The Travels of Marco Polo, by Marco Polo and Rustichello of

That's French for "the ancient system," as in the ancient system of feudal privileges and the exercise of autocratic power over the peasants. The ancien regime never goes away, like vampires and dinosaur bones they are always hidden in the earth, exercising a mysterious influence. It is not paranoia to believe that the elites scheme against the common man. Inform yourself about their schemes here.

Re: The Travels of Marco Polo, by Marco Polo and Rustichello

Postby admin » Thu Mar 29, 2018 7:39 am

Part 2 of 3

Haast, Dr., discovers a fossil Rue. Habíb-ullah of Khotan. Habsh (Abash), see Abyssinia. Hadhramaut (Sessania Adrumetorum). Hadiah. Haffer. Hai-nan, Gulf of. —— language of. Hairy men in Sumatra. Hajji Mahomed. Hakeddin. Half-breeds, see Argon. Hamd Allah Mastaufi, the geographer. Hamilton, Captain Alexander. Hammer-Purgstall on Marco Polo. Hamúm Arabs. Hamza of Ispahan. Hamza Pantsúri, or Fantsúri. Hanbury, D. Han-chung (Cuncun). Hang-chau fu, see Kinsay. Han dynasty. —— River. Hanjam. Han-kau. Hansi. Han Yu. Harám. Harhaura, W. Panjáb. Harlez, Mgr. de. Hármozeia. Harpagornis, fossil Ruc. Harran. Harshadeva, king of Kashmir. Harsuddi, temple of. Haru, or Aru. Hashíshín, see Assassins. Hasik. Hassán Kalá, hot springs at. Hassan, son of Sabah, founder of the Ismailites. Hastings, Warren, letter of. Hatan, rebellion of. Haunted deserts. Havret, Father H. Hawáríy (Avarian), the term. Hawks, hawking in Georgia, Yezd and Kerman; Badakhshan; Etzina; among the Tartars; on shores and islands of Northern Ocean Kúblái's sport at Chagannor; in mew at Chandu; trained eagles; Kúblái's establishment of; in Tibet; Sumatra; Maabar. Hayton I. (Hethum), king of Lesser Armenia, his autograph. Hazáras, the, Mongol origin of, lax custom ascribed to. Hazbana, king of Abyssinia. Heat, great at Hormuz, in India. Heaven, City of (Kinsay). Hedin, Dr. Sven. Heibak, caves at. Height, effects on fire of great. Heikel, Professor Axel, on Buddhist monasteries in the Orkhon. Hei-shui (Mongol Etsina) River. Hel, Ela (Cardamom). Helena, Empress. Helli, see Eli. He-lung Kiang. Hemp of Kwei-chau. Henry II., Duke of Silesia. Henry III. Heraclius, Emperor, said to have loosed the shut-up nations. Herat. Hereditary trades. Hereford, Map. Hermenia, see Armenia. Hermits of Kashmir. Herodotus. Hethum, see Hayton. Hiai- or Kiai-chau (Caichu?). Hides (See Leather.). Hili, Hili-Marawi, see Ely. Hill-people of Fo-kien, wild. Hinaur, see Hunáwar. Hind. Hindu character, remarks on frequent eulogy of. —— Kush. Hindus, their steel and iron. —— in Java. Hing-hwa, language of. Hippopotamus' teeth. Hips, admiration of large. Hirth, Dr. F. Hiuan-Tsung, Emperor. Hiuen Tsang, Dr., a Buddhist monk. Hochau, in Sze-chwan, Mangku Khan's death at. —— in Kansuh. Hochung-fu (Cachanfu). Hodgson, Mr. Hoernle, Dr. Hojos. Hokien-fu (Cacanfu). Hokow, or Hokeu. Holcombe, Rev. C., on Hwai-lu; on Yellow River; on Pia-chau fu; on road from T'ung-kwan to Si-ngan fu. Hollingworth, H.G. Holy Sepulchre, oil from lamp of. Homeritae. Homi-cheu, or Ngo-ning. Homme, its technical use. Hondius map. Ho-nhi, or Ngo-ning (Anin) tribe (See Homi-cheu.). Hooker, Sir Joseph, on bamboo explosion. Horiad (Oirad, or Uirad) tribe. Hormuz (Hormos, Curmosa), trade with India; a sickly place; the people's diet; ships; great heat and fatal wind; crops, mourning customs; the king of; another road to Kerman from; route from Kerman to; site of the old city; foundation of; history of; merchants; horses exported to India from; the Melik of. —— Island, or Jerun, Organa of Arian. Hormuzdia. Horns of Ovis Poli. Horoscopes, in China, in Maabar. Horse-posts and Post-houses. Horses, Turkish, Persian; of Badakhshan, strain of Bucephalus; sacrificed at Kaans' tombs; Tartar; and white mares; presented to Kaan on New Year's Day; of Carajan; their tails docked; of Anin; tracking by; decorated with Yaks' tails; now bred in S. India. —— great trade and prices in importing to India from Persia, modes of shipment; from Carajan; from Anin; from Kis, Hormuz, Dofar, Soer, and Aden; Esher; Dofar; Calatu. —— duty on, captured by pirates; their extraordinary treatment and diet in India. Horse-stealing, Tartar laws. Hosie, A., on Ch'êng-tu; brine-wells of Pai-yen-ching; on the Si-fan; on Caindu Lake. Hospitals, Buddhist. Hostelries, at Cambaluc, on the Cathay post-roads; at Kinsay. Hot springs in Armenia, near Hormuz. Hounds, Masters of Kaan's. Hours, struck from Cambaluc bell-tower, at Kinsay; unlucky; canonical. Hsi Hsia dynasty. Hsiang-chên, Hsiang, wood. Hu-chau fu (Vuju). Hui-hui, white and black capped, two Mohammedan sects. Hukaji (Hogáchi, Cogachin), Kúblái's son. Hukwan-hien. Húlakú Khan (Alau, Alacan), Kúblái's brother, and founder of Mongol dynasty in Persia, war with Barka Khan; takes Baghdad and puts Khalif to death; the Ismailites and the Old Man. —— his treachery, his descendants; battle with Barca; his followers. Hullukluk, village, near Sivas. Human fat, used for combustion in war. —— sacrifices. Humáyún, Emperor. Humboldt. Hunáwar (Onore, Hinaur). Hundred Eyes, prophecy of the. Hundwáníy (ondanique), Indian steel. Hungary, Hungarians. Hung Hao, Chinese author. Hun-ho (Sanghin River). Hunting equipment and Expedition, Kúblái's, Kang-hi's. —— preserves. (See also Sport.). Hutton, Captain. Hwa-chau. Hwai-lu, or Hwo-lu-h'ien (Khavailu), the Birmingham of N. Shansi. Hwai-ngan-fu (Coiganju). Hwai River. Hwang-ho (Yellow River), changes in its courses; its embankments. Hwan-ho. Hyena. Hyrcania, king of.

Iabadiu.
Ibn-al-Furát.
Ibn Batuta (Moorish traveller, circa A.D. 1330-1350),
his account of Chinese juggling;
his account of Khansa (Kinsay);
of Zayton;
in Sumatra;
on Camphor;
in Ceylon;
at Kaulam;
in Malabar;
sees Rukh;
his account of Maldives;
dog-sledges;
Market in Land of Darkness;
on Silver Mines of Russia.
Ibn Fozlán, see Fozlán.
Ichin-hien.
Ichthyophagous cattle and people.
Icon Amlac, king of Abyssinia.
Iconium (Kuniyah, Conia).
Idolatry (Buddhism) and Idolaters,
in Kashmir;
their decalogue;
Pashai;
Tangut;
Kamul;
Kanchau;
Chingintalas;
Suhchau;
Etzina, their fasting days;
Tartars and Cathayans;
Erguiul;
Egrigaia;
Tenduc;
Chandu;
at Kúblái's birthday feast;
Cachanfu;
Kenjanfu;
Acbalec Manzi;
Sindafu;
Tibet;
Caindu;
Yachi;
Carajan;
Zardandan;
Mien;
Caugigu;
Coloman;
Cuiju;
Cacanfu;
Chinangli;
Sinjumatu;
Coiganju;
Paukin;
Tiju;
Nanghin;
Chinghianfu;
Tanpiju;
Chipangu;
Chamba;
Sumatra;
Nicobars;
Mutfili;
Coilum;
Eli;
Malabar;
Tana;
Cambaet;
Semenat;
Far North.
—— Origin of,
of Brahmans;
of Jogis.
Idols, Tartar,
Tangut;
colossal;
of Cathay;
of Bacsi or Lamas;
of Sensin;
of East generally;
in India.
[Greek: Ieródouloi].
Ieu, Gnostics of.
Ifat, Aufat.
Ig, Ij, or Irej, capital of the Shawánkárs.
Igba Zion, Iakba Siun, king of Abyssinia.
Ilchi, commissioner.
Ilchi, modern capital of Khotan.
Ilchigadai Khan.
Ilija, hot springs at.
Ilkhan, the title.
Ilyáts, nomads of Persia.
Imáms of the Ismailites.
Im Thurn, Everard, on Couvade.
Incense, Sumatran,
brown in West India;
white (i.e. frankincense), in Arabia.
India,
horse trade to;
trade to Manzi or China from;
believed to breed no horses;
trade with Persia and Arabia;
western limits of;
islands of;
division of;
sundry lists of States;
trade with Aden and Egypt;
with Arabian ports;
confusion of Ethiopia and.
India, the Greater.
—— its extent.
—— the Lesser.
—— Middle (Abyssinia).
—— remarks on this title.
—— Maxima.
—— Tertia.
—— Superior.
—— Sea of.
Indian drugs to prolong life.
—— geography, dislocation of Polo's.
—— nuts, see Cocoa-nuts.
—— steel (ondanique).
Indies, the Three, and their distribution.
Indifference, religious, of Mongol Emperors.
Indigo, mode of manufacture at Coilum,
in Guzerat;
Cambay;
prohibited by London Painters' Guild.
Indo-China,
States.
Indragiri River.
Infants, exposure of.
Ingushes of Caucasus.
Innocent IV., Pope.
Inscription, Jewish, at Kaifungfu.
Insult, mode of, in South India.
Intramural interment prohibited.
Invulnerability, devices for.
'Irák.
Irghai.
Irish, accused of eating their dead kin.
—— M.S. version of Polo's Book.
Iron, in Kerman,
in Cobinan.
Iron Gate (Derbend Pass), said to have been built by Alexander,
gate ascribed to.
Irtish River.
Isaac, king of Abyssinia.
Isabel, queen of Little Armenia.
Isabeni.
Isentemur (Sentemur, Essentemur), Kúblái's grandson.
Ish, the prefix.
'Ishin.
Ish-Káshm,
dialect.
Iskandar, Shah of Malacca.
Islands, of the Indian Sea,
of China;
in the Gulf of Cheinan;
Male and Female.
Isle d'Orleans.
Isle of Rubies (Ceylon).
Ismaïl, Shah of Persia.
Ismailites, see Assassins.
Ispahan (Istanit, Istan, Spaan), kingdom of Persia.
Israel in China, see Jews.
Iteration, wearisome.
I'tsing.
Ivongo.
Ivory trade.
Izzuddin Muzaffar, suggests paper-money in Persia.

Jacinth.
Jacobite Christians, at Mosul,
at Tauris;
Yarkand;
perhaps in China.
Jacobs, Joseph, Barlaam and Josaphat.
Jadah or Yadah-Tásh.
Jade stone (jasper) of Khotan.
Jaeschke, Rev. H.A.
Jaffa, Count of, his galley.
Jaipál, Raja.
Jájnagar.
Jaláluddín of Khwarizm.
Jamáluddín-al-Thaibi, Lord of Kais.
Jamaluddin, envoy from Ma'bar to Khanbaligh.
Jambi River.
James of Aragon, king.
Jámisfulah (Gauenispola).
Jamúi Khátún,
Kúblái's favourite Queen;
her kindness to the captured Chinese princesses.
Jangama sect.
Janibeg, Khan of Sarai.
Japan, see Chipangu.
Japanese paper-money.
Jaroslawl.
Jase, stitched vessel.
Jaspar (Gaspar), one of the Magi.
Jasper and chalcedony.
Jatolic, Játhalík, Jaselic, Gáthalík ([Greek: katholikós]).
Jauchau.
Jaúzgún, former captain of Badakhshan.
Java, the Great,
described;
circuit, empires in;
Kúblái's expedition against.
Java, the Greater and Lesser, meaning of these terms.
Java, the Less, see Sumatra.
Jawa, Jáwi,
applied by Arabs to islands and products of the Archipelago generally.
Jaya-Sinhavarman II., king of Champa.
Jazirah.
Jehangír (Jehan, Shah).
Jenkinson, Anthony.
Jerún (Zarun), island, site of the later Hormuz.
Jerusalem.
Jesuit maps.
Jesujabus, Nestorian Patriarch.
Jews, their test of Mahomed's prophetic character,
shut up by Alexander;
their connection with the Tartars;
in China, their inscription at Kaifungfu;
in Coilum;
in Abyssinia.
Jibal.
—— Nakús, or "Hill of the Bell," Sinai desert.
Jibal-ul-Thabúl, "Hill of Drums," near Mecca.
Jiruft.
Jogis (Chughi).
John XXII., Pope.
Johnson, his visit to Khotan.
Johnston, Keith.
Johore, Sultan of.
Jon (Jihon, or Oxus) River.
Jordanus, Friar.
Jor-fattan (Baliapatan).
Josephus.
Jubb River.
Judi, Mount.
Jugglers, at Khan's feasts,
and gleemen conquer Mien.
Juggling extraordinary.
Juji, eldest son of Chinghiz.
Juju (Cho-chau).
Julman.
Junghuhn, on Batta cannibalism,
on camphor trees.
Junks. (See also Ships.).
Jupár.
Justice, administration of Tartar.
Justinian, Emperor.
Juzgána (Dogana).

Kaan, and Khan, the titles. Kaan, the Great, see Kúblái. Kaans, the series of, and their burial place, massacre of all met by funeral party. Kabul. Kachkár (Ovis Vignei), wild sheep. Kadapah. Kafchi-kúe. Káfirs of Hindu Kush, their wine. Kahgyur, Tibetan Scripture. Kahn-i-Panchur. Kaidu (Caidu) Khan, Kúblái's cousin and life-long opponent, plots with Nayan; his differences with Kúblái; and constant aggressions; his death; his victorious expedition v. Kúblái; Kúblái's resentment; his daughter's valour; sends a host v. Abaga. Kaifung-fu, Jews and their synagogues there, siege of. Kaikhátu (Kiacatu), Khan of Persia, seizes throne, his paper-money scheme; his death; his dissolute character. Kaikhosru I. and III., Seljukian dynasty. Kaïkobad I. and III. Kaikus, Izz ed-din. Káil, see Cail. Káïn (Gháín), a city of Persia. Kaipingfu (Keibung, Kaiminfu, Kemenfu). Kairat-ul-Arab. Kais, see Kish. Kaisaríya (Caesaraea, Casaria). Kajjala, or Khajlak, a Mongol leader. Kakateya, dynasty. Kakhyens, Kachyens, tribe in Western Yun-nan. Kakula. Kala' Atishparastan (Cala Ataperistan), "The Castle of the Fire-Worshippers". Kala' Safed. Kalajan (Calachan). Kalámúr. Kalantan. Kalchi, Kalakchi. Kales Devar, king of Ma'bar, his enormous wealth. Kalgan, or Chang-kia-keu. Kalhát (Kalhátú, Calatu, Calaiate), described; idiom of. Kalidása, the poet, on the Yak. Kálikút. Kálín, marriage prices. Kalinga. Kalinjar. Kalmia angustifolia, poisonous. Kamál Malik. Kamárah, Komar. Kamasal (Conosalmi), Kahn-i-asal, "The honey canal". Kambala, Kúblái's grandson. Kambáyat (Cambay). Kamboja (Chinla). Kampar, district and River, Buddhist ruins. Kamul (Komal, Camul), the Mongol Khamil, Chinese Hami. Kanat, or Karez, underground stream. Kanát-ul-Shám (Conosalmi). Kanauj. Kanbalu Island. Kancháu (Campichu). Kandahár, Kandar, Ghandhára. Kandy. Kanerkes, or Kanishka, kingdom, coins of. Kang-hi, Emperor. Kank. Kanp'u (Ganpu), old Port of Hang-chau. Kansan, see Shensi. Kansuh. Kao Hoshang. Kao-Tsung, Emperor. Kao-yu (Cayu). Kapilavastu. Kapukada, Capucate. Karábughá, Carabya, Calabra, a military engine. Kará Hulun. Karájáng (Carajan, or Yun-nan). Karákásh ("black jade") River. Karákhitaian Empire. —— Princes of Kerman. Kará Khoja. Karakorum (Caracoron). Kara Kumiz, special kind of Kumiz. Karámúren (Caramoran) River, Mongol name for the Hwang-ho, or Yellow River. Karana, meaning of. Karáni (vulgo Cranny). Karanút, a Mongol sept. Karaún Jidun, or Khidun. Karaunahs (Caraonas), a robber tribe. Karavat, an instrument for self-decollation. Karens. Karmathian, heretics. Karnúl. Karrah. Karra-Mánikpúr. Kartazonon, Karkaddan, rhinoceros. Kasaidi Arabs. Kash, jade. Kashan. Káshgar (Cascar), Chankans of. Kashísh (Casses). Kashmír (Keshimur), Buddhism; beauty of the women; conjurers; the language of; sorcery in. Kashmiris. Kasia, people and hills. Kasyapa Buddha. Kataghan, breed of horses. Katar pirates. Katif. Kattiawár, pirates. Kaulam, see Coilum. Kaulam-Malé. Kauli (Cauly), Corea. Kaunchi (Conchi), Khan. Káveripattanam. Káveri River, delta of. Kavir, saline swamp. Kavváyi. Káyal, Káil, see Cail. —— Pattanam. —— Punnei. Kayten. Kazan. Kazáwinah. Kazbek. Kazvín (Casvin). Keary, C.F. Kebteul, night-watch. Kehran. Keiaz tribe. Keibung (Kaipingfu). Kelinfu (Kienning-fu), City, its bridges. Kemenfu, see Kaipingfu. Kenjanfu (Si-ngan fu). Keraits, a great Tartar tribe. Kerala. Keria, see Kiria. Keriza River. Kermán, route to Hormus from; steel manufacture, its industries; king of, Atabeg of; stitched vessels of; desert of. Kerulen (K'i-lien) valley, the Khans' burial-ground. Keshican (Keshikten), Kúblái's life-guard. Kesmacoran (Kij Makrán), Kij-Makrán. Keuyung Kwan, village. Khakán, the word. Khalif (Calif) Mosta'Sim Billah of Baghdad, taken by Húlakú and starved to death; plot v. the Christians laid by a former—the miracle of the mountain; becomes secretly a Christian. Khálij. Khàm, stuff made with cotton thread. Khambavati (Cambay). Khanabad (Dogana?). Khán Bádshah of Khotan. Khánbalík, see Cambaluc. Khanfu. Khanikoff, N. de (travels in Persia). Khanjár-i-Hundwán, hanger of Indian steel. Khán-khánán, a title. Khanoolla (Mount Royal), site of Chinghiz's tomb. Khansâ. Kharesem, Mount. Khato-tribe. Khátún-gol, or "Lady's River," i.e. Hwang-ho. Khatun title of Khan's wives. Khavailu (Hwo-lu h'ien). Khazars, the. Khilak. Khimka. Khinsa, Khingsai, Khinzai. (See Kinsay.). Khitan, Khitai. —— character. —— dynasty of Liao. Khmer. Khodabanda, Ilkhan of Kermán. Khojas, name of modern Ismailite sect. Khorasan, province, turquoises of. Khormuzda, supreme deity of the Tartars. Khotan (Cotan), fruits; routes between China and; buried cities of; its jade. Khumbavati (Cambay). Khumdán. Khusrú, Amír, Indian poet. Khutuktai Setzen, Prince of the Ordos. Khwarizm. Kiacatu, see Kaikhátu. Kiahing (Ciangan, Canigan). Kiai- or Hiai-chau (Caichu). Kiakhta. Kia-k'ing, Emperor. Kiang, the Great (Kian and Kian-Suy, and in its highest course Brius, the Kinsha Kiang), its vastness, and numerous craft; steamers on; its former debouchure to the south, and changes. Kiang-Ché, limits of. Kiang-Hung, Xieng-Hung. Kiangka. Kiang-mai, Xieng-mai, Zimmé. Kiangshan. Kiangsi. Kiang-su. Kiang-suy (-shui) River. Kiangtheu. Kiang-Tung. Kiao-chi (Tungking), Chinese etymology of. Kia Tsing, Emperor, a great bridge builder. Kichau Castle. Kieh-Ch'a. K'ien-ch'ang, Kiung-tu (Caindu). Kien-chau. Kien-kwé. Kien-lung, Emperor. Kien-ning fu (Kelinfu). Kiepert, Map of Asia. Kij-Makrán (Kesmacoran). Kila'-i-Gabr, "Gueber Castle". Kilimanchi River. Kiming shan Mountains, gold and silver mines. Kimiz, kumiz (kemiz), mare's milk,—Tartar beverage. Kin, or Golden Dynasty in N. China, their paper-money; story of their Golden King. Kincha, Chinese name for Kipchak. Kin-Chi, or Gold-Teeth (Zardandan). King of the Abraiaman. —— of England, Kúblái's message to, intercourse with Mongol princes. —— of France, Kúblái's message to. —— of Spain, Kúblái's message to. —— Rev. C.W. Kings of Maabar, the five brothers, their mother's efforts to check their broils. —— subordinate, or Viceroys, in China. —— Tartar, of the Ponent. Kingsmill, T.W. King-tê-chên, porcelain manufacture. K'ing-yüan (Ning-po). Kin-hwa fu. Kinki, Kimkhá. Kinsay (King-szé, or "Capital," Khansá, Khinsá, Khingsai, Khanzai, Cansay, Campsay), formerly Lin-ngan now Hang-chau fu; its surrender to Bayan; extreme public security; alleged meaning of the name; described; bridges; hereditary trades, guilds and wealthy craftsmen and their dainty wives; the lake, islands and garden-houses; stone-towers—inhabitants' clothing and food; guards and police regulations; fires; alarm towers, paved streets; revenue; pavements, public baths, port of Ganfu; the province and other provinces of Manzi, garrisons; horoscopes, funeral rites; palace of the expelled king; church, house registers; hostel regulations; canals; markets and squares; fruits and fish shops; women of the town, physicians and astrologers, courts of justice; vast consumption of pepper; inhabitants' character—their behaviour to women and foreigners; hatred of soldiers; pleasures on the lake and in carriage excursions; palace of the king; the king's effeminacy and ruin; tides; plan of; notices by various writers of; wealth of; ships. Kin-sha Kiang, "River of Golden Sands" (upper branch of Great Kiang, Brius). Kinshan, see Golden Island. Kinto, or Hintu, Mongol general. Kipchak (Ponent), Southern Russia, events related by Polo in; sovereigns; people of; extent of empire. Kirghiz Kazak. Kirghiz, the. Kiria. Kirk, Sir John, and Raphia palm. Kis, Kish, or Kais (Kisi), now Ghes, or Kem, island in Persian Gulf, merchants; described. Kishik, Kishikan, Kizik, Keshikchi, see Keshican. Kishm (Casem). —— or Brakht (Oaracta), island in the Persian Gulf. Kistna River. Kitubuka, General. Kiu-chau. Kiulan (Quilon), see Coilum. Kizil Irmak, the. Kizil River. Kneeling oxen. Kobad, the Sassanian. Kobdo. Koh-Banán (Cobinan). Koja (Coja), a Tartar envoy from Persia. Kokcha River. Kok-Tash, greenstone of Samarkand. Kolastri, or Kolatiri Rajas. Ko-li-ki-sze. Kolkhoi of Ptolemy, identified. Kollam, see Coilum. Koloman, see Coloman. Kolyma, bird-hunting at. [Greek: Kómakon]. Komár. [Greek: Komária ákron]. Konár tree, Marco Polo's apples of Paradise. Kondachi. Konkan, Konkan-Tana. Korano, epithet on Indo-Scythic coins. Korea, History of. Koresh king. Kornish, or K'o-tow (Khén-théu). Kosakio, a general against Japan. Kosseir. Kotcheres, Kurds of Mosul. Kotlogh, or Kutlugh, Sultan of Kerman. Kotlogh Shah, the Chaghataian prince. Kotrobah Island. Kouyunjik, sculptures at. Kozlov, Lieutenant K.P., on the Lob-nor. Kuang-chou. Kúbenán (Cobinan), a Kuh-banán "Hill of the Terebinths or Wild Pistachios". Kúblái (Cublay), Káán, the Great Khán, his envoys meet the two elder Polos; receives and questions the Polos; sends them as envoys to the Pope; his desire for Christian teachers, and for oil from the lamp in the Holy Sepulchre; gives them a Golden Tablet; his reception of the three Polos; sends Marco on an embassy; Marco grows in favour; allows the Polos to depart with Tablets of Authority; rumour of his death; sends a napkin of asbestos to the Pope; his greatness and power; his milk libations; his inscription at Shangtu; Chinghiz's prophecy; his lineage, age, and accession; Nayan's revolt; Nayan's defeat and death; rebukes anti-Christian gibes; returns to Cambaluc; treats four religions with equal respect; his views on Christianity; how he rewards his captains; his personal appearance; his wives and ladies-in-waiting; his palace at Cambaluc; builds Cambaluc city; his bodyguard; order of his feasts; celebration of his birthday; his distribution of robes; his New Year's feast; his elephants; the K'o-tow; adopts Chinese ancestor-worship; his game laws; his hunting establishment; his masters of hounds; how he goes a-hunting; how his year is spent; Ahmad's influence, oppression, and death; his treatment of Mahomedans; his mint and paper-money; his purchase of valuables; his twelve great Barons; his posts and runners; remission of taxes; his justice; a tree planter; his store of corn; charity to the poor; his astrologers; gaol deliveries, and prohibition of gambling; his early campaign in Yun-nan; and the king of Mien and Bangala; Litan's plot; sends Bayan to invade Manzi; his dealings with Bayan; satisfied with the Polo's mangonels; appoints Mar Sarghis governor of Chinghian-fu; the city of Kinsay; his revenue from Kinsay; from Zayton; his expedition against Chipangu (Japan); sends force against Chamba; attempts to gain Java; his death; sends to buy Ceylon ruby; sends for religions of Sakya; testifies to miraculous powers of Sakya's dish; intercourse with Ma'bar; with Kaulam; missions to Madagascar; Kaidu's wars with him. —— Khan, territories and people subject to (Turkistan), (Tangut and Mongolia); (Tibetan frontier and Yun-nan); (Western China); (N. Eastern China); (Manzi); (Sinju); (Caiju); Chinghian-fu; (Chinginju); (Suju); (Tanpigu); (Chonka); (Zayton); (Chamba); (Sumatra). Kuché character. Kudatku Bilik, an Uíghúr poem. Kuhistan, or Hill country of Persia. Kúkachin, see Cocachin. Kukin-Tána. Kukju (Genkju), Kúblái's son. Kuku-Khotan (Blue Town), depôt for Mongolian trade with China. Ku-kwan, Customs' Barrier. Kuláb, lions in, Salt Mines. Kulán, Asinus Onager, the Gor Khar of Persia. Kulasaikera. Kumár, see Komár. Kumhari, Kumari, see Comari. Kumiz, kimiz (kemiz), Mare's milk, Tartar beverage, sprinkling of. Kummájar. Kúnbúrn Monastery. Kunduz. Kunduz (beaver or sable). Kunduz-Baghlán. Kung-ki-cheng (Fei-ch'eng). Kunguráts, Kunkuráts (Ungrat), a Mongol tribe. Kunichi (Cunichi, or Chinuchi), "The Keepers of the Mastiff Dogs". Kuniyah (Conia), Iconium, Koniah. Kunlun (Pulo Condore). Kurd dynasty. Kurdistan (Curdistan). Kurds, the. Kúreh-i-Ardeshír (Kuwáshír). Kuria Maria Islands. Kuridai, Kúblái's son. Kúrkah, great drum. Kurmishi. Kurshids of Lùristán. Kurut (Curd). Kus, Cos (in Egypt). Kushluk, the Naiman. Kutan, son of Okkodai. Kutchluk Khan (Buddhist), Chief of the Naïmans. Kutuktemur, Kúblái's son. Kutulun, Princess. Kuwinji, see Kaunchi. Kuyuk Khan. Kwa-chau (Caiju), at mouth of Great Canabon Yang-tse-Kiang. Kwan Hsien. Kwansinfu. Kwawa, i.e. Java, etymology. Kwei-chau (Cuiju). Kwei-hwa-ch'eng, or Kuku Khotan. Kweilei River. Kyung-sang province.

Lac (Wallachia), Lacz.
Ladies' dresses in Badakhshan.
Ladies of Kinsay.
Lagong.
Lahore (Dalivar, Dilivar).
Lahsa.
Lájwurd mines.
Lake, Caindu.
—— Fanchau.
—— Kinsay.
—— of Palace at Cambaluc.
—— Pleasure parties on.
—— Talifu.
—— Yunnan-fu.
Laknaoti.
Lakshamana Deva, king of Kashmír.
Lamas of Tibetan Buddhism;
their superstitions and rites;
their monasteries;
marriage. (See also Bakhshi.).
Lambri,
kingdom of;
situation of.
Lances of Sago Palm.
Lanchang.
Land of Darkness,
market in.
Langdarma.
Langting Balghasun.
Languages used in Mongol Court and administration.
Lan-Ho.
Lanja Bálús, or Lankha bálús.
Lanka (Ceylon).
Lan Ki Hien (Nan-Che-hien).
Lanner Falcons.
Lan-tsang kiang (Mekong) River.
Lao-Kiun, or Lao-Tseu, the Philosopher.
Laos, people of.
Lar, or Lát-Desa.
—— province.
Latin version of Polo's Book.
Latins, the term.
Latsé, Tibetan for musk.
Lauredano, Agnes.
Laurus Camphora.
Lawek, Lawáki.
Laxities of marriage customs, see Marriage.
Layard, Mr.
Layas, see Ayas.
—— Gulf of.
Leather,
embroidered mats of Guzerat.
Leaves,
used for plates;
green leaves said to have a soul.
Lecomte on Chinese war vessels.
Lembeser, Ismaelite fortress.
Lenzin.
Leon I., king of Lesser Armenia.
Leon II., king of Lesser Armenia.
Leon III., king of Lesser Armenia.
Leon VI., last king of Lesser Armenia.
Leopards,
taught to sit on horseback;
(Cheetas) kept for the Chase by Kúblái.
Lepechin, Professor.
Le Strange, Guy.
Leung Shan.
Levant, term applied by Polo to the kingdom of the Mongol Khans.
Lewchew.
Lewis, see St. Lewis.
Lewis XI. and XII. (France).
Lew-sha, old Chinese name for Lop Desert.
Leyes, see Ayas.
Lhása,
Labrang Monastery at.
Li, Chinese measure,
supposed to be confounded with miles.
Liampo (Ningpo).
Liang, or tael.
Liang-chau in Kansuh.
Liao dynasty.
Liao-tong.
Libanos, [Greek: Libanophóros] and [Greek: libanotophóros chóra].
Libro d'Oro.
Licinius, Emperor.
Lidé (Liti).
Lieuli Ho.
Lign-aloes (eagle-wood),
etymology;
in Sumatra.
Ligor.
Ligurium, the precious stone, Liguire.
Li H'ien, Tartar ruler of Tangut.
Likamankwas of Abyssinian kings.
Li-kiang fu.
Limyrica.
Lindley.
Lindsay, Hon. R.
Linga.
Linju.
Lin-ngan (Hang-chau).
Lin-ngan in Yun-nan.
Lintching-y, or Linchinghien.
Lin-t'sing chau.
Lion and Sun.
Lions, black.
—— on the Oxus,
Chinese notion of.
—— (apparently for tigers) kept for the chase by Kúblái,
skins of striped;
how hunted with dogs (See also Tigers.).
Lion's Head Tablets.
Lire, various Venetian.
—— of gold.
Lisbon.
Lissu, or Lisau tribe.
Litai.
Litán, rebellion of.
Lithang.
Little Orphan Rock.
Liu Pang, founder of 1st Han dynasty.
Liu Pei (Luo Pé), of the Han dynasty.
Livre des Merveille.
Livres of gold.
—— Parisis.
—— Tournois.
Li Yuan-hao, founder of the Hsi Hsia dynasty, Tangut.
Lo, tribes of S.W. China so-called.
—— Chinese name of part of Siam.
Lob, see Lop.
Locac, kingdom of.
Lockhart, Dr. W.
Lokok.
Lolo tribes.
Longevity of Brahmins and Jogis.
Longfellow.
Lop, city and lake,
desert.
Lophaburi.
Loping.
Lor, see Lúristan.
Lord, Dr. Percival.
Löss, brownish-yellow loam.
Loups cerviers (lynx).
Low castes.
Lowatong River.
Loyang, Bridge of.
Lubán.
Lubán-Jáwi.
Lubán-Shehri.
Lubbies.
Lucky and unlucky hours and days.
Luddur Deo.
Luh-ho-ta Pagoda, Hang-chau.
Lukon-Kiao (Hun-ho, Pulisanghin River).
Lukyn Port.
Lung-yin.
Lúristan (Lor, Lur),
kingdom of Persia;
Great and Little;
character of Lurs or people of.
Lusignan, John de.
Lút, Desert of (Dasht-i-Lut).
Lu-tzu tribe.
Lynxes, trained to hunt,
in Cuncun.

