The Travels of Marco Polo, by Marco Polo and Rustichello of

That's French for "the ancient system," as in the ancient system of feudal privileges and the exercise of autocratic power over the peasants. The ancien regime never goes away, like vampires and dinosaur bones they are always hidden in the earth, exercising a mysterious influence. It is not paranoia to believe that the elites scheme against the common man. Inform yourself about their schemes here.

Re: The Travels of Marco Polo, by Marco Polo and Rustichello

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XXXVII, p. 13. "There grow here [Taianfu] many excellent vines, supplying great plenty of wine; and in all Cathay this is the only place where wine is produced. It is carried hence all over the country."

Dr. B. Laufer makes the following remarks to me: "Polo is quite right in ascribing vines and wine to T'ai Yüan-fu in Shan Si, and is in this respect upheld by contemporary Chinese sources. The Yin shan cheng yao written in 1330 by Ho Se-hui, contains this account[1]: 'There are numerous brands of wine: that coming from Qara-Khodja[2] (Ha-la-hwo) is very strong, that coming from Tibet ranks next. Also the wines from P'ing Yang and T'aï Yüan (in Shan Si) take the second rank. According to some statements, grapes, when stored for a long time, will develop into wine through a natural process. This wine is fragrant, sweet, and exceedingly strong: this is the genuine grape-wine.' Ts'ao mu tse, written in 1378 par Ye Tse-k'i,[3] contains the following information: 'Under the Yüan Dynasty grape-wine was manufactured in Ki-ning and other circuits of Shan Si Province. In the eighth month they went to the T'ai hang Mountain,[4] in order to test the genuine and adulterated brands: the genuine kind when water is poured on it, will float; the adulterated sort, when thus treated, will freeze.[5] In wine which has long been stored, there is a certain portion which even in extreme cold will never freeze, while all the remainder is frozen: this is the spirit and fluid secretion of wine.[6] If this is drunk, the essence will penetrate into a man's armpits, and he will die. Wine kept for two or three years develops great poison." For a detailed history of grape-wine in China, see Laufer's Sino-Iranica.

XXXVII., p. 16.


Chavannes (Chancellerie chinoise de l'époque mongole, II., pp. 66-68, 1908) has a long note on vine and grape wine-making in China, from Chinese sources. We know that vine, according to Sze-ma Ts'ien, was imported from Farghânah about 100 B.C. The Chinese, from texts in the T'ai p'ing yu lan and the Yuan Kien lei han, learned the art of wine-making after they had defeated the King of Kao ch'ang (Turfan) in 640 A.D.

XLI., p. 27 seq.


The slab King kiao pei, bearing the inscription, was found, according to Father Havret, 2nd Pt., p. 71, in the sub-prefecture of Chau Chi, a dependency of Si-ngan fu, among ancient ruins. Prof. Pelliot says that the slab was not found at Chau Chi, but in the western suburb of Si-ngan, at the very spot where it was to be seen some years ago, before it was transferred to the Pei lin, in fact at the place where it was erected in the seventh century inside the monastery built by Olopun. (Chrétiens de l'Asie centrale, T'oung pao, 1914, p. 625.)

In 1907, a Danish gentleman, Mr. Frits V. Holm, took a photograph of the tablet as it stood outside the west gate of Si-ngan, south of the road to Kan Su; it was one of five slabs on the same spot; it was removed without the stone pedestal (a tortoise) into the city on the 2nd October 1907, and it is now kept in the museum known as the Pei lin (Forest of Tablets). Holm says it is ten feet high, the weight being two tons; he tried to purchase the original, and failing this he had an exact replica made by Chinese workmen; this replica was deposited in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in the City of New York, as a loan, on the 16th of June, 1908. Since, this replica was purchased by Mrs. George Leary, of 1053, Fifth Avenue, New York, and presented by this lady, through Frits Holm, to the Vatican. See the November number (1916) of the Boll, della R. Soc. Geog. Italiana. "The Original Nestorian Tablet of A.D. 781, as well as my replica, made in 1907," Holm writes, "are both carved from the stone quarries of Fu Ping Hien; the material is a black, sub-granular limestone with small oolithes scattered through it" (Frits V. Holm, The Nestorian Monument, Chicago, 1900). In this pamphlet there is a photograph of the tablet as it stands in the Pei lin.

Prof. Ed. Chavannes, who also visited Si-ngan in 1907, saw the Nestorian Monument; in the album of his Mission archéologique dans la Chine Séptentrionale, Paris, 1909, he has given (Plate 445) photographs of the five tablets, the tablet itself, the western gate of the western suburb of Si-ngan, and the entrance of the temple Kin Sheng Sze. Cf. Notes, pp. 105-113 of Vol. I, of the second edition of Cathay and the Way thither. II., p. 27.


Cf. Kumudana, given by the Sanskrit-Chinese vocabulary found in Japan (Max MÜLLER, Buddhist Texts from Japan, in Anecdota Oxoniensia, Aryan Series, t. I., part I., p. 9), and the Khumdan and Khumadan of Theophylactus. (See TOMASCHEK, in Wiener Z.M., t. III., p. 105; Marquart, Eransahr, pp. 316-7; Osteuropäische und Ostasiatische Streifzüge, pp. 89-90.) (PELLIOT.)

XLI., p. 29 n. The vocabulary Hwei Hwei (Mahomedan) of the College of Interpreters at Peking transcribes King chao from the Persian Kin-chang, a name it gives to the Shen-si province. King chao was called Ngan-si fu in 1277. (DEVÉRIA, Epigraphie, p. 9.) Ken jan comes from Kin-chang = King-chao = Si-ngan fu.

Prof. Pelliot writes, Bul. Ecole franç. Ext. Orient, IV., July-Sept., 1904, p. 29: "Cette note de M. Cordier n'est pas exacte. Sous les Song, puis sous les Mongols jusqu'en 1277, Si-ngan fou fut appelé King-tchao fou. Le vocabulaire houei-houei ne transcrit pas 'King-tchao du persan kin-tchang,' mais, comme les Persans appelaient alors Si-ngan fou Kindjanfou (le Kenjanfu de Marco Polo), cette forme persane est à son tour transcrite phonétiquement en chinois Kin-tchang fou, sans que les caractères choisis jouent là aucun rôle sémantique; Kin-tchang fou n'existe pas dans la géographie chinoise. Quant à l'origine de la forme persane, il est possible, mais non par sûr, que ce soit King-tchao fou. La forme 'Quen-zan-fou,' qu'un écolier chinois du Chen Si fournit à M. von Richthofen comme le nom de Si-ngan fou au temps des Yuan, doit avoir été fautivement recueillie. Il me parait impossible qu'un Chinois d'une province quelconque prononce zan le caractère [Chinese] tchao."

XLI., p. 29 n. A clause in the edict also orders the foreign bonzes of Ta T'sin and Mubupa (Christian and Mobed or Magian) to return to secular life.

Mubupa has no doubt been derived by the etymology mobed, but it is faulty; it should be Muhupa. (PELLIOT, Bul. Ecole franç. Ext. Orient, IV., July-Sept., 1904, p. 771.) Pelliot writes to me that there is now no doubt that it is derived from mu-lu hien and that it must be understood as the "[religion of] the Celestial God of the Magi."

XLIII., p. 32.

"The chien-tao, or 'pillar road,' mentioned, should be chan-tao, or 'scaffolding road.' The picture facing p. 50 shows how the shoring up or scaffolding is effected. The word chan is still in common use all over the Empire, and in 1267 Kúblái ordered this identical road ('Sz Ch'wan chan-tao') to be repaired. There are many such roads in Sz Ch'wan besides the original one from Han-chung-Fu." (E.H. PARKER, As. Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 144.)

XLIV., p. 36. SINDAFU (Ch'êng tu fu).—Through the midst of this great city runs a large river…. It is a good half-mile wide….

"It is probable that in the thirteenth century, when Marco Polo was on his travels, the 'great river a good half-mile wide,' flowing past Chengtu, was the principal stream; but in the present day that channel is insignificant in comparison to the one which passes by Ta Hsien, Yung-Chia Chong, and Hsin-Chin Hsien. Of course, these channels are stopped up or opened as occasion requires. As a general rule, they follow such contour lines as will allow gravitation to conduct the water to levels as high as is possible, and when it is desired to raise it higher than it will naturally flow, chain-pumps and enormous undershot water-wheels of bamboo are freely employed. Water-power is used for driving mills through the medium of wheels, undershot or overshot, or turbines, as the local circumstances may demand." (R. Logan JACK, Back Blocks, p. 55.)

XLIV., p. 36.


"The story of the 'three Kings' of Sindafu is probably in this wise: For nearly a century the Wu family (Wu Kiai, Wu Lin, and Wu Hi) had ruled as semi-independent Sung or 'Manzi' Viceroys of Sz Ch'wan, but in 1206 the last-named, who had fought bravely for the Sung (Manzi) Dynasty against the northern Dynasty of the Nüchên Tartars (successors to Cathay), surrendered to this same Kin or Golden Dynasty of Nüchêns or Early Manchus, and was made King of Shuh (Sz Ch'wan). In 1236, Ogdai's son, K'wei-t'eng, effected the partial conquest of Shuh, entering the capital, Ch'êng-tu Fu (Sindafu), towards the close of the same year. But in 1259 Mangu in person had to go over part of the same ground again. He proceeded up the rapids, and in the seventh moon attacked Ch'ung K'ing, but about a fortnight later he died at a place called Tiao-yü Shan, apparently near the Tiao-yü Ch'êng of my map (p. 175 of Up the Yangtsze, 1881), where I was myself in the year 1881. Colonel Yule's suggestion that Marco's allusion is to the tripartite Empire of China 1000 years previously is surely wide of the mark. The 'three brothers' were probably Kiai, Lin, and T'ing, and Wu Hi was the son of Wu T'ing. An account of Wu Kiai is given in Mayers' Chinese Reader's Manual." (E.H. PARKER, As. Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, pp. 144-5.)

Cf. MAYERS, No. 865, p. 259, and GILES, Biog. Dict., No. 2324, p. 880.

XLIV., p. 38.


Tch'eng Tu was the capital of the Kingdom of Shu. The first Shu Dynasty was the Minor Han Dynasty which lasted from A.D. 221 to A.D. 263; this Shu Dynasty was one of the Three Kingdoms (San Kwo chi); the two others being Wei (A.D. 220-264) reigning at Lo Yang, and Wu (A.D. 222-277) reigning at Kien Kang (Nan King). The second was the Ts'ien Shu Dynasty, founded in 907 by Wang Kien, governor of Sze Chw'an since 891; it lasted till 925, when it submitted to the Hau T'ang; in 933 the Hau T'ang were compelled to grant the title of King of Shu (Hau Shu) to Mong Chi-siang, governor of Sze Chw'an, who was succeeded by Mong Ch'ang, dethroned in 965; the capital was also Ch'eng Tu under these two dynasties.


XLV., p. 44. No man of that country would on any consideration take to wife a girl who was a maid; for they say a wife is nothing worth unless she has been used to consort with men. And their custom is this, that when travellers come that way, the old women of the place get ready, and take their unmarried daughters or other girls related to them, and go to the strangers who are passing, and make over the young women to whomsoever will accept them; and the travellers take them accordingly and do their pleasure; after which the girls are restored to the old women who brought them….

Speaking of the Sifan village of Po Lo and the account given by Marco Polo of the customs of these people, M.R. Logan JACK (Back Blocks, 1904, pp. 145-6) writes: "I freely admit that the good looks and modest bearing of the girls were the chief merits of the performance in my eyes. Had the danseuses been scrubbed and well dressed, they would have been a presentable body of débutantes in any European ballroom. One of our party, frivolously disposed, asked a girl (through an interpreter) if she would marry him and go to his country. The reply, 'I do not know you, sir,' was all that propriety could have demanded in the best society, and worthy of a pupil 'finished' at Miss Pinkerton's celebrated establishment…. Judging from our experience, no idea of hospitalities of the kind [Marco's experience] was in the people's minds."

XLV., p. 45. Speaking of the people of Tibet, Polo says: "They are very poorly clad, for their clothes are only of the skins of beasts, and of canvas, and of buckram."

Add to the note, I., p. 48, n. 5:—

"Au XIV'e siècle, le bougran [buckram] était une espèce de tissu de lin: le meilleur se fabriquait en Arménie et dans le royaume de Mélibar, s'il faut s'en rapporter à Marco Polo, qui nous apprend que les habitants du Thibet, qu'il signale comme pauvrement vêtus, l'étaient de canevas et de bougran, et que cette dernière étoffe se fabriquait aussi dans la province d'Abasce. Il en venait également de l'île de Chypre. Sorti des manufactures d'Espagne ou importé dans le royaume, à partir de 1442, date d'une ordonnance royale publiée par le P. Saez, le bougran le plus fin payait soixante-dix maravédis de droits, sans distinction de couleur" (FRANCISQUE-MICHEL, Recherches sur le commerce, la fabrication et l'usage des étoffes de soie, d'or et d'argent…. II., 1854, pp. 33-4). Passage mentioned by Dr. Laufer.

XLV., pp. 46 n., 49 seq.

Referring to Dr. E. Bretschneider, Prof. E.H. Parker gives the following notes in the Asiatic Quart. Review, Jan., 1904, p. 131: "In 1251 Ho-êrh-t'ai was appointed to the command of the Mongol and Chinese forces advancing on Tibet (T'u-fan). [In my copy of the Yüan Shi there is no entry under the year 1254 such as that mentioned by Bretschneider; it may, however, have been taken by Palladius from some other chapter.] In 1268 Mang-ku-tai was ordered to invade the Si-fan (outer Tibet) and Kien-tu [Marco's Caindu] with 6000 men. Bretschneider, however, omits Kien-tu, and also omits to state that in 1264 eighteen Si-fan clans were placed under the superintendence of the an-fu-sz (governor) of An-si Chou, and that in 1265 a reward was given to the troops of the decachiliarch Hwang-li-t'a-rh for their services against the T'u fan, with another reward to the troops under Prince Ye-suh-pu-hwa for their successes against the Si-fan. Also that in 1267 the Si-fan chieftains were encouraged to submit to Mongol power, in consequence of which A-nu-pan-ti-ko was made Governor-General of Ho-wu and other regions near it. Bretschneider's next item after the doubtful one of 1274 is in 1275, as given by Cordier, but he omits to state that in 1272 Mang-ku-tai's eighteen clans and other T'u-fan troops were ordered in hot haste to attack Sin-an Chou, belonging to the Kien-tu prefecture; and that a post-station called Ning-ho Yih was established on the T'u-fan and Si-Ch'wan [= Sz Ch'wan] frontier. In 1275 a number of Princes, including Chi-pi T'ie-mu-r, and Mang-u-la, Prince of An-si, were sent to join the Prince of Si-p'ing [Kúblái's son] Ao-lu-ch'ih in his expedition against the Tu-fau. In 1276 all Si-fan bonzes (lamas) were forbidden to carry arms, and the Tu-fan city of Hata was turned into Ning-yüan Fu [as it now exists]; garrisons and civil authorities were placed in Kien-tu and Lo-lo-sz [the Lolo country]. In 1277 a Customs station was established at Tiao-mên and Li-Chou [Ts'ing-k'i Hien in Ya-chou Fu] for the purposes of Tu-fan trade. In 1280 more Mongol troops were sent to the Li Chou region, and a special officer was appointed for T'u-fan [Tibetan] affairs at the capital. In 1283 a high official was ordered to print the official documents connected with the süan-wei-sz [governorship] of T'u-fan. In 1288 six provinces, including those of Sz Chw'an and An-si, were ordered to contribute financial assistance to the süan-wei-shï [governor] of U-sz-tsang [the indigenous name of Tibet proper]. Every year or two after this, right up to 1352, there are entries in the Mongol Annals amply proving that the conquest of Tibet under the Mongols was not only complete, but fully narrated; however, there is no particular object in carrying the subject here beyond the date of Marco's departure from China. There are many mentions of Kien-tu (which name dates from the Sung Dynasty) in the Yüan-shï; it is the Kien-ch'ang Valley of to-day, with capital at Ning-yüan, as clearly marked on Bretschneider's Map. Baber's suggestion of the Chan-tui tribe of Tibetans is quite obsolete, although Baber was one of the first to explore the region in person. A petty tribe like the Chan-tui could never have given name to Caindu; besides, both initials and finals are impossible, and the Chan-tui have never lived there. I have myself met Si-fan chiefs at Peking; they may be described roughly as Tibetans not under the Tibetan Government. The T'u-fan, T'u-po, or Tubot, were the Tibetans under Tibetan rule, and they are now usually styled 'Si-tsang' by the Chinese. Yaci [Ya-ch'ih, Ya-ch'ï] is frequently mentioned in the Yüan-shï, and the whole of Devéria's quotation given by Cordier on p. 72 appears there [chap. 121, p. 5], besides a great deal more to the point, without any necessity for consulting the Lei pien. Cowries, under the name of pa-tsz, are mentioned in both Mongol and Ming history as being in use for money in Siam and Yung-ch'ang [Vociam]. The porcelain coins which, as M. Cordier quotes from me on p. 74, I myself saw current in the Shan States or Siam about ten years ago, were of white China, with a blue figure, and about the size of a Keating's cough lozenge, but thicker. As neither form of the character pa appears in any dictionary, it is probably a foreign word only locally understood. Regarding the origin of the name Yung-ch'ang, the discussions upon p. 105 are no longer necessary; in the eleventh moon of 1272 [say about January 1, 1273] Kúblái 'presented the name Yung-ch'ang to the new city built by Prince Chi-pi T'ie-mu-r.'"

XLVI., p. 49. They have also in this country [Tibet] plenty of fine woollens and other stuffs, and many kinds of spices are produced there which are never seen in our country.

Dr. Laufer draws my attention to the fact that this translation does not give exactly the sense of the French text, which runs thus:

"Et encore voz di qe en ceste provence a gianbelot [camelot] assez et autres dras d'or et de soie, et hi naist maintes especes qe unques ne furent veue en nostre païs." (Ed. Soc. de Géog., Chap, cxvi., p. 128.)

In the Latin text (Ibid., p. 398), we have:

"In ista provincia sunt giambelloti satis et alii panni de sirico et auro; et ibi nascuntur multae species quae nunquam fuerunt visae in nostris contractis."

Francisque-Michel (Recherches, II., p. 44) says: "Les Tartares fabriquaient aussi à Aias de très-beaux camelots de poil de chameau, que l'on expédiait pour divers pays, et Marco Polo nous apprend que cette denrée était fort abondante dans le Thibet. Au XV'e siècle, il en venait de l'île de Chypre."

XLVII., pp. 50, 52,


Dr. Laufer writes to me: "Yule correctly identifies the 'wild oxen' of Tibet with the gayal (Bos gavaeus), but I do not believe that his explanation of the word beyamini (from an artificially constructed buemini = Bohemian) can be upheld. Polo states expressly that these wild oxen are called beyamini (scil. by the natives), and evidently alludes to a native Tibetan term. The gayal is styled in Tibetan ba-men (or ba-man), derived from ba ('cow'), a diminutive form of which is beu. Marco Polo appears to have heard some dialectic form of this word like beu-men or beu-min."

XLVIII., p. 70.


Kiung tu or Kiang tu is Caindu in Sze-Ch'wan; Kien tu is in Yun Nan. Cf. PELLIOT, Bul. Ecole franç. Ext. Orient, July-Sept, 1904, p. 771. Caindu or Ning Yuan was, under the Mongols, a dependency of Yun Nan, not of Sze Ch'wan. (PELLIOT.)

