Changing Images of Man: Prepared by the Center for the Stud

That's French for "the ancient system," as in the ancient system of feudal privileges and the exercise of autocratic power over the peasants. The ancien regime never goes away, like vampires and dinosaur bones they are always hidden in the earth, exercising a mysterious influence. It is not paranoia to believe that the elites scheme against the common man. Inform yourself about their schemes here.

Re: Changing Images of Man: Prepared by the Center for the

Postby admin » Mon Jun 03, 2019 10:08 pm

Part 3 of 3

Impact of Psychic Research on Images of Humankind.

The present form of science has based itself upon a particular kind of separation between subjective and objective realities, and has argued that its discovered laws make it so. This remained relatively unchallenged until the early twentieth century, when the deeper probing of science began to reveal a universe that renders objective knowledge impossible once a certain kind of highly responsive system is approached. As noted, this shows up particularly in physics — where the atomic level is so sensitive to the nature of the measurement necessary for the acquisition of objective knowledge that this knowledge becomes impossible to achieve.

A similar phenomenon occurs in research on the human brain. Eccles (1970) has described the connection between events in the brain and energy transitions occurring at the subatomic level in atoms. His suggestion is that whole chains of actions and responses of the nervous system are capable of being initiated by tiny energy transitions occurring at the quantum level, since the brain possesses cells which can be affected by these very small energy transitions, cells whose firing can trigger other whole sets of neurons. This interface between quantum mechanics and brain research will no doubt be one of the vital growing areas of science in the future, and may overlap present inquiries in psychic research in important ways.

It is of course at the level of information itself that all theories, whether physical, biological, or psychological, must fuse. All the issues involved, however, seem to hinge upon the relationship between the physical world and that of consciousness, and it is this relationship that is "on trial" when psychic phenomena are debated.

An important aspect of this relationship is the demonstration that the body is sensitive to many more than the several classes of stimuli in normal sensory perception. In subliminal perception the presentation is such that the threshold of perception for the sense modality being tested is never reached, and yet evidence clearly shows that information is transferred. Dixon (1972) concludes that subliminal stimulation has been shown to affect dreams, memory, adaptation level, conscious perception, verbal behavior, emotional responses, drive-related behavior, and perceptual thresholds. Thus subliminal perception research has been held by some to be the essential point of departure from conventional psychology into those issues in the theory of perception which also involve psychic research and, ultimately, the relationship between the brain and the "external" world.

However, a recent experiment, if substantiated, points to a far more radical departure from presently accepted psychological theory. This experiment, by Puthoff and Targ (1974), depends upon the discovery that if a stroboscopic light at about 15 flashes per second is shined in a subject's eyes, a characteristic alpha component (around 10 or 11 cps) appears in his electroencephalogram. In the Puthoff-Targ experiment two remotely isolated subjects are used, some prior degree of rapport having been established between them. The light is flashed in one subject's eyes and the other is asked to guess whether, in a given time interval, the light is on or off. While the second subject is usually unable to guess better than a chance basis, the telltale alpha component appears in his EEC The important deduction is that unconsciously he knows with a certainty, in an extrasensory way, when the light is in the other person's eyes — even while he is denying such knowledge to his conscious mind.

In other words, this watershed experiment appears to provide clear evidence of universal telepathic capacity with almost complete repression (for most persons) of awareness of this source of knowledge. Demonstration of this repression phenomenon does much to explain the puzzling erratic character of psychic research data. It opens the possibility of radically new research methodologies in which the inhibiting effect of the "internal censor" is bypassed by utilizing responses (such as EEG components) that the organism has not learned to repress.

The implications of the experiment goes much further. If telepathic capacity is shown to be universal and almost completely repressed, this suggests that the same may be true of the whole range of reported paranormal phenomena — clairvoyant remote perception; abnormally rapid healing; precognition; retrocognition of other lifetimes; teleportation, "thought photography," and other forms of psychokinesis; and the rest. Kuhn (1970) describes how, in the replacement of scientific paradigms, a watershed point is reached where the accumulated weight of discrepancies and anomalies that cannot be fitted into the old paradigm tips the balance, and it becomes more profitable (in emotional as well as in rational terms) to seek a new paradigm than to patch up the old. Recent experimental researchers, including especially the experiment mentioned above, strongly suggest that the range of human potentialities is far greater, that the role of out-of-consciousness mind processes is far greater, and that the power of expectations and images is far greater than can be accounted for under the old paradigm.

Clearly the dominant image of human nature in Western society today does not as yet include the potentialities implied by the vast and puzzling range of reported psychic phenomena. On the other hand, public interest in this realm is evidently growing. If Lawrence LeShan (1969) is correct in his theory that the assumptions held about reality influence the "reality" experienced, then changing cultural assumptions about the possibility of psychic phenomena may have consequences for the frequency with which they are observed to occur. (Hypnosis researchers in the early nineteenth century typically observed that the hypnotic trance brought forth latent clairvoyant observation and diagnosis capabilities in their subjects. A century later those doing hypnosis research were more certain that these phenomena were physically impossible, and they no longer seemed to occur.)

If the newly re-energized area of psychic research does flourish, with the dual impetus of increasing public tolerance and new methodological tools, its impact on modern culture may be profound. As earlier indicated, in the current Western scientific paradigm "reality" tends to be physical, causal, mechanistic, and objective. The data of psychic research suggest that reality includes paraphysical effects, that non- material mental states exist and transact with physical systems, and that humanity has a mental or consciousness aspect which transcends its physical nature.

General Systems Theory and Cybernetics

We may let Gregory Bateson introduce a final research area to be mentioned here:

the growing together of a number of ideas which had developed in different places during World War II . . . the aggregate of these ideas [being called] cybernetics, or communication theory, or information theory, or systems theory. The ideas were generated in many places: in Vienna by Bertalanffy, in Harvard by Wiener, in Princeton by von Neumann, in Bell Telephone labs by Shannon, in Cambridge by Craik, and so on. All these separate developments in different intellectual centers dealt with . . . the problem of what sort of a thing is an organized system ... I think that cybernetics is the biggest bite out of the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge that mankind has taken in the last 2000 years.

-- 1972, pp. 482-484

General systems theory is in essence an attempt to integrate in some rational terms, with appropriate metaphors, the diverse knowledge flowing from the whole of scientific investigation. It aims at being both holistic and empirical. One of its most basic propositions, empirically supported, is that laws and principles found to govern the systems particular to one discipline are likely to have import for the systems peculiar to other disciplines.

For example, Wiener (1954) observes that the operations of modern complex computing systems are precisely parallel to those of living organisms in their use of feedback to counteract the thermodynamic tendency toward increasing entropy (i.e. confusion, disorder). In both cases there are similar processes of collecting information from the outside world, transforming this information into more usable forms, basing action on the transformed information, and reporting the consequences back to the internal regulatory apparatus.

The concept of many systems as potentially having similar functional or structural models is an essential part of what in 1954 was termed General Systems Theory by von Bertalanffy (a theoretical biologist), Boulding (an economist), Gerard (a neurophysiologist), and Rapoport (a mathematician). It should be noted that they specifically rejected the notion of the person being only an assembly of the parts of systems that the reductionist approach suggests (Buckley, 1968).

The main thrust for the systems approach may be said to have stemmed from biology. The trend toward, and need for, viewing biological systems in other than reductionist terms came from the thinking of von Bertalanffy, Weiss, Cannon, Bernard, and others in the 1920s and 1930s though their work did not gain widespread recognition until after World War II. Then it was realized that although parts of the biological system might be said to be both in equilibrium and closed, the whole system was not so structured, and so new concepts would be necessary if these systems were to be accurately described by science.

In turn, the systems approach was fruitfully applied to many aspects of the study of organisms, e.g. to the cell (Rashevsky, 1938), to permeation in cells (Osterhout, 1932), to metabolation (Bertalanffy, 1932), growth theory (von Bertalanfly, 1934), and excitation (Hill, 1936). However, the terms of its initiation were broader than this and Ashby (1973) describes the kinds of cross-fertilization that were envisaged as possible if the inhibitions of specialization could be removed:

The neurophysiologists were generally unwilling to think of the cerebral cortex as a place where epidemic-like processes were occurring. The economists ordinarily would not take a person seriously who suggested that the banking system worked rather like the liver.

Further, the advantages of the systems approach were made apparent when Sir Ronald Fisher successfully challenged the reductionist premise by demonstrating that in ecological systems, plots showing the effect of one variable change at a time could never show the effect of varying two or more of them simultaneously. A second major advance was achieved when radio engineers mastered the problems of feedback circuits which had enormous sensitivity but were wildly unstable until it was understood how the interactions created by the feedback operated on the system. When Norbert Wiener discovered that the results could be applied to systems generally such that "goal-seeking" or "self-corrective" devices could be constructed utilizing the feedback principle, then systems science began in earnest, but again, for specialized purposes.

Now it is understood that interaction in systems is a vital element and it requires a new approach; hence Weiss's (1969) point that:

The number of statements necessary to describe the whole system is more than that necessary to describe the parts . . . the "more" in the above statement does not at all refer to any measurable quantity in the observed systems themselves; it refers solely to the necessity for the observer to supplement the sum of statements that can be made about the separate parts by any such additional statements as will be needed to describe the collective behavior of the parts, when in an organized group.

Further, the ways in which systems are structured in terms of hierarchies that allow them to deal effectively with increasing complexity is another essential component (Weiss, 1969).[xi] Thus we find that systems in general have only certain kinds of responses to growth, new information, or change, all of which have common meanings in systems theory. In general such responses are characterized by sudden restructuring phenomena which are usually preceded by dissonance in the system showing up at several levels simultaneously. These events are also accompanied by a trend toward greater simplification as well as interactive transitions across levels of the old subsystemic structure. It is not yet clear whether transitions of this kind can actually be guided; this question emerging from the systems approach is one of the most demanding challenges which we must meet in the near future (Piatt, 1970).

Thus it is clear that information emerging from the systems approach can have immediate relevance for the study of many parts of the human environment. The hierarchization notion is common to language (Chomsky, 1965), voluntary action (Bruner, 1969), instinctive behavior (Tinbergen, 1951), and numerous other kinds of systems. Laszlo (1969, 1972) and Salk (1973), among others, find ethics and values as having an objective base in norms echoed in the structure or "metabiology" of living systems. Bateson (1972) states the promise of cybernetics and general systems theory most ambitiously in dealing with the dilemma to which human consciousness aided by modern technology have now brought us:

Today the purposes of the consciousness are implemented by more and more effective machinery, transportation systems, airplanes, weaponry, medicine, pesticides. . . . Conscious purpose is now empowered to upset the balances of the body, of society, and of the biological world around us. A pathology — a loss of balance — is threatened. . . . On the one hand, we have the systemic nature of the individual human being, the systemic nature of the culture in which he lives, and the systemic nature of the biological, ecological system around him; and, on the other hand, the curious twist in the systemic nature of the individual man whereby consciousness is, almost of necessity, blinded to the systemic nature of the man himself. Purposive consciousness pulls out, from the total mind, sequences which do not have the loop structure which is characteristic of the whole systemic structure. If you follow the "common-sense" dictates of consciousness you become effectively, greedy and unwise — . . . [where] I use "wisdom" as a word for recognition of and guidance by a knowledge of the total systemic creature. Lack of systemic wisdom is always punished. . . . Biological systems — the individual, the culture, and the ecology — are . . . punishing of any species unwise enough to quarrel with its ecology. Call the systemic forces "God" if you will. (p. 440)


We have examined some characteristics of science as it has been, and also some of the developments that may be forcing change in its basic paradigm. Now we want to look at some of the interactions between science and society and suggest some characteristics of the new scientific paradigm that may be emergent.

Interactions between Science and Society

Science today affects the lives of an unprecedented number of people, in terms both of technological impact and of their direct involvement in the activity. The number of Americans who are in some manner occupationally involved in scientific research and development is approaching 5 percent of the working population (Schlegel, 1972). The highly complex and costly operations of science have become a subject for debate in all the advanced societies (Ciba, 1972; Calder, 1963). This increased impact and the high cost of science bring a heightened interaction between society's attitudes to science and the content and quantity of scientific research.

For at least a century, the relationship between science and modern society in many ways has resembled that which formerly existed between religion and society. In advanced societies, most people have sought explanation of natural phenomena in scientific terms, where formerly, explanation was sought from the authority of the major religions. Thus, science has acted as a kind of validating filter through which events in the "real" world had to pass before they could become accepted. However, in performing this function, science has often ended up rejecting as unreal or illusory many aspects .of subjective experience of phenomena which cannot be explained by its own paradigms — psychic phenomena, UFOs, religious experiences — as well as some of the taboos listed earlier. In recent years, major institutions of science have begun to recognize that they can no longer refuse attention to aspects of human experience having high currency in society, and that to continually deny existence to widely experienced realities is to eventually destroy their own authority.

Related to these changes within science is society's growing disenchantment with science. Generally speaking, this disenchantment has been exacerbated by the sometimes disastrous misapplication of technology made possible by science. In the eyes of many, the distinction between science and technology is blurred; as a result, today's ecological crisis, the spinoff of science into military technology, and other problems of advanced societies are blamed on science itself.

This new hostility toward science is reflected, for example, in decreased enrollment in science-degree programs at colleges and universities. It has also repeatedly been used in the political sector to initiate massive cutoffs of funding for basic science — even though the development of military technology continues to flourish. There is a growing belief in the possibility of discovery-specific targeted funding in science, although examination of the patterns of scientific discovery discloses that one of its essential qualities is unpredictability.

The influence of social factors on science can pull in two opposing directions. On the one hand, social pressure can enrich the whole content of science by stressing the need for science to address itself to many issues now excluded. Important future developments might include, for example: extension of models of causality to include new phenomena interlocking with developments in physics; theory of complex and mutual causal systems and psychic research; the role of consciousness in both quantum mechanics and the general realm of state-specific sciences; the vital parameters of ecological and global systems as wholly interconnected systems leading to more enlightened macro-decision-making.

On the other hand, if previously cited problems of misunderstanding of science and the role of technology prevail, then science will have its base of operations diminished by the social demand for almost exclusive attention to short-range problems and goals, thus causing a deterioration of the quality of the scientific enterprise as a whole. Thus, certain social pressures may be actually molding science into becoming exactly what society most wishes it not to be.

Although it has become commonplace to note how science has transformed society, we may well have underestimated the converse — how much the changing values of society have accelerated or decelerated, and affected the form and content of, scientific activity. As Edelstein (1957) points out, the Greeks discovered and tested most of the essential elements of the scientific method. They did not, however, develop their discoveries into practical application. One of the reasons for this, Farrington (1953) suggests, was that Greek society was based on a slave economy, and there was, therefore, no need for the development of technological applications. A more fundamental restriction, as Edelstein (1957) notes, was the Greek image of man in relation to nature: "The world was there to live in and not to be used and made over." Hence, the Greek approach to the pursuit of knowledge was largely aesthetic, although as Aristotle prophetically remarked: "Man vanquished by nature becomes master through technics."

In contrast to the Greek notion of "man," the Judeo-Christian view holds that "man" is essentially separate from the rightful master over nature. This view inspired a sharp rate of increase in technological advances in Western Europe throughout the Medieval period. On the other hand, the severe limitations of scholastic methodology, and the restrictive views of the Church, prevented the formulation of an adequate scientific paradigm. It was not until the Renaissance brought a new climate of individualism and free inquiry that the necessary conditions for a new paradigm were provided.

Interestingly, the Renaissance scholars turned to the Greeks to rediscover the empirical method. The Greeks possessed an objective science of things "out there," which D. Campbell (1959) terms the "epistemology of the other." This was the basic notion that nature was governed by laws and principles which could be discovered, and it was this that the Renaissance scholars then developed into science as we have come to know it.

Today, scientists are experiencing a sense of restriction from the limitations of the objective and reductionist approach, akin to the limitations felt by the Renaissance scholars in relation to the Medieval schoolmen's approach.

The time is clearly ripe for a new vision, and it is natural to wonder if once again the methods of inquiry developed by another culture might not be strong where ours are providing weak. As indicated by Table 5, it may be that these methods will be found in an "epistemology of the self," such as has held sway in the East. Certainly, there is a sudden new interest in oriental knowledge of various methods of control over bodily and mental functions. Like the Greek methods, these techniques have lain dormant in their culture of origin insofar as general application and "objective" development are concerned. Now, however, the Eastern discoveries are being validated in the West by biofeedback and other techniques. In short, the scientific knowledge of the West may be the environment needed if discoveries of the East are to develop and receive[xii] widespread application to the practical concerns of humankind. This is not to suggest that modern science would or should adopt totally all the Eastern notions of consciousness, but rather that they might be fruitfully adopted and synthesized with traditional Western scientific methods to produce the next stage in man's evolutionary advance. As Oates (1972) commented:

What appears to be the breaking down of civilization may well be simply the breaking up of old forms by life itself (not an eruption of madness or self- destruction), a process that is entirely natural and inevitable. Perhaps we are in the tumultuous but exciting close of a centuries-old kind of consciousness — a few of us like theologians of the Medieval church encountering the unstoppable energy of the Renaissance. What we must avoid is the paranoia of history's "true believers," who have always misinterpreted a natural, evolutionary transformation of consciousness as being the violent conclusion of all history.

Characteristics of a Possibly Emergent Paradigm


Element of the historical analogy / in Medieval to Industrial transformation (past) / and Industrial to Post-industrial and transformation (future)

Approach or idea with undeveloped potential / Early Greek development of an epistemology of the "other" on which an objective physical science could be based / Early Oriental development of an epistemology of the "self" on which an objective/subjective psycho-physical science could be partially based

Image blocking development of the idea for human betterment in culture of origin / Dominant image of the world as there to live in, not to be used and made over; free people enjoying know- ledge for its aesthetic value; slaves doing the work — hence uneconomic to replace human energy by technology / Dominant image of the person as essentially a spiritual being deluded by the "maya" of physical existence — hence uneconomic to apply self-knowledge to problems of material existence

Motivating conditions for development of idea / Perceived limitations of the scholastic method, desire for empiricism and practical physical technologies / Perceived limitations of current reductionistic, objective methods; ecological problems beyond resolution by physical-technologies alone; desire for "value incorporating" social and psycho-technologies

Image of humankind necessary to foster development of the idea / Person as a being separate from nature, appropriate to dominate nature through exercise of individual will and reason / Person intrinsically part of nature, appropriate to harmonize self and nature through exercise of the individual and the collective, with objective and subjective means

Building blocks for development of idea / Translation of Greek thought; development of measurement mathematics, engineering, and later "pure" sciences of specialized discipline / Translation of Oriental thought, synthesis with general systems theory, learning theory, and emerging disciplines of holistic objective-subjective inquiry

Result of full development of idea / Powerful objective science and physical technologies; industrial corporations with necessary capitalization to exploit new technologies / Balanced "moral" science and economics oriented toward ecological well-being; balanced emphasis on physical, social, and psycho-technologies; new institutional forms yet to be discovered and created
Much of what has been discussed in this chapter is to the point that the scientific paradigm and, through it, scientific research findings affect the dominant "image of man" in the society — but contrariwise the society's priorities and its cultural prejudices influence the scientific paradigm. At the present moment in history both developments within science itself (e.g. changing metaphors) and pressures from the rest of society (e.g. disenchantment with the present science-technology thrust) may be bringing about a basic change in the scientific paradigm. From the nature of these various forces we have examined in the preceding discussion it is possible to deduce some characteristics that the emergent paradigm would be likely to have if it is responsive to these forces. The following eight characteristics are among the most important:

1. The new paradigm will likely be inclusive rather than exclusive. Science as it has been known to now will be included as a special case, distinguished by a positivistic bias that resulted in relative neglect of subjective experience, and a serious schism between the "two cultures" of science and the humanities. There will be recognition that any system of knowledge that has guided a stable society, whether that society be sophisticated or primitive, ancient or modern, Eastern or Western, may be assumed to be rooted in the human experience of its time and place and hence in that sense valid, not to be lightly assumed away as a quaint superstition.

2. It will likely be eclectic in methodology and in its definition of what constitutes knowledge. It will be guided by the dictum of Saint-Exupery, that "Truth is not that which is demonstrable. Truth is that which is ineluctable" — which cannot be escaped. Thus the new scientific paradigm will not be slavishly wedded to the controlled experiment as the paragon of the test for ultimate truth. Furthermore, it will not be solely reductionistic in its quest for "explanations," recognizing that, for instance, a teleological cause may complement, not contradict, a reductionistic cause.

3. The new paradigm will likely make room for some sort of systematization of subjective experience, the domain which has heretofore largely been left to non-science — the humanities and religion. That is to say, it will include study of those experiences from which we derive our basic value commitments. From this characteristic flow several others:

4. It will likely foster open, participative inquiry, in the sense of reducing the dichotomy between observer and observed, investigator and subject. Insofar as it deals with a "human science," it will be based on collaborative trust and "exploring together," rather than on the sort of manipulative deception which has characterized much experimental psychological research of the past.

5. It will likely be a moral inquiry, in the sense of investigating (and applying) what values are wholesome for man (much in the sense that the science of nutrition investigates what foods are wholesome for man), rather than a "value-free" inquiry.

6. It will likely highlight a principle of complementarity, or reconciliation (analogously to wave and particle theories of light) of such "opposites" as free will and determinism, materialism and transcendentalism, science and religion.

7. The new paradigm will likely incorporate some kind of concept of hierarchical level of consciousness, or levels of subjective experience. These will be distinguishable in the sense that concepts and metaphors appropriate to one level do not necessarily fit another. They will be hierarchical, not in the sense that one is higher than another on some value scale, but in the sense of structural hierarchy, and also in the sense that the consciousness of intense moments of creativity are accompanied by, in some testable meaning, more awareness than times of "ordinary consciousness," and those in turn involve more awareness than deep sleep. The notion of a spectrum of potential consciousness connotes extending the range of recognized "unconscious" processes (i.e. processes of which we are not usually conscious although the potentiality appears to be present of experiencing them directly) to include a vast range of reported experience in the provinces of creative imagination, "cosmic consciousness," aesthetic and mystical experience, psychic phenomena, and the occult. This range will include, importantly, both subconscious choice — man "hiding from himself," repressing not only feelings and memories but also knowledge of his own potentialities — and supraconscious choice, the direction of a "higher self" manifesting itself in hunches and inspirations and "choosing better than we know." The metaphors appropriate to the "highest" levels will include some way of referring to the subjective experiencing of a unity in all things (the "More" of William James, the "Divine Ground," Brahman) of which the "higher self" (the "Oversoul" of Emerson, Atman) has immediate knowledge.

8. Thus the paradigm will allow a much more unified view of human experiences now categorized under such diverse headings as "creativity," "intuition," "hypnosis," "religious experience," and "psychic phenomena" — and also a more unified view of the processes of personal change and development that take place within the contexts of psychotherapy, education, "growth centers," religion, and crisis confrontation.

The guiding paradigm of scientific activity and the dominant image of man in society are not the same thing. They are, however, interdependent and a change taking place in one will surely affect the other.



Note A

"Weiss's point that the rules of interaction must be given does not provide the whole story here. Complex patterns can be generated by simple rules. However, in Ulam's formulation, it takes a greater amount of (Shannonian) information to describe the finished pattern than just the rules of interaction alone. Thus the amount of information (Shannonian) grows. This is contrary to Shannon's formulation that the amount of information decreases but can never increase. Furthermore, often the rules of interaction cannot be inferred from the finished pattern. It is important to realize that Shannon's information theory was developed to combat noise in systems and is therefore based on the rules of random interference. Thus it cannot explain the increase of complexity, structure and differentiation in biological systems. Biological and social processes, on the other hand, are based on differentiation — amplifying as well as structure-maintaining mutual causal relations, and can increase and maintain differentiation, structure and complexity. So Shannon's information theory is inadequate for biological and social systems. [See Maruyama (1963) for further details.]"

— Magoroh Maruyama

"There is never a period of normal science: What Kuhn calls paradigms are multiple  and usually disconnected theories, postulates which are constantly being tested,  falsified and altered or verified and reclaimed pro tern. The process is dynamic; in time  it alters every tenet' of science. The abandonment of an important tenet (like geocentricity) is sometimes called a revolution."
— Henry Margenau

Kuhn's use of the term paradigm is controversial among many members of the scientific  community; some scientists regard Kuhn as correct, others do not.
"This point by Fuller, applied to us, might indicate why we will not survive if our  technological resources are threatened, why we must relearn how to survive with only  our natural resources, and why it is imperative to rely on machines only if one knows  how to fix them, or do without them."
— Stanley Krippner

iii. Henry Margenau offers additional comments in his discussion of "modified reduc-  tionism" in Appendix C.  
"And it seems to some that such union cannot be achieved unless the problem of  consciousness, which appears in every act of measurement, is taken seriously and  included in the theory."
— Henry Margenau

"The (past) Faustian interpretation of (historical) time was subordinated to the will to  power, symbolized by Newtonian mechanics which treated bodies moving in space as  inert recipients of energy. The (present) Riemannian space-time of the Leibnitzian  culture has a strong Chinese tinge: fields of forces compose the extension of the  universe which displays a curvilinear 'infinity'."
— Roland Fischer

"Your image of psychically evolving humankind is, I think, incorrect."
— Elise Boulding

As Dr. Boulding's reasons for holding this view are too lengthy to include here as a  footnote, and as they pertain to various other sections of this report, they are included as  Appendix A.
"There are historical 'consequences' to the shifting of epochs: swinging from the  digital (left, rational) to the analog (right, symbolic) hemisphere! In the past 2,000  years, the pendulum has swung twice from analog to digital and back, and it is now  swinging towards the analog for the third time. Perhaps we have just about passed the  point more than halfway. The great outburst of creative activity which marked the first  few decades of the century may be viewed as resulting from an interhemispheric  integration of the digital and the analog Zeitgeist. Apparently, artistic and scientific  creativity reach maximum at a point midway between a digital and a subsequent analog  epoch."
— Roland Fischer

viii. See Elise Boulding's remarks in Appendix A regarding self-hypnosis and "mind  games" which use passive volition.
"Psychoactive substances have many potential uses — and misuses. (See Wayne O. Evans  and Nathan S. Kline, Psychotropic Drugs in the Year 2000. Charles C. Thomas, 1971.) It is  irresponsible to wax enthusiastic about the potential of drugs without also cautioning  about the many problems that they are causing."
— Michael Marien.

