The Word of the Buddha, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera

That's French for "the ancient system," as in the ancient system of feudal privileges and the exercise of autocratic power over the peasants. The ancien regime never goes away, like vampires and dinosaur bones they are always hidden in the earth, exercising a mysterious influence. It is not paranoia to believe that the elites scheme against the common man. Inform yourself about their schemes here.

The Word of the Buddha, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera

Postby admin » Tue Jan 14, 2020 9:53 am

The Word of the Buddha: An outline of the ethico-philosophical system of the Buddha in the words of the Pali Canon
Compiled, translated, and explained by Nyanatiloka Mahathera [Anton Walther Florus Gueth]
("Island Hermitage", Dodanduwa, Ceylon)
Late Professor of Komazawa University, Tokyo; author of: Pali-Anthologie und Woerterbuch, Systematische Pali Grammatik, Sacca-Sangaha, the German version of Anguttara, Milinda. Puggala, Visuddhi etc. etc.

NOTICE: THIS WORK MAY BE PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT

YOU ARE REQUIRED TO READ THE COPYRIGHT NOTICE AT THIS LINK BEFORE YOU READ THE FOLLOWING WORK, THAT IS AVAILABLE SOLELY FOR PRIVATE STUDY, SCHOLARSHIP OR RESEARCH PURSUANT TO 17 U.S.C. SECTION 107 AND 108. IN THE EVENT THAT THE LIBRARY DETERMINES THAT UNLAWFUL COPYING OF THIS WORK HAS OCCURRED, THE LIBRARY HAS THE RIGHT TO BLOCK THE I.P. ADDRESS AT WHICH THE UNLAWFUL COPYING APPEARED TO HAVE OCCURRED. THANK YOU FOR RESPECTING THE RIGHTS OF COPYRIGHT OWNERS.


IN MEMORY OF The late Mr. F. R. SENANAYEKE.

Table of Contents:

• Preface
• Preface to the First English Edition
• Introduction
• The Four Noble Truths
• I. The Noble Truth of Suffering
• II. The Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering
• III. The Noble Truth of the Extinction of Suffering
• IV. The Noble Truth of the Path that Leads to the Extinction of Suffering
o 1. Right Understanding
o 2. Right Mindedness
o 3. Right Speech
o 4. Right Action
o 5. Right Living
o 6. Right Effort
o 7. Right Attentiveness
o 8. Right Concentration
• Realisation of the Rightfold Path in the Progress of the Disciple

ABBREVIATIONS.

D. — Digha-Nikaya.
M. — Majjhima-Nikaya.
A. — Anguttara-Nikaya
S. — Samyutta-Nikaya.
Dhp. — Dhammapada.
Ud. — Udana.
It. — Itivuttaka.
Snp. — Sutta-Nipata.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 30194
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: The Word of the Buddha, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera

Postby admin » Tue Jan 14, 2020 9:54 am

PREFACE.

JUST twenty years have elapsed since the publication of the first English edition of my little book "Das Wort des Buddha”, which, with my assistance, had been translated from the German by Mr. J. F. M’Kechnie, later known as Bhikkhu Silacara. The German compilation was originally prepared by me for my own personal benefit, namely with the intention of obtaining a clearer idea of the whole system of Buddhism. To this I was chiefly induced by the remark of a European Pali scholar— I think, it was Oldenberg — that the Buddhists were inconsistent, declaring on the one hand, that the Noble Rightfold Path constituted the entire teaching of the Buddha, whilst teaching on the other hand, that Sila, Samadhi and Panna, i.e. Morality, Concentration and Wisdom, comprised the whole; further, that the Rightfold Path was nowhere explained, and that, therefore, for the Buddhists it meant nothing more than just these eight unintelligible words. That all this is not the case, can at once be seen from the present little book. “The Word of the Buddha”, which in fact gives clearly, for the first time, a detailed systematic exposition of the Buddha’s doctrine, shows at the same time, that this doctrine is not a kind of eclecticism — the characteristic only of mediocrity — but that, in reality, it forms an indivisible whole, a natural system, of which each individual doctrine constitutes an absolutely necessary and undispensable link. And that it was not considered redundant, can be proved by a number of modern works on Buddhism, which have been built on it, as well as by the 12 thousand copies already issued of the German version.

As the second edition, published in London, had long been out of print, I decided to get a third edition published here in Ceylon. However, I did not possess a single copy of it, and it was only after many futile attempts that I succeeded in procuring one. For, owing to the war and my subsequent deportation from Ceylon, most of my books had been stolen, and the remainder partly destroyed by termites, rats, and the pernicious influence of the tropical climate.