Ma Twan-lin, the Chinese Pliny. Maaden, turquoise mines at. Maatum, or Nubia. Ma'bar (Maabar, i.e. Coromandel coast), province of India; its brother kings; pearl fishery; etymology; limits; obscurity of history; port visited by Polo; nakedness of people, king, his jewels; his wives, "Trusty Lieges," treasure; horses imported; superstitious customs; ox-worship; Govis, Ib.; no horses bred; other customs; mode of arrest for debt; great heat; regard for omens; astrology, treatment of boys; birds, girls consecrated to idols; customs in sleeping; ships at Madagascar. Macartney's Map. Macgregor, Sir C, "Journey through Khorasan". Máchin, city of (Canton). Máchin, Maháchin (Great China), used by Persian writers as synonymous with Manzi. Maclagan, Major-General (R.E.). Madagascar (Madeigascar), confused with Magadoxo; etymology; traces of ancient Arab colonisation. Mádái, Madavi, Maudoy. Madjgars. Madar-Des, Eastern Pánjáb. Madras. Madura. Maestro, or Great Bear, said to be invisible in Sumatra. Magadha. Magadoxo, confused with Madagascar. Magapatana, near Ceylon. Magi, the three, legend as told by Mas'udi; source of fancies about; names assigned to. Magic, of Udyana, Lamaitic, (See also Sorcerers.). Magical darkness (dry fog and dust storms). Magnet, Mount. Magyars. Mahar Amlàk, king of Abyssinia. Mahavan. Mahmúd Kalháti, prince of Hormuz. Mahmúd of Ghazni. Mahmudiah Canal. Mahomed (Mahommet), his account of Gog and Magog; his Paradise; his alleged prophecy of the Mongols; his use of mangonels. Mahomed, supposed worship of idols of. —— II., uses the old engines of war. —— Tarahi. —— Tughlak of Delhi, his copper token currency. —— Shah of Malacca. Mahomedan revolts in China. —— conversion of Malacca. —— conversion of states in Sumatra. —— butchers in Kashmir. —— butchers in Maabar. —— king of Kayal. —— merchants at Kayal. —— settlements on Abyssinian coast. Mahomedans (Saracens), in Turcomania; in and near Mausul; their universal hatred of Christians; in Tauris; in Persia; their hypocrisy about wine; at Yezd; Hormuz; Cobinan; Tonocain; Sapurgan; Taican; Badakhshan, Wakhan, etc.; Kashgar; strife with Christians in Samarkand; Yarkand; Khotan; Pein; Charchan; Lop; Tangut; Chingintalas; Kanchau; Sinju; Egrigaia; Tenduc, their half-breed progeny; in northern frontier of China, alleged origin of: their gibes at Christians; Kúblái's dislike of; in Yun-nan; in Champa; in Sumatra; troops in Ceylon; pilgrims to Adam's Peak; honour St. Thomas; in Kesmacoran; in Madagascar; in Abyssinia; in Aden; outrage by; at Esher; Dufar; Calatu; Hormuz; Ahmad Sultan one. Mailapúr (Shrine of St. Thomas). Maiman. Maistrè, the word. Maitreya Buddha. Majapahit, empire of (Java). Majar (Menjar). Major, R.H., on Australia. Makdashan, see Magadoxo. Malabar, Melibar, Malibar, Manibar, fleets; products; imports, Chinese ships in. Malacca, foundation of; chronology. Malacca, Straits of. Malaiur, island and city. Mal-Amir, or Aidhej. Malasgird. Malay Peninsula, invasion of Ceylon; chronicle; language; origin of many geographical names. Malayo, or Tana Malayu. Malcolm, Sir John. Maldive Islands. Malé in Burma. Male and Female Islands, legend widely diffused. Malifattan. Malik al Dháhir, king of Samudra. —— al Mansúr. —— al Sálih, king of Samudra. —— Kafur. Malli, the. Malpiero, Gasparo. Malte-Brun. Malwa. Mamaseni. Mamre, tree of. Mán, barbarians. Man, Col. Henry. Manchu dynasty. Mancopa. Mandalé in Burma. Mandarin language. Mangalai, third son of Kúblái, his palace. Mangalore. Mangla and Nebila Islands. Mangonels made by Polos for attack of Saianfu, etymology; account of; a barbarous lubricant for. Mangu (Mangkú, Mongu) Khan, Kúblái's elder brother; his death; reign; massacre at his funeral. Mangu-Temur (Mungultemur). Manjáník (Manjaniki). —— Kumghá. Manjanikis (Mangonellas). (See Mangonels.). Manji, see Manzi. Manjushri, Bodhisatva. Manphul, Pandit. Mansur Shah. Mantzé, Man-tzu, Mantszi, Aborigines. Manuel, Comnenus, Emperor. Manufactures, Kúblái's. Manuscripts of Polo's Book. Manzi (Facfur), king of, his flight; his charity; his effeminacy; his death; his palace at Kinsay. (See Faghfur.) —— (Mangi) province, White City of the Frontier; entrance to; conquest of; character of the people; its nine kingdoms, 1200 cities and squares; its bamboos; no sheep in; dialects; called Chin; ships and merchants in India, —— queen of, surrenders; her report of Kinsay. Map, constructed on Polo's data, Hereford; Roger Bacon's; Marino Sanudo's; Medicean; Catalan; Fra Mauro's; Ruysch's; Mercator's; Sanson's. Mapillas, or Moplahs. Maps, allusions to, in Polo's book, early mediaeval; of the Arabs; in the palace at Venice. Marabia, Maravia, Maravi. Marah Silu. Mâramangalam, site of Kolkhoi. Marash. Maratha. Mardin (Merdin). Mare's milk, see Kumiz. Margaritone. Marignolli, John. Market days. Markets in Kinsay. —— Squares in Kinsay. Marks of Silver. Marriage customs in Khotan. —— customs in Kanchau. —— customs of the Tartars. —— (posthumous) amongst Tartars. —— laxities of different peoples. —— laxities in Thibet. Mar Sarghis. Marsden's edition of Polo. Martin, Dr. Ernest, of French Legation at Pekin. Martini, his Atlas Sinensis; his account of Kinsay. Martyrs, Franciscan. Masálak-al-Absár. Mashhad (Meshed), or Varsach River. Mashiz. Maskat. Mastiff Dogs, Keepers of the. Mastiffs of Tibet, see Dogs. Mastodon, bogged. Mas'ud II., Ghiath ed-din-Seljuk dynasty. Mas'udi. Masulipatam. Matchlocks, manufacture at Kerman, at Taianfu. Ma-t'eu (Matu). Mati Dhivaja, see Bashpah Lama. Matitánana. Matityna (Martinique). Mätzner, Eduard. Maundevile, Sir John (John a Beard), on lying in water; Cloths of Tartary; Trees of the Sun; Dry Tree; his Book of Travels; English version; his tomb. Maung Maorong, or Pong, Shan kingdom. Mauro, Fra, his map. Mausul (Mosul), kingdom of. Mauvenu (Malvennez), the phrase. Mayers, W.F. Mayhew, A.L., on Couvade. Mazandéran, province. Mecchino, Ginger. Medressehs at Sivas. Mekhitar. Mekong River (Lan-tsang kiang). Mekrán, often reckoned part of India. Mekránis. Melchior, one of the Magi. Melibar, see Malabar. Melic, the title. Melons, dried, of Shibrgán. Menangkabau. Mendoza. Menezes, Duarte. Mengki, envoy to Java. Menjar (Májar?). Menuvair and Grosvair. Merghuz Boirúk Khan. Merkit (Mecrit, Mescript), a Tartar tribe. Meshid (more correctly Mashhad). Messengers, Royal Mongol. Mexico. Meyer, Paul, Alexandre le Grand. Miafarakain. Miau-tzu. Mien, Amien, Ava (Burma), king of, his battle with Tartars; City of; its gold and silver towers; how it was conquered; communications and war with Mongols; Chinese notices. Mikado. Military engines of the Middle Ages, dissertation on; two classes; Trébuchets; Balista; shot used, carrion, live men, bags of gold; Mangonel; Napoleon's experiments with heavy shot; size and accuracy; length of range (Sanudo on); effect of Mangonel on Saracens; procured by Kúblái for siege of Siang-yang; Chinese and Persian histories on; known to Mongols and Chinese; the Karabugha, or Calabra; the P'ao. Milk, portable, or curd. Milk, rite of sprinkling Mare's. Million, use of the numeral. Millione, Millioni, nickname for Polo and his book. Millioni, Corte del. Milne. Minao district. Mines and Minerals, see Iron, Silver, etc. Minever, see Menuvair. Ming, the Chinese dynasty which ousted the Mongols, A.D. 1368, their changes in Peking; their paper-money; their effeminate customs; expeditions to India; annals. Mingan, Khan's Master of Hounds. Ming-ti, Emperor. Minján, dialect of. Minotto, Professor A.S. Min River (in Fokien). —— River (in Szech'wan). Mint, the Khan's. Mintsing-hien. Mious River. Miracle Stories, fish in Lent; Mountain moved; St. Barsamo's girdles; Holy Fire; Stone at Samarkand; at St. Thomas' Shrine.

Mírat.
Mire French for leech.
Mirkhond.
Mirobolans.
Miskál, a weight. (See also Saggio.).
Misri, sugar-candy.
Missionary Friars, powers conferred on,
in China in 14th century.
—— Martyrs.
Moa of New Zealand.
Modhafferians, the.
Modun Khotan ("Wood-ville").
Moghistan.
Mohammed, son of Yusuf Kelefi, founder of Shíráz.
Mohammerah.
Mohiuddin.
Mokli, the Jelair.
Molayu.
Molebar, see Malabar.
Molephatan.
Molière, Pastorale Comique.
Moluccas.
Mombasa.
Momein.
Monasteries of Idolaters (Buddhists).
Money, paper.
—— values.
Mongol conquests,
capture Soldaia;
Bolghar;
treachery and cruelty;
their inroads;
Bakh city;
invade Balakhshán;
invasion of Poland and Silesia.
Mongon Khan, see Mangu.
Mongotay (Mangkutai), a Mongol officer.
Monkeys,
passed off as pygmies.
Monks, idolatrous. (See Monasteries.).
Monnier, Marcel, his visit to Karakorum,
on the Ch'êng-tu Suspension Bridge.
Monoceros and Maiden, legend of.
Monophysitism.
Monsoons.
Montecorvino, John, Archbishop of Cambaluc.
Monte d'Ely.
Montgomerie, Major T.G. (R.E.) (Indian Survey),
on fire at great altitudes;
position of Kashgar and Yarkund.
Monument at Si-ngan fu, Christian.
Moon, Mountains of the.
Moore, Light of the Harem.
Moplas, see Mapillas.
Morgan, E. Delmar.
Mortagne, siege of.
Morus alba, silk-worm tree.
Moscow, Tartar Massacre at.
Mosolin, or Muslin (Mosolini), Mo-sze, Arab Mauçili.
Mossos, a tribe.
Mosta'sim Billah, last Abbaside Khalif of Baghdad,
story of his avarice and death.
Mostocotto.
Mosul (Mausul).
Motapallé, see Mutfili.
Motawakkil, Khalif.
Moule, Bishop G.E.
Mount, Green, in Palace grounds at Peking.
—— St Thomas.
—— D'Ely, see Monte d'Ely.
Mountain, Old Man of the, see Old Man of the.
—— Miracle of the.
—— Road in Shensi, extraordinary.
Mourning customs,
at Hormuz;
in Tangut;
at Kinsay.
Mozambique Channel.
Muang, term applied in Shan countries (Laos and W. Yunnan) to fortified.
towns, as:—
Muang-Chi;
Muang, or Maung Maorong;
Muang Shung;
Muang Yong.
Muláhidah (Mulehet, Alamút, Chinese Mulahi), epithet of Ismaelites.
Mulberry Trees.
Mul-Java.
Müller, F.W.K.
Müller, Professor Max,
on Couvade;
on stories of Buddha and St. Josafat.
Multan.
Múnál pheasant (Lopophorus impeyanus), described by Aelian.
Mung (Nicaea).
Mungasht, hill fort, stronghold of the Atabegs.
Mungul, name applied to Tartars. (See Mongol.).
Mungul-Temur and Mongo-Temur, see Mangu-Temur.
Murad Beg, of Kunduz.
Murghab River.
Murray, Dr. J.A.H., on Couvade.
—— Hugh.
Murus Ussu (Brius, Upper Kiang).
Mus, Merdin (Mush, Mardin).
Musa'úd, Prince of Hormuz.
Musk, animal (Moschus).
—— earliest mention of and use in medicine.
Muslin, see Mosolin.
Mutfili (Motapallé for Telingana),
its diamonds;
identified.
Muza.
Mynibar.
Mysore.
Mystic number, see Numbers.

Nac, Nasich, Naques (Nakh), a kind of brocade.
Nachetti, silk stuff interwoven with gold.
Nakhut, gold brocade.
Nakkára (Naccara, Nacaires), the great kettledrum signalling action.
Nákshatra.
Nalanda.
Nan-Chao, formerly Ai-Lao, Shan dynasty in Yun-nan.
Nancouri.
Nanghin (Ngan-king).
Nangiass, Mongol name of Manzi.
Nankau, archway in Pass of, with polyglot inscription.
Nanking, not named by Polo.
Nanwuli.
Naobanján.
Naoshirwan.
Naphtha in the Caucasian country.
—— Fire used in war by the Karaunahs.
Napier, Sir C.
Napoleon III.,
his researches and experiments on mediaeval engines of war.
Narikela-Dvipa.
Narin-Kaleh, fortress.
Narkandam, volcanic island.
Narsinga, King of.
Narwhal tusk, mediaeval Unicorn's Horn.
Nasich, see Nac.
Nasruddin (Nescradin), officer in the Mongol Service.
Nassir-uddin, Mahmud, Sultan of Delhi.
Natigay, Tartar idol.
Nava-Khanda, or Nine Divisions of Ancient India.
Navapa (Lop?).
Naversa (ancient Anazarbus), in Cilicia, under Taurus.
Nayan, Kúblái's kinsman, his revolt,
Kúblái marches against;
routed in battle;
put to death by Kúblái.
earchus at Hormuz.
Nebila and Mangla islands.
Nebuchadnezzar.
Necklaces, precious.
Necuveran, see Nicobar.
Negapatam, Chinese Pagoda at.
Negroes described.
Negropont.
Nellore.
Nemej, Niemicz ("Dumb"), applied to Germans by Slavs.
Nerghi, Plain of.
Neri (pigs).
Nescradin, see Nasruddin.
Nesnás (a goblin).
Nestorian Christians, at Mosul,
Tauris;
Kashgar;
Samarkand;
Yarkand;
Tangut;
Kamul;
Chingintalas;
Sukchur;
Kampichu, Kan-chau;
their diffusion in Asia;
among the Mongols;
Erguiul and Sinju;
Egrigaia;
Tenduc;
China;
Yachi, or Yun-nan fu;
Cacanfu;
Yang-chau;
one in Polo's suite;
churches at Chinghianfu;
church at Kinsay;
at St. Thomas;
Patriarch of;
Metropolitan.
Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople.
Nevergún Pass.
New Year Festival at Kúblái's Court.
Neza Tash Pass.
Ngan-king (Nanghin).
Ngan-ning-ho River.
Ngantung, Mongol general.
Ngo-ning, or Ho-nhi.
Nia (ancient Ni-jang), in Khotan.
Nias Island.
Nibong Palm.
Nicaea of Alexander.
Nicholson, Edward B.
Nicobar (Necuveran) Islands,
etymology and people.
Nicolas of Pistoia.
Nicolas, Christian name of Ahmad Sultan.
—— Friar, of Vicenza.
Nicolas IV., Pope.
Nieuhoff.
Nigudar (Nogodar), Mongol princes.
Nigudarian bands.
Nilawár (Nellore).
Nile, sources of.
Nileshwaram.
Nímchah Musulmán, "Half-and-Halfs".
Nine, auspicious number among Tartars.
Nine Provinces (India),
(China).
Ning-hsia, or hia (Egrigaia).
Ningpo.
Ning-yuan fu.
Niriz, steel mines of.
Nirvana, figures of Buddha in.
Nishapúr.
Niuché (Yuché), Chinese name for the Churchés or race of Kin Empire.
Noah's Ark in Armenia.
Nobles of Venice,
Polo's claim to be one.
Nochdarizari, mountains north of Kabul.
Nogai Khan,
his intrigues and wars;
his history;
wars with Toctai.
Nogodar (Nigudar), King of the Caraonas, story of.
Nomad tribes of Persia.
Nomogan (Numughan), Kúblái's son.
None, Nono, Nuna, title given to younger brothers or subordinate
princes
North, regions of the Far.
North Star, see Pole-Star.
Note Book, Polo's.
Novgorod.
Nubia, St. Thomas,
alleged use of elephants in.
Nukdaris, tribe west of Kabul.
Nuksán Pass.
Numbers, mystic or auspicious,
Nine;
one hundred and eight.
Nuna, see None.
Nusi-Ibrahim.
Nutmegs.
Nyuché, or Churché, race of Kin Emperors, see Niuché.

Oak of Hebron, see Terebinth. Oaracta (Kishm, or Brakht). Obedience of Ismaelites, extraordinary. Obi River. Observatory at Peking. Ocean Sea, other seas, parts of. Ocoloro Island. Odoric, Friar, on Kinsay; on Fu-chau; Zayton; Java; Champa; Sumatra; on sago tree; on products of Ceylon; St. Thomas's; Pepper Forest; brazil-wood; Thána. Oger, the Dane. Ogotai Khan, see Okkodai. Oil from the Holy Sepulchre, fountain of (Naphtha) at Baku; whale. —— head (Capidoglio, or Sperm whale). —— walnut and Sesamé. Oirad, or Uirad (Horiad), a great Tartar tribe. Okkodai Khan, third son of Chinghiz. Olak, Illuk, Aulak, see Lac. Old Man of the Mountain (Aloadin), his envoys to St. Lewis; account of; how he trained his Assassins; the Syrian; his subordinate chiefs; his end; modern representative. Oljaïtu Khan, his correspondence with European princes, his tomb. Oman. Omens, much regarded in Maabar, by the Brahmans. Onan Kerule, near Baikal. Ondanique (fine kind of steel), Andaine, Andanicum, Hundwáníy, in Kerman; Chingintalas. Oppert, Dr. Gustavus, Book on Prester John, Der Presbyter Johannes in Sage und Geschichte. Orang Gugu. Orang Malayu River. Or Batuz. Orbelian, John, identified by Bruun with Prester John. Ordos, the Mongols of. Organa (Jerún), Persian Gerún. Oriental phrases in Polo's dictation. Orissa. Orkhon River. Orleans, defence of. —— Isle d'. Orloks, or Marshals of the Mongol Host. Oroech. Oron, Mongol for a region or realm. Orphani, strange customs of the. Osci, the word. Ostriches. Ostyaks. Otto, Bishop of Freisingen. Oulatay (Uladai), Tartar envoy from Persia. Ovis Poli, see Sheep. Oweke, see Ucaca. Owen, Professor. Owen, Rev. Gray, on the Lolos. Owo, Mongol for Musk. Oxen, humped, in Kerman, wild, shaggy (Yaks). —— wild (Beyamini), in East Tibet; Burma; in Bengal; Anin; worshipped; figures of, worn. Oxenham, Atlas. Oxydracae, the. Oxyrhynchus. Oxus Valley and River. Ozene.
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Re: The Travels of Marco Polo, by Marco Polo and Rustichello

Postby admin » Thu Mar 29, 2018 7:40 am

Part 3 of 3

Pacamuria (Baccanor). Pacauta! (an invocation). Pacem, see Pasei. Paddle-wheel barges. Paderin, Mr., visits Karákorum. Pádishah Khátún of Kerman. Padma Sambhava. Pagán (in Burma), ruins at; empire of. —— Old (Tagaung). Pagaroyang, inscriptions from. Paggi Islands. Pagodas, Burmese, alleged Chinese in India. Pahang. Paï, or Peyih tribe. Paipurth (Baiburt). Pai-yen-ching. Paizah, or Golden Tablet of Honour. —— and Yarligh. Pakwiha, China ware. Pala, a bird. Palace of Khan at Chagannor, at Chandu (Shangtu); of cane; at Langtin; Cambaluc; on Green Mount; at Kenjanfu (Si-ngan fu); of the Empire of Manzi at Kinsay; in Chipangu, paved and roofed with gold. Palembang. Paliolle, Or de, for gold dust. Palladius, the Archimandrite. Palm (Measure). Palm Wine, see Wine of Palm. Pamier (Pamir), Plain of, its wild sheep; great height; pasture, etc.; described by Hiuen Tsang, Wood, Goës, Abdul Mejid, Colonel Gordon and others; Dr. M.A. Stein on; Lord Curzon on number of. Pan-Asiatic usages. Pandarani, or Fandaraina. Pandit Manphul. Pandrethan in Kashmir, Buddhist temple at. Pandyan kings. Panja River, or Upper Oxus. Panjáb. Panjkora. Panjshir. Pantaleon, coins of. Panthé, or Mahomedan Kingdom in Yun-nan. Panya (or Pengya), in Burma. Pao-ki h'ien. Paonano Pao. Papé, Papesifu. Paper-money (Chao), Kúblái's made from bark, modern. (See also Currency.). Papien River. Paquier, Professor. Paradise, Apples of. —— in legend of the Cross. —— of Persia. —— of the Old Man of the Mountain, destroyed. —— Rivers of. Parákráma Bahu I. Paramisura, founder of Malacca. Parapomisadae. Parasol. Paravas. Parez, Pariz, turquoise mines of. —— falcons of. Pariahs (Paraiyar), etymology of. Parker, E.H. Parlák, or Perlak, see Ferlec. —— Tanjong. Parliament, Tartar. Parpa iron mines. Parrot, Professor, first to ascend Mount Ararat. Parrots. Partridges, black; Jiruftì; great (Chakors); in mew. (See also Francolin.). Parwana, a traitor eaten by the Tartars. Paryán silver mines. Pascal of Vittoria, Friar. Pasei, Pacem (Basma), a kingdom of Sumatra. —— Bay of. —— History of. Pasha-Afroz. Pasha and Pashagar tribes. Pashai, what region intended. —— Dir. Passo (or Pace), Venetian. Patarins, heretics. Patera, debased Greek, from Badakhshán. Patlam. Patra, or Alms-dish of Buddha, miraculous properties; Holy Grail of Buddhism. Patriarchs of Eastern Christians. (See also Catholicos and Nestorian.). Patteik-Kará. Patterns, beast and bird, on silk, etc. Patu, see Batu. Paukin (Pao-ying). Pauthier, G., remarks on text of Polo. Paved roads in China. —— streets of Kinsay. Payan, see Bayan. Payangadi. Pa-yi writing, specimen of. Peaches, yellow and white (apricots). Peacocks at St. Thomas's, special kind in Coilum. Pearls, in Caindu; rose-coloured in Chipangu; fishery of; pearls and precious stones of kingdom of Maabar. Pears, enormous. Pedir. Pedro, Prince of Portugal. Pegu and Bengal confounded. Pei-chau (Piju). Pein (Pim), province, site of. Peking, white pagoda at. (See Cambaluc.). Pelly, Col. Sir Lewis, British Resident at Bushire. Pema-ching. Pemberton, Captain R. Pentam (Bintang). Pepper, daily consumption of, at Kinsay, change in Chinese use of; great importation at Zayton, duty on; white and black; in Coilum; Eli and Cananore; Melibar; Guzerat; trade in, to Alexandria. Pepper Country. Peregrine falcons. Perla (Ferlec). Persia, extent of name to Bokhara, spoken of; three Magi of; its eight kingdoms. Persia and India, boundary of. Persian applied to language of foreigners at Mongol Court. Persian Gulf (Sea of India?). Pesháwar. Peter, Tartar slave of Marco Polo's. Pharaoh's rats (Gerboa). Phayre, Major-General Sir Arthur. Pheasants, large and long tailed, Reeves's. Pheng (the Rukh). Philip the Fair. Philip III. and IV. of France. Philippine Islands. Phillips, G. Phipps, Captain. Phra Râma, Siamese kings so-called. Phungan, Phungan-lu (Fungul?). Physician, a virtuous. Physicians. Pianfu (P'ing-yang fu). Piccoli. Pichalok. Pievtsov, General, expedition. Pigeon posts. Pig-shells. Piju (Pei-chau). Pilgrimage, to Adam's Sepulchre in Ceylon, to Shrine of St. Thomas. "Pillar Road". Pima (Pim). Pinati, king of Kaulam. Pine woods in Mongolian desert. —— in South China. P'ing-chang, Fanchán, or second class Minister. P'ing-yang fu (Pianfu). Pinna-Cael (Punnei-Káyal). Pipino, Friar Francesco. Pirabandi or Bir Pandi (Vira Pandi). Pirada. Pirates of Malabar, Guzerat; Tana; Somnath; Socotra. Piratical customs at Eli. Pistachioes. Plane, Oriental or Chinár. Plano Carpini. Pog, or Fiag River. Poison, antidote to. Poisoning guests, custom of. Poisonous pasturage. Poison wind. Poland, Mongol invasion of. Pole, or Jackdaw on Polo's scutcheon. Pole-star, invisible in Java the Less, visible again in India. Police, of Cambaluc; Kinsay. Politeness of Chinese. Polo, Andrea, grandfather of Marco. —— Antonio, illegitimate son of Elder Marco. —— Bellela, second daughter, died before 1333. —— Donata, wife of Traveller, sale of property to her husband; death between 1333-1336; before Council; may have been Loredano. —— or Bragadino, Fantina, eldest daughter of Traveller. —— Felice, a cousin. —— Fiordelisa, wife of last. Polo, Fiordelisa, daughter of Maffeo the Younger. —— Maffeo, brother of Nicolo, in Kan-chau; time of death between 1309 and 1318. —— Maffeo, brother of Traveller, probabilities as to birth; will of; abstract from. —— Marco, the elder son of Andrea, Uncle of the Traveller, his will. —— Marco, the Traveller, veracity; perplexities in his biography; Ramusio's notices, extracts from; recognition of his names of places, paralleled with Columbus; nicknamed Millioni; story of his capture at Curzola; writes his book in prison at Genoa; release and marriage; arms; claim to nobility; supposed autograph; his birth, circumstances of; is taken to East; employed by Kúblái, mentioned in Chinese Records; mission to Yun-nan; governor of Yang-chau; employed at Kan-chau, Kara Korum, Champa and Indian Seas; returns home; mentioned in his Uncle Marco's will; commands a galley at Curzola; taken prisoner and carried to Genoa; his imprisonment there; dictates his book to Rusticiano; release and return to Venice; evidence as to story of capture; dying vindication of his book; executor to his brother Maffeo; record of exemption from municipal penalty; gives copy of book to T. de Cepoy; marriage and daughters; lawsuit with Paulo Girardo, proceeding regarding house property; illness and last will; probable date of death; place of burial; professed portraits of; alleged wealth; estimate of him and of his book; true claims to glory; faint indications of personality; rare indications of humour; absence of scientific notions; geographical data in book; his acquisition of languages, ignorance of Chinese, deficiencies in Chinese notices; historical notices; allusions to Alexander; incredulity about his stories; contemporary recognition; by T. de Cepoy, Friar Pipino; J. d'Acqui, Giov. Villani, and P. d'Abano; notice by John of Ypres; borrowings in poem of Bauduin de Sebourc; Chaucer and; influence on geography, obstacles to its effect; character of mediaeval cosmography; Roger Bacon as geographer; Arab maps; Marino Sanudo's map; Medicean; Carta Catalana largely based on Polo's book; increased appreciation of Polo's book; confusions of nomenclature; introduction of block-printing into Europe and Polo; dictates his narrative; found at Venice; his age; noticed and employed by Kúblái; grows in favour, many missions; returns from one to India; escapes from the Karaunas; hears of breed of Bucephalus; recovers from illness in hill climate; hears from Zulficar about Salamander; at Kan-chau; brings home hair of yak; and head and feet of musk deer; witnesses events connected with Ahmad's death; noticed in Chinese annals; whether he had to do with Persian scheme of paper currency in; sent by Khan into Western provinces; governor of Yang-chau; probable extent of his authority; aids in constructing engines for siege of Siang-yang; difficulties as to this statement; on number of vessels on Great Kiang; ignorant of Chinese; on greatness of Kinsay; his notes; sent to inspect amount of revenue from Kinsay; his great experience; never in islands of Sea of Chin; in kingdom of Chamba; historical anecdotes; detained five months in Sumatra, stockade party against wild people; brings Brazil seed to Venice; partakes of tree-flour (sago); takes some to Venice; in six kingdoms of Sumatra; witnesses arrest for debt in Maabar; his erroneous view of Arabian coast; Indian geography; his unequalled travels; Venetian documents about him. —— Marco, called Marcolino, son of Nicolo the Younger. —— Marco, last male survivor. —— Marco, others of this name. —— Maroca, sister of Nicolo the Younger. —— or Delfino, Moreta, youngest daughter. Polo, Nicolo and Maffeo, sons of Andrea, their first journey; cross Black Sea to Soldaia; visit Volga country, etc.; go to Bokhara; join envoys to Khan's Court; Kúblái's reception of; sent back as envoys to Pope; receive a Golden Tablet; reach Ayas; Acre; Venice; find young Marco there —— Nicolo, Maffeo and Marco, proceed to Acre; set out for East, recalled from Ayas; set out again with Pope's letters, etc.; reach Kúblái's Court; are welcomed; see on their journey outward; their alleged service in capture of Siang-yang; Khan refuses them permission to return home; allowed to go with ambassadors; receive Golden Tablets; on return; story of their arrival at Venice; scheme to assert their identity. —— Nicolo, his alleged second marriage and sons; probable truth as to time of; his illegitimate sons; approximate time of his death; his tomb. —— Nicolo the Younger, cousin of traveller. —— Stefano and Giovannino, illegitimate brothers of Traveller. —— (?), or Trevisano (?), Fiordelisa, perhaps second wife of Nicolo Polo the Elder, and mother of Maffeo the Younger. —— or Trevisano, Maria, last survivor of the family, doubts as to her kindred. —— Family, its duration and end, according to Ramusio, origin; last notices of. (For relationship of different Polos, see table). —— Family, branch of S. Geremia. Po-lut (Pa-lut), incense. Polygamy, supposed effect on population. Pomilo (Pamir). Pompholyx. Ponent, or West, term applied by Polo to Kipchak, the Mongol Khanate of the Volga, see Kipchak. Pong (Mediaeval Shan State). Poods, Russian. Popinjays. Population, vast, of Cathay. Porcelain manufacture, fragments found at Kayál; Chinese. —— shells, see Cowries. Porcupines. Pork, mention of, omitted. Postín, sheep-skin coat. Posts, post-houses and runners, in Siberia. Po-sz' (Persia). Potala at L'hasa. Pottinger. Poultry, kind of, in Coilum, in Abyssinia (guinea-fowl?). Pound, sterling. Pourpre, or Purpura. P'o-yang Lake. Pozdneiev, Professor. Precious stones or gems, how discovered by pirates. Prester John (Unc Can, Aung or Ung Khan), Tartar tribute to; account of; marriage relations with Chinghiz; insults Chinghiz' envoys; "these be no soldiers"; marches to meet Chinghiz; real site of battle with Chinghiz; his real fate; slain in battle; his lineage in Tenduc; and the Golden King. Prices of horses, see Horses. Printing, imaginary connection of Polo's name with introduction of. Private names supposed. Prjevalsky, Colonel N.M. Probation of Jogis, parallel. Prophecy regarding Bayan. Proques, the word. Prostitutes; at Cambaluc, Kinsay. Provinces, thirty-four of Kúblái's Empire. Pseudo-Callisthenes. Ptolemies' trained African elephants. Ptolemy, Sarmatic Gates. P'u-chau fu. Pu-ch'eng. Puer and Esmok. Pukan Mien-Wang. Pulad Chingsang. Pulisanghin, River and Bridge. Pulo Bras. Pulo Condore (Sondur and Condur). Pulo Gommes (Gauenispola). Pulo Nankai, or Nási. Pulo Wé, Wai, or Wey. Punnei-Káyal. Puránas, the. Purpura, see Pourpre. Putchok. Putu-ho, "Grape R.". Pygmies, factitious (?).