XLVIII., p. 72. The name Karájáng. "The first element was the Mongol or Turki Kárá…. Among the inhabitants of this country some are black, and others are white; these latter are called by the Mongols Chaghán-Jáng ('White Jang'). Jang has not been explained; but probably it may have been a Tibetan term adopted by the Mongols, and the colours may have applied to their clothing."

Dr. Berthold Laufer, of Chicago, has a note on the subject in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Soc., Oct., 1915, pp. 781-4: "M. Pelliot (Bul. Ecole franç. Ext. Orient., IV., 1904, p. 159) proposed to regard the unexplained name Jang as the Mongol transcription of Ts'uan, the ancient Chinese designation of the Lo-lo, taken from the family name of one of the chiefs of the latter; he gave his opinion, however, merely as an hypothesis which should await confirmation. I now believe that Yule was correct in his conception, and that, in accordance with his suggestion, Jang indeed represents the phonetically exact transcription of a Tibetan proper name. This is the Tibetan a Jan or a Jans (the prefixed letter a and the optional affix -s being silent, hence pronounced Jang or Djang), of which the following precise definition is given in the Dictionnaire tibétain-latin français par les Missionnaires Catholiques du Tibet (p. 351): 'Tribus et regionis nomen in N.W. provinciae Sinarum Yun-nan, cuius urbs principalis est Sa-t'am seu Ly-kiang fou. Tribus vocatur Mosso a Sinensibus et Nashi ab ipsismet incolis.' In fact, as here stated, Ja'n or Jang is the Tibetan designation of the Moso and the territory inhabited by them, the capital of which is Li-kiang-fu. This name is found also in Tibetan literature…."

XLVIII., p. 74, n. 2. One thousand Uighúr families (nou) had been transferred to Karajáng in 1285. (Yuan Shi, ch. 13, 8_v_°, quoted by PELLIOT.)

L., pp. 85-6. Zardandan. "The country is wild and hard of access, full of great woods and mountains which 'tis impossible to pass, the air in summer is so impure and bad; and any foreigners attempting it would die for certain."

"An even more formidable danger was the resolution of our 'permanent' (as distinguished from 'local') soldiers and mafus, of which we were now apprised, to desert us in a body, as they declined to face the malaria of the Lu-Kiang Ba, or Salwen Valley. We had, of course, read in Gill's book of this difficulty, but as we approached the Salwen we had concluded that the scare had been forgotten. We found, to our chagrin, that the dreaded 'Fever Valley' had lost none of its terrors. The valley had a bad name in Marco Polo's day, in the thirteenth century, and its reputation has clung to it ever since, with all the tenacity of Chinese traditions. The Chinaman of the district crosses the valley daily without fear, but the Chinaman from a distance knows that he will either die or his wife will prove unfaithful. If he is compelled to go, the usual course is to write to his wife and tell her that she is free to look out for another husband. Having made up his mind that he will die, I have no doubt that he often dies through sheer funk." (R. Logan JACK, Back Blocks of China, 1904, p. 205.)

L., pp. 84, 89.


We read in Huber's paper already mentioned (Bul. Ecole Ext. Orient, Oct.-Dec., 1909, p. 665): "The second month of the twelfth year (1275), Ho T'ien-tsio, governor of the Kien Ning District, sent the following information: 'A-kouo of the Zerdandan tribe, knows three roads to enter Burma, one by T'ien pu ma, another by the P'iao tien, and the third by the very country of A-kouo; the three roads meet at the 'City of the Head of the River' [Kaung si] in Burma." A-kouo, named elsewhere A-ho, lived at Kan-ngai. According to Huber, the Zardandan road is the actual caravan road to Bhamo on the left of the Nam Ti and Ta Ping; the second route would be by the Tien ma pass and Nam hkam, the P'iao tien route is the road on the right bank of the Nam Ti and the Ta Ping leading to Bhamo viâ San Ta and Man Waing.

The Po Yi and Ho Ni tribes are mentioned in the Yuan Shi, s.a. 1278. (PELLIOT.)

L., p. 90.

Mr. H.A. OTTEWILL tells me in a private note that the Kachins or Singphos did not begin to reach Burma in their emigration from Tibet until last century or possibly this century. They are not to be found east of the Salwen River.

L., p. 91.


There is a paper on the subject in the Zeitschrift für Ethnologie (1911, pp. 546-63) by Hugo Kunicke, Das sogennante, "Mannerkindbett," with a bibliography not mentioning Yule's Marco Polo, Vinson, etc. We may also mention: De la "Covada" en Espana. Por el Prof. Dr. Telesforo de Aranzadi, Barcelona (Anthropos, T.V., fasc. 4, Juli-August, 1910, pp. 775-8).

L., p. 92 n.

I quoted Prof. E.H. Parker (China Review, XIV., p. 359), who wrote that the "Langszi are evidently the Szi lang, one of the six Chao, but turned upside down." Prof. Pelliot (Bul. Ecole franç. Ext. Orient, IV., July-Sept., 1904, p. 771) remarks: "Mr. Parker is entirely wrong. The Chao of Shi-lang, which was annexed by Nan Chao during the eighth century, was in the western part of Yun Nan, not in Kwei chau; we have but little information on the subject." He adds: "The custom of Couvade is confirmed for the Lao of Southern China by the following text of the Yi wu chi of Fang Ts'ien-li, dating at least from the time of the T'ang dynasty: 'When a Lao woman of Southern China has a child, she goes out at once. The husband goes to bed exhausted, like a woman giving suck. If he does not take care, he becomes ill. The woman has no harm.'"

L., pp. 91-95.

Under the title of The Couvade or "Hatching," John Cain writes from Dumagudem, 31st March, 1874, to the Indian Antiquary, May, 1874, p. 151:

"In the districts in South India in which Telugu is spoken, there is a wandering tribe of people called the Erukalavandlu. They generally pitch their huts, for the time being, just outside a town or village. Their chief occupations are fortune-telling, rearing pigs, and making mats. Those in this part of the Telugu country observe the custom mentioned in Max Müller's Chips from a German Workshop, Vol. II., pp. 277-284. Directly the woman feels the birth-pangs, she informs her husband, who immediately takes some of her clothes, puts them on, places on his forehead the mark which the women usually place on theirs, retires into a dark room where is only a very dim lamp, and lies down on the bed, covering himself up with a long cloth. When the child is born, it is washed and placed on the cot beside the father. Assafoetida, jaggery, and other articles are then given, not to the mother, but to the father. During the days of ceremonial uncleanness the man is treated as the other Hindus treat their women on such occasions. He is not allowed to leave his bed, but has everything needful brought to him."

Mr. John Cain adds (l.c., April, 1879, p. 106): "The women are called 'hens' by their husbands, and the male and female children 'cock children' and 'hen children' respectively."

LI., p. 99 n. "M. Garnier informs me that Mien Kwé or Mien Tisong is the name always given in Yun Nan to that kingdom."

Mien Tisong is surely faulty, and must likely be corrected in Mien Chung, proved especially at the Ming Period. (PELLIOT, Bul. Ecole franç. Ext. Orient, IV., July-Sept, 1904, p. 772.)

LI., LII., pp. 98 seq.


The late Edouard HUBER of Hanoi, writing from Burmese sources, throws new light on this subject: "In the middle of the thirteenth century, the Burmese kingdom included Upper and Lower Burma, Arakan and Tenasserim; besides the Court of Pagan was paramount over several feudatory Shan states, until the valleys of the Yunnanese affluents of the Irawadi to the N.E., and until Zimmé at the least to the E. Narasihapati, the last king of Pagan who reigned over the whole of this territory, had already to fight the Talaings of the Delta and the governor of Arakan who wished to be independent, when, in 1271, he refused to receive Kúblái's ambassadors who had come to call upon him to recognize himself as a vassal of China. The first armed conflict took place during the spring of 1277 in the Nam Ti valley; it is the battle of Nga-çaung-khyam of the Burmese Chronicles, related by Marco Polo, who, by mistake, ascribes to Nasr ed-Din the merit of this first Chinese victory. During the winter of 1277-78, a second Chinese expedition with Nasr ed-Din at its head ended with the capture of Kaung sin, the Burmese stronghold commanding the defile of Bhamo. The Pagan Yazawin is the only Burmese Chronicle giving exactly the spot of this second encounter. During these two expeditions, the invaders had not succeeded in breaking through the thick veil of numerous small thai principalities which still stand to-day between Yun Nan and Burma proper. It was only in 1283 that the final crush took place, when a third expedition, whose chief was Siang-wu-ta-eul (Singtaur), retook the fort of Kaung sin and penetrated more into the south in the Irawadi Valley, but without reaching Pagan. King Narasihapati evacuated Pagan before the impending advancing Chinese forces and fled to the Delta. In 1285 parleys for the establishment of a Chinese Protectorship were begun; but in the following year, King Narasihapati was poisoned at Prome by his own son Sïhasura. In 1287, a fourth Chinese expedition, with Prince Ye-sin Timur at its head, reached at last Pagan, having suffered considerable losses…. A fifth and last Chinese expedition took place during the autumn of 1300 when the Chinese army went down the Irawadi Valley and besieged Myin-Saing during the winter of 1300-1301. The Mongol officers of the staff having been bribed the siege was raised." (Bul. Ecole Extrême-Orient, Oct.-Dec., 1909, pp. 679-680; cf. also p. 651 n.)

Huber, p. 666 n., places the battle-field of Vochan in the Nam Ti Valley; the Burmese never reached the plain of Yung Ch'ang.

LII., p. 106 n.


We shall resume from Chinese sources the history of the relations between Burma and China:

1271. Embassy of Kúblái to Mien asking for allegiance.

1273. New embassy of Kúblái.

1275. Information supplied by A-kuo, chief of Zardandan.

1277. First Chinese Expedition against Mien—Battle of Nga-çaung-khyam won by Hu Tu.

1277. Second Chinese Expedition led by Naçr ed-Din.

1283. Third Chinese Expedition led by Prince Singtaur.

1287. Fourth Chinese Expedition led by Yisun Timur; capture of Pagan.

1300-1301. Fifth Chinese Expedition; siege of Myin-saing.

Cf. E. HUBER, Bul. Ecole franç. Ext. Orient, Oct.-Dec., 1909, pp. 633-680.—VISDELOU, Rev. Ext. Orient, II., pp. 72-88.

LIII.-LIV., pp. 106-108. "After leaving the Province of which I have been speaking [Yung ch'ang] you come to a great Descent. In fact you ride for two days and a half continually down hill…. After you have ridden those two days and a half down hill, you find yourself in a province towards the south which is pretty near India, and this province is called AMIEN. You travel therein for fifteen days…. And when you have travelled those 15 days … you arrive at the capital city of this Province of Mien, and it also is called AMIEN…."

I owe the following valuable note to Mr. Herbert Allan OTTEWILL, H.M.'s Vice-Consul at T'eng Yueh (11th October, 1908):

"The indications of the route are a great descent down which you ride continually for two days and a half towards the south along the main route to the capital city of Amien.

"It is admitted that the road from Yung Ch'ang to T'eng Yueh is not the one indicated. Before the Hui jen Bridge was built over the Salween in 1829, there can be no doubt that the road ran to Ta tu k'ou—great ferry place—which is about six miles below the present bridge. The distance to both places is about the same, and can easily be accomplished in two days.

"The late Mr. Litton, who was Consul here for some years, once stated that the road to La-mêng on the Salween was almost certainly the one referred to by Marco Polo as the great descent to the kingdom of Mien. His stages were from Yung Ch'ang: (1) Yin wang (? Niu wang); (2) P'ing ti; (3) Chen an so; (4) Lung Ling. The Salween was crossed on the third day at La-mêng Ferry. Yung Ch'ang is at an altitude of about 5,600 feet; the Salween at the Hui jen Bridge is about 2,400, and probably drops 200-300 feet between the bridge and La-mêng, Personally I have only been along the first stage to Niu Wang, 5,000 feet; and although aneroids proved that the highest point on the road was about 6,600, I can easily imagine a person not provided with such instruments stating that the descent was fairly gradual. From Niu Wang there must be a steady drop to the Salween, probably along the side of the stream which drains the Niu Wang Plain.

"La-mêng and Chen an so are in the territory of the Shan Sawbwa of Mang Shih [Möng Hkwan]."

"It is also a well-known fact that the Shan States of Hsen-wi (in Burma) and Meng mao (in China) fell under Chinese authority at an early date. Mr. E.H. Parker, quoted by Sir G. Scott in the Upper Burma Gazetteer, states: 'During the reign of the Mongol Emperor Kúblái a General was sent to punish Annam and passed through this territory or parts of it called Meng tu and Meng pang,' and secured its submission. In the year 1289 the Civil and Military Governorship of Muh Pang was established. Muh Pang is the Chinese name of Hsen-wi.

"Therefore the road from Yung Ch'ang to La-mêng fulfils the conditions of a great descent, riding two and a half days continually down hill finding oneself in a (Shan) Province to the south, besides being on a well-known road to Burma, which was probably in the thirteenth century the only road to that country.

"Fifteen days from La-mêng to Tagaung or Old Pagan is not an impossible feat. Lung Ling is reached in 1-1/2 days, Keng Yang in four, and it is possible to do the remaining distance about a couple of hundred miles in eleven days, making fifteen in all.

"I confess I do not see how any one could march to Pagan in Latitude 21° 13' in fifteen days."

LIV., p. 113.


According to the late E. HUBER, Ngan chen kue is not Nga-çaung-khyam, but Nga Singu, in the Mandalay district. The battle took place, not in the Yung Ch'ang plain, but in the territory of the Shan Chief of Nan-tien. The official description of China under the Ming (Ta Ming yi lung che, k. 87, 38 v°) tells us that Nan-tien before its annexation by Kúblái Khan, bore the name of Nan Sung or Nang Sung, and to-day the pass which cuts this territory in the direction of T'eng Yueh is called Nang-Sung-kwan. It is hardly possible to doubt that this is the place called Nga-çaung-khyam by the Burmese Chronicles. (Bul. Ecole franç. Ext. Orient, Oct.-Dec., 1909, p. 652.)

LVI., p. 117 n.

A Map in the Yun Nan Topography Section 9, "Tu-ssu" or Sawbwas, marks the Kingdom of "Eight hundred wives" between the mouths of the Irrawaddy and the Salween Rivers. (Note kindly sent by Mr. H.A. OTTEWILL.)

LIX., p. 128.


M. Georges Maspero, L'Empire Khmèr, p. 77 n., thinks that Canxigu = Luang Prabang; I read Caugigu and I believe it is a transcription of Kiao-Chi Kwé, see p. 131.

LIX., pp. 128, 131.

"I have identified, II., p. 131, Caugigu with Kiao-Chi kwé (Kiao Chi), i.e. Tung King." Hirth and Rockhill (Chau Ju-kua, p. 46 n.) write: "'Kiáu chi' is certainly the original of Marco Polo's Caugigu and of Rashideddin's Kafchi kué."



[1] Pen ts'ao kang mu, Ch. 25, p. 14b.

[2] Regarding this name and its history, see PELLIOT, Journ. Asiatique, 1912, I., p. 582. Qara Khodja was celebrated for its abundance of grapes. (BRETSCHNEIDER, Mediaeval Res., I., p. 65.) J. DUDGEON (The Beverages of the Chinese, p. 27) misreading it Ha-so-hwo, took it for the designation of a sort of wine. STUART (Chinese Materia Medica, p. 459) mistakes it for a transliteration of "hollands," or may be "alcohol." The latter word has never penetrated into China in any form.

[3] This work is also the first that contains the word a-la-ki, from Arabic 'araq. (See T'oung Pao, 1916, p, 483.)

[4] A range of mountains separating Shan Si from Chi li and Ho Nan.

[5] This is probably a phantasy. We can make nothing of it, as it is not stated how the adulterated wine was made.

[6] This possibly is the earliest Chinese allusion to alcohol.
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Re: The Travels of Marco Polo, by Marco Polo and Rustichello

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LX., p. 133.


The Rev. A.C. MOULE (T'oung Pao, July, 1915, p. 417) says that "Ciang lu [Ch'anglu] was not, I think, identical with Ts'ang chou," but does not give any reason in support of this opinion.


"To this day the sole name for this industry, the financial centre of which is T'ien Tsin, is the 'Ch'ang-lu Superintendency.'" (E.H. PARKER, As. Quart. Review, Jan., 1904, p. 147.) "The 'Ch'ang-lu,' or Long Reed System, derives its name from the city Ts'ang chou, on the Grand Canal (south of T'ientsin), once so called. In 1285 Kúblái Khan 'once more divided the Ho-kien (Chih-li) and Shan Tung interests,' which, as above explained, are really one in working principle. There is now a First Class Commissary at Tientsin, with sixteen subordinates, and the Viceroy (who until recent years resided at Pao ting fu) has nominal supervision." (PARKER, China, 1901, pp. 223-4.)

"Il y a 10 groupes de salines, Tch'ang, situés dans les districts de Fou ning hien, Lo t'ing hien, Loan tcheou, Fong joen hien, Pao tch'e hien, T'ien tsin hien, Tsing hai hien, Ts'ang tcheou et Yen chan hien. Il y a deux procédés employés pour la fabrication du sel: 1° On étale sur un sol uni des cendres d'herbes venues dans un terrain salé et on les arrose d'eau de mer; le liquide qui s'en écoule, d'une densité suffisante pour faire flotter un ceuf de poule ou des graines de nénuphar, Che lien, est chauffé pendant 24 heures avec de ces mêmes herbes employées comme combustible, et le sel se dépose. Les cendres des herbes servent à une autre opération. 2° L'eau de mer est simplement évaporée au soleil…. L'administrateur en chef de ce commerce est le Vice-roi même de la province de Tche-li." (P. HOANG, Sel, Variétés Sinologiques, No. 15, p. 3.)

LXI., pp. 136, 138.


"Le titre chinois de tsiang kiun 'général' apparâit toujours dans les inscriptions de l'Orkhon sous la forme sänün, et dans les manuscrits turcs de Tourfan on trouve sangun; ces formes avaient prévalu en Asie centrale et c'est à elles que répond le sangon de Marco Polo" (éd. Yule-Cordier, II., 136, 138). PELLIOT, Kao tch'ang, J. As., Mai-Juin, 1912, p. 584 n.

LXI., p. 138.


"For Li T'an's rebellion and the siege of Ts'i-nan, see the Yüan Shih, c. v, fol. 1, 2; c. ccvi, fol. 2x°; and c. cxviii, fol. 5r'o. From the last passage it appears that Aibuga, the father of King George of Tenduc, took some part in the siege. Prince Ha-pi-ch'i and Shih T'ien-tsê, but not, that I have seen, Agul or Mangutai, are mentioned in the Yüan Shih." (A. C. MOULE, T'oung Pao, July, 1915, p. 417.)

LXII., p. 139.


This is Ts'i ning chau. "Sinjumatu was on a navigable stream, as Marco Polo expressly states and as its name implies. It was not long after 1276, as we learn from the Yüan Shih (lxiv), that Kúblái carried out very extensive improvements in the waterways of this very region, and there is nothing improbable in the supposition that the ma-t'ou or landing-place had moved up to the more important town, so that the name of Chi chou had become in common speech Sinjumatu (Hsin-chou-ma-t'ou) by the time that Marco Polo got to know the place." (A.C. MOULE, Marco Polo's Sinjumatu, T'oung Pao, July, 1912, pp. 431-3.)

LXII., p. 139 n.


