Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development

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Re: Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development

Postby admin » Wed May 23, 2018 11:08 pm


The base of the inner tube of the whistle is the foremost end of a plug, that admits of being advanced or withdrawn by screwing it out or in; thus the depth of the inner tube of the whistle can be varied at pleasure. The more nearly the plug is screwed home, the less is the depth of the whistle and the more shrill does its note become, until a point is reached at which, although the air that proceeds from it vibrates as violently as before, as shown by its effect on a sensitive flame, the note ceases to be audible.

The number of vibrations per second in the note of a whistle or other "closed pipe" depends on its depth. The theory of acoustics shows that the length of each complete vibration is four times that of the depth of the closed pipe, and since experience proves that all sound, whatever may be its pitch, is propagated at the same rate, which under ordinary conditions of temperature and barometric pressure may be taken at 1120 feet, or 13,440 inches per second,--it follows that the number of vibrations in the note of a whistle may be found by dividing 13,440 by four times the depth, measured in inches, of the inner tube of the whistle. This rule, however, supposes the vibrations of the air in the tube to be strictly longitudinal, and ceases to apply when the depth of the tube is less than about one and a half times its diameter. When the tube is reduced to a shallow pan, a note may still be produced by it, but that note has reference rather to the diameter of the whistle than to its depth, being sometimes apparently unaltered by a further decrease of depth. The necessity of preserving a fair proportion between the diameter and the depth of a whistle is the reason why these instruments, having necessarily little depth, require to be made with very small bores.

The depth of the inner tube of the whistle at any moment is shown by the graduations on the outside of the instrument. The lower portion of the instrument as formerly made for me by the late Mr. Tisley, optician, Brompton Road,[28] is a cap that surrounds the body of the whistle, and is itself fixed to the screw that forms the plug. One complete turn of the cap increases or diminishes the depth of the whistle, by an amount equal to the interval between two adjacent threads of the screw. For mechanical convenience, a screw is used whose pitch is 25 to the inch; therefore one turn of the cap moves the plug one twenty-fifth of an inch, or ten two-hundred-and-fiftieths. The edge of the cap is divided into ten parts, each of which corresponds to the tenth of a complete turn; and, therefore, to one two-hundred-and-fiftieth of an inch. Hence in reading off the graduations the tens are shown on the body of the whistle, and the units are shown on the edge of the cap.

The scale of the instrument having for its unit the two-hundred-and- fiftieth part of an inch, it follows that the number of vibrations in the note of the whistle is to be found by dividing (13440 x 250)/4 or 84,000, by the graduations read off on its scale.

A short table is annexed, giving the number of vibrations calculated by this formula, for different depths, bearing in mind that the earlier entries cannot be relied upon unless the whistle has a very minute bore, and consequently a very feeble note.


The largest whistles suitable for experiments on the human ear, have an inner tube of about 0.16 inches in diameter, which is equal to 40 units of the scale. Consequently in these instruments the theory of closed pipes ceases to be trustworthy when the depth of the whistle is less than about 60 units. In short, we cannot be sure of sounding with them a higher note than one of 14,000 vibrations to the second, unless we use tubes of still smaller bore. In some of my experiments I was driven to use very fine tubes indeed, not wider than those little glass tubes that hold the smallest leads for Mordan's pencils. I have tried without much success to produce a note that should be both shrill and powerful, and correspond to a battery of small whistles, by flattening a piece of brass tube, and passing another sheet of brass up it, and thus forming a whistle the whole width of the sheet, but of very small diameter from front to back. It made a powerful note, but not a very pure one. I also constructed an annular whistle by means of three cylinders, one sliding within the other two, and graduated as before.