"Of the 4 effects, most scientists have greatest reservation with respect to telekinesis —  in spite of work at Boeing and in Russia. Telekinesis is also of least importance for the  discussion that follows."
— Henry Margenau

xi.  See Note A, p. 109.
"This is a most important admonition, which could be further elaborated. Northrop's  'Meeting of the East and West' here makes an important point. In my own writings,  where I introduced P-plane and C-field, I called attention to the fact that the East  dwells largely in the protocol plane of immediate experience (which includes introspection and esthetic immediacies), refusing to enter the field of rational constructs.  The West, on the other hand, overemphasizes C, the rational. P and C are connected  by rules of correspondence. My insistence is upon equalizing the emphasis on the  two."
— Henry Margenau

"The question before the board, then is whether or not to enter an altered state of consciousness."
Reproduced by permission of The New Yorker Magazine, Inc. Drawing by Richter. © 1977.

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Re: Changing Images of Man: Prepared by the Center for the

Postby admin » Mon Jun 03, 2019 10:37 pm

CHAPTER 5: Characteristics of an Adequate Image of Humankind[ i]

We have seen how the predominant image of humankind in a society is a powerful shaping force on the social environment and how the social environment, in turn, influences the society's image. We have also seen how the dominant images that guided this society through an age of incredible success are now being challenged, because of our inability to deal adequately either with the problems created by the success or the problems attendant to past and emerging social and scientific developments.

Now questions of tremendous import arise. Could an image of humankind emerge that might shape the future, as the currently dominant images — man as the master of nature, inhabitant of a material world, and consumer of goods — our legacy of the past, have shaped our present culture? Could such a new image provide the bridge to carry us safely over to a post-industrial era? If so, what characteristics should the emergent image entail, such that it would be both feasible and adequate for the satisfactory resolution of the serious problems currently facing the society?

From the nature of contemporary societal problems, studies of plausible alternative futures, and our earlier considerations of the role played by a society's dominant image, we can postulate a provisional list of characteristics that a new image must possess if it is to become dominant and effective. At the minimum we believe it would need to: (1) provide a holistic sense of perspective on life, (2) entail an ecological ethic, (3) entail a self-realization ethic, (4) be multi-leveled, multi-faceted, and integrative, (5) lead to a balancing and coordinating of satisfactions along many dimensions, and (6) be experimental and open-ended. We examine these requirements more closely below, and will consider the feasibility of emergence of such an image in Chapter 6.  


A holistic perspective and understanding of life seems absolutely vital if we are to overcome the fragmentation and alienation that have become so common in the latter part of the industrial era. If in the absence of the myths and rituals of pre-scientific societies we are to regain a sense of meaningful purpose and integration — at the level of self, of society, and of the universe — a generally acceptable sense of perspective or understanding must emerge in our society of "what it is all about." Just as an adequate new image should serve to reintegrate the specialized images that at present contend with each other, so too should it lead to a satisfactory sense of perspective and derivative methods for experiencing and participating in construction and discovery processes through which that perspective is maintained. Only then will the needs of continued evolution and the important function once served by myth and ritual again be fulfilled.[ii]


An ecological ethic is necessary if man is to avoid destroying the complex life-support system on which our continued existence on the planet depends. It must recognize that available resources, including space, are limited and must portray the human as an integral part of the natural world. It must reflect the "new scarcity" in an ethic of fragility, of doing more with less. It must involve not only a sense of mutual self-interest between individuals, but also the interests of fellow men and the more extensive interests among fellow creatures (both near and far, both present and future). An ecological ethic would imply movement toward a homeostatic (yet dynamic) economic and ecological system, in which the human acts in partnership with nature to harmonize ecological relationships and in establishing satisfactory recycling mechanisms. Such an ethic is necessary to achieve a synergism of heterogeneous individual and organizational micro-decisions such that the resultant macro-decisions are satisfactory to those who made the component decisions, and to society. (The alternative way of arriving at satisfactory macro-decisions involves behavior controls that would deprive the individual of freedoms, as well as being in conflict with the next characteristic.)

An ecological ethic should incorporate concerns that are broader than those of the physical/biological ecosphere, however. It should also lead to concern for the processes of coordinated and balanced need-satisfaction and well-being among cultures (cultural ecology), among various institutions and types of activities such as the arts, the humanities, the sciences, politics and so forth (institutional ecology), and among various aspects of the self (intra- and trans-psychic ecology).


The desirability of this characteristic of the new image is based on the view that the proper end of all individual experience is the evolutionary and harmonious development of the emergent self (both as a person and as a part of wide collectivities), and that the appropriate function of social institutions is to create an environment which will foster that process. This is the ethic which must supersede the man-over-nature ethic and the material-growth-and-consumption ethic which have given rise to a large portion of man's problems as he became increasingly preoccupied with solely material aspects of exploiting and controlling nature for selfish ends on a fragile and finite planet where the pursuit of such goals can be suicidal.[iii]

This self-realization would relieve the current hostility toward industrial and bureaucratic practices which tend to diminish man and the anxiety that we have somehow lost a sense of direction in the control and management of our human affairs — of what our ancestors would have called our destiny. The wide acceptance of a new ethic is required if we are to restructure our social institutions to satisfy the individual's basic need for full and valued participation in the society. As corollaries to this ethic, self-determination of individuals and minority groups would be fostered, diversity of choices would be honored, social decision-making would become largely decentralized, and the mechanism of creative voluntarism would be preferred over public bureaucracy for the accomplishment of most social tasks.[iv]

Properly understood, these two ethics, the one emphasizing the total community of life-in-nature and the oneness of the human race, and the other placing the highest value on development of selfhood, are not contradictory but complementary. Both are necessary to synthesize and coordinate mutualistic and hierarchical approaches in a symbiotic manner. The ecological ethic corrects for a selfish distortion of the self-realization ethic, and the latter corrects for an excessively collectivist version of the ecological ethic. Together, the two ethics leave room for cooperation and for wholesome competition, for sociality and for individuality. But if the two ethics are to harmonize, the term "self" must be understood in broad terms, incorporating the diverse roles and aspects of existence of the human being. To quote three modern theorists,

It is by now widely accepted that the history of evolution may be regarded as the development of ever more complex organizations of living matter: molecules, proteins, cells, groups of cells, animals.

-- Metzner, 1968

Consciousness, rather than being the product of a particular neural circuit ... is the organization of the bio-system; that is, awareness is the "complementary" aspect of that organization — its psychological equivalent.

-- Deikman, 1972

Consciousness can be defined as a phenomenon which is synonymous with the structure of an organism.

-- Wolf, 1970

Thus, corresponding to the generally increasing complexity and differentiation of evolving biological systems, there has been a concomitant increase in consciousness which reflects that evolving state. Our sense of self must incorporate this vision if we are responsibly to accept the challenges that our era presents.

Just as the different systems within the body (cells, organs, and so forth) are interrelated, so too are the different systems within the body-politic (persons, institutions, and so forth), and this interrelatedness of necessity increases as our civilization becomes more tightly coupled and complex. It represents a higher degree of organization of the bio-system. If we try to "love our neighbor as ourself," not because it is what we have been taught is proper but because we hold the underlying image and perception that our neighbor is in a real sense ourself, then it might indeed become more feasible to arrive at meaningful social goals that can be satisfied within ecological constraints. Thus the new image of humankind should incorporate transpersonal as well as individualistic aspects of existence.[v]


We earlier noted how the images of humankind have over the past several hundred years become increasingly fragmented as specialization and reductionism have come to be emphasized in mature industrialized societies. If this trend is not reversed it is likely to lead, not only to continuing fragmentation of personality and culture, but also to ideological conflict as social policies based on old images compete for dominance. (For example, witness the current debate over the image of the human as portrayed in Skinner's Beyond Freedom and Dignity (1971) and operant conditioning in the schools.)

At this point in history, ideological conflict is too costly — our weapons are too strong and our institutional environment too fragile. If a new image is to contribute to resolution of the planet's woes, it must provide for an integrative reconciliation of the apparent dichotomies between opposing images (as quantum theory reconciled wave and particle images in physics). The new image must also be integrative in the sense that it builds on past successful images. Seldom if ever have historical infusions of new images from external sources been of a non-violent nature, whether the new image was imposed by physical power or brought in by a charismatic messiah who was persuasive to some but not to others. For the new image to foster a smooth transition to a benign post-industrial and eventually planetary society, it has to be absorbed into the lives of people and the institutions of society without the disruptions that accompany most revolutions. This can only happen if the new image and its implications are seen as an integration, reinterpretation or improvement of the old.

Any image of humankind that has guided a stable society, whether that society be sophisticated or primitive, ancient or modern, Eastern or Western, agricultural or hunting or industrial, must be assumed to be rooted in the human experience of its time and place and in that sense valid. That image which can lead toward a pluralistic yet symbiotic world of greater fulfillment cannot be in direct opposition to any of these more restricted images. In the specific case of late twentieth-century America, the new image must somehow be made compatible with the basic symbols and images of the American democratic experiment, and with the individualism of the frontier and the energetic activism of American enterprise.

But just as the new image should be integrative, so too should it entail a high degree of differentiation, not blurring the distinctiveness, focus, and validity of various specialized images in efforts at integration. It therefore must be adequately multi-faceted, and, in keeping with the sense of evolution, coordinate those differences at a higher level of complexity and coherence.

To perform this task of differentiated integration, the new image will likely have to be multi-dimensional.[vi] In keeping with the lessons learned from ecology and general systems theory, any new image will have to order the various aspects of our existence at the physical, organic, social, psychical, and spiritual levels. As Polanyi (1966) and Weiss (1969) have pointed out, these levels form a hierarchy; the functioning of systems at each level relies on the elemental laws of the lower level; but the principle of the operations of a higher level can never be derived from the laws governing the lower — the lower level system received its meaning from the higher system, which integrates the particulars of the lower into a new emerging Gestalt. Such a multi-leveled image of humankind could thereby help both to integrate the contributions from various disciplines of science, and to contain meaning for and serve the needs of individuals and groups at varying degrees of maturity and modernity, just as relativistic physics includes Newtonian mechanics and common-sense observations as special cases of restricted validity.

Thus, if the requirements of various cultures, belief systems, and personality types are to be served, if cultural unity with diversity[vii] is to be fostered and the evolution of consciousness to be furthered, the new image must portray a general direction of growth in which various conceptual emphases are reconciled but retained. For example, the emphasis of: individuality and community; the way of the yogi (inwardly directed change) and the way of the commissar (outwardly directed change); freedom and determinism; nature and nurture; male and female; sensory and extrasensory; and salvation or progress through efforts by self and society and through divine intervention. The meaning of divinity must somehow come to incorporate both the images of person as separate from God, and of person and God as different levels of the same reality. In all such cases the various partial images appear as complementary truths, neither denying the other, thus reflecting the views of such diverse groups as children and adults, lettered and unlettered, abstract and concrete minds.

Both of the dominant conceptual images basic to Western democracy (an agnostic survival of the fittest and a trustworthy invisible hand) are in need of revitalization if self-interested individual micro-decisions are in fact to combine into satisfactory macro-decisions in today's complex, interconnected society. Thus, if the operative principles based on a view of the human as possessing free will and a valid sense of values are to remain viable, the new image must accommodate the concept and experience of the transcendental, the expansion of consciousness, in personal and cultural evolution.


The maximizing of concerns along one narrowly defined dimension would not allow the other criteria listed above to be met in a way that contributes to an increased quality of life. The related ideas of balance and coordination stem from ecology and general systems theory (as well as from various cultures' notions about wisdom), and provides a needed corrective to the one-sided life style of achieving an increased standard of living that has accompanied the growth of the value-empty economics and science in our industrial society.[viii]

Such a new image of man might be supportive of a philosophy (and indeed, a public strategy) of "well-being" — a term that Weisskopf (1971) uses to replace the term "welfare" and the older terms "happiness" and "utility," which have come to have predominantly economic connotations. Such a philosophy would have to acknowledge that:

... a person, a family, a group or a nation can have too much wealth and income and may suffer from too much change, economic growth and production. It may consider that the way in which wealth is produced, distributed and consumed can, in itself, lead to a destructive way of life.

-- Weisskopf, 1971, p. 182

Just as the complexities of ecology fare badly from single-valued approaches of such physical technologies as DDT, so too do the complex needs of the human system from treatments such as typify exclusively allopathic (drug-based) medicine, or a minimum-wage law. The hierarchical structure of human needs requires coordinated "satisficing" if the overall goal of well-being is to be served. (The term "satisfice" was coined by Herbert Simon, 1957. It stems from our recognition that the trade-offs in real life are such that true "satisfactions" are not usually possible — hence we suffice as best we can, arriving at decisions that do not properly satisfy but may indeed "satisfice.")

In addition to these somewhat idealized objectives, however, the new image should point toward a transformed state of industrialized society that will seem achievable and preferable to the present state, yet have functional utility in the present. A positive guiding image is a crucial determinant in the fate of a people. In individual psychotherapy (Frank, 1972) and in societal revitalization (Polak, 1973), the expectation of success in confronting and dealing with crises is often a far more important variable than the specific methods or approaches used. For example, the American response to World War II seems to prove that our society is capable of extraordinary mobilization when it perceives itself to be in a crisis that it comprehends and expects to be able to deal with. But of course the present situation is different from World War II; as Pogo said, "We have met the enemy and he is us." Rather than encouraging propagandistic efforts to mobilize society, a new image should lead to understandings of personal and social actions suitable for the highly interconnected and complex — but limited — environment that the symbol "spaceship earth" has come to signify. The image should have ethical implications that are immediately practical in application and should validate the sense that there is a way out of our current difficulties.


Self-consciously evolutionary rather than dogmatic and paradigm bound attitudes and images are necessary. It is unreasonable to expect the rate of change in society to diminish. If the society of the future is to avoid the image obsolescence and crisis that our present society faces, it will be necessary to anticipate — rather than just to react to — the necessity for such paradigm changes, and continuously to seek more adequate conceptions and images.

Thus the new image of humankind should incorporate the contributions of subjective processes as well as objective sciences. It should portray a vision of man-in-the universe that is unrealized but appears realizable — incomplete in the sense of pointing to the greater mystery that each individual or culture must discover for itself, and thus encouraging exploration and self-development on the part of individuals, groups, and the entire human venture.

Indeed, this last requirement, that a new image be open-ended and evolutionary, may be the key to the productive transition from an industrial past to a post-industrial future. For one of the strongest of current conflicts is that of incremental versus revolutionary change. Incremental change is typically seen as being inadequate to overcome the resistance of institutions which must somehow be fundamentally changed.

Revolution, on the other hand, might well cause so much social upheaval that the cure would be worse than the disease. We suggest that the resolution of this dilemma could be fostered by an "image of man" in transformation which portrays the person and human culture as growing elements in an evolving cosmos. If personal and social evolution is seen as an integral part of human life, then perhaps much less impetus would be required to bring about needed change. One such image has been expressed in Dunn's (1971) phrase, "process teleology", in which human beings

. . . establish the process of human development as the goal of the process of social evolution. Both the process and the goal are understood to be open to further transformation as we advance with the practice and understanding of them. (p. 244)

With such imagery it is conceivable that the incrementalist/revolutionary dilemma could be resolved by revolutionary changes at the conceptual level in the near term, but accompanied by incremental changes at the operational level, leading to thoroughgoing transformation of society only in the longer term.



Note A

"Holistic thought and analysis are essential to understand the change through which we are passing. If we are going to work our way through the pitfalls and dilemmas inherent in your convincing visions of the future with a minimum of waste and agony, we can only do so if we are unable to perceive the interrelationships of things and appreciate the problems inherent in the inexorable synthesis.

"There are two rather fundamental obstacles in the way of this achievement: one is intellectual and the other institutional. Alfred North Whitehead foresaw the first in 1925 when he wrote of the evils of specialization:

. . . the ignoration of the true relation of each organism to its environment . . . , the habit of ignoring the intrinsic worth of the environment which must be allowed its weight in any consideration of final ends .... In short, the specialized functions of the community are performed better and more progressively, but the generalized direction lacks vision, (pp. 282, 283)

"So we are deprived of the intellectual tools and disciplines necessary to simplify, refine, and synthesize the components of the holistic visions which you set forth. Furthermore, most academic bureaucracies, structured to reward specialization, are not helping the situation.

"A second — and related — obstacle to the holistic approach emerges from the structure of our institutions, such as government, corporations, and universities. These institutions have been made legitimate by a framework of ideas, and ideology, which emerged some 300 years ago as an explicit rejection of Medieval holism. (I describe this ideology, somewhat imprecisely, as Lockean....) Our institutions have departed from the old ideology even as it has eroded; their foundations are shaking. But even as they shake, our institutions and their managers understandably tend to cling for legitimacy to the old ideas."

— George C. Lodge

Note B

"This should be called 'heterogenistic self-realization ethic' In order to un-brainwash the readers, it is necessary to repeat 'heterogenistic' where needed. 'Self-realization' may mean, in the minds of many, giving the 'opportunity' to everybody and 'enabling' everybody to become standard middle-class, enabling everybody to go to college, etc. I would rewrite the entire passage as follows:

[The new image] must embody or imply a heterogenistic self-realization ethic, based on the view that the basic principle of the biological and social processes is increase of heterogeneity and of symbiotization, that the individuals are unique and different, that the desirable end of all individual experience is the further development of the emergent self, and that the appropriate function of social institutions is to create an environment which will allow for and facilitate heterogeneous development of in- dividuals and symbiosis within human species as well as among all living species."

— Magoroh Maruyama.

Note C

"Three interpretations must be mentioned here: hierarchical, atomistic, and network. In the first school of thought, represented by Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas, Polanyi and Weiss, these dimensions are conceptualized as levels in a hierarchy. The second school of thought, having its origin in the Nominalists of the Medieval Age and translated into the ideology of democracy in England and in the U.S.A., sees the whole as nothing but a statistical sum of its parts. The third school of thought, developed particularly since the advent of cybernetics in 1940s, sees the whole as characterized by the pattern of network formed between individual elements. In some cases such a network may be pre-designed according to a centralized plan. But in many cases the network will form as a result of interaction between the elements without anybody planning ahead. Ecological inter- actions are an example of the latter. The evolutionary process is another example. The result is different from a mere statistical sum of the parts. Nor is it something planned by a central authority. This type of system is characterized by the pattern of interaction activated by its component elements."

— Magoroh Maruyama

i. To prevent misunderstanding, it should be emphasized that the word "self" in this  chapter is meant to have a trans-personal connotation along the lines described in the next  chapter. For this reason, some readers may prefer to scan Chapter 6 before reading  further.
ii. See Note A, p. 121.
iii. See Note B, p. 122.
 "Let us realize that self-realization is very much an upper middle class/bourgeois/academic/liberal nostrum that, as you suggest, will cure everything for  everybody .... I am all for self-realizing, but I entertain far more modest expectations.  Moreover, I can be totally self-realized, but still be anxious as hell 'that we have  somehow lost a sense of direction in the control and management of our human  affairs.' The self-realization paradigm requires far more critical examination than you  have given it here — just remember, that for most Americans, self-realization is winning  a trophy in the bowling league. There is no indication how this will be otherwise." —
 Michael Marien

v. See Sir Geoffrey Vickers' very relevant comments on "Social Ethics" in Appendix B.
vi.  See Note C, p. 122.
 "The term 'unity with diversity' should be replaced by 'symbiotization of heterogeneity.' Although, as you [Markley] pointed out in conversation, the term 'unity with  diversity' is likely to be understandable to more people, it misses the point completely.  This point is very important."
— Magoroh Maruyama

"The term 'balance' should be replaced by 'symbiosis.' In symbiosis differences do not  have to be 'reconciled.' You make positive use of differences. For example, plants  convert carbon dioxide to oxygen, and animals convert oxygen into carbon dioxide.  They do the opposite. Symbiosis makes use of this difference. The idea is completely  different from 'reconciliation.' Also, 'balance' is based on the paradigm that what one  gains is what someone else loses. But in symbiotic paradigm, everybody gains."
—  Magoroh Maruyama

Rembrandt van Ryn — A scholar in his study, watching a magic disc ("Dr Faustus"). Reproduced by permission of the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
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Re: Changing Images of Man: Prepared by the Center for the

Postby admin » Tue Jun 04, 2019 12:19 am

Part 1 of 2

CHAPTER 6: The Feasibility of an Integrative, Evolutionary Image of Man

We have postulated a set of characteristics that an emergent image of man-in-the-universe would need in order both to be adequate to the challenges of the future, and also to be compatible with our historical past. How feasible is it that such an image might come to dominate world society in the near future?

We propose to address this question here, in two parts. First we shall examine the conceptual feasibility. Mathematicians use what they term an "existence theorem" — it is enough to show that solutions can exist if you can find even one. In that spirit we discuss one sort of image of man that appears to meet the conditions laid down in the preceding chapter.

Then in the second section we shall examine the operational feasibility of replacing past images of man with a new and emergent one.


Thus the possible construction of a new image, and the testing for conceptual feasibility, will be examined first.

Elements of a New Image

It would be impossible to cite all the contributions that influenced the envisioning of the composite image described below. However, the ways of thinking or imaging contained in the following works stand out as having had particular significance in this exploration:

• General systems thinking (Laszlo, 1972; von Bertalanffy, 1967), but in particular the hierarchical relationships of ascending levels of "consciousness" (Polanyi, 1966; Weiss, 1969); and the process of "hierarchical restructuring" (Piatt, 1970).

• Various past theories and images (e.g. Judeo-Christian, Darwinian, Freudian, behaviorist), reviewed in Chapter 3, that somehow must be incorporated.

• The metaphor of the human biocomputer (Lilly, 1972).

• The postulation of "state (of consciousness) specific" theories, needs, knowledge processes, and modes of explanation (Tart, 1972; Kantor, 1969; Maslow, 1962; Hubbard, 1954; Kohlberg, 1969).

• The vision of continuing evolution of man — social (Dunn, 1971), cultural (Mead, 1964), spiritual (Chardin, 1939), and integrative (Aurobindo, 1963; Assagioli, 1965).

• The "Perennial Philosophy" (Huxley, 1945) and various occult writings (e.g. Ouspensky, 1943).

• The process of transformational discovery, as in the "Monomyth" (J. Campbell, 1956), "cultural revitalization" (Wallace, 1956), and in the work of Toynbee, Jung, and Eliot, as described in The Experiment in Depth (Martin, 1955).

The Gradient

Figure 9 shows a number of theories about the nature of the human and their underlying images that we will attempt to show can be integrated into a more holistic image/theory of humankind. If this attempt proves successful, each composite part would come to be seen not as erroneous but rather as having its own validity (albeit a restricted one as seen from the perspective of the whole). First, it is useful to introduce the concept of gradient, and to see how it applies to the systemic properties of existence.


Images of man / Dominant aspects of consciousness / Spokesmen

Divine self / "Super-conscious" / The Vedas, Perennial philosophy, etc.

Many-leveled self (astral, etc.) / -- / Rosicrucians, Theosophy, etc.

Existentially-free man / (ego?) / Humanists, NeoFreudian

Absurd man / -- / Sartrian existentialists

Conditioned man / "conscious" / --

Economic man / (super-ego?) / Freud, Watson, Skinner

Animal-bestial man; Impulsive- irrational man / (id?) / Freud , Lorenz, Ardrey

Repressed man / Personal and / Freud

Dreaming man / collective "subconscious" / Jung[ i]

Fig. 9. Complementarity of various images as they might fit in a proposed composite image of the person.

By "gradient" we mean, simply, "the grade or ascent ... a series of transitional forms, states, or qualities connecting related extremes" (Webster's).

It is widely recognized that each succeeding level of biological and social evolution forms a hierarchical gradient of interacting levels of increasing complexity and order. The various scientific disciplines reflect this ordered series — from phylogenesis to ontogenesis to socio-genesis; from such disciplines as physics, chemistry, genetics, and physiology to ethology, psychology, sociology, and anthropology and to such newly emerging disciplines as systems theory and the policy sciences.

Some type of gradient should similarly be recognizable with regard to the higher aspects of human existence. In biological evolution, as each higher level system emerges, it brings with it the capacity to order chemical reactions in an increasingly coherent and purposive manner. Similarly with social and cultural evolution where, for example, ethical norms order or channel the energies associated with more primitive processes (such as anger) in keeping with higher needs, or where immediate gratification is postponed in order to obtain a greater gratification at some future time.

Three principles are enunciated in this approach: one, the dimensions of existence form a hierarchy of lower and higher levels or dimensions; two, the higher dimension, although resting on the foundations of the lower ones, cannot be understood in terms of the principles governing the lower ones; it receives its meaning from the higher dimension which integrates the particulars of the lower dimension into a new emerging Gestalt. Three, the highest level is the realm of the normative, of the moral sense, of the standards of value.