Qal'ah Asgher, hot springs at.
Qara Ars-lán Beg, king of Kermán.
Quails in India.
Queen of Mutfili.
Quicksilver and sulphur potion.
—— as regarded by alchemists.
Quills of the Ruc, see Ruc.
Quilon, Kaulam, etc., see Coilum.
Qumadin (Camadi)

Rabelais. Rabbanta, a Nestorian monk. Radloff, Dr. W., map. Ráin. Rainald, of Dassel, Archbishop. Rain-makers, see Conjurers. Rainy season. Rajkot leather-work. Rakka, Rákshasas. Rama Kamheng, king. Rameshwaram. Ramnad. Rampart of Gog and Magog. Ramusio, Giov. Battista, passim, his biographical notices of Polo; his edition of Polo. Ráná Paramitá's Woman Country. Ranking, John. Raonano-Rao. Rapson, E.J. Ras Haili. —— Kumhari. Rashíduddín, alias Fazl-ulla Rashid, Persian statesman and historian of the Mongols, frequently quoted in the Notes. Ravenala tree (Urania speciosa). Raw meat eaten. Rawlinson, Sir H. Reclus, Asie russe, on Caspian Sea fisheries. Red gold and red Tangas. Re Dor. Red Sea, trade from India to Egypt by, described in some texts as a river; possible origin of mistake. Red sect of Lamas. Refraction, abnormal. Reg Ruwán, of Kabul. —— of Seistán. Reindeer ridden. Religion, indifference of Chinghizide Princes to, occasional power of among Chinese. Remission of taxation by Kúblái Rennell, Major James. Reobarles (Rúdbár, etc.). Revenue of Kinsay. Rhinoceros (Unicorn), in Sumatra, habits; four Asiatic species. —— Tichorinus. Rhins, Dutreuil de. Rhubarb, Rheum palmatum. Riant, Comte. Ricci, Matteo. Rice. Rice-wine, at Yachi. —— trade on Grand Canal. Richard II. Richthofen, Baron F. von, on Fungul; on Tanpiju. Right and Left, ministers of the. Rio Marabia. Rishis (Eremites) of Kashmir. "River of China". Roads radiating from Cambaluc. Robbers in Persia. Robbers' River. Robes distributed by Kúblái. Roborovsky, Lieutenant. Rochefort, "faire la couvade". Rockets. Rockhill (Rubruck and Diary of a Journey), on the titles Khan, Khatun, etc.; on horn horse-shoes; earliest mention of name Mongol in Oriental works; Mongol storm-dispellers; charge of cannibalism against Tibetans; on Bonbo Lamas; Tablets (hu); mechanical contrivances at E. Court; Mongol etiquette; Chinese leather-money; Mongol post-stations; pocket-spittoons; from Peking to Si-ngan fu; descent of Yellow River; road between T'ung-kwan and Si-ngan fu; two famous Uigur Nestorians; on the word Salar; on the Hui-hui sects; on the Alan; on branch of Volga Bulgars. Rofia palm (sagus ruffia). Roiaus dereusse (?). Rome, the Sudarium at. Rondes, ingenious but futile explanation of. Rook, in Chess. Rori-Bakkar, Sepoy name for Upper Sind. Rosaries, Hindu. Rostof and Susdal, Andrew, Grand Duke of. Roth, H. Ling, on couvade. Rouble. Roxana, daughter of Darius, wife of Alexander. Roze de l'Açur. Rubies, Balas, of Ceylon; of Adam's Peak. Rubruquis, or Rubruc, Friar William de. Ruby mines in Badakhshan. Ruc (Rukh), or Gryphon, bird called, described, its feathers and quills; wide diffusion and various forms of fable; eggs of the Aepyornis; Fra Mauro's story; genus of that bird, condor; discovery of bones of Harpagornis in New Zealand; Sindbad, Rabbi Benjamin, romance of Duke Ernest; Ibn Batuta's sight of Ruc; rook in chess; various notices of. Rúdbár-i-Lass, Robbers' River. —— (Reobarles), district and River. Rudder, single, noted by Polo as peculiar, double, used in Mediterranean. Rúdkhánah-i-Duzdi (Robbers' River). Rúdkhánah-i-Shor (Salt River). Rudra Deva, King of Telingana. Rudrama Devi, Queen of Telingana. Rukh, Shah. Rukhnuddin, Mahmud, Prince of Hormuz. —— Masa'úd. —— Khurshah, son of Alaodin, Prince of the Ismaelites. Rúm. Runiz. Ruomedam-Ahomet, King of Hormuz. Rupen, Bagratid, founder of Armenian State in Cilicia. Rupert, Prince. Rüppell's Table of Abyssinian kings. Russia (Rosia), annexes Georgia, great cold, Arab accounts of; silver mines; subject to Tartars; conquered by Batu. —— leather, clothes of. Russians, trusty lieges of king. Rusták. Rusticiano of Pisa, introduces himself in prologue; writes down Polo's book; extracts and character of his compilation; his real name; his other writings. Ruysch's map.

Saadi.
Saba (Sava, Savah), city of the Magi.
Sabaste, see Sivas.
Sable, its costliness.
Sabreddin.
Sabzawur.
Sachiu (Sha-chau).
Sacrifices of people of Tangut.
—— human.
Sadd-i-Iskandar, rampart of Alexander.
Saffron, fruit-serving purposes of.
Sagacity of sledge-dogs.
Sagamon Borcan, see Sakyamuni Buddha.
Sagatu, general of Kúblái's.
Saggio (1/6 oz.).
Sago.
Saianfu, see Siang-yang-fu.
Saif Arad, king of Abyssinia.
Saifuddin Nazrat, ruler of Hormuz.
Saimur (Chaul).
Sain Khan (or Batu).
St. Anno of Cologne.
St. Barlaam and St. Josafat, story of Buddhist christianised.
St. Barsauma (Barsamo, Brassamus), and monastery of.
St. Blasius (Blaise), Church at Sivas.
St. Brandon.
St. Buddha!
St. Epiphanius.
St. George, Church of, in Sivas,
at Quilon.
St. Helena.
St. James' Shrine, Gallicia.
St. John the Baptist, Church of, in Samarkand.
—— Major Oliver.
St. Leonard's Convent in Georgia, and the fish miracle.
St. Lewis,
his campaign on the Nile.
St. Martin, Vivien de, Map.
St. Mary's Island, Madagascar.
St. Matthew, Monastery near Mosul.
St. Matthew's Gospel, story of the Magi.
St. Nina.
St. Sabba's at Acre.
St. Thomas, the Apostle,
his shrine in India;
his murderers, and their hereditary curse;
reverenced by Saracens and heathen;
miracles in India;
story of his death;
tradition of his preaching in India;
translation of remains to Edessa;
King Gondopharus of legend a real king;
Roman Martyrology;
the localities;
alleged discovery of reliques;
the Cross;
church ascribed to;
in Abyssinia.
St. Thomas's Isle.
—— Mounts.
Saker falcons.
Sakta doctrines.
Sakya Muni (Sagamon Borcan) Buddha,
death of;
recumbent figures of;
story of;
his footmark on Adam's Peak;
Alms dish, Holy Grail;
tooth relique.
Salamander, the.
Salar (Ho-chau).
Salem, dragoman, explores Rampart of Gog.
Salghur, Atabegs of Fars.
Sálih, Malik, son of Badruddin Lúlú.
Salsette Island.
Salt, H., his version of Abyssinian chronology.
—— rock,
in Badakhshan;
used for currency;
extracted from deep wells;
in Carajan province;
manufactured in Eastern China;
manufacture, revenue and traffic in;
trade on the Kiang;
junks employed therein.
—— stream.
Salwen River, or Lu-Kiang.
Samagar.
Samána.
Samara, kingdom of, see Sumatra.
Samarkand (Samarcan),
story of a miracle at;
colony near Peking from.
Sampson, Theos., on grapes in China.
Sámsúnji Báshi.
Samudra, see Sumatra.
Samuel, his alleged tomb at Sávah.
San Giovanni Grisostomo,
parish in Venice where the Ca' Polo was;
theatre.
San Lorenzo, Venice, burial place of Marco and his father.
Sandu, see Chandu.
Sanf, see Champa.
Sangín, Sangkan River.
Sanglich, dialect of.
Sang-Miau, tribe of Kwei-chau.
Sangon, the Title (Tsiang-kiun).
Sanitary effects of Mountain air.
Sanjar, sovereigns of Persia.
Sankin Hoto, Dalai.
Sanuto of Torcelli, Marino,
his World Map;
on long range.
Sappan wood, see Brazil.
Sapta-Shaila.
Sapurgan (Sabúrkán, Shabúrkán, Shibrgán).
Saputa, Sçue, peculiar use of.
Saracanco (Saraichik), on the Yaik.
Saracens, see Mahomedans.
Sarai (Sara), capital of Kipchak,
city and its remains;
perhaps occupied successive sites.
—— Sea of (Caspian).
Sáras, crane (Grus antigone).
Saratov.
Sarbizan Pass.
Sardines.
Sárdú Pass.
Sarghalan River.
Sarha, Port of Sumatra.
Sarhadd River.
Sar-i-kol, Lakes.
Sarsáti.
Sartak, the Great Khan's ambassador to Húlakú.
Sassanian dynasty.
Sati, see Suttee.
Satin, probable origin of word.
Saum, Sommo,
silver ingots used in Kipchak;
apparently the original rouble.
Sauromatae.
Sávah (Saba).
Savast (Siwas).
Scanderoon, Gulf of.
Scasem.
Scherani, bandits.
Schiltberger, Hans.
Schindler, General Houtum-.
Schlegel, Dr. G.
Schmidt, Professor I.J.
Schönborn, Carl.
Schuyler, Eugene.
Scidmore, Miss E., on the Tide.
Scotra, see Socotra.
Sea of Chin.
—— England.
—— Ghel, or Ghelan.
—— India.
—— Rochelle.
—— Sarain.
Seal, Imperial.
Sebaste, see Sivas.
Sebourc, Bauduin de, see Bauduin de Sebourc.
Sees of Latin Church.
—— Nestorian Church.
Sefavíehs, the.
Seilan, see Ceylon.
Self-decapitation.
Selitrennoyé Gorodok (Saltpetre Town).
Seljukian dynasty.
—— Turks.
Selles, chevaux à deux, the phrase.
Semal tree.
Semedo.
Semenat, see Somnath.
Sempad, Prince, High Constable of Armenia.
Sendal, a silk texture.
Sendaus, generally Taffetas.
Sendemain, king of Seilan.
Seneca, Epistles.
Senecherim, king of Armenia.
Seni, Verzino.
Senshing.
Sensin, ascetics, devotees living on bran.
Sentemur.
Sepulchre of Adam, see Adam's Sepulchre.
—— of our Lord,
oil from.
Serano, Juan de.
Serazi (Shíráz), kingdom of Persia.
Serendib.
Seres, Sinae,
their tree wool;
ancient character of the.
Serpents, great, i.e. alligators.
Sertorius.
Sesamé.
Sesnes, mediaeval form of cygnet, cigne.
Seta Ghella, seta Leggi (Ghellé), silk.
Seth's mission to Paradise.
Sevan Lake.
Seven Arts, the.
Severtsoff, shoots the Ovis Poli,
on the name Bolor.
Seyyed Barghash, Sultan of Zanzibar.
Shabankara, or Shawankára (Soncara).
Shabar, son of Kaidu.
Sha-chau (Sachin), "Sand-district".
Shadow, augury from length of
Shah Abbas,
his Court.
—— Jahan.
Shahr-i-Babek, turquoise mine at.
Shahr-i-Nao (Siam).
Shahr Mandi, or Pandi.
Shah Werdy, last of the Kurshid dynasty.
Shaibani Khan.
Shaikh-ul-Jibal.
Shaikhs (Esheks), in Madagascar.
Shakespeare, on relation of gold to silver.
Sháliát.
Shamanism. (See also Devil-Dancing.).
Shampath, ancestor of Georgian kings.
Shamsuddin Shamatrani.
Shamuthera, see Sumatra.
Shan (Laotian, or Thai).
—— race and country.
—— dynasty in Yun-nan.
—— ponies.
—— state of Pong, see Pong.
Shanars of Tinnevelly,
their devil-worship.
Shang-hai.
Shangking-Fungking.
Shangtu, Shangdu (Chandu),
Kúblái's City and Summer Palace;
Dr. Bushell's description of;
Kúblái's annual visit to.
Shangtu Keibung.
Shan-hai-kwan.
Shankárah, Shabankára (Soncara).
Shan-si.
Shan-tung,
silk in;
pears from.
Shao-hing-fu.
Shao-ling, pariah caste of.
Sharakhs.
Shara-ul-buks (Forest of box on the Black Sea).
Sharks and shark charmers.
Shauls, or Shúls, the.
Shawánkára (Soncara).
Shaw, R.B.
Shawls of Kerman.
Sheep, fat-tailed in Kerman.
—— four-horned at Shehr.
—— large Indian.
—— none in Manzi.
—— of Pamir (Ovis Poli).
—— wild, of Badakhshan (Kachkar, Ovis Vignei).
—— with trucks behind.
—— Zanghibar.
Sheep's head given to horses.
Shehr, or Shihr, see Esher.
Shehrizor (Kerkuk).
Shenrabs.
Shen-si.
Shentseu tribe.
Sheuping.
Shewá, cool plateau of.
Shibrgán (Sapurgan).
Shieng, Sheng, or Sing, the Supreme Board of Administration.
Shien-sien, Shin-sien.
Shighnan (Syghinan), ruby mines.
Shijarat Malayu, or Malay Chronicle.
Shikárgáh, applied to animal pattern textures, Benares brocades.
Shing-king, or Mukden.
Ships, of the Great Khan,
of India at Fuju;
of Manzi described;
mediaeval, accounts of;
in Japan;
in Java Seas;
at Eli.
Shíráz (Cerazi).
Shireghi.
Shirha.
Shirwan.
Shi-tsung, Emperor.
Shoa.
Shob'aengs of Nicobar.
Shodja ed-din Kurshid, Kurd.
Shor-Rud (Salt River).
Shot of Military Engines.
Shpilevsky.
Shúlistán (Suolstan).
Shúls of Shauls, people of Persia.
Shut up nations, legend of the.
Shwéli River.
Siam,
king of.
Siang-yang-fu (Saianfu),
Kúblái's siege of;
Polo's aid in taking;
difficulties in Polo's account;
not removed by Pauthier, notice by Wassáf, Chinese account,
Rashiduddin's;
treasure buried.
Siberia.
Sibree, on rofia palm.
Sick men put to death and eaten by their friends.
Siclatoun, kind of texture.
Siddhárta.
Sidi Ali.
Sien, Sien-Lo, Sien-Lo-Kok (Siam, Locac).
Sifan.
Sigatay, see Chagatai.
Sighelm, envoy from King Alfred to India.
Si Hia, language of Tangut.
Si-hu, Lake of Kinsay or Hang-chau.
Sijistán.
Siju (Suthsian).
Sikintinju (Kien-chow).
Silesia, Mongol invasion of.
Silk, called Ghellé (of Gilan),
manufacture at Yezd;
at Taianfu;
in Shan-si and Shen-si;
in Kenjanfu;
Cuncun;
Sindafu;
Kwei-chau;
Tasinfu;
Piju;
Pao-ying-Hien;
Nanghin;
Chinhiang-fu;
Chinginju;
Suju;
Vughin;
Kinsay;
Ghiuju.
—— cotton tree.
—— duty on.
—— and gold stuffs.
—— stuffs and goods, Turcomania,
Georgia;
Baghdad;
Yezd;
Kerman;
Tenduc province;
Cambaluc;
Juju;
Sindafu;
Cacanfu;
Chinangli;
Suju;
Vughin;
Kinsay;
in animal patterns;
with Cheetas;
of Kelinfu;
with giraffes.
Silk, tent ropes,
bed furniture.
—— trade at Cambaluc,
at Kinsay.
—— worms.
Silver chairs.
—— imported into Malabar,
Cambay.
—— Island.
—— mines at Baiburt,
Gumish-Khánah;
in Badakhshan;
in N. Shansi;
Yun-nan;
Russian.
—— plate in Chinese taverns.
Simon, Metropolitan of Fars.
—— Magus.
Simúm, effects of.
Simurgh.
Sinbad,
his story of the diamonds;
of the Rukh.
Sind (Sindhu-Sauvira).
Sindábúr (Goa).
Sindachu (Siuen-hwa fu).
Sindafu (Chengtu-fu).
Sindhu-Sauvira (Sindh-Ságor).
Si-ngan fu (Kenjanfu),
Christian inscription at.
Singapore, Singhapura.
Singkel.
Singphos.
Sings.
Singtur, Mongol Prince.
Singuyli (Cranganor).
Sinhopala (Accambale), king of Chamba.
Sinju (Si-ning fu).
—— (Ichin-hien).
Sinju-matu.
Sínkalán, Sín-ul-Sín, Mahá-chin, or Canton.
Sinope.
Síráf (Kish, or Kais?).
Sir-i-Chashma.
Sirikol, Lake and River.
Sírján or Shirján.
Sis.
Sístán.
Sitting in air.
Siu chau.
Siuen-hwa-fu, see Sindachu.
Siva.
Sivas, Siwas, Sebaste, Sevasd (Savast).
Siwastán.
Siwi, gigantic cotton in.
Sixtus V., Pope.
Siya-gosh, or lynx.
Siyurgutmish.
Sladen, Major.
Slaves in Bengal.
Sledges, dog-.
Sleeping-mats, leather.
Sluices of Grand Canal.
Smith, G., Bishop of Hongkong.
Smith (R.E.), Major R.M.
Sneezing, omen from.
Socotra (Scotra), island of,
history of;
Christian Archbishop;
aloes of.
Soer (Suhar).
Sofala, trade to China from.
Sogoman Borcan, see Sakya Muni.
Sol, Arbre, see Arbre.
Soldaia, Soldachia, Sodaya (the Oriental Sudák).
Soldan, a Melic.
Soldurii, trusty lieges of Celtic kings.
Soli, Solli (Chola, or Tanjore), kingdom of.
Solomon, house of, in Abyssinia.
Soltania, Archbishop of (See Sultaniah.).
Somnath (Semenat),
gates of.
Sonagar-pattanam.
Soncara (Shawankára).
Sender Bandi Davar, see Sundara Pandi.
Sondur and Condur (Pulo Condore Group).
Sorcerers, sorceries of Pashai (Udyana),
Kashmir;
Lamas and Tibetans.
—— Dagroian,
Socotra (See also Conjurers.).
Sornau (Shahr-i-Nau), Siam.
Sotiates, tribe of Aquitania.
Soucat.
Southey, St. Romuald.
Spaan, Ispahan.
Sposk, district.
Spezerie.
Spice, Spicery.
Spice wood.
Spices in China, duty on.
Spikenard.
Spinello Aretini, fresco by.
Spirit drawings and spiritual flowers.
Spirits haunting deserts.
Spiritualism in China.
Spittoons, pocket.
Spodium (Spodos).
Sport and game,
in Shan-si;
Cachanfu;
Cuncun;
Acbalec Manzi;
Tibet;
Caindu;
Zardandan;
Mien;
Linju;
Cagu;
Nanghin;
Saianfu;
Ching-hiang-fu;
Chinginju;
Changan;
Kinsay;
Fuju;
Lambri;
Maabar;
Comari;
Eli.
Springolds.
Springs, hot.
Sprinkling of drink, a Tartar rite.
Squares at Kinsay.
Sri-Thammarat.
Sri-Vaikuntham.
Sse River.
Stack, E., visits Kuh Banán.
Star Chart.
Star of Bethlehem, traditions about.
Steamers on Yangtse-kiang.
Steel mines at Kermán,
in Chingintalas;
Indian;
Asiatic view of.
Stefani, Signor.
Stein, Dr. M.A., on Sorcery in Kashmir,
on Paonano Pao;
on Pamirs;
on site of Pein.
Stiens of Cambodia.
Stirrups, short and long.
Stitched vessels.
Stockade erected by Polo's party in Sumatra.
Stone, miracle of the, at Samarkand.
—— the green.
—— towers in Chinese cities.
—— umbrella column.
Stones giving invulnerability.
Suákin.
Submersion of part of Ceylon.
Subterraneous irrigation.
Suburbs of Cambaluc.
Subutai, Mongol general.
Su-chau (Suju),
plan of.
Suchnan River.
Sudarium, the Holy.
Súddhodhana.
Sugar, Bengal,
manufactured;
art of refining;
of Egypt and China.
Suh-chau (Sukchur).
Suicides before an idol.
Sukchur, province Sukkothai.
Sukkothai.
Suklát, broadcloth.
Sukum Kala'.
Suleiman, Sultan.
Sulphur and quicksilver, potion of longevity.
Sultaniah, Monument at (See Soltania.).
Sultan Shah, of Badakhshan.
Sumatra (Java the Less),
described, its kingdoms;
circuit.
Sumatra, Samudra,
city and kingdom of (Samara for Samatva);
legend of origin;
Ibn Batuta there;
its position;
latest mention of;
wine-pots.
Sumbawa.
Summers, Professor.
Sumutala, Sumuntala, see Sumatra.
Sun and moon, trees of the.
Sundara Pandi Devar, Sondar Bandi Davar, king in Ma'bar,
his death;
Dr. Caldwell's views about.
Sundar Fúlát (Pulo Condore Group).
Sung, a native dynasty reigning in S. China till Kúblái's conquest,
their paper-money, effeminacy;
cremation;
Kúblái's war against;
end of them.
Sunnis and Shias.
Suolstan (Shulistan), a kingdom in Persia.
Superstitions in Tangut, the devoted sheep or ram (Tengri Tockho),
the dead man's door;
as to chance shots;
in Carajan;
devil-dancing;
property of the dead;
Sumatran;
Malabar;
as to omens.
Sur-Raja.
Survival, instances of.
Sushun, Regent of China, execution of.
Su-tásh, the Jadek.
Suttees in S. India,
of men.
Svastika, sacred symbol of the Bonpos.
Swans, wild, at Chagan-Nor.
Swat.
—— River.
Swi-fu.
Sword blades of India.
Syghinan, see Shighnan.
Sykes, Major P. Molesworth.
Sylen (Ceylon).
Symbolical messages, Scythian and Tartar.
Syrian Christians.
Syrrhaptes Pallasii, see Barguerlac.
Szechényi, Count.
Sze-ch'wan (Ch'eng-tu),
aborigines.

Tabashir. Tabbas. Table of the Great Khan. Tables, how disposed at Mongol feasts. Tablet, Emperor's, adored with incense. Tablets of Authority, Golden (Páizah), presented by Khan to Polos; lion's head and gerfalcon; bestowed on distinguished captains, inscription; cat's head; granted to governors of different rank. —— worshipped by Cathayans. Tabriz (Tauris). Tachindo, see Ta-ts'ien-lu. Tacitus, Claustra Caspiorum, Pass of Derbend. Tactics, Tartar. Tacuin. Tadinfu. Taeping Insurrection and Devastations. Taeping, or Taiping, Sovereigns' effeminate customs. Taffetas. Taft, near Yezd, turquoise at. Tafurs. Tagachar. Tagaung. Tagharma Pass. Taghdúngbásh River. Taianfu (T'ai-yuan-fu), king of N. China. Taiani. Taican, see Talikan. Taichau (Tigu). T'aiching-Kwan. Taidu, Daitu, Tatu, Kúblái's new city of Cambaluc. Taikung, see Tagaung. Tailed men, in Sumatra, elsewhere; English. Tailors, none in Maabar. Taimúni tribe. Taiting-fu (Tadinfu), or Yenchau. Taitong-fu, see Tathung. Tai-tsu, Emperor. T'ai Tsung, Emperor. Tatyang Khan (Great King), king of the Naimans. Tajiks of Badakhshan, great topers. Takfúr. Takhtapul. Táki-uddin, Abdu-r Rahmán. Takla-Makan. Talains. Talas River. Tali, gold mines. Talifu (Carajan). Talikan, Thaikan (Taican). Tallies, record by. Tamarind, pirates use of. Tamerlan. Tana (Azov). —— near Bombay, kingdom of Tana-Maiambu. Tana-Malayu. Tánasi cloth. Tanduc, see Tenduc. T'ang dynasty. Tangnu Oola, branch of Altai. Tangut province, Chinese Si Hia, or Ho Si, five invasions of. Tangutan, term applied to Tibetan speaking people round the Koko-nor. Tanjore, Suttee at; Pagoda at; fertility of. Tánkíz Khan, applied to Chinghiz. Tanpiju (Shaohing?). Tantras, Tantrika, Tantrists. Tao-lin, a Buddhist monk. Tao-sze (Taossé), sect, female idols of the. Ta-pa-Shan range. Taprobana, mistakes about. Tarakai. Tarantula. Tarcasci. Tarem, or Tarum. Tares of the parable. Taríkh-i-Rashídí. Tarmabala, Kúblái's grandson. Tarok, Burmese name for Chinese. Tarok Man and Tarok Myo. Tartar language, on Tartar, its correct form; misuse by Ramusio. Tartars, different characters used by; identified with Gog and Magog; ladies; their first city; original country, tributary to Prester John; revolt and migration; earliest mention of the word; make Chinghiz their king; his successors; their customs and religion; houses; waggons; chastity of their women; polygamy, etc.; their gods and idols; their drink (Kumiz); cloths; arms, horses, and war customs; military organization; sustenance on rapid marches; blood-sucking; portable curd; tactics in war; degeneracy; administration of justice; laws against theft; posthumous marriage; the cudgel; Rubruquis' account of; Joinville's; custom before a fight; want of charity to the poor; conquerors of China, history of; excellence in archery; objection to meddling with things pertaining to the dead; admiration of the Polo mangonels; employment of military engines; their cruelties; arrows; marriage customs. —— in the Far North. —— of the Levant, see Levant. —— of the Ponent, see Ponent. Tartary cloths. Tarungares, tribe. Tásh Kurgán. Tataríya coins. Tathung, or Taitongfu. Ta-t'sien-lu, or Tachindo, Tartsédo. Ta Tsing River. Tattooing, artists in. Tatu (Taichu). —— River. Tauris, see Tabriz. Taurizi, Torissi. Tawálisi. Taxes, see Customs, Duties. Tchakiri Mondou (Modun). Tchekmen, thick coarse cotton stuff. Tea-houses at Kingszé. Tea trees in E. Tibet. Tebet, see Tibet. Tedaldo, see Theobald. Teeth, custom of casing in gold. —— of Adam or of Buddha. —— conservation of, by Brahmans. Tegana. Teghele, Atabeg of Lúr. Teimur (Temur), Kúblái's grandson and successor. Tekla, Hamainot. Tekrit. Telingana, see Tilinga. Telo Samawe. Tembul (Betel), chewing. Temkan, Kúblái's son. Temple, connection of Cilician Armenia with Order of. —— Master of the. Temple's account of the Condor. Temujin, see Chinghiz. Tenduc, or Tanduc, plain of, province of. Tengri, Supreme deity of Tartars. Tennasserim, (Tanasari). Tents, the Khan's. Terebinth, of Mamre. Terlán, goshawk. Terra Mountains. Terra Australis. Te-Tsung, Emperor. Thai, Great and Little, race. Thaigin. Thai-yuanfu (Taianfu). Thard-wahsh, see Patterns, Beast and Bird. Theft, Tartar punishment of. Theistic worship. Thelasar. Theobald, or Tedaldo of Piacenza, chosen Pope as Gregory X.; sends friars with the Polos and presents. Theodorus, king of Abyssinia. Theodosius the Great. Theophilus, Emperor of Constantinople. —— missionary. Thévenot, Travels. Thian Shan. Thianté-Kiun. Thin l'Evêque, siege of. Thinae of Ptolemy. Tholoman, see Coloman. Thomas, Edward. —— of Mancasola, Bishop of Samarcand. Thread, Brahmanical. Three kingdoms (San-Kwé). Threshold, a great offence to step on the. Thurán Shah's History of Hormuz. Tibet (Tebet) province, boundary of; its acquisition by Mongols; organisation under Kúblái; dogs of. Tibetan language and character, origin of the Yue-chi. Tibetans, superstitions of; and Kashmiris (Tebet and Keshimur), sorceries of; accused of cannibalism. Tides in Hang-chau estuary. Tierce, half tierce, etc., hours of. Tiflis. Tigado, Castle of. Tigers (called lions by Polo), trained to the chase; in Cuncun; in Caindu; Kwei-chau. (See also Lions.). Tigris River (Volga), at Baghdad. Tigúdar (Acomat Soldan). Tiju. Tiles, enamelled. Tilinga, Telingana, Tiling, Telenc. Tiling. Timur of Toumen, chief of the Nikoudrians. Timur the Great. Timurids, the. Ting, 10 taels of silver = tael of gold. Tinju. Tinnevelly. Tithe on clothing material. Tithing men, Chinese (Pao-kia). Titus, Emperor. Tjajya, see Choiach. Toba race. Toctai, king, see Toktai. Tod, Colonel James. Toddy, see Wine of Palm. Togan. Toghontemur, last Mongol Emperor, his wail. Toghrul I. —— Shah of Kermán. Togrul Wang Khan, see Prester John. Toka Tumir. Tokát. Toktai Khan (Toctai, Lord of the Ponent), wars with Noghai; his symbolic message. Tolan-nur (Dolonnúr). Toleto, John de, Cardinal Bishop of Portus. Tolobuga. Toman (Tuman, etc.), Mongol word for 10,000. Tongking, Tungking. Tooth-relique of Buddha, history of. Torchi, Dorjé, Kúblái's first-born. Tornesel. Toro River. Torshok. Torture by constriction in raw hide. Toscaul, toskáúl (toscaol), watchman. Tournefort, on cold at Erzrum. Tower and Bell Alarm at Peking, at Kinsay. Toyan (Tathung?). Trade at Layas, by Baghdad; at Tauris; at Cambaluc; in Shan-si; on the Great Kiang; at Chinangli; at Sinju Matu; Kinsay; Fu-chau; Zayton; Java; Malaiur; Cail; Coilum; Melibar; Tana; Cambaet; Kesmacoran; Socotra. —— of India with Hormuz, with Egypt by Aden; with Esher; with Dofar; with Calatu. Trades in Manzi, alleged to be hereditary. Tramontaine. Transmigration. Traps for fur animals. Travancore, Rajas of. Treasure of Maabar kings. Trebizond, Emperors of, and their tails. Trebuchets. Trees, of the Sun and Moon, superstitions about; by the highways; camphor; producing wine; producing flour (sago). Tregetoures. Trench, Archbishop. Trevisano, Azzo. —— Marc' Antonio, Doge. Trincomalee. Tringano. Trinkat. 'Trusty lieges,' devoted comrades of king of Maabar. T'sang-chau. T'siang-kiun ('General'). T'sien T'ang River, bore in. T'si-nan-fu (Chinangli). T'sing-chau. T'sing-ling range. T'si-ning-chau. Tsin-tsun. Tsiuan-chau, T'swanchau, see Zayton. Tsongkhapa, Tibetan Reformer. Ts'uan-chou, see Zayton. Tsukuzi in Japan. Tsung-ngan-hien. Tsushima, Island. Tuan, Prince, chief of the Boxers. Tuc, tuk, tugh, commanders of 100,000, horse-tail or yak-tail; standard. Tudai, Ahmad Khan's wife. Tudai-Mangku (Totamangu or Totamangul). Tu-fan, ancient name of Tibet. Tughan, Tukan, Kúblái's son. Tughlak Shah, of Delhi (a Karaunah). Tuktuyai Khan. Tu-ku-hun. Tuli, or Tulin, fourth son of Chinghiz. Tuman, see Toman. Tumba, Angelo di, Marco di. Tún, city of E. Persia. Tung-'an in Fokien. Tungani, or Converts, Mahomedans in N. China and Chinese Turkestan. Tung-chau (Tinju). Tung-hwang-hien, ancient Shachau. Tung-kwan, fortress of the Kin sovereigns. Tung-lo (Kumiz). Tunguses. Tunny fish. Tun-o-kain (Tunocain), kingdom of Persia. Turbit (radex Turpethi). Turcomania (Anatolian Turkey). Turgaut, day-watch. Turkey, Great (Turkestan). Turkistan chiefs send mission to kings of India. Turkmans and Turks, distinction between, horses. Turks, ancient mention of, friend of Polo's; and Mongols. Turmeric. Turner, Lieutenant Samuel, describes Yak of Tartary. Turquans, Turkish horses. Turquoises in Kermán, in Caindu. Turtle doves. Turumpak, Hormuz. Tutia (Tutty), preparation of. Tuticorin. Tu T'song, Sung Emperor of China. Tver. Twelve, a favourite round number. —— Barons over Khan's Administration. Twigs or arrows, divination by. Tyuman. Tyunju, porcelain manufacture. Tylor, Dr. E.B., on Couvade. Tzarev. Tzaritzyn.