When the limits of audibility are approached, the sound becomes much fainter, and when that limit is reached, the sound usually gives place to a peculiar sensation, which is not sound but more like dizziness, and which some persons experience to a high degree. Young people hear shriller sounds than older people, and I am told there is a proverb in Dorsetshire, that no agricultural labourer who is more than forty years old, can hear a bat squeak. The power of hearing shrill notes has nothing to do with sharpness of hearing, any more than a wide range of the key-board of a piano has to do with the sound of the individual strings. We all have our limits, and that limit may be quickly found by these whistles in every case. The facility of hearing shrill sounds depends in some degree on the position of the whistle, for it is highest when it is held exactly opposite the opening of the ear. Any roughness of the lining of the auditory canal appears to have a marked effect in checking the transmission of rapid vibrations when they strike the ear obliquely. I myself feel this in a marked degree, and I have long noted the fact in respect to the buzz of a mosquito. I do not hear the mosquito much as it flies about, but when it passes close by my ear I hear a "ping," the suddenness of which is very striking. Mr. Dalby, the aurist, to whom I gave one of these instruments, tells me he uses it for diagnoses. When the power of hearing high notes is wholly lost, the loss is commonly owing to failure in the nerves, but when very deaf people are still able to hear high notes if they are sounded with force, the nerves are usually all right, and the fault lies in the lining of the auditory canal.



[Footnote 28: Mr. Hawksley, surgical instrument maker, 307 Oxford Street also makes these.]
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Re: Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development

Postby admin » Wed May 23, 2018 11:08 pm


The Questions that I circulated were as follows; there was an earlier and uncomplete form, which I need not reproduce here.

The object of these Questions is to elicit the degree in which different persons possess the power of seeing images in their mind's eye, and of reviving past sensations.

From inquiries I have already made, it appears that remarkable variations exist both in the strength and in the quality of these faculties, and it is highly probable that a statistical inquiry into them will throw light upon more than one psychological problem.

Before addressing yourself to any of the Questions on the opposite page, think of some definite object--suppose it is your breakfast-table as you sat down to it this morning--and consider carefully the picture that rises before your mind's eye.

1. Illumination.--Is the image dim or fairly clear? Is its brightness comparable to that of the actual scene?

2. Definition.--Are all the objects pretty well defined at the same time, or is the place of sharpest definition at any one moment more contracted than it is in a real scene?

3. Colouring.--Are the colours of the china, of the toast, bread crust, mustard, meat, parsley, or whatever may have been on the table, quite distinct and natural?

4. Extent of field of view.--Call up the image of some panoramic view (the walls of your room might suffice), can you force yourself to see mentally a wider range of it than could be taken in by any single glance of the eyes? Can you mentally see more than three faces of a die, or more than one hemisphere of a globe at the same instant of time?

5. Distance of images.--Where do mental images appear to be situated? within the head, within the eye-ball, just in front of the eyes, or at a distance corresponding to reality? Can you project an image upon a piece of paper?

6. Command over images.--Can you retain a mental picture steadily before the eyes? When you do so, does it grow brighter or dimmer? When the act of retaining it becomes wearisome, in what part of the head or eye-ball is the fatigue felt?

7. Persons.--Can you recall with distinctness the features of all near relations and many other persons? Can you at will cause your mental image of any or most of them to sit, stand, or turn slowly round? Can you deliberately seat the image of a well-known person in a chair and see it with enough distinctness to enable you to sketch it leisurely (supposing yourself able to draw)?

8. Scenery.--Do you preserve the recollection of scenery with much precision of detail, and do you find pleasure in dwelling on it? Can you easily form mental pictures from the descriptions of scenery that are so frequently met with in novels and books of travel?

9. Comparison with reality.--What difference do you perceive between a very vivid mental picture called up in the dark, and a real scene? Have you ever mistaken a mental image for a reality when in health and wide awake?

10. Numerals and dates.--Are these invariably associated in your mind with any peculiar mental imagery, whether of written or printed figures, diagrams, or colours? If so, explain fully, and say if you can account for the association?

11.--Specialities.--If you happen to have special aptitudes for mechanics, mathematics (either geometry of three dimensions or pure analysis), mental arithmetic, or chess-playing blindfold, please explain fully how far your processes depend on the use of visual images, and how far otherwise?

12. Call up before your imagination the objects specified in the six following paragraphs, numbered A to F, and consider carefully whether your mental representation of them generally, is in each group very faint, faint, fair, good, or vivid and comparable to the actual sensation:--

A. Light and colour.--An evenly clouded sky (omitting all landscape), first bright, then gloomy. A thick surrounding haze, first white, then successively blue, yellow, green, and red.

B. Sound.--The beat of rain against the window panes, the crack of a whip, a church bell, the hum of bees, the whistle of a railway, the clinking of tea-spoons and saucers, the slam of a door.

