 382, 389, 393f., 516; II,
17lf., 237, 433, 578, 591, 598, 606,
610.
Wieland, C. M., I, 190; II, 214, 424.
Wildenow, II, 337.
Will, 1, 4, 18, 31, 37, 57f., 89, 100f.,
162, 169f., 181, 185f., 196f., 255,
257-8, 261, 263, 264f., 272f., 308f.,
32lf., 331f., 342, 35lf., 357f.,
362f., 372f., 385f., 39lf., 436, 451,
474, 501f., 534; II, 6, 14, 16, 18,
26f., 35f., 45, 135f., 156, 160f.,
173f., 196f., 201ff., 245ff., 269f.,
287, 290ff., 317ff., 327, 329, 33lf.,
335f., 345, 349ff., 363f., 394f., 400f.,
420, 433f., 443, 448f., 456f., 46lf.,
465f., 472, 476, 479f., 486, 494f.,
507, 510t., 523, 525f., 534f., 550,
554f., 559f., 568ff., 584f., 589f.,
594, 598f., 601, 603ff., 635, 637f.,
640f.
Wilson, H. H., I, 382.
Winckelmann, J. I., I, 224f., 239, 246,
530.
Windischmann, F. H. H., II, 508, 607.
Windows, I, 446, 456, 479; II, 241,
375, 411, 415.
Wine, I, 208, 387; II, 407.
Wings, II, 556. 606.
Winkelried, A. v., I, 375, 515.
Winking, II, 479.
Winter, II, 243.
Wirklichkeit, I, 9, 472; II, 47.
Wisdom, I, 123, 129, 233, 260, 296,
355, 357, 430, 434; II, 72, 74f., 84,
144, 160, 164, 178, 232, 372, 378,
386, 407, 598.
Wit, I, 59f., 183; II, 52, 72, 89, 92,
96, 133, 2H-2, 236, 378, 400, 513,
521, 524.
Wodan, II, 624.
Wolf, I, 404; II, 221, 473, 555.
Wolff, C. (1679-1754), 1, 50, 84, 418,
465, 481, 486, 490, 509; II, 184,
582.
Wolff, C. F. (1735-1794), II, 52f.,
254, 333.
Women, I, 206, 356, 484, 487; II, 75,
335, 392, 431, 522-3-4, 54lf., 544f.,
565.
Wood, I, 215; II, 488.
Wood-snails, II, 473.
Words, I, 40, 84, 234, 240, 259, 262,
264, 285, 300, 326, 368, 410, 431,
449, 477f., 518, 520; II, 23, 28, 40,
63f., 67, 69, 71, 73, 78, 118, 125f.,
134, 144f., 184f., 293, 369, 382,
408f., 424, 448f.
Wordsworth, W., II, 214.
Workshop, II, 205, 210, 249.
World, I, 3, 4, 13f., 30, 39, 64, 76,
82f., 88, 89, 90, 96, 98-9, 104, lOS,
112, 119, 123, 125, 129, 135, 138,
141, 144, 150, 152, 158, 161-2,
165, 169, 170f., 175, 180-1, 183,
188, 199, 205, 213, 221, 229f., 233,
235, 252f., 256f., 260, 262f., 271f.,
287f., 307f., 322, 325f., 350f., 367,
371, 379, 382-3, 390f., 407f., 415f.,
435f., 453, 467, 486, 490, 495f.,
499f., 506f., 518, 531; II, 3f., 14,
16f., 26f., 37f., 61, 73, 75, 80f., 139,
148f., 158, 161, 17lf., 181, 183f.,
187, 193, 198, 20lf., 245, 247, 256,
269, 272f., 286f., 294, 319f., 323f.,
349f., 354, 357, 360, 367, 394, 433f.,
447, 450, 475, 486, 498, 500, 507,
570, 577f., 58lf., 591, 610f., 634,
640, 642f.
World-egg, II, 571.
World-eye, I, 186, 198, 282; II, 371.
World-soul, II, 349.
World-spirit, I, 183; II, 324, 500-1.
World-theatre, II, 386.
Worldly Wisdom, II, 74, 76, 187.
Worth, I, 234, 241, 271, 367-8.
Wounds, I, 307, 365; II, 346, 469,
485.
Wreath (of Virginity), II, 617.
Writing, I, 277; II, 64, 72, 126, 445-6.
Wrong, I, 334f., 362, 370-1, 526, 528.
Wunderhorn, I, 249-50.

X

X (unknown), II, 318, 643
Xanthippe, II, 545.
Xenophanes, II, 46, 274.
Xenophon, I, 223; II, 561.
Xerxes, I, 284.

U

Yama, II, 470.
Yawning, II, 256-7.
Yin and Yang, I, 144.
Yoni, II, 511.
Youth, I, 251, 295, 324; II, 80, 145,
214, 235, 374, 395-6, 427, 478,
482, 542, 575.
Yucatan, II, 445.

Z

Zend Avesta, II, 580, 624.
Zend Religion, 11, 623.
Zeno (the Stoic), I, 89.
Zeus, II, 565, 624.
Zimmermann, J. G. R. von, I, 401.
Zoology, I, 63, 81, 96, 143; II, 127-8,
182, 329.
Zoophytes, I, 84; II, 290.
Zootomy, II, 127.
Zwar, II, 104.
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