Ucaca (Ukak, Ukek, Uwek),
Ukák of Ibn Batuta, a different place.
Uch-baligh.
Uch-Multán.
Udoe country.
Udong.
Udyána.
Ughuz, legend of.
Uighúr character, parent of present Mongol writing.
Uighúrs, the.
Uiraca.
Uirad, see Oirad.
Ujjain, legend of,
(Ozene).
Ukak. (See Ucaca.).
Ulatai (Oulatay), Tartar envoy from Persia.
Ulakhai.
Ulan Muren (Red River).
Ulugh Bagh, on Badakhshan border.
—— Mohammed.
Ulús, the.
U-man and Pe-man (Black and White Barbarians).
Umbrellas.
Unc Can (Aung Khan), see Prester John
Ung (Ungkút), Tartar tribe..
Ungrat (Kungurat), Tartar tribe.
Unicorn (Rhinoceros), in Burma,
Sumatra;
legend of Virgin and;
horns of.
Unken, City.
Unlucky hours.
U-nya-Mwezi superstition.
Urduja, Princess.
Uriangkadai.
Uriangkút (Tunguses).
Urianhai, the.
Urumtsi.
Urzú.
Uspenskoye (called also Bolgarskoye).
Uttungadeva, king of Java.
Uwek, see Ucaca.
Uzbeg Khan of Sarai.
Uzbegs of Kunduz.
Uzun Tati, coins, Chinese porcelain from.

Vair, the fur and animal. —— as an epithet of eyes. Valaghir district. Vámbéry, Prof. Hermann. Vanchu (Wangchu), conspires with Chenchu against Ahmad. Van Lake. Varaegian, Varangian. Varaha Mihira, astronomer. Vardoj River. Varini. Varsach, or Mashhad River. Vasmulo. Vateria Indica. Veil of the Temple, [Greek: péplos babylónios]. Vellalars. Venádan, title of king of Kaulam. Venetians, factory at Soldaia, expelled from Constantinople. Venice, return of Polos to; its exaltation after Latin conquest of Constantinople; its nobles; Polo's mansion at; galleys; archives at; articles brought from East by Marco to. Ventilators at Hormuz. Verlinden, Belgian missionary. Verniques. Verzino Colombino. (See also Brazil.). Vessels, war, stitched of Kermán ([Greek: ploiária rhaptá]). (See also Ships.). Vial, Paul, French missionary. Vijayanagar. Vikramajit, legend of. Vikrampúr. Villard de Honnecourt, Album of. Vincent of Beauvais. Vincenzo, P. Vineyards, in Taican, Kashgar; Khotan; in N. China. Vinson, Prof., on Couvade. Virgin of Cape Comorin. Visconti, Tedaldo, or Tebaldo, see Theobald of Piacenza. Vissering, on Chinese Currency. Vochan (Unchan, Yungchan), battle there. Vogels, J. Vokhan, see Wakhán. Volga, called Tigris. Vos, Belgian Missionary. Vughin. Vuju in Kiangnan. —— in Chekiang.

Wadoe tribe. Wakf. Wakhán (Vokhan), dialect. —— Mountains. Wakhjír Pass. Wakhijrui Pass, see Wakhjír Pass. Wakhsh, branch of the Oxus. Wakhtang II., king of Georgia. Walashjird. Wallachs. Wall of Alexander (or Caucasian). —— of Gog and Magog (i.e. China). Walnut-oil. Wami River. Wang, Chinese silk. Wang, king of Djungar. Wangchu, see Vanchu Wapila. Warangol Ku. Warangs. Warner, Dr. War vessels, Chinese. Wassáf, the historian, his character of the Karaunahs; notices of Hormuz; eulogy of Kúblái; story of Kúblái; his style; account of taking of Siang-yang; of Kinsay; Maabar; horse trade to India; treatment of them there; extract from his history. Water, bitter. —— custom of lying in, consecration by Lamas. —— Clock. Wathek, Khalif. Wa-tzu, Lolo slaves. Weather-conjuring. Wei dynasty. Weights and measures. Wei-ning. Wei River in Shen-si. —— in Shan-tung. Wen River. Wen-chow. Westermarck, Human Marriage. Whale oil, including spermaceti. Whales, in Socotra; Madagascar; species of Indian Ocean; sperm (Capdoille). Wheaten bread not eaten, at Yachi. White bears. —— bone, Chinese for Lolos. —— camels. —— City, meaning of term among Tartars. —— City, of Manzi frontier. —— Devils. —— Feast at Kúblái's City. —— Horde. —— horses and mares, offered to Khan. Whittington and his cat in Persia. Wild asses and oxen, see Asses and Oxen. William of Tripoli, Friar, his writings. Williams, Dr. S.W., on the Chinese year, on elephants at Peking. Williamson, Rev. A. Wilson, General Sir C. Wind, poison (Simúm), monsoons. Wine, of the vine, Persians lax in abstaining from, —— boiled. —— of ancient Kapisa, Khotan; at Taianfu; imported at Kinsay. —— rice (Samshu or darásún), and of wheat; at Yachi; spices, etc., in Caindu; Kien-ch'ang; Cangigu; Coloman; Kinsay. —— Palm (toddy). —— from sugar. —— date. —— (unspecified), at Khan's table, not used in Ma'bar; nor by Brahmans. "Winter" used for "rainy season". Wo-fo-sze, "Monastery of the lying Buddha". Wolves in Pamir. Women, Island of. Women, of Kerman, their embroidery; mourners; of Khorasan, their beauty; of Badakhshan; Kashmir; Khotan; Kamul, fair and wanton; Tartar good and loyal; Erguiul, pretty creatures; of the town; of Tibet, evil customs; Caindu; Carajan; Zardandan, couvade; Anin; Kinsay, charming; respectful treatment of; Kelinfu, beautiful; Zanghibar, frightful. Wonders performed by the Bacsi. Wood, Lieutenant John, Indian Navy, his elucidations of Polo in Oxus regions. Wood-oil. Wool, Salamander's. Worship of Mahomet (supposed). —— of fire, Tartar; Chinese. —— of first object seen in the day. Worshipping the tablets. Wu-chau (Vuju). Wukiang-hien (Vughin). Wüsus, or Wesses, people of Russia. Wu-ti, Emperor. Wylie, Alexander.

Xanadu. Xavier, at Socotra. Xerxes.

Ya-chau.
Yachi (Yun-nan-fu), city.
Yadah, Jadagari, Jadah-tásh, science and stone of weather-conjurer.
Yaik River.
Yájú, and Májúj, see Gog and Magog.
Yak (dong),
their tails carried to Venice;
used in India for military decorations.
Ya'kúb Beg of Kasghar.
Yakuts.
Yalung River.
Yam, or Yamb (a post-stage or post-house).
Yamgán.
Yang-chau (Yanju), city,
Marco's government there.
Yarbeg of Badakhshan.
Yarkand (Yarcan).
Yarligh and P'aizah.
Yasdi (Yezd).
—— silk tissue.
Yashm, jade.
Yasodhara, bride of Sakya Sinha.
Yavanas.
Yazdashir.
Ydifu.
Year, Chinese,
Mongol and Chinese cycle.
Yelimala, see Monté d'Ely.
Yeliu Chutsai, statesman and astronomer.
Yellow, or orthodox Lamas.
Yemen (See also Aden.).
Yeng-chau (in Shan-tung).
—— (in Che-kiang).
Yen-king (Old Peking).
Yen-Ping.
Yenshan.
Yesubuka.
Yesudar.
Yesugai, father of Chinghiz.
Yetsina (Etzina).
Yezd (Yasdi),
silk fabrics of.
Yiu-ki River.
Yoritomo, descendants of.
Yonting Ho River.
Yotkàn, village.
Youth, Island of.
Yrac, province.
Ysemain of Hiulie, western engineer.
Yu, see Jade.
Yuan Ho.
Yu-chow, gold and silver mines.
Yue-chi.
Yuen, Mongol Imperial dynasty, so styled.
Yuen-hao, kingdom of Tangut.
Yuen ming-yuen, palace.
Yuen shi, History of Mongol Dynasty in China.
Yugria, or Yughra, in the Far North.
Yuh-shan.
Yule, Sir Henry,
on Ravenala;
on Maundeville.
Yun-Hien, a Buddhist Abbot.
Yung-chang fu (Shen-si).
—— (Yun-nan, Vochan).
Yung Lo, Emperor.
Yun-nan (Carajan), province,
conquerors of;
Mahomedans.
Yun-nan-fu city, see Yachi.
Yurungkásh (white Jade) River.
Yusuf Kekfi.
Yuthia, Ayuthia (Ayodhya), mediaeval capital of Siam.
Yvo of Narbonne.

Zabedj. Zaila. Zaitúníah, probable origin of satin. Zampa, see Champa. Zanghibar (Zangibar, Zanjibar, Zanzibar), currents off; Ivory trade; its blacks, women. Zanton (Shantung ?). Zanzale, James, or Jacob Baradaeus, Bishop of Edessa. Zapharan, monastery near Baghdad. Zardandan, or "Gold Teeth," a people of W. Yun-nan, identity doubtful; characteristic customs. Zarneke, Fr. Zayton, Zaitún, Zeiton, Cayton, (T'swan-chau, Chwan-chau, or Chinchew of modern charts); the great mediaeval port of China; Khan's revenue from; porcelain; language; etymology; mediaeval notices; identity; Chinchew, a name misapplied; Christian churches at; ships of. Zayton, Andrew, Bishop of. Zebák Valley. Zebu, humped oxen. Zedoary. Zenghi. Zerms (Jerms). Zerumbet. Zettani. Zhafar, see Dhafar. Zic (Circassia). Zikas. Zimmé, see Kiang-mai. Zinc. Zinj, Zinjis. Zobeidah, the lady. Zorza, see Chorcha. Zu-'lkarnain (Zulcarniain), "the Two Horned," an epithet of Alexander. Zurficar (Zúrpica, Zulficar), a Turkish friend of Marco Polo's.
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Re: The Travels of Marco Polo, by Marco Polo and Rustichello

Postby admin » Thu Mar 29, 2018 7:41 am

SER MARCO POLO

NOTES AND ADDENDA TO SIR HENRY YULE'S EDITION, CONTAINING THE RESULTS OF RECENT RESEARCH AND DISCOVERY


BY HENRI CORDIER

[Illustration: THE LO-HAN SHAN-CHU TSUN CHE. No. 100 IN THE SERIES OF THE FIVE HUNDRED LO-HAN. Frontispiece.]

PREFACE

There is no need of a long Preface to this small book. When the third edition of the Book of Ser Marco Polo was published in 1903, criticism was lenient to the Editor of YULE'S grand work, and it was highly satisfactory to me that such competent judges as Sir Aurel STEIN and Sven HEDIN gave their approval to the remarks I made on the itineraries followed in Central Asia by the celebrated Venetian Traveller.

Nevertheless occasional remarks having been made by some of the reviewers, proper notice was taken of them; moreover, it was impossible to avoid some mistakes and omissions in a work including several hundreds of pages. As years went on, extensive voyages were undertaken by travellers like Sir Aurel STEIN, Sven HEDIN, PELLIOT, KOZLOV, and others, who brought fresh and important information. I had myself collected material from new works as they were issued and from old works which had been neglected. In the mean time I had given a second edition of Cathay and the Way Thither, having thus an opportunity to explore old ground again and add new commentaries to the book.

All this material is embodied in the present volume which is to be considered but as a supplementary volume of "Addenda" and "Corrigenda" to the Book itself. I have gathered matter for a younger editor when a fourth edition of the Book of Ser Marco Polo is undertaken, age preventing the present editor to entertain the hope to be able to do the work himself.

To many who lent their aid have I to give my thanks: all are named in the following pages, but I have special obligation to Sir Aurel STEIN, to Dr. B. LAUFER, of Chicago, to Sir Richard TEMPLE, and to Prof. Paul PELLIOT, of the College de France, Paris, who furnished me with some of the more important notes. A paper by Prof. E.H. PARKER in the Asiatic Quarterly Review proved also of considerable help.

HENRI CORDIER.
PARIS, 8, RUE DE SIAM,
11th of November, 1919.
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Re: The Travels of Marco Polo, by Marco Polo and Rustichello

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A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SIR HENRY YULE'S WRITINGS.

—— Notes [miscellaneous] by H. Yule, Palermo, August 28th, 1872. (Indian Antiquary, I. 1872, pp. 320-321.)

—— "Discovery of Sanskrit." By H. Yule, Palermo, Dec. 26th, 1872. (Indian Antiquary, II. 1873, p. 96.)

—— "Sopeithes, King of the [Greek: Kaekeoí]." By H. Yule. (Indian Antiquary, II. 1873, p. 370.)

—— The Geography of Ibn Batuta's Travels in India. By Col. H. Yule, Palermo. (Indian Antiquary, III. 1874, pp. 114-117, 209-212.)

—— The Geography of Ibn Batuta's Travels. By Col. H. Yule, C.B. (Ibid. pp. 242-244.)

—— Mediaeval Ports of Western and Southern India, etc., named in the Tohfat-al-Majâhidîn. By Col. H. Yule, C.B., Palermo. (Indian Antiquary, III. 1874, pp. 212-214.)

—— Malifattan. By Col. H. Yule, C.B., Palermo. (Indian Antiquary, IV. 1875, pp. 8-10.)

—— Champa. By H. Yule. (Indian Antiquary, VI. 1877, pp. 228-230.) From the Geog. Mag., March, 1877, IV. pp. 66-67. Written for the Encyclopaedia Britannica, but omitted.

—— Specimen of a Discursive Glossary of Anglo-Indian Terms. By H.Y. and A.C.B. (Indian Antiquary, VIII. 1879, pp. 52-54, 83-86, 173-176, 201-204, 231-233.)
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Re: The Travels of Marco Polo, by Marco Polo and Rustichello

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SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS

PREFACE
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SIR HENRY YULE'S WRITINGS
MARCO POLO AND HIS BOOK
INTRODUCTORY NOTICES
PROLOGUE
Sarai—Shang tu—Khitán inscription

BOOK I. ACCOUNT OF REGIONS VISITED OR HEARD OF ON THE JOURNEY FROM THE LESSER ARMENIA TO THE COURT OF THE GREAT KAAN AT CHANDU

Baudas—Nasich—Death of Mostas'im—Tauris—Cala Ataperistan—Persia—Fat-tailed sheep—The Caraunas Robbers—Pashai—Hormos—Tun-o-Kain—Tutia—Arbre sec—Old Man of the Mountain—Road to Sapurgan—Dogana—Badakhshan—Wakhan—Plateau of Pamir—Paonano Pao—Yue Chi—Bolor—Khotan—Pein—City of Lop—Great Desert—Camul—Chingintalas—Sukchur—Campichu—Etzina—Tatar—Karacathayans—Keraits—Death of Chingiz Khan—Tailgan—Marriage—Tengri—Coats of Mail—Reindeer—Sinju—Gurun—King George—Tenduc—Christians.

BOOK II. PART I. THE KAAN, HIS COURT AND CAPITAL

Nayan—P'ai Tzu—Mongol Imperial Family—Hunting Leopard— Cachar Modun—Bark of Trees—Value of Gold—Ch'ing siang—Cycle of Twelve—Persian.

BOOK II. PART II. JOURNEY TO THE WEST AND SOUTH-WEST OF CATHAY

Wine and Vines—Christian Monument at Si-ngan fu—Khumdan—Mubupa—Chien tao—Sindafu—Tibet—Wild Oxen—Kiung tu—Karajang—Zardandan—Couvade—King of Mien—Burma—Nga-tshaung-gyan—Caugigu.

BOOK II. PART III. JOURNEY SOUTHWARD THROUGH EASTERN PROVINCES OF CATHAY AND MANZI

Ch'ang Lu Salt—Sangon-Li T'an—Sinjumatu—Great Canal—Caiju—Lin Ngan—Yanju—Yang Chau—Siege of Saianfu—P'ao—Alans—Vuju—Kinsay—Silky Fowls—Sugar—Zaitun.

BOOK III. JAPAN, THE ARCHIPELAGO, SOUTHERN INDIA, AND THE COASTS AND ISLANDS OF THE INDIAN SEA

Náfún—Japanese War—Chamba—Pulo Condore—Locac—Lawaki—Pentam—Tana-Malayu—Malacca—Sumatra—Ferlec—Sago Tree—Angamanain—Dog-headed Barbarians—Ceylon—Sagamoni Borcan—Barlaam and Josaphat—Tanjore—Chinese Pagoda at Negapatam—Suttees in India—Maabar—St. Thomas—Calamina—Cail—Sappan—Fandaraina—Gozurat—Two Islands called Male and Female—Scotra—The Rukh—Giraffes—Zanghibar—Aden—Esher—Dufar—Frankincense.

BOOK IV. WARS AMONG THE TARTAR PRINCES AND SOME ACCOUNT OF THE NORTHERN COUNTRIES
Russia

APPENDICES
LIST OF MSS. OF MARCO POLO'S BOOK SO FAR AS THEY ARE KNOWN
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MARCO POLO'S BOOK
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PRINTED EDITIONS
TITLES OF SUNDRY BOOKS AND PAPERS WHICH TREAT OF MARCO POLO AND HIS BOOK
SUPPLEMENTARY NOTE
ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS
INDEX
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Re: The Travels of Marco Polo, by Marco Polo and Rustichello

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MARCO POLO AND HIS BOOK.

INTRODUCTORY NOTICES.


Introduction, p. 6.

Speaking of Pashai, Sir Aurel Stein (Geog. Journ.), referring to the notes and memoranda brought home by the great Venetian traveller, has the following remarks: "We have seen how accurately it reproduces information about territories difficult of access at all times, and far away from his own route. It appears to me quite impossible to believe that such exact data, learned at the very beginning of the great traveller's long wanderings, could have been reproduced by him from memory alone close on thirty years later when dictating his wonderful story to Rusticiano during his captivity at Genoa. Here, anyhow, we have definite proof of the use of those 'notes and memoranda which he had brought with him,' and which, as Ramusio's 'Preface' of 1553 tells us (see Yule, Marco Polo, I., Introduction, p. 6), Messer Marco, while prisoner of war, was believed to have had sent to him by his father from Venice. How grateful must geographer and historical student alike feel for these precious materials having reached the illustrious prisoner safely!"

Introduction, p. 10 n.

KHAKHAN.

"Mr. Rockhill's remarks about the title Khakhan require supplementing. Of course, the Turks did not use the term before 560 (552 was the exact year), because neither they nor their name 'Turk' had any self-assertive existence before then, and until that year they were the 'iron-working slaves' of the Jou-jan. The Khakhan of those last-named Tartars naturally would not allow the petty tribe of Turk to usurp his exclusive and supreme title. But even a century and a half before this, the ruler of the T'u-kuh-hun nomads had already borne the title of Khakhan, which (the late Dr. Bretschneider agreed with me in thinking) was originally of Tungusic and not of Turkish origin. The T'u-kuh-hun were of the same race as the half-Mongol, half-Tungusic Tobas, who ruled for two centuries over North China…. The title of Khakhan, in various bastard forms, was during the tenth century used by the Kings of Khoten and Kuche, as well as by the petty Ouigour Kings of Kan Chou, Si Chou, etc." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, pp. 139-140.)

Introduction, p. 19. [The] second start [of the Venetians] from Acre took place about November, 1271.

M. Langlois remarks that the last stay of the Polos at Acre was necessarily before the 18th November, 1271, date of the departure of Gregory X. for the West. Cf. Itinéraires à Jerusalem et Descriptions de la Terre-Sainte rédigés en français aux XI'e, XII'e et XIII'e siècles, publ. par H. MICHELANT et G. RAYNAUD (Genève, 1882), pp. xxviii-xxix:

"La date de 1269, donnée seulement par un des manuscrits de la rédaction de Thibaut dé Cépoy, pour le premier séjour à Acre des Polo et leur rencontre avec Tedaldo Visconti, qui allait être élu pape et prendre le nom de Grégoire X., date préférée par tous les éditeurs à celles évidemment erronées de Rusticien de Pise (1260) et des huit autres manuscrits de Thibaut de Cépoy (1250 et 1260), n'est pas hors de toute discussion. M.G. Tononi, archiprêtre de Plaisance, qui prépare une histoire et une édition des ceuvres de Grégoire X., me fait remarquer que les chroniqueurs ne placent le départ de Tedaldo pour la Terre-Sainte qu'après celui de S. Louis pour Tunis (2 juillet 1270), et que, d'après un acte du Trésor des Chartes, Tedaldo était encore à Paris le 28 décembre 1269. Il faudrait done probablement dater de 1271 le premier et le deuxième séjour des Polo à Acre, et les placer tous deux entre le 9 mai, époque de l'arrivée en Terre-Sainte d'Edouard d'Angleterre,—avec lequel, suivant l'Eracles, aborda Tedaldo—et le 18 novembre, date du départ du nouveau pape pour l'Occident." (Cf. Hist. litt. de la France, XXXV, Marco Polo.)

Introduction, p. 19 n.

I have here discussed Major Sykes' theory of Polo's itinerary in Persia; the question was raised again by Major Sykes in the Geographical Journal, October, 1905, pp. 462-465. I answered again, and I do not think it necessary to carry on farther this controversy. I recall that Major Sykes writes: "To conclude, I maintain that Marco Polo entered Persia near Tabriz, whence he travelled to Sultania, Kashan, Yezd, Kerman, and Hormuz. From that port, owing to the unseaworthiness of the vessels, the presence of pirates, the fact that the season was past, or for some other reason, he returned by a westerly route to Kerman, and thence crossed the Lut to Khorasan."

I replied in the Geographical Journal, Dec., 1905, pp. 686-687: "Baghdad, after its fall in 1258, did not cease immediately to be 'rather off the main caravan route.' I shall not refer Major Sykes to what I say in my editions of 'Odorico' and 'Polo' on the subject, but to the standard work of Heyd, Commerce du Levant, Vol. 2, pp. 77, 78. The itinerary, Tabriz, Sultania, Kashan, Yezd, was the usual route later on, at the beginning of the fourteenth century, and it was followed, among others, by Fra Odorico, of Pordenone. Marco Polo, on his way to the Far East—you must not forget that he was at Acre in 1271—could not have crossed Sultania, which did not exist, as its building was commenced by Arghún Khan, who ascended the throne in 1284, and was continued by Oeljaitu (1304-1316), who gave the name of Sultania to the city." Cf. Lieut.-Col. P.M. SYKES, A History of Persia, 1915, 2 vols., 8vo; II., p. 181 n.

Introduction, p. 21. M. Pauthier has found a record in the Chinese Annals of the Mongol dynasty, which states that in the year 1277, a certain POLO was nominated a second-class commissioner or agent attached to the Privy Council, a passage which we are happy to believe to refer to our young traveller.

Prof. E.H. Parker remarks (Asiatic Quart. Review, 3rd Series, Vol. XVII., Jan., 1904, pp. 128-131): "M. Pauthier has apparently overlooked other records, which make it clear that the identical individual in question had already received honours from Kúblái many years before Marco's arrival in 1275. Perhaps the best way to make this point clear would be to give all the original passages which bear upon the question. The number I give refer to the chapter and page (first half or second half of the double page) of the Yuan Shï:—

A. Chap. 7, p. 1-2/2: 1270, second moon. Kúblái inspects a court pageant prepared by Puh-lo and others.

B. Chap. 7, p. 6-1/2: 1270, twelfth moon. The yü-shï chung-ch'êng (censor) Puh-lo made also President of the Ta-sz-nung department. One of the ministers protested that there was no precedent for a censor holding this second post. Kúblái insisted.

C. Chap. 8, p. 16-1/2: 1275, second moon. Puh-lo and another sent to look into the Customs taxation question in Tangut.

D. Chap. 8, p. 22-1/2: 1275, fourth moon. The Ta-sz-nung and yü-shï chung-ch'êng Puh-lo promoted to be yü-shï ta-fu.

E. Chap. 9, p. 11-2/2: 1276, seventh moon. The Imperial Prince Puh-lo given a seal.

F. Chap. 9, p. 16-2/2: 1277, second moon. The Ta-sz-nung and yü-shï ta-fu, Puh-lo, being also süan-wei-shï and Court Chamberlain, promoted to be shu-mih fu-shï, and also süan-hwei-shï and Court Chamberlain.

"The words shu-mih fu-shï the Chinese characters for which are given on p. 569 of M. Cordier's second volume, precisely mean 'Second-class Commissioner attached to the Privy Council,' and hence it is clear that Pauthier was totally mistaken in supposing the censor of 1270 to have been Marco. Of course the Imperial Prince Puh-lo is not the same person as the censor, nor is it clear who the (1) pageant and (2) Tangut Puh-los were, except that neither could possibly have been Marco, who only arrived in May—the third moon—at the very earliest.

"In the first moon of 1281 some gold, silver, and bank-notes were handed to Puh-lo for the relief of the poor. In the second moon of 1282, just before the assassination of Achmed, the words 'Puh-lo the Minister' (ch'êng-siang) are used in connection with a case of fraud. In the seventh moon of 1282 (after the fall of Achmed) the 'Mongol man Puh-lo' was placed in charge of some gold-washings in certain towers of the then Hu Pêh (now in Hu Nan). In the ninth moon of the same year a commission was sent to take official possession of all the gold-yielding places in Yün Nan, and Puh-lo was appointed darugachi (= governor) of the mines. In this case it is not explicitly stated (though it would appear most likely) that the two gold superintendents were the same man; if they were, then neither could have been Marco, who certainly was no 'Mongol man.' Otherwise there would be a great temptation to identify this event with the mission to 'una città, detta Carazan' of the Ramusio Text.

"There is, however, one man who may possibly be Marco, and that is the Poh-lo who was probably with Kúblái at Chagan Nor when the news of Achmed's murder by Wang Chu arrived there in the third moon of 1282. The Emperor at once left for Shang-tu (i.e. K'ai-p'ing Fu, north of Dolonor), and 'ordered the shu-mih fu-shï Poh-lo [with two other statesmen] to proceed with all speed to Ta-tu (i.e. to Cambalu). On receiving Poh-lo's report, the Emperor became convinced of the deceptions practised upon him by Achmed, and said: "It was a good thing that Wang Chu did kill him."' In 1284 Achmed's successor is stated (chap, 209, p. 9-1/2) to have recommended Poh-lo, amongst others, for minor Treasury posts. The same man (chap. 209, p. 12-1/2) subsequently got Poh-lo appointed to a salt superintendency in the provinces; and as Yang-chou is the centre of the salt trade, it is just possible that Marco's 'governorship' of that place may resolve itself into this.