"Et si voz di qu'il ont un fluns dou quel il ont grant profit et voz dirai comant. Il est voir qe ceste grant fluns vient de ver midi jusque à ceste cité de Singuimatu, et les homes de la ville cest grant fluns en ont fait deus: car il font l'une moitié aler ver levant, et l'autre moitié aler ver ponent: ce est qe le un vait au Mangi, et le autre por le Catai. Et si voz di por verité que ceste ville a si grant navile, ce est si grant quantité, qe ne est nul qe ne veisse qe peust croire. Ne entendés qe soient grant nés, mès eles sunt tel come besogne au grant fluns, et si voz di qe ceste naville portent au Mangi e por le Catai si grant abondance de mercandies qe ce est mervoille; et puis quant elles revienent, si tornent encore cargies, et por ce est merveieliosse chouse à veoir la mercandie qe por celle fluns se porte sus et jus." (Marco Polo, Soc. de Geog., p. 152.)

LXIV., p. 144.


The Rev. A.C. Moule writes (T'oung Pao, July, 1915, p. 415): "Hai chou is the obvious though by no means perfectly satisfactory equivalent of Caigiu. For it stands not on, but thirty or forty miles from, the old bed of the river. A place which answers better as regards position is Ngan tung which was a chou (giu) in the Sung and Yuan Dynasties. The Kuang-yü-hsing-shêng, Vol. II., gives Hai Ngan as the old name of Ngan Tung in the Eastern Wei Dynasty."

LXIV., p. 144 n.

"La voie des transports du tribut n'était navigable que de Hang tcheou au fleuve Jaune, [Koublai] la continua jusqu'auprès de sa capitale. Les travaux commencèrent en 1289 et trois ans après on en faisait l'ouverture. C'était un ruban de plus de (1800) mille huit cents li (plus de 1000 kil.). L'étendue de ce Canal, qui mérite bien d'être appelé impérial (Yu ho), de Hang Tcheou à Peking, mesure près de trois mille li, c'est-à-dire plus de quatre cents lieues." GANDAR, Le Canal Impérial, 1894, pp. 21-22. Kwa Chau (Caiju), formerly at the head of the Grand Canal on the Kiang, was destroyed by the erosions of the river.

LXV., p. 148 n.

Instead of K_o_tan, note 1, read K_i_tan. "The ceremony of leading a sheep was insisted on in 926, when the Tungusic-Corean King of Puh-hai (or Manchuria) surrendered, and again in 946, when the puppet Chinese Emperor of the Tsin Dynasty gave in his submission to the Kitans." (E.H. PARKER, As. Quart. Rev., January, 1904, p. 140.)

LXV., p. 149.


It is interesting to note that the spoils of Lin Ngan carried to Khan Balig were the beginning of the Imperial Library, increased by the documents of the Yuen, the Ming, and finally the Ts'ing; it is noteworthy that during the rebellion of Li Tze-ch'eng, the library was spared, though part of the palace was burnt. See N. PERI, Bul. Ecole franç. Ext. Orient, Jan.-June, 1911, p. 190.

LXVIII., p. 154 n.


Regarding Kingsmill's note, Mr. John C. Ferguson writes in the Journal North China Branch Roy. As. Soc., XXXVII., 1906, p. 190: "It is evident that Tiju and Yanju have been correctly identified as Taichow and Yangchow. I cannot agree with Mr. Kingsmill, however, in identifying Tinju as Ichin-hien on the Great River. It is not probable that Polo would mention Ichin twice, once before reaching Yangchow and once after describing Yangchow. I am inclined to believe that Tinju is Hsien-nü-miao [Chinese], a large market-place which has close connection both with Taichow and Yangchow. It is also an important place for the collection of the revenue on salt, as Polo notices. This identification of Tinju with Hsien-nü-miao would clear up any uncertainty as to Polo's journey, and would make a natural route for Polo to take from Kao yu to Yangchow if he wished to see an important place between these two cities."

LXVIII., p. 154.


In a text of the Yuen tien chang, dated 1317, found by Prof. Pelliot, mention is made of a certain Ngao-la-han [Abraham?] still alive at Yang chau, who was, according to the text, the son of the founder of the Church of the Cross of the ãrkägün (Ye-li-k'o-wen she-tze-sze), one of the three Nestorian churches of Yang-chau mentioned by Odoric and omitted by Marco Polo. Cf. Cathay, II., p. 210, and PELLIOT, T'oung Pao, 1914, p. 638.

LXX., p. 167.


Prof. E.H. PARKER writes in the Journ. of the North China Branch of the Roy. As. Soc., XXXVII., 1906, p. 195: "Colonel Yule's note requires some amendment, and he has evidently been misled by the French translations. The two Mussulmans who assisted Kúblái with guns were not 'A-la-wa-ting of Mu-fa-li and Ysemain of Huli or Hiulie,' but A-la-pu-tan of Mao-sa-li and Y-sz-ma-yin of Shih-la. Shih-la is Shiraz, the Serazy of Marco Polo, and Mao-sa-li is Mosul. Bretschneider cites the facts in his Mediaeval Notes, and seems to have used another edition, giving the names as A-lao-wa-ting of Mu-fa-li and Y-sz-ma-yin of Hü-lieh; but even he points out that Hulagu is meant, i.e. 'a man from Hulagu's country.'"

LXX., p. 169.


"Captain Gill's testimony as to the ancient 'guns' used by the Chinese is, of course (as, in fact, he himself states), second-hand and hearsay. In Vol. XXIV. of the China Review I have given the name and date of a General who used p'ao so far back as the seventh century." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, pp. 146-7.)

LXXIV., p. 179 n.


According to the Yuen Shi and Devéria, Journ. Asiat., Nov.-Dec., 1896, 432, in 1229 and 1241, when Okkodai's army reached the country of the Aas (Alans), their chief submitted at once and a body of one thousand Alans were kept for the private guard of the Great Khan; Mangu enlisted in his bodyguard half the troops of the Alan Prince, Arslan, whose younger son Nicholas took a part in the expedition of the Mongols against Karajang (Yun Nan). This Alan imperial guard was still in existence in 1272, 1286, and 1309, and it was divided into two corps with headquarters in the Ling pei province (Karakorúm). See also Bretschneider, Mediaeval Researches, II., pp. 84-90.

The massacre of a body of Christian Alans related by Marco Polo (II., p. 178) is confirmed by Chinese sources.

LXXIV., p. 180, n. 3.


See Notes in new edition of Cathay and the Way thither, III., pp. 179 seq., 248.

The massacre of the Alans took place, according to Chinese sources, at Chen-ch'ao, not at Ch'ang chau. The Sung general who was in charge of the city, Hung Fu, after making a faint submission, got the Alans drunk at night and had them slaughtered. Cf. PELLIOT, Chrétiens d'Asie centrale et d'Extrême-Orient, T'oung Pao, Dec., 1914, p. 641.

LXXVI., pp. 184-5.


The Rev. A.C. Moule has given in the T'oung Pao, July, 1915, pp. 393 seq., the Itinerary between Lin Ngan (Hang Chau) and Shang Tu, followed by the Sung Dynasty officials who accompanied their Empress Dowager to the Court of Kúblái after the fall of Hang Chau in 1276; the diary was written by Yen Kwang-ta, a native of Shao King, who was attached to the party.

The Rev. A.C. Moule in his notes writes, p. 411: "The connexion between Hu-chou and Hang-chou is very intimate, and the north suburb of the latter, the Hu-shu, was known in Marco Polo's day as the Hu-chou shih. The identification of Vughin with Wu-chiang is fairly satisfactory, but it is perhaps worth while to point out that there is a place called Wu chên about fifty li north of Shih-mên; and for Ciangan there is a tempting place called Ch'ang-an chên just south of Shih-mên on a canal which was often preferred to the T'ang-hsi route until the introduction of steam boats."

LXXVI., p. 192. "There is one church only [at Kinsay], belonging to the Nestorian Christians."

It was one of the seven churches built in China by Mar Sarghis, called Ta p'u hing sze (Great Temple of Universal Success), or Yang yi Hu-mu-la, near the Tsien k'iao men. Cf. Marco Polo, II., p. 177; VISSIÈRE, Rev. du Monde Musulman, March, 1913, p. 8.

LXXVI., p. 193.


Chinese Atlas in the Magliabecchian Library.

The Rev. A.C. Moule has devoted a long note to this Atlas in the Journ. R. As. Soc., July, 1919, pp. 393-395. He has come to the conclusion that the Atlas is no more nor less than the Kuang yü t'u, and that it seems that Camse stands neither for Ching-shih, as Yule thought, nor for Hang chau as he, Moule, suggested in 1917, but simply for the province of Kiangsi. (A Note on the Chinese Atlas in the Magliabecchian Library, with reference to Kinsay in Marco Polo.)

Mr. P. von Tanner, Commissioner of Customs at Hang chau, wrote in 1901 in the Decennial Reports, 1892-1901, of the Customs, p. 4: "While Hangchow owes its fame to the lake on the west, it certainly owes its existence towards the south-west to the construction of the sea wall, called by the Chinese by the appropriate name of bore wall. The erection of this sea wall was commenced about the year A.D. 915, by Prince Ts'ien Wu-su; it extends from Hang Chau to Chuan sha, near the opening of the Hwang pu…. The present sea wall, in its length of 180 miles, was built. The wall is a stupendous piece of work, and should take an equal share of fame with the Grand Canal and the Great Wall of China, as its engineering difficulties were certainly infinitely greater…. The fact that Marco Polo does not mention it shows almost conclusively that he never visited Hang Chau, but got his account from a Native poet. He must have taken it, besides, without the proverbial grain of salt, and without eliminating the over-numerous 'thousands' and 'myriads' prompted less by facts than by patriotic enthusiasm and poetical licence."

LXXVI., p. 194 n.


In the heart of Hang-chau, one of the bridges spanning the canal which divides into two parts the walled city from north to south is called Hwei Hwei k'iao (Bridge of the Mohamedans) or Hwei Hwei Sin k'iao (New Bridge of the Mohamedans), while its literary name is Tsi Shan k'iao (Bridge of Accumulated Wealth); it is situated between the Tsien k'iao on the south and the Fung lo k'iao on the north. Near the Tsi Shan k'iao was a mosk, and near the Tsien k'iao, at the time of the Yuen, there existed Eight Pavilions (Pa kien lew) inhabited by wealthy Mussulmans. Mohamedans from Arabia and Turkestan were sent by the Yuen to Hang-chau; they had prominent noses, did not eat pork, and were called So mu chung (Coloured-eye race). VISSIÈRE, Rev. du Monde Musulman, March, 1913.

LXXVI., p. 199.


Pelliot proposes to see in Khanfu a transcription of Kwang-fu, an abridgment of Kwang chau fu, prefecture of Kwang chau (Canton). Cf. Bul. Ecole franç Ext. Orient, Jan.-June, 1904, p. 215 n., but I cannot very well accept this theory.

LXXX., pp. 225, 226. "They have also [in Fu Kien] a kind of fruit resembling saffron, and which serves the purpose of saffron just as well."

Dr. Laufer writes to me: "Yule's identification with a species of Gardenia is all right, although this is not peculiar to Fu Kien. Another explanation, however, is possible. In fact, the Chinese speak of a certain variety of saffron peculiar to Fu Kien. The Pen ts'ao kang mu shi i (Ch. 4, p. 14 b) contains the description of a 'native saffron' (t'u hung hwa, in opposition to the 'Tibetan red flower' or genuine saffron) after the Continued Gazetteer of Fu Kien, as follows: 'As regards the native saffron, the largest specimens are seven or eight feet high. The leaves are like those of the p'i-p'a (Eriobotrya japonica), but smaller and without hair. In the autumn it produces a white flower like a grain of maize (Su-mi, Zea mays). It grows in Fu Chou and Nan Ngen Chou (now Yang Kiang in Kwang Tung) in the mountain wilderness. That of Fu Chou makes a fine creeper, resembling the fu-yung (Hibiscus mutabilis), green above and white below, the root being like that of the ko (Pachyrhizus thunbergianus). It is employed in the pharmacopeia, being finely chopped for this purpose and soaked overnight in water in which rice has been scoured; then it is soaked for another night in pure water and pounded: thus it is ready for prescriptions.' This plant, as far as I know, has not yet been identified, but it may well be identical with Polo's saffron of Fu Kien."

LXXX., pp. 226, 229 n.


Tarradale, Muir of Ord, Ross-shire, May 10, 1915.

In a letter lately received from my cousin Mr. George Udny Yule (St. John's College, Cambridge) he makes a suggestion which seems to me both probable and interesting. As he is at present too busy to follow up the question himself, I have asked permission to publish his suggestion in The Athenaeum, with the hope that some reader skilled in mediaeval French and Italian may be able to throw light on the subject.

Mr. Yule writes as follows:—

"The reference [to these fowls] in 'Marco Polo' (p. 226 of the last edition; not p. 126 as stated in the index) is a puzzle, owing to the statement that they are black all over. A black has, I am told, been recently created, but the common breed is white, as stated in the note and by Friar Odoric.

"It has occurred to me as a possibility that what Marco Polo may have meant to say was that they were black all through, or some such phrase. The flesh of these fowls is deeply pigmented, and looks practically black; it is a feature that is very remarkable, and would certainly strike any one who saw it. The details that they 'lay eggs just like our fowls,' i.e., not pigmented, and are 'very good to eat,' are facts that would naturally deserve especial mention in this connexion. Mr. A.D. Darbishire (of Oxford and Edinburgh University) tells me that is quite correct: the flesh look horrid, but it is quite good eating. Do any texts suggest the possibility of such a reading as I suggest?"

The references in the above quotation are, of course, to my father's version of Marco Polo. That his nephew should make this interesting little contribution to the subject would have afforded him much gratification.


The Athenaeum, No. 4570, May 29, 1915, p. 485.

LXXX., pp. 226, 230.


"I may observe that the Pêh Shï (or 'Northern Dynasties History') speaks of a large consumption of sugar in Cambodgia as far back as the fifth century of our era. There can be no mistake about the meaning of the words sha-t'ang, which are still used both in China and Japan (sa-to). The 'History of the T'ang Dynasty,' in its chapter on Magadha, says that in the year 627 the Chinese Emperor 'sent envoys thither to procure the method of boiling out sugar, and then ordered the Yang-chou sugar-cane growers to press it out in the same way, when it appeared that both in colour and taste ours excelled that of the Western Regions' [of which Magadha was held to be part]." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 146.)


LXXXII., p. 237.

M.G. Ferrand remarks that Tze tung = [Arabic], zitun in Arabic, inexactly read Zaytun, on account of its similitude with its homonym [Arabic], zyatun, olive. (Relat de Voy., I., p. 11.)

LXXXII., pp. 242-245.

"Perhaps it may not be generally known that in the dialect of Foochow Ts'üan-chou and Chang-chou are at the present day pronounced in exactly the same way—i.e., 'Chiong-chiu,' and it is by no means impossible that Marco Polo's Tyunju is an attempt to reproduce this sound, especially as, coming to Zaitun viâ Foochow, he would probably first hear the Foochow pronunciation." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 148)
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Re: The Travels of Marco Polo, by Marco Polo and Rustichello

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II., p. 256, n. 1.


Regarding the similitude between Nipon and Nafún, Ferrand, Textes, I., p. 115 n., remarks: "Ce rapprochement n'a aucune chance d'être exact [Arabic] Nafun est certainement une erreur de graphic pour [Arabic] Yakut ou [Arabic] Nakus."

III., p. 261.


"Hung Ts'a-k'iu, who set out overland viâ Corea and Tsushima in 1281, is much more likely than Fan Wên-hu to be Von-sain-chin (probably a misprint for chiu), for the same reason Vo-cim stands for Yung-ch'ang, and sa for sha, ch'a, ts'a, etc. A-la-han (not A-ts'ï-han) fell sick at the start, and was replaced by A-ta-hai. To copy Abacan for Alahan would be a most natural error, and I see from the notes that M. Schlegel has come to the same conclusion independently." (E.H. PARKER, Asiatic Quart. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 147.)

V., pp. 270, 271 n.


Lieut.-General Sagatu, So Tu or So To, sent in 1278 an envoy to the King known as Indravarman VI. or Jaya Sinhavarman. Maspero (Champa, pp. 237, 254) gives the date of 1282 for the war against Champa with Sagatu appointed at the head of the Chinese Army on the 16th July, 1282; the war lasted until 1285. Maspero thinks 1288 the date of Marco's visit to Champa (L.c., p. 254).

VII., p. 277 n.


Mr. C.O. Blagden has some objection to Sundar Fulat being Pulo Condor: "In connexion with Sundur-Fulat, some difficulties seem to arise. If it represents Pulo Condor, why should navigators on their way to China call at it after visiting Champa, which lies beyond it? And if fulat represents a Persian plural of the Malay Pulau,'island,' why does it not precede the proper name as generic names do in Malay and in Indonesian and Southern Indo-Chinese languages generally? Further, if sundur represents a native form cundur, whence the hard c (= k) of our modern form of the word? I am not aware that Malay changes c to k in an initial position." (J. R. As. Soc., April, 1914, p. 496.)

"L'île de Sendi Foulat est très grande; il y a de l'eau douce, des champs cultivés, du, riz et des cocotiers. Le roi s'appelle Resed. Les habitants portent la fouta soit en manteau, soit en ceinture…. L'île de Sendi Foulat est entourée, du côté de la Chine, de montagnes d'un difficile accès, et ou soufflent des vents impétueux. Cette île est une des portes de la Chine. De là à la ville de Khancou, X journées." EDRISI, I., p. 90. In Malay Pulo Condor is called Pulau Kundur (Pumpkin Island) and in Cambodian, Koh Tralàch. See PELLIOT, Deux Itinéraires, pp. 218-220. Fulat = ful (Malay pule) + Persian plural suffix -at. Cundur fulat means Pumpkin Island. FERRAND, Textes, pp. ix., 2.

VII., p. 277.


According to W. Tomaschek (Die topographischen Capitel des Indischen Seespiegels Mohit, Vienna, 1897, Map XXIII.) it should be read Losak = The Lochac of the G.T. "It is Lankaçoka of the Tanjore inscription of 1030, the Ling ya ssi kia of the Chu-fan-chï of Chau Ju-kua, the Lenkasuka of the Nagarakretagama, the Lang-saka of Sulayman al Mahri, situated on the eastern side of the Malay Peninsula." (G. FERRAND, Malaka, le Malayu et Malayur, J. As., July-Aug, 1918, p. 91.) On the situation of this place which has been erroneously identified with Tenasserim, see Ibid., pp. 134-145 M. Ferrand places it in the region of Ligor.

VII., pp. 278-279.


Lawáki comes from Lovek, a former capital of Cambodia; referring to the aloes-wood called Lawáki in the Ain-i-Akbari written in the 16th century, FERRAND, Textes, I., p. 285 n., remarks: "On vient de voir que Ibn-al-Baytar a emprunté ce nom à Avicenne (980-1037) qui écrivit son Canon de la Médecine dans les premières années du XI'e siècle. Lawák ou Lowak nous est donc attesté sous le forme Lawáki ou Lowaki dès le X'e siècle, puis qu'il est mentionné, au début du XI'e, par Avicenne qui résidait alors à Djurdjan, sur la Caspienne."

VIII., pp. 280-3.