-- Weisskopf, 1971, p. 186

An analogy to computer programming may be a helpful illustration at this point.

The Gradient in the Human Biocomputer.

The real power and flexibility of the modern computer is found not in its hardware, but in its software — the gradient series of ever more general symbolic programs that make it feasible to use the computer for vastly different functions. The basic functioning of a computer requires one instruction for each operation that is carried out, and while programming at this machine- language level is in principle very flexible, it requires too much time to prepare special purpose programs for different applications. Rather, it has been found useful to create a hierarchical series of macroprogramming languages, where a single instruction at one level generates a score or more detailed instructions at a more basic level.

The utility of the computer metaphor of human functioning is illustrated in Table 6 (a). At the lower (machine language) end of the human biocomputer are such processes as genetic inheritance; instinctual, endocrine, and autonomic processes; semantic and cultural determinism — all of which we have some degree of subconscious awareness of; and as the experience of yoga, hypnosis, and biofeedback training suggests, all of which we can to some extent reprogram. At a higher level, that of normal waking awareness, the executive function of the human biocomputer manifests awareness of the self (cogito, ergo sum); and as part of that self-awareness, believes that it is constantly capable of choice and of reprogramming itself, i.e. that it has freedom. Just how much freedom of choice exists at this level is somewhat problematical, however, for as Lilly (1972) has pointed out, there are still higher level metaprograms to which the human biocomputer is subject.



(a) Hierarchical programs in the human biocomputer / (b) Hierarchy of needs (Maslow) / (c) Hierarchy of moral orientations (Kohlberg)

Higher levels of awareness and functioning, metaprograms, transcendence of time and space, aesthetic and creative sense, supra-mental functioning astral levels, contact with spiritual entities, etc. / 5. Self-actualization; 4. Esteem / 6. Universal ethical principle ; 5. Social contact/shared understandings; 4. Authoritarian law and order/doing duty

Normal levels of waking awareness and ego functioning / 3. Belongingness and love; 2. Safety / 3. Other-directed — conformist; 2. Instrumental relativist; 1. Obedience and fear of punishment

Subconscious awareness, id functioning, semantic and cultural determinism; psychosomatic process; genetic inheritance / 1. Physiological / --

If such metaprograms (the basic beliefs; images of self, others, and the universe; influence from subconscious and the superconscious aspects of self) determine the criteria for choice, then there is in fact very little true freedom of choice unless access to these levels can be obtained. We have only the most rudimentary maps for these aspects of the self, but they must be incorporated into any image of humankind adequate for the future. To the extent that a linear dimension of lower and higher is valid, however (and we will later discuss limitations of this approach), it would seem that it is the lower quasi-conscious or unconscious aspects of man that are operative through the functioning of instinctual energies (Freud) and operant conditioning (Skinner); and conversely, the higher levels are those to which esoteric wisdom refers and from which the intuitive sources of creativity most likely stem. The Italian psychiatrist Roberto Assagioli has formulated a map (reproduced here as Fig. 10) that depicts these various domains of consciousness in a useful way.

The Gradient of Human Needs.

Maslow (1962) described a gradient that parallels the above as being manifest by persons with different levels of need-fulfillment. He noted that persons who have adequately fulfilled their basic physical and emotional needs act from a very different type of motivation than do those who have not. Very simply stated, "deficiency needs" are those which, if not fulfilled, will eventually lead to illness or to death. Their non-fulfillment causes the deprived person to act at lower levels of functioning, as we have portrayed on Table 6 (b). Growth/being/wisdom needs, on the other hand, are the needs whose fulfillment provides a sense of meaning for existence, aesthetic or spiritual delight; non-fulfillment brings, not illness, but rather a sense of boredom or apathy (assuming that the deficiency needs are adequately met).[ii] It was Maslow's hypothesis that most people move sequentially through a "hierarchy of needs." Such movement likely occurs in two rather different modes. As Maslow emphasized, it can occur quite spontaneously — as one modal need type is adequately fulfilled, there is a natural tendency to grow and seek further. On the other hand, as noted by Clare Graves (another theorist who has developed the needs hierarchy theme), it can also occur or be stimulated in crises — as one modal behavior style becomes dysfunctional there is a tendency to seek another level of need fulfillment.


1. The lower unconscious
2. The middle unconscious
3. The higher unconscious or superconscious
4. The field of consciousness
5. The conscious self or "I"
6. The higher self
7. The collective unconscious

Fig. 10. Various aspects of consciousness/function in the personality. Source: Assagioli (1965). Assagioli presents a great deal more background, reservations, and qualifications with regard to this type of conception than can be presented in this report.

The Gradient of Human Morality.

Still another similar gradient series, this time having to do with ascending degrees of moral thinking and acting, has been derived by Kohlberg (1969). In both cross-cultural and domestic studies, Kohlberg found that the dominant form of morality tends, over time, to follow a definite, hierarchical progression. This is true both of whole cultures and of the individual within the culture (until he reaches or surpasses the dominant form in his culture). Like the hierarchy of needs, these stages also form a gradient, as depicted in Table 6 (c). (Descriptions of each of the stages are given in Fig. 11.)[iii]


At this level the child is responsive to such rules and labels as Rood or bad and right or wrong. He interprets these labels in purely physical or hedonistic terms: If he is bad, he is punished; if he is good, he is rewarded. He also interprets the labels in terms of the physical power of those who enunciate them — parents, teachers and other adults. The level comprises the following two stages:

Stage 1: punishment and obedience orientation. The physical con- sequences of action determine its goodness or badness regardless of the human meaning or value of these consequences. Avoidance of punishment and unquestioning deference to power are valued in their own right, not in terms of respect for an underlying moral order supported by punishment and authority, the latter being stage 4.

Stage 2: instrumental relativist orientation. Right action consists of that which instrumentally satisfies one's own needs and occasionally the needs of others. Human relations are viewed in terms similar to those of the marketplace. Elements of fairness, of reciprocity and equal sharing are present, but they are always interpreted in a pragmatic way. Reciprocity is a matter of "you scratch my back and I'll scratch yours," not of loyalty, gratitude or justice.


At this level maintaining the expectations of the individual's family, group or nation is perceived as valuable in its own right, regardless of immediate and obvious consequences. The attitude is one not only of conformity to the social order but of loyalty to it, of actively maintaining, supporting and justifying the order, and of identifying with the persons or group involved in it. This level comprises the following two stages:

Stage 3: interpersonal concordance or "good boy-nice girl" orientation. Good behavior is that which pleases or helps others and is approved by them. There is much conformity to stereotypical images of what is major- ity or "natural" behavior. Behavior is frequently judged by intention: "He means well" becomes important, and one earns approval by "being nice." Stage 4: "law and order" orientation. Authority, fixed rules and the maintenance of the social order are valued. Right behavior consists of doing one's duty, showing respect for authority and maintaining the social order for its own sake.


At this level there is a clear effort to reach a personal definition of moral values — to define principles that have validity and application apart from the authority of groups or persons and apart from the individual's own identification with these groups. This level again has two stages:

Stage 5: social-contract legalistic orientation. Generally, this stage has utilitarian overtones. Right action tends to be defined in terms of general individual rights and in terms of standards that have been critically examined and agreed upon by the whole society. There is a clear awareness of the importance of personal values and opinions and a corresponding emphasis on procedural rules for reaching consensus. Other than that which is constitutionally and democratically agreed upon, right is a matter of personal values and opinion. The result is an emphasis both upon the "legal point of view" and upon the possibility of making rational and Socially desirable changes in the law, rather than freezing it as in the "law and order" stage 4. Outside the legal realm, tree agreement is the binding element of obligation. This is the "official" morality of the U.S. government and the Constitution.

Stage 6: universal ethical-principle orientation. Right is defined by the conscience in accord with self-chosen ethical principles, which in turn are based on logical comprehensiveness, universality and consistency. These principles are abstract and ethical (the golden rule, the categorical imperative); they are not concrete moral rules like the Ten Commandments. At heart, these are universal principles of justice, of the reciprocity and equality of human rights, and of respect for the dignity of human beings as individual persons.

Fig. 11. Stages of moral development. (Source: Kohlberg and Whitten (1972). Reprinted by special permission from Learning, The Magazine for Creative Teaching, December 1972. © 1972 by Education Today Company Inc., 530 University Avenue, Palo Alto, California.)

Hampden-Turner (1971) has suggested that each of the dominant social sciences has a "hidden morality" that can be located in one of Kohlberg's categories, and that although most social sciences claim to eschew metaphysics, they make unverifiable moral assumptions that significantly affect their choice of methodology and criteria of validation. Hampden-Turner concludes that only those social sciences that are consistent with Kohlberg's stage 6 have the demonstrated capacity to move from paradigm to paradigm (stressing congruence between and reconcilability of perspectives) despite dialectical tension.
The Relevance of a Gradient of Awareness for an Adequate Image.

What is the common characteristic of the various gradients we have reviewed? Recalling the operational definition of consciousness (the organization of the biosystem; with awareness as the psychological equivalent or complementary aspect of that organization), it seems reasonable to cast the image of ascending stages of evolution in terms of a gradient of awareness. As we come to higher stages of evolution, the attribute of consciousness comes to the fore. By this we mean the discovery of relationships and the making of choices — both individually and collectively — on the basis of understanding, appreciation, and judgement; and being influenced by a relevant context with its past, present, and future rather than being determined by instinct, habit, or some authority from another time and place. In this sense we speak of the evolution of consciousness manifest in hierarchical restructuring of our conceptions; and the derivative systems of thought, institutions, etc., through which we achieve coherent integration at higher orders of differentiation and complexity.

We have only briefly sketched some of the thinking that leads to this conception. Other contributions which are in keeping with an ascending gradient of awareness in evolution we have postulated: "this worldly" (e.g. D. Campbell, 1966; Polanyi, 1966; Weiss, 1969; Land, 1973), "other worldly" (e.g. Cummins, 1952), and "trans worldly" (e.g. Hubbard, 1951; Aurobindo, 1963). (Land's book Grow or Die: The Unifying Principle of Transformation (1973), especially Chapter 10, elaborates this theme in more detail than we can do here.) Again, however, we are not here concerned whether these ways of thinking are right or wrong as judged by the methods of any one particular knowledge paradigm, but rather whether (1) they give us a vision of potential growth and further evolution beyond where we are now — a vision that accepts where (both as individuals and as a species) we are now, seeing ourselves now as being more highly evolved (in some ways, less in others) than was earlier man, and less highly evolved than we hope future man will be; and (2) they lay the conceptual beginnings of a general systems framework in which an integration of the various fragmented images of man — each of which can come to be seen as haying a restricted validity — becomes possible. At this state of know- ledge, then, we view the gradient of awareness more as useful metaphor than as proven theory. Indeed, as the review of limitations of sciences presented in Chapter 4 makes clear, it is likely not possible to prove whether or not such a view is valid. Rather we will have to estimate what results might flow from translating this — as opposed to some other image of humankind — into concrete policies for the resolution of societal problems and the fuller realization of the human potentialities. We attempt such an estimate in Chapter 8.

The Self

A second key element in our attempt to discover a more adequate, integrative image of man-in-the-universe concerns imagery regarding the nature of the self. In our culture, the dominant image which the person holds of himself is that of a separate and independent entity, as denoted by the very term "self" — defined by Webster's as "the person — having its own or a single nature or character." But even a cursory examination of the known facts of existence indicates that this is an unduly limited view, as explained below.

Transpersonal and Personal Imagery.

The most basic aspects of our being which we have portrayed as being at the lower level (the machine language aspects of the human biocomputer) we share in common with all other persons. Indeed, because of this commonality, one suspects that it is only this level which is usually comprehended in the phrase "the nature of man." The next stage in developing an integrative image of humankind is explored in Fig. 12, which shows these aspects as being transpersonal rather than idiosyncratic to each person. Jung's phrase "the collective unconscious" seems particularly appropriate for this level.

Coming up the gradient of awareness we observe the egoic and sensory level, where there is a valid perception of separateness between persons. The behaviors that are unique to this level, such as our use of sensory channels to communicate with other humans across the spatial distance that separates us, are typically perceived as manifesting freedom in the sense of their being freely chosen behavior under the unique control of each person as a separate entity.  

Transpersonal region of shared consciousness

"Higher" transpersonal region / Personal "super-conscoius"
Personal region / Person "A" / Person "B"

"Lower" transpersonal region / Personal unconscious

To the beginnings of evolution

Transpersonal region of shared unconscious (e.g. racial memories, cultural and genetic inheritance)

Fig. 12. A metaphorical image of the personal and transpersonal aspects of consciousness.

But coming still further up our gradient of so-called awareness we find — if the reports of yogis (Patanjali, Prabhavananda, and Isherwood, 1953), mystics (Reinhold, 1944), and some recent laboratory evidence (Tart, 1969; Backster, 1972) are to be believed — that things once again become transpersonal in nature. Perceptions become intuitive and "quasi-sensory" (to use the term coined by McBain, 1970), rather than stemming from the usual senses. And typically as higher levels are reached, subjective experiences of mind-sharing are often reported, as are experiences of a disconnectedness or transcendence from the usual constraints of time and space (see, for example, Tart, 1969, 1970). Indeed, it is likely that only when we are able to expand our scientific image of man to include phenomena at this level will we be able to develop adequate theories to account for the various psychic phenomena reviewed in Chapter 4.

The schematicized integrative image of the person shown on Fig. 9 is therefore cast in the shape of the hour glass, or cone, thus connoting the ways in which one's nature is properly seen as transpersonal at the lower and upper reaches of existence and personal or unique in between. More speculatively (but based on anecdotal reports from various researchers in the phenomenology of consciousness) we might add the symbol of infinity for the uppermost reaches of the map, and the phrase "to the beginnings of evolution" for the lowermost: if the ancedotal reports are to be believed, infinity and the "beginnings of evolution" can be subjectively experienced, and when experienced, tend to merge. F. W. H. Myers has formulated a different but similar conception, shown below in Fig. 13.

Subsystem, System, and Supersystem Imagery.

The ways in which a person is a separate and distinct system are but a small part of the ways in which he incorporates lower-level (sub) systems, and in which he is part of higher-order (super) systems. Displaying both the independent properties of wholes, and the dependent properties of parts, the person is a "holon." Other dimensions could be added as well, but as Fig. 14 shows, we now have the conceptual basis for a multi-dimensional systems-oriented image of person-in-the-universe that is indeed integrative in the ways desired.

Before completing this image, we might pause to ask the important question: If the experience of individuality is but a small slit in all there is to the totality of our existence, where is the essence of the human person, the being (as opposed to the class) to be found? Echoing Koestler (1967), where is the "ghost in the machine;" It is here that the image of humankind espoused in the Perennial Philosophy probably provides the best single answer:

The atma, the Self, is never born and never dies. It is without a cause and is eternally changeless. It is beyond time, unborn, permanent, and eternal. It does not die when the body dies. Concealed in the heart of all beings lies the atma, the Spirit, the Self; smaller than the smallest atom, greater than the greatest spaces.

-- The Upanishads, 1000 B.C.


Group mind / Network of memory; Individual mind / Unifying principle: Cells; Brain; Systems of body

Fig. 13. A personal-transpersonal mind/body model. Source: F. W. H. Myers, in Johnson (1957).


Gradient of awareness / Gradient of aggregation / atoms, microbes, cells, organs, body, family, group, nation, planet / Transpersonal; Personal; Transpersonal

Fig. 14. Two of "N" possible dimensions of an integrative image of the person.

Finally then, to represent this self that is (in terms of space and time) a "not-thing," we complete the pictorial version of our proposed composite image of humankind by adding the center as in Fig. 15. It might be represented by another shape (e.g. as in Assagioli's model shown earlier), but the tubular shape is often reported as the "feel" of those who experience meditation, and we agree in principle with Wilson (in press) that any adequate image will not be constructed, but rather seen through experience.

Man as Process.

If the vision of the Perennial Philosophy is at all valid, this Center is the only truly static image. All of the other images of the human which depict how the self manifests are but temporary, ever-changing attributes of that self. As Norbert Wiener (1954) observed:

We are not stuff that abides, but patterns that perpetuate themselves; whirlpools of water in an ever-flowing river.


Fig. 15. Transcendent-immanent aspects added to the personal-transpersonal aspects of an integrative image of the person.

How can the vision of the static self "hidden in all things" be usefully reconciled with the many visions of the quasi-static — but in reality, changing — visions of the visible self that we call a person? If the collective wisdom of the myths of various cultures is to be trusted, the way of reconciliation is illuminated by the Image of the Center (Eliade, 1952). The idea of "moving from where we are not to where we most truly are" (William James) is well expressed in a now archaic meaning of the word "weird" (Anglo-Saxon wyrd), which is a word related to the German werden, "to become." Standing in direct contrast to the Indian notion of dharma or the current Western notions of socialization or conditioning (both of which see the individual as necessarily subject to the law imposed by society), weird is an unfolding from within of what is potential. (Note that this is also the essential meaning of the root word educere, "to bring forth, as something latent," from which our word educate derives.) In this image of reality — as with Eliot's (1935) "still point of the turning world. ... Where past and future are gathered" — the metaphysical ground of the person and what has brought him forth are one and the same. To realize this Center of one's being is said to provide conceptual release from the tyranny of such polarities as creator and creature, good and evil, I and Thou, and freedom and determinism.


Images of man / Dominant aspects of consciousness / Spokesmen

Divine self / "Super-conscious" / The Vedas, Perennial philosophy, etc.  
Many-leveled self (astral, etc.) / -- / Rosicrucians.Theosophy, etc

Existentially- free man / (ego?) / Humanists, Neo-Freudians

Absurd man / -- / Sartrian existentialists

Conditioned man / "Conscious" / Freud, Watson, Skinner

Economic man / (Super-ego?) / Freud, Watson, Skinner

Animal-bestial man; Impulsive-irrational man / (id?) / Freud, Lorenz, Ardrey, etc.

Repressed man / Personal and / Freud

Dreaming man / collective "subconscious" / Jung

Fig. 16. Composite metaphor of an integrative, evolutionary image of the person for the future.  

But as all outward manifestations (or partial images) partake equally of this Center (as Fig. 16 depicts), we find that we now have the conceptual framework for an image of humankind which, as we shall see, comes very close to satisfying the characteristics we earlier postulated.[iv]

Examining the New Image for Conceptual Feasibility

If one agrees that the thrust of evolution seems to be toward greater "consciousness" (i.e. increasing organization of the bio-system, with "awareness" as the psychological equivalent or complementary aspect of that organization), the above framework provides the needed imagery for evolutionary growth, direction, and a holistic sense of meaning of life. It gives an open-ended and experimental sense of something to grow toward (both personally and culturally). Pursuit of higher states of awareness; increasing ability to integrate knowledge and to coordinate and balance the relative needs of the subsystem/system/supersystem relationships; and exploration of personal, interpersonal, and transpersonal aspects of existence — each of these con- tributes to the emergence of an "ecological ethic" and a "self-realization ethic"; to coordinated "satisficing"; and to goals of "ephemeralization" that are consistent with limits to growth of materialism. (The term "thrust" has been chosen to describe this progress toward greater complexity and consciousness, not to denote the goal of evolution, but rather the path it seems to take. Goal is a term which is associated with the conceptual paradigm of linear causality; it is this paradigm that somehow must be transcended, if only in part. It is for this reason also that we have singled out Dunn's term "process teleology," because it explicitly avoids the difficulties of the older concepts of vitalism and teleology.[v]

To illustrate how the holistic image portrayed by this framework could adequately incorporate and reconcile the more specialized images of humankind at various levels of development, some additional discussion is necessary.

We postulate that each of the various specialized images presented in Chapter 2 and displayed in Figs. 9 and 16 is appropriate to a given context or situation that has repeatedly been in human experience — which is why they exist in the image repertory of our various cultures. We further observe that to the extent which the person cannot manifest in an appropriate situation any of the various "ways of being" connoted by the gradient of awareness, to that extent the person is deficient in ways that limit his flexibility in dealing with a changing environment — hence limit the survival potential of the race. The ability to fight effectively (physically or psychologically) when one's survival (physical or mental) is threatened; the ability to experience aesthetic pleasure, to marvel at the mystery of existence, and to transcend one's individuality in a direct sense of participation in that mystery when appropriate — each of these is a part of the human experience through which each of us should be able to flow in and out as fitting. The point is not that one should necessarily fight, cooperate, or meditate in any or in all circumstances (nor should one necessarily impugn others for so doing), but rather that one should be able to do (and accept others doing) any of these things when they fit. All partake of the Center.

Needless to say, trade-offs are involved and coordination of different behaviors is required. As Jonas Salk (1973) has observed:

The conflict in the human realm is now between "self-expression" and "self-restraint" within the individual, as the effect of cultural evolutionary processes has reduced external restraint upon the individual.[vi]

While easy mobility across the various levels portrayed by the gradient of awareness is clearly in the interests of the survival of the human race and of the fulfillment of each individual's potentialities, such freedom needs to be exercised by the restraint that can derive in our era only from a holistic perspective of life, growth, and evolution.

For these reasons we emphasize the need for development of imagery of person-as-(in)-process; for a vision of growth not as in getting above persons at one level after another (as some occultists are wont to do), but rather in the expansion of awareness in both more and less inclusive directions; in the gaining of choices of appropriate behaviors that partake of all levels but are coordinated by the more inclusive ones; and in learning to dissolve fixations at any given level, hence being more able continuously to flow from a predominant orientation at one level to one at another, according to the needs of the environment and in appropriately coordinated growth.

It is primarily in the above sense that we believe that a holistic image such as the framework depicts could adequately integrate the various aspects and past images of humankind without blurring or invalidating their uniqueness; for only in this way will we have an ontological basis for tolerance of difference and change.

There are some difficulties with the framework as presented above. The main one is that it is — in keeping with the dominant conceptual paradigm of Western culture — essentially hierarchical in nature. Thus not only is the conception somewhat culture-bound; it does not easily integrate newly emerging mutual-causal thoughts in science. Other cultures have dominant conceptual paradigms that are essentially non-hierarchical and are more mutualistic as regards knowledge, ecology, and human development.[vii] As the anthropologist Maruyama has pointed out (1960, 1963, 1967, 1973) many functions of concern to a society are more usefully fulfilled by non-hierarchically structured paradigms. But Maruyama also notes that when a hierarchical/self-righteous and a mutualistic/symbiotic paradigm have come into intercultural contact, the self-righteous paradigm has an almost irresistible tendency to run over the mutualistic one.

A somewhat different but related problem arises in connection with the exclusivist interpretation the Judeo-Christian tradition has put on transcendental images of man. There appears to be a basic contradiction contained in this tradition between the exclusivist (as in "no man cometh to the Father but through me") and the universalist (God as omnipotent, omniscient, and omnipresent, therefore all that is, is God). The exclusivist is the tendency that has captured the popular imagination in the mainstream religious traditions of our culture. But this turns out to be not so much one side of a contradiction as one arm of a dialectic, one element of a paradox.

Better understood, these difficulties turn out to be based in misunderstandings (which is not to say that they will not be very real difficulties in a communication or political sense). They arise from having to use traditional language to express what are essentially non-traditional, "non-paradigm" concepts.

Thus we have used words such as "gradient," "thrust," and "hierarchy" when describing the evolutionary trend toward greater complexity and consciousness. We have used diagrams and tables which may seem to imply progression from "primitive" to "sophisticated," or "lower" to "higher." This may seem to imply an elitist view of human evolution. It might have been helpful to adopt a circular model in which, for example, the dreaming man of Jung would be cyclicly linked to the superconscious man in a visional system that implied on-going process. But substituting one metaphor or visual image for another simply seemed to change the nature of the difficulty.

The problem appears to be primarily that reality is so much richer, so much more multidimensional than any metaphor, that all maps of reality lead to difficulties if they are mistakenly assumed to be literally true. Thus reality is hierarchical in one sense and not in another, and man is separate, seeking self-fulfillment and yet part of a unity in a sense that makes self-fulfillment illusory. The "higher" forms of consciousness may be similar to the psychic abilities of "lower" forms of life (for example, household pets, dolphins, plants) in a way that makes the latter as "sophisticated" as the highest transcendental characteristics evolving in the human species.

Thus it would appear that an emergent world-wide image of humankind, satisfying the conditions identified in Chapter 5, is conceptually feasible, providing we remain clear that it is an image, or a set of metaphors, and that its real function is to lead toward the direct experiencing of what it can only incompletely and inadequately express.


We want now to examine the conditions under which such a new image of man might emerge to a commanding position in the society. One condition, inherent in the fundamental characteristics of Chapter 5, is that it probably cannot be engineered or manipulated into such a position. Safer, at any rate, is a process whereby the new image is fostered by some and resisted by others, such that the principles of checks and balances, and of creative synthesis of differences, are allowed to operate.

Essentially, we shall:

1. review the process through which both cultures and persons appear to evolve in response to crisis;

2. draw inferences as to how transformational discovery and the emergence of a new image of man can appropriately or inappropriately be fostered;

3. consider various indications that personal and institutional transformation, and the emergence of moral paradigms, are feasible without being caused to happen.