"There are many other Puh-lo and Poh-lo mentioned, both before Marco's arrival in, and subsequently to Marco's departure in 1292 from, China. In several cases (as, for instance, in that of P. Timur) both forms occur in different chapters for the same man; and a certain Tartar called 'Puh-lan Hi' is also called 'Puh-lo Hi.' One of Genghis Khan's younger brothers was called Puh-lo Kadei. There was, moreover, a Cathayan named Puh-lo, and a Naiman Prince Poh-lo. Whether 'Puh-lo the Premier' or 'one of the Ministers,' mentioned in 1282, is the same person as 'Poh-lo the ts'an chêng,' or 'Prime Minister's assistant' of 1284, I cannot say. Perhaps, when the whole Yüan Shï has been thoroughly searched throughout in all its editions, we may obtain more certain information. Meanwhile, one thing is plain: Pauthier is wrong, Yule is wrong in that particular connection; and M. Cordier gives us no positive view of his own. The other possibilities are given above, but I scarcely regard any of them as probabilities. On p. 99 of his Introduction, Colonel Yule manifestly identifies the Poh-lo of 1282 with Marco; but the identity of his title with that of Puh-lo in 1277 suggests that the two men are one, in which case neither can be Marco Polo. On p. 422 of Vol. I. Yule repeats this identification in his notes. I may mention that much of the information given in the present article was published in Vol. XXIV. of the China Review two or three years ago. I notice that M. Cordier quotes that volume in connection with other matters, but this particular point does not appear to have caught his eye.

"As matters now stand, there is a fairly strong presumption that Marco Polo is once named in the Annals; but there is no irrefragable evidence; and in any case it is only this once, and not as Pauthier has it."

Cf. also note by Prof. E.H. Parker, China Review, XXV. pp. 193-4, and, according to Prof. Pelliot (Bul. Ecole franç. Ext. Orient, July-Sept., 1904, p. 769), the biography of Han Lin-eul in the Ming shi, k. 122, p. 3.

Prof. Pelliot writes to me: "Il faut renoncer une bonne fois à retrouver Marco Polo dans le Po-lo mêlé à l'affaire d'Ahmed. Grâce aux titulations successives, nous pouvons reconstituer la carrière administrative de ce Po-lo, au moins depuis 1271, c'est-à-dire depuis une date antérieure à l'arrivée de Marco Polo à la cour mongole. D'autre part, Rashid-ud-Din mentionne le rôle joué dans l'affaire d'Ahmed par le Pulad-aqa, c'est-à-dire Pulad Chinsang, son informateur dans les choses mongoles, mais la forme mongole de ce nom de Pulad est Bolod, en transcription chinoise Po-lo. J'ai signalé (T'oung Pao, 1914, p. 640) que des textes chinois mentionnent effectivement que Po-lo (Bolod), envoyé en mission auprès d'Arghún en 1285, resta ensuite en Perse. C'est donc en définitive le Pulad (= Bolod) de Rashid-ud-Din qui serait le Po-lo qu'à la suite de Pauthier on a trop longtemps identifié à Marco Polo."

Introduction, p. 23.

"The Yüan Shï contains curious confirmation of the facts which led up to Marco Polo's conducting a wife to Arghún of Persia, who lost his spouse in 1286. In the eleventh moon of that year (say January, 1287) the following laconic announcement appears: 'T'a-ch'a-r Hu-nan ordered to go on a mission to A-r-hun.' It is possible that Tachar and Hunan may be two individuals, and, though they probably started overland, it is probable that they were in some way connected with Polo's first and unsuccessful attempt to take the girl to Persia." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 136.)

Introduction, p. 76 n.

With regard to the statue of the Pseudo-Marco Polo of Canton, Dr. B. Laufer, of Chicago, sends me the following valuable note:—

THE ALLEGED MARCO POLO LO-HAN OF CANTON.

The temple Hua lin se (in Cantonese Fa lum se, i.e. Temple of the Flowery Grove) is situated in the western suburbs of the city of Canton. Its principal attraction is the vast hall, the Lo-han t'ang, in which are arranged in numerous avenues some five hundred richly gilded images, about three feet in height, representing the 500 Lo-han (Arhat). The workmanship displayed in the manufacture of these figures, made of fine clay thickly covered with burnished gilding, is said to be most artistic, and the variety of types is especially noticeable. In this group we meet a statue credited with a European influence. Two opinions are current regarding this statue: one refers to it as representing the image of a Portuguese sailor, the other sees in it a portrait of Marco Polo.

The former view is expressed, as far as I see, for the first time, by MAYERS and DENNYS (The Treaty Ports of China and Japan, London and Hong Kong, 1867, p. 162). "One effigy," these authors remark, "whose features are strongly European in type, will be pointed out as the image of a Portuguese seaman who was wrecked, centuries ago, on the coast, and whose virtues during a long residence gained him canonization after death. This is probably a pure myth, growing from an accidental resemblance of the features." This interpretation of a homage rendered to a Portuguese is repeated by C.A. MONTALTO DE JESUS, Historic Macao (Hong Kong, 1902, p. 28). A still more positive judgment on this matter is passed by MADROLLE (Chine du Sud et de l'Est, Paris, 1904, p. 17). "The attitudes of the Venerable Ones," he says, "are remarkable for their life-like expression, or sometimes, singularly grotesque. One of these personalities placed on the right side of a great altar wears the costume of the 16th century, and we might be inclined to regard it as a Chinese representation of Marco Polo. It is probable, however, that the artist, who had to execute the statue of a Hindu, that is, of a man of the West, adopted as the model of his costume that of the Portuguese who visited Canton since the commencement of the 16th century." It seems to be rather doubtful whether the 500 Lo-han of Canton are really traceable to that time. There is hardly any huge clay statue in China a hundred or two hundred years old, and all the older ones are in a state of decay, owing to the brittleness of the material and the carelessness of the monks. Besides, as stated by Mayers and Dennys (l.c., p. 163), the Lo-han Hall of Canton, with its glittering contents, is a purely modern structure, having been added to the Fa-lum Temple in 1846, by means of a subscription mainly supported by the Hong Merchants. Although this statue is not old, yet it may have been made after an ancient model. Archdeacon Gray, in his remarkable and interesting book, Walks in the City of Canton (Hong Kong, 1875, p. 207), justly criticized the Marco Polo theory, and simultaneously gave a correct identification of the Lo-han in question. His statement is as follows: "Of the idols of the five hundred disciples of Buddha, which, in this hall, are contained, there is one, which, in dress and configuration of countenance, is said to resemble a foreigner. With regard to this image, one writer, if we mistake not, has stated that it is a statue of the celebrated traveller Marco Polo, who, in the thirteenth century, visited, and, for some time, resided in the flowery land of China. This statement, on the part of the writer to whom we refer, is altogether untenable. Moreover, it is an error so glaring as to cast, in the estimation of all careful readers of his work, no ordinary degree of discredit upon many of his most positive assertions. The person, whose idol is so rashly described as being that of Marco Polo, was named Shien-Tchu. He was a native of one of the northern provinces of India, and, for his zeal as an apostle in the service of Buddha, was highly renowned."

Everard Cotes closes the final chapter of his book, The Arising East (New York, 1907), as follows: "In the heart of Canton, within easy reach of mob violence at any time, may be seen to-day the life-size statue of an elderly European, in gilt clothes and black hat, which the Chinese have cared for and preserved from generation to generation because the original, Marco Polo, was a friend to their race. The thirteenth-century European had no monopoly of ability to make himself loved and reverenced. A position similar to that which he won as an individual is open to-day to the Anglo-Saxon as a race. But the Mongolian was not afraid of Marco Polo, and he is afraid of us. It can be attained, therefore, only by fair dealing and sympathy, supported by an overwhelming preponderance of fighting strength."

[Dr. Laufer reproduces here the note in Marco Polo, I., p. 76. I may remark that I never said nor believed that the statue was Polo's. The mosaic at Genoa is a fancy portrait.]

The question may be raised, however, Are there any traces of foreign influence displayed in this statue? The only way of solving this problem seemed to me the following: First to determine the number and the name of the alleged Marco Polo Lo-han at Canton, and then by means of this number to trace him in the series of pictures of the traditional 500 Lo-han (the so-called Lo han t'u).

The alleged Marco Polo Lo-han bears the number 100, and his name is Shan-chu tsun-che (tsun-che being a translation of Sanskrit arya, "holy, reverend"). The name Shan-chu evidently represents the rendering of a Sanskrit name, and does not suggest a European name. The illustration here reproduced is Lo-han No. 100 from a series of stone-engravings in the temple T'ien-ning on the West Lake near Hang Chau. It will be noticed that it agrees very well with the statue figured by M. Cordier. In every respect it bears the features of an Indian Lo-han, with one exception, and this is the curious hat. This, in fact, is the only Lo-han among the five hundred that is equipped with a headgear; and the hat, as is well known, is not found in India. This hat must represent a more or less arbitrary addition of the Chinese artist who created the group, and it is this hat which led to the speculations regarding the Portuguese sailor or Marco Polo. Certain it is also that such a type of hat does not occur in China; but it seems idle to speculate as to its origin, as long as we have no positive information on the intentions of the artist. The striped mantle of the Lo-han is by no means singular, for it occurs with seventeen others. The facts simply amount to this, that the figure in question does not represent a Portuguese sailor or Marco Polo or any other European, but solely an Indian Lo-han (Arhat), while the peculiar hat remains to be explained.

Introduction, p. 92.

THIBAUT DE CHEPOY.

Thibaut de Chepoy (Chepoy, canton of Breteuil, Oise), son of the knight Jean de Chepoy, was one of the chief captains of King Philip the Fair. He entered the king's service in 1285 as squire and valet; went subsequently to Robert d'Artois, who placed him in charge of the castle of Saint Omer, and took him, in 1296, to Gascony to fight the English. He was afterwards grand master of the cross-bow men. He then entered the service of Charles de Valois, brother of Philip the Fair, who sent him to Constantinople to support the claims to the throne of his wife, Catherine of Courtenay. Thibaut left Paris on the 9th Sept., 1306, passed through Venice, where he met Marco Polo who gave him a copy of his manuscript. Thibaut died between 22nd May, 1311, and 22nd March, 1312. (See Joseph PETIT, in Le Moyen Age, Paris, 1897, pp. 224-239.)
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THE BOOK OF MARCO POLO.

PROLOGUE


II., p. 6.

SARAI.

"Cordier (Yule) identifiziert den von Pegolotti gewählten Namen Säracanco mit dem jüngeren Sarai oder Zarew (dem Sarai grande Fra Mauros), was mir vollkommen untunlich erscheint; es wäre dann die Route des Reisenden geradezu ein Zickzackweg gewesen, der durch nichts zu rechtfertigen wäre." (Dr. Ed. FRIEDMANN, Pegolotti, p. 14.)

Prof. Pelliot writes to me: "Il n'y a aucune possibilité de retrouver dans Saracanco, Sarai + Kúnk. Le mot Kúnk n'est pas autrement attesté, et la construction mongole ou turque exigerait kunk-sarai."

XIII., pp. 25-26.

SHANG TU.

See also A. POZDNEIEV, Mongoliya i Mongoly, II., pp. 303 seq.

XV., pp. 27, 28-30. Now it came that Marco, the son of Messer Nicolo, sped wondrously in learning the customs of the Tartars, as well as their language, their manner of writing, and their practice of war—in fact he came in a brief space to know several languages, and four sundry written characters.

On the linguistic office called Sse yi kwan, cf. an interesting note by H. MASPERO, p. 8, of Bul. Ecole franç. Ext. Orient, XII., No. 1, 1912.

XV., p. 28 n. Of the Khitán but one inscription was known and no key.

Prof. Pelliot remarks, Bul. Ecole franç. Ext. Orient, IV., July-Sept., 1904: "In fact a Chinese work has preserved but five k'i-tan characters, however with the Chinese translation." He writes to me that we do not know any k'itan inscription, but half a dozen characters reproduced in a work of the second half of the fourteenth century. The Uíghúr alphabet is of Aramean origin through Sogdian; from this point of view, it is not necessary to call for Estranghelo, nor Nestorian propaganda. On the other hand we have to-day documents in Uíghúr writing older than the Kudatku Bilik.
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Part 1 of 2

BOOK FIRST. ACCOUNT OF REGIONS VISITED OR HEARD OF ON THE JOURNEY FROM THE LESSER ARMENIA TO THE COURT OF THE GREAT KAAN AT CHANDU.

BOOK I.


VI., p. 63. "There is also on the river, as you go from Baudas to Kisi, a great city called Bastra, surrounded by woods, in which grow the best dates in the world."

"The products of the country are camels, sheep and dates." (At Pi-ssï-lo, Basra. CHAU JU-KWA, p. 137.)

VI., pp. 63, 65. "In Baudas they weave many different kinds of silk stuffs and gold brocades, such as nasich, and nac, and cramoisy, and many other beautiful tissue richly wrought with figures of beasts and birds."

In the French text we have nassit and nac.

"S'il faut en croire M. Defrémery, au lieu de nassit, il faut évidemment lire nassij (nécidj), ce qui signifie un tissu, en général, et désigne particulièrement une étoffe de soie de la même espèce que le nekh. Quant aux étoffes sur lesquelles étaient figurés des animaux et des oiseaux, le même orientaliste croit qu'il faut y reconnaître le thardwehch, sorte d'étoffe de soie qui, comme son nom l'indique, représentait des scènes de chasse. On sait que l'usage de ces représentations est très ancien en Orient, comme on le voit dans des passages de Philostrate et de Quinte-Curce rapportés par Mongez." (FRANCISQUE-MICHEL, Recherches sur le Commerce, I., p. 262.)

VI., p. 67.

DEATH OF MOSTAS'IM.

According to Al-Fakhri, translated by E. Amar (Archives marocaines XVI., p. 579), Mostas'im was put to death with his two eldest sons on the 4th of safar, 656 (3rd February, 1258).

XI., p. 75. "The [the men of Tauris] weave many kinds of beautiful and valuable stuffs of silk and gold."

Francisque-Michel (I., p. 316) remarks: "De ce que Marco Polo se borne à nommer Tauris comme la ville de Perse où il se fabriquait maints draps d'or et de soie, il ne faudrait pas en conclure que cette industrie n'existât pas sur d'autres points du même royaume. Pour n'en citer qu'un seul, la ville d'Arsacie, ancienne capitale des Parthes, connue aujourd'hui sous le nom de Caswin, possédait vraisemblablement déjà cette industrie des beaux draps d'or et de soie qui existait encore au temps de Huet, c'est-à-dire au XVII'e siècle."

XIII., p. 78. "Messer Marco Polo found a village there which goes by the name of CALA ATAPERISTAN, which is as much as to say, 'The Castle of the Fire-worshippers.'"

With regard to Kal'ah-i Atashparastan, Prof. A.V.W. Jackson writes (Persia, 1906, p. 413): "And the name is rightly applied, for the people there do worship fire. In an article entitled The Magi in Marco Polo (Journ. Am. Or. Soc., 26, 79-83) I have given various reasons for identifying the so-called 'Castle of the Fire-Worshippers' with Kashan, which Odoric mentions or a village in its vicinity, the only rival to the claim being the town of Naïn, whose Gabar Castle has already been mentioned above."

XIV., p. 78.

PERSIA.

Speaking of Saba and of Cala Ataperistan, Prof. E.H. Parker (Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 134) has the following remarks: "It is not impossible that certain unexplained statements in the Chinese records may shed light upon this obscure subject. In describing the Arab Conquest of Persia, the Old and New T'ang Histories mention the city of Hia-lah as being amongst those captured; another name for it was Sam (according to the Chinese initial and final system of spelling words). A later Chinese poet has left the following curious line on record: 'All the priests venerate Hia-lah.' The allusion is vague and undated, but it is difficult to imagine to what else it can refer. The term sêng, or 'bonze,' here translated 'priests,' was frequently applied to Nestorian and Persian priests, as in this case."

XIV., p. 80. "Three Kings."

Regarding the legend of the stone cast into a well, cf. F.W.K. MÜLLER, Uigurica, pp. 5-10 (Pelliot).

XVII., p. 90. "There are also plenty of veins of steel and Ondanique."

"The ondanique which Marco Polo mentions in his 42nd chapter is almost certainly the pin t'ieh or 'pin iron' of the Chinese, who frequently mention it as coming from Arabia, Persia, Cophene, Hami, Ouigour-land and other High Asia States." (E.H. PARKER, Journ. North China Br. Roy. Asiatic Soc., XXXVIII., 1907, p. 225.)

XVIII., pp. 97, 100. "The province that we now enter is called REOBARLES…. The beasts also are peculiar…. Then there are sheep here as big as asses; and their tails are so large and fat, that one tail shall weight some 30 lbs. They are fine fat beasts, and afford capital mutton."

Prof. E.H. PARKER writes in the Journ. of the North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Soc., XXXVII., 1906, p. 196: "Touching the fat-tailed sheep of Persia, the Shan-haï-king says the Yuëh-chï or Indo-Scythy had a 'big-tailed sheep' the correct name for which is hien-yang. The Sung History mentions sheep at Hami with tails so heavy that they could not walk. In the year 1010 some were sent as tribute to China by the King of Kuché."

"Among the native products [at Mu lan p'i, Murabit, Southern Coast of Spain] are foreign sheep, which are several feet high and have tails as big as a fan. In the spring-time they slit open their bellies and take out some tens of catties of fat, after which they sew them up again, and the sheep live on; if the fat were not removed, (the animal) would swell up and die." (CHAU JU-KWA, pp. 142-3.)

"The Chinese of the T'ang period had heard also of the trucks put under these sheep's tails. 'The Ta-shï have a foreign breed of sheep (hu-yang) whose tails, covered with fine wool, weigh from ten to twenty catties; the people have to put carts under them to hold them up. Fan-kuo-chï as quoted in Tung-si-yang-k'au." (HIRTH and ROCKHILL, p. 143.)

Leo Africanus, Historie of Africa, III., 945 (Hakluyt Soc. ed.), says he saw in Egypt a ram with a tail weighing eighty pounds!:

OF THE AFRICAN RAMME.

"There is no difference betweene these rammes of Africa and others, saue onely in their tailes, which are of a great thicknes, being by so much the grosser, but how much they are more fatte, so that some of their tailes waigh tenne, and other twentie pounds a peece, and they become fatte of their owne naturall inclination: but in Egypt there are diuers that feede them fatte with bran and barly, vntill their tailes growe so bigge that they cannot remooue themselves from place to place: insomuch that those which take charge of them are faine to binde little carts vnder their tailes, to the end they may haue strength to walke. I my selfe saw at a citie in Egypt called Asiot, and standing vpon Nilus, about an hundred and fiftie miles from Cairo, one of the saide rams tailes that weighed fowerscore pounds, and others affirmed that they had seene one of those tailes of an hundred and fiftie pounds weight. All the fatte therefore of this beast consisteth in his taile; neither is there any of them to be founde but onely in Tunis and in Egypt." (LEO AFRICANUS, edited by Dr. Robert BROWN, III., 1896, Hakluyt Society, p. 945.)

XVIII., pp. 97, 100 n.

Dr. B. Laufer draws my attention to what is probably the oldest mention of this sheep from Arabia, in Herodotus, Book III., Chap. 113:

"Concerning the spices of Arabia let no more be said. The whole country is scented with them, and exhales an odour marvellously sweet. There are also in Arabia two kinds of sheep worthy of admiration, the like of which is nowhere else to be seen; the one kind has long tails, not less than three cubits in length, which, if they were allowed to trail on the ground, would be bruised and fall into sores. As it is, all the shepherds know enough of carpentering to make little trucks for their sheep's tails. The trucks are placed under the tails, each sheep having one to himself, and the tails are then tied down upon them. The other kind has a broad tail, which is a cubit across sometimes."

Canon G. Rawlinson, in his edition of Herodotus, has the following note on this subject (II., p. 500):—

"Sheep of this character have acquired among our writers the name of Cape Sheep, from the fact that they are the species chiefly affected by our settlers at the Cape of Good Hope. They are common in Africa and throughout the East, being found not only in Arabia, but in Persia, Syria, Affghanistan, Egypt, Barbary, and even Asia Minor. A recent traveller, writing from Smyrna, says: 'The sheep of the country are the Cape sheep, having a kind of apron tail, entirely of rich marrowy fat, extending to the width of their hind quarters, and frequently trailing on the ground; the weight of the tail is often more than six or eight pounds' (FELLOWS'S Asia Minor, p. 10). Leo Africanus, writing in the 15th century, regards the broad tail as the great difference between the sheep of Africa and that of Europe. He declares that one which he had seen in Egypt weighed 80 lbs. He also mentions the use of trucks which is still common in North Africa."

XVIII., p. 98. "Camadi.—Reobarles.—In this plain there are a number of villages and towns which have lofty walls of mud, made as a defence against the banditti, who are very numerous, and are called CARAONAS. This name is given them because they are the sons of Indian mothers by Tartar fathers."

Mirzá Haïdar writes (Tárikh-i-Rashidi, p. 148): "The learned Mirzá Ulugh Beg has written a history which he has called Ulus Arbaa. One of the 'four hordes' is that of the Moghul, who are divided into two branches, the Moghul and the Chaghatái. But these two branches, on account of their mutual enmity, used to call each other by a special name, by way of depreciation. Thus the Chaghatái called the Moghul Jatah, while the Moghul called the Chaghatái Karáwánás."

Cf. Ney ELIAS, l.c., pp. 76-77, and App. B, pp. 491-2, containing an inquiry made in Khorasán by Mr. Maula Bakhsh, Attaché at the Meshed Consulate General, of the families of Kárnás, he has heard or seen; he says: "These people speak Turki now, and are considered part of the Goklán Turkomans. They, however, say they are Chingiz-Kháni Moghuls, and are no doubt the descendants of the same Kárnás, or Karávanás, who took such a prominent part in the victories in Persia.

"The word Kárnás, I was told by a learned Goklan Mullah, means Tirandáz, or Shikári (i.e. Archer or Hunter), and was applied to this tribe of Moghuls on account of their professional skill in shooting, which apparently secured them an important place in the army. In Turki the word Kárnás means Shikamparast—literally, 'belly worshippers,' which implies avarice. This term is in use at present, and I was told, by a Kázi of Bujnurd, that it is sometimes used by way of reproach…. The Kárnás people in Mána and Gurgán say it is the name of their tribe, and they can give no other explanation."

XVIII., pp. 98, 102, 165. "The King of these scoundrels is called NOGODAR."

Sir Aurel Stein has the following regarding the route taken by this Chief in Serindia, I., pp. 11-12:—

"To revert to an earlier period it is noteworthy that the route in Marco Polo's account, by which the Mongol partisan leader Nigudar, 'with a great body of horsemen, cruel unscrupulous fellows,' made his way from Badakhshan 'through another province called PASHAI-DIR, and then through another called ARIORA-KESHEMUR' to India, must have led down the Bashgol Valley. The name of Pashai clearly refers to the Kafirs among whom this tribal designation exists to this day, while the mention of Dir indicates the direction which this remarkable inroad had taken. That its further progress must have lain through Swat is made probable by the name which, in Marco Polo's account, precedes that of 'Keshemur' or Kashmir; for in the hitherto unexplained Ariora can be recognized, I believe, the present Agror, the name of the well-known hill-tract on the Hazara border which faces Buner from the left bank of the Indus. It is easy to see from any accurate map of these regions, that for a mobile column of horsemen forcing its way from Badakhshan to Kashmir, the route leading through the Bashgol Valley, Dir, Talash, Swat, Buner, Agror, and up the Jhelam Valley, would form at the present day, too, the most direct and practicable line of invasion."

In a paper on Marco Polo's Account of a Mongol inroad into Kashmir (Geog. Jour., August, 1919), Sir Aurel Stein reverts again to the same subject. "These [Mongol] inroads appear to have commenced from about 1260 A.D., and to have continued right through the reign of Ghiasuddin, Sultan of Delhi (1266-1286), whose identity with Marco's Asedin Soldan is certain. It appears very probable that Marco's story of Nogodar, the nephew of Chaghatái, relates to one of the earliest of these incursions which was recent history when the Poli passed through Persia about 1272-73 A.D."

Stein thinks, with Marsden and Yule, that Dilivar (pp. 99, 105) is really a misunderstanding of "Città di Livar" for Lahawar or Lahore.

Dir has been dealt with by Yule and Pauthier, and we know that it is "the mountain tract at the head of the western branch of the Panjkora River, through which leads the most frequented route from Peshawar and the lower Swat valley to Chitral" (Stein, l.c.). Now with regard to the situation of Pashai (p. 104):

"It is clear that a safe identification of the territory intended cannot be based upon such characteristics of its people as Marco Polo's account here notes obviously from hearsay, but must reckon in the first place with the plainly stated bearing and distance. And Sir Henry Yule's difficulty arose just from the fact that what the information accessible to him seemed to show about the location of the name Pashai could not be satisfactorily reconciled with those plain topographical data. Marco's great commentator, thoroughly familiar as he was with whatever was known in his time about the geography of the western Hindukush and the regions between Oxus and Indus, could not fail to recognize the obvious connection between our Pashai and the tribal name Pashai borne by Muhammanized Kafirs who are repeatedly mentioned in mediaeval and modern accounts of Kabul territory. But all these accounts seemed to place the Pashais in the vicinity of the great Panjshir valley, north-east of Kabul, through which passes one of the best-known routes from the Afghan capital to the Hindukush watershed and thence to the Middle Oxus. Panjshir, like Kabul itself, lies to the south-west of Badakshan, and it is just this discrepancy of bearing together with one in the distance reckoned to Kashmir which caused Sir Henry Yule to give expression to doubts when summing up his views about Nogodar's route."

From Sir George Grierson's Linguistic Survey of India we learn that to the south of the range of the Hindukush "the languages spoken from Kashmir in the east to Kafiristan in the west are neither of Indian nor of Iranian origin, but form a third branch of the Aryan stock of the great Indo-European language family. Among the languages of this branch, now rightly designated as 'Dardic,' the Kafir group holds a very prominent place. In the Kafir group again we find the Pashai language spoken over a very considerable area. The map accompanying Sir George Grierson's monograph on 'The Pisaca Languages of North-Western India' [Asiatic Society Monographs, VIII., 1906], shows Pashai as the language spoken along the right bank of the Kunar river as far as the Asmar tract as well as in the side valleys which from the north descend towards it and the Kabul river further west. This important fact makes it certain that the tribal designation of Pashai, to which this Kafir language owes its name, has to this day an application extending much further east than was indicated by the references which travellers, mediaeval and modern, along the Panjshir route have made to the Pashais and from which alone this ethnic name was previously known."

Stein comes to the conclusion that "the Mongols' route led across the Mandal Pass into the great Kafir valley of Bashgol and thus down to Arnawai on the Kunar. Thence Dir could be gained directly across the Zakhanna Pass, a single day's march. There were alternative routes, too, available to the same destination either by ascending the Kunar to Ashreth and taking the present 'Chitral Road' across the Lowarai, or descending the river to Asmar and crossing the Binshi Pass."

From Dir towards Kashmir for a large body of horsemen "the easiest and in matter of time nearest route must have led them as now down the Panjkora Valley and beyond through the open tracts of Lower Swat and Buner to the Indus about Amb. From there it was easy through the open northern part of the present Hazara District (the ancient Urasa) to gain the valley of the Jhelam River at its sharp bend near Muzzaffarabad."

The name of Agror (the direct phonetic derivative of the Sanskrit Atyugrapura) = Ariora; it is the name of the hill-tract on the Hazara border which faces Buner on the east from across the left bank of the Indus.

XVIII., p. 101.

Line 17, Note 4. Korano of the Indo-Scythic Coins is to be read Kosano. (PELLIOT.)

XVIII., p. 102.

On the Mongols of Afghanistan, see RAMSTEDT, Mogholica, in Journ. de la Soc. Finno-Ougrienne, XXIII., 1905. (PELLIOT.)

XIX., p. 107. "The King is called RUOMEDAN AHOMET."

About 1060, Mohammed I. Dirhem Kub, from Yemen, became master of Hormuz, but his successors remained in the dependency of the sovereigns of Kermán until 1249, when Rokn ed-Din Mahmud III. Kalhaty (1242-1277) became independent. His successors in Polo's time were Seïf ed-Din Nusrat (1277-1290), Mas'ud (1290-1293), Beha ed-Din Ayaz Seyfin (1293-1311).

XIX., p. 115.

HORMOS.

The Travels of Pedro Teixeira, a Portuguese traveller, probably of Jewish origin, certainly not a Jesuit, have been published by the Hakluyt Society:

The Travels of Pedro Teixeira; with his "Kings of Harmuz," and extracts from his "King of Persia." Translated and annotated by William F. Sinclair, Bombay Civil Service (Rtd.); With further Notes and an Introduction by Donald Ferguson, London: Printed for the Hakluyt Society, MDCCCCII, 8 vo. pp. cvii-292.

See Appendix A. A Short Narrative of the Origin of the Kingdom of Harmusz, and of its Kings, down to its Conquest by the Portuguese; extracted from its History, written by Torunxa, King of the Same, pp. 153-195. App. D. Relation of the Chronicle of the Kings of Ormuz, taken from a Chronicle composed by a King of the same Kingdom, named Pachaturunza, written in Arabic, and summarily translated into the Portuguese language by a friar of the order of Saint Dominick, who founded in the island of Ormuz a house of his order, pp. 256-267.

See Yule, Hobson-Jobson, s.v. Ormus.

Mr. Donald Ferguson, in a note, p. 155, says: "No dates are given in connection with the first eleven rulers of Hormuz; but assuming as correct the date (1278) given for the death of the twelfth, and allowing to each of his predecessors an average reign of thirteen years, the foundation of the kingdom of Hormuz would fall in A.D. 1100. Yule places the founding somewhat earlier; and Valentyn, on what authority I know not, gives A.D. 700 as the date of the founder Muhammad."

XIX., I., p. 116; II., p. 444.

DIET OF THE GULF PEOPLE.

Prof. E.H. Parker says that the T'ang History, in treating of the Arab conquests of Fuh-lin [or Frank] territory, alludes to the "date and dry fish diet of the Gulf people." The exact Chinese words are: "They feed their horses on dried fish, and themselves subsist on the hu-mang, or Persian date, as Bretschneider has explained." (Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 134.)

Bretschneider, in Med. Researches, II., p. 134, n. 873, with regard to the dates writes: "Wan nien tsao, 'ten thousand years' jujubes'; called also Po-sze tao, or 'Persian jujubes.' These names and others were applied since the time of the T'ang dynasty to the dates brought from Persia. The author of the Pen ts'ao kang mu (end of the sixteenth century) states that this fruit is called k'u-lu-ma in Persia. The Persian name of the date is khurma."

Cf. CHAU JU-KWA, p. 210.

XXII., p. 128 n.

TUN-O-KAIN.

Major Sykes had adopted Sir Henry Yule's theory of the route from Kuh-benan to Tun. He has since altered his opinion in the Geographical Journal, October, 1905, p. 465: "I was under the impression that a route ran direct from Kubunán to Tabas, but when visiting this latter town a few months ago I made careful inquiries on the subject, which elicited the fact that this was not the case, and that the route invariably followed by Kubunán-Tabas caravans joined the Kermán-Rávar-Naiband route at Cháh-Kuru, 12 miles south of Darbana. It follows this track as far as Naiband, whence the route to Tabas branches off; but the main caravan route runs viâ Zenagan and Duhuk to Tun. This new information, I would urge, makes it almost certain that Ser Marco travelled to Tun, as Tabas falls to the west of the main route. Another point is that the district of Tabas only grows four months' supplies, and is, in consequence, generally avoided by caravans owing to its dearness.

"In 1893 I travelled from Tun to the south across the Lut as far as Cháh Kuru by this very route, and can testify to the general accuracy of Ser Marco's description,[1] although there are now villages at various points on the way. Finally, as our traveller especially mentions Tonocain, or Tun va Kain, one is inclined to accept this as evidence of first-rate importance, especially as it is now corroborated by the information I gained at Tabas. The whole question, once again, furnishes an example of how very difficult it is to make satisfactory inquiries, except on the spot."