The late Col. G.E. Gerini published in the J.R.A.S., July, 1905, pp. 485-511, a paper on the Nagarakretagama, a Javanese poem composed by a native bard named Prapañca, in honour of his sovereign Hayam Wuruk (1350-1389), the greatest ruler of Majapahit. He upsets all the theories accepted hitherto regarding Panten. The southernmost portion of the Malay Peninsula is known as the Malaya or Malayu country (Tanah-Malayu) = Chinese Ma-li-yü-êrh = Malayur = Maluir of Marco Polo, witness the river Malayu (Sungei Malayu) still so called, and the village Bentan, both lying there (ignored by all Col. Gerini's predecessors) on the northern shore of the Old Singapore Strait. Col. Gerini writes (p. 509): "There exists to this day a village Bentam on the mainland side of Singapore Strait, right opposite the mouth of the Sungei Selitar, on the northern shore of Singapore Island, it is not likely that both travellers [Polo and Odoric] mistook the coast of the Malay Peninsula for an island. The island of Pentam, Paten, or Pantem must therefore be the Be-Tumah (Island) of the Arab Navigators, the Tamasak Island of the Malays; and, in short, the Singapore Island of our day." He adds: "The island of Pentam cannot be either Batang or Bitang, the latter of which is likewise mentioned by Marco Polo under the same name of Pentam, but 60 + 30 = 90 miles before reaching the former. Batang, girt all round by dangerous reefs, is inaccessible except to small boats. So is Bintang, with the exception of its south-western side, where is now Riau, and where, a little further towards the north, was the settlement at which the chief of the island resided in the fourteenth century. There was no reason for Marco Polo's junk to take that roundabout way in order to call at such, doubtlessly insignificant place. And the channel (i.e. Rhio Strait) has far more than four paces' depth of water, whereas there are no more than two fathoms at the western entrance to the Old Singapore Strait."

Marco Polo says (II., p. 280): "Throughout this distance [from Pentam] there is but four paces' depth of water, so that great ships in passing this channel have to lift their rudders, for they draw nearly as much water as that." Gerini remarks that it is unmistakably the Old Singapore Strait, and that there is no channel so shallow throughout all those parts except among reefs. "The Old Strait or Selat Tebrau, says N.B. Dennys, Descriptive Dict. of British Malaya, separating Singapore from Johore. Before the settlement of the former, this was the only known route to China; it is generally about a mile broad, but in some parts little more than three furlongs. Crawford went through it in a ship of 400 tons, and found the passage tedious but safe." Most of Sinologists, Beal, Chavannes, Pelliot, Bul. Ecole Ext. Orient., IV., 1904, pp. 321-2, 323-4, 332-3, 341, 347, place the Malaiur of Marco Polo at Palembang in Sumatra.

VIII., pp. 281, n. 283 n.


"On a traduit Tanah Malayu par 'Pays des Malais,' mais cette traduction n'est pas rigoureusement exacte. Pour prendre une expression parallèle, Tanah Djawa signifie 'Pays de Java,' mais non 'Pays des Javanais.'

"En réalité, tanah 'terre, sol, pays, contrée' s'emploie seulement avec un toponyme qui doit étre rendu par un toponyme équivalent. Le nom des habitants du pays s'exprime, en malais, en ajoutant oran 'homme, personne, gens, numéral des êtres humains' au nom du pays: 'oran Malayu' Malais, litt. 'gens de Malayu'; oran Djawa Javanais, litt. 'gens de Java.' Tanah Malayu a done très nettement le sens de 'pays de Malayu'; cf. l'expression kawi correspondante dans le Nagarakrêtugama: tanah ri Malayu 'pays de Malayu' où chaque mot français recouvre exactement le substantif, la préposition et le toponyme de l'expression kawi. Le taná Malayo de Barros s'applique donc à un pays déterminé du nom de Malayu qui, d'après l'auteur des Décades, était situé entre Djambi et Palemban. Nous savons, d'autre part, que le pays en question avait sa capitale dans l'intérieur de l'île, mais qu'il s'étendait dans l'Est jusqu'à la mer et que la côte orientale a été désignée par les textes chinois du VII'e siècle sous le nom de Mo-lo-yeou, Mo-lo-yu = Malayu, c'est-à-dire par le nom de l'Etat ou royaume dont elle faisait partie." (G. FERRAND, J. As., July-Aug., 1918, pp. 72-73.)

VIII., p. 282.


See G. FERRAND, Malaka, le Malayu et Malayur, J.As., 1918. Besides Malayu of Sumatra, there was a city of Malayur which M. Ferrand thinks is Malacca.

VIII., p. 282 n. "This informs us that Malacca first acknowledged itself as tributary to the Empire in 1405, the king being Sili-ju-eul-sula(?)."

In this name Si-li-ju-eul-su-la, one must read [Chinese] pa, instead of [Chinese], and read Si-li-pa-eul-su-la = Siri Paramisura (Çri Paramaçvara). (PELLIOT, Bul. Ecole franc. Ext. Orient, IV., July-Sept.,
1904, p. 772.)

IX., p. 285. "They [the rhinoceros] do no mischief, however, with the horn, but with the tongue alone; for this is covered all over with long and strong prickles [and when savage with any one they crush him under their knees and then rasp him with their tongue]."

"Its tongue is like the burr of a chestnut." (CHAU JU-KWA, P. 233.)

IX., p. 289.


In 1017, an embassy was sent to the Court of China by Haji Sumutrabhumi, "the king of the land of Sumutra" (Sumatra). The envoys had a letter in golden characters and tribute in the shape of pearls, ivory, Sanscrit, books folded between boards, and slaves; by an imperial edict they were permitted to see the emperor and to visit some of the imperial buildings. When they went back an edict was issued addressed to their king, accompanied by various presents, calculated to please them. (GROENEVELT, Notes on the Malay Archipelago, p. 65.) G. Ferrand writes (J. As., Mars-Avril, 1917, p. 335) that according to the texts quoted by him in his article the island of Sumatra was known to the Chinese under the name Sumuta = Sumutra, during the first years of the eleventh century, nearly 300 years before Marco Polo's voyage; and under the name of Sumutra, by the Arab sailors, previously to the first voyage of the Portuguese in Indonesia.

IX., p. 287.


Prof. Pelliot writes to me that the Ferlec of Marco Polo is to be found several times in the Yuan Shi, year 1282 and following, under the forms Fa-li-lang (Chap. 12, fol. 4 v.), Fa-li-la (Chap. 13, fol. 2 v.), Pie-li-la (Chap. 13, fol. 4 v.), Fa-eul-la (Chap. 18, fol. 8 v.); in the first case, it is quoted near A-lu (Aru) and Kan-pai (Kampei). —Cf. FERRAND, Textes, II., p. 670.

XI., pp. 304-5.


Sago Palm = Sagus Rumphianus and S. Laevis (DENNYS).—"From Malay sagu. The farinaceous pith taken out of the stem of several species of a particular genus of palm, especially Metroxylon laeve, Mart., and M. Rumphii, Willd., found in every part of the Indian Archipelago, including the Philippines, wherever there is proper soil." (Hobson-Jobson.)

XII., p. 306. "In this island [Necuveran] they have no king nor chief, but live like beasts. And I tell you they go all naked, both men and women, and do not use the slightest covering of any kind."

We have seen (Marco Polo, II., p. 308) that Mr. G. Phillips writes (J.R.A.S., July, 1895, p. 529) that the name Tsui-lan given to the Nicobars by the Chinese is, he has but little doubt, "a corruption of Nocueran, the name given by Marco Polo to the group. The characters Tsui-lan are pronounced Ch'ui lan in Amoy, out of which it is easy to make Cueran. The Chinese omitted the initial syllable and called them the Cueran Islands, while Marco Polo called them the Nocueran Islands." Schlegel, T'oung Pao, IX., p. 182-190, thinks that the Andaman Islands are alone represented by Ts'ui-lan; the Nicobar being the old country of the Lo-ch'a, and in modern time, Mao shan, "Hat Island." Pelliot, Bul. Ecole Ext. Orient, IV., 1904, pp. 354-5, is inclined to accept Phillip's opinion. He says that Mao-shan is one island, not a group of islands; it is not proved that the country of the Lo ch'a is the Nicobar Islands; the name of Lo-hing-man, Naked Barbarians, is, contrary to Schlegel's opinion, given to the Nicobar as well as to the Andaman people; the name of Andaman appears in Chinese for the first time during the thirteenth century in Chao Ju-kwa under the form Yen-t'o-man; Chao Ju-kwa specifies that going from Lambri (Sumatra) to Ceylon, it is an unfavourable wind which makes ships drift towards these islands; on the other hand, texts show that the Ts'ui-lan islands were on the usual route from Sumatra to Ceylon.—Gerini, Researches, p. 396, considers that Ts'ui-lan shan is but the phonetic transcript of Tilan-chong Island, the north-easternmost of the Nicobars.—See Hirth and Rockhill's Chau Ju-kwa, p. 12n.—Sansk. narikera, "cocoanuts," is found in Necuveram.

XIII., p. 309.


"When sailing from Lan-wu-li to Si-lan, if the wind is not fair, ships may be driven to a place called Yen-t'o-man [in Cantonese, An-t'o-man]. This is a group of two islands in the middle of the sea, one of them being large, the other small; the latter is quite uninhabited. The large one measures seventy li in circuit. The natives on it are of a colour resembling black lacquer; they eat men alive, so that sailors dare not anchor on this coast.

"This island does not contain so much as an inch of iron, for which reason the natives use (bits of) conch-shell (ch'ö-k'ü) with ground edges instead of knives. On this island is a sacred relic, (the so-called) 'Corpse on a bed of rolling gold….'" (CHAU JU-KWA, p. 147.)

XIII., p. 311.


Rockhill in a note to Carpini (Rubruck, p. 36) mentions "the Chinese annals of the sixth century (Liang Shu, bk. 54; Nan shih, bk. 79) which tell of a kingdom of dogs (Kou kuo) in some remote corner of north-eastern Asia. The men had human bodies but dogs' heads, and their speech sounded like barking. The women were like the rest of their sex in other parts of the world."

Dr. Laufer writes to me: "A clear distinction must be made between dog-headed people and the motive of descent from a dog-ancestor,—two entirely different conceptions. The best exposition of the subject of the cynocephali according to the traditions of the Ancients is now presented by J. MARQUART (Benin-Sammlung des Reichsmuseums in Leiden, pp. cc-ccxix). It is essential to recognize that the mediaeval European, Arabic, and Chinese fables about the country of the dog-heads are all derived from one common source, which is traceable to the Greek Romance of Alexander; that is an Oriental-Hellenistic cycle. In a wider sense, the dog-heads belong to the cycle of wondrous peoples, which assumed shape among the Greek mariners under the influence of Indian and West-Asiatic ideas. The tradition of the Nan shi (Ch. 79, p. 4), in which the motive of the dog-heads, the women, however, being of human shape, meets its striking parallel in Adam of Bremen (Gesta Hamburg, ecclesiae pontificum, 4, 19), who thus reports on the Terra Feminarum beyond the Baltic Sea: 'Cumque pervenerint ad partum, si quid masculini generis est, fiunt cynocephali, si quid femini, speciosissimae mulieres.' See further KLAPROTH, J. As., XII., 1833, p. 287; DULAURIER, J. As., 1858, p. 472; ROCKHILL, Rubruck, p. 36."

In an interesting paper on Walrus and Narwhal Ivory, Dr. Laufer (T'oung Pao, July, 1916, p. 357) refers to dog-headed men with women of human shape, from a report from the Mongols received by King Hethum of Armenia.

XIV., p. 313. "The people [of Ceylon] are Idolaters, and go quite naked except that they cover the middle…. The King of this Island possesses a ruby which is the finest and biggest in the world; I will tell you what it is like. It is about a palm in length, and as thick as a man's arm; to look at, it is the most resplendent object upon earth; it is quite free from flaw and as red as fire. Its value is so great that a price for it in money could hardly be named at all."

Chau Ju-kwa, p. 73, has: "The King holds in his hand a jewel five inches in diameter, which cannot be burnt by fire, and which shines in (the darkness of) night like a torch. The King rubs his face with it daily, and though he were passed ninety he would retain his youthful looks.

"The people of the country are very dark-skinned, they wrap a sarong round their bodies, go bare-headed and bare-footed."

XIV., p. 314 n.


The native kings of this period were Pandita Prakama Bahu II., who reigned from 1267 to 1301 at Dambadenia, about 40 miles north-north-east of Columbo (Marco Polo's time); Vijaya Bahu IV. (1301-1303); Bhuwaneka Bahu I. (1303-1314); Prakama Bahu III. (1314-1319); Bhuwaneka Bahu II. (1319).


= Sakya Muni Burkhan.

XV., p. 319. Seilan-History of Sagamoni Borcan. "And they maintain … that the teeth, and the hair, and the dish that are there were those of the same king's son, whose name was Sagamoni Borcan, or Sagamoni the Saint."

See J.F. FLEET, The Tradition about the corporeal Relics of Buddha. (Jour. R. As. Soc., 1906, and April, 1907, pp. 341-363.)

XV., p. 320.

In a paper on Burkhan printed in the Journal of the American Oriental Society, XXXVI., 1917, pp. 390-395, Dr. Berthold Laufer has come to the following conclusion: "Burkhan in Mongol by no means conveys exclusively the limited notion of Buddha, but, first of all, signifies 'deity, god, gods,' and secondly 'representation or image of a god.' This general significance neither inheres in the term Buddha nor in Chinese Fo; neither do the latter signify 'image of Buddha'; only Mongol burkhan has this force, because originally it conveyed the meaning of a shamanistic image. From what has been observed on the use of the word burkhan in the shamanistic or pre-Buddhistic religions of the Tungusians, Mongols and Turks, it is manifest that the word well existed there before the arrival of Buddhism, fixed in its form and meaning, and was but subsequently transferred to the name of Buddha."

XV., pp. 323 seq.


The German traveller von Le Coq has found at Turfan fragments of this legend in Turki which he published in 1912 in his Türkische Manichaica, which agree with the legend given by the Persian Ibn Bâbawaih of Qum, who died in 991. (S. d'OLDENBOURG, Bul. Ac. I. des Sc., Pet., 1912, pp. 779-781; W. RADLOFF, Alttürk. Stud., VI., zu Barlaam und Joasaph). M.P. Alfaric (La Vie chrétienne du Bouddha, J. Asiatique, Sept.-Oct., 1917, pp. 269 seq.; Rev. de l'Hist. des Religions, Nov.-Dec., 1918, pp. 233 seq.) has studied this legend from a Manichaean point of view.

XV., p. 327.

See La "Vie des Saints Barlaam et Josaphat" et la légende du Bouddha, in Vol. I., pp. xxxxvii-lvi, of Contes populaires de Lorraine par Emmanuel COSQUIN, Paris, Vieweg, n.d. [1886].

XVI., p. 335 n.


Speaking of Chu-lién (Chola Dominion, Coromandel Coast), Chau Ju-kwa, pp. 93-4, says:—

"The kingdom of Chu-lién is the Southern Yin-tu of the west. To the east (its capital) is five li distant from the sea; to the west one comes to Western India (after) 1500 li; to the south one comes to Lo-lan (after) 2500 li; to the north one comes to Tun-t'ien (after) 3000 li."

Hirth and Rockhill remark, p. 98: "Ma Tuan-lin and the Sung-shï reproduce textually this paragraph (the former writer giving erroneously the distance between the capital and the sea as 5000 li). Yule, Marco Polo, II, p. 335, places the principal port of the Chola kingdom at Kaveripattanam, the 'Pattanam' par excellence of the Coromandel Coast, and at one of the mouths of the Kaveri. He says that there seems to be some evidence that the Tanjore ports were, before 1300, visited by Chinese trade. The only Lo-lan known to mediaeval Chinese is mentioned in the T'ang-shu, 221'8, and is identified with the capital of Bamian, in Afghanistan. I think our text is corrupt here and that the character lo should be changed to si, and that we should read Si-lan, our Ceylon. Both Ma and the Sung-shï say that 2500 li south-east of Chu-lién was 'Si-lan-ch'ï-kuo with which it was at war. Of course the distance mentioned is absurd, but all figures connected with Chu-lién in Chinese accounts are inexplicably exaggerated."

XVI., pp. 336-337.


Sir Walter ELLIOT, K.C.S.I., to whom Yule refers for the information given about this pagoda, has since published in the Indian Antiquary, VII., 1878, pp. 224-227, an interesting article with the title: The Edifice formerly known as the Chinese or Jaina Pagoda at Negapatam, from which we gather the following particulars regarding its destruction:—

"It went by various names, as the Puduveli-gôpuram, the old pagoda, Chinese pagoda, black pagoda, and in the map of the Trigonometrical Survey (Sheet 79) it stands as the Jeyna (Jaina) pagoda. But save in name it has nothing in common with Hindu or Muhammadan architecture, either in form or ornament."

"In 1859, the Jesuit Fathers presented a petition to the Madras Government representing the tower to be in a dangerous condition, and requesting permission to pull it down and appropriate the materials to their own use…." In 1867 "the Fathers renewed their application for leave to remove it, on the following grounds: '1st, because they considered it to be unsafe in its present condition; 2nd, because it obstructed light and sea-breeze from a chapel which they had built behind it; 3rd, because they would very much like to get the land on which it stood; and 4th, because the bricks of which it was built would be very useful to them for building purposes.'

"The Chief Engineer, who meanwhile had himself examined the edifice, and had directed the District Engineer to prepare a small estimate for its repair, reported that the first only of the above reasons had any weight, and that it would be met if Colonel O'Connell's estimate, prepared under his own orders, received the sanction of Government. He therefore recommended that this should be given, and the tower allowed to stand….

"The Chief Engineer's proposal did not meet with approval, and on the 28th August 1867, the following order was made on the Jesuits' petition: 'The Governor in Council is pleased to sanction the removal of the old tower at Negapatam by the officers of St. Joseph's College, at their own expense, and the appropriation of the available material to such school-building purposes as they appear to have in contemplation.

"The Fathers were not slow in availing themselves of this permission. The venerable building was speedily levelled, and the site cleared."

In making excavations connected with the college a bronze image representing a Buddhist or Jaina priest in the costume and attitude of the figures in wood and metal brought from Burma was found; it was presented to Lord Napier, in 1868; a reproduction of it is given in Sir Walter Elliot's paper.

In a note added by Dr. Burnell to this paper, we read: "As I several times in 1866 visited the ruin referred to, I may be permitted to say that it had become merely a shapeless mass of bricks. I have no doubt that it was originally a vimâna or shrine of some temple; there are some of precisely the same construction in parts of the Chingleput district."

XVI., p. 336 n.


We read in the Tao yi chi lio (1349) that "T'u t'a (the eastern stupa) is to be found in the flat land of Pa-tan (Fattan, Negapatam?) and that it is surrounded with stones. There is stupa of earth and brick many feet high; it bears the following Chinese inscription: 'The work was finished in the eighth moon of the third year hien chw'en (1267).' It is related that these characters have been engraved by some Chinese in imitation of inscriptions on stone of those countries; up to the present time, they have not been destroyed." Hien chw'en is the nien hao of Tu Tsung, one of the last emperors of the Southern Sung Dynasty, not of a Mongol Sovereign. I owe this information to Prof. Pelliot, who adds that the comparison between the Chinese Pagoda of Negapatam and the text of the Tao yi chi lio has been made independent of him by Mr. Fujita in the Tokyo-gakuho, November, 1913, pp. 445-46. (Cathay, I., p. 81 n.)

XVII., p. 340. "Here [Maabar] are no horses bred; and thus a great part of the wealth of the country is wasted in purchasing horses; I will tell you how. You must know that the merchants of Kis and Hormes, Dofar and Soer and Aden collect great numbers of destriers and other horses, and these they bring to the territories of this King and of his four brothers, who are kings likewise as I told you…"

Speaking of Yung (or Wöng) man, Chau Ju-kwa tells us (p. 133): "In the mountains horse-raising is carried on a large scale. The other countries which trade here purchase horses, pearls and dates which they get in exchange for cloves, cardamom seeds and camphor."

XVII., p. 341.


