The City of God: The Works of Aurelius Augustine

That's French for "the ancient system," as in the ancient system of feudal privileges and the exercise of autocratic power over the peasants. The ancien regime never goes away, like vampires and dinosaur bones they are always hidden in the earth, exercising a mysterious influence. It is not paranoia to believe that the elites scheme against the common man. Inform yourself about their schemes here.

Re: The City of God: The Works of Aurelius Augustine

Postby admin » Sat Mar 24, 2018 11:44 pm

Part 2 of 2

Jacob, and Esau, the things mysteriously prefigured by, ii. 153, etc.;
his mission to Mesopotamia, 155;
his dream, 156;
his wives, 157;
why called Israel, 157;
how said to have gone into Egypt with seventy-five souls, 158;
his blessing on Judah, 159;
his blessing the sons of Joseph, 161;
the times of, and of Joseph, 221, etc.
Janus, the temple of, i. 98;
the relation of, to births, 260, 261;
nothing infamous related of, 265;
is it reasonable to separate Terminus and? 268;
why two faces, and sometimes four, given to the image of? 269;
compared with Jupiter, 270;
why he has received no star, 278.
Japhet, ii. 105.
Jeroboam, ii. 214.
Jerome, his labours as a translator of Scripture, ii. 271;
his commentary on Daniel referred to, 394.
Jerusalem, the new, coming down from heaven, ii. 377, etc.
Jews, the, the kingdom of, founded by God, i. 175;
what Seneca thought of, 255, 256;
their unbelief, foretold in the Psalms, ii. 208;
end of the captivity of,—their prophets, 246, etc.;
the many adversities endured by, 274, etc.;
the dispersion of, predicted, 277-279;
whether, before Christ, there were any outside of, who belonged to the heavenly city, 279.
Joseph, the sons of, blessed by Jacob, ii. 161;
the times of, 221;
the elevation of, to be ruler of Egypt, 222;
who were kings at the period of the death of? 224.
Joshua, i. 163;
who were kings at the time of the death of? ii. 229;
the sun stayed in its course by, 429, 430;
the Jordan divided by, 430.
Jove, are the many gods of the pagans one and the same Jove? i. 148;
the enlargement of kingdoms improperly ascribed to, 152;
Mars, Terminus, and Juventus refuse to yield to, 162, 169.
See Jupiter.
Judah, Jacob's blessing on, ii. 159, etc.
Judgment, ever going on,—the last, ii. 345, 346;
ever present, although it cannot be discerned, 346;
proofs of the last, from the New Testament and the Old, 349, etc.;
words of Jesus respecting, 350, 373, 374, 375;
what Peter says of, 379;
predictions respecting, 389, 390, etc., 395, etc., 399, etc.;
separation of the good and bad in the, 403;
to be effected in the person of Christ, 406, etc.
Julian the apostate, i. 219;
a persecutor, ii. 287.
Juno, i. 147, 148, 260.
Jupiter, the power of, compared with Janus, i. 270, etc.;
is the distinction made between, and Janus, a proper one? 273;
the surnames of, 273;
called "Pecunia,"—why? 275;
scandalous amours of, ii. 232.
Justinus, the historian, quoted respecting Ninus' lust of empire, i. 141.
Juventus, i. 162, 169.

Keturah, what is meant by Abraham's marrying, after the death of Sarah? ii. 150.
"Killeth and maketh alive, the Lord," ii. 174.
Killing, when allowable, i. 32.
Kingdom, the, of Israel, under Saul, a shadow, ii. 184;
the description of, 186;
promises of God respecting, 189, etc., 193, etc.;
varying character of, till the captivity, and, finally, till the people passed under the power of the Romans, 214, 215.
Kingdom of Christ, the, ii. 363, 364.
Kingdoms, without justice, i. 139;
[Pg 565]have any been aided or deserted by the gods? 142;
the enlargement of, unsuitably attributed to Jove, 152;
the times of, ordained by the true God, 175;
not fortuitous, nor influenced by the stars, 177-179;
the three great, when Abraham was born, ii. 130, 131.
Kings, of Israel, the times of the, ii. 163;
after Solomon, 213;
after the judges, 239;
of the earthly city which synchronize with the times of the saints, reckoning from Abraham, ii. 218, etc.;
of Argos, ii. 223, 224;
of Latium, 240.
Knowledge, the eternal and unchangeable, of God, i. 439, etc.;
of our own existence, 469, etc., 471, etc.;
by which the holy angels know God, 473, etc.

Labeo, cited, i. 64. 127, 325, ii. 533.
Lactantius, quotations made by, from a certain Sibyl, ii. 243, 244.
Language, the origin of the diversity of, ii. 111, etc.;
the original, 121, etc.;
diversities of, how they operate to prevent human intercourse, 310, 311.
Larentina, the harlot, i. 244.
Latinius, Titus, the trick of, to secure the re-enactment of the games, i. 165.
Latium, the kings of, ii. 240.
Λατρεία and Δουλεία, i. 383, 386.
Laurentum, the kingdom of, ii. 233.
Laver of regeneration, the, ii. 441.
Law, the, confirmed by miraculous signs, i. 407, etc.;
of Moses, must be spiritually understood, to cut off the murmurs of carnal interpreters, ii. 403, 404.
Lethe, the river, i. 428.
Lex Voconia, the, i. 124.
Liber, the god, i. 230;
and Libera, 248, 260, 261, ii. 232.
Liberty, the, which is proper to man's nature, ii. 323, etc.
Life, the end of, whether it is material that it be long delayed, i. 18;
the vicissitudes of, not dependent on the favour of the gods, but on the will of the true God, 79.
Life, eternal, the gift of God, i. 257;
the promise of, uttered before the eternal times, 504.
Light, the, the division of, from the darkness,—the significance of this, i. 458;
pronounced "good,"—meaning of this, 459.
Lime, the peculiar properties of, ii. 418, 419.
Livy, quoted, i. 165.
Loadstone, the, ii. 420.
Locusts, a fearful invasion of Africa by, i. 134.
Lot, the parting of Abraham and, ii. 132;
the deliverance of, from captivity, by Abraham, 134.
Lot's wife, i. 293.
Love and regard used in Scripture indifferently of good and evil affections, ii. 10.
Lucan's Pharsalia, quoted, i. 20, 103, 129.
Lucillus, bishop of Sinita, cured of a fistula by the relics of St. Stephen, ii. 493.
Lucina, the goddess, i. 149, 260.
Lucretia, her chastity and suicide, i. 28, 29.
Lucretius, quoted, ii. 419.
Lust, the evil of, ii. 31;
and anger, to be bridled, 35, etc.;
the bondage of, worse than bondage to men, 224, 225.
Lying-in woman, the, her god-protectors, i. 249.

Maccabæus, Judas, ii. 276.
Maccabees, the Books of, ii. 262.
Madness, the strange, which once seized upon all the domestic animals of the Romans, i. 126.
Magic art, the impiety of, i. 33;
the marvels wrought by, ii. 424.
Magicians of Egypt, the, i. 393.
Magnets, two, an image suspended between, in mid air, ii. 425.
Malachi, ii. 399.
"Mammon of unrighteousness," ii. 469, 470.
Man, though mortal, can enjoy true happiness, i. 369;
recentness of the creation of, 496, etc.;
the first, 519, etc.;
the fall of the first, 521;
the death with which he first was threatened, 533;
in what state made, and into what state he fell, 534;
forsook God before God forsook him, 535;
effects of the sin of the first, ii. 1, etc.;
what it is to live according to, 6, etc.
See First Man.
Manichæans, the, references to, i. 461, 462, 463;
their view of the body, ii. 8, etc.
Manlius, Cneius, i. 123.
Manturnæ, the goddess, i. 249, 250.
Marcellus, Marcus, destroys Syracuse, and bewails its ruin, i. 8.
[Pg 566]Mares, the, of Cappadocia, ii. 422.
Marica, the Minturnian goddess, i. 81.
Marius, i. 79, 80, 81;
the war between, and Sylla, 128, 129, 130.
Marriage, as originally instituted by God, ii. 38;
among blood relations in primitive times, 78;
between blood relations, now abhorred, 79.
Marriage bed-chamber, the, the gods which preside over, i. 249, 250.
Mars, Terminus, and Juventus, refuse to yield to Jove, i. 162, 169;
and Mercury, the offices of, 276.
Martial, a nobleman, converted by means of flowers brought from the shrine of St. Stephen, ii. 493.
Martyrs, the honour paid to, by Christians, i. 350, etc.;
the heroes of the Church, 411;
miracles wrought by, ii. 499, 500.
Marvels related in history, ii. 417-423, 426, 427;
wrought by magic, 424, 425.
Massephat, ii. 188.
Mathematicians, the, convicted of professing a vain science, i. 183.
Mediator, Christ the, between God and man, i. 369;
the necessity of having Christ as, to obtain the blessed life, 374;
the sacrifice effected by, 410, etc.
Melchizedek, blesses Abraham, ii. 135.
Melicertes, ii. 233.
Men, the primitive, immortal, had they never sinned, i. 542;
the creation of, and of angels, ii. 472-474.
Mercury, and Mars, i. 276;
the fame of, ii. 225.
Metellus, rescues the sacred things from the fire in the temple of Vesta, i. 119.
Methuselah, the great age of, ii. 66.
Millennium, the, ii. 356.
Mind, the capacity and powers of, ii. 525.
Minerva, i. 146, 262, 279, 296, ii. 225.
Miracles, wrought by the ministry of angels, i. 392, etc., 400, etc., 405;
the, ascribed to the gods, 405, 406;
the, by which God authenticated the law, 407, etc.;
against such as deny the, recorded in Scripture, 408, etc.;
the ultimate reason for believing, 425-428;
wrought in more recent times, 484-499;
wrought by the martyrs in the name of Christ 499, etc.
Miseries, the, of this life, Cicero on, ii. 302;
of the human race through the first sin, 517-520;
deliverance from, through the grace of Christ, 520, 521;
which attach peculiarly to the toil of good men, 521, etc.
Mithridates, the edict of, enjoining the slaughter of all Roman citizens found in Asia, i. 125.
Monstrous races,—are they derived from the stock of Adam, or from Noah's sons? i. 116, 118.
Moses, miracles wrought by, i. 393;
the time of, ii. 161-163;
who were kings at the period of the birth of? 224;
the time he led Israel out of Egypt, 228;
the antiquity of the writings of, 264.
Mother of the gods, the obscenities of the worship of, i. 52, 53, etc.;
whence she came, 102.
Mucius, and king Porsenna, i. 211.
Mysteries, i. 266;
the Eleusinian, 283;
the Samothracian, 296.
Mystery, the, of Christ's redemption often made known by signs, etc., i. 299.
Mystery of iniquity, the, ii. 381, 382.

Nahor, ii. 125.
Nakedness of our first parents, the, ii. 32.
Nathan, his message to David, ii. 189;
the resemblance of Psalm lxxxix. to the prophecy of, 191, etc.
Natural history, curious facts in:—the salamander, ii. 417;
the flesh of the peacock, 417, 418;
fire, 418;
charcoal, 418;
lime, 418, 419;
the diamond, 419;
the loadstone, 420;
the salt of Agrigentum, 421;
the fountain of the Garamantæ, and of Epirus, 421;
asbestos, 421;
the wood of the Egyptian fig-tree, 421;
the apples of Sodom, 421;
the stone pyrites, 421, 422;
the stone selenite, 422;
the Cappadocian mares, 422;
the island Tilon, 422;
the star Venus, 429.
Nature, not contrary to God, but good, i. 484;
of irrational and lifeless creatures, 485;
none in which there is not good, 320, 321.
Natures, God glorified in all, i. 486.
Necessity, is the will of man ruled by? i. 195.
Necromancy, i. 302.
Neptune, i. 279, 296;
and Salacia, and Venilia, 285.
Nero, the first to reach the citadel of vice, i. 216;
curious opinions entertained of him after his death, ii. 382.
[Pg 567]New Academy, the uncertainty of, contrasted with the Christian faith, ii. 328.
New heavens, and new earth, the, ii. 373, 374, 376, etc.
Nigidius, cited in reference to the birth of twins, i. 181.
Nimrod, ii. 108, 109, 112, 122.
Nineveh, ii. 109;
curious discrepancy between the Hebrew and Septuagint as to the time fixed for the overthrow of, in Jonah's prophecy, 273, 274;
spared, 446;
how the prediction against, was fulfilled, 455.
Ninus, ii. 219, 220.
Noah, commanded by God to build an ark, ii. 98;
whether after, till Abraham, any family can be found who lived according to God, 104;
was prophetically signified by the sons of? 105;
the nakedness of, revealed by Ham, but covered by Shem and Japheth, its typical significance, 106, 107;
the generation of the sons of, 108, etc.
Noctes Atticæ, the, of Aulus Gellius, quoted, i. 356, 357.
Numa Pompilius, the peace that existed during the reign of, is it attributable to the gods? i. 98;
introduces new gods, 101, etc.;
the Romans add new gods to those introduced by, 102;
the story of finding the books of, respecting the gods, and the burning of the same by the senate, 301, etc.;
befooled by hydromancy, 302.
Numantia, i. 124.
Numitor and Amulius, ii. 240, 241.

Ogyges, ii. 225, 226.
Old Testament Scriptures, caused by Ptolemy Philadelphus to be translated out of Hebrew into Greek, ii. 270, 271.
Opimius, Lucius, and the Gracchi, i. 126.
Oracles of the gods, responses of, respecting Christ, as related by Porphyry, ii. 344, etc.
Order and law, the, which obtain in heaven, and on earth, ii. 322.
Origen, the errors of, i. 463-465.
Ὁρμή, ii. 303.
Orpheus, ii. 233.