It was also the opinion (1882) of Colonel C.E. Stewart, who says: "I was much interested in hearing of Kuh Banan, as it is one of the places mentioned by Marco Polo as on his route. Kuh Banan is described as a group of villages about 26 miles from the town of Rawar, in the Kárman district. I cannot help thinking the road travelled by Marco Polo from Kárman to Kain is the one by Naiband. Marco Polo speaks of Tun-o-Cain, which, Colonel Yule has pointed out, undoubtedly means Tun and Kain. At present Tun does not belong to the Kain district, but to the Tabbas district, and is always spoken of as Tun-o-Tabbas; and if it belonged, as I believe it formerly did, to the Kain district, it would be spoken of as Tun-o-Kain, exactly as Marco Polo does. Through Naiband is the shortest and best road to either Tun or Kain." (Proc. Royal Geog. Soc., VIII., 1886, p. 144.)

Support to Yule's theory has been brought by Sven Hedin, who devotes a chapter to Marco Polo in his Overland to India, II., 1910, Chap. XL., and discusses our traveller's route between Kuh-benan and Tabbas, pp. 71 seq.:

"As even Sykes, who travelled during several years through Persia in all directions, cannot decide with full certainty whether Marco Polo travelled by the western route through Tebbes or the eastern through Naibend, it is easy to see how difficult it is to choose between the two roads. I cannot cite the reasons Sir Henry Yule brings forward in favour of the western route—it would take us too far. I will, instead, set forth the grounds of my own conviction that Marco Polo used the direct caravan road between Kuh-benan and Tebbes.

"The circumstance that the main road runs through Naibend is no proof, for we find that Marco Polo, not only in Persia but also in Central Asia, exhibited a sovereign contempt for all routes that might be called convenient and secure.

"The distance between Kerman and Kuh-benan in a direct line amounts to 103 miles. Marco Polo travelled over this stretch in seven days, or barely 15 miles a day. From Kuh-benan to Tebbes the distance is 150 miles, or fully 18 miles a day for eight days. From Kuh-benan viâ Naibend to Tun, the distance is, on the other hand, 205 miles, or more than 25 miles a day. In either case we can perceive from the forced marches that after leaving Kuh-benan he came out into a country where the distances between the wells became much greater.

"If he travelled by the eastern route he must have made much longer day's journeys than on the western. On the eastern route the distances between the wells were greater. Major Sykes has himself travelled this way, and from his detailed description we get the impression that it presented particular difficulties. With a horse it is no great feat to ride 25 miles a day for eight days, but it cannot be done with camels. That I rode 42-1/2 miles a day between Hauz-i-Haji-Ramazan and Sadfe was because of the danger from rain in the Kevir, and to continue such a forced march for more than two days is scarcely conceivable. Undoubtedly Marco Polo used camels on his long journeys in Eastern Persia, and even if he had been able to cover 205 miles in eight days, he would not be obliged to do so, for on the main road through Naibend and Duhuk to Tun there are abundant opportunities of procuring water. Had he travelled through Naibend, he would in any case have had no need to hurry on so fast. He would probably keep to the same pace as on the way from Kerman to Kuh-benan, and this length he accomplished in seven days. Why should he have made the journey from Kuh-benan to Tun, which is exactly double as far, in only eight days instead of fourteen, when there was no necessity? And that he actually travelled between Kuh-benan and Tunocain in eight days is evident, because he mentions this number twice.

"He also says explicitly that during these eight days neither fruits nor trees are to be seen, and that you have to carry both food and water. This description is not true of the Naibend route, for in Naibend there are excellent water, fine dates, and other fruits. Then there is Duhuk, which, according to Sykes, is a very important village with an old fort and about 200 houses. After leaving Duhuk for the south, Sykes says: 'We continued our journey, and were delighted to hear that at the next stage, too, there was a village, proving that this section of the Lut is really quite thickly populated.' [Ten Thousand Miles in Persia, p. 35.] This does not agree at all with Marco Polo's description.

"I therefore consider it more probable that Marco Polo, as Sir Henry Yule supposes, travelled either direct to Tebbes, or perhaps made a trifling détour to the west, through the moderate-sized village Bahabad, for from this village a direct caravan road runs to Tebbes, entirely through desert. Marco Polo would then travel 150 miles in eight days compared with 103 miles in seven days between Kerman and Kuh-benan. He therefore increased his speed by only 4 miles a day, and that is all necessary on the route in question.

"Bahabad lies at a distance of 36 miles from Kubenan—all in a straight line. And not till beyond Bahabad does the real desert begin.

"To show that a caravan road actually connects Tebbes with Bahabad, I have inserted in the first and second columns of the following table the data I obtained in Tebbes and Fahanunch, and in the third the names marked on the 'Map of Persia (in six sheets) compiled in the Simla Drawing Office of the Survey of India, 1897.'

From Tebbes to Bahabad | From Fahanunch to Bahabad 1. Kurit . . . . . . . 4 | 2. Moghu . . . . . . . . 4-1/2 2. Moghu . . . . . . . 9 | 3. Sefid-ab . . . . . . 6 3. Sefid-ab . . . . . 6 | 4. Belucha . . . . . . . 5 4. Burch . . . . . . . 5 | 5. God-i-shah-taghi . . 6 5. God . . . . . . . . 5 | 6. Rizab . . . . . . . . 5 6. Rizab . . . . . . . 6 | 7.{Teng-i-Tebbes . . . . 4-1/2 7. Pudenum . . . . . . 8 | {Pudenun . . . . . . . 4-1/2 8. Ser-i-julge . . . . 4 | 8. Kheirabad . . . . . . 4 9. Bahabad . . . . . . 4 | 9. Bahabad . . . . . . . 4 — | — Farsakh . . . . . 51 | Farsakh . . . . . . 43-1/2

Map of Persia. 2. Maga . . . . . . . Salt well. 3. Chashma Sufid . . " " 4.{Khudafrin . . . . Sweet spring. {Pir Moral . . . . Salt well. 5. God Hashtaki . . . " " 6. Rezu . . . . . . . " "

"These details are drawn from different authorities, but are in excellent agreement. That the total distances are different in the first two columns is because Fahanunch lies nearer than Tebbes to Bahabad. Two or three discrepancies in the names are of no importance. Burch denotes a castle or fort; Belucha is evidently Cha-i-beluch or the well of the Baluchi, and it is very probable that a small fort was built some time or other at this well which was visited by raiders from Baluchistan. Ser-i-julge and Kheirabad may be two distinct camping grounds very near each other. The Chasma Sufid or 'white spring' of the English map is evidently the same place as Sefid-ab, or 'white water.' Its God Hashtaki is a corruption of the Persian God-i-shah-taghi, or the 'hollow of the royal saxaul.' Khudafrin, on the other hand, is very apocryphal. It is no doubt Khuda-aferin or 'God be praised!'—an ejaculation very appropriate in the mouth of a man who comes upon a sweet spring in the midst of the desert. If an Englishman travelled this way he might have mistaken this ejaculation for the name of the place. But then 'Unsurveyed' would hardly be placed just in this part of the Bahabad Desert.

"The information I obtained about the road from Tebbes to Bahabad was certainly very scanty, but also of great interest. Immediately beyond Kurit the road crosses a strip of the Kevir, 2 farsakh broad, and containing a river-bed which is said to be filled with water at the end of February. Sefid-ab is situated among hillocks and Burch in an upland district; to the south of it follows Kevir barely a farsakh broad, which may be avoided by a circuitous path. At God-i-shah-taghi, as the name implies, saxaul grows (Haloxylon Ammodendron). The last three halting-places before Bahabad all lie among small hills.

"This desert route runs, then, through comparatively hilly country, crosses two small Kevir depressions, or offshoots of one and the same Kevir, has pasturage at at least one place, and presents no difficulties of any account. The distance in a direct line is 113 miles, corresponding to 51 Persian farsakh—the farsakh in this district being only about 2.2 miles long against 2.9 in the great Kevir. The caravans which go through the Bahabad desert usually make the journey in ten days, one at least of which is a rest day, so that they cover little more than 12 miles a day. If water more or less salt were not to be found at all the eight camping-grounds, the caravans would not be able to make such short marches. It is also quite possible that sweet water is to be found in one place; where saxaul grows driftsand usually occurs, and wells digged in sand are usually sweet.

"During my stay in Tebbes a caravan of about 300 camels, as I have mentioned before, arrived from Sebsevar. They were laden with naft (petroleum), and remained waiting till the first belt of Kevir was dried after the last rain. As soon as this happened the caravan would take the road described above to Bahabad, and thence to Yezd. And this caravan route, Sebsevar, Turshiz, Bajistan, Tun, Tebbes, Bahabad, and Yezd, is considered less risky than the somewhat shorter way through the great Kevir. I myself crossed a part of the Bahabad desert where we did not once follow any of the roads used by caravans, and I found this country by no means one of the worst in Eastern Persia.

"In the above exposition I believe that I have demonstrated that it is extremely probable that Marco Polo travelled, not through Naibend to Tun, but through Bahabad to Tebbes, and thence to Tun and Kain. His own description accords in all respects with the present aspect and peculiarities of the desert route in question. And the time of eight days he assigns to the journey between Kuh-benan and Tonocain renders it also probable that he came to the last-named province at Tebbes, even if he travelled somewhat faster than caravans are wont to do at the present day. It signifies little that he does not mention the name Tebbes; he gives only the name of the province, adding that it contains a great many towns and villages. One of these was Tebbes."

XXII., p. 126.

TUTIA.

"It seems that the word is 'the Arabicized word dúdhá, being Persian for "smokes."' There can be little doubt that we have direct confirmation of this in the Chinese words t'ou-t'ieh (still, I think, in use) and t'ou-shik, meaning 'tou-iron' and 't'ou-ore.' The character T'ou [Chinese] does not appear in the old dictionaries; its first appearance is in the History of the Toba (Tungusic) Dynasty of North China. This History first mentions the name 'Persia' in A.D. 455 and the existence there of this metal, which, a little later on, is also said to come from a State in the Cashmeer region. K'ang-hi's seventeenth-century dictionary is more explicit: it states that Termed produces this ore, but that 'the true sort comes from Persia, and looks like gold, but on being heated it turns carnation, and not black.' As the Toba Emperors added 1000 new characters to the Chinese stock, we may assume this one to have been invented, for the specific purpose indicated.'" (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, pp. 135-6.) Prof. Parker adds the following note, l.c., p. 149: "Since writing the above, I have come across a passage in the 'History of the Sung Dynasty' (chap. 490, p. 17) stating that an Arab junk-master brought to Canton in A.D. 990, and sent on thence to the Chinese Emperor in Ho Nan, 'one vitreous bottle of tutia.' The two words mean 'metropolis-father,' and are therefore without any signification, except as a foreign word. According to Yule's notes (I., p. 126), tútiá, or dudhá, in one of its forms was used as an eye-ointment or collyrium."

XXII., pp. 127-139. The Province of Tonocain "contains an immense plain on which is found the ARBRE SOL, which we Christians call the Arbre Sec; and I will tell you what it is like. It is a tall and thick tree, having the bark on one side green and the other white; and it produces a rough husk like that of a chestnut, but without anything in it. The wood is yellow like box, and very strong, and there are no other trees near it nor within a hundred miles of it, except on one side, where you find trees within about ten miles distance."

In a paper published in the Journal of the R. As. Soc., Jan., 1909, Gen. Houtum-Schindler comes to the conclusion, p. 157, that Marco Polo's tree is not the "Sun Tree," but the Cypress of Zoroaster; "Marco Polo's arbre sol and arbre seul stand for the Persian _dirakht i sol, i.e. the cypress-tree. If General Houtum Schindler had seen the third edition of the Book of Ser Marco Polo, I., p. 113, he would have found that I read his paper of the J.R.A.S., of January, 1898."

XXII., p. 132, l. 22. The only current coin is millstones.

Mr. T.B. CLARKE-THORNHILL wrote to me in 1906: "Though I can hardly imagine that there can be any connection between the Caroline Islands and the 'Amiral d'Outre l'Arbre Sec,' still it may interest you to know that the currency of 'millstones' existed up to a short time ago, and may do so still, in the island of Yap, in that group. It consisted of various-sized discs of quartz from about 6 inches to nearly 3 feet in diameter, and from 1/2 an inch to 3 or 4 inches in thickness."

XXV., p. 146.

OLD MAN OF THE MOUNTAIN.

Regarding the reduction of the Ismaelites, the Yuän Shï tells us that in 1222, on his way back after the taking of Nishapur, Tuli, son of Genghis, plundered the State of Mu-la-i, captured Herat, and joined his
father at Talecan. In 1229 the King of Mu-lei presented himself at the Mongol Court…. The following statement is also found in the Mongol Annals: "In the seventh moon [1252] the Emperor ordered K'i-t'ah-t'êh Pu-ha to carry war against the Ma-la-hi.'" (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 136.)

XXVI., p. 149. "On leaving the Castle [of the Old Man], you ride over fine plains and beautiful valleys, and pretty hill-sides producing excellent grass pasture, and abundance of fruits, and all other products…. This kind of country extends for six days' journey, with a goodly number of towns and villages, in which the people are worshippers of Mahommet. Sometimes also you meet with a tract of desert extending for 50 or 60 miles, or somewhat less, and in these deserts you find no water, but have to carry it along with you…. So after travelling for six days as I have told you, you come to a city called Sapurgan…."

Sven Hedin remarks: "From this it is apparent that the six days' journey of fine country were traversed immediately before Marco Polo reached Sapurgan. Sir Henry Yule says in a note: 'Whether the true route be, as I suppose, by Nishapur and Meshed, or, as Khanikoff supposes, by Herat and Badghis, it is strange that no one of those famous cities is mentioned. And we feel constrained to assume that something has been misunderstood in the dictation, or has dropped out of it.' Yule removes the six days of fine country to the district between Sebsevar and Meshed, and considers that for at least the first day's marches beyond Nishapur Marco Polo's description agrees admirably with that given by Fraser and Ferrier.

"I travelled between Sebsevar and Meshed in the autumn of 1890, and I cannot perceive that Marco Polo's description is applicable to the country. He speaks of six days' journey through beautiful valleys and pretty hillsides. To the east of Sebsevar you come out into desert country, which, however passes into fertile country with many villages.[2] Then there comes a boundless dreary steppe to the south. At the village Seng-i-kal-i-deh you enter an undulating country with immense flocks of sheep. 'The first stretch of the road between Shurab and Nishapur led us through perfect desert..; but the landscape soon changed its aspect; the desert passed by degrees into cultivated lands, and we rode past several villages surrounded by fields and gardens…. We here entered the most fertile and densely peopled region in Khorasan, in the midst of which the town of Nishapur is situated.' Of the tract to the east of Nishapur I say: 'Here are found innumerable villages. The plain and slopes are dotted with them. This district is extraordinarily densely inhabited and well cultivated.' But then all this magnificence comes to an end, and of the last day's journey between Kademgah and Meshed I write: 'The country rose and we entered a maze of low intricate hillocks…. The country was exceedingly dreary and bare. Some flocks of sheep were seen, however, but what the fat and sleek sheep lived on was a puzzle to me…. This dismal landscape was more and more enlivened by travellers…. To the east stretched an undulating steppe up to the frontier of Afghanistan.'

"The road between Sebsevar and Meshed is, in short, of such a character that it can hardly fit in with Marco Polo's enthusiastic description of the six days. And as these came just before Sapurgan, one cannot either identify the desert regions named with the deserts about the middle course of the Murgab which extend between Meshed and Shibirkhan. He must have crossed desert first, and it may be identified with the nemek-sar or salt desert east of Tun and Kain. The six days must have been passed in the ranges Paropamisus, Firuz-kuh, and Bend-i-Turkestan. Marco Polo is not usually wont to scare his readers by descriptions of mountainous regions, but at this place he speaks of mountains and valleys and rich pastures. As it was, of course, his intention to travel on into the heart of Asia, to make a détour through Sebsevar was unnecessary and out of his way. If he had travelled to Sebsevar, Nishapur, and Meshed, he would scarcely call the province of Tun-o-Kain the extremity of Persia towards the north, even as the political boundaries were then situated.

"From Balkh his wonderful journey proceeded further eastwards, and therefore we take leave of him. Precisely in Eastern Persia his descriptions are so brief that they leave free room for all kinds of speculations. In the foregoing pages it has been simply my desire to present a few new points of view. The great value of Marco Polo's description of the Persian desert consists in confirming and proving its physical invariableness during more than six hundred years. It had as great a scarcity of oases then as now, and the water in the wells was not less salt than in our own days." (Overland to India, II., pp. 75-77.)

XXVII., p. 152 n.

DOGANA.

"The country of Dogana is quite certain to be the Chinese T'u-ho-lo or Tokhara; for the position suits, and, moreover, nearly all the other places named by Marco Polo along with Dogana occur in Chinese History along with Tokhara many centuries before Polo's arrival. Tokhara being the most important, it is inconceivable that Marco Polo would omit it. Thus, Poh-lo (Balkh), capital of the Eptals; Ta-la-kien (Talecan), mentioned by Hiuan Tsang; Ho-sim or Ho-ts'z-mi (Casem), mentioned in the T'ang History; Shik-nih or Shï-k'i-ni (Syghinan) of the T'ang History; Woh-k'an (Vochan), of the same work; several forms of Bolor, etc. (see also my remarks on the Pamir region in the Contemporary Review for Dec., 1897)." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 142.)

XIX., p. 160.

BADAKHSHAN.

"The Chinese name for 'Badakhshan' never appears before the Pa-ta-shan of Kúblái's time." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 143.)

XXX., pp. 164-166. "You must know that ten days' journey to the south of Badashan there is a province called PASHAI, the people of which have a peculiar language, and are Idolaters, of a brown complexion. They are great adepts in sorceries and the diabolic arts. The men wear earrings and brooches of gold and silver set with stones and pearls. They are a pestilent people and a crafty; and they live upon flesh and rice. Their country is very hot."

Sir A. STEIN writes (Ancient Khotan, I., pp. 14-15 n.): "Sir Henry Yule was undoubtedly right in assuming that Marco Polo had never personally visited these countries and that his account of them, brief as it is, was derived from hearsay information about the tracts which the Mongol partisan leader Nigudar had traversed, about 1260 A.D., on an adventurous incursion from Badakhshan towards Kashmir and the Punjab. In Chapter XVIII., where the Venetian relates that exploit (see Yule, Marco Polo, I., p. 98, with note, p. 104), the name of Pashai is linked with Dir, the territory on the Upper Panjkora river, which an invader, wishing to make his way from Badakhshan into Kashmir by the most direct route, would necessarily have to pass through.

"The name Pashai is still borne to this day by a Muhamadanized tribe closely akin to the Siah-posh, settled in the Panjshir Valley and in the hills on the west and south of Kafiristan. It has been very fully discussed by Sir Henry Yule (Ibid., I., p. 165), who shows ample grounds for the belief that this tribal name must have once been more widely spread over the southern slopes of the Hindu kush as far as they are comprised in the limits of Kafiristan. If the great commentator nevertheless records his inability to account for Marco Polo's application of 'the name Pashai to the country south-east of Badakhshan,' the reason of the difficulty seems to me to lie solely in Sir Henry Yule's assumption that the route heard of by the traveller, led 'by the Doráh or the Nuksán Pass, over the watershed of Hindu kúsh into Chitrál and so to Dir.'

"Though such a route via Chitral would, no doubt, have been available in Marco Polo's time as much as now, there is no indication whatever forcing us to believe that it was the one really meant by his informants. When Nigudar 'with a great body of horsemen, cruel unscrupulous fellows' went off from Badakhshan towards Kashmir, he may very well have made his way over the Hindu kúsh by the more direct line that passes to Dir through the eastern part of Kafiristan. In fact, the description of the Pashai people and their country, as given by Marco Polo, distinctly points to such a route; for we have in it an unmistakable reflex of characteristic features with which the idolatrous Siah-posh Kafirs have always been credited by their Muhammadan neighbours.

"It is much to be regretted that the Oriental records of the period, as far as they were accessible to Sir Henry Yule, seemed to have retained only faint traces of the Mongol adventurer's remarkable inroad. From the point of view of Indian history it was, no doubt, a mere passing episode. But some details regarding it would possess special interest as illustrating an instance of successful invasion by a route that so far has not received its due share of attention." [See supra, pp. 4, 22-24.]

XXX., p. 164.

"The Chinese Toba Dynasty History mentions, in company with Samarcand, K'a-shi-mih (Cashmeer), and Kapisa, a State called Pan-shê, as sending tribute to North China along with the Persian group of States. This name Pan-shê [Chinese] does not, to the best of my belief, occur a second time in any Chinese record." (PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 135.)

XXX., p. 164. "Now let us proceed and speak of another country which is seven day's journey from this one [Pashai] towards the south-east, and the name of which is KESHIMUR."

This short estimate has perplexed Sir Henry Yule, l.c., p. 166. Sir Aurel Stein remarks in a note, Serindia, I., p. 12: "The route above indicated [Nigudar's route] permits an explanation. Starting from some point like Arnawal on the Kunar River which certainly would be well within 'Pashai,' lightly equipped horsemen could by that route easily reach the border of Agror on the Indus within seven days. Speaking from personal knowledge of almost the whole of the ground I should be prepared to do the ride myself by the following stages: Dir, Warai, Sado, Chakdara, Kin kargalai, Bajkatta, Kai or Darband on the Indus. It must be borne in mind that, as Yule rightly recognized, Marco Polo is merely reproducing information derived from a Mongol source and based on Nigudar's raid; and further that Hazara and the valley of the Jhelam were probably then still dependent on the Kashmir kingdom, as they were certainly in Kalhana's time, only a century earlier. As to the rate at which Mongols were accustomed to travel on 'Dak,' cf. Yule, Marco Polo, I., pp. 434 seq."

XXXII., pp. 170, 171. "The people [of Badashan] are Mahommetans, and valiant in war…. They [the people of Vokhan] are gallant soldiers."

In Afghan Wakhan, Sir Aurel Stein writes:

"On we cantered at the head of quite a respectable cavalcade to where, on the sandy plain opposite to the main hamlet of Sarhad, two companies of foot with a squad of cavalry, close on two hundred men in all, were drawn up as a guard of honour. Hardy and well set up most of them looked, giving the impression of thoroughly serviceable human material, in spite of a manifestly defective drill and the motley appearance of dress and equipment.

"They belonged, so the Colonel explained to me afterwards, to a sort of militia drafted from the local population of the Badakhshan valleys and Wakhan into the regiments permanently echeloned as frontier guards along the Russian border on the Oxus. Apart from the officers, the proportion of true Pathans among them was slight. Yet I could well believe from all I saw and heard, that, properly led and provided for, these sturdy Iranian hillmen might give a good account of themselves. Did not Marco Polo speak of the people of 'Badashan' as 'valiant in war' and of the men of 'Vokhan' as gallant soldiers?" (Ruins of Desert Cathay, I., p. 66.)

XXXII., pp. 170 seq.

In Chap. III., pp. 64-66, of his Serindia, Sir Aurel Stein has the following on Marco Polo's account of Wakhan:—

"After Wu-k'ung's narrative of his journey the Chinese sources of information about the Pamirs and the adjoining regions run dry for nearly a thousand years. But that the routes leading across them from Wakhan retained their importance also in Muhammedan times is attested by the greatest mediaeval travellers, Marco Polo. I have already, in Ancient Khotan [pp. 41 seq.], discussed the portion of his itinerary which deals with the journey across the Pamirs to 'the kingdom of Cascar' or Kashgar, and it only remains here to note briefly what he tells us of the route by which he approached them from Badakhshan: 'In leaving Badashan you ride twelve days between east and north-east, ascending a river that runs through land belonging to a brother of the Prince of Badashan, and containing a good many towns and villages and scattered habitations. The people are Mahommetans, and valiant in war. At the end of those twelve days you come to a province of no great size, extending indeed no more than three days' journey in any direction, and this is called VOKHAN. The people worship Mahommet, and they have a peculiar language. They are gallant soldiers, and they have a chief whom they call NONE, which is as much as to say Count, and they are liegemen to the Prince of Badashan.' [Polo, I., pp. 170-171.]

"Sir Henry Yule was certainly right in assuming that 'the river along which Marco travels from Badakhshan is no doubt the upper stream of the Oxus, locally known as the Panja…. It is true that the river is reached from Badakhshan Proper by ascending another river (the Vardoj) and crossing the 'Pass of Ishkáshm, but in the brief style of our narrative we must expect such condensation.' [Polo, I., pp. 172-3.] Marco's great commentator was guided by equally true judgment when he recognized in the indications of this passage the same system of government that prevailed in the Oxus valleys until modern times. Under it the most of the hill tracts dependent from Badakhshan, including Ishkashim and Wakhan, were ruled not direct by the Mir, but by relations of his or hereditary chiefs who held their districts on a feudal tenure. The twelve days' journey which Marco records between Badashan and 'Vokhan' are, I think, easily accounted for if it is assumed that the distance from capital to capital is meant; for twelve marches are still allowed for as the distance from Baharak, the old Badakhshan capital on the Vardoj, to Kila Panja.

"That the latter was in Marco's days, as at present, the chief place of Wakhan is indicated also by his narrative of the next stage of his journey. 'And when you leave this little country, and ride three days north-east, always among mountains, you get to such a height that 'tis said to be the highest place in the world! And when you have got to this height you find [a great lake between two mountains, and out of it] a fine river running through a plain…. The plain is called PAMIER.' The bearing and descriptive details here given point clearly to the plain of the Great Pamir and Victoria Lake, its characteristic feature. About sixty-two miles are reckoned from Langar-kisht, the last village on the northern branch of the Ab-i-Panja and some six miles above Kila Panja, to Mazar-tapa where the plain of the Great Pamir may be said to begin, and this distance agrees remarkably well with the three marches mentioned by Marco.

"His description of Wakhan as 'a province of no great size, extending indeed no more than three days' journey in any direction' suggests that a portion of the valley must then have formed part of the chiefship of Ishkashim or Zebak over which we may suppose 'the brother of the Prince of Badashan' to have ruled. Such fluctuations in the extent of Wakhan territory are remembered also in modern times. Thus Colonel Trotter, who visited Wakhan with a section of the Yarkand Mission in 1874, distinctly notes that 'Wakhan formerly contained three "sads" or hundreds, i.e., districts, containing 100 houses each' (viz. Sad-i-Sar-hadd, Sad Sipang, Sad Khandut). To these Sad Ishtragh, the tract extending from Digargand to Ishkashim, is declared to have been added in recent times, having formerly been an independent principality. It only remains to note that Marco was right, too, in his reference to the peculiar language of Wakhan; for Wakhi—which is spoken not only by the people of Wakhan but also by the numerous Wakhi colonists spread through Mastuj, Hunza Sarikol, and even further east in the mountains—is a separate language belonging to the well-defined group of Galcha tongues which itself forms the chief extant branch of Eastern Iranian."

XXXII., pp. 171 seq., 175, 182.
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Re: The Travels of Marco Polo, by Marco Polo and Rustichello

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Part 2 of 2

THE PLATEAU OF PAMIR.

"On leaving Tash-kurghan (July 10, 1900), my steps, like those of Hiuan-tsang, were directed towards Kashgar…. In Chapters V.-VII. of my Personal Narrative I have given a detailed description of this route, which took me past Muztagh-Ata to Lake Little Kara-kul, and then round the foot of the great glacier-crowned range northward into the Gez defile, finally debouching at Tashmalik into the open plain of Kashgari. Though scarcely more difficult than the usual route over the Chichiklik Pass and by Yangi-Hisar, it is certainly longer and leads for a considerably greater distance over ground which is devoid of cultivation or permanent habitations.

"It is the latter fact which makes me believe that Professor H. Cordier was right in tracing by this very route Marco Polo's itinerary from the Central Pamirs to Kashgar. The Venetian traveller, coming from Wakhan, reached, after three days, a great lake which may be either Lake Victoria or Lake Chakmak, at a 'height that is said to be the highest place in the world.' He then describes faithfully enough the desert plain called 'Pamier,' which he makes extend for the distance of a twelve days' ride, and next tells us: 'Now, if we go on with our journey towards the east-north-east, we travel a good forty days, continually passing over mountains and hills, or through valleys, and crossing many rivers and tracts of wilderness. And in all this way you find neither habitation of man, nor any green thing, but must carry with you whatever you require.'

"This reference to continuous 'tracts of wilderness' shows clearly that, for one reason or another, Marco Polo did not pass through the cultivated valleys of Tash-kurghan or Tagharma, as he would necessarily have done if his route to Kashgar, the region he next describes, had lain over the Chichiklik Pass. We must assume that, after visiting either the Great or Little Pamir, he travelled down the Ak-su river for some distance, and then crossing the watershed eastwards by one of the numerous passes struck the route which leads past Muztagh-Ata and on towards the Gez defile. In the brief supplementary notes contributed to Professor Cordier's critical analysis of this portion of Marco Polo's itinerary, I have pointed out how thoroughly the great Venetian's description of the forty days' journey to the E.N.E. of the Pamir Lake can be appreciated by any one who has passed through the Pamir region and followed the valleys stretching round the Muztagh-Ata range on the west and north (cf. Yule, Marco Polo, II., pp. 593 seq.). After leaving Tash-kurghan and Tagharma there is no local produce to be obtained until the oasis of Tashmalik is reached. In the narrow valley of the Yaman-yar river, forming the Gez defile, there is scarcely any grazing; its appearance down to its opening into the plain is, in fact, far more desolate than that of the elevated Pamir regions.

"In the absence of any data as to the manner and season in which Marco Polo's party travelled, it would serve no useful purpose to hazard explanations as to why he should assign a duration of forty days to a journey which for a properly equipped traveller need not take more than fifteen or sixteen days, even when the summer floods close the passage through the lower Gez defile, and render it necessary to follow the circuitous track over the Tokuk Dawan or 'Nine Passes.' But it is certainly worth mention that Benedict Goëz, too, speaks of the desert of 'Pamech' (Pamir) as taking forty days to cross if the snow was extensive, a record already noted by Sir H. Yule (Cathay, II., pp. 563 seq.). It is also instructive to refer once more to the personal experience of the missionary traveller on the alternative route by the Chichiklik Pass. According to the record quoted above, he appears to have spent no less than twenty-eight days in the journeys from the hamlets of 'Sarcil' (Sarikol, i.e. Tash-kurghan) to 'Hiarchan' (Yarkand)—a distance of some 188 miles, now reckoned at ten days' march." (Stein, Ancient Khotan, pp. 40-42.)

XXXII., p. 171. "The Plain is called PAMIER, and you ride across it for twelve days together, finding nothing but a desert without habitations or any green thing, so that travellers are obliged to carry with them whatever they have need of."

At Sarhad, Afghan Wakhan, Stein, Ruins of Desert Cathay, I., p. 69, writes: "There was little about the low grey houses, or rather hovels, of mud and rubble to indicate the importance which from early times must have attached to Sarhad as the highest place of permanent occupation on the direct route leading from the Oxus to the Tarim Basin. Here was the last point where caravans coming from the Bactrian side with the products of the Far West and of India could provision themselves for crossing that high tract of wilderness 'called Pamier' of which old Marco Polo rightly tells us: 'You ride across it …' And as I looked south towards the snow-covered saddle of the Baroghil, the route I had followed myself, it was equally easy to realize why Kao Hsien-chih's strategy had, after the successful crossing of the Pamirs, made the three columns of his Chinese Army concentrate upon the stronghold of Lien-yün, opposite the present Sarhad. Here was the base from which Yasin could be invaded and the Tibetans ousted from their hold upon the straight route to the Indus."