"Suttee is a Brahmanical rite, and there is a Sanskrit ritual in existence (see Classified Index to the Tanjore MSS., p. 135a.). It was introduced into Southern India with the Brahman civilization, and was prevalent there chiefly in the Brahmanical Kingdom of Vijayanagar, and among the Mahrattas. In Malabar, the most primitive part of S. India, the rite is forbidden (Anacharanirnaya, v. 26). The cases mentioned by Teixeira, and in the Lettres édifiantes, occurred at Tanjore and Madura. A (Mahratta) Brahman at Tanjore told one of the present writers that he had to perform commemorative funeral rites for his grandfather and grandmother on the same day, and this indicated that his grandmother had been a sati." YULE, Hobson-Jobson. Cf. Cathay, II., pp. 139-140.


XVII., p. 345. Speaking of this province, Marco Polo says: "They have certain abbeys in which are gods and goddesses to whom many young girls are consecrated; their fathers and mothers presenting them to that idol for which they entertain the greatest devotion. And when the [monks] of a convent desire to make a feast to their god, they send for all those consecrated damsels and make them sing and dance before the idol with great festivity. They also bring meats to feed their idol withal; that is to say, the damsels prepare dishes of meat and other good things and put the food before the idol, and leave it there a good while, and then the damsels all go to their dancing and singing and festivity for about as long as a great Baron might require to eat his dinner. By that time they say the spirit of the idols has consumed the substance of the food, so they remove the viands to be eaten by themselves with great jollity. This is performed by these damsels several times every year until they are married."

Chau Ju-kwa has the following passage in Cambodia (p. 53): "(The people) are devout Buddhists. There are serving (in the temples) some three hundred foreign women; they dance and offer food to the Buddha. They are called a-nan or slave dancing-girls."

Hirth and Rockhill, who quote Marco Polo's passage, remark, p. 55 n.: "A-nan, as here written, is the usual transcription of the Sanskrit word ananda, 'joy, happiness.' The almeh or dancing-girls are usually called in India deva-dasi ('slave of a god') or ramjani."

In Guzerat, Chau Ju-kwa, p. 92, mentions: "Four thousand Buddhist temple buildings, in which live over twenty thousand dancing-girls who sing twice daily while offering food to the Buddha (i.e., the idols) and while offering flowers."

XVIII., p. 356.


"The traditional site of the Apostle's Tomb, now adjacent to the sea-shore, has recently come to be enclosed in the crypt of the new Cathedral of San Thomé." (A.E. MEDLYCOTT, India and the Apostle Thomas. An inquiry. With a critical analysis of the Acta Thomae. London, David Nutt, 1905, 8vo.)

In the beginning of the sixteenth century Barbosa found the church of St. Thomas half in ruins and grown round with jungle. A Mahomedan fakir kept it and maintained a lamp. Yet in 1504, which is several years earlier than Barbosa's voyage, the Syrian Bishop Jaballaha, who had been sent by the Patriarch to take charge of the Indian Christians, reported that the House of St. Thomas had begun to be inhabited by some Christians, who were engaged in restoring it.

Mr. W.R. Philipps has a valuable paper on The Connection of St. Thomas the Apostle with India in the Indian Antiquary, XXXII., 1903, pp. 1-15, 145-160; he has come to the following conclusions: "(1) There is good early evidence that St. Thomas was the apostle of the Parthian empire; and also evidence that he was the apostle of 'India' in some limited sense, —probably of an 'India' which included the Indus Valley, but nothing to the east or south of it. (2) According to the Acts, the scene of the martyrdom of St. Thomas was in the territory of a king named, according to the Syriac version, Mazdai, to which he had proceeded after a visit to the city of a king named, according to the same version, Gudnaphar or Gundaphar. (3) There is no evidence at all that the place where St. Thomas was martyred was in Southern India; and all the indications point to another direction. (4) We have no indication whatever, earlier than that given by Marco Polo, who died 1324, that there ever was even a tradition that St. Thomas was buried in Southern India."

In a recent and learned work (Die Thomas Legende, 1912, 8vo.) Father J. Dahlmann has tried to prove that the story of the travels of St. Thomas in India has an historical basis. If there is some possibility of admitting a voyage of the Apostle to N.W. India (and the flourishing state of Buddhism in this part of India is not in favour of Christian Evangelization), it is impossible to accept the theory of the martyrdom of St. Thomas in Southern India.

The late Mr. J.F. FLEET, in his paper on St. Thomas and Gondophernes (Journ. Roy. As. Soc., April, 1905, pp. 223-236), remarks that "Mr. Philipps has given us an exposition of the western traditional statements up to the sixth century." He gives some of the most ancient statements; one in its earliest traceable form runs thus: "According to the Syriac work entitled The Doctrine of the Apostles, which was written in perhaps the second century A.D., St. Thomas evangelized 'India.' St. Ephraem the Syrian (born about A.D. 300, died about 378), who spent most of his life at Edessa, in Mesopotamia, states that the Apostle was martyred in 'India' and that his relics were taken thence to Edessa. That St. Thomas evangelized the Parthians, is stated by Origen (born A.D. 185 or 186, died about 251-254). Eusebius (bishop of Caesarea Palaestinae from A.D. 315 to about 340) says the same. And the same statement is made by the Clementine Recognitions, the original of which may have been written about A.D. 210. A fuller tradition is found in the Acts of St. Thomas, which exist in Syriac, Greek, Latin, Armenian, Ethiopic, and Arabic, and in a fragmentary form in Coptic. And this work connects with St. Thomas two eastern kings, whose names appear in the Syriac version as Gudnaphar, Gundaphar, and Mazdai; and in the Greek version as Goundaphoros, Goundiaphoros, Gountaphoros, and Misdaios, Misdeos; in the Latin version as Gundaforus, Gundoforus, and Misdeus, Mesdeus, Migdeus; and in the remaining versions in various forms, of the same kind, which need not be particularized here." Mr. Fleet refers to several papers, and among them to one by Prof. Sylvain Lévi, Saint Thomas, Gondopharès et Mazdeo (Journ., As., Janv.-Fév., 1897, pp. 27-42), who takes the name Mazdai as a transformation of a Hindu name, made on Iranian soil and under Mazdean influences, and arrived at through the forms Bazodeo, Bazdeo, or Bazodeo, Bazdeo, which occur in Greek legends on coins, and to identify the person with the king Vasudeva of Mathura, a successor of Kanishka. Mr. Fleet comes to the conclusion that: "No name, save that of Guduphara—Gondophernès, in any way resembling it, is met with in any period of Indian history, save in that of the Takht-i-Bahi inscription of A.D. 46; nor, it may be added, any royal name, save that of Vasudeva of Mathura, in any way resembling that of Mazdai. So also, as far as we know or have any reason to suppose, no name like that of Guduphara—Gondophernes is to be found anywhere outside India, save in the tradition about St. Thomas."

XVIII., p. 357.


On this city of the martyrdom of St. Thomas, see Indian Antiquary, XXXII., pp. 148 seq. in Mr. Philipps' paper, and XXXIII., Jan., 1904, pp. 31-2, a note signed W.R.P.

XIX., p. 361. "In this kingdom [Mutfili] also are made the best and most delicate buckrams, and those of highest price; in sooth they look like tissue of spider's web!"

In Nan p'i (in Malabar) Chau Ju-kwa has (p. 88): "The native products include pearls, foreign cotton-stuff of all colours (i.e. coloured chintzes) and tou-lo mién (cotton-cloth)." Hirth and Rockhill remark that this cotton-cloth is probably "the buckram which looks like tissue of spider's web" of which Polo speaks, and which Yule says was the famous muslin of Masulipatam. Speaking of Cotton, Chau Ju-kwa (pp. 217-8) writes: "The ki pe tree resembles a small mulberry-tree, with a hibiscus-like flower furnishing a floss half an inch and more in length, very much like goose-down, and containing some dozens of seeds. In the south the people remove the seed from the floss by means of iron chopsticks, upon which the floss is taken in the hand and spun without troubling about twisting together the thread. Of the cloth woven therefrom there are several qualities; the most durable and the strongest is called t'ou-lo-mién; the second quality is called fan-pu or 'foreign cloth'; the third 'tree cotton' or mu-mién; the fourth ki-pu. These textures are sometimes dyed in various colours and brightened with strange patterns. The pieces measure up to five or six feet in breadth."

XXI., p. 373.


Prof. E.H. PARKER writes in the Journal of the North-China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Soc., XXXVII., 1906, p. 196: "Yule's identification of Kayal with the Kolkhoi of Ptolemy is supported by the Sung History, which calls it both Ko-ku-lo and Ku-lo; it was known at the beginning of the tenth century and was visited by several Chinese priests. In 1411 the Ming Dynasty actually called it Ka-i-lêh and mention a chief or king there named Ko-pu-che-ma."

XXII., p. 376. "OF THE KINGDOM OF COILUM.—So also their wine they make from [palm-] sugar; capital drink it is, and very speedily it makes a man drunk."

Chau Ju-kwa in Nan p'i (Malabar) mentions the wine (p. 89): "For wine they use a mixture of honey with cocoanuts and the juice of a flower, which they let ferment." Hirth and Rockhill remark, p. 91, that the Kambojians had a drink which the Chinese called mi-t'ang tsiu, to prepare which they used half honey and half water, adding a ferment.

XXII., p. 380 n. "This word [Sappan] properly means Japan, and seems to have been given to the wood as a supposed product of that region."

"The word sappan is not connected with Japan. The earliest records of this word are found in Chinese sources. Su-fang su-pwan, to be restored to 'supang or 'spang, 'sbang; Caesalpinia sappan, furnishing the sappan wood, is first described as a product of Kiu-chen (Tong King) in the Nan fang ts'ao mi chuang, written by Ki Han at the end of the third or beginning of the fourth century. J. de Loureiro (Flora cochinchinensis, p. 321) observes in regard to this tree, 'Habitat in altis montibus Cochinchinae: indeque a mercatoribus sinensibus abunde exportatur.' The tree accordingly is indigenous to Indo-China, where the Chinese first made its acquaintance. The Chinese transcription is surely based on a native term then current in Indo-China, and agrees very well with Khmer sban (or sbang): see AYMONIER et CABATON, Dict. cam-français, 510, who give further Cam hapan, Batak sopan, Makassar sappan, and Malay sepan. The word belongs to those which the Mon-Khmer and Malayan languages have anciently in common." (Note of Dr. B. LAUFER.)

XXIV., p. 386, also pp. 391, 440.


Prof. E.H. PARKER writes in the Journal of the North-China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Soc., XXXVII., 1906, p. 196: "Regarding the Fandaráina country of the Arabs mentioned by Yule in the Notes to pages 386, 391, and 440 of Vol. II., it may be interesting to cite the following important extract from Chapter 94, page 29, of the Yuän Shï:—'In 1295 sea-traders were forbidden to take fine values to trade with the three foreign states of Ma-pa-r; Pei nan, and Fan-ta-la-i-na, but 2,500,000 nominal taels in paper money were set apart for the purpose.'"

XXV., p. 391.

In the Yuen Shi, ch. 94, fol. 11 r'o, the "three barbarian kingdoms of Ma-pa-eul (Ma'abar), Pei-nan (corr. Kiu-nam, Coilam) and Fan-ta-la-yi-na" are mentioned. No doubt the last kingdom refers to the Fandaraina of Ibn Batuta, and Prof. Pelliot, who gives me this information, believes it is also, in the middle of the fourteenth century, Pan-ta-li of the Tao yi chi lio.


XXV., p. 393. "In this province of Gozurat there grows much pepper, and ginger, and indigo. They have also a great deal of cotton. Their cotton trees are of very great size, growing full six paces high, and attaining to an age of 20 years."

Chau Ju-kwa has, p. 92: "The native products comprise great quantities of indigo, red kino, myrobolans and foreign cotton stuffs of every colour. Every year these goods are transported to the Ta shï countries for sale."

XXXI., p. 404.


Speaking of the fabulous countries of women, Chau Ju-kwa, p. 151, writes: "The women of this country [to the south-east (beyond Sha-hua kung?) Malaysia] conceive by exposing themselves naked to the full force of the south wind, and so give birth to female children."

"In the Western Sea there is also a country of women where only three females go to every five males; the country is governed by a queen, and all the civil offices are in the hands of women, whereas the men perform military duties. Noble women have several males to wait upon them; but the men may not have female attendants. When a woman gives birth to a child, the latter takes its name from the mother. The climate is usually cold. The chase with bow and arrows is their chief occupation. They carry on barter with Ta-t'sin and T'ien-chu, in which they make several hundred per cent. profit."

Cf. F. Hirth, China and the Roman Orient, pp. 200-202.

XXXII., pp. 406-7. Speaking of Scotra, Marco (II., p. 406) says: "The ambergris comes from the stomach of the whale, and as it is a great object of trade, the people contrive to take the whales with barbed iron darts, which, once they are fixed in the body, cannot come out again. A long cord is attached to this end, to that a small buoy which floats on the surface, so that when the whale dies they know where to find it. They then draw the body ashore and extract the ambergris from the stomach and the oil from the head."

Chau Ju-kwa, at Chung-li (Somali Coast), has (p. 131): "Every year there are driven on the coast a great many dead fish measuring two hundred feet in length and twenty feet through the body. The people do not eat the flesh of these fish, but they cut out their brains, marrow, and eyes, from which they get oil, often as much as three hundred odd töng (from a single fish). They mix this oil with lime to caulk their boats, and use it also in lamps. The poor people use the ribs of these fish to make rafters, the backbones for door leaves, and they cut off vertebrae to make mortars with."


XXXII., p. 407. "And you must know that in this island there are the best enchanters in the world. It is true that their Archbishop forbids the practice to the best of his ability; but 'tis all to no purpose, for they insist that their forefathers followed it, and so must they also. I will give you a sample of their enchantments. Thus, if a ship be sailing past with a fair wind and a strong, they will raise a contrary wind and compel her to turn back. In fact they make the wind blow as they list, and produce great tempests and disasters; and other such sorceries they perform, which it will be better to say nothing about in our Book."

Speaking of Chung-li (Somali Coast), Chau Ju-kwa writes, p. 130: "There are many sorcerers among them who are able to change themselves into birds, beasts, or aquatic animals, and by these means keep the ignorant people in a state of terror. If some of them in trading with some foreign ship have a quarrel, the sorcerers pronounce a charm over the ship, so that it can neither go forward nor backward, and they only release the ship when it has settled the dispute. The government has formally forbidden this practice."

Hirth and Rockhill add, p. 132: "Friar Joanno dos Santos (A.D. 1597) says: 'In the Ile of Zanzibar dwelt one Chande, a great sorcerer, which caused his Pangayo, which the Factor had taken against his will, to stand still as it were in defiance of the Winde, till the Factor had satisfied him, and then to fly forth the River after her fellowes at his words. He made that a Portugall which had angered him, could never open his mouth to speake, but a Cocke crowed in his belly, till he had reconciled himselfe: with other like sorceries.'" See PURCHAS, His Pilgrimes, IX., 254.

"Not twenty years ago, Theo. Bent found that the Somalis were afraid of the witchcraft of the natives of Socotra. Theo. BENT, Southern Arabia, p. 361."

XXXIII., p. 412. Speaking of the bird Ruc at Madeigascar, Marco Polo says: "It is so strong that it will seize an elephant in its talons and carry him high into the air, and drop him so that he is smashed to pieces; having so killed him the bird gryphon swoops down on him and eats him at leisure."

Chau Ju-kwa writing of K'un lun ts'öng' ki, on the coast of Africa, writes, p. 149: "This country is in the sea to the south-west. It is adjacent to a large island. There are usually (there, i.e., on the great island) great p'öng birds which so mask the sun in their flight that the shade on the sundial is shifted. If the great p'öng finds a wild camel it swallows it, and if one should chance to find p'öng's feather, he can make a water-butt of it, after cutting off the hollow quill."

XXXIII., p. 421.


The Chinese traveller Chau Ju-kwa in his work Chu-fan-chï on the Chinese and Arab trade in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, speaking of the country of Pi p'a lo (Berbera), says: "The country brings forth also the (so-called) 'camel crane', which measures from the ground to its crown from six to seven feet. It has wings and can fly, but not to any great height." The translators and commentators Hirth and Rockhill have (p. 129) the following notes: "Quotation from Ling-wai-tai-ta, 3, 6a. The ostrich was first made known to the Chinese in the beginning of the second century of our era, when some were brought to the court of China from Parthia. The Chinese then called them An-si-tsio 'Parthian bird.' See Hou Han Shu, 88, and Hirth, China and Roman Orient, 39. In the Weï shu, 102, 12b, no name is given them, they are simply 'big birds which resemble a camel, which feed on herbs and flesh and are able to eat fire. In the T'ang shu, 221, 7a, it is said that this bird is commonly called 'camel-bird.' It is seven feet high, black of colour, its feet like those of the camel, it can travel three hundred li a day, and is able to eat iron. The ostrich is called by the Persians ushturmurgh and by the Arabs teir al-djamal, both meaning 'camel birds.'"

Dr. Bretschneider in his Notes on Chinese Mediaeval Travellers to the West (1875), p. 87, n. 132, has a long note with a figure from the Pen ts'ao kang mu on the "camel-bird" (p. 88).

Cf. F. Hirth, Die Länder des Islam, Supp. Vol. V. of T'oung Pao, 1894, p. 54. Tsuboi Kumazo, Actes XII'e Cong, Int. Orient., Rome, 1899, II., p. 120.

XXXIII., p. 421.


Speaking of Pi p'a lo (Berbera Coast) Chau Ju-kwa (p. 128) says: "There is also (in this country) a wild animal called tsu-la; it resembles a camel in shape, an ox in size, and is of a yellow colour. Its fore legs are five feet long, its hind legs only three feet. Its head is high up and turned upwards. Its skin is an inch thick." Giraffe is the iranised form of the arabic zuräfa. Mention is made of giraffes by Chinese authors at Aden and Mekka. Cf. FERRAND, J. Asiatique, July-August, 1918, pp. 155-158.

XXXIV., p. 422.


We read in the Tao i chi lio: "This country [Ts'eng yao lo] is to the south-west of the Ta Shih (Arabs). There are no trees on the coast; most of the land is saline. The arable ground is poor, so there is but little grain of any kind, and they mostly raise yams to take its place.

"If any ship going there to trade carries rice as cargo, it makes very large profits.

"The climate is irregular. In their usages they have the rectitude of olden times.

"Men and women twist up their hair; they wear a short seamless shirt. The occupation of the people is netting birds and beasts for food.

"They boil sea-water to make salt and ferment the juice of the sugar-cane to make spirits. They have a ruler.

"The native products comprise red sandal-wood, dark red sugar-cane, elephants' tusks, ambergris, native gold, ya tsui tan-fan, lit., 'duck-bill sulphate of copper.'

"The goods used in trading are ivory boxes, trade silver, coloured satins, and the like." (ROCKHILL, T'oung Pao, XVI., 1915, pp. 622-3.) Cf. CHAU JU-KWA, p. 126.

XXXIV., p. 423. "There is a great deal of trade, and many merchants and vessels go thither. But the staple trade of the Island is elephants' teeth, which are very abundant; and they have also much ambergris, as whales are plentiful."

Chau Ju-kwa has, p. 126: "The products of the country [Ts'öng-pa] consist of elephants' tusks, native gold, ambergris and yellow sandal-wood."

XXXVI., p. 438.