Pagan error, the probable cause of the rise of, i. 281, 282, 347.
Paradise, man in, ii, 23;
would there have been generation in, had man not sinned? 39, etc., 41, etc., 44, etc.;
Malachi's reference to man's state in, 401.
Paris, the gods had no reason to be offended with, i. 93.
Passions, the, which assail Christian souls, i. 359, etc.;
which agitate demons, 360.
Paterfamilias, ii. 325.
Patricians and Plebs, the dissensions between, i. 69, 70, 113.
Paulinus, i. 16.
Paulus and Palladia, members of a household cursed by a mother-in-law, miraculously healed at the shrine of St. Stephen, ii. 497-499.
Peace, the eternal, of the saints, ii. 314, 315;
the fierceness of war, and the disquietude of men make towards, 315-319;
the universal, which the law of nature preserves, 319, etc.;
the, between the heavenly and earthly cities, 326, etc.;
the, of those alienated from God, and the use made of it by God's people, 341;
of those who serve God in this mortal life, cannot be apprehended in its perfection, 341-343;
of God, which passeth all understanding, 534, 535.
Peacock, the antiseptic properties of the flesh of, ii. 417.
Pecunia, i. 264;
Jupiter so named, 275.
Peleg, ii. 122, 123.
Peripatetic sect, the, i. 323.
Peripatetics, and Stoics, the opinion of, about mental emotions,—an illustrative story, i. 355-358.
"Perish," ii. 296.
Periurgists, i. 404.
Persecution, all Christians must suffer, ii. 284;
the benefits derived from, 285;
the "ten persecutions," 286-288;
the time of the final, hidden, 288-290.
Persius, quoted, i. 55, 56.
Perturbations, the three, of the souls of the wise, as admitted by the Stoics, ii. 12;
in the souls of the righteous, 15, etc.;
were our first parents before the fall free from? 20.
Peter, ridiculously feigned by the heathen to have brought about by enchantment the worship of Christ, ii. 289;
heals the cripple at the temple gate, 291.
Petronia, a woman of rank, miraculously cured, ii. 496.
Philosopher, origin of the name, i. 307.
[Pg 568]Philosophers, the secret of the weakness of the moral precepts of, i. 55;
the Italic and Ionic schools of, 306, etc.;
of some who think the separation of soul and body not penal, 536;
the discord of the opinions of, contrasted with the concord of the canonical Scriptures, ii. 267-270.
Philosophy, Varro's enumeration of the multitudinous sects of, ii. 293-297.
Phoroneus, ii. 221.
Picus, king of Argos, ii. 233.
"Piety," i. 384.
Pirate, the apt reply of a, to Alexander the Great, i. 140.
Plato, would exclude the poets from his ideal republic, i. 63, etc.;
his threefold division of philosophy, 310, etc.;
how he was able to approach so near Christian knowledge, 321, etc.;
his definition of the gods, 324;
the opinion of, as to the transmigration of souls, 427;
the opinion of, that almost all animals were created by inferior gods, 519;
declared that the gods made by the Supreme have immortal bodies, 536, ii. 531;
the apparently conflicting views of, and of Porphyry, if united, might have led to the truth, 532, 533.
Platonists, the opinions of, preferable to those of other philosophers, i. 312, etc.;
their views of physical philosophy, 314, etc.;
how far they excel other philosophers in logic, or rational philosophy, 316;
hold the first rank in moral philosophy, 317;
their philosophy has come nearest the Christian faith, 318;
the Christian religion above all their science, 319;
thought that sacred rites were to be performed to many gods, 323;
the opinion of, that the souls of men become demons, 365;
the three qualities by which they distinguish between the nature of men and of demons, 365, etc.;
their idea of the non-intercourse of celestial gods with men, and the need of the intercourse of demons, 371, etc.;
hold that God alone can bestow happiness, 382;
have misunderstood the true worship of God, 386;
the principles which, according to, regulate the purification of the soul, 413;
blush to acknowledge the incarnation of Christ, 423;
refutation of the notion of, that the soul is co-eternal with God, 429, 430;
opinion of, that angels created man's body, 518;
refutation of the opinion of, that earthly bodies cannot inherit heaven, ii. 501, etc.
Players, excluded by the Romans from offices of state, i. 60, 61.
Plays, scenic, which the gods have exacted from their worshippers, i. 165.
Pleasure, bodily, graphically described, i. 217.
Plebs, the dissensions between, and the Patricians, ii. 69, 70, 113;
the secession of, 113.
Plotinus, men, according to, less wretched than demons, i. 364;
regarding enlightenment from above, 385.
Plutarch, his Life of Cato quoted, i. 34;
his Life of Numa, 173.
Pluto, i. 296.
Πνεῦμα, i. 553, 554, 555.
Poetical licence, allowed by the Greeks, restrained by the Romans, i. 57, 61.
Poets, the, Plato would exclude from his ideal republic, i. 63, etc., 325;
the theological, ii. 232, 233.
Pontius, Lucius, announces Sylla's victory, i. 82.
"Poor, He raiseth the, out of the dunghill," ii. 175.
Porphyry, his views of theurgy, i. 394, etc., 396, etc.;
epistle of, to Anebo, 397, etc.;
as to how the soul is purified, 413;
refused to recognise Christ, 414;
vacillation of, between the confession of the true God and the worship of demons, 418;
the impiety of, 419;
so blind as not to recognise the true wisdom, 422;
his emendations of Platonism, 426, etc.;
his ignorance of the universal way of the soul's deliverance, 430, etc.;
abjured the opinion that souls constantly pass away and return in cycles, 511;
his notion that the soul must be separated from the body in order to be happy, demolished by Plato, 531, etc.;
the conflicting opinions of Plato and, if united, might have led to the truth, 532, 533;
his account of the responses of the oracles of the gods concerning Christ, ii. 334-339.
Portents, strange, i. 133;
meaning of the word, ii. 429.
Possidonius, the story of, i. 179.
Postumius, the augur, and Sylla, i. 81, 82, 83.
[Pg 569]Præstantius, the strange story related by, respecting his father, ii. 237.
Praise, the love of, why reckoned a virtue? i. 204;
of the eradication of the love of human, 205.
Prayer for the dead, ii. 453.
Predictions of Scripture, i. 434.
Priest, the faithful, ii. 181.
Priesthood, the, the promise to establish it for ever, how to be understood, ii. 184;
of Christ, described in the Psalms, 204, 205.
Proclus, Julius, i. 108.
Projectus, Bishop, and the miraculous cure of blind women, ii. 492, 493.
Proletarii, the, i. 116.
Prometheus, ii. 224.
Promises, the, made to Abraham, ii. 129, etc., 131, etc., 133.
Prophetic age, the, ii. 165.
Prophetic records, the, ii. 163.
Prophecies, the threefold meaning of the, ii. 167-169;
respecting Christ and His gospel, 247-249, 250, 251, 252, 256, 258, 259.
Prophets, the later, ii. 215;
of the time when the Roman kingdom began, 246.
Proscription, the, of Sylla, i. 130.
Proserpine, i. 284, 288.
Protasius and Gervasius, martyrs, a blind man healed by the bodies of, at Milan, ii. 485;
a young man freed from a devil by, 491.
Providence of God, the, i. 197, 403;
not disturbed by the wickedness of angels or men, ii. 46.
Prudence, ii. 304.
Psalms, the, David's concern in writing, ii. 199.
Ptolemy Philadelphus causes the Hebrew Scriptures to be translated into Greek, ii. 270, 271.
Puberty, was it later among the antediluvians than it is now? ii. 75, etc.
Pulvillus, Marcus, i. 212.
Punic wars, the, the disasters suffered by the Romans in, i. 117;
the second of these, its deplorable effects, 119, etc.
Punishment, eternal, ii. 413;
whether it is possible for bodies to last for ever in burning fire, 414;
whether bodily sufferings necessarily terminate in the destruction of the flesh, 414-417;
examples from nature to show that bodies may remain unconsumed and alive in fire, 417;
the nature of, 432, etc.;
is it just that it should last longer than the sins themselves lasted? 436, etc.;
the greatness of the first transgression on account of which it is due to all not within the pale of the Saviour's grace, 437, etc.;
of the wicked after death, not purgatorial, 438-440;
proportioned to the deserts of the wicked, 444;
of certain persons, who deny, 444;
of those who think that the intercession of saints will deliver from, 445;
of those who think that participation of the body of Christ will save from, 447;
of those who think that Catholic baptism will deliver from, 447;
of the opinion that building on the "Foundation" will save from, 448;
of the opinion that alms-giving will deliver from, 449;
of those who think that the devil will not suffer, 450;
replies to all those who deny, 451, 457, etc., 460.
Punishments, the temporary, of this life, ii. 440;
the object of, 441.
Purgatorial punishments, ii. 399, 400, 453.
Purification of heart, the, whence obtained by the saints, i. 412;
the principles which, according to the Platonists, regulate, 413;
the one true principle which alone can effect, 414.
Purifying punishment, the, spoken of by Malachi, ii. 399.
Pyrites, the Persian stone so called, ii. 421.
Pyrrhus, invades Italy,—response of the oracle of Apollo to, i. 116;
cannot tempt Fabricius, 213.
Pythagoras, the founder of the Italic school of philosophy, i. 307.

Queen, the, the Church, ii. 202, 203.
Quiet, the temple of, i. 154.

Radagaisus, king of the Goths, the war with, i. 221.
Rain, portentous, i. 133.
Rape of the Sabine women, the, i. 103, 104.
Rebecca, wife of Isaac, ii. 149;
the divine answer respecting the twins in the womb of, 151.
Recentness of man's creation, an answer to those who complain of, i. 496.
Regeneration, the laver or font of, ii. 490.
Regulus, as an example of heroism, and voluntary endurance for religion's sake, i. 22, etc.;
[Pg 570]the virtue of, far excelled that of Cato, 35.
Reign of the saints with Christ for a thousand years, 263, etc.
Religion, i. 384;
no true, without true virtues, ii. 340.
Religions, false, kept up on policy, ii. 174.
Republic, Cicero's definition of a,—was there ever a Roman, answering to? ii. 330-333;
according to what definition could the Romans or others assume the title of a? 339, 340.
Resting on the seventh day, God's, the meaning of, i. 444, 445.
Restitutus, presbyter of the Calamensian Church, a curious account of, ii. 42, 43.
Resurrection, the, of the flesh of believers, to a perfection not enjoyed by our first parents, i. 544, 546, 547;
the first and the second, ii. 353-356, 367, 368;
Paul's testimony on, 384;
utterances of Isaiah respecting, 387, etc.;
some refuse to believe, while the world at large believes, 477;
vindicated against ridicule thrown on it, 504, etc.;
whether abortions shall have part in, 506;
whether infants shall have that body in, which they would have had if they had grown up, 507;
whether in the, the dead shall rise the same size as the Lord's body, 508;
the saints shall be conformed to the image of Christ in the, 508, 509;
whether women shall retain their sex in, 509, 510;
all bodily blemishes shall be removed in, 512;
the substance of our bodies, however disintegrated, shall be entirely reunited, 515;
the new spiritual body of, 517;
the obstinacy of those who impugn, while the world believes, 529, etc.
Resurrection of Christ, the, referred to in the Psalms, ii. 205, 206.
Reward, the, of the saints, after the trials of this life, ii. 314.
Rhea, or Ilia, mother of Romulus and Remus, ii. 240, 241.
Rich man, the, in hell, ii. 435.
Righteous, the glory of the, is in God, i. 205.
Righteous man, the, the sufferings of, described in the Book of Wisdom, ii. 209, etc.
Rites, sacred, of the gods, i. 245.
Rituals of false gods, instituted by kings of Greece, from the exodus of Israel downward, ii. 229.
Roman empire, the, which of the gods presided over? i. 143;
whether the great extent and duration of, should be attributed to Jove, 165;
whether the worship of the gods has been of service in extending, 168;
the cause of, not fortuitous, nor attributable to the position of the stars, 177, etc.;
by what virtues the enlargement of, was merited, 198, etc.
Roman kings, what manner of life and death they had, i. 108, etc.
Roman republic, was there ever one answering to Cicero's definition? i. 331-333, 339, 340.
Romans, the, the folly of, in trusting gods which could not defend Troy, i. 4, etc.;
by what steps the passion of governing increased among, 43;
the vices of, not corrected by the overthrow of their city, 45;
the calamities suffered by, before Christ, 50, etc., 67, etc.;
poetical licence restrained by, 57, etc.;
excluded players from offices of state, and restrained the licence of players, 60, 61;
the gods never took any steps to prevent the republic of, from being ruined by immorality, 77, etc;
the obscenities of their plays consecrated to the service of their gods, contributed to overthrow their republic, 87, etc.;
exhorted to forsake paganism, 89;
was it desirable that the empire of, should be increased by a succession of furious wars? 99;
by what right they obtained their first wives, 103;
the wickedness of the wars waged by, against the Albans, 105, 106;
the first consuls of, 111, etc.;
the disasters which befell, in the Punic wars, 117, etc., 119, etc.;
the ingratitude of, to Scipio, the conqueror of Hannibal, 123;
the internal disasters which vexed the republic, 125, etc.;
multiplied gods for small and ignoble purposes, 144;
to what profit they carried on war, and how far to the well-being of the conquered, 208;
dominion granted to, by the providence of God, 218.
Rome, the sack of, by the Barbarians, i. 2;
the evils inflicted on the Christians in the sack of,—why permitted, 39;
the iniquities practised in the palmiest days of, 67, etc.;
the corruption which had grown up in, before Christianity, 71, etc.;
Cicero's opinion of the republic of, 74;
[Pg 571]frost and snow incredibly severe at, 117;
calamities which befell, in the Punic wars, 117, etc., 119, etc.;
Asiatic luxury introduced to, 123;
when founded, ii. 241;
the founder of, made a god, 480.
Romulus, the alleged parentage of, i. 94, 95;
no penalty exacted for his fratricidal act, 95, etc.;
the death of, 108, 109, ii. 240;
suckled by a wolf, ii. 240, 241;
made a god by Rome, 480, etc.
Rule, equitable, ii. 325.
Rulers serve the society which they rule, ii. 322, 323.

Sabbath, the perpetual, ii. 543.
Sabine women, the rape of the, i. 67, 103, 104.
Sack, of Rome, the, by the Barbarians, i. 2, etc.;
of Troy, 6, etc.
Sacrifice, that due to the true God only, i. 387;
the true and perfect, 390;
the reasonableness of offering a visible, to God, 409;
the supreme and true, of the Mediator, 410;
of Abraham, when he believed,—its meaning, ii. 136.
Sacrifices, those not required by God, but enjoined for the exhibition of the truth, i. 388.
Sacrifices of righteousness, ii. 400, 401.
Sacristan of Hercules, a, the story of, i. 244.
Sages, the seven, ii. 244, 245.
Saguntum, the destruction of, i. 121, 122.
Saints, the, lose nothing in losing their temporal goods, i. 14, etc.;
their consolations in captivity, 22;
cases in which the examples of, are not to be followed, 37;
why the enemy was permitted to indulge his lust on the bodies of, 39;
the reply of, to unbelievers, who taunted them with Christ's not having rescued them from the fury of their enemies, 41, etc.;
the reward of, after the trials of this life, ii. 314;
the happiness of the eternal peace which constitutes the perfection of, 314, 315;
in this life, blessed in hope, 330.
Salacia, i. 285.
Salamander, the, ii. 417.
Sallust, quoted, i. 7, 8, 67, 69, 92, 100, 107, 113, 198, 201, 263, ii. 219.
Salt, the, of Agrigentum, the peculiar qualities of, ii. 421.
Samnites, the, defeated by the Romans, i. 115.
Samothracians, the mysteries of the, i. 296.
Samuel, the address of, to Saul on his disobedience, ii. 186, etc.;
sets up a stone of memorial, 188.
Saul, spared by David, ii. 184, 185;
forfeits the kingdom, 185, 186.
Sanctity, the, of the body, not violated by the violence of another's lust, i. 26, 27.
Sancus, or Sangus, a Sabine god, ii. 238.
Sarah, and Hagar, and their sons,—the typical significance of, ii. 51, 52;
Sarah's barrenness, 52, 53;
preservation of the chastity of, in Egypt, and in Gerar, 32, 146;
change of the name of, 143, 144;
the death of, 149.
Satan, transforms himself into an angel of light, ii. 313. See Devil.
Saturn, i. 147, 260, 261, 265;
and Genius, thought to be really Jupiter, 275, etc.;
interpretations of the reasons for worshipping, 282;
and Picus, ii. 233.
Saved by fire, ii. 460.
Scævola, the pontiff, slain in the Marian wars, i. 129, 131;
distinguishes three kinds of gods, 166, 167.
Scenic representations, the establishment of, opposed by Scipio Nasica, i. 44;
the obscenities of, contributed to the overthrow of the republic, 84, etc.
Schools of philosophers, i. 306, etc.
Scipio Nasica, Rome's "best man," opposes the destruction of Carthage, i. 42, 43;
opposes scenic representations, 144.
Scripture, the obscurity of,—its advantages, i. 458.
Scriptures, the canonical, the authority of, i. 438;
of the Old Testament, translated into Greek, ii. 270, 271.
Sea, the, gives up the dead which are in it, ii. 375;
no more, 377.
Sects of philosophy, the number of, according to Varro, ii. 293-297.
Selenite, the stone so called, ii. 422.
Semiramis, ii. 220.
Seneca, Annæus, recognises the guiding will of the Supreme, i. 189;
censures the popular worship of the gods, and the popular theology, 252-255;
what he thought of the Jews, 255, 256.
Septuagint,—is it or the Hebrew text to be followed in computing years? ii. 70, etc.;
[Pg 572]origin of the, 270, 271;
authority of, in relation to the Hebrew original, 271-273;
difference between, and the Hebrew text, as to the days fixed by Jonah for the destruction of Nineveh, 273-275.
Servitude introduced by sin, ii. 323.
Servius Tullius, the foul murder of, i. 110.
Seth and Cain, heads of two lines of descendants, ii. 81;
relation of the former to Christ, 82.
Seven, the number, i. 475, ii. 173, 174.
Seventh day, the, i. 475.
Severus, bishop of Milevis, ii. 420.
Sex, shall it be restored in the resurrection? ii. 509, 510.
Sexual intercourse, ii. 34;
in the antediluvian age, 75, etc.
Shem, ii. 105;
the sons of, 109;
the genealogy of, 119, etc.
Sibyl, the Cumæan, i. 421;
the Erythræan, 422.
Sibylline books, the, i. 118.
Sicyon, the kingdom and kings of, ii. 219, 220, 221, 239.
Silvanus, the god, i. 249.
Silvii, ii. 239.
Simplicianus, bishop of Milan, his reminiscence of the saying of a certain Platonist, i. 426.
Sin, should not be sought to be obviated by sin, i. 36;
should not be sought to be shunned by a voluntary death, 38;
had not its origin in God, but in the will of the creature, 456;
not caused by the flesh, but by the soul, ii. 4;
servitude introduced by, 323.
Sins, how cleansed, i. 413.
Six, the perfection of the number, i. 474.
Slave, when the word, first occurs in Scripture;
its meaning, ii. 324.
Social life, disturbed by many distresses, ii. 307, etc.
Socrates, a sketch of,—his philosophy, i. 308-310;
the god or demon of, the book of Apuleius concerning, 325, 327.
Sodom, the region of, ii. 431.
Solomon, books written by, and the prophecies they contain, ii. 209, etc.;
the kings after, both of Israel and Judah, 213.
Son of God, but one by nature, ii. 441.
Sons of God, the, and daughters of men, ii. 91, etc.;
not angels, 92, etc.
Soranus, Valerius, i. 274.
Soul, the, immortal, i. 257;
the way of its deliverance, 430;
created in the image of God, 515;
Porphyry's notion that its blessedness requires separation from the body, demolished by Plato, 531;
the separation of, and the body, considered by some not to be penal, 536.
Soul of the world, God not the, i. 151;
Varro's opinion of, examined, 267.
Souls, rational, the opinion that there are three kinds of, i. 325, 326;
the, of men, according to the Platonists, become demons, 363;
views of the transmigration of, 427, 428;
not co-eternal with God, 429;
do not return from blessedness to labour and misery, after certain periodic revolutions, 509.
Σωφροσύνη, ii. 303.
Speusippus, i. 324.
Spirit, i. 553, 554, 555.
Spiritual body, the, of the saints, in the resurrection, ii. 516.
Stars, the supposed influence of, on kingdoms, births, etc., i. 177, 178, 179, 180;
some, called by the names of gods, 277, etc.
Stephen, St., miracles wrought by the relics of, and at the shrine of, ii. 492, 493, 494, 495, 496, 497.
Stoics, opinions of, about mental emotions, i. 355, etc.;
the three perturbations admitted by, in the soul of the wise man, ii. 12, etc.;
the belief of, as to the gods, 268;
suicide permitted by, 304, 305.
Strong man, the, ii. 356.
Substance, the, of the people of God, ii. 194.
Suicide, committed through fear of dishonour or of punishment, i. 25;
Christians have no authority for committing, under any circumstances, 30;
can never be prompted to, by magnanimity, 32;
the example of Cato in relation to, 34;
should it be resorted to, to avoid sin? 38;
permitted by the Stoics, ii. 304, 305.
Sun, the, stayed in its course by Joshua, ii. 429, 430.
Superstition, i. 171.
Sylla, the deeds of, i. 81-83;
and Marius, the war between, 128, 129.
Sylva, i. 95.
Symmachus, i. 51, and note.