C. Smells.--Tar, roses, an oil-lamp blown out, hay, violets, a fur coat, gas, tobacco.

D. Tastes.--Salt, sugar, lemon juice, raisins, chocolate, currant jelly.

E. Touch.--Velvet, silk, soap, gum, sand, dough, a crisp dead leaf, the prick of a pin.

F. Other sensations.--Heat, hunger, cold, thirst, fatigue, fever, drowsiness, a bad cold.

13. Music.--Have you any aptitude for mentally recalling music, or for imagining it?

14. At different ages.--Do you recollect what your powers of visualising, etc., were in childhood? Have they varied much within your recollection?

General remarks.--Supplementary information written here, or on a separate piece of paper, will be acceptable.
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Re: Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development

Postby admin » Wed May 23, 2018 11:08 pm


For an analysis of the several chapters, see Table of Contents.
Abbadie, A. d'
About, E.
Abstract ideas,
like composite portraits;
are formed with difficulty
Admiralty, records of lives of sailors
captive animals;
races of men
Alert, H.M.S.,
the crew of
Alexander the Great,
medals of;
his help to Aristotle
captive animals;
change of population
Animals and birds,
their attachments and aversions
anthropometric committee;
Appold, Mr.
their migrations
his menagerie
(see also Psychometric experiments)
captive animals
Athletic feats in present and past generations
Augive, or ogive
Austin, A.L.
tame kites;
change of population
Automatic thought

Barclay, Capt.,
of Uri
Barth, Dr.
Bates, W.H.
Baume, Dr.
Belief (ie Faith)
Bevington, Miss L.
Bible, family
Bidder, G.
Blackburne, Mr.
Blake, the artist
Bleuler and Lehman
Blind, the
Blood, terror at
Boisbaudran, Lecoq de
Breaking out (violent passion)
Brierre de Boismont
Bruhl, Prof.
Burton, Capt.
their skill in drawing;
in Damara Land

Campbell, J. (of Islay)
Candidates, selection of
Captive Animals (see Domestication of Animals)
Cats can hear very shrill notes
their terror at blood;
gregariousness of;
renders them easy to tend;
cow guarding her newly-born calf;
cattle highly prized by Damaras
Celibacy as a religious exercise;
effect of endowments upon;
to prevent continuance of an inferior race
Centesimal grades
Chance, influence of, in test experiments
Change, love of, characteristic of civilised man
observations on at schools;
changing phases of
Charterhouse College
Cheltenham College
Chess, played blindfold
mental imagery;
effect of illness on growth of head;
moral impressions on;
they and their parents understand each other;
can hear shrill notes
Chinese, the
Clock face, origin of some Number-Forms
Colleges, celibacy of Fellows of
(see also chap. on Visionaries);
colour blindness
Comfort, love of, a condition of domesticability
Competitive examinations
also Memoirs I., II., and III. in Appendix
Composite origin of some visions;
of ideas;
of memories
defective in criminals;
its origin
(see Antechamber of);
ignorance of its relation to the unconscious lives of cells of organism;
its limited ken
Consumption, types of features connected with
Cooper, Miss
criminals, their features;
their peculiarities of character;
their children
Cromwell's soldiers

colour blindness
was a Quaker
their grade of sensitivity;
their wild cattle and gregariousness;
their pride in them;
races of men in Damara Land
Darwin, Charles,
impulse given by him to new lines of thought;
on conscience;
notes on twins;
letter of Mr. A. L. Austin forwarded by
Darwin, Lieut., R.E.,
photographs of Royal Engineers
Death, fear of; its orderly occurrence;
death and reproduction of
cells, and their unknown relation to consciousness
Despine, Prosper
Difference, verbal difficulty in defining
many grades of
Discipline, ascetic
Discovery, H.M.S., the crew of
Discrimination of weights by handling them, etc.
Dividualism; also
Doctrines, diversity of
Dogs, their capacity for hearing shrill notes
Du Cane, Sir E.
Duncan, Dr. Mathews

Editors of newspapers
Egg, raw and boiled, when spun
Egypt, captive animals
Ellis, Rev. Mr. (Polynesia)
Emigrants, value of their breed;
migration of barbarian races
Engineers, Royal, features of
English race, change of type; colour
of hair; one direction in which
it might be improved; change
of stature; various components of
Epileptic constitution
Eskimo, faculty of drawing and map-making
Eugenic, definition of the word
Events, observed order of
Evolution, its effects are always behind-hand;
its slow progress; man
should deliberately further it
Exiles, families of
Experiments, psychometric