Evolutionary Transformation in Response to Crisis

It seems clear that today we are living in an ecological system in which higher-order systems coordinate the interactions of lower-order subsystems, an ecology in which there is an increasing ability of higher organisms to make symbolic maps of reality, to test and to improve those maps. Thus, in the evolutionary battle for survival, it may be possible "for our ideas to die in our stead" (Popper). In the evolution from phylogenesis (natural selection through mutation and genetic recombination) through ontogenesis (the ability of a highly developed organism to "reprogram" itself within limits and modify its behavior to suit environmental changes) to sociogenesis (the accumulation of acquired behavior through symbolic communication), the trend that stands out is the power and utility of consciousness. This manifests itself as the ability to map the various dimensions of existence, both physical and symbolic, and to use those maps for "behavior directed to changing behavior" (Dunn, 1972).

A crisis is often the catalyst for the redrawing of one's preferred "map." Inasmuch as this is precisely the direction in which our culture appears to be heading, it is useful to review the processes of crisis-oriented transformation in other cultures, in science, in mythology, in persons. All these may contain insights that could prove applicable to the resolution of our difficulties.

Cultural Transformations

What happens when, because of environmental changes, military defeat, or intercultural invasion (e.g. by a new technology), a culture no longer adequately serves its essential functions? If the degree of perceived crisis is not too great, the classic processes of cultural change (evolution, drift, diffusion, historical change, acculturation) take place; if, on the other hand, the degree of perceived crisis is acute, cultural transformation is likely to occur rapidly.

The anthropologist Anthony F. C. Wallace (1956) in a comparative study of the crisis-motivated type of cultural change derived a series of idealized stages through which many such transformations — if successful — have passed. Especially relevant for our purposes are Wallace's findings on how images of the role of self and society have changed in other societies in response to crisis. He discovered that unlike classic culture change, the process of revitalization requires explicit intent by members of the society and often takes place within one generation:

The structure of the revitalization process, in cases where the full course is run, consists of somewhat overlapping stages: 1. Steady State; 2. Period of Individual Stress; 3. Period of Cultural Distortion; 4. Period of Revitalization (in which occur the functions of mazeway reformulation, communication, organization, adaption, cultural transformation, and routinization); and finally 5. New Steady State, (p. 264)

The key element in the process of transformation is what Wallace terms the "mazeway," which the following shows is almost synonymous with our term "image of man-in-the-universe":

It is . . . functionally necessary for every person in society to maintain a mental image of the society and its culture, as well as of his own body and its behavioral regularities, in order to act in ways which reduce stress at all levels of the system. The person does, in fact, maintain such an image. This mental image I have called "the mazeway," since as a model of the cell-body-personality-nature-culture-society system or field, organized by the individual's own experience, it includes perceptions of both the maze of physical objects in the environment (internal and external, human and nonhuman) and also of the ways in which this maze can be manipulated by the self and others in order to minimize stress. The mazeway is nature, society, culture, personality, and body image as seen by one person. . . . Changing the mazeway involves changing the total Gestalt of his image of self, society, and culture, of nature and body, and of ways of action. It may also be necessary to make changes in the "real" system in order to bring mazeway and "real" system into congruence. The effort to work a change in mazeway and "real" system together so as to permit more effective stress reduction is the effort at revitalization; and the collaboration of a number of persons in such an effort is called a revitalization movement, (pp. 266 ff. Emphasis added)

Whether the revitalization movement is religious or secular, the reformulation

. . . seems to depend on a restructuring of elements and subsystems which have already attained currency in the society and may even be in use. . . . The occasion of their combination in a form which constitutes an internally consistent structure . . . and of their acceptance by the prophet as a guide to action, is abrupt and dramatic, usually occurring as a moment of insight, a brief period of realization of relationships and opportunities. The reformulation also seems normally to occur in its initial form in the mind of a single person rather than to grow directly out of group deliberations, (p. 270. Emphasis added)

After mazeway reformulation come adaption, cultural transformation, and routinization, during which the idealism of the original vision is modified in response to cultural feedback; it tends to be preserved only in those areas where the movement "maintains responsibility for the preservation of doctrine and performance of ritual," in other words, it becomes a church, whether religious or secular.  
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Re: Changing Images of Man: Prepared by the Center for the

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Part 2 of 2

Conceptual Revolutions in Science

Studying the history of science, Thomas S. Kuhn recognized a similar pattern. In his somewhat controversial The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962), Kuhn's use of the "knowledge paradigm" and the cycle through which knowledge paradigms are replaced is almost analogous to Wallace's use of the term "mazeway." The term knowledge paradigm is used to denote

. . . the collection of ideas within the confines of which scientific inquiry takes place, the assumed definition of what are legitimate problems and methods, the accepted practice and point of view with which the student prepared for membership in the scientific community, the criteria for choosing problems to attack, the rules and standards of scientific practice, (p. 11)

Such a knowledge paradigm has a well-understood set of exemplars or precedents that define a field of inquiry, determine the rules that govern the formulations of new problems, and specify acceptable forms of solutions. Thus, the paradigm can only exist if there is a shared commitment to certain beliefs, such as that the molecules of a gas behave like tiny elastic billiard balls, or that certain kinds of procedures should be used for experimentation, or that some topics are appropriate for scientific investigation and others not. Its communicants must also agree on the meaning of symbolic representations, as in mathematics. Finally, its communicants must share relevant values, such as the importance of making predictive versus non-predictive explanations, the appropriateness of imposing social concerns during problem formulation, and the degree of simplicity demanded in theories.

Such a knowledge paradigm bears the same relation to the laws and rules in a field of scientific inquiry as do the myths and rituals in a pre-scientific society. That is, they are considered by many to be the fundamental units influencing the scientific research process.[viii]

The excitement generated by Kuhn's work rests not so much with his formulation of the knowledge paradigm, however, as with his portrayal of the dynamics with which such paradigms are created and replaced. Rather than aim at novelty, in Kuhn's view normal science attempts to actualize the promise offered by the existing paradigm. But it results almost invariably in the exposure of anomalies between expectations based on the paradigm and fact. Thus, as noted in Chapter 4, as such anomalies grow more numerous, we see the recurring emergence of crises and the development of new paradigms which embrace both the old paradigms and the anomalous data that the old could not deal with adequately. Kuhn has noted that this transformational process typically passes through four stages: preparadigm research, normal science, crisis, and revolution.

Similarities between Scientific and Cultural Revitalization

Seeking as we are useful patterns from history to guide our thinking for the future, it is interesting to compare Kuhn's and Wallace's analyses.[ix] In normal times (steady state : : normal science) the functioning of the dominant images and ways of doing (mazeway : : knowledge paradigm) are considered adequate. However, when these become inadequate (individual stress/cultural distortion : : crisis) the responses are many and varied, but take predictable forms. Some individuals avoid facing the difficulties (undergo chronic high level stress : : avoid the anomalies) and assume that a continuation of ordinary means of problem-solving will suffice; others call for a return to fundamentals. Expressions of discontent increase, however, and a "creative minority" (Martin, 1955) turns from searches for incremental ways of problem-solving to searches for fundamental reconceptualization of the facts. Inevitably the legitimacy of these searches is difficult to obtain from the established authorities, unless the perception of crisis becomes widespread.

Although the discovery and application of the new reconceptualization (revitalization : : revolution) is a complicated process and occurs over an extended period of time, the moment of discovery of the desired conceptual reformulation occurs not by deliberation and interpretation, but by a relatively sudden and unstructured conceptual event like the Gestalt reversal. Like the charismatic leaders of revitalization movements, scientists often speak of "scales falling from the eyes" or of a "lightning flash" that illuminates a previously obscure puzzle, enabling them to see its components in a new way. Though such intuitions depend on experience, both anomalous and congruent, gained with the old paradigm, they are not logically linked to particular items of that experience as an interpretation would be. Instead, large portions of that experience are gathered and transformed into a "rather different bundle of experience" and "thereafter . . . linked piecemeal to the new paradigm but not to the old" (Kuhn, 1962, pp. 122 ff., also cited in Wirt, Lieberman, and Levien, 1971, p. 55).

A significant difference between the scientific revolutions and the cultural revitalization movements stems from the fact that scientific inquiry can incorporate a much wider range of difference than can the institutions of a culture — although Kuhn observes that established scientists often find it difficult if not impossible to convert to the newly emergent paradigm from the one in which they have invested their professional lives, so that the new paradigm is often fully accepted only with a new generation of scientists. Wallace observes that the trans- formation of an entire culture takes place only when and if the purity of the original vision is adapted (in response to resistance that is encountered) by "adding to, emphasizing, playing down, and eliminating selected elements of it" (1956, p. 274).

Other scholars (e.g. Toynbee, 1935; Quigley, 1961; Mumford, 1956) who have reviewed the rise and transformation (or fall) of civilizations have deduced similar series of stages that portray what we might call "the cycle of transformation." Before trying to deduce the implications of these findings for our own situation, it is useful to consider similar patterns that can be found in the literature of mythology and of psychotherapy.

Mythic Transformations

As various scholars have noted (e.g. Boisen, 1962; Erikson, 1958) often those individuals who bring the new reconceptualizations to society have had personal problems which were similar in form or which were significantly related to those of the larger society. In resolving their own problems they presented visible resolutions to the problems of their culture, and vice versa. This characteristic of the hero is in fact so common throughout the transformation myths of different times and places that Joseph Campbell (1956) has used the term "the monomyth" to describe it:

The standard path of the mythological adventure of the hero is a magnification of the formula represented in the rites of passage: separation — initiation — return: which might be named the nuclear unity of the monomyth. ... (p. 30)

The composite hero of the monomyth . . . and/or the world in which he finds himself suffers from a symbolical deficiency. In fairy tales this might be as slight as the lack of a certain golden ring, whereas in apocalyptic vision the physical and spiritual life of the whole earth can be represented as fallen, or on the point of falling, into ruin.

Typically the hero of the fairy tale achieves a domestic microcosmic triumph, and the hero of myth a world-historical, macrocosmic triumph. Whereas the former — the youngest or despised child who becomes the master of extraordinary powers — prevails over his personal oppressors, the latter brings back from his adventure the means for the regeneration of his society as a whole, (pp. 37 ff.)

The basic pattern is clear:

Whether the hero be ridiculous or sublime, Greek or barbarian, Gentile or Jew, his journey varies little in essential plan. Popular tales represent the heroic action as physical; the higher religions show the deed to be moral; nevertheless, there will be found astonishingly little variation in the morphology of the adventure, the character roles involved, the victories gained, (p. 38)

Just as the mythological here often suffers from a defect that spurs him on to action, so many of the great men of history have not been typically the product of carefree, "well-adjusted" homes (Goertzel and Goertzel, 1962). Nor do such persons typically adjust in a conformist fashion to personal and social realities which to them seem filled with anomalies. Rather, they attempt to resolve the dissonant elements of their life in creative ways, which is the central goal of psychotherapy.

Personal Transformations

Although the literature of psychotherapy is so varied that it is difficult to make any clean and clear-cut generalizations, a pattern does emerge from writers who attempt to describe the process of crisis-motivated personal transformation. From the writings of Boisen (1936/1962), Martin (1955), Sullivan (1953), Fingarette (1963), and Kantor and Herron (1966) we derive the following series of stages that seem to typify this process:

1. Adequate mastery of one's life: reliance on defense mechanisms (e.g. denial, repression, sublimation).

2. Inadequate mastery of one's life: anxiety and disintegration.

3. Looking for causes: blame and guilt.

4. Finding causes: acceptance of responsibility.

5. Looking for new solutions: openness to seeing things anew both in the inner world and in the outer world.

6. Finding new solutions: insights that reformulate one's existential conceptions and reintegrate the personality.

7. Applying new solutions: learning new modes of behavior that test and apply the new perspective with increased mastery of one's life.

8. New level of adequacy: open-ended growth and learning as nor- mal behavior.

Although there is insufficient space to discuss these stages here, it is useful to note their similarity to those in science and myth.

Synthesis and Inference

We now draw the various observations of personal, scientific, and cultural transformation together in order to draw any inferences that might increase the operational feasibility of a new, more adequate image of humankind. Table 7 summarizes the idealized stages of the "cycle of transformation" that has been formulated by different scholars.[x] Although numerous examples of creativity can be found which do not fit this cycle of transformation, the overall pattern seems typical of the crisis -motivated transformations that have occurred repeatedly in a wide variety of settings in place and time.

In the general creativity literature the common elements to this cycle have been termed preparation, incubation, illumination, and verification (G. Wallace, 1926).

First comes the testing of conventional approaches and finding them wanting ("preparation").

The next step ("incubation") often necessitates making what P. W. Martin (1955) has termed "the experiment in depth," the deliberate setting aside of assumptions that are conventionally made about reality, and engaging in techniques or activities that open up one's self to more primal and direct perceptions of reality which are less strongly filtered by convention. As these sources of creativity are not yet generally understood, access to them is for most persons a rather random and uncontrolled process. Hence the term "incubation," which suggests the cessation of deliberate attempts to force insight.[xi] Two quotations describe the process:

"Cease striving; then there will be self-transformation."

-- Chuang-Tse, Book XI

"Whosoever shall seek to gain his life shall lose it; but whosoever shall lose his life shall preserve it."

-- Luke 17:33


Monomyth (J. Campbell) / Cultural revitalization (A. Wallace) / Scientific resolution (T. Kuhn) / Psychotherapy (O. Markley) / General creativity (G. Wallace)

-- / 1. Steady state; 2. Period of individual stress / 1. Normal science; 2. Growth of anomalies / 1. Normal defence mechanisms; 2. Anxiety and disintegration / --

1. Separation / 3. Period of cultural distortion / 3. Crisis / 3. Blame and guilt; 4. Acceptance of responsibility; 5. Looking for new solutions / 1. Preparation; 2. Incubation

2. Initiation / 4. Period of revitalization: reformulation; communication; organization / 4. Revolution / 6. Insight/reformulation/reintegration / 3. Illumination

3. Return / adaption; cultural transformation; routinization; 5. New steady state / 5. Normal science in new paradigm / 7. Testing and application; 8. Open-ended change and growth as "normal" / 4. Verification

The moment of insight (illumination), as we observed in connection with the cultural revitalization movements and creation of scientific paradigms, occurs with vivid clarity and suddenness, is abrupt and dramatic, "a brief period of realization of relationships" (A. Wallace, 1956, p. 270) that "inundates a previously obscure puzzle, enabling its components to be seen in a new way for the first time" (Kuhn, 1962, pp. 122 ff.). Thus, the moment of sudden insight seems to be an element common to radical discovery and transformation — both mythic and scientific. We might well apply to this type of reconceptualization of the Greek word for religious conversion, metanoia, that is, a fundamental transformation of mind (Pearce, 1971).

Finally there is the task of validating the knowledge (verification) and bringing it to fruition for self and society.

Such processes of discovery may be termed heroic not so much because they parallel the classic stages of separation, initiation, and return of the hero in the monomyth, but because they require in- ordinate courage in the face of fear. They involve not only the possibilities of failure, but require confronting the truly unknown; and confronting as well the sure knowledge that successful discovery will inevitably upset the established patterns of one's existence. It will likely mean drastic personal and psychic change. In this connection, Abraham Maslow (1962) has written eloquently about "the need to know and the fear of knowing."

What does all of this mean for our society today? Are we to conclude that the answer to our problems is to be found in the chance occurrence of a revelation or intuitive breakthrough by one or a few individuals who will then become the charismatic leaders of a true-believer revitalization movement? Such an occurrence is not at all unlikely if other approaches have not been developed before the problems of our late industrial era reach truly crisis proportions, and it would undoubtedly result in a high degree of disruption and chaos throughout society. But other approaches are possible.

We now know something about the nature of the creative person. For example, a study of research observations that were made during the process of scientific discovery found that scientists considered to be unusually creative in productive ways are:

(1) of superior measured intelligence; (2) exceptionally independent in judgment and resistant to group-endorsed opinions; (3) marked by a strong need for order and for perceptual closure, combined with a resistance to premature closure and an interest in what may appear as disorder, contradiction, imbalance, or very complex balance whose ordering principle is not immediately apparent; (4) unusually appreciative of the intuitive and non-rational elements in their own nature; (5) distinguished by their profound commitment to the search for esthetic and philosophical meaning in all experience.

-- Barron, 1969, p. 102

Additionally, it now appears possible to combine the insights of science, art, and religion so as systematically to reduce the fear of (yet) unknown discovery and to foster the abilities of normal persons to discover and apply more of their creative potential. Such approaches as Synectics (Gordon, 1961), group dynamics (Bradford, Gibb, and Benne, 1964), Psychosynthesis (Assagioli, 1965), Scientology (Hubbard, 1954), psychedelic drugs (Masters and Houston, 1966; Aaronson and Osmond, 1970), integral yoga (Chaudhuri, 1965), self-hypnosis (Kripp- ner, 1969), biofeedback training (R0rvik, 1973), small conferencing (Mead and Byers, 1968), imagistic thinking (Krippner, 1967), specific educational programs (Barron, 1969), and others (Peterson, 1971) typify the diversity of ways in which one or a group of individuals, with an appropriate "set and setting,"[xii] can be helped to make the type of conceptual breakthroughs here being discussed. If the emerging "science of consciousness" discussed in Chapter 4 is turned toward these ends, it seems obvious that even more effective approaches would result.[xiii]

We are not simplistically advocating that society needs a great man to lead us to a new image of the nature of man. It may be that because of the new approaches for self-exploration, the communication flow which makes esoteric ideas and processes more available, and the exchange of shared and vicarious experience, many persons may find themselves on the path of the adventurer, reflecting first the stress and problems of the society, then opening themselves to new insights and direct perceptions of reality which are less strongly filtered by the current paradigms and myths, and finally emerging to see the world in new ways.

As Joseph Campbell (1968) has observed:

For even in the sphere of Waking Consciousness, the fixed and the steadfast, there is nothing now that endures. The known God cannot endure. Whereas formerly, for generations, life so held to established norms that the lifetime of a deity could be reckoned in millenia, today all norms are in flux, so that the individual is thrown, willy-nilly, back upon himself, into the inward sphere of his own becoming, his forest adventurous without way or path, to come through his own integrity in experience to his own intelligible Castle of the Grail — integrity and courage in experience, in love, in loyalty, and in act. And to this end the guiding myths can no longer be of any ethnic norms. No sooner learned, these are outdated, out of place, washed away. There are today no mythogenetic zones. Or rather, the mythogenetic zone is the individual heart. Individualism and spontaneous pluralism — the free association of men and women of like spirit, under the protection of a secular, rational state with no pretensions to divinity — are in the modern world the only honest possibilities: each the creative center of authority for himself, in Cusanus's circle without circumference whose center is everywhere, and where each is the focus of God's gaze. (p. 677)

We would thus hope not for a handful, but for a thousand heroes, ten thousand heroes — who will create a future image of what humankind can be.

Institutional and Personal Change

The needed transformation cannot occur without both personal and institutional change. Institutional change depends on the actions of individuals, but it is unrealistic to expect personal illumination to become effective in any widespread way unless our institutions — which are locked into the mores of industrialism — are suitably modified. How can we break this cycle?

Imagining Makes It So

As a result of a career in psychotherapy and facilitation of personal growth, Frederik S. Perls, the originator of Gestalt Therapy, concluded that "we cannot deliberately bring about changes in ourselves or in others," that people who try to do so end up typically "dedicating their lives to actualize a concept of what they should be like, rather than to actualize themselves. This difference between self-actualizing and self-image actualizing is very important" (Perls, 1969, p. 19). This is perhaps the essence of the difference between what Boulding (1964) termed the "scientific" approach and the "ideological" approach to progress. The contrast provides a needed precaution to overzealous attempts to proselytize on behalf of a new image of humankind for our society.

Although Perls' assertion may seem paradoxical to us, caught up as we are in the rational-manipulative paradigm of industrialism, it is a view that has been repeated through history. For example, from a variety of periods and disciplines come the following conclusions:

• Every idea which exclusively occupies the mind is transformed into an actual physical or mental state. (Brooks, 1022, p. 18)

• The efforts we make to conquer an idea by exerting the will only serve to make the idea more powerful. (Brooks, 1922, p. 19)

• So long as the imagination is adverse to the conscious mind, effort of the conscious will produces a contrary effect. We must think rightly, or rather must imagine rightly, before we can will rightly. In a word, our formula must not be "who wills can," but "who imagines can." (Baudouin, 1922, p. 10)

• The most significant phenomena of autosuggestion occur in the domain of the unconscious. (Baudouin, 1922, p. 10)

• The basic law of autosuggestion is: Every idea which enters the conscious mind, if it is accepted by the Unconscious, is transformed by it into a reality and forms henceforth a permanent element in our life. (Brooks, 1922, pp. 54-55)

• "Merely to be attracted to any set of ... ideas does not bring with it any realisation. ... A mere mental activity will not bring a change of consciousness, it can only bring a change of mind. And if your mind is sufficiently mobile, it will go on changing from one thing to another till the end without arriving at any sure way or any spiritual harbour. The mind can think and doubt and question and accept and withdraw its acceptance, make formations and unmake them, pass decisions and revoke them, judging always on the surface and by surface indications and therefore never coming to any deep and firm experience of Truth, but by itself it can do no more. There are only three ways by which it can make itself a channel or instrument of Truth. Either it must fall silent in the Self and give room for a wider and greater consciousness; or it must make itself passive to an inner light and allow that light to use it as a means of expression; or else it must itself change from the questioning intellectual superficial mind it now is to an intuitive intelligence, a mind of vision fit for the direct perception of the divine Truth." — Sri Aurobindo (On Yoga: II, Tome One, p. 174).

• Underneath all the reasoning, inductions, deductions, calculations, demonstrations, methods, and logical apparatus of every sort, there is something animating them that is not understood, that is the work of that complex operation, the constructive imagination. (Ribot, Essay on the Creative Imagination, quoted in Johnson, 1957, p. 38)

• [In experiments using altered states of consciousness to increase creativity, we find that] people get into imagistic thinking. That is, pictorial thinking as opposed to sequential, verbal thinking. With imagistic thinking, there is a tendency to see whole constellations of information as a picture, a coded symbol, or a series of flowing symbolic forms . . . such free inter-space exploration was always blocked by religious dogma on the one hand or by scientific dogma on the other. . . . Visionary experience does tend to be heretical. It is a tuning in on the creative process, and so it will not obey the laws of any particular religion or political system. . . . And this imagistic thinking is often attended by an increase of enthusiasm. (Masters and Houston, quoted in Avorn, 1973, p. 17)

• Man is made by his belief. . . as he believes, so he is. (Bhagavad Gita)

• As man thinketh in his heart, so he is. (Proverbs 23 : 7 of the Bible)

• In order to live wisely, men must have a sense of participation in a uniting purpose understandable to all, vital enough and noble enough to be the object of a common sense of dedication. (Andrea, ca. 1700, cited in Hall, 1958, p. 107)

• The rise and fall of images of the future precede or accompany the rise and fall of cultures. (Polak, 1973, p. 19)

If these observations are at all valid (and their validity is essentially untestable within the presently dominant paradigms of science), they are important insights from which to draw social-policy implications.

First, it becomes imperative to note the likely consequences of the type of image that is portrayed in the various artistic media. If the future is portrayed in primarily dystopian terms, a dystopian image of humankind will prevail in the collective unconscious of the culture. But as Margaret Mead has noted (1957):

... all visions of heaven, in this world and in the next, have a curious tasteless, pale blue and pink quality. . . . Beside any picture of heaven above or heaven on earth, the pictures of hell and destruction stand out in vivid and compelling intensity, each detail strong enough to grip the imagination as the horrid creations of a Wells, an Orwell, or an Aldous Huxley unroll before our horrified eyes. Where positive Utopias are insipid and a detailed heaven is unbearable to think of as a permanent abode, the creators of terror have no such problem. So, if Utopian visions are the stuff by which men live, it would seem a legitimate subject of inquiry to ask what is the matter with them? Why is Hell always so much more vivid than Heaven? (p. 958)[xiv]

Or as Aldous Huxley once observed, "A dualistic perception of God may be bad metaphysics, but it makes good art."

These observations seem perfectly valid insofar as they apply to static conceptions of Utopias or to static metaphysical views, but there appear to be no necessary limitations on artistic creativity to portray the excitement of constructive, positive images of continuing human evolution, and in that sense be able to create a vision of "more vivid Utopias."

Second, these insights suggest that the most important component of planning is based not on the realm of the rational, but rather in those realms of consciousness that lie beyond the rational. In many if not most cultures throughout history, the executive leaders maintained access to seers (shamans, prophets, "fools," medicine men, etc.).[xv] In keeping with the seriousness of the problems our society faces and the resulting need for a more valid sense of the whole context in which we live, the opening up of these aspects of consciousness — not for the few but for the many — seems of vital importance.

Third, these insights suggest that "ordinary" attempts to shift the prevailing image of humankind by rational-manipulative means would likely prove ineffectual. Other evidence, however, suggests that such a strategy (if it uses "extraordinary" means) might well be effective, but ultimately dysfunctional: Kinser and Kleinman (1969) have written a provocative book, The Dream That Was No More a Dream: A Search for Aesthetic Reality in Germany 1890-1945, which contends that during this recent era, the German government undertook to deliberately shape the image of man, to create a "myth" that would resolve the German's identity crisis. Using all means at their disposal, some conventional (e.g. visual art, songs, slogans, and propaganda) and some unconventional (e.g. arm-in-arm rocking, goose-step marching, and other somewhat more esoteric ways of releasing primal energies in a structured form — some of which have appeared from time to time in the American human potential movement), Germany created for itself "a sense of national density in accord with the universe." Kinser and Kleinman assert that the central equation in this process was that:

Myths shape perception. Perceptions produce policies, policies cause events and situations. And events require explanation. How can one separate the beginning of the circle from the end, the mythic invention from the archetypal situation, or the fabrication from the candid recognition of a geopolitical fact? The first feeds the last, and the last vindicates — and reinstates — the first. This cycle is what Freud meant by "self-fulfilling prophecy" — the manufactured statement that creates historical reality thereby validating itself.