Tarquinius, Priscus, or Superbus, his barbarous murder of his father-in-law, i. 110;
[Pg 573]the expulsion of, from Rome, 110, 111.
Tatius, Titus, introduces new gods, i. 161.
Tellus, i. 147;
the surnames of, and their significance, 289.
Temperance, ii. 303.
Ten kings, the, ii. 394.
Terah, the emigration of, from Ur of the Chaldees, ii. 125;
the years of, 126.
Terence, quoted, i. 56.
Terentius, a certain, finds the books of Numa Pompilius, i. 301.
Terminus, i. 162, 169;
and Janus, 268.
Thales, the founder of the Ionic school of philosophy, i. 307.
Theatrical exhibitions, publish the shame of the gods, i. 57;
the obscenities of, contributed to overthrow the republic, 87.
Theodorus, the Cyrenian philosopher, his reply to Lysimachus, i. 20, note.
Theodosius, the faith and piety of, i. 224, etc.
Theological poets, ii. 232, 233.
Theology, Varro's threefold division of, i. 238-243.
Θεοσέβεια, i. 384.
Theurgy, i. 394, etc., 396, etc.
Thousand years, the, of the Book of Revelation, ii. 356;
the reign of the saints with Christ during, 362, etc.
Threats employed against the gods to compel their aid, i. 399.
Θρησκεία, i. 384.
Tilon, the island of, ii. 422.
Time, i. 442.
Time, times, and a half time, ii. 394.
Times and seasons, the hidden, ii. 288, 289.
Titus, Latinius, i. 325.
Torquatus, slays his victorious son, i. 210.
Transformations, strange, of men, ii. 235;
what we should believe respecting, 235-238
Transgression, the first, the greatness of, ii. 347, 348.
Transmigration of souls, the Platonic views of, amended by Porphyry, i. 427, 428.
"Tree of life, the, the days of," ii. 402.
Trinity, the, i. 414;
further explained, 447-450;
further statements of,—indications of, scattered everywhere among the works of God, 465;
indications of, in philosophy, 466-468;
the image of, in human nature, 468.
Troy, the gods unable to afford an asylum during the sack of, i. 6;
were the gods justified in permitting the destruction of? 93, etc.
Truth, the sad results where it is hidden, ii. 309, etc.
Tullus Hostilius, i. 109, 110.
Twelve thrones, ii. 351.
Twenty Martyrs, the, how a tailor got a new coat by praying at the shrine of, ii. 492.
Twins, on the difference of the health, etc., of, i. 179, 180;
of different sexes, 185.

Unbaptized, the, saved through the confession of Christ, i. 527, 528.
Unbelief of the Jews, the, foretold, ii. 208.
Unity, the, of the human race, i. 513, etc.
Universe, the beauty of the, i. 457.

Valens, a persecutor, ii. 287.
Valentinian, protected by Theodosius, i. 224;
a confessor, ii. 287.
Valerius, Marcus, i. 213.
Varro, his opinion of the utility of men feigning themselves to be the offspring of gods, i. 94;
boasts of having conferred the knowledge of the worship of the gods on the Romans, 159, 160;
what he thought of the gods of the nations, 232;
his book concerning the antiquities of divine and human things, 234, 235, etc.;
his threefold division of theology into fabulous, natural, and civil, 238, etc.;
the opinion of, that God is the soul of the world, 267, 272;
pronounces his own opinions respecting the gods uncertain, 280;
holds the earth to be a goddess, 286, etc.;
his doctrine of the gods not self-consistent, 295;
assigns the reason why Athens was so called, ii. 226;
the opinion of, about the name of Areopagus, 227, 228;
what he relates of the strange transformations of men, 235, etc.;
on the number of philosophical sects, 293-299, etc;
in reference to a celestial portent, 429;
his story of the Vestal virgin falsely accused, 503;
his work on The Origin of the Roman People, quoted in relation to the Palingenesy, 533.
Vaticanus, i. 149.
Venilia, i. 285.
[Pg 574]Venus, a peculiar candelabrum in a temple of, ii. 423, 424.
Venus, the planet, a strange prodigy that occurred to, ii. 429.
Vesta, i. 147, 148, 279.
Vestal virgin, a, to prove her innocence, carries water in a sieve from the Tiber, ii. 503.
Vestal virgins, the punishment of those caught in adultery, i. 95.
Vice, not nature, contrary to God, and hurtful, i. 484.
Vicissitudes of life, the, on what dependent, i. 79, etc.
Victoria, the goddess, i. 152, 153;
ought she to be worshipped as well as Jove? 154.
Virgil, quoted, i. 2, 4, 5, 6, 29, 78, 89, 92, 101, 103, 106, 107, 199, 200, 270, 272, 294, 332, 333, 384, 412, 421, 428, ii. 5, 234, 397, 425, 439, 470.
Virgin Mary, the, ii. 204.
Virgins, the violation of, by force, does not contaminate, i. 25.
Virtue and Faith, honoured by the Romans with temples, i. 156, 157;
the Romans ought to have been content with, and Felicity, 157;
the war waged by, ii. 203.
Virtues, as disgraceful to make them serve human glory as to serve bodily pleasure, i. 217;
true, necessary to true religion, ii. 340, 341.
Virtumnus and Sentinus, i. 260, 261.
Virtus, the goddess, i. 263, 264.
Vision, the beatific, ii. 534-540.
Vulcan, i. 279.

Warfare, the Christian, ii. 442.
War, against the Albans, i. 105;
with Pyrrhus, 116;
the Punic, 117, etc.; 119, etc.;
the civil, of the Gracchi, 126;
the civil, between Marius and Sylla, 128, etc.;
the Gothic and Gallic, 130;
severe and frequent, before the advent of Christ, 131;
the duration of various, 220;
with Radagaisus, 221;
the miseries of, ii. 311.
Waters, the separation of the, i. 479.
Wicked, the, the ills which alone are feared by, i. 91;
God makes a good use of, ii. 284;
going out to see the punishment of, 392;
the end of, 343;
and the good, one event befalls, i. 10, ii. 348;
the connection of, and the good together, i. 11.
Wickedness, not a flaw of nature, i. 456.
Will, the consent of, to an evil deed, makes the deed evil, i. 26;
is it ruled by necessity? 195;
the enemies of God are so by, 484, 487;
no efficient cause of an evil, 490;
the misdirected love by which it fell away from the immutable to the mutable good, 490, 491;
whether the angels received their good, from God, 491, 492;
the character of, makes the affections of the soul right or wrong, ii. 9, etc.;
in the state of perfect felicity, 542.
Will of God, the eternal and unchangeable, ii. 474.
Wisdom, described in the Book of Proverbs, ii. 211.
Wisdom, the Book of, a prophecy of Christ in the, ii. 209.
Wives, how the Romans obtained their first, i. 103.
Woman, shall she retain he sex in the resurrection? ii. 509, 510;
the formation of, from a rib of sleeping Adams, a type, 510.
World, the, not eternal, i. 439;
the infinite ages before, not to be comprehended, 441;
and time had both one beginning, 442;
falseness of the history which ascribes many thousand years to the past existence of, 494;
of those who hold a plurality of worlds, 496;
predictions respecting the end of, ii. 395, etc.
Worlds without end, or ages of ages, i. 508, etc.
Wonders, lying, ii. 483.
Worm, the, that dieth not, ii. 393, 433.
Worship of God, distinction between latria and dulia, i. 383, 384, 386, etc.

Xenocrates, i. 324.

Years, in the time of the antediluvians, ii. 68, etc., 73, etc.;
in the words, "their days shall be an hundred and twenty years," 97, etc.;
the thousand, of the Book of Revelation, 356;
the three and a half, of the Book of Revelation, 394.

Zoroaster, ii. 440.
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Re: The City of God: The Works of Aurelius Augustine

Postby admin » Sat Mar 24, 2018 11:45 pm

VOLUME I

_______________

Notes:

[1] a.d. 410.

[2] Retractations, ii. 43.

[3] Letters 132-8.

[4] See some admirable remarks on this subject in the useful work of Beugnot, Histoire de la Destruction du Paganisme, ii. 83 et sqq.

[5] As Waterland (iv. 760) does call it, adding that it is "his most learned, most correct, and most elaborate work."

[6] For proof, see the Benedictine Preface.

[7] "Hitherto the Apologies had been framed to meet particular exigencies: they were either brief and pregnant statements of the Christian doctrines; refutations of prevalent calumnies; invectives against the follies and crimes of Paganism; or confutations of anti-Christian works like those of Celsus, Porphyry, or Julian, closely following their course of argument, and rarely expanding into general and comprehensive views of the great conflict."—Milman, History of Christianity, iii. c. 10. We are not acquainted with any more complete preface to the City of God than is contained in the two or three pages which Milman has devoted to this subject.

[8] See the interesting remarks of Lactantius, Instit. vii. 25.

[9] "Hæret vox et singultus intercipiunt verba dictantis. Capitur urbs quæ totum cepit orbem."—Jerome, iv. 783.

[10] See below, iv. 7.

[11] This is well brought out by Merivale, Conversion of the Roman Empire, p. 145, etc.

[12] Ozanam, History of Civilisation in the Fifth Century (Eng. trans.), ii. 160.

[13] Abstracts of the work at greater or less length are given by Dupin, Bindemann, Böhringer, Poujoulat, Ozanam, and others.

[14] His words are: "Plus on examine la Cité de Dieu, plus on reste convaincu que cet ouvrage dût exercea tres-peu d'influence sur l'esprit des païens" (ii. 122); and this though he thinks one cannot but be struck with the grandeur of the ideas it contains.

[15] History of Ecclesiastical Writers, i. 406.

[16] Huetiana, p. 24.

[17] Flottes, Etudes sur S. Augustin (Paris, 1861), pp. 154-6, one of the most accurate and interesting even of French monographs on theological writers.

[18] These editions will be found detailed in the second volume of Schoenemann's Bibliotheca Pat.

[19] His words (in Ep. vi.) are quite worth quoting: "Cura rogo te, ut excudantur aliquot centena exemplarium istius operis a reliquo Augustini corpore separata; nam multi erunt studiosi qui Augustinum totum emere vel nollent, vel non poterunt, quia non egebunt, seu quia tantum pecuniæ non habebunt. Scio enim fere a deditis studiis istis elegantioribus præter hoc Augustini opus nullum fere aliud legi ejusdem autoris."

[20] The fullest and fairest discussion of the very simple yet never settled question of Augustine's learning will be found in Nourrisson's Philosophie de S. Augustin, ii. 92-100.

[21] Erasmi Epistolæ xx. 2.

[22] A large part of it has been translated in Saisset's Pantheism (Clark, Edin.).

[23] By J. H., published in 1610, and again in 1620, with Vives' commentary.

[24] As the letters of Vives are not in every library, we give his comico-pathetic account of the result of his Augustinian labours on his health: "Ex quo Augustinum perfeci, nunquam valui ex sententia; proximâ vero hebdomade et hac, fracto corpore cuncto, et nervis lassitudine quadam et debilitate dejectis, in caput decem turres incumbere mihi videntur incidendo pondere, ac mole intolerabili; isti sunt fructus studiorum, et merces pulcherrimi laboris; quid labor et benefacta juvant?"

[25] See the Editor's Preface.

[26] Ps. xciv. 15, rendered otherwise in Eng. ver.

[27] Jas. iv. 6 and 1 Pet. v. 5.

[28] Virgil, Æneid, vi. 854.

[29] The Benedictines remind us that Alexander and Xenophon, at least on some occasions, did so.

[30] Virgil, Æneid, ii. 501-2. The renderings of Virgil are from Conington.

[31] Ibid. ii. 166.

[32] Ibid.

[33] Horace, Ep. I. ii. 69.

[34] Æneid, i. 71.

[35] Ibid. ii. 319.

[36] Ibid. 293.

[37] Non numina bona, sed omina mala.

[38] Virgil, Æneid, ii. 761.

[39] Though "levis" was the word usually employed to signify the inconstancy of the Greeks, it is evidently here used, in opposition to "immanis" of the following clause, to indicate that the Greeks were more civilised than the barbarians, and not relentless, but, as we say, easily moved.

[40] De Conj. Cat. c. 51.

[41] Sallust, Cat. Conj. ix.

[42] Ps. lxxxix. 32.

[43] Matt. v. 45.

[44] Rom. ii. 4.

[45] So Cyprian (Contra Demetrianum) says, "Pœnam de adversis mundi ille sentit, cui et lætitia et gloria omnis in mundo est."

[46] Ezek. xxxiii. 6.

[47] Compare with this chapter the first homily of Chrysostom to the people of Antioch.

[48] Rom. viii. 28.

[49] 1 Pet. iii. 4.

[50] 1 Tim. vi. 6-10.

[51] Job i. 21.

[52] 1 Tim. vi. 17-19.

[53] Matt. vi. 19-21.

[54] Paulinus was a native of Bordeaux, and both by inheritance and marriage acquired great wealth, which, after his conversion in his thirty-sixth year, he distributed to the poor. He became bishop of Nola in a.d. 409, being then in his fifty-sixth year. Nola was taken by Alaric shortly after the sack of Rome.

[55] Much of a kindred nature might be gathered from the Stoics. Antoninus says (ii. 14): "Though thou shouldest be going to live 3000 years, and as many times 10,000 years, still remember that no man loses any other life than this which he now lives, nor lives any other than this which he now loses. The longest and the shortest are thus brought to the same."

[56] Augustine expresses himself more fully on this subject in his tract, De cura pro mortuis gerenda.

[57] Matt. x. 28.

[58] Luke xii. 4.

[59] Ps. lxxix. 2, 3.

[60] Ps. cxvi. 15.

[61] Diogenes especially, and his followers. See also Seneca, De Tranq. c. 14, and Epist. 92; and in Cicero's Tusc. Disp. i. 43, the answer of Theodorus, the Cyrenian philosopher, to Lysimachus, who threatened him with the cross: "Threaten that to your courtiers; it is of no consequence to Theodorus whether he rot in the earth or in the air."

[62] Lucan, Pharsalia, vii. 819, of those whom Cæsar forbade to be buried after the battle of Pharsalia.

[63] Gen. xxv. 9, xxxv. 29, etc.

[64] Gen. xlvii. 29, l. 24.

[65] Tob. xii. 12.

[66] Matt. xxvi. 10-13.

[67] John xix. 38.

[68] Dan. iii.

[69] Jonah.

[70] "Second to none," as he is called by Herodotus, who first of all tells his well-known story (Clio. 23, 24).

[71] Augustine here uses the words of Cicero ("vigilando peremerunt"), who refers to Regulus, in Pisonem, c. 19. Aulus Gellius, quoting Tubero and Tuditanus (vi. 4), adds some further particulars regarding these tortures.

[72] As the Stoics generally would affirm.

[73] Virgil, Æneid, vi. 434.

[74] Plutarch's Life of Cato, 72.

[75] 1 Cor. ii. 11.

[76] Ecclus. iii. 27.

[77] Rom. xi. 33.

[78] Ps. xlii. 10.

[79] Ps. xcvi. 4, 5.

[80] Originally the spectators had to stand, and now (according to Livy, Ep. xlviii.) the old custom was restored.