XXXII., p. 174.

"The note connecting Hiuan Tsang's Kieh sha with Kashgar is probably based upon an error of the old translators, for the Sita River was in the Pamir region, and K'a sha was one of the names of Kasanna, or Kieh-shwang-na, in the Oxus region." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 143.)

XXXII., I. p. 173; II. p. 593.

PAONANO PAO.

Cf. The Name Kushan, by J.F. Fleet, Jour. Roy. As. Soc., April, 1914, pp. 374-9; The Shaonano Shao Coin Legend; and a Note on the name Kushan by J. Allan, Ibid., pp. 403-411. PAONANO PAO. Von Joh. Kirste. (Wiener Zeit. f. d. Kunde d. Morg., II., 1888, pp. 237-244.)

XXXII., p. 174.

YUE CHI.

"The old statement is repeated that the Yüeh Chi, or Indo-Scyths (i.e. the Eptals), 'are said to have been of Tibetan origin.' A long account of this people was given in the Asiatic Quart. Rev. for July, 1902. It seems much more likely that they were a branch of the Hiung-nu or Turks. Albiruni's 'report' that they were of Tibetan origin is probably founded on the Chinese statement that some of their ways were like Tibetan ways, and that polyandry existed amongst them; also that they fled from the Hiung-nu westwards along the north edge of the Tibetan territory, and some of them took service as Tibetan officials." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 143.)

XXXII., pp. 178-179.

BOLOR.

We read in the Tarikh-i-Rashidi of Mirza Haidar (Notes by Ney Elias; translated by E.D. Ross, 1895), p. 135, that Sultán Said Khán, son of Mansur Khán, sent the writer in the year 934 (1528), "with Rashid Sultán, to Balur, which is a country of infidels [Káfiristán], between Badakhshan and Kashmir, where we conducted successfully a holy war [ghazát], and returned victorious, loaded with booty and covered with glory."

Mirza Haidar gives the following description of Bolor (pp. 384-5): "Balur is an infidel country [Káfiristán], and most of its inhabitants are mountaineers. Not one of them has a religion or a creed. Nor is there anything which they [consider it right to] abstain from or to avoid [as impure]; but they do whatever they list, and follow their desires without check or compunction. Baluristán is bounded on the east by the province of Káshgar and Yárkand; on the north by Badakhshán; on the west by Kábul and Lumghán; and on the south by the dependencies of Kashmir. It is four months' journey in circumference. Its whole extent consists of mountains, valleys, and defiles, insomuch that one might almost say that in the whole of Baluristán, not one farsákh of level ground is to be met with. The population is numerous. No village is at peace with another, but there is constant hostility, and fights are continually occurring among them."

From the note to this passage (p. 385) we note that "for some twenty years ago, Mr. E.B. Shaw found that the Kirghiz of the Pamirs called Chitrál by the name of Pálor. To all other inhabitants of the surrounding regions, however, the word appears now to be unknown….

"The Balur country would then include Hunza, Nagar, possibly Tásh Kurghán, Gilgit, Panyál, Yasin, Chitrál, and probably the tract now known as Kafiristan: while, also, some of the small states south of Gilgit, Yasin, etc., may have been regarded as part of Balur….

"The conclusions arrived at [by Sir H. Yule], are very nearly borne out by Mirza Haidar's description. The only differences are (1) that, according to our author, Baltistán cannot have been included in Balur, as he always speaks of that country, later in his work, as a separate province with the name of Balti, and says that it bordered on Balur; and (2) that Balur was confined almost entirely, as far as I am able to judge from his description in this passage and elsewhere, to the southern slopes of the Eastern Hindu Kush, or Indus water-parting range; while Sir H. Yule's map makes it embrace Sárigh-Kul and the greater part of the eastern Pamirs."

XXXIII., p. 182. "The natives [of Cascar] are a wretched, niggardly set of people; they eat and drink in miserable fashion."

The people of Kashgar seem to have enjoyed from early times a reputation for rough manners and deceit (Stein, Ancient Khotan, p. 49 n). Stein, p. 70, recalls Hiuan Tsang's opinion: "The disposition of the men is fierce and impetuous, and they are mostly false and deceitful. They make light of decorum and politeness, and esteem learning but little." Stein adds, p. 70, with regard to Polo's statement: "Without being able to adduce from personal observation evidence as to the relative truth of the latter statement, I believe that the judgements recorded by both those great travellers may be taken as a fair reflex of the opinion in which the 'Kashgarliks' are held to this day by the people of other Turkestan districts, especially by the Khotanese. And in the case of Hiuan Tsang at least, it seems probable from his long stay in, and manifest attachment to, Khotan that this neighbourly criticism might have left an impression upon him."

XXXVI., p. 188.

KHOTAN.

Sir Aurel Stein writes (Ancient Khotan, I., pp. 139-140): "Marco Polo's account of Khotan and the Khotanese forms an apt link between these early Chinese notices and the picture drawn from modern observation. It is brief but accurate in all details. The Venetian found the people 'subject to the Great Kaan' and 'all worshippers of Mahommet.' 'There are numerous towns and villages in the country, but Cotan, the capital, is the most noble of all and gives its name to the kingdom. Everything is to be had there in plenty, including abundance of cotton [with flax, hemp, wheat, wine, and the like]. The people have vineyards and gardens and estates. They live by commerce and manufactures, and are no soldiers.' Nor did the peculiar laxity of morals, which seems always to have distinguished the people of the Khotan region, escape Marco Polo's attention. For of the 'Province of Pein' which, as we shall see, represents the oases of the adjoining modern district of Keriya, he relates the custom that 'if the husband of any woman go away upon a journey and remain away for more than twenty days, as soon as that term is past the woman may marry another man, and the husband also may then marry whom he pleases.'

"No one who has visited Khotan or who is familiar with the modern accounts of the territory, can read the early notices above extracted without being struck at once by the fidelity with which they reflect characteristic features of the people at the present day. Nor is it necessary to emphasize the industrial pre-eminence which Khotan still enjoys in a variety of manufactures through the technical skill and inherited training of the bulk of its population."

Sir Aurel Stein further remarks (Ancient Khotan, I., p. 183): "When Marco Polo visited Khotan on his way to China, between the years 1271 and 1275, the people of the oasis were flourishing, as the Venetian's previously quoted account shows. His description of the territories further east, Pein, Cherchen, and Lop, which he passed through before crossing 'the Great Desert' to Sha-chou, leaves no doubt that the route from Khotan into Kan-su was in his time a regular caravan road. Marco Polo found the people of Khotan 'all worshippers of Mahommet' and the territory subject to the 'Great Kaan', i.e. Kúblái, whom by that time almost the whole of the Middle Kingdom acknowledged as emperor. While the neighbouring Yarkand owed allegiance to Kaidu, the ruler of the Chagatai dominion, Khotan had thus once more renewed its old historical connexion with China."

XXVI., p. 190.

"A note of Yule's on p. 190 of Vol. I. describes Johnson's report on the people of Khoten (1865) as having 'a slightly Tartar cast of countenance.' The Toba History makes the same remark 1300 years earlier: 'From Kao-ch'ang (Turfan) westwards the people of the various countries have deep eyes and high noses; the features in only this one country (Khoten) are not very Hu (Persian, etc.), but rather like Chinese.' I published a tolerably complete digest of Lob Nor and Khoten early history from Chinese sources, in the Anglo-Russian Society's Journal for Jan. and April, 1903. It appears to me that the ancient capital Yotkhan, discovered thirty-five years ago, and visited in 1891 by MM. de Rhins and Grenard, probably furnishes a clue to the ancient Chinese name of Yu-t'ien." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 143.)

XXXVII., p. 190 n.

Stein has devoted a whole chapter of his Sand-buried Ruins of Khotan, Chap. XVI., pp. 256 seq. to Yotkan, the Site of the Ancient Capital.

XXXVII., p. 191, n. 1.

PEIN.

"It is a mistake to suppose that the earlier pilgrim Fa-hien (A.D. 400) followed the 'directer route' from China; he was obliged to go to Kao ch'ang, and then turn sharp south to Khoten." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 143.)

XXXVII., p. 192.

I have embodied, in Vol. II., p. 595, of Marco Polo, some of the remarks of Sir Aurel Stein regarding Pein and Uzun Tati. In Ancient Khotan, I., pp. 462-3, he has given further evidence of the identity of Uzun Tati and P'i mo, and he has discussed the position of Ulug-Ziarat, probably the Han mo of Sung Yun.

XXXVII., p. 191; II., p. 595.

"Keriya, the Pein of Marco Polo and Pimo of Hwen Tsiang, writes Huntington, is a pleasant district, with a population of about fifteen thousand souls." Huntington discusses (p. 387) the theory of Stein:

"Stein identifies Pimo or Pein, with ancient Kenan, the site … now known as Uzun Tetti or Ulugh Mazar, north of Chira. This identification is doubtful, as appears from the following table of distances given by Hwen Tsiang, which is as accurate as could be expected from a casual traveller. I have reckoned the 'li,' the Chinese unit of distance, as equivalent to 0.26 of a mile.

Distance according to
Names of Places. True Distance. Hwen Tsiang.
Khotan (Yutien) to Keriya (Pimo) 97 miles. 330 li 86 miles.
Keriya (Pimo) to Niya (Niyang) 64 " 200 " 52 "
Niya (Niyang) to Endereh (Tuholo) 94 " 400 " 104 "
Endereh (Tuholo) to Kotak Sheri? (Chemotona) 138? " 600 " 156 "
Kotak Sheri (Chemotona) to Lulan (Nafopo) 264? " 1000 " 260 "

"If we use the value of the 'li' 0.274 of a mile given by Hedin, the distances from Khotan to Keriya and from Keriya to Niya, according to Hwen Tsiang, become 91 and 55 miles instead of 86 and 52 as given in the table, which is not far from the true distances, 97 and 64.

"If, however, Pimo is identical with Kenan, as Stein thinks, the distances which Hwen Tsiang gives as 86 and 52 miles become respectively 60 and 89, which is evidently quite wrong.

"Strong confirmation of the identification of Keriya with Pimo is found in a comparison of extracts from Marco Polo's and Hwen Tsiang's accounts of that city with passages from my note-book, written long before I had read the comments of the ancient travellers. Marco Polo says that the people of Pein, or Pima, as he also calls it, have the peculiar custom 'that if a married man goes to a distance from home to be about twenty days, his wife has a right, if she is so inclined, to take another husband; and the men, on the same principle, marry wherever they happen to reside.' The quotation from my notes runs as follows: 'The women of the place are noted for their attractiveness and loose character. It is said that many men coming to Keriya for a short time become enamoured of the women here, and remain permanently, taking new wives and abandoning their former wives and families.'

"Hwen Tsiang observed that thirty 'li,' seven or eight miles, west of Pimo, there is 'a great desert marsh, upwards of several acres in extent, without any verdure whatever. The surface is reddish black.' The natives explained to the pilgrim that it was the blood-stained site of a great battle fought many years before. Eighteen miles north-west of Keriya bazaar, or ten miles from the most westerly village of the oasis, I observed that 'some areas which are flooded part of the year are of a deep rich red colour, due to a small plant two or three inches high.' I saw such vegetation nowhere else and apparently it was an equally unusual sight to Hwen Tsiang.

"In addition to these somewhat conclusive observations, Marco Polo says that jade is found in the river of Pimo, which is true of the Keriya, but not of the Chira, or the other rivers near Kenan." (Ellsworth HUNTINGTON, The Pulse of Asia, pp. 387-8.)

XXVIII., p. 194. "The whole of the Province [of Charchan] is sandy, and so is the road all the way from Pein, and much of the water that you find is bitter and bad. However, at some places you do find fresh and sweet water."

Sir Aurel Stein remarks (Ancient Khotan, I., p. 436): "Marco Polo's description, too, 'of the Province of Charchan' would agree with the assumption that the route west of Charchan was not altogether devoid of settlements even as late as the thirteenth century…. [His] account of the route agrees accurately with the conditions now met with between Niya and Charchan. Yet in the passage immediately following, the Venetian tells us how 'when an army passes through the land, the people escape with their wives, children, and cattle a distance of two or three days' journey into the sandy waste; and, knowing the spots where water is to be had, they are able to live there, and to keep their cattle alive, while it is impossible to discover them.' It seems to me clear that Marco Polo alludes here to the several river courses which, after flowing north of the Niya-Charchan route, lose themselves in the desert. The jungle belt of their terminal areas, no doubt, offered then, as it would offer now, safe places of refuge to any small settlements established along the route southwards."

XXXIX., P. 197.

OF THE CITY OF LOP.

Stein remarks, Ruins of Desert Cathay, I., p. 343: "Broad geographical facts left no doubt for any one acquainted with local conditions that Marco Polo's Lop, 'a large town at the edge of the Desert' where 'travellers repose before entering on the Desert' en route for Sha chou and China proper, must have occupied the position of the present Charklik. Nor could I see any reason for placing elsewhere the capital of that 'ancient kingdom of Na-fo-po, the same as the territory of Lou-lan,' which Hiuan Tsang reached after ten marches to the north-east of Chü-mo or Charchan, and which was the pilgrim's last stage before his return to Chinese soil."

In his third journey (1913-1916), Stein left Charchan on New Year's Eve, 1914, and arrived at Charkhlik on January 8, saying: "It was from this modest little oasis, the only settlement of any importance in the Lop region, representing Marco Polo's 'City of Lop,' that I had to raise the whole of the supplies, labour, and extra camels needed by the several parties for the explorations I had carefully planned during the next three months in the desert between Lop-nor and Tunhuang."

"The name of LOB appears under the form Lo pou in the Yuan-shi, s.a. 1282 and 1286. In 1286, it is mentioned as a postal station near those of K'ie-t'ai, Che-ch'an and Wo-tuan. Wo-tuan is Khotan. Che-ch'an, the name of which reappears in other paragraphs, is Charchan. As to K'ie-t'ai, a postal station between those of Lob and Charchan, it seems probable that it is the Kätäk of the Tarikh-i-Rashidi." (PELLIOT.)

See in the Journ. Asiatique, Jan.-Feb., 1916, pp. 117-119, Pelliot's remarks on Lob, Navapa, etc.

XXXIX., pp. 196-7.

THE GREAT DESERT.

After reproducing the description of the Great Desert in Sir Henry Yule's version, Stein adds, Ruins of Desert Cathay, I., p. 518:

"It did not need my journey to convince me that what Marco here tells us about the risks of the desert was but a faithful reflex of old folklore beliefs he must have heard on the spot. Sir Henry Yule has shown long ago that the dread of being led astray by evil spirits haunted the imagination of all early travellers who crossed the desert wastes between China and the oases westwards. Fa-hsien's above-quoted passage clearly alludes to this belief, and so does Hiuan Tsang, as we have seen, where he points in graphic words the impressions left by his journey through the sandy desert between Niya and Charchan.

"Thus, too, the description we receive through the Chinese historiographer, Ma Tuan-lin, of the shortest route from China towards Kara-shahr, undoubtedly corresponding to the present track to Lop-nor, reads almost like a version from Marco's book, though its compiler, a contemporary of the Venetian traveller, must have extracted it from some earlier source. 'You see nothing in any direction but the sky and the sands, without the slightest trace of a road; and travellers find nothing to guide them but the bones of men and beasts and the droppings of camels. During the passage of this wilderness you hear sounds, sometimes of singing, sometimes of wailing; and it has often happened that travellers going aside to see what these sounds might be have strayed from their course and been entirely lost; for they were voices of spirits and goblins.'…

"As Yule rightly observes, 'these Goblins are not peculiar to the Gobi.' Yet I felt more than ever assured that Marco's stories about them were of genuine local growth, when I had travelled over the whole route and seen how closely its topographical features agree with the matter-of-fact details which the first part of his chapter records. Anticipating my subsequent observations, I may state here at once that Marco's estimate of the distance and the number of marches on this desert crossing proved perfectly correct. For the route from Charklik, his 'town of Lop,' to the 'City of Sachiu,' i.e. Sha-chou or Tun-huang, our plane-table survey, checked by cyclometer readings, showed an aggregate marching distance of close on 380 miles."

XXXIX., p. 196.

OF THE CITY OF LOP AND THE GREAT DESERT.

"In the hope of contributing something toward the solution of these questions [contradictory statements of Prjevalsky, Richthofen, and Sven Hedin]," writes Huntington, "I planned to travel completely around the unexplored part of the ancient lake, crossing the Lop desert in its widest part. As a result of the journey, I became convinced that two thousand years ago the lake was of great size, covering both the ancient and the modern locations; then it contracted, and occupied only the site shown on the Chinese maps; again, in the Middle Ages, it expanded; and at present it has contracted and occupies the modern site.

"Now, as in Marco Polo's days, the traveller must equip his caravan for the desert at Charklik, also known as Lop, two days' journey south-west of the lake." (Ellsworth HUNTINGTON, The Pulse of Asia, pp. 240-1.)

XXXIX., pp. 197, 201.

NOISES IN THE GREAT DESERT.

As an answer to a paper by C. TOMLINSON, in Nature, Nov. 28, 1895, p. 78, we find in the same periodical, April 30, 1896, LIII., p. 605, the following note by KUMAGUSU MINAKATA: "The following passage in a Chinese itinerary of Central Asia—Chun Yuen's Si-yih-kien-wan-luh, 1777 (British Museum, No. 15271, b. 14), tom. VII., fol. 13 b.—appears to describe the icy sounds similar to what Ma or Head observed in North America (see supra, ibid., p. 78).

"Muh-süh-urh-tah-fan (= Muzart), that is Ice Mountain [Snowy according to Prjevalsky], is situated between Ili and Ushi…. In case that one happens to be travelling there close to sunset, he should choose a rock of moderate thickness and lay down on it. In solitary night then, he would hear the sounds, now like those of gongs and bells, and now like those of strings and pipes, which disturb ears through the night: these are produced by multifarious noises coming from the cracking ice."

Kumagusu Minakata has another note on remarkable sounds in Japan in Nature, LIV., May 28, 1896, p. 78.

Sir T. Douglas Forsyth, Buried Cities in the Shifting Sands of the Great Desert of Gobi, Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc., Nov. 13, 1876, says, p. 29: "The stories told by Marco Polo, in his 39th chapter, about shifting sands and strange noises and demons, have been repeated by other travellers down to the present time. Colonel Prjevalsky, in pp. 193 and 194 of his interesting Travels, gives his testimony to the superstitions of the Desert; and I find, on reference to my diary, that the same stories were recounted to me in Kashghar, and I shall be able to show that there is some truth in the report of treasures being exposed to view."

P. 201, Line 12. Read the Governor of Urumtsi founded instead of found.

XL., p. 203. Marco Polo comes to a city called Sachiu belonging to a province called Tangut. "The people are for the most part Idolaters…. The Idolaters have a peculiar language, and are no traders, but live by their agriculture. They have a great many abbeys and minsters full of idols of sundry fashions, to which they pay great honour and reverence, worshipping them and sacrificing to them with much ado."

Sachiu, or rather Tun Hwang, is celebrated for its "Caves of Thousand Buddhas"; Sir Aurel Stein wrote the following remarks in his Ruins of Desert Cathay, II., p. 27: "Surely it was the sight of these colossal images, some reaching nearly a hundred feet in height, and the vivid first impressions retained of the cult paid to them, which had made Marco Polo put into his chapter on 'Sachiu,' i.e. Tun-huang, a long account of the strange idolatrous customs of the people of Tangut…. Tun-huang manifestly had managed to retain its traditions of Buddhist piety down to Marco's days. Yet there was plentiful antiquarian evidence showing that most of the shrines and art remains at the Halls of the Thousand Buddhas dated back to the period of the T'ang Dynasty, when Buddhism flourished greatly in China. Tun-huang, as the westernmost outpost of China proper, had then for nearly two centuries enjoyed imperial protection both against the Turks in the north and the Tibetans southward. But during the succeeding period, until the advent of paramount Mongol power, some two generations before Marco Polo's visit, these marches had been exposed to barbarian inroads of all sorts. The splendour of the temples and the number of the monks and nuns established near them had, no doubt, sadly diminished in the interval."

XL., p. 205.

Prof. Pelliot accepts as a Mongol plural Tangut, but remarks that it is very ancient, as Tangut is already to be found in the Orkhon inscriptions. At the time of Chingiz, Tangut was a singular in Mongol, and Tangu is nowhere to be found.

XL., p. 206.

The Tangutans are descendants of the Tang-tu-chueh; it must be understood that they are descendants of T'u Kiueh of the T'ang Period. (PELLIOT.)

Lines 7 and 8 from the foot of the page: instead of T'ung hoang, read Tun hoang; Kiu-kaan, read Tsiu tsüan.

XL., p. 207, note 2. The "peculiar language" is si-hia (PELLIOT).

XLI., pp. 210, 212, n. 3.

THE PROVINCE OF CAMUL.

See on the discreditable custom of the people of Qamul, a long note in the second edition of Cathay, I., pp. 249-250.

XLI., p. 211.

Prof. Parker remarks (Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 142) that: "The Chinese (Manchu) agent at Urga has not (nor, I believe, ever had) any control over the Little Bucharia Cities. Moreover, since the reconquest of Little Bucharia in 1877-1878, the whole of those cities have been placed under the Governor of the New Territory (Kan Suh Sin-kiang Sun-fu), whose capital is at Urumtsi. The native Mohammedan Princes of Hami have still left to them a certain amount of home rule, and so lately as 1902 a decree appointing the rotation of their visits to Peking was issued. The present Prince's name is Shamu Hust, or Hussot."

XLII., p. 215.

THE PROVINCE OF CHINGINTALAS.

Prof. E.H. PARKER writes in the Journ. of the North China Branch of the Royal As. Soc., XXXVII., 1906, p. 195: "On p. 215 of Yule's Vol. I. some notes of Palladius' are given touching Chingkintalas, but it is not stated that Palladius supposed the word Ch'ih kin to date after the Mongols, that is, that Palladius felt uncertain about his identification. But Palladius is mistaken in feeling thus uncertain: in 1315 and 1326 the Mongol History twice mentions the garrison starts at Ch'ih kin, and in such a way that the place must be where Marco Polo puts it, i.e. west of Kia-yüh Kwan."

OF THE PROVINCE OF SUKCHUR.

XLIII., p. 217. "Over all the mountains of this province rhubarb is found in great abundance, and thither merchants come to buy it, and carry it thence all over the world. Travellers, however, dare not visit those mountains with any cattle but those of the country, for a certain plant grows there which is so poisonous that cattle which eat it loose their hoofs. The cattle of the country know it and eschew it."

During his crossing of the Nan Shan, Sir Aurel Stein had the same experience, five of his ponies being "benumbed and refusing to touch grass or fodder." The traveller notes that, Ruins of Desert Cathay, II., p. 303: "I at once suspected that they had eaten of the poisonous grass which infests certain parts of the Nan Shan, and about which old Marco has much to tell in his chapter on 'Sukchur' or Su-chou. The Venetian's account had proved quite true; for while my own ponies showed all the effects of this inebriating plant, the local animals had evidently been wary of it. A little bleeding by the nose, to which Tila Bai, with the veterinary skill of an old Ladak 'Kirakash,' promptly proceeded, seemed to afford some relief. But it took two or three days before the poor brutes were again in full possession of their senses and appetites."

"Wild rhubarb, for which the Nan-shan was famous in Marco Polo's days, spread its huge fleshy leaves everywhere." (STEIN, Ruins of Desert Cathay, II., p. 305.)

XLIII., p. 218.

SUKCHUR.

The first character of Suchau was pronounced Suk at the time of the T'ang; we find a Sughciu in von Le Coq's MSS. from Turkestan and Sughcu in the runnic text of W. Thomsen; cf. PELLIOT, J. As., Mai-Juin, 1912, p. 591; the pronunciation Suk-chau was still used by travellers coming from Central Asia—for instance, by the envoys of Shah Rukh. See Cathay, III., p. 126 n.

OF THE CITY OF CAMPICHU.

XLIV., pp. 219 seq. "The Idolaters have many minsters and abbeys after their fashion. In these they have an enormous number of idols, both small and great, certain of the latter being a good ten paces in stature; some of them being of wood, others of clay, and others yet of stone. They are all highly polished, and then covered with gold. The great idols of which I speak lie at length. And round about them there are other figures of considerable size, as if adoring and paying homage before them."

The ambassadors of Shah Rukh to China (1419-1422) wrote:

"In this city of Kamchau there is an idol temple five hundred cubits square. In the middle is an idol lying at length, which measures fifty paces. The sole of the foot is nine paces long, and the instep is twenty-one cubits in girth. Behind this image and overhead are other idols of a cubit (?) in height, besides figures of Bakshis as large as life. The action of all is hit off so admirably that you would think they were alive. Against the wall also are other figures of perfect execution. The great sleeping idol has one hand under his head, and the other resting on his thigh. It is gilt all over, and is known as Shakamuni-fu. The people of the country come in crowds to visit it, and bow to the very ground before this idol" (Cathay, I., p. 277).

XLV., p. 223.

OF THE CITY OF ETZINA.

I said, I., p. 225, that this town must be looked for on the river Hei-shui called Etsina by the Mongols, and would be situated on the river on the border of the Desert, at the top of a triangle, whose bases would be Suhchau and Kanchau. My theory seems to be fully confirmed by Sir Aurel Stein, who writes:

"Advantages of geographical position must at all times have invested this extensive riverine tract, limited as are its resources, with considerable importance for those, whether armed host or traders, who would make the long journey from the heart of Mongolia in the north to the Kansu oases. It had been the same with the ancient Lou-lan delta, without which the Chinese could not have opened up the earliest and most direct route for the expansion of their trade and political influence into Central Asia. The analogy thus presented could not fail to impress me even further when I proceeded to examine the ruins of Khara-khoto, the 'Black Town' which Colonel Kozloff, the distinguished Russian explorer, had been the first European to visit during his expedition of 1908-1909. There remained no doubt for me then that it was identical with Marco Polo's 'City of Etzina.' Of this we are told in the great Venetian traveller's narrative that it lay a twelve days' ride from the city of Kan-chou, 'towards the north on the verge of the desert; it belongs to the Province of Tangut.' All travellers bound for Kara-koram, the old capital of the Mongols, had here to lay in victuals for forty days in order to cross the great 'desert which extends forty days' journey to the north, and on which you meet with no habitation nor baiting place.'

"The position thus indicated was found to correspond exactly to that of Khara-khoto, and the identification was completely borne out by the antiquarian evidence brought to light. It soon showed me that though the town may have suffered considerably, as local tradition asserts, when Chingiz Khan with his Mongol army first invaded and conquered Kansu from this side about 1226 A.D., yet it continued to be inhabited down to Marco Polo's time, and partially at least for more than a century later. This was probably the case even longer with the agricultural settlement for which it had served as a local centre, and of which we traced extensive remains in the desert to the east and north-east. But the town itself must have seen its most flourishing times under Tangut or Hsi-hsia rule from the beginning of the eleventh century down to the Mongol conquest.

"It was from this period, when Tibetan influence from the south seems to have made itself strongly felt throughout Kansu, that most of the Buddhist shrines and memorial Stupas dated, which filled a great portion of the ruined town and were conspicuous also outside it. In one of the latter Colonel Kozloff had made his notable find of Buddhist texts and paintings. But a systematic search of this and other ruins soon showed that the archaeological riches of the site were by no means exhausted. By a careful clearing of the débris which covered the bases of Stupas and the interior of temple cellas we brought to light abundant remains of Buddhist manuscripts and block prints, both in Tibetan and the as yet very imperfectly known old Tangut language, as well as plenty of interesting relievos in stucco or terra-cotta and frescoes. The very extensive refuse heaps of the town yielded up a large number of miscellaneous records on paper in the Chinese, Tangut, and Uigur scripts, together with many remains of fine glazed pottery, and of household utensils. Finds of Hsi-hsia coins, ornaments in stone and metal, etc., were also abundant, particularly on wind-eroded ground.

"There was much to support the belief that the final abandonment of the settlement was brought about by difficulties of irrigation." (A Third Journey of Exploration in Central Asia, 1913-16, Geog. Jour., Aug.-Sept., 1916, pp. 38-39.)

M. Ivanov (Isviestia Petrograd Academy, 1909) thinks that the ruined city of Kara Khoto, a part at the Mongol period of the Yi-tsi-nai circuit, could be its capital, and was at the time of the Si Hia and the beginning of the Mongols, the town of Hei shui. It also confirms my views.

Kozlov found (1908) in a stupa not far from Kara Khoto a large number of Si Hia books, which he carried back to Petrograd, where they were studied by Prof. A. IVANOV, Zur Kenntniss der Hsi-hsia Sprache (Bul. Ac. Sc. Pet., 1909, pp. 1221-1233). See The Si-hia Language, by B. LAUFER (T'oung Pao, March, 1916, pp. 1-126).

XLVI., p. 226. "Originally the Tartars dwelt in the north on the borders of Chorcha."

Prof. Pelliot calls my attention that Ramusio's text, f. 13 v, has: "Essi habitauano nelle parti di Tramontana, cioè in Giorza, e Bargu, doue sono molte pianure grandi …"

XLVI., p. 230.

TATAR.

"Mr. Rockhill is quite correct in his Turkish and Chinese dates for the first use of the word Tatar, but it seems very likely that the much older eponymous word T'atun refers to the same people. The Toba History says that in A.D. 258 the chieftain of that Tartar Tribe (not yet arrived at imperial dignity) at a public durbar read a homily to various chiefs, pointing out to them the mistake made by the Hiung-nu (Early Turks) and 'T'a-tun fellows' (Early Mongols) in raiding his frontiers. If we go back still further, we find the After Han History speaking of the 'Middle T'atun'; and a scholion tells us not to pronounce the final 'n.' If we pursue our inquiry yet further back, we find that T'ah-tun was originally the name of a Sien-pi or Wu-hwan (apparently Mongol) Prince, who tried to secure the shen-yü ship for himself, and that it gradually became (1) a title, (2) and the name of a tribal division (see also the Wei Chi and the Early Han History). Both Sien-pi and Wu-hwan are the names of mountain haunts, and at this very day part of the Russian Liao-tung railway is styled the 'Sien-pi railway' by the native Chinese newspapers." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 141.)

Page 231, note 3. Instead of Yuché, read Juché.

XLVI., p. 232.

KARACATHAYANS.

"There seems to be no doubt that Kerman in South Persia is the city to which the Kara-Cathayan refugee fled from China in 1124; for Major Sykes, in his recent excellent work on Persia, actually mentions [p. 194] the Kuba Sabz, or 'Green Dome,' as having been (until destroyed in 1886 by an earthquake) the most conspicuous building, and as having also been the tomb of the Kara-Khitai Dynasty. The late Dr. Bretschneider (N. China B. R. As. Soc. Journal, Vol. X., p. 101) had imagined the Kara-Cathayan capital to be Kerminé, lying between Samarcand and Bokhara (see Asiatic Quart. Rev. for Dec., 1900, 'The Cathayans'). Colonel Yule does not appear to be quite correct when he states (p. 232) that 'the Gurkhan himself is not described to have extended his conquests into Persia,' for the Chinese history of the Cathayan or Liao Dynasties distinctly states that at Samarcand, where the Cathayan remained for ninety days, the 'King of the Mohammedans' brought tribute to the emigrant, who then went West as far as K'i-r-man, where he was proclaimed Emperor by his officers. This was on the fifth day of the second moon in 1124, in the thirty-eighth year of his age, and he then assumed the title of Koh-r-han" (E.H. Parker, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, pp. 134-5.)