The recent appearance of such writings as The Image (Boorstin, 1971), The Selling of the President (McGinnis, 1968), Catch a Falling Flag (Whalen, 1972), The Image Makers (Lawton and Trent, 1972), and "Friendly fascism" (Gross, 1970) would indicate that the German approach of image manipulation and myth creation is all too feasible in the United States.[xvi] Image manipulation is practiced in our society, but it has not yet reached the proportions that were practiced in Germany before World War II. As we note in the next chapter, however, an extrapolation of current trends makes this possibility seem almost expected. Martin, writing almost two decades ago, concluded that:

The whole world is in imminent peril from the totalitarian technique. . . . The free peoples, because they are still free, have the means of making the withdrawal-and- return, of rediscovering the creative contact by rediscovering themselves. There can be no assurance that they will fully realize this peril or make use of these means. But if they do, a fundamental change can come over the world. . . . There is in this present age a possibility of greatness exceeding all that has gone before, the possibility that our time of troubles can become the timeless moment, the moment of vision and commitment. (1955, pp. 264 ff.)


In fairness to the reader, it should be emphasized that this creative contact is not an armchair pursuit. What is proposed is an experiment, an experiment involving risk, making heavy demands on those who undertake it, with no guarantee of results. Mythos meant originally the words spoken in a ritual, the means of approach to the God . . . there are a variety of modern means of approach to the creative process working in and through man. And, as always, the creative is dangerous. (1955, p. 15)

Although not without danger, the democratic assumption is that pluralistic creativity is always more to be trusted than is fascistic manipulation (cf. Mead and Byers, 1968).

New Paradigms from Old

We spoke earlier of the need for what we termed a "moral science" and a "moral economics" denoting by the terms "moral" paradigms that would be consistent with what Dunn (1971) has termed a "process teleology"

. . . where human beings . . . establish the process of human development as the goal of the process of social evolution, both the process and the goal being understood to be open to further transformation as we advance in the practice and understanding of them.

The translation of such a conception into operational terms seems especially crucial given the problems discussed earlier. As the economist Robert Heilbroner observed (1968),

. . . the central problem which is likely to confront the societies of tomorrow is nothing less than the creation of a new relationship between the economic aspect of existence and human life in its totality, (p. 631)

It seems evident that the characteristics we postulated for an adequate image cannot be fulfilled unless such a new type of policy paradigm comes into existence — a paradigm that provides a far closer reconciliation of C. P. Snow's "two cultures" (the sciences and the humanities) than has heretofore seemed feasible. Central in this pursuit would be the reconciliation of the objective inquiry methods found suitable for learning to manipulate the external/physical environment and the inquiry methods which are emerging to similarly explore the subjective/internal/psychical environment of our living.

Likely such an umbrella paradigm will not be possible without the emergence of other, somewhat more specialized but nevertheless holistic, paradigms to support it. An adequate policy-relevant paradigm for understanding the subtle complexities of ecology, for example, will likely require a creative synthesis of those disciplines we call biology, anthropology, ethology, and possibly even parapsychology. Similarly, an adequate new science of "internal states" (which would deal with topics as varied as psychosomatic medicine, creativity, quality of life, and so-called psychic abilities), if present trends are any indication, will require a synthesis of Eastern wisdom, Western psychology, electronic engineering, physics, physiology, etc.[xvii] Donald Michael's book On the Social Psychology of Learning to Plan — and Planning to Learn (1972) contains numerous insights on how this difficult task might more adequately be approached.

Considerations of Operational Feasibility

But what indications are there that pervasive personal and in- stitutional transformation and a creative mushrooming of new paradigms are feasible without their being "caused"?

There can be no easy answer to this question, of course. The forces against fundamental conceptual change appear almost insuperable. Virtually every institutionalized aspect of our society, but especially the image-creating media (whose revenues, hence editorial policy, currently derive primarily from advertising), indirectly support the current industrial paradigm. The physical aspects of our culture (urban-centered factories, freeways, automobiles, etc.) all reinforce it by shaping our perceptions, incentives, and habits.

However, there appear sufficient indications of a new image emerging that continued work in this direction is indeed appropriate. We outlined in Chapter 4 an historical analogy between the present and the post-Medieval period that is suggestive of various forces at work which are creating the conditions for a transformation. Added to that line of argument are the following assessments of societal conditions that together indicate, with appropriate stimulation, the feasibility of a "new renaissance" which would have the characteristics set forth in Chapter 5.

• There is need. Societal problems (such as those described in Chapter II) are mounting that appear to be intrinsic to the very structure of the mature industrial society. Similarly there is growing evidence that a variety of goals cannot be adequately realized due to intrinsic limitations of the essentially objective and reductionistic paradigm of science that is currently dominant in our society.[xviii]

• There are motivation and progress. Although the societal trends that appear to be dominant (e.g. the "multifold trend" noted in Chapter 1) and the overall momentum of industrialism do not point to the emergence of a new and more adequate image of the human, there are various signs indicating increasing desire for the progress toward such an emergence. For example:

1. Interest in cultural survival, in Eastern thought, in self-exploration, in holistic understanding of complex systems, in personal and cultural transformation is in the ascendant. Surveys and polls show this growing trend, most noticeably in the Yankelovitch data on the new naturalism among such groups as student elites and corporate executives who are increasingly turning away from economic values (Yankelovitch, 1972; Seligman, 1969). A survey of major public libraries made in connection with this study reveals an unusually strong demand for books on wholesome living (natural/organic foods, yoga for health, etc.); the occult (extrasensory processes, divination, esoteric wisdom, etc.); and Eastern practices (zen, yoga, meditation, etc.). While the more fundamentalist of the traditional churches are growing at a rate about equal to the decline of the more ecumunical traditional churches (Kelley, 1972), other voluntary organizations, especially in what is called the "human potential movement," are growing far more rapidly.[xix]

2. Population growth is declining, environmentalism is growing, new legislation is being considered that might promote more holistic understandings of societal problems — for example, Senator Humphrey's recent bill on national growth policy. Increasing numbers of technical symposia and ad hoc groups are being formed on the theme of survival-motivated transformation, e.g. the World Order Models Project, the Club of Rome, the Blueprint for Survival Project, The International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, Projects of the National and World Council of Churches.

• There are recognizable processes of transformational discovery. The historical record of cultures and individuals which successfully coped with crisis-motivated change, the process of "new paradigm" discovery in science, and the process of general creativity show some remarkable parallels. Two characteristics which stand out from the record of such discoveries are:

1. That they are intuitively rather than rationally based. In most descriptions of transformational discovery, the tapping of imagistic, intuitive, and supra-rational aspects of consciousness appears as a central element of discovery. Only before and after the new Gestalt is recognized do the more rational processes serve the useful functions of evaluation, planning, and so forth.

2. That they reformulate rather than replace previous ideas. Although both types of creativity occur in times of crisis, the type of discovery that has led to revitalization of a culture is that in which the creative thrust was more a reformulation and combination of ideas already having good currency than a revolutionary change to radically different ideas. Thus cultural transformation seems feasible without revolutionary disruptions, to the extent that the transformed society can meet the unique and habitual needs of diverse groups while at the same time providing a unifying framework for the entire culture. Techniques exist with which transformational discovery can be fostered; others can be discovered.

• There is timely stimulation of attempts — both individual and collective — to foster an evolutionary transformation. The majority of the society do not perceive the need or have the motivation noted above. This is perhaps fortunate, for it gives time to create the needed ideas before charismatic leadership and/or simplistic attempts at reform are demanded. Although there is (among an increasing number of elites) a perceived need, motivation, some progress, and proper tools (yet small in proportion to the need), most funding understandably goes into work that fits within the present paradigms of our culture. The efficacy of transformational research and working toward more adequate paradigms has yet to be demonstrated to the mainstream institutions of society. Thus support of this kind of activity could prove to have "high leverage" in terms of building the kinds of knowledge and necessary experience that might turn cultural crisis into creative transformation.

We emphasize the stimulation of transformational thinking and experimentation not because we see it as necessary for the emergence of a new image of humankind and/or new "moral" paradigms, but because of urgency.[xx] Although it is impossible to prove, we suspect that if either is to emerge at all, they will do so whether or not any given individual, group, foundation, or government agency chooses to deliberately support — or to fight — their emergence. To be sure, their emergence depends on the actions of individuals, but scientific and cultural transformation is a far bigger and more amorphous agenda that can be dealt with by rational/deliberate attempts to make it happen, as, one would say, a moon shot. The emergence of a new image and/or new paradigm can, however, be hastened or slowed by deliberate choice. Furthermore, and most importantly, the degree of social disruption accompanying such a change can be affected by the degree of understanding of the forces bringing it about.

Given the uncertainty as to the likely severity and the timing of the societal crisis that may be ahead, appropriate actions which prepare for the crisis need to be stimulated. Only if we have the necessary concepts and tools — both individually and collectively and in time — can we hope to ride at all smoothly through to a better society on the other side of the transition. Thus the fostering of conceptual reformulations which do not reject but rather reconcile previously dominant ideas into a higher-level integration appears most timely.



Note A

"Two criticisms: one, that there have been a concomitant increase in consciousness together with the generally increasing complexity and differentiation of evolving biological systems does not mean that the thrust of evolution is toward greater consciousness (as the study infers); it could mean, for example, that consciousness is merely an epiphenomenon of complex organization. In my view it is more reasonable to assume that consciousness is a resultant of biological evolution. ... I believe that the spectacle of evolution can give meaning to existence and a sense of holistic direction without embracing the controversial premise of a vitalistic-anthropomorphic thrust toward consciousness [see Chapter 14 in Laszlo (1972)], and it is more rational to place one's hopes for a new meaning in life on an objectively evolutionary, rather than an anthropomorphizing thesis.

"My second criticism is that the meaning of 'consciousness' is not made clear. . . . Consciousness as self-awareness can be explained without recourse to grand assumptions about evolutionary thrusts simply by noting the selective advantage it confers on systems that increasingly rely on computed-extrapolated strategies for their existence. Like a prehensive tail, it is an instrument of survival and a factor in . . . biological evolution."

— Ervin Laszlo

Note B

"I believe many readers, especially those in the stricter sciences, will not appreciate the diffusive and wildly ambiguous qualities of the word paradigm, which is used excessively (even from the point of view of good prose!) in the latter parts of the document. My early classical training forces me to associate the word paradigm with the sober word example. Its main use is in grammar, where it is used as an example to illustrate a declension or a conjugation. It might also mean, more generally, an illustration. But it has none of the far flung meanings you have assigned to it (following Kuhn). You have employed it as a synonym for general belief, tenet, hypothesis, dominant theory, prevalent view, prevailing philosophy, general understanding, accepted thesis, scientific world picture of the time, temporarily confirmed assumption. . . . Each phrase in this list is clearer than paradigm, and I suppose it might be well to choose from it on occasion."

— Henry Margenau

Our usage of the word paradigm is indeed extended from its original meaning and is in keeping with our search for metaphors which catch the "sense" of our time. We use it to refer to a scientific (or generally held) world view, including any assumptions about reality and rules of operation. Kuhn (1962) describes his usage as referring to 'universally recognized scientific achievements that for a time provide model problems and solutions to a community of practitioners' (p. x). This corresponds to the common meaning of paradigm as a model or pattern.

Note C

"Do you think that the cultural survival lobby, broadly defined, outnumbers the supporters of Maharaj Ji? The John Birch Society? Would you care to contrast the readership of any five new culture periodicals to the 160,000 subscribers to Street Chopper Magazine, or the 175,000 subscribers to Off Road Vehicles Magazine (the latter group, I understand, is destroying the California desert).

"Also, I think it is very problematic as to whether environmentalism is growing, particularly with newly announced scarcities in electricity, natural gas, and gasoline. If it is growing, we need a sober head count: growth from 3% to 4% doesn't count for much, if 80% are ready to vote to maintain their comfort.

"In fact, I disagree with this entire section. I would like to see the signs of a positive emerging image, but I will not let my enthusiasm be confused with a sober analysis of the data around me. As is quite clear, students are turning away from 'The New Natural- ism' toward quietude, fundamental Christianity, alcohol instead of drugs. Shows the hazards of extrapolating data and cheering when what we are watching is a cultural pendulum. As for the 'cultural indicators' you had best be more specific, e.g. what books read by whom and with what result? (As a quick indicator, look at the top ten non-fiction list for the last few years to see what is in fashion. Whereas Future Shock was big a couple of years go, there is nothing in the top ten today — other than The Sovereign State of ITT — that has anything to do with the new naturalism, public policy, or wholistic science. Rather, people are concerned with Dr. Atkins' diet, and the Joy of Sex.) Be precise about any interest in the growth of holistic science; I fail to see any good signs, such as the RANN budget in NSF or significant developments in SGSR. The control of internal states, books on wholesome living, the occult, etc., are to some degree current fads — and there is a great deal of balderdash mixed in with serious sentiments that you and I favor. Failure to distinguish between the serious and the rip-off is one of the quickest ways to weaken if not kill off the evolutionary transformationalist movement (or whatever we wish to call it — another problem being a profusion of titles).

"Finally, you should be very cautious about the 'humanistic capitalism' professed by the corporations (most notably in John Rockefeller's recent book, The Second American Revolution). Haven't you ever heard of co-optation? See Roszak's comments on 'suave technocracy' in Where the Wasteland Ends."

— Michael Marien

We agree. See our "last work" (p. 268).

i.  Jung's imagery of "dreaming man" is difficult to place in the model — precisely because  this aspect of man partakes of "the center" (discussed on pages 137-138), which tends to  integrate "the higher" and "the lower."
"It is important to note that boredom and apathy (if not viewed from a dualistic  mind-body bias) does lead to illness, non-productivity, and death in terms of the holistic  concepts this paper is espousing."
— Stanley Krippner

"To these dimensions, you might add Rollo May's five descending levels of power and  five ascending kinds of power (Power and Innocence, Norton, 1972)."
— Michael Marien

iv.  See Note A, p. 160.
"This is good, but instead of a linear hierarchy (instead of envisioning the system in  terms of our old way of looking at things) how about something on the order of a  circular model (uruborus like) — where the dreaming man of Jung would be circulatory,  cyclicly linked to the superconscious man, in a visual system that implies ongoing  progress?"
— Stanley Krippner

"I find this model most interesting, especially the way it incorporates the 'absolutes' of  existence at both of its extremes. ... A good starting point for further work." [Paraphrased from]
— Margaret Mead

"A reduction of external restraint upon the individual? Tell it to Amalrik, Solzhenitsyn, and Sakharov. For that matter, I would like to see the evidence for such a  trend in this country."
— Michael Marien

"I fail to see how any non-hierarchical system of thought and organization can provide  the needed coordination across different levels of aggregation. What is necessary, is  that the coordination be from the 'inside out' as it were, and not from the top down, as  the hierarchical notion is so often interpreted."
— [Paraphrased from] Edgar Dunn, Jr.

viii.  See Note B, p. 160
"The use of Anthony Wallace's analysis of cargo cults as a parallel to Kuhn is very bad; [it is] an undiscriminating use of material."
— Margaret Mead

 "The citations from my writing on Revitalization Movements in Chapter 6 very well represented my views."
— Anthony F. C. Wallace

"[The] basic concept that we need a new knowledge paradigm, and the use of  Kuhn/Wallace is excellent."
— Elise Boulding

"It should be pointed out that A. F. C. Wallace's theorizing is not conceptually  independent of the psychotherapeutic schools of thought. Being an anthropologist of  the 'culture and personality' emphasis, Wallace was very much influenced by psychoanalytic thought. Also it should not be thought that his work tells how crisis-  oriented cultural change actually takes place; rather his work is an abstract construction  of this process. Also his work was not based on his own field studies, but rather on  literature sources. If it had been based on field studies, it is quite possible that his  conclusions (especially about the charismatic leader) would have been very  different."
— Luther Gerlach

"[Regarding the] operational feasibility of transformation, Reza Arasteh's work should  be included. Like Chuang-Tse, he calls for an 'existential moratorium' so that society  can reintegrate at a higher level. Dabrowski also calls for what he calls 'positive  disintegration' so that a higher level individual integration may take place."
— Robert A.  Smith, III.

"Set" refers to the expectations of the participant and "setting" to the physical,  psychological, and spiritual context in which a given growth or therapeutic process is  experienced. These two variables have been found to significantly affect the outcomes  of creative processes. See Sherwood, J. N. et al., "The psychedelic experience
— A new  concept in psychotherapy," Journal of Neuropsychiatry, Vol. 4 (December 1962), pp.  69-80.

"All of these techniques are aimed at the individual, rather than his social setting. Until  you can make institutions receptive if not promotive (see John Gardner, Self -Renewal —  infinitely better than anything you mention here) to creativity, there will be a dis junction between individual and institution, creating greater frustration for the charged-up newly creative with no place to go. Incidentally, I would much prefer that  emphasis be on the broader concept of excellence."
— Michael Marien

 Note: See also Elise Boulding's compelling statement of "The Spiritual Dimension of the  Human Person" in Appendix A.
"Like so many quotes, the real point — the imagination of children — is omitted."
—  Margaret Mead

"Today the seers are scientists and 'experts.' See Guy Benveniste, The Politics of  Expertise, Glendessary Press, 1972."
— Michael Marien

Agreed, which is why the necessary future emphasis is on holistic knowing as opposed to  specialized knowing.
"While you note briefly the societal manipulations of the Third Reich under Hitler,  you do not deal with the consequences of this tragedy. I would urge that Ernst  Cassirer's work, The Myth of the State, be included in your review of relevant literature.  I also suggest the tremendous impact of Mao should be included and that the classic of  Edgar Snow, Red Star Over China, showing the transforming effect of the great march  on a total population cannot be ignored. The image of the pilgrim remains important  and its consequences dramatic."
— Robert A. Smith, III

"You . . . fail to indicate how these might merge. Perhaps if you update Assagioli, using  Youngblood's Expanded Cinema, and suggest new musical and art forms for global  audiences through the moog synthesizer, ballet and satellite communication, you could  provide a world stage for Transformation."
— Robert A. Smith, III

"There is still a vast amount of support for the notion that a variety of goals can be  adequately realized by more of the same type of science and technology that we have  had. You are not providing an adequate counter-argument to Daniel Bell, Herman  Kahn, the Nixon administration, and most of academia and the American people.  Consonant with established cognitive systems is the fact that societal problems are not  seen as severe enough to require the system break that would lead to the 'new  renaissance.'"
— Michael Marien

xix.  See Note C, p. 161.
"Again, I stress that the 'urgency' is not perceived by others; or, if perceived, there are  totally different prescriptions."
— Michael Marien

[Jesus] "Of course it's damp underfoot! That strikes me as a very petty complaint to make at a time like this."
Reproduced by permission of the New Yorker Magazine, Inc. Drawing by Starke. © 1977.
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Re: Changing Images of Man: Prepared by the Center for the

Postby admin » Tue Jun 04, 2019 2:24 am

CHAPTER 7: Societal Choices and Consequences of Changing Images

Massive and rapid change confronts virtually every person and sector of our society. Paradoxically, such rapid change — leading to "future shock" in the words of Toffler — seems to be the only constant of our time. This change has contributed to a contemporary feeling of purposelessness and meaninglessness:

• It creates uncertainty about the future and lessens the time "durability" of our images of humankind.

• Associated with this change has been the emergence of a societal structure of virtually incomprehensible size and complexity.

• Also corresponding to this rapid change has been a proliferation of segmented roles for the individual to play, supported by fragmented imagery.

Such rapid rates and magnitudes of change would be tolerable to many people if it seemed purposeful. Indeed, as Gerald Heard once noted, "Life does not need comfort, when it can be offered meaning, nor pleasure, when it can be shown purpose." Since a primary function of images is to provide meaning in life, our present alienation and loss of purpose is reflective of the inability of contemporary images to inspire within people a feeling of meaningfulness.

Our survival and our continued evolution depend upon our acting, soon and wisely. On what basis do we choose one societal trajectory over another?

Many of the different images that we have surveyed provided differing normative standards from which to evaluate ethical decisions. Precisely because different conceptual paradigms provide differing standards for evaluation, it is not possible to prove that one image of humankind is ultimately better or more valid than another.[ i] It is therefore useful to compare the likely societal outcomes of the different images.

We choose to compare the societal consequences of two images, both of which seem feasible within the near-term future of the United States, each of which would lead to a very different type of future. One of these is based on an extrapolation of the images that underlay the industrial state (i.e. it portends a post-industrial future with industrial images of the human); the other is based on a transformed image of the human similar to that we have postulated as being needed for a desirable post-industrial society.

In creating such an idealized polarity, or dialectic, we do not expect that either will come to pass in a pure form, but rather hope that a clear-cut contrast between possibilities will foster a continuing debate which will in itself help create a more responsible future society.


The nature of a future based on continuing dominance of the industrial state mentality is aptly characterized by a distillation of the "multifold trend" developed at the Hudson Institute and described earlier. It envisions a society with the following developmental trends:

1. Increasingly empirical, secular, pragmatic, manipulative, explicitly rational, utilitarian.

2. Centralization and concentration of economic and political power.

3. Continued rapid accumulation of scientific and technical knowledge.

4. Increasing reliance upon specialists and "knowledge elites" despite anti-intellectual trends.

5. Increasing affluence and the institutionalization of leisure.

6. Increasing use of social, economic, political, and behavioral engineering.

7. Increasing urban concentration and the emergence of megapolitan/regional urban areas.

This trend set might well be termed a "technological extrapolationist" future. An image of humankind that is supportive of this future would likely have the following characteristics:

• The individual by nature is aggressive and competitive, largely determined in his behavior by hereditary and environmental forces.

• The group is emphasized, to the relative detriment of individualism.

• Sexuality, territoriality, materialism, rationalism, and secularism are emphasized.

• There is an increased demand for and implied reliance upon technological solutions to our societal problems, and upon centralized regulation of technology application to provide needed controls.

Contrasting rather sharply with the foregoing trends and supportive image is a cluster of trends that is compatible with the characteristics postulated as desirable in Chapter 5. These trends and supportive image might lead to what could be termed an "evolutionary transformationalist" future. This future does not assume the logical extension of existing societal trends as does the technological extrapolationist view; rather it presumes a substantial departure from current trends, with the following trend characteristics resulting:

1. Increasingly balanced between dimensions such as empirical/intuitive, manipulative/pan-determined, rational/intuitive, utilitarian/aesthetic.

2. Stabilizing population; decentralization of urban areas so that population is distributed with greater balance; a greater diversity of living environments to express a larger range of life-style alternatives.

3. Increasing affluence for a time but then tending toward a steady-state society without substantial income/wealth differentials; a "do more with less" technology; more creative/participative leisure activities.

4. A decrease in the use of social, economic, political, and behavior engineering except where this was chosen by a group as the preferable mode of organizing and directing life-activities within their societal subsystem.

5. Increasing reliance upon specialized and general (holistic) skills of "knowledge elites" with greater legitimization and use of divergent thinking; also greater participation in the planning processes.

6. Continued accumulation of scientific and technical knowledge but of a sort which fits within the framework of a new "moral" paradigm.

7. Decentralization and deconcentration of economic and political power to allow "full valued participation" of people in their political and productive processes.

An image of humankind that would be supportive of this trend cluster would likely have the following characteristics:

• The individual's behavior is determined partly by hereditary (biological) and environmental (social) sources, which can be for either good or ill, but also there is a significant potential within the individual for behavior which is free from such deterministic influences.

• The individual has primacy but there are recognized needs of the societal system for its own maintenance as a supportive environment for individual growth/actualization.

• Thus, the self, along with societal structures, evolves toward higher states of awareness such that societal and individual diversity is hopefully integrated at a higher order of complexity and "self" becomes an experiential concept having transpersonal as well as individual aspects.

• An emphasis upon loving sexuality leading to a deemphasis of possessiveness.

• Rationalism and secularism are balanced by an equal regard for the significance of the intuitive and spiritual.

• An implied reliance is placed upon the individual's alteration of internal states for the solution of many societal problems.

Clearly, the technological extrapolationist and evolutionary transformationalist images present us with sharp contrasts — both direct, and in terms of the societal trends they support. The plausibility of each of these divergent images can be partially inferred from an examination of the potency of their historical roots — these are presented in Tables 8 and 9. Table 10 contrasts the ethical attributes that we might associate with these two images. With this as background, we now consider the societal consequences that would accrue in the technological extrapolationist and the evolutionary transformationalist futures.


1. Hobbesian Man — Hobbes saw humankind as elaborate machines whose "vital motions" were determined by outward stimuli. One seeks the power to insure the continuation of favorable stimuli and in that egoistic concern one comes into strong conflict with other people acting in like manner. What is required to insure peace is a sovereign with absolute power over the citizenry.

2. Economic Man — Is rationalistic (able to calculate what will maximize one's utility), self-centered (acquisitiveness constrained only by the self-seeking of others), mechanistic (a factor in the production process), individualistic (responsible for taking care of one's self), and materialistic (with an overriding concern for one's own material welfare).