This present edition has been prepared with the utmost care. It really is no longer merely a translation of my German work, but, in many respects, an entirely new work, and its text a thoroughly reliable translation from the Pali, with which I have compared it word for word. It is followed by an appendix, containing a description of the 'Gradual Realisation of the Rightfold Path in the Progress of the Disciple’. This description too consists of a systematical compilation of various passages taken from the Sutta-Pitaka, which, amongst the three Pitaka Collections, I regard as the most suitable one for a real understanding of the vital doctrine of the Buddha. The two appendices terminating the second edition, namely Majjhima-Nikaya No. 117, and an article on the Paticca-samuppada, have been left out of the present edition, but utilised in the main text.

NYANATILOKA.
"Island Hermitage”
Dodanduwa, 26. June, 1927.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 30194
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: The Word of the Buddha, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera

Postby admin » Tue Jan 14, 2020 9:54 am

PREFACE TO THE FIRST ENGLISH EDITION.

I TAKE the liberty of prefacing a few words to the present English edition of “Das Wort des Buddha", which has been prepared from my German edition by the late Superintendent of the Buddhasasana Samagama, Mr. J. F. M’Kechnie, now known as Silacara.

I would wish the reader to know that "The Word of the Buddha" is not intended as an introduction to the teaching of the Buddha, or as a book on Buddhism merely to be read through and then laid aside. Its aims are to provide a systematically arranged outline of the Buddha's doctrine for the benefit of such, as are already acquainted with its fundamental ideas, and to bring under a single aspect the various parts of that doctrine, which at first sight appear to have no connection with one another, but which in fact are found all to converge upon a single point: — Deliverance from Suffering— as expressed by the Buddha Himself in the words I have used as motto: "One thing only, Brothers, do I make known, now as before: Suffering and deliverance from Suffering".

Thus it is, that the teaching of the Rightfold Path, leading to the cessation of suffering, constitutes the real essence of Buddhist doctrine, and only from the standpoint of that teaching do the different details find their due place.

I have given these expositions of Buddhist doctrine in the Buddha’s own words,' having brought them together from the five Nikayas or Collections of the Sutta-Pitaka of the Pali Canon. They have been put together in such a way as to form a connected whole, and thus provide, as it were, a guiding clue to the huge labyrinth of the Sutta Pitaka.

The notes, it may be added, are taken from the authoritative Pali commentaries of Buddhaghosa and from the Abhidhamma. Very rarely have I used my own words. In this English edition they have been considerably expanded, and Appendices have been added, which throw light from other directions, so to speak, upon the Rightfold Path.

Great care has been taken to render the present work an accurate compendium of the teaching of the Buddha; how far that care has resulted in success, I must leave to the judgment of my readers.

Nyanatiloka.
Rangoon, 1907.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 30194
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: The Word of the Buddha, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera

Postby admin » Tue Jan 14, 2020 9:55 am

INTRODUCTION

I. The "Buddha" — in English the “Enlightened One”, lit. the knower — is the title of honour bestowed upon the Indian sage Gotama, the founder of that ethico-philosophical system known to Europe by the name of Buddhism. He was born at Kapilavatthu on the borders of modern Nepal, in the latter half of the 6th century before Christ, as the son of one of the princes of Northern India. Up to his 29th year — the year in which he renounced the world and exchanged his princely life for that of a homeless mendicant — he lived with his wife, the princess Yasodhara, who bore him a son named Rahula, the same who later became one of his favourite disciples.

II. The "Dhamma" — i. e. the “Law” of the cosmic order as proclaimed by the Buddha — has been handed down in the ancient Pali language and preserved in the three great collections of books, the so-called Ti-pitaka, lit “Three Baskets”, namely: the Vinaya-Pitaka, the Sutta-Pitaka and the Abhidhamma-Pitaka. The Vinaya-Pitaka, or "Collection of Discipline", for the most part, contains the mere regulations that govern the life of the monk; the Sutta-Pitaka, or "Collection of Discourses", treats the doctrine of Deliverance, as set forth in the “Pour Noble Truths"; the Abhidhamma, Pitaka, or the “Philosophical Collection”, is exclusively concerned with intricate psychological inquiries.