FACES seen in the fire, on wall paper, etc.,
Family likenesses; records; merit,
marks for
Fashion, changes of
Fasting, visions caused by;
fasting girls
Fellows of colleges
Fertility at different ages; is small
in highly-bred animals
First Cause, an enigma
Flame, sensitive, and high notes
Fleas are healthful stimuli to animals
Fluency of language and ideas
Forest clearing
Forms in which numerals are seen (see
Number-Forms); months; letters;
Foxes, preservation of
France, political persecution in
French, the, imaginative faculty of
Friends, the Society of (see Quakers)

Generations, length of and effect in population;
in town and country
Generic images; theory of
Geometric series of test-objects; geometric mean
Gerard, Jules
Gibbon, amphitheatrical shows
Goethe and his visualised rose
Goodwin, Mr.
Grades, deficiency of in language;
Graham, Dr., on idiots (note)
gregariousness of cattle;
gregarious animals quickly learn from
one another
Gull, Sir W., on vigour of members of
large families; on medical life-histories
Guy's Hospital Reports (consumptive

HAIR, colour of
Hall, Capt.
Hallucinations, cases of; origin of;
of great men
Handwriting; of twins
Hanwell Asylum, lunatics when at exercise
Hatherley, Lord
Haweis, Mrs.,
words and faces;
Head measured for curve of growth
Hearne (N. America)
Height, comparative, of present and past
Henslow, Rev. G.,
Heredity, the family tie;
of colour blindness in Quakers;
of criminality;
of faculty of visualising;
of seeing Number-Forms;
of colour associations with sound;
of seership;
of enthusiasm;
of character and its help in the teaching
of children by their parents;
that of a good stock is a valuable patrimony,
Hershon, Mr., the Talmud,
Hill, Rev. A.D.,
Hippocrates and snake symbol,
History of twins,
Holland, F.M.,
Hottentots, keenness of sight,
(see Bushmen)
Human Nature, variety of,
Humanity of the future, power of present
generation of men upon it,
Hutchinson, Mr.,
Huxley, Professor,
on sucking pigs in New Guinea;
generic images,

Idiots, deficient in energy; in sensitivity,
Illness, permanent effect on growth,
Illumination, method of regulating it
when making composites;
requires to be controlled,
Illusions, (see also Hallucinations, cases of)
Imagery, mental,
Indian Civil Service, candidates for,
Individuality, doubt of among the insane,
among the sane,
Influence of Man upon race,
Insane, the,
similar forms of it in twins,
Inspiration analogous to ordinary fluency,
morbid forms of,
Instincts, variety of,
slavish (see chapter on Gregarious and
Slavish Instincts)
Intellectual differences,

Jesuits in S. America,
Jukes, criminal family,

Kensington Gardens, the promenaders in,
Key, Dr. J.,
Kingsley, Miss R.,
Kirk, Sir John,

Laboratories, anthropometric,
Larden, W.,
Legros, Prof.,
Lehman and Bleuler, (note)
Letters, association of colour with,
Lewis, G.H.,
Lewis, Miss,
Life-histories, their importance,
Livingstone, Dr.,
Longevity of families,

Macalister, Dr.,
M'Leod, Prof. H.,
Madness (see Insanity)
Mahomed, Dr.,
marriage portions,
Man, his influence upon race,
Mann, Dr.,
Marks for family merit,
Marlborough College,
early and late,
with persons of good race;
marriage portions;
of Fellows of Colleges;
promotion of,
Medians and quartiles,
physiological basis of;
confusion of separate memories,
Mental imagery,
Meredith, Mrs.,
Milk offered by she-goats and wolves to children,
Moors, migrations of the,
Moreau, Dr. J. (of Tours),
Morphy, P.,
Muscular and accompanying senses, tests of,
small fear of death;
things clean and unclean,

Namaquas in Damara Land,
(see also Bushmen)
Napoleon I.,
views in connection with the
faculty of visualising;
his star,
Nature (see Nurture and Nature)
Negro displaced by Berbers;
by Bushmen;
exported as slaves;
replaceable by Chinese,
Nervous irritability, as distinct from sensitivity,
New Guinea,
Nicholson, Sir C.,
Notes, audibility of very shrill,
Nourse, Prof. J.E.,
Numerals, their nomenclature;
characters assigned to them;
Nurture and nature;
history of twins,
Nussbaumer, brothers,