3. Freudian Man — Freud saw people as being driven by the dual instinctual forces of eros (the sex drive) and thanatos (the will to destruction of self or, when turned outward, the will to aggression). Civilization suppresses these potentially destructive instincts and in doing so it increases the individual's internal tensions. Therefore, civilization is bought at the price of an increase in personal frustration.

4. Etiological Man — An aggressive animal with a veneer of civilization holding this aggression back. Man is instinctually programmed from his hunter origins toward war, destruction, and territoriality, and this cannot be unlearned or outgrown but can only be sublimated, redirected, or repressed. This any civilized society must do.

5. Behavioristic Man — One's actions are completely determined by hereditary and environmental factors. A recent emphasis is upon behavior modification through a stimulus-reinforcement-response process. Freedom and dignity are thought to be the illusory constructs of an individual who views himself as having autonomy. The survival of a culture is likely dependent on the systematic "shaping" of human behavior.



1. Lockean Man — For Locke, the pre-social condition of the human being was not mutual hostility but mutual tolerance. Nor was man's social contract a surrender pact drawn up between the people and the sovereign; it was a limited agreement among the people to allow regulation of some natural rights so as to gain protection for the remaining ones. Innate ideas or instincts were not the source of knowledge and character, but rather experience and awareness.

2. Emergent "Humanistic Capitalism" — Would replace the economic growth ethic with self-realization and ecological ethics, and holds that the appropriate function of social institutions is to create environments conducive to that human-growth process which would ultimately transcend a materialistic orientation.

3. Perennial Philosophy — " . . . the metaphysic that recognizes a divine Reality substantial to the world of things and lives and minds" (Huxley, 1945). The individual can, under certain conditions, attain to a higher awareness, a "cosmic consciousness," in which state he has immediate knowledge of a reality underlying the phenomenal world. "Rudiments of the Perennial Philosophy may be found among the traditional lore of primitive peoples in every region of the world, and in its fully developed forms it has a place in every one of the higher religions." It is then, the highest common denominator among the religions and thereby has tremendous integrative potential while recognizing the diversity of peoples.

4. The "Other" Ethology — From this perspective, aggression is not inherent in human nature. The environment more than instincts is the source of aggression. To the extent that aggression, territoriality, etc., are learned rather than innate attributes, then they can be unlearned.

5. Systems Theory — The person is an interdependent part of the progressive differentiation and higher-order reintegration of bio-social systems; the next phase in this evolutionary process is for the person to become conscious of his own evolution and to make the process purposeful so that there can be reconciliation of subsystems into large systems without loss of uniqueness. The underlying goal is the enhancement of individual fulfillment through the actualization of the best potentials there are within the person.

Assuming that the cluster of societal trends and images identified under the rubric of "technological extrapolation" becomes dominant in our society, what might be the likely consequences? Our society suffers from fundamental problems which are intrinsic to the very structure of mature industrialism. The cluster of multifold trends embodied in the extrapolationist perspective will likely exacerbate these problems. Indeed, given the present nature of our societal problems, we can expect:

• Continued acceleration of industrial development through massive transnational corporations which, because they transcend national boundaries, will be difficult or impossible to regulate adequately.

• Intensification of ecological problems, and of marathon competition to exploit vanishing resources.

• Increasing discrepancies in the distribution of affluence;

• Intensification of "revolutions of rising expectations" and of strife among interest groups.

• Increasing danger of sabotage, and increasing concern for personal and institutional security; development of new "security technologies."

• A shift from basic research to applied research and development.

• Increasingly unwieldy urban agglomerations whose political, financial, and total-systemic stability becomes uncertain.

• Increasing dominance of institutional needs over human needs.

• Increasingly questioned legitimacy of the entire socioeconomic system.  


-- / Technological extrapolationist image / Evolutionary transformationalist image

1. Mind and Matter: Is the human essentially a complex and sophisticated but physical machine, or is his essence that of mind or consciousness? / The human is definitely viewed as mechanistic, rationalistic, materialistic. / Both mind and matter are embraced as interdependent and interactive components of an evolving system which includes the person and his society. While some tend to emphasize the human as being essentially mind or spirit, the evolutionary thrust is toward increasing consciousness.

2. Freedom and Determinism: To what extent is the human free in his choices and actions? / The human is viewed as being more or less determined in his behavior patterns — either by instinctual forces or by the behavior-shaping forces of his external environment. / The human is potentially more or less free. Although he has a genetic inheritance which has stronger influence at the "lower levels" of his functioning, he is somewhat determined by the social environment learning process, and to the extent that he is the creator of his social/cultural learning environment, then he is relatively free to foster his own evolution.

3. Good and Evil: Is the human's nature essentially good or evil? / The person tends to be viewed as innately antisocial — aggressive in the ethological perspective, competitive-acquisitive in the economic point of view / The person is essentially neither good nor evil but conditioned by his environment, unless or until he wakes up and sees how things are or can be at a more profound level of awareness.

4. Individual and Collective: Does ultimate significance rest with the individual or the societal collective? Is the individual more subject to the collective, or vice versa? / In spite of the strongly individualistic roots of this composite image, the collective aspects of human existence are emphasized to the virtual exclusion of the individual aspects. (Behaviorism denies individuality.) A collectivist response is necessary to control the antisocial aspects of behavior. / Individuality and wisely chosen autonomy are paramount concerns, although there is utility in the collective aspect of existence — particularly in the ways it can be supportive of evolutionary development.

What kind of society might emerge? On the one hand, our wisdom and good luck could combine with ineptitude and misfortune in such a way as to cause our nation to just about break even in our efforts to deal with the growing problems. There may be (though it appears unlikely) neither disastrous failures nor remarkable successes. Our shortcomings could be offset by the traditional poultice of an increasing income for the majority, a greater amount of time for leisure pursuits, and the certainty of a greater quantity and variety of goods and services to be consumed.

On the other hand, it seems entirely plausible that these trends could exacerbate our societal problems and bring demands for immediate and drastic solutions to ensure the stability and survival of the society. Methods of regulation that severely reduce individual freedoms could be welcomed in the face of severe disruptions. We could quickly or, more likely, gradually emerge into the kind of society that Bertram Gross (1970) has termed "friendly fascism." This is a fascism that "will come under the slogans of democracy and 100 percent Americanism ... in the form of an advanced technological society, supported by its techniques — a techno-urban fascism, American style" (p. 44). Gross describes it as:

... a new form of garrison state, or totalitarianism, built by older elites to resolve the growing conflicts of post-industrialism. More specifically: a managed society [which] rules by a faceless and widely dispersed complex of warfare-welfare-industrial-communications-police bureaucracies caught up in developing a new-style empire based on a technocratic ideology, a culture of alienation, multiple scapegoats, and competing control networks . . .. Pluralistic in nature, techno-urban fascism would need no charismatic dictator, no one-party rule, no mass fascist party, no glorification of the state, no dissolution of legislatures, no discontinuation of elections, no distrust of reason . . . this style of management and planning would not be limited to the economy; it would deal with the political, social, cultural, and technological aspects of society as well . . .. The key theme, therefore, would not be the managed economy, but rather, the managed society[ii] (pp. 46 ff. Some emphases omitted)

What conditions would be required for such a pernicious future to emerge out of the extrapolation of the present? We think the following:

• The need — Our societal problems might combine with the multifold trend to create the need for such a friendly sort of totalitarianism. Perhaps this feeling of benign need was presaged in a recent statement by the White House Chief of Telecommunications: "A great many people in '1984' like what Big Brother was doing because he was doing it in their interest and concern" (Whitehead, 1973).

• The ability — Although one may fault the metaphysical implications of behavior modification, one cannot deny that it works. Today we are seeing the rapid emergence of "psycho-technologies" which could efficiently shape and modify patterns of behavior as well as motivational and emotional states. This could take the form of directed emotional conditioning in childhood; objectively constructed reinforcement patterns in adult life; the use of a wide variety of drugs; electrical brain implants; the modification of genetic makeup to activate different human potentials; the use of sophisticated electronic surveillance mechanisms to detect "aberrant" behavior patterns.

• A supportive image of man — The use of and dependence upon such psycho-technologies might well lead gradually to a pernicious form of the extrapolationist image of man. This is plausible in a self-validating way, since many aspects of the current form of the extrapolationist image seem supportive of the increasing use and dependence upon these technologies. Man is viewed as a sophisticated machine (therefore, master human nature as we have mastered physical nature); man is thought to be largely determined in his behavior (therefore, objectively shape his behavior in the most efficient way); man is innately antisocial (therefore, restrain antisocial tendencies with the aid of new technologies); individual man is subordinate to the needs of the collective (therefore, impose upon the individual whatever is to the benefit of the larger society).

• The acquiescence — Many psycho-technologies are already in limited use in our society and they would appear to be quite palatable to the general public if they were assimilated gradually while being couched in the appropriate language; e.g. rather than discuss the control of emotional and motivational states, we can talk of insuring peace and harmony by modifying the behavior of those "irrational" persons who threaten the stability and security of our society.

Quarton (1967) examined the plausibility of widespread use of such processes and concluded:

If these protective and avoidance patterns are greatly extended in the future, one can imagine a society that allows widespread use of drugs to prevent pain and anxiety, brain surgery to prevent both suffering and any aggressive actions by individuals, and extensive use of monitoring equipment to restrict individual behavior with a destructive potential, (p. 850)

There are already signs of the emergence of key elements in Gross's "friendly fascist" scenario:

• Application of military surveillance technologies to urban police problems.

• Utilization of behavior-changing drugs and operant conditioning in schools.

• Government attempts at management of news.

• "Personality screening" and maintenance of files on "pre-delinquent" children, through cooperation between elementary school administrations and local, state, and federal authorities.

• The cross-correlation of computer-based files containing personal data (e.g. credit, employment records, tax status, insurance, criminal record, education).

• The introduction of legislation to control access to techniques for self-initiated alteration of consciousness (both non-drug and drug induced).

Although the above pictures an extreme outcome from the technological extrapolationist image and trend, nonetheless it is an alternative future for the United States that is even now proving its feasibility by its growing emergence. This future would seem unintended to most people; yet, by not "rocking the boat" and by pursuing what is a familiar societal path, it seems clear that we could reach a societal future which was quite different and far worse than was originally anticipated. This future is by no means inevitable but it does confront us with profoundly important choices — both individual and collective.[iii]


Whereas the technological extrapolationist response represents the logical extension of currently dominant societal trends, the evolutionary transformationalist response presumes a qualitative and quantitative departure from them. However, in the early stages at least, the transition to an evolutionary transformationalist post-industrial society would create some degree of disruption and disorientation.

Assume for a moment that the industrial state does have problems that are fundamentally unresolvable within the context of the present, and further assume that the evolutionary transformationalist image points the way to a resolution of the difficulties engendered by the industrial era. It might seem that our society would welcome the coming of such a transition with open arms. More likely, we would welcome such a societal change no more than the Middle Ages welcomed Galilean science, no more than the neurotic welcomes the changes in perception and behavior necessary to extricate himself from his unhappy condition. Such a new image and the societal consequences it implies would be viewed as a real threat to the established order. The emphasis on inner exploration would look like escapism, and the new interest in psychic phenomena and spiritual experience would be put down as a return to the superstitions of a less scientific and more gullible age. The increased reliance on intuitive processes would be interpreted as an abandonment of rationalism. The shift in priorities away from material and toward spiritual values would appear as a weakening of the work ethic and as a turning away from economic goals — imperiling both the state of the economy and the stability of economic institutions. The ethic of love and community would seem subversive to the national defense. Such interpretations would not be totally unrealistic, since the world in general is far from ready for such drastic value-changes, and partial moves in these directions would likely be interpreted as weakness.

At a more fundamental level, the implied responsibility of the individual for his own growth and development, in the evolutionary transformationalist view, can by itself evoke a resistance to entertaining this new image of humankind. Maslow (1962) described this phenomenon succinctly in a chapter entitled "The Need to Know and the Fear of Knowing":

The great cause of much psychological illness is the fear of knowledge of oneself .... We tend to be afraid of any knowledge that could cause us to despise ourselves or make us feel inferior, weak, worthless, evil, shameful. We protect ourselves and our ideal image of ourselves by repression and similar defenses, which are essentially techniques by which we avoid becoming conscious of unpleasant or dangerous truths .... But there is another kind of truth we tend to evade. Not only do we hang on to our psychopathology, but also we tend to evade personal growth because this, too, can bring another kind of fear, of awe, of feelings of weakness and inadequacy. And so we find another kind of resistance, a denying of our best side, of our talents, of our finest impulses, of our highest potentialities, of our creativeness .... It is precisely the god-like in ourselves that we are ambivalent about, fascinated by the fearful of, motivated to and defensive against, (pp. 60-61)

Thus, at both the individual and societal levels, the implications of an evolutionary transformationalist image are bound to engender strong resistance. This would contribute to the disruption that inevitably accompanies a period of rapid societal change, such as the present transition from an industrial to some type of a post-industrial society. A paradoxical situation thus arises: even if the evolutionary transformationalist image is essential to a satisfactory resolution of the problems of advanced industrialism, actions designed to force the emergence of such a transformation could be socially disruptive.[iv]

Let us turn now to a longer time perspective and the plausible characteristics of a society in which this image of humankind had become established. These must be considered tentative and incomplete speculations; but they do provide a basis for further discussion.

Individual and Social Goals

The evolutionary transformationalist image must begin with the relatively deterministic confines of our socio-economic system. This is simply a recognition that, to a substantial degree, people's general pattern of behavior, perception, and motivation is conditioned by the imprinting force of our urban-industrial living environment:

Instead of the economy being embedded in social relations, social relations are embedded in the economic system .... For once the economic system is organized in separate institutions, based on specific motives and conferring a special status, society must be shaped in such a manner as to allow that system to function according to its own laws.

-- Polanyi, 1944, p. 57

Rather than accept and adapt to this societal context, the evolutionary transformationalist response would affirm the relative primacy and existential autonomy of the individual while still recognizing the deterministic socialization and stringent demands made by a highly developed society. Given the power of the industrial dynamic, the nature of the transformationalist task is substantial, and it seems not unfeasible that a variety of social and psychotechnologies would be embraced — but not in the mode of control. Thus, for example, behaviors consistent with operant conditioning might become commonplace not as the linear control (which most people fear), but as reciprocal influence (which is what it seems Skinner is talking about).[v]

Taking precedence over the dominant economic goals of growth and efficiency would be two complementary guiding ethics, the ecological ethic and the self-realization ethic. The ecological ethic expresses a concern for all peoples and life on the planet (a geographic dimension), for future generations of life (a time dimension), and for the interrelations of peoples, their states of consciousness, cultures, and institutions over time (a societal dimension). The self-realization ethic would highly value "life, liberty, and the pursuit of self-actualization."

A central activity of the self-realization ethic is the pursuit of one's vocation, which would include work-play-learning, all intertwined. A central societal goal, then, should be the full participation in this expanded vocation so that all individuals have access to one or more satisfying work-play-learning ways of life. This expanded sense of vocation would vastly increase the activities in which persons could receive affirmation by society and thereby develop and hold a healthy self-image. It would also legitimate the purposeful thrust of sociocultural revolution to include individual self-evolution-of-consciousness. For such an expanded sense of vocation to become a reality, material goals would have to be deemphasized, we would tend toward a steady-state economy, routine work tasks would become increasingly cybernated, and only a fraction of the work-play-learning force would be required to pursue activities directed at supplying material goods and services to society. The many other activities in individualistic combination should be meaningful, non-stultifying, and non-polluting. There is one area of activity which in particular might meet these conditions — learning — which in the broad sense includes personal exploration and research as well as social learning activity. Robert Hutchins (1968) describes "the learning society" as one that will have transformed:

... its values in such a way that learning, fulfillment, becoming human, had become its aims and all its institutions were directed to this end. This is what the Athenians did .... They made their society one designed to bring all its members to the fullest development of their highest powers . . . Education was not a segregated activity, conducted for certain hours, in certain places, at a certain time of life. It was the aim of the society .... The Athenian was educated by the culture, by Paidea.

The central educational task fostered by Paidea was "the search for the Divine Center" (Jaeger, 1965). But the post-industrial society would differ from that of Athens in important respects. Its slaves will be machines, with the Faustian powers of its technology introduced to a new level of responsibility. It thus must become not only a social-learning society but a social-planning society. Helping to choose the future, then, would be a primary responsibility of citizens.

Another important area of change would be in the goals of corporations and particularly multinational corporations. As the latter become more powerful than most nation-states, it becomes essential that their operative goals shift to resemble those of public institutions. This means, specifically, that the priority in corporate goals would become something like the following: (1) to carry on activities that will contribute to the self-fulfillment of the persons involved, (2) to carry on activities that contribute directly to satisfaction of social needs and accomplishment of societal goals, and (3) to earn a fair profit on investment, not so much as a goal in itself (as at present) but as a control signal which monitors effectiveness. How might such a utopian-sounding situation come about? Does it not sound impractical and preposterous that corporations would be willing to relegate profit-making to third priority? The social force that might bring about such a revolutionary change in operative goals is the subtle but powerful (and poorly understood) influence of granting or withholding legitimacy. Governments have often felt the potency of legitimacy withdrawal. In mid-eighteenth century, as we have already noted, the suggestion would have seemed preposterous that a monarchy would soon be declared not legitimate by contrast with governments "deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed." Giant corporations today are feeling the challenge put to the divine right of kings two centuries ago. It assumes many forms — movements of consumers and environmentalists; civil rights and women's liberation; truth-in-advertising pressures; worker demands for improved quality of work environment; stockholder revolts. Awareness is growing that the largest corporations, at least, are in an important sense public institutions. Directly or indirectly (through life insurance policies, annuities, mutual funds, etc.) they are owned by a large fraction of the public and employ a large portion of the people; the public uses the goods and services they produce, and suffers the environmental degradation they produce. The wave of public challenge is forming.


Many of our institutions seem to have inadvertently reached a critical size beyond which they are virtually uncontrollable in any coherent fashion. This fact of life was aptly described by Richard Bellman, in accepting the first Norbert Wiener prize for applied mathematics (1970):

I think it's beginning to be realized that our systems are falling apart. We don't know how to administer them. We don't know how to control them. And it isn't at all obvious that we can control a large system in such a way that it remains stable. It may very well be that there is a critical mass — that when a system gets too large, it just gets automatically unstable.

We see these problems in our educational systems, in our legal systems, in our bureaucratic systems, in our transportation systems, in our garbage-collection systems, and so on. The inability to sustain stable subsystems (let alone the macro-system) suggests that a strong thrust toward decentralization would be a plausible concomitant to the transformationalist image of humankind.[vi] Relatively autonomous subsystems would enhance diversity in our society, which is increasingly confronted with an underlying (and, at times, overriding) homogeneity of physical structures, life-styles, and living environments generally. Relatively autonomous subsystems (whether in government, business, education, or elsewhere) that are oriented toward human growth would give many more citizens a greater sense of significance and meaning in a more approachable institutional environment.

As the social system becomes increasingly interdependent and complex, the need for accurate information becomes greater. Such accuracy presumes a fairly high degree of trust, honesty, and openness. Highly complex task operations, such as putting men in space or resolving the impending energy crisis, require a high level of honesty and trust; so too would building a humane society. For quite practical — as contrasted with moralistic — reasons, then, the demanded level of honesty and openness in an evolutionary transformationalist type of post-industrial era could be expected to increase, especially affecting such activities as advertising and merchandising.[vii]

Similarly, as the complexity of societal operations increases, autocratically and hierarchically organized bureaucratic structures (whether business, education, government) tend to develop communication overloads near the top and discouragements to entrepreneurship and responsibility lower down. In order to sustain our complex societal system, we may systematically reconstitute massive bureaucratic structures into organizations with relatively autonomous subsystems (in effect, decentralization). This adaptive form of organization would seem better suited both to cope with complex tasks and to provide more satisfying work for the people involved.[viii]

Another societal consequence might be the growth of the family from an atomistic unit of refuge to an extended unit, a larger source of meaning and significance. Experiments with a variety of family structures would be a legitimate endeavor in a society that encourages individual and interpersonal exploration of human-growth processes. In an extended context, the family might regain some of its traditional meaning as a source of education, broadly defined, and as a unit for work.

Given a relative deemphasis of economic growth and efficiency, and an enhanced concern for social, psychological, political and environmental matters, it seems plausible to think that the trend toward huge urban agglomerations would be reversed and populations would be redistributed with greater balance. There would likely be experiments with a diversity of living environments to allow people a greater range of trade-offs in selecting a community. In such a context, there may emerge increasingly sophisticated communal types of living environments which experiment with new institutional forms.

The societal changes we have discussed under the rubric of the "evolutionary transformationalist" may appear at first to be too radical. On the contrary, they are probably too conservative. Our task is the equivalent of standing in the Middle Ages and attempting to describe the culture and institutions after the Industrial Revolution.

We can hardly claim to have demonstrated that a shift toward the evolutionary transformationalist image of human-in-the-universe is well underway — especially since such a fundamental shift is historically so improbable. We may simply have made the hypothesis plausible. If so, then the questions raised here about the characteristics of a society dominated by the new image are of extreme importance. The greatest hazard in such a transition is that the anxiety level can raise to where the society responds with irrational and self-destructive behavior. The best safeguards are widespread understanding of the need for transformation and reassurance that there is someplace good to get to on the other side.[ix]


Winston Churchill stated that, "We shape our buildings and then our buildings shape us." Similarly, but in a larger and more pervasive sense, we are being irrevocably shaped by our unprecedented urban-industrial environment which is premised upon images of humankind whose historical origins are far removed from contemporary reality.

The decision to suppress image change or to allow societal and image transformation confronts us with an important branch point in our history. The consequences of our decisions in the next few decades will endure long into the future:

The environment men create through their wants becomes a mirror that reflects their civilization; more importantly it also constitutes a book in which is written the formula of life that they communicate to others and transmit to succeeding generations.

-- Dubos, 1968, p. 171

Human beings can become adapted to almost anything and, since our physical and psychological endowments give us a wide range of adaptive potentialities, it is crucial to distinguish between those images that foster a short-term tolerable living environment and those that foster a long-term desirable living environment. The dynamic character of adaptability is illustrated by a laboratory demonstration in which a frog was placed in a beaker of boiling water and immediately jumped out; when the frog was placed in a beaker of cold water that was slowly warmed to boiling temperature, however, the temperature change was gradual and the frog adapted in increments, making no attempt to escape until he finally died. Analogously, the mere fact that a society can generate an image of the human and, for a time, adapt to it does not necessarily ensure that it would be a desirable thing to do. We can make errors and inadvertently accept images which may prove lethal both to our existence as being seeking to unfold our potentials, and to our "physical existence as an evolving species. Given our capacity to adapt — even to the point of virtual self-destruction — it is difficult to know whether or not we may have already gone too far with our industrial images. Given the apparent momentum of the industrial dynamic, it is difficult to know whether we could turn back even if it seemed we had gone too far.

Nonetheless, we are still confronted with the existential choice: "... in matters of life ... it does not matter whether the chance for cure is 51 percent or 5 percent. Life is precarious and unpredictable, and the only way to live is to make every effort to save it as long as there is a possibility of doing so" (Fromm, 1968, p. 141). We can either involve ourselves in the recreative self and societal discovery of an image of humankind appropriate for our future, with attendant societal and personal consequences, or we can choose not to make any choice and, instead, adapt to whatever fate, and the choices of others, bring along.

Life is occupied both in perpetuating itself and in surpassing itself; if all it does is maintain itself, then living is only not dying.

-- Simone de Beauvoir

To a significant extent, society is waiting, hoping that the impulse for change will settle around certain fundamental attributes of the American ethic. At the present time, however, no consensus about the nature of these fundamentals exists. We are all looking for values that have deep roots as we attempt to sort out the durable from the ephemeral.

-- Wall Street Journal



Note A

"Given my own pre-paranoid selective-perception 'set', the most convincing discussion of all is the drift into the Gross 'friendly fascism'! It is comforting to hear you affirm that this is 'an extreme outcome from the technological extrapolationist image and trend', and 'unintended to most people' but it seems to me we are well into it! The very crisis nature of our future seems to me to most likely increase the garrison-state dynamic:

• dissent, repression; more dissent, more repression;

• complexity-breakdown, engineered solution; more complexity-breakdown, more engineered solution;

• fear, surveillance; more fear, more surveillance . . . etc., etc., ETC.!!.

"I wish I could see this whole thing more positively and creatively, but so far I can't, and your discussion just seems to reinforce my pessimism, though I'm certain the opposite is your intent!"

— David Cahoon

Note B

"The 'genius' of the industrial-state paradigm is that it did appeal to and unify the three levels of the self (unconscious, conscious, super-conscious) you identify in Ch. 6. This was not a rational, conscious, intentional event, but what Tillich calls a 'kairos' historical form of a God-Destiny-Evolution consciousness-transformation ('an idea whose time has come'). Our 'transition' period in history and evolution consists in this; that the old kairos paradigm image is tarnished and dysfunctional, has lost its 'spirit' in the sense that it doesn't unify and inspire, and no longer 'points beyond itself to Being-Itself consciously or unconsciously (Tillich's language in The Courage To Be, 'The Religious Symbol'). The new unifying 'kairos' imagery and vision of the post-industrial era has not yet coalesced, been evoked, been created, germinated.

"Now, what seems right to me in your analysis is that the 'evolutionary-transformationalist' symbols, metaphors, images, etc. . . .catch up the conscious and superconscious components of the new emerging 'kairos' imagery; what seems weak or missing is the unconscious component, and as you rightly emphasize in this beautiful paragraph this cannot be consciously engineered or speeded up."