[81] Ps. xciv. 4.

[82] 2 Tim. iii. 7.

[83] "Pluvia defit, causa Christiani." Similar accusations and similar replies may be seen in the celebrated passage of Tertullian's Apol. c. 40, and in the eloquent exordium of Arnobius, C. Gentes.

[84] Augustine is supposed to refer to Symmachus, who similarly accused the Christians in his address to the Emperor Valentinianus in the year 384. At Augustine's request, Paulus Orosius wrote his history in confutation of Symmachus' charges.

[85] Tertullian (Apol. c. 24) mentions Cœlestis as specially worshipped in Africa. Augustine mentions her again in the 26th chapter of this book, and in other parts of his works.

[86] Berecynthia is one of the many names of Rhea or Cybele. Livy (xxix. 11) relates that the image of Cybele was brought to Rome the day before the ides of April, which was accordingly dedicated as her feast-day. The image, it seems, had to be washed in the stream Almon, a tributary of the Tiber, before being placed in the temple of Victory; and each year, as the festival returned, the washing was repeated with much pomp at the same spot. Hence Lucan's line (i. 600), 'Et lotam parvo revocant Almone Cybelen,' and the elegant verses of Ovid, Fast. iv. 337 et seq.

[87] "Fercula," dishes, or courses.

[88] See Cicero, De Nat. Deor. ii. 24.

[89] Prov. vi. 26.

[90] Fugalia. Vives is uncertain to what feast Augustine refers. Censorinus understands him to refer to a feast celebrating the expulsion of the kings from Rome. This feast, however (celebrated on the 24th February), was commonly called "Regifugium."

[91] Persius, Sat. iii. 66-72.

[92] See below, books viii.-xii.

[93] "Galli," the castrated priests of Cybele, who were named after the river Gallus, in Phrygia, the water of which was supposed to intoxicate or madden those who drank it. According to Vitruvius (viii. 3), there was a similar fountain in Paphlagonia. Apuleius (Golden Ass, viii.) gives a graphic and humorous description of the dress, dancing, and imposture of these priests; mentioning, among other things, that they lashed themselves with whips and cut themselves with knives till the ground was wet with blood.

[94] Persius, Sat. iii. 37.

[95] Ter. Eun. iii. 5. 36; and cf. the similar allusion in Aristoph. Clouds, 1033-4. It may be added that the argument of this chapter was largely used by the wiser of the heathen themselves. Dionysius Hal. (ii. 20) and Seneca (De Brev. Vit. c. xvi.) make the very same complaint; and it will be remembered that his adoption of this reasoning was one of the grounds on which Euripides was suspected of atheism.

[96] This sentence recalls Augustine's own experience as a boy, which he bewails in his Confessions.

[97] Labeo, a jurist of the time of Augustus, learned in law and antiquities, and the author of several works much prized by his own and some succeeding ages. The two articles in Smith's Dictionary on Antistius and Cornelius Labeo should be read.

[98] "Lectisternia," feasts in which the images of the gods were laid on pillows in the streets, and all kinds of food set before them.

[99] According to Livy (vii. 2), theatrical exhibitions were introduced in the year 392 a. u. c. Before that time, he says, there had only been the games of the circus. The Romans sent to Etruria for players, who were called "histriones," "hister" being the Tuscan word for a player. Other particulars are added by Livy.

[100] See the Republic, book iii.

[101] Comp. Tertullian, De Spectac. c. 22.

[102] The Egyptian gods represented with dogs' heads, called by Lucan (viii. 832) semicanes deos.

[103] The Fever had, according to Vives, three altars in Rome. See Cicero, De Nat. Deor. iii. 25, and Ælian, Var. Hist. xii. 11.

[104] Cicero, De Republica, v. Compare the third Tusculan Quæst. c. ii.

[105] In the year a.u. 299, three ambassadors were sent from Rome to Athens to copy Solon's laws, and acquire information about the institutions of Greece. On their return the Decemviri were appointed to draw up a code; and finally, after some tragic interruptions, the celebrated Twelve Tables were accepted as the fundamental statutes of Roman law (fons universi publici privatique juris). These were graven on brass, and hung up for public information. Livy, iii. 31-34.

[106] Possibly he refers to Plautus' Persa, iv. 4. 11-14.

[107] Sallust, Cat. Con. ix. Compare the similar saying of Tacitus regarding the chastity of the Germans: "Plusque ibi boni mores valent, quam alibi bonæ leges" (Germ. xix.).

[108] The same collocation of words is used by Cicero with reference to the well-known mode of renewing the appetite in use among the Romans.

[109] Æneid, ii. 351-2.

[110] 2 Cor. xi. 14.

[111] Cicero, C. Verrem, vi. 8.

[112] Cicero, C. Catilinam, iii. 8.

[113] Alluding to the sanctuary given to all who fled to Rome in its early days.

[114] Virgil, Æneid, i. 278.

[115] Compare Aug. Epist. ad Deogratias, 102, 13; and De Præd. Sanct. 19.

[116] Ch. iv.

[117] Virg. Georg. i. 502, 'Laomedonteæ luimus perjuria Trojæ.'

[118] Iliad, xx. 293 et seqq.

[119] Æneid, v. 810, 811.

[120] Gratis et ingratis.

[121] De Conj. Cat. vi.

[122] Helen's husband.

[123] Venus' husband.

[124] Suetonius, in his Life of Julius Cæsar (c. 6), relates that, in pronouncing a funeral oration in praise of his aunt Julia, Cæsar claimed for the Julian gens to which his family belonged a descent from Venus, through Iulus, son of Eneas.

[125] Livy, 83, one of the lost books; and Appian, in Mithridat.

[126] The gates of Janus were not the gates of a temple, but the gates of a passage called Janus, which was used only for military purposes; shut therefore in peace, open in war.

[127] The year of the Consuls T. Manlius and C. Atilius, a. u. c. 519.

[128] Sall. Conj. Cat. ii.

[129] Æneid, viii. 326-7.

[130] Sall. Cat. Conj. vi.

[131] Æneid, xi. 532.

[132] Ibid. x. 464.

[133] Livy, x. 47.

[134] Being son of Apollo.

[135] Virgil, Æn. i. 286.

[136] Pharsal. v. 1.

[137] Æneid, x. 821, of Lausus:

"But when Anchises' son surveyed
The fair, fair face so ghastly made,
He groaned, by tenderness unmanned,
And stretched the sympathizing hand," etc.
[138] Virgil, Æneid, vi. 813.

[139] Sallust, Cat. Conj. ii.

[140] Ps. x. 3.

[141] Æneid, ii. 351-2.

[142] Cicero, De Rep. ii. 10.

[143] Contra Cat. iii. 2.

[144] Æneid, vi. 820, etc.

[145] His nephew.

[146] Hist. i.

[147] Lectisternia, from lectus, a couch, and sterno, I spread.

[148] Proletarius, from proles, offspring.

[149] The oracle ran: "Dico te, Pyrrhe, vincere posse Romanos."

[150] Troy, Lavinia, Alba.

[151] Under the inscription on the temple some person wrote the line, "Vecordiæ opus ædem facit Concordiæ"—The work of discord makes the temple of Concord.

[152] Cicero, in Catilin. iii. sub. fin.

[153] Lucan, Pharsal. ii. 142-146.

[154] Virgil, Æneid, i. 417.

[155] In Augustine's letter to Evodius (169), which was written towards the end of the year 415, he mentions that this fourth book and the following one were begun and finished during that same year.

[156] Comp. Bacon's Essay on the Vicissitudes of Things.

[157] Matt. v. 45.

[158] 2 Pet. ii. 19.

[159] Nonius Marcell. borrows this anecdote from Cicero, De Repub. iii.

[160] It was extinguished by Crassus in its third year.

[161] Cloacina, supposed by Lactantius (De falsa relig. i. 20), Cyprian (De Idol. vanit.), and Augustine (infra., c. 23) to be the goddess of the "cloaca," or sewage of Rome. Others, however, suppose it to be equivalent to Cluacina, a title given to Venus, because the Romans after the end of the Sabine war purified themselves (cluere) in the vicinity of her statue.

[162] Forculum foribus, Cardeam cardini, Limentinum limini.

[163] Virgil, Eclog. iii. 60.

[164] Virgil, Æneid, i. 47.

[165] Cicero, De Nat. Deor. ii. 25.

[166] Virgil, Georg. ii. 325, 326.

[167] Eusebius, De Præp. Evang. i. 10.

[168] Virgil, Georg. iv. 221, 222.

[169] The feminine Fortune.

[170] Hab. ii. 4.

[171] So called from the consent or harmony of the celestial movements of these gods.

[172] Tusc. Quæst. i. 26.

[173] Livy, ii. 36; Cicero, De Divin. 26.

[174] Called by Cicero (De Oratore, i. 39) the most eloquent of lawyers, and the best skilled lawyer among eloquent men.

[175] Superflua non nocent.

[176] Rom. i. 25.

[177] De Divin. ii. 37.

[178] Cic. De Nat. Deorum, lib. ii. c. 28.

[179] Superstition, from superstes. Against this etymology of Cicero, see Lact. Inst. Div. iv. 28.

[180] Balbus, from balbutiens, stammering, babbling.

[181] See Cicero, De Nat. Deor. i. 2.

[182] Plutarch's Numa, c. 8.

[183] Written in the year 415.

[184] On the application of astrology to national prosperity, and the success of certain religions, see Lecky's Rationalism, i. 303.

[185] This fact is not recorded in any of the extant works of Hippocrates or Cicero. Vives supposes it may have found place in Cicero's book, De Fato.

[186] i.e. the potter.

[187] Epist. 107.

[188] Odyssey, xviii. 136, 137.

[189] De Divinat. ii.

[190] Ps. xiv. 1

[191] Book iii.

[192] Ps. lxii. 11, 12.

[193] Sallust, Cat. vii.

[194] Augustine notes that the name consul is derived from consulere, and thus signifies a more benign rule than that of a rex (from regere), or dominus (from dominari).

[195] Æneid, viii. 646.

[196] Æneid, i. 279.

[197] Ibid. vi. 847.

[198] Sallust, in Cat. c. xi.

[199] Sallust, in Cat. c. 54.

[200] 2 Cor. i. 12.

[201] Gal. vi. 4.

[202] Sallust, in Cat. c. 52.

[203] Horace, Epist. i. 1. 36, 37.

[204] Hor. Carm. ii. 2.

[205] Tusc. Quæst. i. 2.

[206] John v. 44.

[207] John xii. 43.

[208] Matt. x. 33.

[209] Matt. vi. 1.

[210] Matt. v. 16.

[211] Matt. vi. 2.

[212] Jactantia.

[213] Æneid, vi. 820.

[214] Matt. x. 28.

[215] Matt. viii. 22.

[216] Acts ii. 45.

[217] Rom. viii. 18.

[218] Prov. viii. 15.

[219] Æneid, vii. 266.

[220] Job xxxiv. 30.

[221] Of the Thrasymene Lake and Cannæ.

[222] Constantinople.

[223] Constantius, Constantine, and Constans.

[224] Panegyr. de tertio Honorii consulatu.

[225] Tusc. Quaest. v. 19.

[226] Ps. xl. 4.

[227] Plato, in the Timæus.

[228] Ch. xi. and xxi.

[229] See Virgil, Ec. iii. 9.

[230] Of the four books De Acad., dedicated to Varro, only a part of the first is extant.

[231] Cicero, De Quæst. Acad. i. 3.

[232] In his book De Metris, chapter on phalæcian verses.

[233] Tarquin the Proud, having bought the books of the sibyl, appointed two men to preserve and interpret them (Dionys. Halic. Antiq. iv. 62). These were afterwards increased to ten, while the plebeians were contending for larger privileges; and subsequently five more were added.

[234] Ch. 31.

[235] Fabulare.

[236] Fabulosum.

[237] Civile.

[238] Timeri.

[239] Vereri.

[240] Intercido, I cut or cleave.

[241] Paranymphi.

[242] Comp. Tertullian, Adv. Nat. ii. 11; Arnobius, Contra Gent. iv.; Lactantius, Inst. i. 20.

[243] Mentioned also by Tertullian, Apol. 12, but not extant.

[244] Numina. Another reading is nomina; and with either reading another translation is admissible: "One is announcing to a god the names (or gods) who salute him."

[245] Tert. Apol. 13, "Nec electio sine reprobatione;" and Ad Nationes, ii. 9, "Si dei ut bulbi seliguntur, qui non seliguntur, reprobi pronuntiantur."

[246] Cicero, De Nat. Deor. ii., distinguishes this Liber from Liber Bacchus, son of Jupiter and Semele.

[247] Januam.

[248] Vivificator.

[249] Sensificator.

[250] As we say, "right-minded."

[251] Ch. 21, 23.

[252] The father Saturn, and the mother Ops, e.g., being more obscure than their son Jupiter and daughter Juno.

[253] Sallust, Cat. Conj. ch. 8.

[254] Vicus argentarius.

[255] Virgil, Æneid, viii. 357, 358.

[256] Quadrifrons.

[257] Frons.

[258] "Quanto iste innocentior esset, tanto frontosior appareret;" being used for the shamelessness of innocence, as we use "face" for the shamelessness of impudence.

[259] Cicero, Tusc. Quæst. v. 13.

[260] An interesting account of the changes made in the Roman year by Numa is given in Plutarch's life of that king. Ovid also (Fasti, ii.) explains the derivation of February, telling us that it was the last month of the old year, and took its name from the lustrations performed then: "Februa Romani dixere piamina patres."

[261] Ennius, in Cicero, De Nat. Deor. ii. 18.

[262] John x. 9.

[263] Georgic, ii. 470.

[264] Summa, which also includes the meaning "last."

[265] Virgil, Eclog. iii. 60, who borrows the expression from the Phænomena of Aratus.

[266] Soranus lived about b.c. 100. See Smith's Dict.

[267] Tigillus.

[268] Ruma.

[269] "Pecunia," that is, property; the original meaning of "pecunia" being property in cattle, then property or wealth of any kind. Comp. Augustine, De discipl. Christ. 6.

[270] Sallust, Catil. c. 11.

[271] Quasi medius currens.

[272] Nuncius.

[273] Enunciantur.

[274] Cœlo.

[275] Cœlum.

[276] Sc. Χρόνος.

[277] See c. 16.

[278] Varro, De Ling. Lat. v. 68.

[279] Nourisher.

[280] Returner.

[281] In the book De Ratione Naturali Deorum.

[282] Mundum.

[283] Immundum.

[284] Mundus.

[285] Mundum.

[286] Virgil, Æneid, viii. 319-20.

[287] In the Timæus.

[288] Plutarch's Numa; Livy, xl. 29.

[289] Comp. Lactantius, Instit. i. 6.

[290] Egesserit.

[291] Wisdom vii. 24-27.

[292] "Sapiens," that is, a wise man, one who had attained to wisdom.

[293] Finem boni.

[294] Dii majorum gentium.

[295] Book i. 13.

[296] Rom. i. 19, 20.

[297] Col. ii. 8.

[298] Rom. i. 19, 20.

[299] Acts xvii. 28.

[300] Rom. i. 21-23.

[301] De Doctrina Christiana, ii. 43. Comp. Retract. ii. 4, 2.

[302] Liberating Jewish slaves, and sending gifts to the temple. See Josephus, Ant. xii. 2.

[303] Gen. i. 1, 2.

[304] Spiritus.

[305] Ex. iii. 14.

[306] Rom. i. 20.

[307] Ch. 14.

[308] De Deo Socratis.

[309] Virgil, Æn. 7. 338.

[310] Virgil, Æn. 4. 492, 493.

[311] Virgil, Ec. 8. 99.

[312] Pliny (Hist. Nat. xxviii. 2) and others quote the law as running: "Qui fruges incantasit, qui malum carmen incantasit.... neu alienam segetem pelexeris."

[313] Before Claudius, the prefect of Africa, a heathen.

[314] Another reading, "whom they could not know, though near to themselves."

[315] These quotations are from a dialogue between Hermes and Æsculapius, which is said to have been translated into Latin by Apuleius.

[316] Rom. i. 21.

[317] Jer. xvi. 20.

[318] Zech. xiii. 2.

[319] Isa. xix. 1.

[320] Matt. xvi. 16.

[321] Matt. viii. 29.

[322] Ps. xcvi. 1.

[323] Ps. cxv. 5, etc.

[324] 1 Cor. x. 19, 20.

[325] Ps. xcvi. 1-5.

[326] Jer. xvi. 20.

[327] Ornamenta memoriarum.

[328] Comp. The Confessions, vi. 2.

[329] See Plutarch, on the Cessation of Oracles.

[330] The De Deo Socratis.

[331] De Fin. iii. 20; Tusc. Disp. iii. 4.