III. The “Sangha” — lit. the "Assembly", or community — is the Order of Bhikkhus or "Mendicant Monks", founded by the Buddha, and is still existing in its original form in Burma, Siam, Camboja, Ceylon and Chittagon in Bengal. It is, along with the Order of the Jaina monks, the oldest monastic order in the world. Amongst the most famous disciples in the time of the Buddha were: Sariputta, who, after the Master himself, possessed the profoundest knowledge of the Dhamma; Moggallana, who had the greatest super-normal powers; Ananda, the devoted disciple and constant companion of the Buddha; Kassapa, the president of the Council held at Rajagaha immediately after the Buddha’s death; Anuruddha, the metaphysician, and Rahula, the Buddha’s own son. The Judas among the disciples was Devadatta, the Buddha’s cousin.

The Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha of the noble disciples are the so-called "Three Jewels”, before which all Buddhists bow down in deep veneration, revering them as the most venerable and the holiest things in the world. The “Buddha” is the Teacher, who by himself has discovered the law of deliverance, realised and proclaimed to the world. The “Dhamma” is the Law of deliverance proclaimed by the Buddha. The "Sangha” is the Order of Disciples who have realised, or are still striving to realise the law of deliverance. With other words: The Buddha is the Teacher, the Dhamma the Teaching, and the Sangha the Community of disciples who fulfill the teaching. Or: the Buddha is the Discoverer of the path and the leader, the Dhamma the Path, and the Sangha the Community of Disciples treading the path.

At the present day the original Buddhism is only found in Burma, Siam, Camboja, Ceylon and Chittagon. The Pali formula of the so-called “Threefold Refuge” (Ti-sarana), which is taken by its adherents, is still the same as in the Buddha’s time, namely:

Buddham saranam gacchami!
Dhammam saranam gacchami!
Sangham saranam gacchami!

In English:

I put my trust in the Buddha!
I put my trust in the Dhamma!
I put my trust in the Sangha!
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 30194
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: The Word of the Buddha, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera

Postby admin » Tue Jan 14, 2020 9:56 am

THE WORD OF THE BUDDHA OR THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS.

The Perfect One,1 Brothers, the Holy One, the Fully Enlightened One, at Isipatana in the deer-park at Benares, has established the Supreme kingdom of Truth, which none can overthrow — neither ascetic nor priest, nor heavenly being, nor evil spirit, nor god, nor any one whosoever in all the world, — by proclaiming, pointing out, making known, establishing, unveiling, explaining and making evident the Four Noble Truths.

What are these Four Noble Truths? They are the Noble Truth of Suffering, the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering, the Noble Truth of the Extinction of Suffering, and the Noble Truth of the Path that leads to the Extinction of Suffering.

And the Blessed One said: As long, Disciples, as the absolutely true knowledge and insight as regards these Four Noble Truths was not quite clear in me, so long was I not sure whether I had won to that supreme Enlightenment which is unsurpassed in all the world with its heavenly beings, evil spirits and gods, amongst all the hosts of ascetics and priests, heavenly beings and men. But as soon as the absolutely true knowledge and insight as regards these Four Noble Truths had become perfectly clear in me, there arose in me the assurance, that I had won to that supreme Enlightenment unsurpassed.

And I discovered that profound truth, so difficult to perceive, difficult to understand, tranquillising and sublime, which is not to be gained by mere reasoning, and is visible only to the wise.

The world however is given to pleasure, delighted with pleasure, enchanted with pleasure. Verily, such beings will hardly understand the law of conditionality, the Dependent Origination (paticca-samuppada) of every thing; incomprehensible to them will also be the end of all formations, the forsaking of every substratum of rebirth, the fading away of craving, detachment, extinction, Nibbana.

Yet there are beings whose eyes are only a little covered with dust: they will understand the truth.

_______________

Notes:

1 Tathagata, the “Perfect One” is a title which the Buddha  generally uses when speaking of himself or of past or future  Buddhas. His disciples call him Bhagava, the “Blessed One,”  or Sattha, the “Master,” or Sugata, the “Welcome One” or  “Happy One.”
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 30194
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: The Word of the Buddha, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera

Postby admin » Tue Jan 14, 2020 9:58 am

THE FIRST TRUTH. THE NOBLE TRUTH OF SUFFERING.

What now is the Noble Truth of Suffering?

Birth is suffering; Decay is suffering; Death is suffering; Sorrow, Lamentation, Pain, Grief and Despair are suffering; not to get what one desires is suffering; in short: the Five Aggregates of Existence are suffering.