XLVI., p. 236.

KERAITS.

"In his note to Vol. I., p. 236, M. Cordier [read Mr. Rockhill], who seems to have been misled by d'Avezac, confuses the Ch'ih-lêh or T'ieh-lêh (who have been clearly proved to be identical with the Tölös of the Turkish inscriptions) with the much later K'êh-lieh or Keraits of Mongol history; at no period of Chinese history were the Ch'ih-lêh called, as he supposes, K'i-lê and therefore the Ch'ih-lêh of the third century cannot possibly be identified with the K'ê-lieh of the thirteenth. Besides, the 'value' of lêh is 'luck,' whilst the 'value' of lieh is 'leet,' if we use English sounds as equivalents to illustrate Chinese etymology. It is remarkable that the Kin (Nüchen) Dynasty in its Annals leaves no mention whatever of the Kerait tribe, or of any tribe having an approximate name, although the Yüan Shï states that the Princes of that tribe used to hold a Nüchen patent. A solution of this unexplained fact may yet turn up." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan. 1904, p. 139.)

Page 236, note [dagger] Instead of Tura, read Tula. (PELLIOT.)

LI., pp. 245, 248.

DEATH OF CHINGIZ KHAN.

"Gaubil's statement that he was wounded in 1212 by a stray arrow, which compelled him to raise the siege of Ta-t'ung Fu, is exactly borne out by the Yüan Shï, which adds that in the seventh moon (August) of 1227 (shortly after the surrender of the Tangut King) the conqueror died at the travelling-palace of Ha-la T'u on the Sa-li stream at the age of sixty-six (sixty-five by our reckoning). As less than a month before he was present at Ts'ing-shui (lat. 34-1/2°, long. 106-1/2°), and was even on his dying bed, giving instructions how to meet the Nüchên army at T'ung-kwan (lat. 34-1/2°, long. 110-1/4°), we may assume that the place of his death was on the Upper Wei River near the frontiers joining the modern Kan Suh and Shen Si provinces. It is true the Sa-li River (not stream) is thrice mentioned, and also the Sa-lê-chu River, both in Mongolia; on the other hand, the Sa-li Ouigours are frequently mentioned as living in West Kan Suh; so that we may take it the word Sali or Sari was a not uncommon Turkish word. Palladius' identification, of K'i-lien with 'Kerulen' I am afraid cannot be entertained. The former word frequently occurs in the second century B.C., and is stated to be a second Hiung-nu (Turkish) word for 'sky' or 'heaven.' At or about that date the Kerulen was known to the Chinese as the Lu-kü River, and the geographies of the present dynasty clearly identify it as such. The T'ien-Shan are sometimes called the K'i-lien Shan, and the word K'i-lien is otherwise well established along the line of the Great Wall." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, pp. 136-7.)

Prof. Pelliot informs me that in No. 3 (Sept., 1918) of Vol. III of Chinese Social and Political Science Review these is an article on the Discovery of and Investigation concerning the Tomb of Gengis Khan. I have not seen it.

LI., p. 249.

TAILGAN.

"The táilgan, or autumn meeting of the Mongols, is probably the tái-lin, or autumn meeting, of the ancient Hiung-nu described on p. 10, Vol. XX. of the China Review. The Kao-ch'ê (= High Carts, Tölös, or early Ouigours) and the early Cathayans (Sien-pi) had very similar customs. Heikel gives an account of analogous 'Olympic games' witnessed at Urga in the year 1890." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, pp. 140-1.)

LI., p. 251. Read T'ung hwo period (A.D. 992) instead of (A.D. 692).

LII., pp. 252, 254, n. 3. "[The Tartars] live on the milk and meat which their herds supply, and on the produce of the chase; and they eat all kinds of flesh, including that of horses and dogs, and Pharaoh's rats, of which last there are great numbers in burrows on those plains."

Pharaoh's rat was the mangouste or ichneumon (Herpestes ichneumon) formerly found in this part of Asia as well as in Egypt where it was venerated. Cf. Cathay, II., p. 116.

LII., p. 254. Instead of "his tent invariably facing south," read "facing east" according to the Chou Shu. (PELLIOT.)

LII., p. 256 n.

MARRIAGE.

The China Review, Vol. XX. "gives numerous instances of marrying mothers-in-law and sisters-in-law amongst the Hiung nu. The practice was common with all Tartars, as, indeed, is stated by Yule." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 141.)

LII., p. 257 n.

TENGRI (HEAVEN).

"The Mongol word Tengri (= Heaven) appears also in Hiung-nu times; in fact, the word shen yü is stated to have been used by the Hiung-nu alternatively with Tengri kudu (Son of Heaven)." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 141.)

LIV., p. 263 n.

COATS OF MAIL.

Parker's note is erroneous.—See Laufer, Chinese Clay Figures, Part I.

LV., p. 267. "They [the Tartars] have another notable custom, which is this. If any man have a daughter who dies before marriage, and another man have had a son also die before marriage, the parents of the two arrange a grand wedding between the dead lad and lass. And marry them they do, making a regular contract! And when the contract papers are made out they put them in the fire, in order (as they will have it) that the parties in the other world may know the fact, and so look on each other as man and wife. And the parents thenceforward consider themselves sib to each other, just as if their children had lived and married. Whatever may be agreed on between the parties as dowry, those who have to pay it cause to be painted on pieces of paper and then put these in the fire, saying that in that way the dead person will get all the real articles in the other world."

Mr. KUMAGUSU MINAKATA writes on the subject in Nature, Jan. 7, 1897, pp. 224-5:

"As it is not well known whether or not there is a record of this strange custom earlier than the beginning of the dynasty of Yuen, I was in doubt whether it was originally common to the Chinese and Tartars until I lately came across the following passage in Tsoh-mung-luh (Brit. Mus. copy, 15297, a 1, fol. 11-12), which would seem to decide the question—'In the North there is this custom. When a youth and a girl of marriageable ages die before marriage, their families appoint a match-maker to negotiate their nuptials, whom they call "Kwei-mei" (i.e. "Match-Maker of Ghosts"). Either family hands over to another a paper noticing all pre-requisites concerning the affair; and by names of the parents of the intended couple asks a man to pray and divine; and if the presage tells that the union is a lucky one, clothes and ornaments are made for the deceased pair. Now the match-maker goes to the burying-ground of the bridegroom, and, offering wine and fruits, requests the pair to marry. There two seats are prepared on adjoining positions, either of which having behind it a small banner more than a foot long. Before the ceremony is consecrated by libation, the two banners remain hanging perpendicularly and still; but when the libation is sprinkled and the deceased couple are requested to marry, the banners commence to gradually approach till they touch one another, which shows that they are both glad of the wedlock. However, when one of them dislikes another, it would happen that the banner representing the unwilling party does not move to approach the other banner. In case the couple should die too young to understand the matter, a dead man is appointed as a tutor to the male defunct, and some effigies are made to serve as the instructress and maids to the female defunct. The dead tutor thus nominated is informed of his appointment by a paper offered to him, on which are inscribed his name and age. After the consummation of the marriage the new consorts appear in dreams to their respective parents-in-law. Should this custom be discarded, the unhappy defuncts might do mischief to their negligent relatives…. On every occasion of these nuptials both families give some presents to the match-maker ("Kwei-mei"), whose sole business is annually to inspect the newly-deceased couples around his village, and to arrange their weddings to earn his livelihood.'"

Mr. Kumagusu Minakata adds:

"The passage is very interesting, for, besides giving us a faithful account of the particulars, which nowadays we fail to find elsewhere, it bears testimony to the Tartar, and not Chinese, origin of this practice. The author, Kang Yu-chi, describes himself to have visited his old home in Northern China shortly after its subjugation by the Kin Tartars in 1126 A.D.; so there is no doubt that among many institutional novelties then introduced to China by the northern invaders, Marriage of the Dead was so striking that the author did not hesitate to describe it for the first time.

"According to a Persian writer, after whom Pétis de la Croix writes, this custom was adopted by Jenghiz Kân as a means to preserve amity amongst his subjects, it forming the subject of Article XIX. of his Yasa promulgated in 1205 A.D. The same writer adds: 'This custom is still in use amongst the Tartars at this day, but superstition has added more circumstances to it: they throw the contract of marriage into the fire after having drawn some figures on it to represent the persons pretended to be so marry'd, and some forms of beasts; and are persuaded that all this is carried by the smoke to their children, who thereupon marry in the other world' (Pétis de la Croix, Hist. of Genghizcan, trans. by P. Aubin, Lond., 1722, p. 86). As the Chinese author does not speak of the burning of papers in this connection, whereas the Persian writer speaks definitely of its having been added later, it seems that the marriage of the dead had been originally a Tartar custom, with which the well-known Chinese paper-burning was amalgamated subsequently between the reigns of Genghiz and his grandson Kúblai—under the latter Marco witnessed the customs already mingled, still, perhaps, mainly prevailing amongst the Tartar descendants."

LV., p. 266. Regarding the scale of blows from seven to 107, Prof. Pelliot writes to me that these figures represent the theoretical number of tens diminished as a favour made to the culprit by three units in the name of Heaven, Earth and the Emperor.

LV., p. 268, n. 2. In the Yuan Shi, XX. 7, and other Chinese Texts of the Mongol period, is to be found confirmation of the fact, "He is slaughtered like a sheep," i.e. the belly cut open lengthwise. (Pelliot.)

LVI., p. 269. "The people there are called MESCRIPT; they are a very wild race, and live by their cattle, the most of which are stags, and these stags, I assure you, they used to ride upon."

B. Laufer, in the Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association, Vol. IV., No. 2, 1917 (The Reindeer and its Domestication), p. 107, has the following remarks: "Certainly this is the reindeer. Yule is inclined to think that Marco embraces under this tribal name in question characteristics belonging to tribes extending far beyond the Mekrit, and which in fact are appropriate to the Tungus; and continues that Rashid-eddin seems to describe the latter under the name of Uriangkut of the Woods, a people dwelling beyond the frontier of Barguchin, and in connection with whom he speaks of their reindeer obscurely, as well as of their tents of birchbark, and their hunting on snowshoes. As W. Radloff [Die Jakutische Sprache, Mém. Ac. Sc. Pet., 1908, pp. 54-56] has endeavoured to show, the Wooland Uryangkit, in this form mentioned by Rashid-eddin, should be looked upon as the forefathers of the present Yakut. Rashid-eddin, further, speaks of other Uryangkit, who are genuine Mongols, and live close together in the Territory Barguchin Tukum, where the clans Khori, Bargut, and Tumat, are settled. This region is east of Lake Baikal, which receives the river Barguchin flowing out of Lake Bargu in an easterly direction. The tribal name Bargut (-t being the termination of the plural) is surely connected with the name of the said river."

LVII., p. 276.

SINJU.

"Marco Polo's Sinju certainly seems to be the site of Si-ning, but not on the grounds suggested in the various notes. In 1099 the new city of Shen Chou was created by the Sung or 'Manzi' Dynasty on the site of what had been called Ts'ing-t'ang. Owing to this region having for many centuries belonged to independent Hia or Tangut, very little exact information is obtainable from any Chinese history; but I think it almost certain that the great central city of Shen Chou was the modern Si-ning. Moreover, there was a very good reason for the invention of this name, as this Shen was the first syllable of the ancient Shen-shen State of Lob Nor and Koko Nor, which, after its conquest by China in 609, was turned into the Shen-shen prefecture; in fact, the Sui Emperor was himself at Kam Chou or 'Campichu' when this very step was taken." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 144.)

LVIII., p. 282. Alashan is not an abbreviation of Alade-Shan and has nothing to do with the name of Eleuth, written in Mongol Ögälät. Nuntuh (nuntük) is the mediaeval Mongol form of the actual nutuk, an encampment. (PELLIOT.)

LVIII., p. 283, n. 3.

GURUN.

Gurun = Kurun = Chinese K'u lun = Mongol Urga.

LVIII., p. 283, n. 3. The stuff sa-ha-la (= saghlat) is to be found often in the Chinese texts of the XIVth and XVth Centuries. (PELLIOT.)

LIX., pp. 284 seq.

KING GEORGE.

King or Prince George of Marco Polo and Monte Corvino belonged to the Öngüt tribe. He was killed in Mongolia in 1298, leaving an infant child called Shu-ngan (Giòvanni) baptized by Monte Corvino. George was transcribed Körgüz and Görgüz by the Persian historians. See PELLIOT, T'oung Pao, 1914, pp. 632 seq. and Cathay, III., p. 15 n.

LIX., p. 286.

TENDUC.

Prof. Pelliot (Journ. As., Mai-Juin, 1912, pp. 595-6) thinks that it might be Tien tö, [Chinese], on the river So ling (Selenga).

LIX., p. 291.

CHRISTIANS.

In the Mongol Empire, Christians were known under the name of tarsa and especially under this of ärkägün, in Chinese ye-li-k'o-wen; tarsa, was generally used by the Persian historians. Cf. PELLIOT, T'oung Pao, 1914, p. 636.

LIX., p. 295, n. 6. Instead of Ku-wei, read K'u-wai. (PELLIOT.)

LXI., pp. 302, 310.

"The weather-conjuring proclivities of the Tartars are repeatedly mentioned in Chinese history. The High Carts (early Ouigours) and Jou-jan (masters of the Early Turks) were both given this way, the object being sometimes to destroy their enemies. I drew attention to this in the Asiatic Quart. Rev. for April, 1902 ('China and the Avars')." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 140.)

LXI., p. 305, n. Harlez's inscription is a miserable scribble of the facsimile from Dr. Bushell. (PELLIOT.)

LXI., p. 308, n. 5. The Yuan Shi, ch. 77, f° 7 v., says that: "Every year, [the Emperor] resorts to Shang tu. On the 24th day of the 8th moon, the sacrifice called 'libation of mare's milk' is celebrated." (PELLIOT.)

_______________

Notes:

[1] The eight stages would be:—(1) Hasanábad, 21 miles; (2) Darband, 28 miles; (3) Chehel Pái, 23 miles; (4) Naiband, 39 miles; (5) Zenagán, 47 miles; (6) Duhuk, 25 miles; (7) Chah Khusháb, 36 miles; and (8) Tun, 23 miles.

[2] Genom Khorasan och Turkestan, I., pp. 123 seq.
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Re: The Travels of Marco Polo, by Marco Polo and Rustichello

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BOOK SECOND.

PART I.—THE KAAN, HIS COURT AND CAPITAL.


II., p. 334.

NAYAN.

It is worthy of note that Nayan had given up Buddhism and become a Christian as well as many of his subjects. Cf. PELLIOT 1914, pp. 635-6.

VII., pp. 352, 353.

Instead of Sir-i-Sher, read Sar-i-Sher. (PELLIOT.)

P'AI TZU.

"Dr. Bushell's note describes the silver p'ai, or tablets (not then called p'ai tsz) of the Cathayans, which were 200 (not 600) in number. But long before the Cathayans used them, the T'ang Dynasty had done so for exactly the same purpose. They were 5 inches by 1-1/2 inches, and marked with the five words, 'order, running horses, silver p'ai,' and were issued by the department known as the mên-hia-shêng. Thus, they were not a Tartar, but a Chinese, invention. Of course, it is possible that the Chinese must have had the idea suggested to them by the ancient wooden orders or tallies of the Tartars." (E.H. PARKER, As. Quart. Review, Jan., 1904, p. 146.)

Instead of "Publication No. 42" read only No. 42, which is the number of the pai tzu. (PELLIOT.)

VIII., p. 358, n. 2.

Kún kú = hon hu may be a transcription of hwang heu during the Mongol Period, according to Pelliot.

IX. p. 360.

MONGOL IMPERIAL FAMILY.

"Marco Polo is correct in a way when he says Kúblái was the sixth Emperor, for his father Tu li is counted as a Divus (Jwei Tsung), though he never reigned; just as his son Chin kin (Yü Tsung) is also so counted, and under similar conditions. Chin kin was appointed to the chung shu and shu-mih departments in 1263. He was entrusted with extensive powers in 1279, when he is described as 'heir apparent.' In 1284 Yün Nan, Chagan-jang, etc., were placed under his direction. His death is recorded in 1285. Another son, Numugan, was made Prince of the Peking region (Pêh-p'ing) in 1266, and the next year a third son, Hukaji, was sent to take charge of Ta-li, Chagan-jang, Zardandan, etc. In 1272 Kúblái's son, Mangalai, was made Prince of An-si, with part of Shen Si as his appanage. One more son, named Ai-ya-ch'ih, is mentioned in 1284, and in that year yet another, Tu kan, was made Prince of Chên-nan, and sent on an expedition against Ciampa. In 1285 Essen Temur, who had received a chung-shu post in 1283, is spoken of as Prince of Yün Nan, and is stated to be engaged in Kara-jang; in 1286 he is still there, and is styled 'son of the Emperor.' I do not observe in the Annals that Hukaji ever bore the title of Prince of Yün Nan, or, indeed, any princely title. In 1287 Ai-ya-ch'ih is mentioned as being at Shên Chou (Mukden) in connection with Kúblái's 'personally conducted' expedition against Nayen. In 1289 one more son, Géukju, was patented Prince of Ning Yüan. In 1293 Kúblái's third son Chinkin, received a posthumous title, and Chinkin's son Temur was declared heir-apparent to Kúblái.

"The above are the only sons of Kúblái whose names I have noticed in the Annals. In the special table of Princes Numugan is styled Pêh-an (instead of Pêh-p'ing) Prince. Aghrukji's name appears in the table (chap. 108, p. 107), but though he is styled Prince of Si-p'ing, he is not there stated to be a son of Kúblái; nor in the note I have supplied touching Tibet is he styled a hwang-tsz or 'imperial son.' In the table Hukaji is described as being in 1268 Prince of Yün Nan, a title 'inherited in 1280 by Essen Temur.' I cannot discover anything about the other alleged sons in Yule's note (Vol. I., p. 361). The Chinese count Kúblái's years as eighty, he having died just at the beginning of 1294 (our February); this would make him seventy-nine at the very outside, according to our mode of reckoning, or even seventy-eight if he was born towards the end of a year, which indeed he was (eighth moon). If a man is born on the last day of the year he is two years old the very next day according to Chinese methods of counting, which, I suppose, include the ten months which they consider are spent in the womb." (E.H. PARKER, As. Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, pp. 137-139.)

XI., p. 370, n. 13.

The character King in King-shan is not the one representing Court [Chinese] but [Chinese].—Read "Wan-sui-Shan" instead of Wan-su-Shan. XII., p. 380.

Keshikten has nothing to do with Kalchi. (PELLIOT.)

XVIII., p. 398.

THE CHEETA, OR HUNTING LEOPARD.

Cf. Chapters on Hunting Dogs and Cheetas, being an extract from the "Kitab'u' l-Bazyarah," a treatise on Falconry, by Ibn Kustrajim, an Arab writer of the Tenth Century. By Lieut.-Colonel D.C. Phillott and Mr. R.F. Azoo (Journ. and Proc. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, Jan., 1907, pp. 47-50):

"The cheeta is the offspring of a lioness, by a leopard that coerces her, and, for this reason, cheetas are sterile like mules and all other hybrids. No animal of the same size is as weighty as the cheeta. It is the most somnolent animal on earth. The best are those that are 'hollow-bellied,' roach backed, and have deep black spots on a dark tawny ground, the spots on the back being close to each other; that have the eyes bloodshot, small and narrow; the mouth 'deep and laughing'; broad foreheads; thick necks; the black line from the eyes long; and the fangs far apart from each other. The fully mature animal is more useful for sporting purposes than the cub; and the females are better at hunting than are the males, and such is the case with all beasts and birds of prey."

See Hippolyte Boussac, Le Guépard dans l'Egypte ancienne (La Nature, 21st March, 1908, pp. 248-250).

XIX., p. 400 n. Instead of Hoy tiao, read Hey tiao (Hei tiao).

XIX., p. 400. "These two are styled Chinuchi (or Cunichi), which is as much as to say, 'The Keepers of the Mastiff Dogs.'"

Dr. Laufer writes to me: "The word chinuchi is a Mongol term derived from Mongol cinoa (pronounced cino or cono which means 'wolf,' with the possessive suffix -ci, meaning accordingly a 'wolf-owner' or 'wolf-keeper).' One of the Tibetan designations for the mastiff is cang-k'i (written spyang-k'yi), which signifies literally 'wolf-dog.' The Mongol term is probably framed on this Tibetan word. The other explanations given by Yule (401-402) should be discarded."

Prof. Pelliot writes to me: "J'incline à croire que les Cunichi sont à lire Cuiuci et répondent au kouei-tch'e ou kouei-yeou-tch'e, 'censeurs,' des textes chinois; les formes chinoises sont transcrites du mongol et se rattachent au verbe güyü, ou güyi, 'courir'; on peut songer à restituer güyükci. Un Ming-ngan (= Minghan), chef des kouei-tch'e, vivait sous Kúblái et a sa biographie au ch. 135 du Yuan Che; d'autre part, peut-être faut-il lire, par déplacement de deux points diacritiques, Bayan güyükci dans Rashid ed-Din, ed. BLOCHET, II., 501."

XX., p. 408, n. 6. Cachar Modun must be the place called Ha-ch'a-mu-touen in the Yuan Shi, ch. 100, f°. 2 r. (PELLIOT.)

XXIV., pp. 423, 430. "Bark of Trees, made into something like Paper, to pass for Money over all his Country."

Regarding Bretschneider's statement, p. 430, Dr. B. Laufer writes to me: "This is a singular error of Bretschneider. Marco Polo is perfectly correct: not only did the Chinese actually manufacture paper from the bark of the mulberry tree (Morus alba), but also it was this paper which was preferred for the making of paper-money. Bretschneider is certainly right in saying that paper is made from the Broussonetia, but he is assuredly wrong in the assertion that paper is not made in China from mulberry trees. This fact he could have easily ascertained from S. Julien,[1] who alludes to mulberry tree paper twice, first, as 'papier de racines et d'écorce de mûrier,' and, second, in speaking of the bark paper from Broussonetia: 'On emploie aussi pour le même usage l'écorce d'Hibiscus Rosa sinensis et de mûrier; ce dernier papier sert encore à recueillir les graines de vers à soie,' What is understood by the latter process may be seen from Plate I. in Julien's earlier work on sericulture,[2] where the paper from the bark of the mulberry tree is likewise mentioned.

"The Chi p'u, a treatise on paper, written by Su I-kien toward the close of the tenth century, enumerates among the various sorts of paper manufactured during his lifetime paper from the bark of the mulberry tree (sang p'i) made by the people of the north.[3]

"Chinese paper-money of mulberry bark was known in the Islamic World in the beginning of the fourteenth century; that is, during the Mongol period. Accordingly it must have been manufactured in China during the Yuan Dynasty. Ahmed Shibab Eddin, who died in Cairo in 1338 at the age of 93, and left an important geographical work in thirty volumes, containing interesting information on China gathered from the lips of eye-witnesses, makes the following comment on paper-money, in the translation of Ch. Schefer:[4]

"'On emploie dans le Khita, en guise de monnaie, des morceaux d'un papier de forme allongée fabriqué avec des filaments de mûriers sur lesquels est imprimé le nom de l'empereur. Lorsqu'un de ces papiers est usé, on le porte aux officiers du prince et, moyennant une perte minime, on reçoit un autre billet en échange, ainsi que cela a lieu dans nos hotels des monnaies, pour les matières d'or et d'argent que l'on y porte pour être converties en pièces monnayées.'

"And in another passage: 'La monnaie des Chinois est faite de billets fabriqués avec l'écorce du mûrier. Il y en a de grands et de petits…. Ou les fabrique avec des filaments tendres du mûrier et, après y avoir opposé un sceau au nom de l'empereur, on les met en circulation.'[5]

"The banknotes of the Ming Dynasty were likewise made of mulberry pulp, in rectangular sheets one foot long and six inches wide, the material being of a greenish colour, as stated in the Annals of the Dynasty.[6] It is clear that the Ming Emperors, like many other institutions, adopted this practice from their predecessors, the Mongols. Klaproth[7] is wrong in saying that the assignats of the Sung, Kin, and Mongols were all made from the bark of the tree cu (Broussonetia), and those of the Ming from all sorts of plants.

"In the Hui kiang chi, an interesting description of Turkistan by two Manchu officials, Surde and Fusambô, published in 1772,[8] the following note headed 'Mohamedan Paper' occurs:

"'There are two sorts of Turkistan paper, black and white, made from mulberry bark, cotton and silk refuse equally mixed, resulting in a coarse, thick, strong, and tough material. It is cut into small rolls fully a foot long, which are burnished by means of stones, and then are fit for writing.'

"Sir Aurel Stein[9] reports that paper is still manufactured from mulberry trees in Khotan. Also J. Wiesner,[10] the meritorious investigator of ancient papers, has included the fibres of Morus alba and M. nigra among the material to which his researches extended.

"Mulberry-bark paper is ascribed to Bengal in the Si yang ch'ao kung tien lu by Wu Kiën-hwang, published in 1520.[11]

"As the mulberry tree is eagerly cultivated in Persia in connection with the silk industry, it is possible also that the Persian paper in the banknotes of the Mongols was a product of the mulberry.[12] At any rate, good Marco Polo is cleared, and his veracity and exactness have been established again."

XXIV., p. 427.

VALUE OF GOLD.

"L'or valait quatre fois son poids d'argent au commencement de la dynastie Ming (1375), sept ou huit fois sous l'empereur Wan-li de la même dynastie (1574), et dix fois à la fin de la dynastie (1635); plus de dix fois sous K'ang hi (1662); plus de vingt fois sous le règne de K'ien long; dix-huit fois au milieu du règne de Tao-koang (1840), quatorze fois au commencement du règne de Hien-fong (1850); dix-huit fois en moyenne dans les années 1882-1883. En 1893, la valeur de l'or augmenta considérablement et égala 28 fois celle de l'argent; en 1894, 32 fois; au commencement de 1895, 33 fois; mais il baissa un peu et à la fin de l'année il valait seulement 30 fois plus." (Pierre HOANG, La Propriété en Chine, 1897, p. 43.)

XXVI., p. 432.

CH'ING SIANG.

Morrison, Dict., Pt. II, Vol. I., p. 70, says: "Chin-seang, a Minister of State, was so called under the Ming Dynasty." According to Mr. E.H. Parker (China Review, XXIV., p. 101), Ching Siang were abolished in 1395.

In the quotation from the Masálak al Absár instead of Landjun (Lang Chang), read Landjun (Lang Chung).

XXXIII., pp. 447-8. "You must know, too, that the Tartars reckon their years by twelves; the sign of the first year being the Lion, of the second the Ox, of the third the Dragon, of the fourth the Dog, and so forth up to the twelfth; so that when one is asked the year of his birth he answers that it was in the year of the Lion (let us say), on such a day or night, at such an hour, and such a moment. And the father of a child always takes care to write these particulars down in a book. When the twelve yearly symbols have been gone through, then they come back to the first, and go through with them again in the same succession."

"Ce témoignage, writes Chavannes (T'oung Pao, 1906, p. 59), n'est pas d'une exactitude rigoureuse, puisque les animaux n'y sont pas nommés à leur rang; en outre, le lion y est substitué au tigre de l'énumération chinoise; mais cette dernière difference provient sans doute de ce que Marco Polo connaissait le cycle avec les noms mongols des animaux; c'est le léopard dout il a fait le lion. Quoiqu'il en soit, l'observation de Marco Polo est juste dans son ensemble et d'innombrables exemples prouvent que le cycle des douze animaux était habituel dans les pièces officielles émanant des chancelleries impériales à l'époque mongole."

XXXIII., p. 448.

PERSIAN.

With regard to the knowledge of Persian, the only oriental language probably known by Marco Polo, Pelliot remarks (Journ. Asiat., Mai-Juin, 1912, p. 592 n.): "C'est l'idée de Yule (cf. exemple I., 448), et je la crois tout à fait juste. On peut la fortifier d'autres indices. On sait par exemple que Marco Polo substitue le lion au tigre dans le cycle des douze animaux. M. Chavannes (T'oung pao, II., VII., 59) suppose que 'cette dernière différence provient sans doute de ce que Marco Polo connaissait le cycle avec les noms mongols des animaux: c'est le léopard dont il a fait le lion.' Mais on ne voit pas pourquoi il aurait rendu par 'lion' le turco-mongol bars, qui signifie seulement 'tigre.' Admettons au contraire qu'il pense en persan: dans toute l'Asie centrale, le persan [Arabic] sir a les deux sens de lion et de tigre. De même, quand Marco Polo appelle la Chine du sud Manzi, il est d'accord avec les Persans, par exemple avec Rachid ed-din, pour employer l'expression usuelle dans la langue chinoise de l'époque, c'est-à-dire Man-tseu; mais, au lieu de Manzi, les Mongols avaient adopté un autres nom, Nangias, dont il n'y a pas trace dans Marco Polo. On pourrait multiplier ces exemples."

XXXIII., p. 456, n. Instead of Hui Heng, read Hiu Heng.

_______________

Notes:

[1] Industries anciennes et modernes de l'Empire chinois. Paris, 1869, pp. 145, 149.

[2] Résumé des principaux Traités chinois sur la culture des mûriers et l'éducation des vers à soie, Paris, 1837, p. 98. According to the notions of the Chinese, Julien remarks, everything made from hemp like cord and weavings is banished from the establishments where silkworms are reared, and our European paper would be very harmful to the latter. There seems to be a sympathetic relation between the silkworm feeding on the leaves of the mulberry and the mulberry paper on which the cocoons of the females are placed.

[3] Ko chi king yuan, Ch. 37, p. 6.

[4] Relations des Musulmans avec les Chinois (Centenaire de l'Ecole des Langues Orientales vivante, Paris, 1895, p. 17).

[5] Ibid., p. 20.

[6] Ming Shi, Ch. 81, p. 1.—The same text is found on a bill issued in 1375 reproduced and translated by W. Vissering (On Chinese Currency, see plate at end of volume), the minister of finance being expressly ordered to use the fibres of the mulberry tree in the composition of these bills.

[7] Mémoires relatifs à l'Asie, Vol. I., p. 387.

[8] A. WYLIE, Notes on Chinese Literature, p. 64. The copy used by me (in the John Crerar Library of Chicago) is an old manuscript clearly written in 4 vols. and chapters, illustrated by nine ink-sketches of types of Mohammedans and a map. The volumes are not paged.

[9] Ancient Khotan, Vol. I., p. 134.

[10] Mikroskopische Untersuchung alter ostturkestanischer Papiere, p. 9 (Vienna, 1902). I cannot pass over in silence a curious error of this scholar when he says (p. 8) that it is not proved that Cannabis sativa (called by him "genuine hemp") is cultivated in China, and that the so-called Chinese hemp-paper should be intended for China grass. Every tyro in things Chinese knows that hemp (Cannabis sativa) belongs to the oldest cultivated plants of the Chinese, and that hemp-paper is already listed among the papers invented by Ts'ai Lun in A.D. 105 (cf. CHAVANNES, Les livres chinois avant l'invention du papier, Journal Asiatique, 1905, p. 6 of the reprint).

[11] Ch. B., p. 10b (ed. of Pie hia chai ts'ung shu).

[12] The Persian word for the mulberry, tud, is supposed to be a loan-word from Aramaic. (HORN, Grundriss iran. Phil., Vol. I., pt. 2, p. 6.)
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