— David Cahoon

Note C

"There are a couple of places in the text where you use language and make assertions that are not fully consistent with your general system theory concepts, [e.g.] the necessity for organizational decentralization. I am afraid that in the minds of most people this language evokes the classical centralization-decentralization dichotomy. The work of Lawrence and Lorsch at the Harvard Business School makes clear how misleading this image can be (see Lawrence, Paul R., and Lorsch, Jay W., Organization and Environment, Irwin, 1969). In a similar vein [below] you speak of the communication overload that attends hierarchical organization. This would be true only in the case of a linear nested hierarchy that seeks to maintain direct point-by-point control. General systems theory makes plain that it is the partial decoupling of information processing systems that yields precisely that hierarchical form of organization necessary to the conservation of information and the regulation of complexity. But this is a far cry from simple decentralization as conceived by classical organizational concepts. I'm afraid that the 'New Federalism' suffers from this same defect. There is an essentially valid principle here that founders because the conventional expression fails to understand the epistemology of social processes.

"In general, the principal weakness of [your report] reflects the principal weaknesses of the literature that it synthesizes. There is no real understanding or expression of the nature of the very difficult problems of organizational transformation that must attend the transformation processes advanced as essential for the survival and evolution of an 'open society.' My Wiley book deals partially with these issues."

— Edgar S. Dunn, Jr.

"But you can prove that one is held more frequently than another through the use of  survey research. An image of man survey of what is and what ought to be, parallel to  Hopes and Fears of the American People (Universe, 1972), should be conducted."
—  Michael Marien

"A somewhat later and considerably more scholarly piece by Gross, contrasting  techno-urban fascism vs. humanist reconstruction, is offered in a lengthy essay,  'Planning in an Era of Social Revolution,' Public Administration Review, May/June 1971,  pp. 259-297. Gross is also writing a book on friendly fascism, to be published in late  1974."
— Michael Marien

 The book finally appeared in 1980 and is a most sobering appraisal of (now) current  trends.
iii. See Note A, p. 179.
iv. See Note B, p. 179.
"I am not sure that 'reciprocal influence' is exactly what I am talking about. I am very  much concerned about the future and certainly adopt what you call the ecological ethic  rather than the self-realization ethic, which I regard as a rationalization of  selfishness."
— B. F. Skinner

vi. See Note C, p. 179.
"If honesty and openness are correlated with an evolutionary transformationalist era,  the possibilities for such an era would seem bleak if, as I fear, trust is eroding. We must  still hope, but we must accurately assess the strength of the enemy amongst us."
—  Michael Marien

"I believe you could make a real case for computer conferencing a la Murray Turoff,  and electronic consensus taking, a la Etzioni, as means for decentralizing or making  more democratic what could become a terrifying 'robopathic' way of life in affluent  bureaucracy."
— Robert A. Smith, III

"Well, I agree with that! I find the 'hazard' almost inevitable, and the 'safeguard- widespread understanding' very unlikely! I do not want to be naively 'super-sophisticated' or on the side of those saying 'I told you so' when western civ. or mankind  collapses ... in fact I find the 'someplace good to get to' both in the present and in the  future Image you postulate . . . but I do feel that your presentation of the 'evolutionary  transformationalist' imagery suffers (as does Reich's 'Greening') from a one-sided  optimistic or romanticized Imagery that undermines its credence."
— David Cahoon.

[George] You can't change human nature. There'll always be war. There'll always be violence. There'll always be corruption. There'll always be greed. There'll always be apathy.
[Harriet] I'm leaving you George. You're too cynical.
[George] Harriet! I'll change!
Reproduced by permission of Jules Feiffer. © 1980. Distributed by Field Newspaper Syndicate.
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Re: Changing Images of Man: Prepared by the Center for the

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CHAPTER 8: Guidelines and Strategies for Transformation

In this final chapter we approach the difficult question from the practical person — what is to be done? What sorts of actions and programs do the foregoing arguments suggest? What could be accomplished by corporations, foundations, political agencies, voluntary associations?

We have not found it possible to respond satisfactorily without casting this discussion at a more personal level than the material of the first seven chapters. This is mainly because the actions that appear appropriate depend upon how one interprets the substance of the preceding discussion. One of the more frequent responses we received to an earlier version of this report was a request for candor, for a forthright statement of the conclusions we reached after immersing ourselves for some months in this material. This chapter starts with such a statement. The discussion reflects hope. It is an affirmation that what could be is worth examining even if the likelihood of its coming to pass seems small. Our honest observation is that our society is traveling full speed down the technological extrapolationist path described in Chapter 7, and that by the time the danger lights begin to glow brightly, it will be terribly late.

No blueprint will emerge from this examination, no specific set of research programs and institutional changes. If there are forces pushing toward an evolutionary transformation of the sort described in Chapter 7, they are firmly rooted in the past and their present momentums will have a major shaping effect on the future. Thus, a successful strategy probably needs to be an incremental and an adaptive one.


We start with five premises that grow out of the preceding discussions.

1. An interrelating set of fundamental dilemmas, growing apparently ever more pressing, seem to demand for their ultimate resolution a drastically changed image of man-on-earth. We seem able to tolerate neither the ecological consequences of continued material growth nor the economic effects of a sudden stoppage. We fear the implications of greatly increased control of technological development and application, yet sense that such control is imperative. We recognize the fatal instability of economic nationalism and a growing gap between rich and poor nations, yet seem unable to turn the trend around. We seem unable to resolve the discrepancy between man's apparent need for creative meaningful work and the economic imperatives that cause much human labor to become superfluous or reduce it to makework. A massive challenge is growing to the legitimacy of a business-government system wherein pursuit of economic ends results in such counteracting of other human ends. We face a cultural crisis of meaning — it is not clear who is at the helm, how the ship is steered, nor what distant shores we should be aiming for. In a way it is a crisis of awareness, a set of situations which with less awareness might seem more tolerable.

A serviceable image of humankind must reflect interdependence of the Nature that modern man once misguidedly sought to "control," and with the social-technological systems on which his survival has come to depend, and whose complexity he is yet unable to comprehend. It must provide humanity with a meaning for its struggles, above and beyond that involved in learning to manipulate the physical environment. It must enable humankind to appreciate and deal with the peril which its unbridled Faustian powers of technology have brought upon it.

2. There are increasingly evident signs of the imminent emergence of new li image of man." It is a new image in the sense of being very much a challenger to the dominant scientific world view as that has evolved over the past few centuries, and also to the image of materialistic "economic man" that become enshrined in the institutions and economic theories of the industrial era. Yet it is not new, since traces of it can be found, going back for thousands of years, in the core experiences underlying the world's many religious doctrines, as reported through myths and symbols, holy writings, and esoteric teachings. The staying power of the new image is suggested by the facts that it reactivates the cultural myths whose meaning had become forgotten, and it seems to be substantiated by the further advances of the science which earlier played a role in seemingly discrediting it (see Chapter 4).

Chapter 6 described some characteristics of the "image of man" which is at once compatible with the reemergent "Perennial Philosophy" and is well adapted for dealing with humankind's contemporary dilemmas. Of special interest to the Western world is that Freemasonry tradition which played such a significant role in the birth of the United States of America, attested to by the symbolism of the Great Seal (on the back of the dollar bill).

Fig. 17. U.S. one-dollar bill.

In this version of the transcendental image, the central emphasis is on the role of creative work in the life of the individual. (In "true Freemasonry" there is one lodge, the universe — and one brotherhood, everything that exists. Each person has the "privilege of labor," of joining with the "Great Architect" in building more noble structures and thus serving in the divine plan.) Thus this version of the "new transcendentalism" (perhaps more than other versions imported from the East more recently) has the potentiality of reactivating the American symbols, reinterpreting the work ethic, supporting the basic concepts of a free-enterprise democratic society, and providing new meanings for the technological-industrial thrust. At the same time, it is compatible with other versions more indigenous to other parts of the globe.

3. There is a serious mismatch between modern industrial -state culture and institutions and the emerging new image of man. This mismatch produces such reactions as the growing challenge to the legitimacy of business institutions whose primary allegiance appears to be to their stockholders and managers, the growing disenchantment with the technocratic elite, the decreasing trust and confidence in governments, all revealed in recent survey data. The mismatch could result in serious social disruptions, economic decline, runaway inflation, and even institutional collapse. On the other hand, institutions can modify themselves and adapt to a new cultural paradigm, though probably not without a relatively traumatic transition period.

4. There is, and will continue to be, deep psychological resistance to both the new image and to its implications. No aspect of a person's total belief-and-value system is so unyielding to change as his basic sense of identity, his self-image. It is a well-known phenomenon in psychotherapy that the client will resist and evade the very knowledge he most needs to resolve his problems. A similar situation probably exists in society and there is suggestive evidence both in anthropology and in history that a society tends to hide from itself knowledge which is deeply threatening to the status quo but may in fact be badly needed for resolution of the society's most fundamental problems. The reason contemporary societal problems appear so perplexing may well be not so much their essential abstruseness and complexity as the collective resistance to perceiving the problems in a different way.

5. The degree to which the needed characteristics described in Chapter 5 are realized may well determine the degree to which highly undesirable future outcomes (economic collapse, a garrison-police state) can be avoided. The emerging image of humankind has increasingly widespread acceptance and long historical roots. It can be opposed and suppressed, but probably at great social cost. The necessary condition for a stable society in the medium-term future (say 1990) is that the behavior patterns and institutions of the society shall have transformed themselves to be compatible with the new image.

These five premises are in their essence not demonstrable. Thus, we make no pretense of having proven, them in any sense. They are in general supported, however, by the evidence and arguments presented in the previous chapters. They can be checked against new information as it becomes available, to verify whether or not they receive further support. Thus, it is appropriate to explore what sorts of actions would be indicated if these propositions were to be accepted.


In the following analysis we concentrate on strategies for the United States. They would be similar, but with important differences, for other parts of the industrialized world, especially the nations with planned economies. Significantly different strategies would be appropriate for those Third-World nations with resources valued by the industrialized world (mainly fossil fuels and minerals). The situation is still more different for that residual "fourth world" of nations that have no resources other than poor land and poor people.

Furthermore, we emphasize the roles of the powerful political and economic institutions of the technologically advanced world because it appears to be there that the main decisions will be made which will determine the smoothness or disruptiveness of the transformation. It is our purpose not to list specific tactics, other than as exemplars, but rather to indicate guiding criteria for decisions and actions.

It will be useful to contrast five different basic strategies through which a desired transformation might be fostered. These are restorative, stimulative, manipulative, persuasive, and facilitative.

The fundamental goal of a restorative strategy would be to restore the vitality and meaning of past images, symbols, institutions, and approaches to problems, which are believed to have worked successfully in some prior period and hence are judged to be appropriate in the present. Wallace, in his study of cultural revitalization movements (1956), found that this strategy has particular appeal during the beginning stages of the revitalization cycle, when the extent of the crisis has not yet been recognized. In later stages, however, attempts to revert to earlier forms come to be seen as clearly inadequate; hence, other strategies are then adopted.

A stimulative strategy has as its fundamental goal the emergence of new images, approaches, or actions that are desired but that are "premature" — they do not fit the prevailing paradigm and hence would not be very likely to attract support from mainstream institutions in the society. The foci of stimulative strategies would tend to be actions that anticipate a new paradigm, but do not yet have much visibility or legitimacy. Such a strategy is especially appropriate when it is becoming clear that a crisis exists and the inadequacies of the old structures and concepts in -a society (or a science) are being revealed. (Wallace calls this "cultural distortion" and Kuhn terms it a "crisis" involving a breakdown of the old paradigm.)

While a stimulative strategy seeks to alter the institutions, values, and behavior patterns of society in such a way as to honor or increase the freedom of choice of individuals in the society, a manipulative strategy attempts to accomplish a similar result through overtly or covertly reducing individual freedoms. Some manipulative tactics may be direct (as with the passage of a law); others may be more indirect (as with editorial policies in the media, or "confrontation politics" in the counter-culture). This approach is more likely to be used by well-established interests that are challenged by newer ones. As we saw, however, it was effectively used in Germany to bring about dominance of a new image of man and of the Fatherland, and it could be so used again.

A persuasive or propagandistic strategy has as its goal persuading others of the Tightness, utility, and attractiveness of a given image, conception, or way of acting. This strategy is an essential part of the political process, whether in the governmental activities of pluralistic democracies and totalitarian states alike, or in the deciding between competing scientific theories.

A facilitative strategy seeks to foster the growth of new images and patterns that are visibly emerging. The main purpose of the support may be less to hasten or ensure the development than to help bring it about with lowered likelihood of social disruption.

If we examine these five approaches in the context of the five premises listed earlier, some seem appropriate and others much less so to the transformation under consideration (from the industrial-era image to the emergent transcendental-ecological one). The manipulative type of strategy, for instance, is in such direct conflict with the self-realization ethic that it could not be used without risking severe distortion of the state it seeks to bring about.

Restorative strategies can play an important role in the present transformation because of the fact that the new, emerging image is essentially that of the Freemasonry influence which was of such importance in the shaping of the nation's foundations. The activities of the "Heritage" segment of the American Revolution Bicentennial are mainly an attempt to recapture a waning American spirit, although they could serve to promote the new image by reminding us of the transcendental bases of the nation's founding (e.g. the all-seeing eye as the capstone of the pyramidal structure in the Great Seal).

It is relatively easy to generate stimulative strategies from the discussions of earlier chapters. For example, practically all the areas of scientific research listed in Chapter 4 would furnish likely candidates — altered states of consciousness and psychic research to name a couple. Also, various educational and institutional-change strategies come to mind. Appendix E lists a number of such stimulative strategies. There is a caution to be kept in mind, however. Once a societal trans- formation is underway, as this one appears to be, social stability becomes a central problem. It is essential to have as accurate a picture as possible of the total state of affairs, so that research related to anticipating the nature and characteristics of the transformation rightly assumes high priority. Widespread anxiety and the hazard of inappropriate and irrational responses can be kept lower with accurate information. On the other hand, stimulative actions that result in too rapid a change could be overly disruptive. It is even conceivable that once into the transition period, actions contributing to social cohesion might be much more constructive than actions to increase the polarization between the transformation enthusiasts and the conservatives.

Other than in the passage of laws, manipulative strategies, insofar as the five initial premises hold up, would appear to be incompatible with the emerging image. No doubt existing consciousness-changing, behavior-shaping, subliminal persuasion, and other conditioning techniques could be used to accomplish some sort of transformation of sobering proportions (we ought to be able to be more effective than Nazi Germany). However, the use of manipulative techniques for this particular transformation conflicts fundamentally with the goals implicit in the transformation. Thus, they would probably in the end be disruptive and counterproductive.

Persuasive techniques that fall short of manipulation are unlikely to be very effective. The reason is that one characteristic of such a transition period as we seem to be entering is low faith in, disenchantment with, and cynicism regarding both scientific and political leadership.  

The most appropriate strategies, if the initial premises are accepted, would appear to be facilitative ones. The transformation has its own dynamic; it can probably not be slowed down or speeded up very much by political action, once it has enough momentum to be visible. But the trauma of the transition, the amount of social disruption, economic weakening, and political confusion can probably be affected a great deal by the degree of understanding of what the transformation process is, why it is necessary, and what the inherent goals are. To use a biological metaphor, the woman beginning to experience labor pains and associated physiological changes is much more likely to approach the birth experience with low anxiety, and hence to avoid tensing up and doing the wrong things, if she understands the nature of pregnancy and its inherent goal, than if she had no idea of the process or where it leads.

Perhaps another comparison is even more pertinent. We have earlier noted that societies in transformation bear a certain resemblance to individual behaviors accompanying a psychological crisis. The dislocation known as a psychotic break is sometimes brought on by the total unworkability of the person's life pattern and belief system, such that the whole structure seems to collapse and need rebuilding. Prior to the crisis the person, to a disinterested observer, is seen to be engaging in all sorts of irrational behavior in his frantic attempts to keep from himself the awareness that his personal belief, value, and behavior system was on a collision course with reality. Under favorable circumstances the individual goes through the crisis, uncomfortably to be sure, and restructures his life in a more constructive way. In an unfavorable environment, of course, the episode can escalate into a catastrophe. In the case of a society a parallel condition to the psychotic break can occur, with a relatively sharp break in long-term trends and patterns. The analogues of irrational individual behavior may appear (social disruptions, violent crime, alienation symptoms, extremes of hedonism, appearance of bizarre religious cults, etc.). Massive denial of realities may occur (e.g. with regard to exponential increases in population or energy use). The society may go to extreme measures to hide from itself the unworkability of the old order and the need for transformation. The transformation itself, like the psychotic break, may come almost ineluctably — and as with the individual, favorable and unfavorable outcomes are both possibilities. What we have termed facilitative strategies can be likened to the sort of care that may help bring about a favorable outcome.


Assuming, then, that primary emphasis should be placed on strategies to facilitate a non-disruptive transformation, it follows that those strategies will be incremental ones, dynamically adapting to a rapidly changing situation, and guided by an understanding of the nature and necessity of the transformation and of the essential conditions for a favorable outcome from a traumatic transition period. We need, therefore, to examine the salient characteristics of the tranformation.[ i]

Nature of the Fundamental Anomaly

The central feature of the hypothesized transformation is that its ineluctability comes about, as indicated in Chapter 3, because of a major and growing discrepancy between the cultural and social products of industrialization, on the one hand, and generally desirable human ends on the other. A fundamental anomaly exists of the following sort:

• The basic system goals that have dominated the industrial era (material progress, private ownership of capital, maximum return on capital investment, freedom of enterprise, etc.),

• and that have been approached through a set of intermediate goals that include efficiency, economic productivity, continued growth of technological-manipulative power, and continued growth of production and consumption,

• have resulted in processes and states (e.g. extreme division of labor and specialization, compulsive replacement of men by machines, stimulated consumption, planned obsolescence, exploitation of common resources, environmental degradation, worsening world poverty) which

• culminate in a counteracting of human ends (e.g. enriching work roles, self- determination, conservation, wholesome environment, humanitarian concerns, world stability).

Put another way, the fundamental anomaly is that "good" micro- decisions, i.e. local decisions made in accordance with prevailing rules and customs, currently do not add up to socially good macro-decisions. Individuals, corporations, government agencies in the course of their activities make micro-decisions (e.g. to buy a certain product, to employ a person for a particular task, to develop and market a new technology, to enact a minimum-wage law) that are guided by a web of cultural and habitual behavior patterns, common values and beliefs. These micro-decisions interact to constitute a set of macro-decisions of the overall society (e.g. a 4 percent annual growth rate in energy usage, degradation of the environment, depletion of non-renewable resources) which, if Adam Smith's "invisible hand" were working properly, would be compatible with the cultural aims and objectives of the society. The degree of compatibility has for some time been visibly deteriorating.

The response to this fundamental anomaly is a massive and intensifying challenge from consumers, environmentalists, minorities, workers, civil libertarians, youth, and others, to be the legitimacy of basic system goals and institutions. If economic and business goals do not appear to be congruent with social goals, if "good" business decisions lead to "bad" social decisions, this suggests the need for fundamental changes in dominant institutions and social paradigms, to bring the functioning of the society into harmonious relationship with the dominant cultural image of human life. To this end some have proposed one and another form of "new socialism" to increase the governmental regulatory responsibilities over the micro-decision-making of the citizenry and private-sector institutions.

It is important to note, in this connection, that the fundamental anomaly described above is essentially a characteristic of technological and industrial success, not of a particular form of government. Thus, although its form is somewhat different, a similar sort of fundamental dilemma is found in industrially advanced collectivist nations with centralized social planning.

Essential Conditions for Resolution of the Fundamental Anomaly

This is not the place for an exhaustive discussion of the changes necessary for society to resolve this basic dilemma. It is important to our aims, however, to understand some of the conditions that will have to be met as we muddle or plan our way through to a satisfactory resolution.

In the first place, there will have to be some satisfactory coming to terms with the "new scarcity." Scarcity (of food, potable water, construction materials, etc.) has always been an aspect of the condition of human life. It has in the past rather successfully been considered as remediable by advancing frontiers and adequate technology. In some sense it has thus been all but eliminated in the advanced nations. The "new scarcity" is of a different sort. It arises from approaching the finite planetary limits (1) natural storehouses of fossil fuels and strategic materials, (2) the ability of the natural environment to absorb the waste products of industrialized society, (3) fresh water, (4) arable land, (5) habitable surface area, and (6) the ability of natural ecological systems to absorb interventions without risking ecological catastrophes that threaten human life. (In speaking of "finite limits" we recognize that the limits are not rigid constraints, and are interdependent. Were "clean" fossil fuels available in unlimited supply, for example, limits in the other categories would be altered.) There has to be a reconciliation of the "new scarcity" and of a culture of frugality with the conditions for a healthy economy. To the extent that this can be accomplished through institutional and cultural changes guided by a new image of "man-on-earth," fewer constraints will be placed on enterprise and individual liberties.

A second essential condition is the provision of sufficient opportunities for full and valued participation in the society. In other words, there has to be a solution to the psychological-cultural problem of the growing group of persons in an industrialized society who are defined as out of the mainstream, as having little or nothing to offer in what are taken to be the primary activities of the society, and who come to accept for themselves the damning self-image of superfluousness. In a modern society where productiveness comes from position in a productive organism, the individual without the organization is un- productive and ineffective; unemployment and underemployment endanger self-respect and effective citizenship. Because of the deep individual need for productive and significant work, none of the current welfare and job-creation approaches offers much hope of reaching to the roots of the unemployment problem. Treating work opportunity as a scarce commodity (e.g. raising work-entry age and lowering retirement age, inflating entry criteria, refraining from cybernation of routine operations, maintaining disguised featherbedding and makework) is in the end an unsound approach. Adequate resolution would offer full and valued participation in the ongoing societal evolution to all who want it.

These two basic conditions imply a third, namely, a satisfactory resolution of the control dilemma. On the one hand, to deal with the problems of the "new scarcity," with the cultural (as distinguished from the economic) goal of full employment, and with the growing powers of technology to change any and all aspects of the total environment (physical, social, political, psychological), there is a demonstrated need for some form of effective societal planning and control. On the other hand, there are well-founded fears of the consequences of opting for more governmental control. It remains to be shown that a democratic society can deal with the "new scarcity," provide sufficient and suitable social roles, anticipate and guide technological impacts, and protect the interests of the overall society, and yet preserve the basic characteristics of a free-enterprise system.

Fourth, the problem of obtaining more equitability in distribution of the earth's resources will have to be dealt with. Inequities and maldistributions are not new in human history, but with the appearance of the "new scarcity" they present a new face. The achievement of a level of life in accord with fundamental dignity for the world's nearly three billion poor does not appear possible without continued economic growth in both developing and developed nations. And yet economic growth on the pattern of the past poses an undeniable threat to stocks of non-renewable resources, to the environment, and to the health of man. Furthermore, the expectations and demands of the lesser developed world may well come at such a pace that they can be met only by a lowering of the standard of living in the rich nations.

Thus, in the process of resolving the fundamental anomaly of the industrial-state system, all four of the critical problem areas enumerated above will have to be dealt with. An essential precondition is an image of man-on-earth something like that described in Chapter 6, or at least meeting the conditions laid down in Chapter 5.

Two additional characteristics of the "necessary transformation" deserve mention. Both have to do with the ways in which the changes are stimulated and guided. The first relates to Adolph Lowe's observation (1965) that the state of an economic system depends upon behaviors, which in turn depend upon motivations, which depend upon images, beliefs, and values — and thus interventions for change could be contemplated at any of these levels. Behavior patterns can be altered by authoritarian controls, motivations can be affected by psychological conditioning, and beliefs and values are modified by education. Because of the images implicit in this particular historical transformation, it would seem that at least in the long term, authoritarian measures and manipulative conditioning approaches would be incompatible with the emergent state and hence of doubtful effectiveness. The possible exception to this might be a temporary measure to help hold things together during a disruptive transition period, but even here the society would be well advised to use such approaches with caution.

A second and related characteristic has to do with contrasting responses to the challenge of the four key problems above. As Galbraith and others have noted, when the thousand largest (mainly multinational) corporations in the world attained such size and power that their incomes are larger than the majority of nation-state incomes, their role in contributing to societal macro-decisions is significantly altered. No longer are they simply subject to market forces; in an important sense they exert control over the market. No longer are they simply subject to the controls imposed by national governments; in an important sense they exert control over national governments. Thus, there arises a demand that the largest corporations assume a social responsibility toward all those (a worldwide group) whose lives they affect. One way in which this might come about is represented in arguments for a "new socialism" in which important industries might be nationalized (e.g. energy supply) and business would be subjected to more control by government to ensure that society's macro-decisions would be strongly influenced by elected representatives of the people affected. An alternative response might be termed "new privatism" by contrast. This response would involve recognition that legitimacy is conferred or withdrawn in various ways besides elected representation, and it would entail modifications to the operative goals of corporations such that they include, on a par with earned return to stockholders, the two additional goals of providing opportunities for meaningful work (as output, in addition to goods and services) and providing tangible benefits to society. Stockholders, after all, represent only one group who have an investment in the corporations — employees invest some portion of their lives, and the society invests its trust toward the shaping of the future.

Difficulty of Achieving a Non-disruptive Transition

To restate the premises with which we began this chapter, we can see two important dynamics bringing about a major historical trans- formation, from the industrial era as we have known it to some sort of "post-industrial" society (though not in the sense in which Daniel Bell has used the term, which is much more the technological-extrapolationist future of the preceding chapter). One of these dynamics is the growing espousal of a new image of humankind, as described earlier in this volume. The other is the progressive awareness of the ultimate unworkability of the industrial paradigm as we have known it thus far.