[332] The distinction between bona and commoda is thus given by Seneca (Ep. 87, ad fin.): "Commodum est quod plus usus est quam molestiæ; bonum sincerum debet esse et ab omni parte innoxium."

[333] Book xix. ch. 1.

[334] See Diog. Laert. ii. 71.

[335] Virgil, Æneid, iv. 449.

[336] Seneca, De Clem. ii. 4 and 5.

[337] Pro. Lig. c. 12.

[338] De Oratore, i. 11, 47.

[339] De Deo Soc.

[340] De Deo Soc.

[341] De Deo Soc.

[342] Cat. Conj. i.

[343] Plotinus died in 270 a.d. For his relation to Plato, see Augustine's Contra Acad. iii. 41.

[344] Ennead. iv. 3. 12.

[345] Apuleius, not Plotinus.

[346] De Deo Socratis.

[347] Apuleius, ibid.

[348] Virgil, Georg. i. 5.

[349] Augustine apparently quotes from memory from two passages of the Enneades, I. vi. 8, and ii. 3.

[350] Or, humanity.

[351] Comp. De Trin. 13. 22.

[352] 1 Tim. ii. 5.

[353] δαίμων = δαήμων, knowing; so Plato, Cratylus, 398. b.

[354] 1 Cor. viii. 1.

[355] Mark i. 24.

[356] Matt. iv. 3-11.

[357] Timæus.

[358] Ps. l. 1.

[359] Ps. cxxxvi. 2.

[360] Ps. xcv. 3.

[361] Ps. xcvi. 5, 6.

[362] Ps. lxxxii. 6.

[363] 1 Cor. viii. 5, 6.

[364] Rom. i. 21.

[365] Eph. vi. 5.

[366] Namely, δουλεία: comp. Quæst. in Exod. 94; Quæst. in Gen. 21; Contra Faustum, 15, 9, etc.

[367] Agricolæ, coloni, incolæ.

[368] Virgil, Eneid, i. 12.

[369] 2 Chron. xxx. 9; Eccl. xi. 13; Judith vii. 20.

[370] Ps. lxxxii. 6.

[371] John i. 6-9.

[372] Ibid. 16.

[373] Augustine here remarks, in a clause that cannot be given in English, that the word religio is derived from religere.—So Cicero, De Nat. Deor. ii. 28.

[374] Matt. xxii. 37-40.

[375] Ps. lxxiii. 28.

[376] Ex. xxii. 20.

[377] Ps. xvi. 2.

[378] Ps. li. 16, 17.

[379] Ps. l. 12, 13.

[380] Ps. l. 14, 15.

[381] Micah vi. 6-8.

[382] Heb. xiii. 16.

[383] Hos. vi. 6.

[384] Matt. xxii. 40.

[385] On the service rendered to the Church by this definition, see Waterland's Works, v. 124.

[386] Literally, a sacred action.

[387] Ecclus. xxx. 24.

[388] Rom. vi. 13.

[389] Rom. xii. 1.

[390] Rom. xii. 2.

[391] Ps. lxxiii. 28.

[392] Rom. xii. 3-6.

[393] Ps. lxxxvii. 3.

[394] Ex. xxii. 20.

[395] Gen. xviii. 18.

[396] Gen. xv. 17. In his Retractations, ii. 43, Augustine says that he should not have spoken of this as miraculous, because it was an appearance seen in sleep.

[397] Gen. xviii.

[398] Goetia.

[399] 2 Cor. xi. 14.

[400] Virgil, Georg. iv. 411.

[401] Ex. xxxiii. 13.

[402] Plotin. Ennead. III. ii. 13.

[403] Matt. vi. 28-30.

[404] Acts vii. 53.

[405] Ennead. I. vi. 7.

[406] Meaning, officious meddlers.

[407] Pharsal. vi. 503.

[408] Ps. lxxiii. 28.

[409] Æneid, vii. 310.

[410] Æneid, iii. 438, 439.

[411] Teletis.

[412] The Platonists of the Alexandrian and Athenian schools, from Plotinus to Proclus, are at one in recognising in God three principles or hypostases: 1st, the One or the Good, which is the Father; 2d, the Intelligence or Word, which is the Son; 3d, the Soul, which is the universal principle of life. But as to the nature and order of these hypostases, the Alexandrians are no longer at one with the school of Athens. On the very subtle differences between the Trinity of Plotinus and that of Porphyry, consult M. Jules Simon, ii. 110, and M. Vacherot, ii. 37.—Saisset.

[413] See below, c. 28.

[414] Ennead. v. 1.

[415] John i. 14.

[416] John vi. 60-64.

[417] John viii. 25; or "the beginning," following a different reading from ours.

[418] Ps. lxxiii. 28.

[419] Ps. lxxxiv. 2.

[420] Matt. xxiii. 26.

[421] Rom. viii. 24, 25.

[422] See above, c. 9.

[423] Virgil, Eclog. iv. 13, 14.

[424] Isa. xxix. 14.

[425] 1 Cor. i. 19-25.

[426] According to another reading, "You might have seen it to be," etc.

[427] John i. 1-5.

[428] John i. 14.

[429] Comp. Euseb. Præp. Evan. xiii. 16.

[430] Ennead. iii. 4. 2.

[431] Æneid, vi. 750, 751.

[432] Inductio.

[433] Namely, under Diocletian and Maximian.

[434] Gen. xxii. 18.

[435] Gal. iii. 19.

[436] Ps. lxvii. 1, 2.

[437] John xiv. 6.

[438] Isa. ii. 2, 3.

[439] Luke xxiv. 44-47.

[440] Written in the year 416 or 417.

[441] Ps. lxxxvii. 3.

[442] Ps. xlviii. 1.

[443] Ps. xlvi. 4.

[444] Homine assumto, non Deo consumto.

[445] Quo itur Deus, qua itur homo.

[446] A clause is here inserted to give the etymology of præsentia from præ vensibus.

[447] Another derivation, sententia from sensus, the inward perception of the mind.

[448] Gen. i. 1.

[449] Prov. viii. 27.

[450] Matt. xviii. 10.

[451] A common question among the Epicureans; urged by Velleius in Cic. De Nat. Deor. i. 9; adopted by the Manichæans and spoken to by Augustine in the Conf. xi. 10, 12, also in De Gen. contra Man. i. 3.

[452] The Neo-Platonists.

[453] Number begins at one, but runs on infinitely.

[454] Gal. iv. 26.

[455] 1 Thess. v. 5.

[456] Comp. de Gen. ad lit. i. and iv.

[457] Ver. 35.

[458] Ps. cxlviii. 1-5.

[459] Job xxxviii. 7.

[460] Vives here notes that the Greek theologians and Jerome held, with Plato, that spiritual creatures were made first, and used by God in the creation of things material. The Latin theologians and Basil held that God made all things at once.

[461] John i. 9.

[462] Mali enim nulla natura est: sed amissio boni, mali nomen accepit.

[463] Plutarch (De Plac. Phil. i. 3, and iv. 3) tells us that this opinion was held by Anaximenes of Miletus, the followers of Anaxagoras, and many of the Stoics. Diogenes the Cynic, as well as Diogenes of Apollonia, seems to have adopted the same opinion. See Zeller's Stoics, pp. 121 and 199.

[464] "Ubi lux non est, tenebræ sunt, non quia aliquid sunt tenebræ, sed ipsa lucis absentia tenebræ dicuntur."—Aug. De Gen. contra Man. 7.

[465] Wisdom vii. 22.

[466] The strongly Platonic tinge of this language is perhaps best preserved in a bare literal translation.

[467] Vives remarks that the ancients defined blessedness as an absolutely perfect state in all good, peculiar to God. Perhaps Augustine had a reminiscence of the remarkable discussion in the Tusc. Disp. lib. v., and the definition "Neque ulla alia huic verbo, quum beatum dicimus, subjecta notio est, nisi, secretis malis omnibus, cumulata bonorum complexio."

[468] With this chapter compare the books De Dono Persever. and De Correp. et Gratia.

[469] Matt. xxv. 46.

[470] John viii. 44.

[471] 1 John iii. 8.

[472] Cf. Gen. ad Lit. xi. 27 et seqq.

[473] Ps. xvii. 6.

[474] 1 John iii. 8.

[475] The Manichæans.

[476] Isa. xiv. 12.

[477] Ezek. xxviii. 13.

[478] Job xl. 14 (LXX.).

[479] Ps. civ. 26.

[480] Job. xl. 14 (LXX.).

[481] It must be kept in view that "vice" has, in this passage, the meaning of sinful blemish.

[482] Ps. civ. 26.

[483] Quintilian uses it commonly in the sense of antithesis.

[484] 2 Cor. vi. 7-10.

[485] Ecclus. xxxiii. 15.

[486] Gen. i. 14-18.

[487] The reference is to the Timæus, p. 37 C., where he says, "When the parent Creator perceived this created image of the eternal gods in life and motion, He was delighted, and in His joy considered how He might make it still liker its model."

[488] Jas. i. 17.

[489] The passage referred to is in the Timæus, p. 29 D.: "Let us say what was the cause of the Creator's forming this universe. He was good; and in the good no envy is ever generated about anything whatever. Therefore, being free from envy, He desired that all things should, as much as possible, resemble Himself."

[490] The Manichæans, to wit.

[491] Gen. i. 31.

[492] Proprietas.

[493] This is one of the passages cited by Sir William Hamilton, along with the "Cogito, ergo sum" of Descartes, in confirmation of his proof, that in so far as we are conscious of certain modes of existence, in so far we possess an absolute certainty that we exist. See note A in Hamilton's Reid, p. 744.

[494] Compare the Confessions, xiii. 9.

[495] Ch. 7.

[496] Or aliquot parts.

[497] Comp. Aug. Gen. ad Lit. iv. 2, and De Trinitate, iv. 7.

[498] For passages illustrating early opinions regarding numbers, see Smith's Dict. Art. number.

[499] Wisd. xi. 20.

[500] Prov. xxiv. 16.

[501] Ps. cxix. 164.

[502] Ps. xxxiv. 1.

[503] John xvi. 13.

[504] In Isa. xi. 2, as he shows in his eighth sermon, where this subject is further pursued; otherwise, one might have supposed he referred to Rev. iii. 1.

[505] 1 Cor. xiii. 10.

[506] Augustine refers to John viii. 25; see p. 415. He might rather have referred to Rev. iii. 14.

[507] Ps. civ. 24.

[508] Matt. xxii. 30.

[509] Matt. xviii. 10.

[510] 2 Peter ii. 4.

[511] Eph. v. 8.

[512] Ps. cxlviii. 2.

[513] Matt. iv. 9.

[514] Jas. iv. 6.

[515] 1 Thess. v. 5

[516] Augustine himself published this idea in his Conf. xiii. 32, but afterwards retracted it, as "said without sufficient consideration" (Retract. II. vi. 2). Epiphanius and Jerome ascribe it to Origen.

[517] Gen. i. 6.

[518] Namely, the Audians and Sampsæans, insignificant heretical sects mentioned by Theodoret and Epiphanius.

[519] Ps. xcv. 5.

[520] Vitium: perhaps "fault" most nearly embraces all the uses of this word.

[521] Essentia.

[522] Ex. iii. 14.

[523] Quintilian calls it dura.

[524] With this may be compared the argument of Socrates in the Gorgias, in which it is shown that to escape punishment is worse than to suffer it, and that the greatest of evils is to do wrong and not be chastised.

[525] Eccles. x. 13.

[526] Specie.

[527] Ps. xix. 12.

[528] C. 13.

[529] Rom. v. 5.

[530] Ps. lxxiii. 28.

[531] De Deo Socratis.

[532] Augustine no doubt refers to the interesting account given by Critias, near the beginning of the Timæus, of the conversation of Solon with the Egyptian priests.

[533] Augustine here follows the chronology of Eusebius, who reckons 5611 years from the Creation to the taking of Rome by the Goths; adopting the Septuagint version of the patriarchal ages.

[534] See above, viii. 5.

[535] It is not apparent to what Augustine refers. The Arcadians, according to Macrobius (Saturn. i. 7), divided their year into three months, and the Egyptians divided theirs into three seasons: each of these seasons having four months, it is possible that Augustine may have referred to this. See Wilkinson's excursus on the Egyptian year, in Rawlinson's Herod. Book ii.

[536] The former opinion was held by Democritus and his disciple Epicurus; the latter by Heraclitus, who supposed that "God amused Himself" by thus renewing worlds.

[537] The Alexandrian Neo-Platonists endeavoured in this way to escape from the obvious meaning of the Timæus.

[538] Antoninus says (ii. 14), "All things from eternity are of like forms, and come round in a circle." Cf. also ix. 28, and the references to more ancient philosophical writers in Gataker's notes on these passages.

[539] Eccles. i. 9, 10. So Origen, de Prin. iii. 5, and ii. 3.

[540] Rom. vi. 9.

[541] 1 Thess. iv. 16.

[542] Ps. xii. 7.

[543] Cf. de Trin. v. 17.

[544] Wisdom ix. 13-15.

[545] Gen. i. 1.

[546] Gen. i. 14.

[547] Rom. xii. 3.

[548] Titus i. 2, 3. Augustine here follows the version of Jerome, and not the Vulgate. Comp. Contra Priscill. 6, and de Gen. c. Man. iv. 4.

[549] 2 Cor. x. 12. Here, and in Enar. in Ps. xxxiv., and also in Cont. Faust. xxii. 47, Augustine follows the Greek, and not the Vulgate.

[550] i.e. indefinite, or an indefinite succession of things.

[551] Again in the Timæus.

[552] Wisdom xi. 20.

[553] Isa. xl. 26.

[554] Matt. x. 30.

[555] Ps. cxlvii. 5.

[556] De sæculis sæculorum.

[557] Ps. cxlviii. 4.

[558] Cicero has the same (de Amicitia, 16): "Quonam modo quisquam amicus esse poterit, cui se putabit inimicum esse posse?" He also quotes Scipio to the effect that no sentiment is more unfriendly to friendship than this, that we should love as if some day we were to hate.

[559] C. 30.

[560] Coquæus remarks that this is levelled against the Pelagians.

[561]

"Quando leoni
Fortior eripuit vitam leo? quo nemore unquam
Exspiravit aper majoris dentibus apri?
Indica tigris agit rabida cum tigride pacem
Perpetuam; sævis inter se convenit ursis.
Ast homini," etc.
Juvenal, Sat. xv. 160-5.
—See also the very striking lines which precede these.

[562] See this further discussed in Gen. ad Lit. vii. 35, and in Delitzsch's Bibl. Psychology.

[563] Jer. xxiii. 24.

[564] Wisdom viii. 1.

[565] 1 Cor. iii. 7.

[566] 1 Cor. xv. 38.

[567] Jer. i. 5.

[568] Compare de Trin. iii. 13-16.

[569] See Book xi. 5.

[570] "The Deity, desirous of making the universe in all respects resemble the most beautiful and entirely perfect of intelligible objects, formed it into one visible animal, containing within itself all the other animals with which it is naturally allied."—Timæus, c. xi.

[571] Ps. xlvi. 8.

[572] Ps. xxv. 10.

[573] Matt. x. 28.

[574] On this question compare the 24th and 25th epistles of Jerome, de obitu Leæ, and de obitu Blesillæ filiæ. Coquæus.

[575] Ps. xlix. 12.

[576] On which see further in de Peccat. Mer. i. 67 et seq.

[577] De Baptismo Parvulorum is the second half of the title of the book, de Peccatorum Meritis et Remissione.

[578] 1 Cor. xv. 56.

[579] Rom. vii. 12, 13.

[580] Literally, unregenerate.

[581] John iii. 5.

[582] Matt. x. 32.

[583] Matt. xvi. 25.

[584] Ps. cxvi. 15.

[585] Much of this paradoxical statement about death is taken from Seneca. See, among other places, his epistle on the premeditation of future dangers, the passage beginning, "Quotidie morimur, quotidie enim demitur aliqua pars vitæ."

[586] Ecclus. xi. 28.

[587] Ps. vi. 5.

[588] Gen. ii. 17.

[589] Gal. v. 17.

[590] Gen. ii. 17.

[591] Gen. iii. 9.

[592] Gen. iii. 19.

[593] Wisdom ix. 15.

[594] A translation of part of the Timæus, given in a little book of Cicero's, De Universo.

[595] Plato, in the Timæus, represents the Demiurgus as constructing the kosmos or universe to be a complete representation of the idea of animal. He planted in its centre a soul, spreading outwards so as to pervade the whole body of the kosmos; and then he introduced into it those various species of animals which were contained in the idea of animal. Among these animals stand first the celestial, the gods embodied in the stars; and of these the oldest is the earth, set in the centre of all, close packed round the great axis which traverses the centre of the kosmos.—See the Timæus and Grote's Plato, iii. 250 et seq.

[596] On these numbers see Grote's Plato, iii. 254.