Observed order of events,
Ogive (statistical curve)
Osborn, Mr.
Osten Sacken, Baron v.
Oswell, Mr.
Oxen (see Cattle)

Parkyns, Mansfield
Peculiarities, unconsciousness of
Persecution, its effect on the character of races
Peru, captive animals in
Pet animals
Petrie, Flinders
Photographic composites (see Composite Portraiture);
summed effect of a thousand brief exposures;
order of exposure is indifferent
Phthisis, typical features of
Piety, morbid forms of, in the epileptic and insane;
in the hysterical
Polynesia, pet eels
Ponies, their capacity for hearing shrill notes
Poole, R. Stuart
Poole, W.H.
population in town and country;
changes of;
decays of;
effects of early marriages on
Portraits, composite (see Composite Portraiture);
number of elements in a portrait;
the National Portrait Gallery
Prejudices instilled by doctrinal teachers;
affect the judgments of able men
Presence-chamber in mind
Pricker for statistical records
Princeton College, U.S.
Prisms, double image
Proudfoot, Mr.
Psychometric experiments

Quakers, frequency of colour blindness
Questions on visualising and other allied faculties

Race and Selection;
influence of man upon;
variety and number of races in different countries;
sexual apathy of decaying races;
signs of superior race;
pride in being of good race
Races established to discover the best horses to breed from
Rapp, General
Rapture, religious
Rayleigh, Lord, sensitive flame and high notes
Reindeer, difficulty of taming
Republic of self-reliant men;
of life generally;
Revivals, religious
Richardson, Sir John
Roberts, C. (note)
Roget, J.
Rome, wild animals captured for use of
Rosiere, marriage portion to
Sailors, keenness of eyesight tested;
admiralty life-histories of

St. James's Gazette (Phantasmagoria)
Savages, eyesight of
Schools, biographical notes at;
opportunities of masters;
observation of characters at
Schuster, Prof.
Seal in pond, a simile;
captured and tamed
Seemann, Dr.
Seers (see chapter on Visionaries);
heredity of
Segregation, passionate terror at among cattle
Selection and race
Self, becoming less personal
Sentiments, early
Sequence of test weights
Serpent worship
Servility (see Gregarious and Slavish Instincts);
its romantic side
Sexual differences in sensitivity;
in character;
apathy in highly-bred animals
Siberia, change of population in
Slavishness (see Gregarious and Slavish Instincts)
Smith, B. Woodd;
curious Number-Form communicated by
Smythe, G.F.
Snakes, horror of some persons at;
antipathy to, not common among mankind
Socrates and his catalepsy
Sound, association of colour with
Space and time
Spain, the races in
Speke, Capt.
Spencer, H., blended outlines
Spiritual sense, the
Stars of great men
Statistical methods;
statistical constancy;
that of republics of self-reliant men;
statistics of mental imagery;
pictorial statistics
Stature of the English
Steinitz, Mr.
Stones, Miss
Stow, Mr.
Suna, his menagerie

Talbot Fox
Talmud, frequency of the different numerals in
Tameness, learned when young;
tame cattle preserved to breed from
Tastes, changes in
Terror at snakes;
at blood;
is easily taught
Test objects, weights, etc.
Time and space
Town and country population
Trousseau, Dr.
Turner, the painter
Twins, the history of
Typical centre

Unclean, the, and the clean
Unconcsciousness of peculiarities;
in visionaries

Variety of human nature
visionary families and races

Watches, magnetised
Welch, Mrs. Kempe
West Indies, change, of population in
Wheel and barrel
Whistles for audibility of shrill notes
Wildness taught young
Wilkes, Capt.
Winchester College
Wollaston, Dr.
Wolves, children suckled by
Women, relative sensitivity of;
coyness and caprice;
visualising faculty
Woodfield, Mr. (Australia)
Words, visualised pictures associated with
Workers, solitary

Young, Dr.
Yule, Colonel

Zebras, hard to tame
Zoological Gardens, whistles tried at;
snakes fed;
seal at
Zukertort, Mr.
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