It daily grows more abundantly clear that the Industrial Age is running into trouble. The cultural premises and images that fostered scientific, technological, industrial, and economic growth are proving to be maladapted to the humane use of the products of that growth. The emergent "image of man," with its implicit ecological ethic and self-realization ethic, points the way to resolution of the contradictions of the industrial era. On the other hand, as was pointed out in Chapter 7, institutional changes may already be lagging behind basic changes in the culturally dominant images, and actions taken to further hasten emergence of the new image could be socially disruptive. (Something like this seems to have taken place during the psychedelic period when Timothy Leary's advice to the young to "tune in, turn on, and drop out" added its bit to the disorder of the times.)

The League for Spiritual Discovery has three purposes - (a) individual worship of the Supreme Energy - God; (b) communal worship of the Supreme Energy - God; and (c) public worship of the Supreme Energy - God. These three forms of worship based on revelation and empirically validated methods for spiritual discovery.

(a) Individual Worship - We league together to help each member discover the divinity within by means of sacred teachings, self-analysis, psychedelic sacraments, and spiritual methods and then to express this revelation in an external life of harmony and beauty. We pledge ourselves to help each member to devote his entire consciousness and all his behavior to the glorification of God. Complete dedication to the life of worship is our aim, as exemplified in the motto "Turn-on, Tune-in. Drop-out".

(b) Communal Worship - We league together to maintain League Centers (Ashrams; monastic centers) where renunciates (i.e. "drop-outs" - those who take a vow to abandon secular activities for a specified length of time) will live a communal life of worship and glorification. The community serves to facilitate individual illumination and to liberate and channel spiritual energies to accomplish the evangelic and public mission of the League.

(c) Illumination of the Human Race - We league together to inform, teach, guide, liberate, and illuminate other human beings so that they can be initiated into a life of glorification and worship. We are concerned that modern civilization (as exemplified in American culture) is becoming insane, destructive, warlike, materialistic, atheistic - a meaningless set of repetitious robot responses. We seek to return man to a life of harmony with his own divinity - with his mate and family, with his fellow human beings, and with the other natural energies - organic and inorganic - of this planet. A complete and rapid evolution of society is intended. Public celebrations will be held, and League offices will be established in cities in this country and throughout the world. The League will assist in every way other groups of seekers to form their own religious cults and their own ashrams.

-- Start Your Own Religion, by Timothy Leary, Ph.D.

Thus, the appropriate question may be not so much how to bring about a transformation (even if one is quite convinced the situation is exigent), but rather how to facilitate a non-catastrophic transition when the dynamics for transformation are already there.

Based on the foregoing considerations, six elements of an overall strategy for a minimally disruptive transition are discussed below. It is a provisional strategy, in the sense that we assume events of the next few years will continue to support the five initial premises. But we offer no apology for strongly recommending the strategy, as long as this is coupled with the recommendation to continue testing the premises.

1. Promote awareness of the unavoidability of the transformation, as a first essential element of the strategy. Pulled by the emergence of a "new transcendentalism" and pushed by the demonstrated inability of the industrial-state paradigm to resolve the dilemmas its successes have engendered, the fact and the shape of the necessary transformation are predetermined. Growing signs of economic and political instability indicate that the time is at hand. No more than the pregnant woman approaching the time of her delivery can we now stop and reconsider whether we really want to go through with it. The time is ripe for a great dialogue on the national and world stage regarding how we shall pass through the transformation, and toward what ends.

2. Construct a guiding version of a workable society, built around a new positive image of humankind and corresponding vision of a suitable social paradigm. As the old order shows increasing signs of falling apart, some adequate vision of what may be simultaneously building is urgently needed for mobilization of constructive effort.

Perhaps the most crucial need of our time is to foster the dialogue about, and participatively construct, such a shared vision. (It is almost self-evident that an effective image of a humane high-technology society, congenial to the new image of humankind, would have to be participatively constructed — not designed by a technocratic elite nor revealed by a charismatic leader.) Chapter 7 describes some of the broad characteristics of an evolutionary-transformation future. But the guiding vision must be more specific than this. In particular, the four dilemmas of the "new scarcity," the changing role of work, control of technology, and more equitable sharing of the earth's resources must be satisfactorily "re-visioned."

There must be a new economics, if not steady-state in a strict sense, at least compatible with the constraints of the "new scarcity." An economic theory and practice always implies a psychology or, more particularly, a set of assumptions about human motivation. If motivations change, because the basic picture of man-on-earth and man-in- the-cosmos has altered, then economics must change. If the old economics required steady material growth as a necessary condition for a healthy economy, it does not follow that the new economics will likewise. Similarly, the definitions of good corporate behavior and good business policy depend upon tacit social agreements about the bases for legitimation, and change when those bases change. It may seem wildly Utopian in 1974 to think of the multinational corporations as potentially among our most effective mechanisms for husbanding the earth's resources and optimizing their use for human benefit — the current popular image of the corporation tends to be more that of the spoiler and the exploiter. But the power of legitimation is strong, as discussed in Chapter 7, and the concept is growing that business must "derive its just powers from the consent of those affected by its actions." The vision of a workable future must include a resolution of the present unsatisfactory situation where what is apparently sound business practice and good economics is often very unwise when viewed in the light of the "new scarcity."

Second, the guiding vision has to include some way of providing for full and valued participation in the economic and social affairs of the community and society, especially for those who are physically and mentally able to contribute but find themselves in a state of unwilling idleness and deterioration of spirit. Here too there seems to be a fundamental wrongheadedness in the conventional way of formulating our economics. It is implicit in that formulation that laboring is something man tends to avoid. The outputs of the private sectors are considered to be goods and services, which persons produce for pay. But according to the emergent image of man this calculus is based on faulty premises. Human beings seek creative work, and find it is the means of their own self-realization. Thus, the outputs of the private sector should be goods, services, and opportunities for meaningful work. The new society will have to provide for significant expansion of social-learning and social-planning roles, as discussed in Chapter 7, and also for expansion of productive roles for those whose capabilities are more modest.

The control dilemma requires for its resolution an effective network for participative planning at local, regional, national, and world levels, and again modifications to the economic incentives which at present make it good business to do violence to the environment, squander natural resources of all sorts, and treat persons as manipulable objects.

The fourth dilemma, the need for more equitable distribution of resources, may prove to be the most difficult of all to resolve, considering the exploding numbers of the earth's human beings. We have found it comfortable to believe, for some time, that the solution to the problem of the world's poor is not redistribution of wealth but helping the poor become productive. But the constraints of the "new scarcity" preclude solving the problem this way. At any rate, the poor of the world cannot become productive as America did, by exploiting cheap energy and institutionalizing waste as a way of life.

3. Foster a period of experimentation and tolerance for diverse alternatives, both in life styles and in social institutions. Experimentation is needed to find out what works, but there is a more important reason for trying to maintain an experimental climate. That is to reduce hostile tensions between those who are actively promoting the new and those who are desperately attempting to hold on to the old. In public education, for instance, it is equally important that new experimental curricula be tried and that the traditional subjects be available for those who resist moving precipitously into the new.

4. Encourage a politics of righteousness, and a heightened sense of public responsibilities in the private sector. Surveys and polls display drastically lowered faith of the American people in both business and government. At the same time, an atmosphere of trust is needed for the tasks ahead, the emergent image of man supports a moral perspective, and private lapses from moral and ethical behavior are harder to conceal. A politics of righteousness might have been laudable in any generation; it may be indispensable for safe passage through the times just ahead. A greatly heightened sense of stewardship and public responsibilities for powerful institutions in the private sector is, the appropriate response to rising challenges to the legitimacy of large profit-seeking industrial corporations and financial institutions. If these are to be more than merely pious statements, changes in institutional arrangements and economic incentives will need to be instituted so that individuals and institutions can afford to behave in these commendable ways.

5. Promote systematic exploration of, and foster education regarding, man's inner life. At the end of Chapter 4 we postulated an emergent scientific paradigm placing far more emphasis than in the past on explorations of subjective experience — of those realms that have heretofore been left to the humanities and religion, and to some extent to clinical psychology. The present situation leaves far too much of this societally important research to informal and illicit activities. Interested persons, not all young, resort to cultish associations, bizarre experimentation, and illegal drug use because they find legitimated opportunities for guided exploration in the society's religious, educational, scientific, and psychotherapeutic institutions to be inadequate, inappropriate, or in- accessible. This nation's guarantees of religious freedom have been in a curious way subverted by the preponderating orthodoxy of a materialistic scientific paradigm.

6. Accept the necessity of social controls for the transition period while safeguarding against longer-term losses of freedom. The transformation that is underway has a paradoxical aspect, according to the five initial premises. In considerable measure it has been brought about by the success of material progress (through better nutrition, higher standard of living, education, and the media) in raising more persons above excessive concern with subsistence needs. On the other hand, as the transition-related economic decline and social disruptions set in, they will tend to accentuate materialistic security needs. Political tensions will rise, and disunity will characterize social affairs. Regulation and restraint of behavior will be necessary in order to hold the society together while it goes around a difficult corner. The more there can be general understanding of the transitory but inescapable nature of this need, the higher will be the likelihood that a more permanent authoritarian regime can be avoided.

This is no strategy of "business as usual," if these six elements are taken seriously. They can contribute to a more orderly transformation, with fewer social wounds to be healed, than would be otherwise the case. Appendix E lists some exemplary specific actions that might be part of implementing such a strategy.

One last word. The general tone of this work has been optimistic, which is fitting since there does indeed appear to be a path — through a profound transformation of society, the dynamics for which may already be in place — to a situation where the present major dilemmas of the late-industrial era appear at least resolvable. That optimism, however, relates to the potentialities only. It should not be mistaken for optimism that industrial civilization will develop the requisite under- standing, early enough, to enable it to navigate these troubled waters without nearly wrecking itself in the process. In hoping this, some of us would be less sanguine.



i. Anthropologist Virginia H. Hine's thinking about "The Basic Paradigm of a Future  Socio-cultural System" (reprinted in Appendix F) is relevant to this discussion.

(Source unknown.)
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Re: Changing Images of Man: Prepared by the Center for the

Postby admin » Tue Jun 04, 2019 2:59 am


Images of humankind which are dominant in a culture are of fundamental importance because they underlie the ways in which the society shapes its institutions, educates its young, and goes about whatever it perceives its business to be. Changes in these images are of particular concern at the present time because our industrial society may be on the threshold of a transformation as profound as that which came to Europe when the Medieval Age gave way to the rise of science and the Industrial Revolution.

In this study we have attempted to:

1. illuminate significant ways our society has been shaped by myths and images or the past;

2. explore key deficiencies of current images of man and identify characteristics needed in future images; and

3. derive guidelines for actions to facilitate the emergence of more adequate images of humankind, and of a better society.

We have concentrated particularly on an analysis of images which derive from industrialism and science, exploring ways in which these might be transformed so as to further both personal and cultural evolution.

The recent industrial-state era can be typified by a number of almost certainly obsolescent premises, such as:

• That progress is synonymous with economic growth and increasing consumption.

• That mankind is separate from nature, and that it is the human destiny to conquer nature.

• That economic efficiency and scientific reductionism are the most trustworthy approaches to fulfillment of the goals of humanity.

Such premises were very appropriate for the transition from a world made up of low-technology agrarian endeavors and city-states to one dominated by high-technology nation-states; they helped provide a seemingly ideal way to increase humankind's standard of living and to bring problems of physical survival under control. But their successful realization has resulted in an interconnected set of urgent societal problems which likely cannot be resolved if we continue to accept those premises; they now appear ill-suited for the further transition to a planetary society that would distribute its affluence equitably, regulate itself humanely, and embody appropriate images of the further future.

If the post-industrial era of the future is dominated by the industrial-era premises, images, and policies of the past, the control of deviant behavior needed to make societal regulation possible would in all likelihood require the application of powerful socio- and psycho-technologies. The result could well be akin to what has been termed "friendly fascism — a managed society which rules by a faceless and widely dispersed complex of warfare-welfare-industrial-communications-police bureaucracies with a technocratic ideology." Evidence exists that this sort of future is already nascent.

In contrast to such a "technological extrapolationist" future, this report envisions an "evolutionary transformation" for society as a more hopeful possibility.

Some characteristics of an adequate image of humankind for the post-industrial future were derived by: (1) noting the direction in which premises underlying the industrial present would have to change in order to bring about a more "workable" society; (2) from examination of the ways in which images of humankind have shaped societies in the past; and (3) from observation of some significant new directions in scientific research. A future "image of man" meeting these conditions would:

1. convey a holistic sense of perspective or understanding of life;

2. entail an ecological ethic, emphasizing the total community of life-in-nature and the oneness of the human race;

3. entail a self-realization ethic, placing the highest value on development of selfhood and declaring that an appropriate function of all social institutions is the fostering of human development;

4. be multi-leveled, multi-faceted, and integrative, accommodating various culture and personality types;

5. involve balancing and coordination of satisfactions along many dimensions rather than the maximizing of concerns along one narrowly defined dimension (e.g. economic); and

6. be experimental, open-ended, and evolutionary.

It appears to be at least conceptually feasible that a future image of humankind having these characteristics could "work." Further, specific steps can be undertaken through which the facilitation and promulgation of such an image might be accomplished. By comparing the conclusions drawn by investigators in fields ranging from mythology to the history of science, a number of stages in a seemingly universal "cycle of transformation" are presented to help formulate such next steps.

But there exists little evidence to suggest that a change in the dominant image could be accomplished by rational deliberation, planning, and organized activity — or that the results of such manipulative rationality would necessarily be benign. On the other hand, whether by fortunate circumstance or creative unconscious processes, an emerging image with many of the needed characteristics does seem to have made its (re)appearance.

This emerging image reinstates the transcendental, spiritual side of humankind, so long ignored or denied by that official truth-seeking institution of modern society, science. The new image denies none of the conclusions of science in its contemporary form, but rather expands its boundaries. In a manner reminiscent of the well-worn wave-particle example from physics, the new image reconciles such pairs of "opposites" as body/spirit, determinism/free will, and science/religion. It includes the inner subjective as well as the outer objective world as valid areas of human experience from which knowledge can be obtained. It restores, in a way, the balance between the Middle Ages' preoccupation with the noumenal and the industrial era's preoccupation with the phenomenal. It brings with it the possibility of a new science of consciousness and ecological systems not limited by the manipulative rationality that dominates the science and technology of the present era.

The issues raised in this report are crucial ones. Indeed if the analysis is accurate, our society may be experiencing the beginning of an institutional transformation as profound in its consequences as the Industrial Revolution, and simultaneously a conceptual revolution as shaking as the Copernican Revolution.

History gives us little reason to take comfort in the prospect of fundamental and rapid social change — little reason to think we can escape without the accompanying threat of economic decline and social disruption considerably greater than anything we have experienced or care to imagine. If in fact a fundamental and rapid change in basic perceptions and values does occur, such a chaotic period seems inevitable as the powerful momentum of the industrial era is turned in a new direction, and as the different members and institutions of the society respond with different speeds. Thus, a great deal depends upon a correct understanding of the nature of, and the need for, the transformation which is upon us.

While actions and policies in keeping with the "technological extrapolationist" image would involve no great wrenching in the near term, they could lead to catastrophe or to "friendly fascism" in the longer term. Actions and policies in keeping with an "evolutionary transformationalist" image, on the other hand, might increase the level of seeming disorder and chaos during a transition period in the near term but later lead to a more desirable society. While the choice is not necessarily one that our society as a whole will or should make consciously and deliberately at this time, it is one that confronts each individual who is willing to accept responsibility for the future — rather than simply adapt to whatever the future may bring.
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Re: Changing Images of Man: Prepared by the Center for the

Postby admin » Tue Jun 04, 2019 3:01 am


Conscious, consciousness — the state or fact of awareness applied either to one's self -existence or to one or more external objects, states, or facts — characterized by sensation, emotion, volition, and thought.

Economic image of man — the image of humankind as "cogs in the industrial machine," valued chiefly for their roles as producers and consumers, and motivated primarily by those roles.

Entropy — in thermodynamics, the degree to which the energy of a system has ceased to be available for doing work (as when the temperature of a heat source and a heat sink has become equalized). As expressed by the second law of thermodynamics, when a closed physical system is left alone, its entropy increases as the available energy decreases with the passage of time (leading to speculations that the universe is "running down"). In information theory, entropy is a measure of the uncertainty or disorder of knowledge in a system.

Evolution, evolutionary — the process of continuous or step-wise change in form, structure, or function from lower, simpler or less desirable system states to those that are higher, more complex, or better — i.e. from higher to lower states of entropy.

Evolutionary transformationalist image — a view of the future essentially involving transformation of the "industrial state paradigm" such that key dilemmas within it are resolved and human evolution is accelerated.

Gradient — a sequence of transitional forms, states, or qualities connecting related extremes.

Image — (n.) a mental picture, description or conception (often held in common by persons of a particular culture) of reality symbolic of basic attitudes and orientation; (v.t.) to imagine or evoke a mental image picture.

Industrial state paradigm — the particular set of attitudes, premises, ethics, and laws that dominate highly industrialized societies (see Paradigm below).

Paradigm — the total pattern of perceiving, conceptualizing, acting, validating, and valuing associated with a particular image of reality that prevails in a science, a branch of science, a society or subculture.

Spiritual — relating to or consisting of spirit, i.e. non-material levels of reality available to conscious and superconscious experience, often in imagistic thought.

Subconscious — existing in the mind, but not available to consciousness.

Superconscious, superconsciousness — the state or fact of awareness manifesting in ways that transcend the ordinary egocentric experience of existence (such as unitive consciousness with others, oceanic or "cosmic" consciousness involving heightened intuition, extrasensory or so-called transpersonal processes, "direct perception," etc.).

Technological extrapolist image — a view of the future essentially involving a continuation of the dominant premises, procedures, and trends that characterize highly industrial societies.

Transformation — a type of change process in which the "shape" and the character of many or most interactions of a system suddenly change (as in the transformation from laminar to turbulent flow in a fluid; from unbelief to commitment in a religious conversion; or from pluralistic tolerance to xenophobic ("in-group solidarity due to out-group threat") isolationism in a society). In contrast with incremental or revolutionary change (as the latter terms are customarily used), transformation here refers to a "top-down/inside-out" change of the dominant social paradigm, as an organic process.
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Re: Changing Images of Man: Prepared by the Center for the

Postby admin » Tue Jun 04, 2019 3:22 am


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Krippner, S. (1973) personal communication.

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Re: Changing Images of Man: Prepared by the Center for the

Postby admin » Tue Jun 04, 2019 3:40 am

APPENDIX A: An Alternative View of History, The Spiritual Dimension of the Human Person, and a Third Alternative Image of Humanness


An Alternative Interpretation of History

Your image of psychically evolving man is, I think, incorrect. A study of the papers from The University of Chicago Symposium on Hunting and Gathering Societies held in the late 1960s, plus examination of the anthropologist Paul Rodin's work (and lots more!), has led me to a different hypothesis: humans have had the intellectual-analytic and spiritual-intuitive skills at about the same capacity level for at least 12,000 years. I see a history as a series of thresholds: (1) the agricultural, village-based threshold of 10,000 B.C. when humans reached village-type densities; (2) the first urban-based kingdoms, 3500 B.C.; (3) the first attempts to weave moral teachings into large-scale political organization with the availability of the teachings of Buddha, Lao Tse, Confucius, and Vedic teachings, 500 to 200 B.C. with a flowering in Asoka's Empire; (4) Joachim de Fiore's vision of the post-bureaucratic age in the late 1100s, and the whole concept of the demise of ecclesiastical structures of society and the rule of the Holy Spirit in the hearts of men, which together with the great inflow of Islamic science and culture and Islamic translations of Greek manuscripts, and the rise of the Dominicans and Franciscans (post-bureaucratic religious orders) and the development of schools, research laboratories and workshops within the craft guilds, created a fantastic threshold and a sense of new possibilities beyond what twentieth-century visionaries now conceive. Thresholds (1) to (3) you also at least identify, but you skip over Islam and the thirteenth century entirely. My view is that while each of these thresholds represents a new level of societal complexity, it does not represent a new level of spiritual evolution. Rather, at each new level of complexity we stand again before the possibility of blending of our cognitive and spiritual-intuitive capacities, with a new set of supporting tools and social technology, and each time we have slid away from the threshold. My IRADES conference paper for September 1973 in Rome on Religious Potentials and Societal Complexity spells this out as I cannot here. I think it is important not to fall into the trap of thinking we have some new potentials to draw on because it will make us underestimate the difficulty of the task. I am fearful of a "mindless Teilhardism."

The Spiritual Dimension of the Human Person

Your conception of the spiritual dimension is thin because you have said nothing at all about the Christian mystic tradition, only yoga and a bit of Confucius and a hint of Zen and Sufism. I have spent a whole year developing a model of the linking of cognitive and spiritual-intuitive faculties drawing on learning theory and the practices of the Christian mystics, also taking account of Zen and Yoga. It comes out rather differently than what you present, and I cannot possibly give the model in a short space here. Some indicators, however: you confuse transpersonal and transcendental. They are different. Also, writing of the passive will without a knowledge of Meister Eckhart and the Rhineland mystics makes it inadequate. Evelyn Underbill's mysticism gives the classic treatment of the kind of reworking of the human person involved in the mystical path. She points out that the astral realm, which is the one you are primarily dealing with when you write of techniques for inducing altered states of consciousness and heightening our powers of ESP, precognition, psychokinesis, etc., is one that the saints all recognize and move through as quickly as possible. Self-realization as you conceive it is very much an astral-realm concept, and while no one can deny that these are fascinating phenomena and are certainly amenable to currently developing techniques of analysis and training, I predict that we are in for at least a 10,000-year period of wallowing in the astral realm before we have "used it up" as we are now "using up" the potentialities of the scientific approach. Maybe that is necessary, but let no one think that those 10,000 years will be any better than the 12,000 we have behind us, in terms of human goodness and welfare. We are in for a long, bad spell of demonism and are bound to have periodic eruptions of witchcraft scares — we are beginning to have them already. Read Masters and Houston's Mind Games, taking time to induce self-hypnosis and do each exercise as you go along (as I did), and then start evaluating the new mind-control institutes — like Arica. We have some difficult times ahead. The point is we can do all this, but it will not "save us" because it does not transform the will or direct the heart. Jean Houston is herself getting very worried about all this, I understand, and her approach is to democratize mind control by teaching everyone to do it. I do not think it will work.

While I like your emphasis on wisdom, and the ecological ethic, your emphasis on self-realization makes me sad. What is the self, that we should realize it? You treat charism as some kind of social poison — which I understand well enough when you are thinking in contexts like Cohn's Pursuit of the Millennium, but charism, eruptions of grace or spirit into the prepared or unprepared human heart, is a hint of something else that lies before us besides merely self-realization.

A Third Alternative Image of Humanness (contrasting with the two presented in your Chapter 8)

This would be another way to conceptualize new image, counterpart statements:

1. In genetic substrate, consider findings of Eibl-Eibesfeldt and Hass on genetic substrate for nurturant behavior, not just aggression; also take account of whole Kropotkin tradition — Clyde Allee, etc. — on cooperative tendencies in animal and human.

2. Development of a sense of the creator as something more than the other end of a divine human continuum. Respect for the Cloud of Unknowing.

3. The evolving self and evolving social structures also recognize a "beyond" self and "beyond" social structure.

4. Deemphasis of sensuality, discovery of family as training ground for how to be human, overcoming of pathological fear of family intimacy; family as base for ever-expanding circles of friendship, extended family a growth reality, but intimate enduring pair relationships basis for all other loving and caring. (Israel Charny's Marital Love and Hate has an important concept here on family as training ground. My own fairly extensive observations on multiple love relationships is that they are costly and disastrous for adults and children. Also family is an important source of images of the future — see my "Familism and Creation of Futures.") Discover tenderness outside of sexuality, widen bases for human friendships.

5. Balance of rational and intuitive — same as in [your evolutionary transformationalist image].

6. Growth of spiritual life beyond concept of altered states of consciousness, in practices of contemplative prayer that enrich capacities for social interactions in new dimensions.

7. Beyond ephemeralization, the ethic of frugality itself, joy of doing with less.

I realize all this needs much more explaining:

Things I miss in manuscript, not already mentioned:

1. Recognition of growth value of pain and conflict. Pain is a teacher we probably cannot do without.

2. As alternative to hierarchical model, Anthony Judge's non-hierarchical "solar-system model" which he uses for international relations but can be used at any level. Publications in Journal of Union of International Associations.

3. Not enough emphasis on practical aspects of the planetary person, the new person at home in all kinds of transnational identities and networks. Nation state, "America" too important in manuscript — these are fast becoming irrelevant. Too little emphasis on multinational business corporations (just one kind of network, must not be overemphasized). Cultural initiatives from elsewhere. Assumption is that we choose to "use" what we like from the East. It will not happen that way. West will soon be bypassed, at least very possibly — ought to be put in perspective.

4. You have Sri Aurobindo in your image but left Gandhi out entirely. His concepts of sanodya — not wanting what others cannot have — and a loving concern for the welfare of others that enhances, rather than devalues, the self are badly needed. Your image is more a-social and self-centered than it needs to be because this emphasis is lacking.

The manuscript is also a bit pale and lacks a sense of the tremendous dynamic of love. Self-actualization is but the shadow of self-overflowing love.
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