[597] Virgil, Æneid, vi. 750, 751.

[598] Book x. 30.

[599] A catena of passages, showing that this is the catholic Christian faith, will be found in Bull's State of Man before the Fall (Works, vol. ii.).

[600] 1 Cor. xv. 42.

[601] Prov. iii. 18.

[602] 1 Cor. x. 4.

[603] Cant. iv. 13.

[604] Ps. xlii. 6.

[605] Ps. lix. 9.

[606] Those who wish to pursue this subject will find a pretty full collection of opinions in the learned commentary on Genesis by the Jesuit Pererius. Philo was, of course, the leading culprit, but Ambrose and other Church fathers went nearly as far. Augustine condemns the Seleucians for this among other heresies, that they denied a visible Paradise.—De Hæres. 59.

[607] Tobit xii. 19.

[608] Gen. ii. 17.

[609] Rom. viii. 10, 11.

[610] Gen. iii. 19.

[611] "In uno commune factum est omnibus."

[612] Rom. viii. 28, 29.

[613] 1 Cor. xv. 42-45.

[614] Gen. ii. 7.

[615] 1 Cor. xv. 47-49.

[616] Gal. iii. 27.

[617] Rom. viii. 24.

[618] 1 Cor. xv. 21, 22.

[619] Gen. ii. 7.

[620] John xx. 22.

[621] Gen. ii. 6.

[622] 2 Cor. iv. 16.

[623] 1 Cor. ii. 11.

[624] Eccles. iii. 21.

[625] Ps. cxlviii. 8.

[626] Matt. xxviii. 19.

[627] John iv. 24.

[628] "Breath," Eng. ver.

[629] Gen. i. 24.

[630] Ecclus. xxiv. 3.

[631] Rev. iii. 16.

[632] 1 Cor. xv. 44-49.

Transcriber's Notes: Obvious punctuation and spelling errors have been fixed throughout.
Inconsistent hyphenation is as in the original.
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Re: The City of God: The Works of Aurelius Augustine

Postby admin » Sat Mar 24, 2018 11:47 pm

VOLUME II.

_______________

Notes:

[1] This book is referred to in another work of Augustine's (contra Advers. Legis et Prophet. i. 18), which was written about the year 420.

[2] 1 Cor. xv. 39.

[3] Rom. iii. 20.

[4] Gal. iii. 11.

[5] John. i. 14.

[6] The Apollinarians.

[7] John. xx. 13.

[8] Gal. v. 19-21.

[9] Wisd. ix. 15.

[10] 2 Cor. iv. 16.

[11] 2 Cor. v. 1-4.

[12] Æneid, vi. 730-32.

[13] Ib. 733, 734.

[14] On the punishment of the devil, see the De Agone Christi, 3-5, and De Nat. Boni, 33.

[15] Rom. iii. 7.

[16] John xiv. 6.

[17] 1 Cor. iii. 3.

[18] 1 Cor. ii. 11-14.

[19] 1 Cor. iii. 1.

[20] Rom. iii. 20.

[21] Gen. xlvi. 27.

[22] See Augustine, De Hæres. 46.

[23] Tusc. Quæst. iv. 6.

[24] Æneid, vi. 719-21.

[25] Tit. i. 8, according to Greek and Vulgate.

[26] John xxi. 15-17. On these synonyms see the commentaries in loc.

[27] Ps. xi. 5.

[28] 1 John ii. 15

[29] 2 Tim. iii. 2.

[30] Phil. i. 23.

[31] Ps. cxix. 20.

[32] Wisd. vi. 20.

[33] Ps. xxxii. 11.

[34] Ps. iv. 7.

[35] Ps. xvi. 11.

[36] Phil. ii. 12.

[37] Rom. xi. 20.

[38] 2 Cor. xi. 3.

[39] Æneid, vi. 733.

[40] Isa. lvii. 21.

[41] Matt. vii. 12.

[42] Ecclus. vii. 13.

[43] Luke ii. 14.

[44] Cat. i. 2.

[45] Ter. Andr. ii. 1, 6.

[46] Æneid, vi. 733.

[47] Æneid, v. 278.

[48] 2 Cor. vii. 8-11.

[49] Tusc. Disp. iii. 32.

[50] C. 4, 5.

[51] Rom. viii. 23.

[52] 1 Cor. xv. 54.

[53] Matt. xxiv. 12.

[54] Matt. x. 22.

[55] 1 John i. 8.

[56] 2 Cor. ix. 7.

[57] Gal. vi. 1.

[58] Ps. xxvi. 2.

[59] Matt. xxvi. 75.

[60] Jas. i. 2.

[61] 1 Cor. iv. 9.

[62] Phil. iii. 14.

[63] Rom. xii. 15.

[64] 2 Cor. vii. 5.

[65] Phil. i. 23.

[66] Rom. i. 11-13.

[67] 2 Cor. xi. 1-3.

[68] Rom. ix. 2.

[69] Rom. x. 3.

[70] 2 Cor. xii. 21.

[71] Mark iii. 5.

[72] John xi. 15.

[73] John xi. 35.

[74] Luke xxii. 15.

[75] Matt. xxvi. 38.

[76] Rom. i. 31.

[77] Ps. lxix. 20.

[78] Crantor, an Academic philosopher quoted by Cicero, Tusc. Quæst. iii. 6.

[79] 1 John i. 8.

[80] 1 John iv. 18.

[81] Rom. viii. 15.

[82] Ps. xix. 9.

[83] Ps. ix. 18.

[84] Matt. v. 28.

[85] Gen. i. 28.

[86] Gen. vi. 6, and 1 Sam. xv. 11.

[87] Eccles. vii. 29.

[88] John viii. 36.

[89] 1 Tim. ii. 14.

[90] Rom. v. 12.

[91] Gen. iii. 12.

[92] Ecclus. x. 13.

[93] Matt. vii. 18.

[94] Defecit.

[95] Ps. lxxiii. 18.

[96] Gen. iii. 5.

[97] Prov. xviii. 12.

[98] That is to say, it was an obvious and indisputable transgression.

[99] Ps. lxxxiii. 16.

[100] Gen. iii. 12, 13.

[101] Phil. ii. 8.

[102] Ps. cxliv. 4.

[103] Cicero, Tusc. Quæst. iii. 6 and iv. 9. So Aristotle.

[104] 1 Thess. iv. 4.

[105] Gen. ii. 25.

[106] An error which arose from the words, "The eyes of them both were opened," Gen. iii. 7.—See De Genesi ad lit. ii. 40.

[107] Gen. iii. 6.

[108] This doctrine and phraseology of Augustine being important in connection with his whole theory of the fall, we give some parallel passages to show that the words are not used at random: De Genesi ad lit. xi. 41; De Corrept. et Gratia, xi. 31; and especially Cont. Julian. iv. 82.

[109] Gen. iii. 7.

[110] See Plato's Republic, book iv.

[111] The one word being the Latin form, the other the Greek, of the same adjective.

[112] By Diogenes Laertius, vi. 69, and Cicero, De Offic. i. 41.

[113] Gen. i. 28.

[114] Ps. cxxxviii. 3.

[115] Gen. i. 27, 28.

[116] Matt. xix. 4, 5.

[117] Eph. v. 25.

[118] Luke xx. 34.

[119] See Virgil, Georg. iii. 136.

[120] Rom. i. 26.

[121] The position of Calama is described by Augustine as between Constantine and Hippo, but nearer Hippo.—Contra Lit. Petil. ii. 228. A full description of it is given in Poujoulat's Histoire de S. Augustin, i. 340, who says it was one of the most important towns of Numidia, eighteen leagues south of Hippo, and represented by the modern Ghelma. It is to its bishop, Possidius, we owe the contemporary Life of Augustine.

[122] Andr. ii. 1, 5.

[123] 1 Tim. i. 5.

[124] Compare Basil's Homily on Paradise, and John Damascene, De Fide Orthod. ii. 11.

[125] Ps. cxi. 2.

[126] Ps. iii. 3.

[127] Ps. xviii. 1.

[128] Rom. i. 21-25.

[129] 1 Cor. xv. 28.

[130] 1 Cor. xv. 46.

[131] Rom. ix. 21.

[132] Gen. iv. 17.

[133] Comp. De Trin. xv. c. 15.

[134] Gal. iv. 21-31.

[135] Rom. ix. 22, 23.

[136] Wisdom viii. 1.

[137] Lucan, Phar. i. 95.

[138] Gal. v. 17.

[139] Gal. vi. 2.

[140] 1 Thess. v. 14, 15.

[141] Gal. vi. 1.

[142] Eph. iv. 26.

[143] Matt. xviii. 15.

[144] 1 Tim. v. 20.

[145] Heb. xii. 14.

[146] Matt. xviii. 35.

[147] Rom. vi. 12, 13.

[148] Gen. iv. 6, 7.

[149] Literally, "division."

[150] 1 John iii. 12.

[151] We alter the pronoun to suit Augustine's interpretation.

[152] Gal. v. 17.

[153] Rom. vii. 17.

[154] Rom. vi. 13.

[155] Gen. iii. 16.

[156] Eph. v. 28, 29.

[157] C. Faustum. Man. xii. c. 9.

[158] Gen. iv. 17.

[159] Gen. iv. 25.

[160] Lamech, according to the LXX.

[161] Ex. xii. 37.

[162] Virgil, Æneid, xii. 899, 900. Compare the Iliad, v. 302, and Juvenal, xv. 65 et seqq.

"Terra malos homines nunc educat atque pusillos."
[163] Plin. Hist. Nat. vii. 16.

[164] See the account given by Herodotus (i. 67) of the discovery of the bones of Orestes, which, as the story goes, gave a stature of seven cubits.

[165] Pliny, Hist. Nat. vii. 49, merely reports what he had read in Hellanicus about the Epirotes of Etolia.

[166] "Our own mss.," of which Augustine here speaks, were the Latin versions of the Septuagint used by the Church before Jerome's was received; the "Hebrew mss." were the versions made from the Hebrew text. Compare De Doct. Christ. ii. 15 et seqq.

[167] Jerome (De Quæst. Heb. in Gen.) says it was a question famous in all the churches.—Vives.

[168] "Quos in auctoritatem celebriorum Ecclesia suscepit."

[169] See below, book xviii. c. 42-44.

[170] C. 8.

[171] On this subject see Wilkinson's note to the second book (appendix) of Rawlinson's Herodotus, where all available references are given.

[172] One hundred and eighty-seven is the number given in the Hebrew, and one hundred and sixty-seven in the Septuagint; but notwithstanding the confusion, the argument of Augustine is easily followed.

[173] Gen. vii. 10, 11 (in our version the seventeenth day).

[174] Gen. viii. 4, 5.

[175] Ps. xc. 10.

[176] Gen. iv. 1.

[177] Gen. iv. 25.

[178] Gen. v. 6.

[179] Gen. v. 8.

[180] Matt. i.

[181] His own children being the children of his sister, and therefore his nephews.

[182] This was allowed by the Egyptians and Athenians, never by the Romans.

[183] Both in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, though not uniformly, nor in Latin commonly.

[184] Gen. v. 2.

[185] Luke xx. 35, 36.

[186] Gen. iv. 18-22.

[187] Gen. iv. 26.

[188] Rom. viii. 24, 25.

[189] Rom. x. 13.

[190] Jer. xvii. 5.

[191] Æneid, i. 288.

[192] Æneid, iii. 97.

[193] Luke xx. 34.

[194] Rom. ix. 5.

[195] Eusebius, Jerome, Bede, and others, who follow the Septuagint, reckon only 2242 years, which Vives explains by supposing Augustine to have made a copyist's error.

[196] Transgreditur.

[197] Ps. li. 3.

[198] Gen. v. 1.

[199] Ps. xlix. 11.

[200] Ps. lxxiii. 20.

[201] Ps. lii. 8.

[202] Ps. xl. 4.

[203] Or, according to another reading, "Which I briefly said in these verses in praise of a taper."

[204] Cant. ii. 4.

[205] See De Doct. Christ. i. 28.

[206] Ps. civ. 4.

[207] On these kinds of devils, see the note of Vives in loc., or Lecky's Hist. of Rationalism, i. 26, who quotes from Maury's Histoire de la Magie, that the Dusii were Celtic spirits, and are the origin of our "Deuce."

[208] 2 Pet. ii. 4.

[209] Mark i. 2.

[210] Mal. ii. 7.

[211] Gen. vi. 1-4. Lactantius (Inst. ii. 15), Sulpicius Severus (Hist. i. 2), and others suppose from this passage that angels had commerce with the daughters of men. See further references in the Commentary of Pererius in loc.

[212] Aquila lived in the time of Hadrian, to whom he is said to have been related. He was excommunicated from the Church for the practice of astrology; and is best known by his translation of the Hebrew Scriptures into Greek, which he executed with great care and accuracy, though he has been charged with falsifying passages to support the Jews in their opposition to Christianity.

[213] Ps. lxxxii. 6.

[214] Baruch iii. 26-28.

[215] Lit.: "The Lord thought and reconsidered."

[216] Gen. vi. 5-7.

[217] 1 Tim. ii. 5.

[218] In his second homily on Genesis.

[219] Acts vii. 22.

[220] Gen. vi. 19, 20.

[221] Gen. ix. 25.

[222] Gen. ix. 26, 27.

[223] See Contra Faust. xii. c. 22 sqq.

[224] Song of Solomon i. 3.

[225] 1 Cor. xi. 19.

[226] Prov. x. 5 (LXX.).

[227] Matt. vii. 20.

[228] Phil. i. 18.

[229] Isa. v. 7.

[230] Matt. xx. 22.

[231] Matt. xxvi. 39.

[232] 2 Cor. xiii. 4.

[233] 1 Cor. i. 25.

[234] Augustine here follows the Greek version, which introduces the name Elisa among the sons of Japheth, though not found in the Hebrew. It is not found in the Complutensian Greek translation, nor in the mss. used by Jerome.

[235] Gen. x. 21.

[236] Gen. xi. 1-9.

[237] Ex. x.

[238] Ps. xcv. 6.

[239] Job xv. 13.

[240] 1 Cor. iii. 9.

[241] Gen. i. 26.

[242] Gen. xi. 6.

[243] Virgil, Æneid, iv. 592.

[244] Here Augustine remarks on the addition of the particle ne to the word non, which he has made to bring out the sense.

[245] Gen. i. 24.

[246] Pliny, Hist. Nat. vii. 2; Aulus Gellius, Noct. Att. ix. 4.

[247] From πυγμή, a cubit.

[248] Gen. x. 25.

[249] Ps. xiv. 3, 4, liii. 3, 4.

[250] Gen. x. 25.

[251] Josh. xxiv. 2.

[252] Gen. xi. 27-29.

[253] Gen. xi. 31.

[254] Gen. xxiv. 10.

[255] Judith v. 5-9.

[256] Gen. xi. 32.

[257] Gen. xii. 1.

[258] Gen. xii. 4.

[259] Gen. xi. 1.

[260] Gen. xii. 1.

[261] Acts vii. 2, 3.

[262] Acts vii. 4.

[263] Gen. xii. 1.

[264] Various reading, "of our Lord Jesus Christ."

[265] Gen. xii. 1-3.

[266] Acts vii. 2.

[267] Gen. xii. 7.

[268] Gen. xiii. 8, 9.

[269] Gen. xiii. 14-17.

[270] Various reading, "the express promise."

[271] Ps. cx. 4.

[272] Rom. iv. 3; Gen. xv. 6.

[273] Gen. xv. 7.

[274] Gen. xv. 9-21.

[275] Luke i. 34.

[276] Luke i. 35.

[277] Various reading, "who are to remain."

[278] Matt. xxiv. 21.

[279] Gen. xi. 32.

[280] Gal. iii. 17.

[281] 1 Cor. vii. 4.

[282] Gen. xvi. 6.

[283] Gen. xv. 4.

[284] Gen. xvii. 1-22. The passage is given in full by Augustine.

[285] Gen. xvii. 14.

[286] Rom. v. 12, 19.

[287] Gen. ii. 17.

[288] Ecclus. xv. 17.

[289] Rom. iv. 15.

[290] Ps. cxix. 119. Augustine and the Vulgate follow the LXX.

[291] Gen. xvii. 5, 6, 16.

[292] Heb. xi. 11.

[293] Heb. xi. 12.

[294] Gen. xviii. 2, 3.

[295] Gen. xix. 2.

[296] Gen. xix. 16-19.

[297] Gen. xix. 21.

[298] Heb. xiii. 2.

[299] Gen. xviii. 18.

[300] Gen. xx. 12.

[301] Gen. xxi. 6.

[302] Gal. iv. 24-26.

[303] Gen. xxi. 12, 13.

[304] Rom. ix. 7, 8.

[305] Heb. xi. 17-19.

[306] Rom. viii. 32.