In the Ying yai shêng lan we read that "the kingdom (of A-tan) is on the sea-coast. It is rich and prosperous, the people follow the doctrine of the Moslims and their speech is Arabic. Their tempers are overbearing and violent. They have seven to eight thousand well-trained soldiers, horse and foot, whom the neighbouring countries fear." (W.W. ROCKHILL, T'oung Pao XVI., 1915, p. 607.) There is a description of the giraffe under the name of K'i lin; it "has forelegs over nine feet long, its hind ones are about six feet. Beside its ears grow fleshy horns. It has a cow's tail and a deer's body. It eats millet, beans, and flour cakes" (p. 609). In the Si Yang Chao kung tien lu (1520 A.D.), we have a similar description: "Its front legs are nine feet long, its hind legs six feet. Its hoofs have three clefts, it has a flat mouth. Two short fleshy horns rise from the back of the top of its head. It has a cow's tail and a deer's body. This animal is called K'i lin; it eats grain of any kind." (Ibid.) Cf. FERRAND, J. Asiatique, July-Aug., 1918, pp. 155-158.

XXXVI., p. 439.

At the time of Chau Ju-kwa, Aden was perhaps the most important port of Arabia for the African and Arabian trade with India and the countries beyond. It seems highly probable that the Ma-li-pa of the Chinese must be understood as including Aden, of which they make no mention whatsoever, but which was one of "the great commercial centres of the Arabs." HIRTH and ROCKHILL, p. 25 n.

XXXVI., pp. 442 seq.


Shehr, a port on the Hadramaut coast, is mentioned by Chau Ju-kwa under the name of Shï ho among the dependencies of the country of the Ta-shï (Arabs.). (HIRTH and ROCKHILL, p. 116.)

XXXVIII., pp. 444-445.


We read in the Ying yai shêng lan: "This country [Tsu fa erh] is between the sea and the mountains. To the east and south is nothing but the sea. To the north and west are ranges of mountains. One reaches it from the kingdom of Ku-li (Calicut) journeying north-westward for ten days and nights. It has no walled towns or villages. The people all follow the religion of the Moslims. Their physical appearance is good, their culture is great, the language sincere.

"The native products are frankincense, which is the sap of a tree. There is also dragon's blood, aloes, myrrh, an-hsi-hsiang (benzoin), liquid storax, muh-pieh-tzu (Momordica cochinchinensis), and the like, all of which they exchange for Chinese hempen cloth, silks, and china-ware." (ROCKHILL, T'oung Pao, XVI., 1915, pp. 611-612.)

The Sing ch'a shêng lan mentions: "The products are the tsu-la-fa (giraffe), gold coins, leopards, ostriches, frankincense, ambergris." (Ibid., p. 614.)

Dufar is mentioned by Chau Ju-kwa under the name of Nu-fa among the dependencies of the country of the Ta-shï (Arabs). (HIRTH and ROCKHILL, pp. 116, 121.)

XXXVIII., pp. 445-449.


Chau Ju-kwa (HIRTH and ROCKHILL, pp. 195-196) tells us: Ju hiang ('milk incense'), or hün-lu-hiang, comes from the three Ta-shï countries of Ma-lo-pa, Shï-ho, and Nu-fa, from the depths of the remotest mountain valleys. The tree which yields this drug may, on the whole, be compared to the sung (pine). Its trunk is notched with a hatchet, upon which the resin flows out, and when hardened, turns into incense, which is gathered and made into lumps. It is transported on elephants to the Ta-shi (on the coast); the Ta-shi load it upon their ships for barter against other goods in San-fo-ts'i: and it is for this reason that the incense is commonly collected at San-fo-ts'i [the three ports of the Hadhranaut coast].

"When the foreign merchants come to that place to trade, the Customs authorities, according to the relative strength of its fragrance, distinguish thirteen classes of incense. Of these, the very best is called kién-hiang or 'picked incense': it is round and of the size of the end of a finger; it is commonly called ti-ju or 'dripping milk.' The second quality is called p'ing ju, or 'potted milk,' and its colour is inferior to that of the 'picked incense.' The next quality is called p'ing hiang, or 'potted incense.' so called, they say, owing to its being prized so much at the time of gathering, that it is placed in pots (p'ing). In this p'ing hiang (variety of frankincense) there are three grades, superior, medium and inferior. The next quality is called tai-hiang, or 'bag incense'; thus called, they say, because at the time of gathering, it is merely put into bags; it is also divided into three qualities, like the p'ing hiang.

"The next kind is the ju-t'a; it consists of incense mixed with gravel.

"The next kind is the heï-t'a, because its colour is black. The next kind is the shui-shï-heï-t'a, because it consists of incense which has been 'water damaged' the aroma turned, and the colour spoiled while on board ship.

"Mixed incense of various qualities and consisting of broken pieces is called chö-siau ('cut-up'); when passed through a sieve and made into dust, it is called ch'an-mo ('powder'). The above are the various varieties of frankincense."
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Re: The Travels of Marco Polo, by Marco Polo and Rustichello

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XXII., p. 488.


"It seems that Russia [Chinese A-lo-sz' = Mongol Oros; the modern Chinese name for Russia is Wo-lo-sz'] was unknown to the nations of Eastern Asia before the Mongol period. In the Mongol and Chinese annals the Russians are first mentioned after Subutai's invasion of Southern Russia in 1223. The Yüan chao pi shi terms Russia or the Russians Orus, as they are called even now by the Mongols. The Chinese of the Mongol period write A-lo-sz', sometimes also Wa-lo-sz' or U-lu-sz'. All these names evidently render the Mongol appellation Orus.

"In the Yüan shï, Russia is frequently mentioned…. I may notice here some other instances where the Russians are spoken of in the Yüan-shï. We read in the annals, s.a. 1253, that the Emperor Meng k'o (Mangu) ordered Bi-dje Bie-rh-k'o to be sent to Wu-lo-sz' in order to take a census of the people.

"It is an interesting fact recorded in the Yüan shï that there was in the first half of the fourteenth century a settlement of Russians near Peking. In the annals, chap. XXXIV., s.a. 1330, it is stated that the Emperor Wen Tsung (Tob Timur, 1329-32, the great grandson of Kubilai), formed a regiment composed of U-lo-sz' or Russians. This regiment being commanded by a wan hu (commander of ten thousand of the third degree), received the name 'The Ever-faithful Russian Life-guard.' It was placed under the direct control of the council of war. Farther on in the same chapter it is stated that 140 king of land, north of Ta tu (Peking) was bought from the peasants and allotted to these Russians, to establish a camp and to form a military colony. We read again in the same chapter that they were furnished with implements of agriculture, and were bound to present for the imperial table every kind of game, fish, etc., found in the forests, rivers, and lakes of the country where their camp was situated. This Russian regiment is again mentioned in chap. XXXV.

"In chapter XXXVI. it is recorded that in the year 1332 the prince Djang-ghi presented 170 Russian prisoners and received a pecuniary reward. On the same page we read that clothes and corn were bestowed on a thousand Russians. In the same year the prince Yen t'ie-mu-rh presented 1500 Russian prisoners to the Chinese emperor, and another prince, A-rh-ghia-shi-li, presented thirty.

"Finally, in the biography of Bo yen, chap. CXXXVIII., he is stated to have been appointed in 1334 commander of the emperor's life-guard, composed of Mongols, Kipchaks, and Russians." (E. BRETSCHNEIDER, Mediaeval Researches, II., pp. 79-81.)

Prof. Parker (Asiatic Q. Rev., Jan., 1904, p. 148) mentions the appointment of a Russian Governor in 1337, and says: "It was the practice of Princes in the West to send 'presents' of Russian captives. In one case Yen Temur sent as many as 2500 in one batch."
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Re: The Travels of Marco Polo, by Marco Polo and Rustichello

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II., p. 533.

GLASGOW, Hunterian Museum.[2] No. 84, vellum, 4to, Cent. XV.: 1. Guido de Colonna's Destruction of Troy. 2. Julius Valerius' History of Alexander the Great. 3. Archbishop Turpin's Itinerary. 4. Marco Polo.

Begins (25, 5 [f. 191 (197) r'o, lines 1-3): ¶ [blue] Incipit liber domini marci Pauli de Venecijs | de condicionibus et consuetudinibus orientalium regionum [rubric] L [small illuminated initial] Ibrum prudentis honorabilis ac fidelissimi domini marci.

Ends (33, 3 [f. 253 (259) r'o, lines 8-12): girfalci et herodij qui inde postmodum ad diuersas prouincias | et regiones deferuntur et cetera. ¶ [blue] Explicit liber domini marci Pauli | de Venecijs de diuisionibus et consue- | tudinibus orientalium regionum [Pipino's Version].

5. Frater Odoricus Forojuliensis.

6. Iohannis Mandeville, De Mirabilibus.

II., p. 533.

GLASGOW, Hunterian Museum, Cent. XIV.[3] No. 458, vellum, 4to. 1. Marci Pavli Veneti, De Orientalibus Regionibus.

Begins—after a preface by "Frater Franciscus Pipinus de Bononia" beginning (I, 1 r'o, lines 1-4): Incipit liber primus domini marci pauli de venecijs de orien [rubric] | L [gilt historiated initial with gestures forming a floreated border.] Ibrum prudentis talibus regionibus. Prolo [last three words rubric] | honorabilis ac fidelissimi domini gus. [last word rubric] | marci pauli de venetijs de conditio | and ending (i, 2 r'o, line 3): nostri ihesu christi cunctorum uisibilium et inuisibilium creatoris, after which comes a list of the chapters, titles and numbers (the latter rubricated) which concludes (i, 7 r'o, line i): D (small blue initial with red ornament) e prouincia ruthenorum, xlix.—(i, 7 r'o, lines 2-5): Capitulum primum primi libri. Qualiter et quare dominus | nicholaus pauli de venetijs, et dominus marchus [rubric] | T [blue and red illuminated initial with minute spread eagle in centre] Empore quo transierunt ad partes [last three words rubric] | balduinus princeps orientales. [last words rubric.]

Ends (14, 1 r'o, lines 26, 27): et diuersas prouincias deferuntur. Explicit liber domini | marci pauli de venetis de diuisionibus et consuetudinibus orientalium.

2. Odoric.

II., p. 534.

PARIS, see No. 18—Bibliothèque Nationale Département des Manuscrits—Livre des Merveilles, Odoric de Pordenone, Mandeville, Hayton, etc.—Reproduction des 265 miniatures du Manuscrit français 2810 de la Bibliothèque Nationale. Paris, Imprimerie Berthaud frères, 31, rue de Bellefond, 2 vol. in 8. Marco Polo, Planches, 1-84.

II., p. 539.

ANTWERP, Museum Plantin-Moretus. Exhibited in Room III., No. 61: Extraits du Livre de Marco Polo de Venise et d'un livre sur l'origine de quelques villes belges.

132 leaves; 185 × 270 millimeters, XVth Century. Adorned initials, alternately blue and red. Headings of chapters underlined in red. Leather binding XVIth century, with small flowers de luce; copper clasps and ten nails. On the last leaf, in a running hand: Este liber partinet Nicholao le buqueteur; the name of Abraham Vander Veken (Abra Vander Veque), and the date 1600, 3/22, on the first and on the last but one leaves.

Fol. 2 recto. Extracta de libro dni Pauli de Venecijs de diver sis provincijs et regnis maior[um] et de diversis moribus habitantiu[m] et de multis mirabilibus in hijs locis et Asije. Eleven lines further: Quomodo iverunt at Berchaman. Fol. 95 r: De Sancto Thoma apto ubi jacet et qno mortu(us) est. Fol. 106 r: Epilogatio de maiori Yndia. F. 117 v, last chapter: De dissentione orta inter Alandum Tartaror[um] et Bcha regem. Ends, f. 118 r: Hii tamen reges proximi parentis erant et ambo ex Chinchini imperialis progenie descendentes. Explicit.

The end of the MS. (f. 118-132) has for object the origin of Belgian villages.

I owe this information to M.J. DENUCÉ.

II., p. 542.

FLORENCE, Riccardian Library, Catalan.

This manuscript has been discovered by Prof. Giovanni Vacca who has kindly sent me the following information regarding this curious document not mentioned by Yule, Amat di S. Filippo, or Uzielli: MS., 2048 cartac. sec. XV. (?), bearing the following faulty title: Storia del Catay in lingua spagnuola; 66 leaves, the last of which with a note by Piero Vaglienti. Writing is pretty clear, much like that of the Catalan Map of 1375.

The text begins with the description of the city of Lop, and ends with Georgia, Fol. 65 v: "anaquesta provencia sisfa molta de seda evy ciutatz e viles e castels assaiz e ay moltz bons azcos. Calre no se queus pusca dir er perque fas vos si anaquest libre veus na sra benefit."

Somewhat similar to the end of MS. 2207, Ottob., sec. XIV., membr. of the Vatican Library (reproduced by Amat di S. Filippo):

"En ycelle province fait on moult de soyt. Et si y a moult de villes, cites et chasteaux, moult bons et beau. Autre chose ne vous en scay dire par quoi je vous fais fins en ce livre."

Generally the text is correct; one does not find the great errors contained in the Italian text given by Bartoli; it seems to follow very closely the French text of the Société de Géographie edited in 1824.

Here is a description of the city of Gambalech (fol. 20 r-20 v) reproducing very closely a legend of the Catalan Map of 1375.

"Les ver que costa la ciutat de Camalech avia una grant Ciutat antichament qui avi a nom garimbalu qui vol dir la Ciut del seyor e lo gran cham troba per los strologians que aquesta ciutat se devia revelar contra el axi que feila desabitar a feu fer la ciutat de Sambaleth e axi .|. flum al miq evay fer venir poblar tota la jent que y staba, e ha entorn a questa ciutat de Gambalech. XXIIIJ. legues e es ben murada e es acayre sique ha de cascun cayre. VI. legues e a dalt lo mur XX. paces e es de terre e ha. X. paces de gros e son totz los murs tant blanchs con a neu e a en cascun cayre. IIJ. portes & en cascuna porta ha .|. palau dela semblansa de les XII. que ditz vos aven e en cascun palau ha de beles cambres e sales plenes darmatures ops da quells qui garden la ciutat los carres son amples e lonchs e ayi que anant de la .|. porta alantre troba hom de bells alberchs e de bels palaus qui son de gran seyors ayi que ela es abitada de bells alberchs E en miss loch de la ciutat a 1. gran palau en que ha 1'n. gran torra enquesta .|. gran seny | sona ho abans axique pus que ha sonat no gosa anar ne gun per la vila si dons gran ops non ha e ab lum e a cascuna porta garden. M. homes no per temensa que nayen mes per honor del seyor e per latres e malfeitos.

"Per gardar la granea del seyor alo poder ell se fa gardar a XIJ'm homes a Caval e ape-lense casitans, qui vol dir leyals cavalers a son seyor a quests. XIJ'm. homes an. IIIJ. capitans …"

The words underlined are included almost verbatim in the Catalan Map. Cf. H. CORDIER, L'Extrême Orient dans l'Atlas Catalan, p. 14.

The manuscript begins, fol. I recto: "Aci comensa lo libre de les provincies et de les encontrades que sont sotz la seyoria del gran Emperador del Catay | lo qual ha la seyoria del Gamballech et seyor de los Tartres ayi com ho reconta o messer March Pollo ciutada noble de Venecia. Et primerament diun ay de la provincia de Tangut hon el stech XXVI. anys per saber la veritat de les coses daval scrites."

Cf. Un manoscritto inedito del viaggi di Marco Polo. Di Giovanni Vacca (Riv. Geog. Ital., XIV., 1907, pp. 107-108).

II., p. 546.

ESCURIAL, Latin, Pipino's (?). See No. 60. This is probably the MS. mentioned by the second Viscount of Santarem, p. 574, in his volume, Ineditos (Miscellanea) Lisboa, 1914, large 8vo: "Un Ms. de Marc Polo du XV'e. siècle qui est mal indiqué par le titre suivant: Consuetudines et condiciones orientalium regionum descripto per mestrum Paulum de Venetiis scripto chartis vix saeculo XV. incipiente, Q-ij—13."

My late friend, Prof. H. Derenbourg, gives me a few notes regarding this Latin MS., paper, small 4to, ff. 1-95 v; contains 187 chapters with a special title in red ink. Begins: Librum prudentis honorabilis ac fidelissimi viri Domini Marci Pauli De Venetiis de conditionibus orientalium ab me vulgari edictum et scriptum.

II., p. 548.

NUREMBERG. Latin MS. containing Marco Polo, St. Brandan, Mandeville, Odoric, Schildtberger; bad handwriting. See French edition of Odoric, p. LXXXII.



[1] See The Book of Ser Marco Polo, Vol. II., pp. 530 seq.

[2] Pages 89, 90 of A Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Library of the Hunterian Museum in the University of Glasgow planned and begun by the late John Young … continued and completed under the direction of the Young Memorial Committee by P. Henderson Aitken…. Glasgow, James Maclehose and Sons, 1908, gr. in -4.

[3] Cf. Young's Catalogue, p. 378.
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Re: The Travels of Marco Polo, by Marco Polo and Rustichello

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1.—Die Reisen des Venezianers Marco Polo im 13. Jahrhundert Bearbeitet und herausgegeben von Dr. Hans Lemke Mit einem Bilde Marco Polos. Hamburg, Ernst Schultze, 1908, 8vo, pp. 573.

Bibliothek wertvoller Memoiren.

Lebensdokumente hervorragender Menschen aller Zeiten und Völker Herausgegeben von Dr. Ernst Schultze. 1 Band.

Revised edition of Bürck's translation of Ramusio's Italian text published in 1845.

2.—*Marco Polo: Abenteuerliche Fahrten. Neu herausgegeben von Dr. Otto St. Brandt. Mit 3 Spezialkarten. Druck und Verlag von August Scherl in Berlin, small 8vo, pp. 319.

Notices: Mitt. K.K. Geogr. Ges. Wien, Bd. LVI., 1913, pp. 258-259. Von E.G.—Geog. Zeitschft. Leipzig, XIX., 1913, pp. 531. By K. Kretschmer.

3.—Marco Polo Il Milione secondo il testo della "Crusca" reintegrato con gli altri codici italiani a cura di Dante Olivieri. Bari, Gius. Laterza & figli, 1912, in—8, 2 ff. n. ch. + pp. 317.

Scrittori d'Italia.

4.—Cosmographia breue introductoria en el libro d'Marco Polo. Seville, 1518.—See II., p. 566.

The bookseller Karl W. Hiersemann, of Leipzig, has in his catalogue America, no. 336, in 1907, no. 2323, quoted M.11.000 a copy of the Cosmographia with the colophon: Elql se emprimio por Juan varela | d'salamaca en la muy noble y muy | leal ciudad de Seuilla. Año de | mill y q°nientos y diez y ocho | año a. XVI. dias de mayo.-Fol., 4 ff. not numbered + ff. 31 numbered on 2 columns.

5.—YULE-CORDIER.—The Book of Ser Marco Polo … Third Edition…. London, John Murray, 1903, 2 vols., 8vo.

Notices: Glasgow Herald, 11 June, 1903.—Scotsman, 11 June, 1903.—Outlook, 13 June, 1903.—Morning Post, 18 June, 1903.—Bulletin Comité Asie française, Juin, 1903.—Standard, 17 June, 1903.—Daily Chronicle, 20 June, 1903.—Manchester Guardian, 23 June, 1903.—Pall Mall Gazette, 15 July, 1903.—Bombay Gazette, 11 July, 1903.—The Spectator, 15 Aug., 1903.—The Guardian (by C. Raymond Beazley), 2 Sept., 1903.—Times (by H.J. Mackinder), 2 Oct., 1903.—Blackwood's Mag. (by Charles Whibley), Oct., 1903.—Illustrated Evening News, Chicago, 26 Sept., 1903.—The Sun, New York, 4 Oct., 1903 (by M.W. H.).—Hongkong Daily Press, 10 and 11 Sept., 1903.—The Athenaeum, 17 Oct., 1903.—Outlook, 14 Nov., 1903.—Some new Facts about Marco Polo's Book, by E.H. Parker (Imp. & Asiat. Quart. Review, Jan., 1904, pp. 125-149).—Saturday Review, 27 Feb., 1904.—T'oung Pao, Oct., 1903, pp. 357-366, from The Athenaeum.—Geographical Journal, March, 1904, pp. 379-380, by C.R.B. [eazley].—Bul. Ecole franç. Ext. Orient, IV, Juillet-Sept., 1904, pp. 768-772, by Paul Pelliot.—Marco Polo and his Followers in Central Asia, by Archibald R. Colquhoun (Quarterly Review, April, 1904, pp. 553-575).