[307] Gen. xxii. 10-12.

[308] Gen. xxii. 14.

[309] Gen. xxii. 15-18.

[310] Gen. xvii. 17.

[311] Gen. xxiv. 2, 3.

[312] Gen. xvi. 3.

[313] Gen. xxv. 1.

[314] Gen. xxv. 5, 6.

[315] Rom. ix. 7, 8.

[316] Gen. xxv. 23.

[317] Rom. ix. 10-13.

[318] Gen. xxvi. 1-5.

[319] Gen. xxvi. 24.

[320] Gen. xxv. 27.

[321] Gen. xxvii. 27-29.

[322] Gen. xxvii. 33.

[323] Gen. xxviii. 1-4.

[324] Gen. xxi. 12.

[325] Beer-sheba.

[326] Gen. xxviii. 10-19.

[327] John i. 47, 51.

[328] Gen. xxxii. 28: Israel = "a prince of God;" ver. 30: Peniel = "the face of God."

[329] Ps. xviii. 45.

[330] Augustine here follows the Septuagint, which at Gen. xlvi. 20 adds these names to those of Manasseh and Ephraim, and at ver. 27 gives the whole number as seventy-five.

[331] Gen. l. 22, 23.

[332] Gen. l. 23.

[333] Gen. xlvi. 8.

[334] Gen. xlix. 8-12.

[335] John x. 18.

[336] John ii. 19.

[337] John xix. 30.

[338] Gen. xlix. 12.

[339] 1 Pet. ii. 2; 1 Cor. iii. 2.

[340] Gen. xxv. 23.

[341] Gen. xlviii. 19.

[342] Infans, from in, not, and fari, to speak.

[343] "Has pointed."

[344] Gen. xii. 1, 2.

[345] Gen. xii. 3.

[346] Gal. iv. 22-31.

[347] Heb. viii. 8-10.

[348] 1 Sam. ii. 1-10.

[349] Ps. xlviii. 2.

[350] 2 Tim. ii. 9; Eph. vi. 20.

[351] Luke ii. 25-30.

[352] Rom. iii. 26?

[353] Gal. vi. 3.

[354] Rom. x. 3.

[355] Ps. xciv. 11; 1 Cor. iii. 20.

[356] Ps. vi. 2.

[357] Rom. iii. 2.

[358] Rev. i. 4.

[359] Prov. ix. 1.

[360] "By whom we see her made fruitful."

[361] Col. iii. 1-3.

[362] Rom. viii. 32.

[363] Ps. xvi. 10; Acts ii. 27, 31.

[364] 2 Cor. viii. 9.

[365] Jas. iv. 6; 1 Pet. v. 5.

[366] "For the poor man is the same as the beggar."

[367] Phil. iii. 7, 8.

[368] Matt. xix. 27, 28.

[369] 1 Cor. iv. 7.

[370] 1 John iv. 7.

[371] 2 Cor. v. 10.

[372] Ps. lxxiv. 12.

[373] Acts x. 42.

[374] Eph. iv. 9, 10.

[375] Matt. xxiv. 13.

[376] 1 Cor. 12.

[377] 1 Sam. ii. 27-36.

[378] Ps. xvii. 8.

[379] Isa. x. 21.

[380] Rom. xi. 5.

[381] Isa. xxviii. 22; Rom. ix 28.

[382] Ps. xii. 6.

[383] Ps. lxxxiv. 10.

[384] 1 Tim. ii. 5.

[385] 1 Pet. ii. 9.

[386] 1 Cor. x. 17.

[387] Rom. xii. 1.

[388] John vi. 51.

[389] Heb. vii. 11, 27.

[390] Matt. xxiv. 15.

[391] 1 Sam. xxiv. 5, 6.

[392] 1 Sam. xiii. 13, 14.

[393] Heb. ix. 15.

[394] Luke xix. 10.

[395] Eph. i. 4.

[396] 1 Sam. xv. 23.

[397] 1 Sam. xv. 26-29.

[398] Rom. i. 3.

[399] 1 Tim. ii. 5.

[400] Ps. cx. 1.

[401] Gen. xxi. 10.

[402] Gal. iv. 25.

[403] 2 Cor. iii. 15, 16.

[404] 1 Sam. vii. 9-12.

[405] 2 Sam. vii. 8-16.

[406] Rom. i. 3.

[407] Ps. lxxii. 8.

[408] 1 Cor. iii. 17.

[409] Ps. lxxxix. 3, 4.

[410] Ps. lxxxix. 19-29.

[411] Phil. ii. 7.

[412] Matt. i. 1, 18; Luke i. 27.

[413] 2 Sam. vii, 14, 15.

[414] Ps. cv. 15.

[415] Ps. lxxxix. 30-33.

[416] Acts ix. 4.

[417] Ps. lxxxix. 34, 35.

[418] Ps. lxxxix. 36, 37.

[419] Ps. lxxxix. 38.

[420] Ps. lxxxix. 38.

[421] Ps. lxxxix. 39-45.

[422] Ps. lxxxix. 46.

[423] Ps. xiii. 1.

[424] Ps. lxxxix. 46, 47.

[425] Ps. lxxxix. 47.

[426] Ps. cxliv. 4.

[427] Ps. lxxxix. 48.

[428] Rom. vi. 9.

[429] John x. 18.

[430] Ps. lxxxix. 49-51.

[431] Rom. iii. 28, 29.

[432] Acts xiii. 46.

[433] Matt. vii. 7, 8.

[434] Another reading, "consummation."

[435] See above, chap. viii.

[436] 2 Sam. vii. 19.

[437] 2 Sam. vii. 8.

[438] 2 Sam. vii. 27.

[439] Ps. cxxvii. 1.

[440] 2 Sam. vii. 10, 11.

[441] 2 Sam. vii. 10, 11.

[442] Judg. iii. 30.

[443] Israel = "a prince of God;" Peniel = "the face of God" (Gen. xxxii. 28-30).

[444] Ps. cx. 1, quoted in Matt. xxii. 44.

[445] 1 Kings xiii. 2; fulfilled 2 Kings xxiii. 15-17.

[446] Ps. xlv. 1-9.

[447] Ps. xlv. 9-17.

[448] Ps. xlv. 7.

[449] Ps. xlviii. 2.

[450] Ps. xviii. 43.

[451] Rom. x. 5.

[452] Ps. lxxxvii. 5.

[453] Ps. xlv. 16.

[454] Ps. cx. 1.

[455] Ps. cx. 2.

[456] Ps. cx. 4.

[457] Ps. cx. 4.

[458] Ps. xxii. 16, 17.

[459] Ps. xxii. 18, 19.

[460] Ps. iii. 5.

[461] Ps. xli. 5-8.

[462] Ps. xli. 9.

[463] Ps. xli. 10.

[464] 2 Tim. iv. 1; 2 Pet. iv. 5.

[465] John vi. 70.

[466] 1 Cor. xii. 12.

[467] Matt. xxv. 35.

[468] Matt. xxv. 40.

[469] Acts i. 17.

[470] Ps. xvi. 9, 10.

[471] Ps. lxviii. 20.

[472] Matt. i. 21.

[473] Ps. lxix. 21; Matt. xxvii. 34, 48.

[474] Ps. lxix. 22, 23.

[475] Ps. xxxii. 1.

[476] Sallust, Bel. Cat. c. xi.

[477] Wisd. ii. 12-21.

[478] Ecclus. xxxvi. 1-5.

[479] Prov. i. 11-13.

[480] Matt. xxi. 38.

[481] Ch. 4.

[482] Prov. ix. 1-5 (ver. 1 is quoted above in ch. 4).

[483] 1 Cor. i. 27.

[484] Prov. ix. 6.

[485] Eccles. ii. 24, iii. 13, v. 18, viii. 15.

[486] Ps. xl. 6.

[487] Eccles. vii. 2.

[488] Eccles. vii. 4.

[489] Eccles. x. 16, 17.

[490] Rom. v. 5.

[491] Ps. lxix. 6. ?

[492] Cant. i. 4.

[493] Cant. vii. 6.

[494] 1 Kings xix. 10, 14, 15.

[495] 2 Tim. 16.

[496] Matt. xi. 13.

[497] Sallust, Bell. Cat. c. 8.

[498] In the Hebrew text, Gen. xxv. 7, a hundred and seventy-five years.

[499] Gen. xlix. 10.

[500] Ἄρης and παγος.

[501] 1 Cor. xv. 46, 47.

[502] The priests who officiated at the Lupercalia.

[503] Æneid, viii. 321.

[504] Isa. xlviii. 20.

[505] Virgil, Eclogue, viii. 70.

[506] Virgil, Eclogue, v. 11.

[507] Varro, De Lingua Latina, v. 43.

[508] Æneid, vi. 767.

[509] Hos. i. 1.

[510] Amos i. 1.

[511] Isa. i. 1. Isaiah's father was Amoz, a different name.

[512] Mic. i. 1.

[513] The chronicles of Eusebius and Jerome.

[514] Hos. i. 10.

[515] Hos. i. 11.

[516] Gal. ii. 14-20.

[517] Hos. iii. 4.

[518] Hos. iii. 5.

[519] Rom. i. 3.

[520] Hos. vi. 2.

[521] Col. iii. 1.

[522] Amos iv. 12, 13.

[523] Amos ix. 11, 12; Acts xv. 15-17.

[524] Isa. lii. 13-liii. 13. Augustine quotes these passages in full.

[525] Isa. liv. 1-5.

[526] Mic. iv. 1-3.

[527] Mic. v. 2-4.

[528] Joel ii. 28, 29.

[529] Obad. 17.

[530] Obad. 21.

[531] Col. i. 13.

[532] Nah. i. 14-ii. 1.

[533] Hab. ii. 2, 3.

[534] Hab. iii. 2.

[535] Luke xxiii. 34.

[536] Hab. iii. 3.

[537] Ps. lvii. 5, 11.

[538] Hab. iii. 4.

[539] John iii. 17.

[540] Joel ii. 13.

[541] Matt. v. 4.

[542] Matt. x. 27.

[543] Ps. cxvi. 16.

[544] Rom. xii. 12.

[545] Heb. xi. 13, 16.

[546] Rom. x. 3.

[547] Ps. xl. 2, 3.

[548] Jer. ix. 23, 24, as in 1 Cor. i. 31.

[549] Lam. iv. 20.

[550] Bar. iii. 35-37.

[551] Jer. xxiii. 5, 6.

[552] Jer. xvi. 19.

[553] Jer. xvii. 9.

[554] Jer. xxxi. 31; see Bk. xvii. 3.

[555] Zeph. iii. 8.

[556] Zeph. ii. 11.

[557] Zeph. iii. 9-12.

[558] Isa. x. 22; Rom. ix. 27.

[559] Dan. vii. 13, 14.

[560] Ezek. xxxiv. 23.

[561] Ezek. xxxvii. 22-24.

[562] Hag. ii. 6.

[563] Zech. ix. 9, 10.

[564] Zech. ix. 11.

[565] Ps. xl. 2.

[566] Mal. i. 10, 11.

[567] Mal. ii. 5-7.

[568] Mal. iii. 1, 2.

[569] John ii. 19.

[570] Mal. iii. 13-16.

[571] Mal. iii. 17-iv. 3.

[572] Esdras iii. and iv.

[573] Acts vii. 22.

[574] Heb. xi. 7; 1 Pet. iii. 20, 21.

[575] Jude 14.

[576] Ex. xx. 12.

[577] Ex. xx. 13-15, the order as in Mark x. 19.

[578] Var. reading, "both in Greek and Latin."

[579] Jon. iii. 4.

[580] Hag. ii. 9.

[581] Hag. ii. 7.

[582] Matt. xxii. 14.

[583] Gen. xlix. 10.

[584] Isa. vii. 14, as in Matt. i. 23.

[585] Isa. x. 22, as in Rom. ix. 27, 28.

[586] Ps. lxix. 22, 23; Rom. xi. 9, 10.

[587] Ps. lxix. 10, 11.

[588] Rom. xi. 11.

[589] 1 Tim. ii. 5.

[590] Hag. ii. 9.

[591] Hag. ii. 9.

[592] 1 Cor. x. 4; Ex. xvii. 6.

[593] Hag. ii. 7.

[594] Eph. i. 4.

[595] Matt. xxii. 11-14.

[596] Matt. xiii. 47-50.

[597] Ps. xl. 5.

[598] Matt. iii 2, iv. 17.

[599] Luke vi. 13.

[600] Isa. ii. 3.

[601] Luke xxiv. 45-47.

[602] Acts i. 7, 8.

[603] Matt. x. 28.

[604] Heb. ii. 4.

[605] Rom. viii. 28.

[606] Ps. xciv. 19.

[607] Rom. xii. 12.

[608] 2 Tim. iii. 12.

[609] 2 Tim. ii. 19.

[610] Rom. viii. 29.

[611] Ps. xciv. 19.

[612] 1 John iii. 12.

[613] Isa. xi. 4; 2 Thess. i. 9.

[614] Acts i. 6, 7.

[615] Ps. lxxii. 8.

[616] Acts xvii. 30, 31.

[617] Isa. ii. 3.

[618] Luke xxiv. 47.

[619] Not extant.

[620] Alluding to the vexed question whether virtue could be taught.

[621] The prima naturæ, or πρῶτα κατὰ φύσιν of the Stoics.

[622] Frequently called the Middle Academy; the New beginning with Carneades.

[623] Hab. ii. 4.

[624] Ps. xciv. 11, and 1 Cor. iii. 20.

[625] Wisdom ix. 15.

[626] Cicero, Tusc. Quæst. iii. 8.

[627] Gal. v. 17.

[628] Rom. viii. 24.

[629] Terent. Adelph. v. 4.

[630] Eunuch. i. 1.

[631] In Verrem, ii. 1. 15.

[632] Matt. x. 36.

[633] Ps. xxv. 17.

[634] Job vii. 1.

[635] Matt. xvii. 7.

[636] Matt. xxiv. 12.

[637] 2 Cor. xi. 14.

[638] Ps. cxlvii. 12-14.

[639] Rom. vi. 22.

[640] He refers to the giant Cacus.

[641] Æneid, viii. 195.

[642] John viii. 44.

[643] 1 Tim. v. 8.

[644] Gen. i. 26.

[645] Servus, "a slave," from servare, "to preserve."

[646] Dan. ix.

[647] John viii. 34.

[648] 2 Pet. ii. 19.

[649] The patriarchs.

[650] 1 Cor. xiii. 9.

[651] Hab. ii. 4.

[652] 2 Cor. v. 6.

[653] Ch. 6.

[654] 1 Tim. iii. 1.

[655] Augustine's words are: "ἐπι, quippe 'super;' σκοπός, vero, 'intentio' est: επισκοπεῖν, si velimus, latine 'superintendere' possumus dicere."

[656] Ch. 21.

[657] Ex. xxii. 20.

[658] Gen. xxii. 18.

[659] Ex. xxii. 20.

[660] Ps. xcvi. 5.

[661] Augustine here warns his readers against a possible misunderstanding of the Latin word for "alone" (soli), which might be rendered "the sun."

[662] Ps. xvi. 2.

[663] Ps. cxliv. 15.

[664] 1 Tim. ii. 2; var. reading, "purity."

[665] Jer. xxix. 7.

[666] Matt. vi. 12.

[667] Jas. ii. 17.

[668] Gal. v. 6.

[669] Wisdom ix. 15.

[670] Job vii. 1.

[671] Jas. iv. 6; 1 Pet. v. 5.

[672] Gratia meritorum.

[673] Matt. viii. 29.

[674] Rom. ix. 14.

[675] Rom. xi. 33.

[676] Ps. cxliv. 4.

[677] Eccles. i. 2, 3.

[678] Eccles. ii. 13, 14.

[679] Eccles. viii. 14.

[680] Eccles. xii. 13, 14.

[681] Rom. iii. 20-22.

[682] Matt. xiii. 52.

[683] Matt. xi. 22.

[684] Matt. xi. 24.

[685] Matt. xii. 41, 42.

[686] Augustine quotes the whole passage, Matt. xiii. 37-43.

[687] Matt. xix. 28.

[688] Matt. xii. 27.

[689] 1 Cor. xv. 10.

[690] 1 Cor. vi. 3.

[691] Ep. 199.

[692] Matt. xxv. 34-41, given in full.

[693] John v. 22-24.

[694] John v. 25, 26.

[695] Matt. viii. 22.

[696] Cor. v. 14, 15.

[697] Ps. ci. 1.

[698] John v. 28, 29.

[699] Rev. xx. 1-6. The whole passage is quoted.

[700] Pet. iii. 8.

[701] Serm. 259.

[702] Milliarii.

[703] Mark iii. 27; "Vasa" for "goods."

[704] Matt. xix. 29.

[705] 2 Cor. vi. 10.

[706] Ps. cv. 8.

[707] Col. i. 13.

[708] 2 Tim. ii. 19.

[709] Ps. cxxiii. 2.

[710] Rev. xx. 9, 10.

[711] 1 John ii. 19.

[712] Matt. xxiv. 12.

[713] Between His first and second coming.

[714] Matt. xxv. 34.

[715] Matt. xxviii. 20.

[716] Matt. xiii. 39-41.

[717] Matt. v. 19.

[718] Matt. xxiii. 3.

[719] Matt. v. 20.

[720] Col. iii. 1, 2.

[721] Phil. iii. 20.

[722] Phil. ii. 21.

[723] Matt. xviii. 18.

[724] 1 Cor. v. 12.

[725] Rev. xx. 4.

[726] Rev. xiv. 13.

[727] Rom. xiv. 9.

[728] 2 Cor. vi. 14.

[729] And, as Augustine remarks, are therefore called cadavera, from cadere, "to fall."

[730] Col. iii. 1.

[731] Rom. vi. 4.

[732] Eph. v. 14.

[733] Ecclus. ii. 7.

[734] Rom. xiv. 4.

[735] 1 Cor. x. 12.

[736] 1 Peter ii. 9.

[737] Matt. xxv. 41.

[738] Ps. lxix. 9.

[739] Isa. xxvi. 11.

[740] 2 Thess. ii. 8.

[741] Ch. 24.

[742] 1 Cor. vii. 31, 32.

[743] Col. iii. 3.

[744] Matt. viii. 22.

[745] Rom. viii. 10.

[746] "Apud inferos," i.e. in hell, in the sense in which the word is used in the Psalms and in the Creed.

[747] Matt. xxv. 46.

[748] Rev. xxi. 1.

[749] Rev. xv. 2.

[750] Rev. xxi. 2-5.

[751] Isa. xlv. 8.

[752] Ps. xlii. 3.

[753] Ps. vi. 6.

[754] Ps. xxxviii. 9.

[755] Ps. xxxix. 2.

[756] 2 Cor. v. 4.

[757] Rom. viii. 23.

[758] Rom. ix. 2.

[759] Augustine therefore read νεικος, and not with the Vulgate, νίκη.

[760] 1 Cor. xv. 55.

[761] 1 John i. 8.

[762] 2 Pet. iii. 3-13. The whole passage is quoted by Augustine.

[763] 2 Thess. ii. 1-11. Whole passage given in the Latin. In ver. 3 refuga is used instead of the Vulgate's discessio.

[764] Augustine adds the words, "Sicut dicimus, Sedet in amicum, id est, velut amicus; vel si quid aliud isto locutionis genere dici solet."

[765] Suetonius' Nero, c. 57.

[766] 1 John ii. 18, 19.

[767] 1 Thess. iv. 13-16.

[768] 1 Cor. xv. 22.

[769] 1 Cor. xv. 36.

[770] Gen. iii. 19.

[771] 1 Cor. xv. 51.

[772] Isa. xxvi. 19.

[773] Isa. lxvi. 12-16.

[774] Gal. iv. 26.

[775] Matt. v. 8.

[776] Isa. lxv. 17-19.

[777] Phil. iii. 19.

[778] Rom. viii. 6.

[779] Gen. vi. 3.

[780] Luke xii. 49.

[781] Acts ii. 3.

[782] Matt. x. 34.

[783] Heb. iv. 12.

[784] Song of Sol. ii. 5.

[785] Isa. lxvi. 18.

[786] Rom. iii. 23.

[787] Isa. lxvi. 22-24.

[788] As the Vulgate: cadavera virorum.

[789] Here Augustine inserts the remark, "Who does not see that cadavera (carcases) are so called from cadendo (falling)?"

[790] Matt. xxv. 30.

[791] 1 Cor. xv. 28.

[792] 1 John iii. 9.

[793] Isa. lvi. 5.

[794] Dan. vii. 15-28. Passage cited at length.

[795] Dan. xii. 1-3.

[796] John v. 28.

[797] Gen. xvii. 5, and xxii. 18.

[798] Dan. xii. 13.

[799] Ps. cii. 25-27.

[800] 1 Cor. vii. 31.

[801] 1 John ii. 17.

[802] Matt. xxiv. 35.

[803] 2 Pet. iii. 6.

[804] 2 Pet. iii. 10, 11.

[805] Matt. xxiv. 29.

[806] Æneid, ii. 694.

[807] Ps. l. 3-5.

[808] Isa. liii. 7.

[809] Matt. xxvi. 63.

[810] Ch. 21.

[811] 1 Thess. iv. 17.

[812] Hos. vi. 6.

[813] Ch. 6.

[814] Matt. xxv. 34.

[815] In his Proem. ad Mal.

[816] See Smith's Bible Dict.

[817] Mal. iii. 1-6. Whole passage quoted.

[818] Isa. iv. 4.

[819] 1 John i. 8.

[820] Job xiv. 4.

[821] Rom. i. 17.

[822] Isa. lxv. 22.

[823] Prov. iii. 18.

[824] Wisd. i. 9.

[825] Rom. ii. 15, 16.

[826] Mal. iii. 17-iv. 3.

[827] Mal. iv. 4.

[828] John v. 46.

[829] Mal. iii. 14, 15.

[830] Mal. ii. 17.

[831] In innocentibus.

[832] Ps. lxxiii.

[833] Mal. iv. 5, 6.

[834] 2 Kings ii. 11.

[835] Mal. ii. 17, iii. 14.

[836] Isa. xlviii. 12-16.

[837] Isa. liii. 7.

[838] Zech. ii. 8, 9.

[839] Matt. xv. 24.

[840] John vii. 39.

[841] Ps. xviii. 43.

[842] Matt. iv. 19.

[843] Luke v. 10.

[844] Matt. xii. 29.

[845] Zech. xii. 9, 10.

[846] So the Vulgate.

[847] John v. 22.

[848] Isa. xlii. 1-4.

[849] John i. 32.

[850] Matt. xvii. 1, 2.

[851] Ps. xli. 5.

[852] John v. 29.

[853] Matt. xiii. 41-43.

[854] Matt. xxv. 46.

[855] Luke xvi. 24.

[856] Æneid, vi. 733.

[857] Ch. 3, 5, 6.

[858] Aristotle does not affirm it as a fact observed by himself, but as a popular tradition (Hist. anim. v. 19). Pliny is equally cautious (Hist. nat. xxix. 23). Dioscorides declared the thing impossible (ii. 68).—Saisset.

[859] So Lucretius, ii. 1025:

"Sed neque tam facilis res ulla 'st, quin ea primum
Difficilis magis ad credendum constet: itemque
Nil adeo magnum, nec tam mirabile quicquam
Principis, quod non minuant mirarier omnes
Paulatim."
[860] Alluded to by Moore in his Melodies:

"The fount that played
In times of old through Ammon's shade,
Though icy cold by day it ran,
Yet still, like souls of mirth, began
To burn when night was near."
[861] Æneid, iv. 487-491.

[862] See the same collocation of words in Cic. Nat. deor. ii. 3.

[863] The etymologies given here by Augustine are, "monstra," a monstrando; "ostenta," ab ostendendo; "portenta," a portendendo, i.e. præostendendo; "prodigia," quod porro dicant, i.e. futura prædicant.

[864] Isa. lxvi. 24.

[865] Mark ix. 43-48.

[866] 2 Cor. xi. 29.

[867] Isa. li. 8.

[868] Ecclus. vii. 17.

[869] Rom. viii. 13.

[870] 1 Cor. xiii. 9, 10.

[871] Matt. xxv. 41.

[872] Luke xvi. 24.

[873] Rev. xx. 10.

[874] "Talio," i.e. the rendering of like for like, the punishment being exactly similar to the injury sustained.

[875] Ex. xxi. 24.

[876] Luke vi. 38.

[877] Remanerent. But Augustine constantly uses the imp. for the plup. subjunctive.

[878] Plato's own theory was that punishment had a twofold purpose, to reform and to deter. "No one punishes an offender on account of the past offence, and simply because he has done wrong, but for the sake of the future, that the offence may not be again committed, either by the same person or by any one who has seen him punished."—See the Protagoras, 324, b, and Grote's Plato, ii. 41.

[879] Æneid, vi. 733.

[880] Job vii. 1.

[881] Compare Goldsmith's saying, "We begin life in tears, and every day tells us why."

[882] Ecclus. xl. 1.

[883] 2 Tim. ii. 19.

[884] Rom. viii. 14.

[885] Gal. v. 17.

[886] "Fari."

[887] See Aug. Ep. 98, ad Bonifacium.

[888] On the heresy of Origen, see Epiphanius (Epistola ad Joannem Hierosol.); Jerome (Epistola 61, ad Pammachium); and Augustine (De Hæres. 43). Origen's opinion was condemned by Anastasius (Jerome, Apologia adv. Ruffinum, and Epistola 78, ad Pammachium), and after Augustine's death by Vigilius and the Emperor Justinian, in the Fifth Œcumenical Council (Nicephorus Callistus, xvii. 27, and the Acts of the Council, iv. 11).—Coquæus.

[889] Ps. lxxvii. 9.

[890] Ps. xxxi. 19.

[891] Rom. xi. 32.

[892] John vi. 50, 51.

[893] 1 Cor. x. 17.

[894] Matt. xxiv. 13.

[895] 1 Cor. iii. 11-15.

[896] Jas. ii. 13.

[897] Matt. xxv. 33.

[898] Matt. vi. 12.

[899] Matt. vi. 14, 15.

[900] Matt. xxv. 41.

[901] Rev. xx. 10.

[902] 2 Pet. ii. 4.

[903] Matt. xxv. 41.

[904] Matt. xxv. 46.

[905] 2 Tim. ii. 25, 26.

[906] Matt. xii. 32.

[907] Matt. xxv. 34, 41, 46.

[908] Ps. lxxvii. 9.

[909] Ps. lxxvii. 10.

[910] Ps. cxliv. 4.

[911] Matt. v. 45.

[912] It is the theory which Chrysostom adopts.

[913] Matt. xxv. 41, 46.

[914] Rev. xx. 10.

[915] Isa. lxvi. 24.

[916] Ps. xxxi. 19.

[917] 1 John iv. 18.

[918] 1 Cor. i. 30, 31.

[919] Rom. x. 3.

[920] Ps. xxxiv. 8.

[921] Ps. xvii. 15.

[922] Rom. xi. 32.

[923] Gal. v. 19-21.

[924] John vi. 50, 51.

[925] 1 Cor. x. 17.

[926] Gal. v. 6.

[927] Rom. xiii. 10.

[928] John vi. 56.

[929] Jas. ii. 14.

[930] 1 Cor. iii. 15.

[931] 1 Cor. vii. 32.

[932] 1 Cor. vii. 33.

[933] 1 Cor. iii. 13.

[934] Ecclus. xxvii. 5.

[935] 1 Cor. iii. 14, 15.

[936] Matt. xxv. 41.

[937] Matt. xxv. 34.

[938] 1 Cor. iii. 13.

[939] Matt. x. 37.

[940] Jas. ii. 13.

[941] Matt. vi. 12.

[942] Matt. iii. 8.

[943] Matt. xxii. 39.

[944] Ecclus. xxx. 24.

[945] Ecclus. xxi. 1.

[946] Matt. xxv. 45.

[947] John iii. 5.

[948] Matt. v. 20.

[949] Matt. v. 23, 24.

[950] Matt. vi. 12.

[951] Matt. vi. 14.

[952] Matt. vi. 15.

[953] Jas. ii. 13.

[954] Matt. xviii. 23.

[955] Jas. ii. 13.

[956] Luke xvi. 9.

[957] 1 Cor. vii. 25.

[958] Luke xvi. 9.

[959] Matt. x. 41.

[960] Æn. vi. 664.

[961] Luke i. 33.

[962] Phil. ii. 13.

[963] John viii. 17.

[964] Ps. xxxvii. 31.

[965] Gal. iv. 9.

[966] Gen. xxii. 18.

[967] Isa. xxvi. 19.

[968] Isa. lxv. 17-19.

[969] Dan. xii. 1, 2.

[970] Dan. vii. 18.

[971] Dan. vii. 27.

[972] Another reading has diffamatum, "published."

[973] A somewhat fuller account of this miracle is given by Augustine in the Confessions, ix. 16. See also Serm. 286, and Ambrose, Ep.. 22. A translation of this epistle in full is given in Isaac Taylor's Ancient Christianity, ii. 242, where this miracle is taken as a specimen of the so-called miracles of that age, and submitted to a detailed examination. The result arrived at will be gathered from the following sentence: "In the Nicene Church, so lax were the notions of common morality, and in so feeble a manner did the fear of God influence the conduct of leading men, that, on occasions when the Church was to be served, and her assailants to be confounded, they did not scruple to take upon themselves the contrivance and execution of the most degrading impostures."—P. 270. It is to be observed, however, that Augustine was, at least in this instance, one of the deceived.

[974] Alypius was a countryman of Augustine, and one of his most attached friends. See the Confessions, passim.

[975] Cleros.

[976] Easter and Whitsuntide were the common seasons for administering baptism, though no rule was laid down till towards the end of the sixth century. Tertullian thinks these the most appropriate times, but says that every time is suitable. See Tertull. de Baptismo, c. 19.

[977] A town near Carthage.

[978] This may possibly mean a Christian.

[979] Near Hippo.

[980] Augustine's 325th sermon is in honour of these martyrs.

[981] See Isaac Taylor's Ancient Christianity, ii. 354.

[982] See Augustine's Sermons, 321.

[983] Sermon 322.

[984] Ps. xciv. 11.

[985] C. 18.

[986] Luke xxi. 18.

[987] Eph. iv. 13.

[988] Rom. viii. 29.

[989] Luke xxi. 18.

[990] Rom. viii. 29.

[991] Rom. xii. 2.

[992] Eph. iv. 13.

[993] Rom. viii. 29.

[994] Gen. ii. 22.

[995] Eph. iv. 12.

[996] Matt. xxii. 29.

[997] Matt. xxii. 30.

[998] Eph. iv. 10-16.

[999] 1 Cor. xii. 27.

[1000] Col. i. 24.

[1001] 1 Cor. x. 17.

[1002] Another reading is, "Head over all the Church."

[1003] Eph. i. 22, 23.

[1004] Ps. cxii. 1.

[1005] Luke xii. 7.

[1006] Matt. xiii. 43.

[1007] Cic. Tusc. Quæst. i. 27.

[1008] 1 Cor. iii. 1.

[1009] 1 Cor. xv. 44.

[1010] Ps. xxvi. 8.

[1011] Ecclus. xxx. 12.

[1012] Gal. v. 17.

[1013] 1 Cor. xv. 57.

[1014] Rom. viii. 37.

[1015] Matt. vi. 12.

[1016] Gen. i. 28.

[1017] John v. 17.

[1018] Ps. xlix. 20.

[1019] 1 Cor. iii. 7.

[1020] Coaptatio, a word coined by Augustine, and used by him again in the De Trin. iv. 2.

[1021] Ps. civ. 1.

[1022] He apparently has in view the celebrated passage in the opening of the second book of Lucretius. The uses made of this passage are referred to by Lecky, Hist. of European Morals, i. 74.

[1023] Rom. viii. 32.

[1024] Vide Book xviii. c. 53.

[1025] Virg. Æn. vi. 751.

[1026] In the Republic, x.

[1027] Phil. iv. 7.

[1028] 1 Cor. xiii. 9, 10.

[1029] 1 Cor. xiii. 12.

[1030] Matt. xviii. 10.

[1031] 1 John iii. 2.

[1032] Ps. cxvi. 10.

[1033] 1 Cor. xiii. 11, 12.

[1034] 2 Kings v. 26.

[1035] Jer. xxiii. 24.

[1036] Job xlii. 5, 6.

[1037] Eph. i. 18.

[1038] Matt. v. 8.

[1039] Luke iii. 6.

[1040] Luke ii. 29, 30.

[1041] Job xix. 26.

[1042] 1 Cor. xiii. 12.

[1043] 2 Cor. iii. 18.

[1044] Ps. xxxiv. 5.

[1045] Wisd. ix. 14.

[1046] Rom. i. 20.

[1047] 1 Cor. iv. 5.

[1048] Ps. lxxxiv. 4.

[1049] Numbers.

[1050] Lev. xxvi. 12.

[1051] 1 Cor. xv. 28.

[1052] Or, the former to a state of probation, the latter to a state of reward.

[1053] Ps. xlvi. 10.

[1054] Gen. ii. 2, 3.

[1055] Gen. iii. 5.

[1056] Deut. v. 14.

[1057] Ezek. xx. 12.

[1058] Acts i. 7.

Transcriber's Notes: Obvious punctuation and spelling errors have been fixed throughout.
Inconsistent hyphenation is as in the original.
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