6.—The most noble and famous Travels of Marco Polo one of the Nobility of the State of Venice, into the east Parts of the World, as Armenia, Persia, Arabia, Tartary, with many other Kingdoms and Provinces. The translation of Marsden revised by Thomas Wright, F.S.A.—London: George Newnes; New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1904, 16mo, pp. xxxix-461, Portrait and maps.

7.—Voyages and Travels of Marco Polo, With an Introduction by Henry Morley. Cassell and Company, London, Paris, New York and Melbourne, MCMIV, 16mo, pp. 192, front.

8.—Everyman's Library, edited by Ernest Rhys—Travel and Topography—Marco Polo's Travels with an Introduction by John Masefield.

The Travels of Marco Polo the Venetian. London: Published by J.M. Dent & Co., and in New York by E.P. Dutton & Co., 16mo, pp. xvi-461, n. d. [1907].

9.—[Russian: Shemyakin', A.N.—Puteshestviya Venetsiantsa Marko Polo v' XIII stod'tii, natsegatann'iya v' perv'iy raz' vpodi' na n'metskom' po duchshim' ietsaniyam' i s' ob'yasneniyami Avg. Byurkom' S' dopodneniyami i popravkami K.F. Nenmanna. Perevots' C' n'mstskago. Moskva, 1863.]

Had been published in [Russian: 'Iteniyakh' v' Nmn. Obsch. Istorii i Drevnostey Rossiiskikh' nri Mosk. Universitet'] Mentioned by Barthold in Minaev's Marco Polo.

10.—*Marco Polo's Resa i Asien ([Folkskrifter] allm. hist. No. 32) Stockholm, 1859, P.G. Berg.

11.—Venetianaren Marco Polos Resor i det XIII. århundraded Översättning samt inledning och anmärkningar av Bengt Thordeman.—Stockholm: Albert Bonniers Förlag, n. d. [1917], 2 vol. 8vo, pp. xx-248, 249 to 490, genealogical table of the Tartars, Map.

Pages 345-480 are devoted to notes.

12.—There is a Japanese piratical edition of the second edition of Yule's Marco Polo brought out by the firm Kyoyekishosha in 1900 and costing 8 yen. Cf. Bulletin Ecole franç. Ext. Orient, IV, p. 769, note.



[1] See II., pp. 554 seq.
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Re: The Travels of Marco Polo, by Marco Polo and Rustichello

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1.—Histoire des Établissements européens aux Indes orientales par A. CHARDIN, suivie d'un extrait de l'article sur Marco Polo, de M. WALKENAER, Membre de l'Institut; d'un extrait de la vie de Jonh [sic] Mandeville, par Washington Irving; et d'une notice sur le Camoens, par Mme de Stael.—Paris, Rue et Place Saint-André des Arts, no. 30—1832, 12mo, pp. 104.

Marco Polo, p. 87.—John Mandeville, p. 94.

Marco Polo, after la Biographie universelle; Mandeville, after l'Histoire de Christophe Colomb., de W. Irving.

Fait partie de la Bibliothèque populaire ou l'Instruction mise à la portée de toutes les classes et de toutes les intelligences par MM. ARAGO … et AJASSON de GRANDSAGNE, chargé de la Direction.

2.—MAYERS, W.F.—Marco Polo's Legend concerning Bayan. (Notes and Queries on China and Japan, Nov., 1868, p. 162.)

3.—PALLADIUS' Elucidations. See II., p. 579, No. 63.

Notice in Magazin für die Litteratur des Auslandes, 1876, p. 345.

4.—Marco Polo und die Anianstrasse. Von Prof. S. RUGE, Dresden. (Globus, LXIX., 1896, pp. 133-137.)

5.—Un capitaine du règne de Philippe le Bel Thibaut de Chepoy par Joseph PETIT. (Le Moyen Age, Paris, 1897, pp. 224-239).

6.—[Russian: Kommentarii Arkhimandrita Paddadiya Katharova na putemestvie Marko Polo no s'vernomu Kitayu s' tsrsdisloviem' N.I. Besedobskago. Sankpeterburg', Tip. Imp. Akad. Nauk'] 1902, 8vo, pp. 47, portrait.

7.—MOULE, Rev. G.E.—Notes on Col. YULE'S Edition of Marco Polo's "Quinsay." (Jour. North-China Br. R. As. Soc., N. S., IX., 1875, pp. 1-24.)

8.—The Tarikh-i-Rashidi of MIRZA MUHAMMAD HAIDAR, DUGHLÁT A History of the Moghuls of Central Asia, An English Version Edited, with Commentary, Notes, and Map by N. ELIAS. The Translation by E. Denison Ross … London, Sampson Low, 1895, 8vo.

9.—A. Slieptsov.—[Russian: Mark' Polo i ego stranstbobaniya no tsarstvu Mongol'skomu, po Kitayu i Indii.]—small 8vo, pp. 83, fig. [St. Petersb., 1901.]

[Russian: "Knizhka za knizhkoi," ki. 108-aya.]

10.—STEIN, Sir Aurel.—Preliminary Report of a Journey of Archaeological and Topographical Exploration in Chinese Turkestan. London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1901, 4to.

—— Sand-buried Ruins of Khotan. London, T. Fisher Unwin, 1903, 8vo, pp. xliii-524.

—— Ancient Khotan. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1907, 2 vols., 4to.

—— Ruins of Desert Cathay. Personal Narrative of Explorations in Central Asia and Westernmost China. With numerous Illustrations, Colour Plates, Panoramas, and Maps from Original Surveys. Macmillan and Co., 1912, 2 vols. 8vo.

—— Les Documents chinois découverts par Aurel STEIN dans les sables du Turkestan oriental publiés et traduits par Edouard CHAVANNES. Oxford, Imprimerie de l'Université, 1913, 4to.

—— Explorations in Central Asia (1906-1908). (Geographical Journal, July and Sept., 1909.)

—— Expedition in Central Asia. (Geog. Journ., May, 1915.)

—— Expedition in Central Asia. (Geog. Journ., Oct., 1915.)

—— Expedition in Central Asia. (Geog. Journ., May, 1916.)

—— A Third Journey of Exploration in Central Asia, 1913-16. (Geog. Journ., Aug. and Sept., 1916.)

—— Marco Polo's Account of a Mongol Inroad into Kashmir. (Geog. Journ., Aug., 1919, pp. 92-103.)

11.—H.A. GILES' Dictionary, Part III., pp. 1378-9.

List of Places mentioned by Marco Polo and identified by Yule.

12.—E.H. PARKER.—_Some New Facts about Marco Polo's Book.

(Imperial and Asiatic Quarterly Review_, Jan., 1904, pp. 125-149.)

—— Notes on Yule. (Journ.N.C.B.R.A.Soc., XXXVII., 1906, pp. 195, 196.)

13.—Cesare-Augusto LEVI.—Il vero Segreto di Dante e Marco Polo.—Comunicazione al Comitato di Treviso della "Dante Alighieri" letta la sera del 17 Novembre, 1905—Treviso, Zoppelli, 1905, 8vo, pp. 37.

14.—The Dry Sea and the Carrenare—John Livingstone LOWES. Printed at the University of Chicago Press, 8vo, pp. 46.

Reprinted from Modern Philology, Vol. III., No. 1, June, 1905.

15.—SYKES, Major P. Molesworth, H.B.M.'s Consulate-General, Meshed. (Geog. Journ., XXVI., Oct., 1905, pp. 462-466.)

I. Did Marco Polo visit Baghdad?—II. Did Marco Polo visit the Tabas?

Henri Cordier's reply, Ibid., Dec., 1905, pp. 686, 687.

16.—Noted Men who have helped China.—II. Marco Polo. By Dr. Gilbert REID. (North China Herald, April 6, 1906.)

17.—C. Raymond BEAZLEY.—The Dawn of Modern Geography. Vol. III. A History of Exploration and Geographical Science from the Middle of the Thirteenth to the early Years of the Fifteenth Century (c. A.D. 1260-1420). With reproductions of the Principal Maps of the Time. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1906, 8vo, pp. xvi-638.

Chap. II. The Great Asiatic Travellers, 1260-1420. Part I. The Polos, 1260-1295, pp. 15-160.

18.—HALLBERG, Ivar.—l'Extrême Orient dans la Littérature et la Cartographie de l'Occident des XIII'e, XIV'e et XV'e siècles—Étude sur l'histoire de la géographie.—Göteborg, 1906, 8vo, pp. viii-573.

19.—A.V. JACKSON.—The Magi in Marco Polo and the Cities in Persia from which they came to worship the Infant Christ. (Journ. Amer. Orient. Soc., XXVI., I., pp. 79-83.)

—— Persia Past and Present. A Book of Travel and Research with more than two hundred illustrations and a map by A.V. Williams Jackson, Professor of Indo-Iranian Languages, and sometime adjunct Professor of the English Language and Literature in Columbia University. New York, The Macmillan Co., 1906, 8vo, pp. xxxi-471.

20.—Marco Polo's Journey in Manzi. By John C. FERGUSON. (Journal North China Branch R. As. Soc., XXXVII., 1906, pp. 190, 191.)

21.—The Pulse of Asia: A Journey in Central Asia illustrating the Geographic Basis of History, by Ellsworth HUNTINGTON, Illustrated. Boston and New York, Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1907, 8vo, pp. xxi-415.

22.—BRUCE, Major Clarence Dalrymple.—In the Footsteps of Marco Polo, Being the Account of a Journey Overland from Simla to Pekin. W. Blackwood, Edinburgh and London, 1907, 8vo, pp. xiv-379, ill., map.

23.—HOUTUM-SCHINDLER, A.—Marco Polo's Travels; New editions; his "Arbre Sol" not "Sun-tree," but Cypress of Zoroaster (Journal R. As. Soc., Jan., 1909, pp. 154-162.)

24.—SVEN HEDIN.—Overland to India, with 308 Illustrations from Photographs, Water-colour Sketches, and Drawings by the Author, and 2 Maps. Macmillan and Co., London, 1910, 2 vols., 8vo, pp. xix-416, xiv-357.

25.—L'itinéraire de Marco Polo en Perse, par M. Henri Cordier, membre de l'Académie. (Bull. Ac. Inscr. & Belles-Lettres, Ctes. rendus, Mai, 1911, pp. 298-309.)

26.—Hirth, Friedrich, and Rockhill, W.W.—Chau Ju-kua: His Work on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the twelfth and thirteenth Centuries, entitled Chu-fan-chï, Translated from the Chinese and Annotated. St. Petersburg, Printing Office of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, 1912, large 8vo, pp. x-288.

Mr. Rockhill has edited the Chinese Text of Chau Ju-kua at Tokyo, in 1914.

27.—Rockhill, W.W.—Notes on the Relations and Trade of China with the Eastern Archipelago and the Coast of the Indian Ocean during the Fourteenth Century. (T'oung Pao, 1914, July; 1915, March, May, July, October, December.)

28.—Paul Pelliot.—Kao-tch'ang Qoco, Houo-tcheou et Qarâ-khodja, par M. Paul Pelliot, avec une note additionnelle de M. Robert Gauthiot. (Journal Asiatique, Mai-Juin, 1912, pp. 579-603.)

—— Les documents chinois trouvés par la Mission Kozlov à Khara-Khoto. Ext. du Journal Asiatique (Mai-Juin, 1914). Paris, Imp. Nat., 1914, 8vo, pp. 20.

—— Chrétiens d'Asie centrale et d'Extrême-Orient par Paul Pelliot. (T'oung Pao, December, 1914, pp. 623-644.)

29.—Ferrand, Gabriel.—Relations des voyages et textes géographiques arabes, persans et turks relatifs à l'Extrême-Orient du VIII'e au XVIII'e siècles, traduits, revus et annotés. Paris, Ernest Leroux, 1913-1914, 2 vols. 8vo.

Documents historiques et géographiques relatifs à l'Indo-chine publiés sous le direction de MM. Henri Cordier et Louis Finot.

—— La plus ancienne mention du nom de l'île de Sumatra. Ext. du Journal Asiatique (Mars-Avril, 1917). Paris, Imp. Nat., 1917, 8vo, pp. 7.

—— Malaka le Malayu et Malayur. Ext. du Journal Asiatique (Mai-Juin et Juillet-Août, 1918). Paris, Imp. Nat., 1918, 8vo, pp. 202.

—— Le nom de la girafe dans le Ying Yai Cheng Lan. Ext. du Journal Asiatique (Juillet-Août, 1918). Paris, Imp. Nat., 1918, 8vo, pp. 4.

30.—Yule-Cordier.—Cathay and the Way Thither being a Collection of Medieval Notices of China. New Edition. Vol. I. Preliminary Essay on the Intercourse between China and the Western Nations previous to the Discovery of the Cape Route. London, Hakluyt Society, 1915.—Vol. II. Odoric of Pordenone.—Ibid., 1913.—Vol. III. Missionary Friars—Rashíduddín— Pegolotti—Marignolli.—Ibid., 1914.—Vol. IV., Ibn Batuta.— Benedict Goës.—Index. Ibid., 1916; 4 vols., 8vo.

31.—Karajang, by B. LAUFER (Chicago). (Journ. Roy. As. Soc., Oct., 1915, pp. 781-784.)

Cf. Geographical Journal, Feb., 1916, p. 146.

32.—MOULE, Rev. A.C.—Notices of Christianity. Extracted from Marco Polo. (Journ. North China Br. R. As. Soc., XLVI., 1915, pp. 19-37.)

Facsimile of a page of French MS. 1116 in the Bibliothèque nationale.

—— Marco Polo's Sinjumatu. (T'oung Pao, July, 1912, pp. 431-3.)

—— Hang-chou to Shang-tu, A.D. 1276. (T'oung Pas, July, 1915, pp. 393-419.)

—— Documents relating to the Mission of the Minor Friars to China in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. (Jour. Roy. As. Soc., July, 1914, pp. 533-599.)

—— A.C. M[OULE].—A Note on the Chinese Atlas in the Magliabecchian Library, with reference to Kinsay in Marco Polo. (Jour. Roy. As. Soc., July, 1919, pp. 393-395.)

33.—Charles V. LANGLOIS.—Marco Polo Voyageur. (Histoire littéraire de la France, XXXV.)

34.—CORDIER, Henri.—Le Christianisme en Chine et en Asie sous les Mongols. (Ext. du T'oung Pao, 2'e Sér., XVIII., 1917). Leide, E.J. Brill, 1918, 8vo, pp. 67.
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Re: The Travels of Marco Polo, by Marco Polo and Rustichello

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XII., pp. 307 seq.

Sir Richard C. TEMPLE, has kindly sent me the following valuable notes:—


General Note.

Both the Andaman and Nicobar Islands have been very closely studied by Indian Government officials for about fifty years, and they and the people occupying them are now thoroughly understood. There is a considerable literature about them, ethnographical, historical, geographical, and so on.

I have myself been Chief Commissioner, i.e., Administrator, of both groups for the Government of India for ten years, 1894-1903, and went deeply into the subjects connected with them, publishing a good many papers about them in the Indian Antiquary, Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, and elsewhere. A general survey of all information to that date concerning the islands will be found in the Census of India, 1901, vol. III., which I wrote; in this volume there is an extensive bibliography. I also wrote the Andaman and Nicobar volumes of the Provincial and District Gazetteers, published in 1909, in which current information about them was again summarised. The most complete and reliable book on the subject is E.H. MAN'S Aboriginal Inhabitants of the Andaman Islands, London, 1883. KLOSS, Andamans and Nicobars, 1902, is a good book. GERINI'S Researches on Ptolemy's Geography of Eastern Asia, 1909, is valuable for the present purpose.

The best books on the Nicobars are MAN'S Nicobarese Vocabulary, published in 1888, and MAN'S Dictionary of the Central Nicobarese Language, published in 1889. I am still publishing Mr. MAN'S Dictionary of the South Andaman Language in the Indian Antiquary.

Recent information has so superseded old ideas about both groups of islands that I suggest several of the notes in the 1903 edition of Marco Polo be recast in reference to it.

With reference to the Census Report noted above, I may remark that this was the first Census Report ever made on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and according to the custom of the Government of India, such a report has to summarise all available information under headings called Descriptive, Ethnography, Languages. Under the heading Descriptive are sub-heads, Geography, Meteorology, Geography, History, so that practically my Census Report had to include in a summarised form all the available information there was about the islands at that time. It has a complete index, and I therefore suggest that it should be referred to for any point on which information is required.


P. 307. No king or chief.—This is incorrect. They have distinct village communities, governed each by its own chief, with definite rules of property and succession and marriage. See Census Report pp. 214, 212.

Pp. 307-308, Note 1. For Pulo Gomez, see BOWREY, Countries Round the Bay of Bengal, ed. Temple, Hakluyt Society, p. 287 and footnote 4. Bowrey (c. 1675) calls it Pullo Gomus, and a marine journal of 1675 calls it Polo Gomos.

Origin of the name Nicobars.—On this point I quote my paragraph thereon on p. 185, Census Report.

"The situation of the Nicobars along the line of a very ancient trade has caused them to be reported by traders and sea-farers through all historical times. Gerini has fixed on Maniola for Car-Nicobar and Agathodaimonos for Great Nicobar as the right ascription of Ptolemy's island names for this region. This ascription agrees generally with the mediaeval editions of Ptolemy. Yule's guess that Ptolemy's Barussae is the Nicobars is corrected by Gerini's statement that it refers to Nias. In the 1490 edition of Ptolemy, the Satyrorum Insulae placed to the south-east of the Malay Peninsula, where the Anamba islands east of Singapore, also on the line of the old route to China, really are, have opposite them the remark:—qui has inhabitant caudas habere dicuntur—no doubt in confusion with the Nicobars. They are without doubt the Lankhabalus of the Arab Relations (851 A.D.), which term may be safely taken as a misapprehension or mistranscription of some form of Nicobar (through Nakkavar, Nankhabar), thus affording the earliest reference to the modern term. But there is an earlier mention of them by I-Tsing, the Chinese Buddhist monk, in his travels, 672 A.D., under the name of the Land of the Naked People (Lo-jen-kuo), and this seems to have been the recognised name for them in China at that time. 'Land of the Naked' translates Nakkavaram, the name by which the islands appear in the great Tanjore inscription of 1050. This name reappears in Marco Polo's Necuveran 1292, in Rashiduddin's Nakwaram 1300, and in Friar Odoric's Nicoveran 1322, which are the lineal ancestors of the 15th and 16th Century Portuguese Nacabar and Nicubar and the modern Nicobar. The name has been Nicobar since at least 1560. The fanciful story of the tails is repeated by the Swede Kjoeping as late as 1647."

Nicobar clearly means the Land of the Naked, but that does not correctly describe the people. I have never seen either a naked man or woman in the Nicobars. The men are nearly naked, but they wear a string round the waist with a very small loincloth. The string is so tied as to leave two long streamers behind, which have very much the appearance of a tail as the man walks along, and no doubt this gave rise to the idea that they were tailed men. The women wear a petticoat coming below the knees, generally red.

The Nicobarese are not savages and live in well-built clean villages, are born traders, and can calculate accurately up to very high figures. They deliberately do not cultivate, because by using their cocoanuts as currency they can buy from Chinese, Malay, Burmese, Indian, and other traders all that they want in the way of food and comforts. They are good gardeners of fruit. They seem to have borne their present characteristics through all historical times.

Pp. 307-308, Note 1.—Nancowry is a native name for two adjacent islands, now known as Camorta and Nankauri, and I do not think it has anything to do with the name Nicobar. For a list of the geographical names of the islands, see Census Report, pp. 179-180.

Race and Dialect.—The Nicobarese are generally classed as Malays, i.e., they are "Wild Malays," and probably in reality an overflow of Mon tribes from the mainland of the Malay Peninsula (Census Report, p. 250). They are a finely built race of people, but they have rendered their faces ugly by the habit of chewing betel with lime until they have destroyed their teeth by incrustations of lime, so that they cannot close their lips properly.

I think it is a mistake to class the Nicobarese as Rakshasas or demons, a term that would apply in Indian parlance more properly to the Andamanese.

The Nicobarese are all one race, including the Shom Pen, for long a mysterious tribe in the centre of Great Nicobar, but now well known. They speak dialects of one language, though the dialects as spoken are mutually unintelligible. There is no Negrito tribe in the Nicobars. A detailed grammar of the language will be found in the Census Report, pp. 255-284.

The Nicobarese have long been pirates, and one of the reasons for the occupation of their islands by the Indian Government was to put down the piracy which had become dangerous to general navigation, but which now no longer exists.

P. 309.—The great article of trade is the cocoanut, of which a detailed account will be found in the Census Report, pp. 169-174, 219-220, 243. I would suggest the recasting of the remarks on the products of the Nicobars in your note on p. 309 in view of the statements made in those pages of the Report, bearing in mind that the details of the Nicobar Islands are now practically as well known as those relating to any other part of the East.

P. 312.—The Nicobarese tradition is that they are descended from a man and a dog, but this is only one phase of the ordinary Far Eastern animal-descent story.

The projecting teeth mentioned by Colonel Man are common in the Nicobars in the case of adults only, usually confined to men and women advanced in life. They are not natural, but caused, as stated above, by the excessive use of betel and lime, which forms a dark unsightly incrustation on the teeth and finally destroys them. Children and youth of both sexes have good white normal teeth,

P. 312.


Narcondam, an island I know well, has a separate bibliography of its own. It belongs to the Sunda group of volcanoes, but it has been so long extinct that there are no obvious signs now of its ever having been active. It has a species of hornbill which I have captured and shot that has differentiated itself from all others. I do not think, therefore, it can have been recognised as a volcano by mariners in historical times, and consequently the derivation of Narakakundam is to my mind doubtful. The obvious volcano in the neighbourhood is Barren Island, which is still alive.


Pp. 309-310, Note 1.—The Andamanese are not an ill-looking race, and are not negroes in any sense, but it is true that they are Negritos in the lowest known state of barbarism, and that they are an isolated race. Reasons for the isolation will be found in the Census Report, p. 51, but I should not call their condition, mentally or physically, degraded. The mental characteristics of the race will be found on pp. 59-61 of the Census Report, and for your information I here extract from my remarks thereon the section on character.

"In childhood the Andamanese are possessed of a bright intelligence, which, however, soon reaches its climax, and the adult may be compared in this respect with the civilised child of ten or twelve. He has never had any sort of agriculture, nor until the English taught him the use of dogs did he ever domesticate any kind of animal or bird, nor did he teach himself to turn turtle or to use hook and line in fishing. He cannot count, and all his ideas are hazy, inaccurate, and ill-defined. He has never developed unaided any idea of drawing or making a tally or record for any purpose, but he readily understands a sketch or plan when shown him. He soon becomes mentally tired, and is apt to break down physically under mental training.

"He retains throughout life the main characteristics of the child: of very short but strong memory, suspicious of but hospitable to strangers, ungrateful, imitative and watchful of his companions and neighbours, vain, and under the spur of vanity industrious and persevering, teachable up to a quickly reached limit, fond of undefined games and practical jokes, too happy and careless to be affected in temperament by his superstitions, too careless indeed to store water even for a voyage, plucky but not courageous, reckless only from ignorance or from inappreciation of danger, selfish but not without generosity, chivalry or a sense of honour, petulant, hasty of temper, entirely irresponsible and childish in action in his wrath, and equally quick to forget, affectionate, lively in his movements, and exceedingly taking in his moments of good temper. At these times the Andamanese are gentle and pleasant to each other, considerate to the aged, the weakly or the helpless, and to captives, kind to their wives and proud of their children, whom they often over-pet; but when angered, cruel, jealous, treacherous and vindictive, and always unstable. They are bright and merry companions, talkative, inquisitive and restless, busy in their own pursuits, keen sportsmen and naturally independent, absorbed in the chase from sheer love of it and other physical occupations, and not lustful, indecent, or indecently abusive.

"As the years advance they are apt to become intractable, masterful, and quarrelsome. A people to like but not to trust. Exceedingly conservative and bound up in ancestral custom, not amenable to civilisation, all the teachings of years bestowed upon some of them having introduced no abstract ideas among the tribesmen, and changed no habit in practical matters affecting comfort, health, and mode of life. Irresponsibility is a characteristic, though instances of a keen sense of responsibility are not wanting. Several Andamanese can take charge of the steering of a large steam launch through dangerous channels, exercising then caution, daring, and skill though not to an European extent, and the present (1901) dynamo-man of the electric lighting on Ross Island is an Andamanese, while the wire-man is a Nicobarese, both of whom exhibit the liveliest sense of their responsibilities, though retaining a deep-rooted and unconquerable fear of the dynamo and wires when at work. The Nicobarese shows, as is to be expected, the higher order of intellect. Another Andamanese was used by Portman for years as an accountant and kept his accounts in English accurately and well.

"The intelligence of the women is good, though not as a rule equal to that of the men. In old age, however, they frequently exhibit a considerable mental capacity which is respected. Several women trained in a former local Mission Orphanage from early childhood have shown much mental aptitude and capacity, the 'savagery' in them, however, only dying down as they grew older. They can read and write well, understand and speak English correctly, have acquired European habits completely, and possess much shrewdness and common sense: one has herself taught her Andamanese husband, the dynamo-man above mentioned, to read and write English and induced him to join the Government House Press as a compositor. She writes a well-expressed and correctly-spelt letter in English, and has a shrewd notion of the value of money. Such women, when the instability of youth is past, make good 'ayas,' as their menkind make good waiters at table.

"The highest general type of intelligence yet noticed is in the Jarawa tribe."

P. 310. The name Andaman.—To my mind the modern Andaman is the Malay Handuman = Hanuman, representing "monkey" or savage aboriginal antagonist of the Aryans = also the Rakshasa. Individuals of the race, when seen in the streets of Calcutta in 1883, were at once recognised as Rakshasas. It may amuse you to know that the Andamanese returned the compliment, and to them all Orientals are Chauga or Ancestral Ghosts, i.e., demons (see Census Report, pp. 44-45 for reasons). I agree with you that Angamanain is an Arabic dual, the Great and the Little Andaman. To a voyager who did not land, the North, Middle, and South Andaman would appear as one great island, whereas the strait separating these three islands from the Little Andaman would be quite distinctly seen.

P. 311. Cannibalism.—The charge of cannibalism is entirely untrue. I quote here my paragraph as to how it arose (Census Report, p. 48).

"The charge of cannibalism seems to have arisen from three observations of the old mariners. The Andamanese attacked and murdered without provocation every stranger they could on his landing; they burnt his body (as they did in fact that of every enemy); and they had weird all-night dances round fires. Combine these three observations with the unprovoked murder of one of themselves, and the fear aroused by such occurrences in a far land in ignorant mariners' minds, century after century, and a persistent charge of cannibalism is almost certain to be the result."

The real reason for the Andamanese taking and killing every stranger that they could was that for centuries the Malays had used the islands as one of their pirate bases, and had made a practice of capturing the inhabitants to sell as slaves in the Peninsula and Siam.

P. 311. Navigation.—It is true that they do not quit their own coasts in canoes, and I have always doubted the truth of the assertions that any of them ever found their way to any Nicobar island.

Andamanese men go naked, but the only Andamanese women that I have ever seen entirely naked in their own jungles are of the inland tribe of Jarawas.

Nov. 29, 1919.
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Re: The Travels of Marco Polo, by Marco Polo and Rustichello

Postby admin » Thu Mar 29, 2018 8:08 am


Names of Persons in CAPITAL Letters.—Subject Names in thick Letters.—Title of Books in italics.

Aas (The Alans).
ADAM of Bremen.
ARANZADI, Telesforo de.
Arbre sec, arbre seul, arbre sol.
Asia Minor.
Azoo, R.F.

BAKHSH, Maula.
Bargu, Lake.
Bark of Trees.
Bend i-Turkestan.
BENT, Theo.
Be Tumah.
Binshi Pass.
Blows, Scale of.
BRANDT, Otto St.
BROWN, Dr. Robert.

Cachar Modun.
CAIN, John.
Cala Ataperistan.
Camel crane.
Canal, Grand.
Cape of Good Hope.
Cape Sheep.
Caroline Islands.
CARPINI, Plano, John of.
Chagan jang.
Chagan nor.
Chah Khushab.
Chah Kuru.
Chakmak, Lake.
Chamba, Champa.
Ch'ang Chau, Ch'angchou.
Ch'ang lu.
Chan tao.
Chasma Sufid.
Chau Chi.
Che Ch'an.
Chehel Pai.
Chen Ch'ao.
Cherchen; see Charchan.
Chichiklik Pass.
Chi Chou.
Ch'ing siang.
Chi p'u.
Chou Shu.
Chuan sha.
Chu fan chí; see CHAU JU-KWA.
Ch'ui lan.
Chu lién.
Ch'ung K'ing.
Chung li.
Ciang lu.
Coats of Mail.
Coromandel Coast.
COTES, Everard.
Cypress of ZOROASTER.

Diet of the Gulf People.
Dirakht i sol.
Djur djan.
Dog-headed Barbarians.
Dragon's blood.

Elephants' tusks.
ELLIOTT, Sir Walter.

Faeul la.
Fa li la.
Fa li lang.
Fang pu.
Fan kuo chi.
Fat-tailed sheep.
FERRAND, Gabriel.
Firuz Kuh.
Fong Joen hien.
Fou ning hien.
Fuh lin.
Fu Kien.

Gabar Castle.
GEORGE, Prince.
Gez, Defile.
GILL, Capt.
God Hashtaki.
Goëz, Benedict.
Goklán Turkomans.
Gold, coins; native; value of.
GRAY, Archdeacon.
Great Desert.
Great Wall.
GRIERSON, Sir George.

Ha ch'a mu touen.
Ha-la T'u.
Han chung.
Hang Chau.
Han mo.
HARLEZ, C. de.
Harmuz; see Hormuz.
HEDIN, Sven.
Hei Shui.
Hei tiao.
Hia lah.
Hien yang.
Hindu Kush.
Hist. litt. de la France.
Hiu Heng.
Hiung Nu.
Ho Kien.
HOLM, Frits V.
Ho Nan.
Ho Ni.
Hormos; see Hormuz.
Ho sim.
Ho ts'z mi.
Hou Han shu.
Hsien nü miao.
Hsi hsia.
Hsin Chin Hsien.
Hu Chou.
Hui jen.
Hui kiang chi.
Hu Nan.
Hung Fu.
Hunting Leopard.
Hu Peh.
Hu Tu.
Hu yang.

Islands, Male and Female.

JACK, R. Logan.
Japanese War.
Jou jan.
Ju hiang.

Kafchi kué.
Kafir Valley.
K'ai p'ing fu.
Kal'ah i Atashparastan.
Kam chau; see Kan chau.
Kam pei.
Kan Chau.
Kang pi.
Kan pai.
Kan Su.
Kao ch'ang.
Kao ch'ê.
Kao yu.
Kara Khitai.
Kara Khodja.
Kara Khoto.
Kara Kul.
Kara Shahr.
K'a shi mih.
Kaung sin.
Khan Balig.
Khara Khoto; see Kara Khoto.
Khoten; see Khotan.
Kiang si.
Kiao chi kwe.
Kia yu kwan.
Kieh sha.
Kieh shwang na.
Kien ch'ang.
Kien Kang.
Kien tu.
K'ié t'ai.
Kila Panja.
K'i lien.
K'i lien shan.
K'i lin.
King Shan.
King tchao fu.
Ki ning.
Kin Kargalai.
Ki pe.
Ki pu.
Kitab u'l-Bazyarah.
K'i-t'ah-t'eh Pu-ha.
Kiu chen.
Kiung tu.
Koh Tralàch.
Koko Nor.
Kou kuo.
K'ou wai.
Kuangyu hsing shêng.
Kuang yü t'u.
Kuba Sabz.
Kubunán; see Kuh-benan.
Kudatku Bilik.
Kuh-benan, Kuh Banan.
Ku li.
K'u lu ma.
K'u lun.
K'un lun ts'öng ti.
Kwa Chau.
Kwang Chau.
Kwei Chau.

La meng.
Langar Kisht.
Lan wu li.
LEARY, Mrs. George.
Lei pien.
LEMKE, Hans.
LÉVI, Sylvain.
Liang Shu.
Li Chou.
Ling pei.
Ling ya ssi kia.
Lin Ngan.
Loan tcheou.
Lob Nor.
Lo hing man.
Lo lan.
Lo lo.
Lop; see Lob Nor.
Lo t'ing-hien.
Luang Prabang.
Lu kü River.

Ma lo pa.
Mandal Pass.
Manuscripts of Marco Polo.
Man Waing.
Mao Shan.
Mare's Milk.
Marriage of the Dead.
Masálak al Absár.
Mazar tapa.
Mien, Mien Kwé.
Ming Shi.
Mi t'ang tsiu.
MOHAMMED I. Dirhem Kub.
MORLEY, Henry.
Mongol Imperial Family.
Mu bu pa.
Mu hu pa.
Muh Pang.
Muh pieh tzu.
Mu lan p'i.
Mu mién.
Myin Saing.

Nan fang ts'ao mi chuang.
Naiband, Naibend.
Nam hkam.
Nam Ti.
Nan Chao.
Nan King.
Nan p'i.
Nan Shan.
Nan Shi,.
Nan Sung.
Nan tien.
Nga Singu.
Ngan chen kue.
Ngan tung.
NICHOLAS, Alan Prince.
Ning Yuan.
Niu Wang.
Nuksán Pass.

Ormus; see Hormuz.
Ouigour; see Uighúr.
Oxen of Tibet, Wild.

Pagan Yazawin.
P'ai tzu.
Pamier; see Pamir.
Panjkora River.
Panjkora Valley.
Panjshir Valley.
Paonano Pao.
Pao tch'e hien.
Paper Money.
Pa tan.
Pa ta shan.
Pa tsz.
Peh Shi.
Pen ts'ao kang mu.
Persian, knowledge of.
PETIT, Joseph, II.
Pharaoh's rat.
PHILIP the Fair, II.
P'iao tien.
P'i mo.
Pin Iron.
Pin t'ieh.
Pi p'a lo.
Pir Moral.
Pisaca languages.
Pi ssi lo.
Poh lo.
POLO, Marco,
Statue at Canton;
P'öng hirds.
Po sze tao.
Po Yi.
Puh hai.
PULAD Chinsang.
Pulau Kundur.
Pulo Condor.
Pumpkin Island.

Qara Khodja; see Kara Khodja.

Ramme, African.
REID, Gilbert.
Rhio Strait.
ROBERT d'Artois.
Ross, E.D.

Sad Ishtragh.
Sad Khandut.
Sad Sipang.
Sagamoni Borcan.
Sago tree.
Saint Omer.
Sakya Muni Burkhan.
Sandal Wood.
San fo ts'i.
San Ta.
Sar i Sher.
Selat Tebrau.
Sendi Foulat.
Sha Chou.
Shang Tu.
Shan Haï King.
Shan Tung.
Shan Si.
Shao Hing.
Sha t'ang.
Shen Chou.
Shen shen.
Shen yü.
Shi Ho.
Shi lang.
Shu, Kingdom of.
Shu-mih fu shi.
Siah posh.
Si Chou.
Sien pi.
Si fan.
Si Hia.
Si lan.
Si lan ch'i kuo.
Si li ju eul su la.
Silky Fowls.
SINCLAIR, William F.
Si-ngan fu.
Sing ch'a shêng lan.
Si ning.
Sita river.
Si yang ch'ao kung tien lu.
Si yih kien wan luh.
Soling river.
Somali Coast.
So Tu.
STEIN, Sir Aurel.
Stewart, C.E.
Süan wei shi.
Su Chou.
Sundar Fulat.
Sung Shi.
Sun tree.
SYKES, Major P.M.
Sze Chw'an.
Szi lang.

Tabas, Tabbas.
Tabriz; see Tauris.
T'a-ch'ar Hu-nan.
Ta Hsien.
T'ai hang Mountain.
Tái lin.
T'aï p'ing yu lan.
T'aï Yuan fu.
Ta Ming yi fung che.
Tanah Malaya.
T'ang Shu.
Tanjore inscription.
TANNER, P. von.
Tao yi chi lio.
Ta Ping.
Ta Shi.
Tash Kurghan.
Ta sz nung.
Ta Ts'in.
Ta tu.
Ta tu k'ou.
Ta T'ung.
Tch'eng Tu.
Teir al djamal.
Tengri (Heaven).
Tengri kudu.
T'eng Yueh.
Three Kings.
Tiao men.
Tiao yü shan.
T'ie leh.
Tien chu.
Tien ning temple.
T'ien pu ma.
T'ien Shan.
T'ien tö.
T'ien Tsin.
Tokuk Dawan.
Tou iron.
Tou lo mién.
T'oung Pao.
Tourfan; see Turfan.
T'ou shih.
T'ou t'ieh.
Ts'an chêng.
Ts'ang Chou.
Ts'ao mu tse.
Ts'eng yao lo.
Tsiang kiun.
Ts'i nan.
Tsing hai hien.
Ts'ing ki hien.
Ts'ing shui.
Ts'i Ning chau.
Tsoh mung luh.
Ts'öng pa.
Ts'uän Chou.
Tsui lan.
Tsu la.
Tsu la fa.
T'u fan.
T'u kuh hun.
T'ung kwan.
Tun huang.
Tunocain, Tunokain.
Tun va Kain.
Tun t'ien.

Ulug Mazar.
Ulug Ziarat.
Ulus Arbaa.
Uzun Tati.

VACCA, Giovanni.
Vardoj river.
Victoria, Lake.
VISCONTI, Tedaldo.

Wa lo sz'.
Wan nien tsao.
Wan sui shan.
Weather Conjuring.
Wei, river.
Wei Shu.
Wo tuan.
Wu chên.
Wu chiang.
Wu hwan.

Ya chou fu.
Yaman yar river.
Yang Chau.
Yangi Hisar.
Yang Kiang.
Yap Island.
Ya tsui tan fan.
Yen Chan hien.
Yen t'o man.
Ying yai shêng lan.
Yin shan cheng yao.
Yin tu.
Yi tsi nai.
Yi wu chi.
YOUNG, John.
Yuan kien lei han.
Yuan shi.
Yueh Chi.
Yuen tien chang.
Yu Ho.
YULE, Sir Henry.
Yung ch'ang.
Yung chia chong.
Yun Nan.
Yü shi ta fa.
Yu t'ien.

Zakhama Pass.
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