What now is Birth? The birth of beings belonging to this or that order of beings, their being born, their conception and springing into existence, the manifestation of the aggregates of existence, the arising of sense activity: this is called birth.

By ‘birth’ (jati) is here to be understood the entire embryonic process, beginning with conception and ending with parturition.
 

I. SUFFERING.

And what is Decay? The decay of beings belonging to this or that order of beings; their getting aged, frail, grey and wrinkled; the failing of their vital force, the wearing out of the senses: — this is called decay.

And what is Death? The parting and vanishing of beings out of this or that order of beings, their destruction, disappearance, death, the completion of their life-period, dissolution of the aggregates of existence, the discarding of the body: — this is called death.

And what is sorrow? The sorrow arising through this or that loss or misfortune which one encounters, the worrying oneself, the state of being alarmed, inward sorrow, inward woe: — this is called sorrow.

And what is Lamentation? Whatsoever, through this or that loss or misfortune, which befalls one, is wail and lament, wailing and lamenting, a state of woe and lamentation this is called lamentation.

And what is Pain? The bodily pain and unpleasantness, the painful and unpleasant feeling produced by bodily contact: — this is called pain.

And what is Grief? The mental pain and unpleasantness, the painful and unpleasant feeling produced by mental contact: — this is called grief.

And what is Despair? Distress and despair arising through this or that loss or misfortune which one encounters, distressedness and desperateness: — this is called despair.

And what is the ‘Suffering of not getting what one desires?* To beings, subject to birth, there comes the desire: "O, that we were not subject to birth! O, that no new birth was before us!” Subject to decay, disease, death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair, the desire comes to them:": O, that we were not subject to these things! O, that these things were not before us!” But this cannot be got by mere desiring; and not to get what one desires is suffering.

And what, in brief, are the Five Aggregates connected with cleaving? They are bodily form, feeling, perception, (mental) formations and consciousness.

Any material form, whether one’s own or external, gross or subtle, lofty or low, far or near, belongs to the Aggregate of Bodily Form connected with cleaving; any feeling belongs to the Aggregate of Feeling; any perception belongs to the Aggregate of Perception; any formation belongs to the Aggregate of Formations; all consciousness belongs to the Aggregate of Consciousness.

Our so-called individual existence is in reality nothing but a mere process of these “bodily and mental” (nama-rupa) phenomena, which since immemorial times was going on before one’s apparent birth, and which also after death will continue for immemorial periods of time. In the following we shall see that these 5 Aggregates or Khandhas — either taken 'separately or combined— in no way constitute any real “Ego-entity” (atta), nor that any Ego-entity exists apart from them, and hence that the belief in an Ego-entity is merely an illusion.

Just as that which we designate by the name of “chariot” has no existence apart from axle, wheels, shafts and so forth: or as the word house is merely a convenient designation for various materials put together after a certain fashion so as to enclose a portion of space, and there is no separate house-entity in existence: in exactly the same way, that which we call a ‘being’ or an ‘individual’ or a ‘person’ or by the name ‘I’ is nothing but a changing combination of physical and psychical phenomena, and has no real existence in itself.


What now is the “Aggregate of Bodily Form?” It is the four primary elements and the bodily form derived from them.

And what are the four primary elements? They are the Solid Element, the Fluid Element, the Heating Element, the Vibrating Element.

The 4 elements, or — to speak more correctly— the 4 elementary qualities of matter, in Pali pathavi-dhatu, dpo-dhatu, tejo-dhatu and vayo-dhatu, may be rendered as: Inertia, Cohesion (bandhana-lakkhana), Radiation and Vibration (calana-lak-khana).

The 24 bodily properties which depend upon them are, according to the Abhidhamma: eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, visible form, sound, odour, taste, masculinity, femininity, vitality, organ of thinking, gesture, speech, space (cavities of ear, nose, etc), agility, elasticity adaptability, growth, duration, decay, variability, change of substance.


1. What now is the “Solid Element” (Pathavi-dhatu)? The solid element may be subjective, or it may be objective. And what is the subjective solid element? The dependent properties which on one’s own person and body are hard and solid, as the hairs of head and body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, diaphragm, spleen, lungs, stomach, bowels, mesentery, excrement, or whatever other dependent properties which on one’s own person and body are hard and solid — this is called the subjective solid element. Now, whether it be the subjective solid element, or whether it be the objective solid element: they are both only the solid element.

And one should understand according to reality and true wisdom: — ‘This does not belong to me; this am I not; this is not my Ego.’

2. What now is the “Fluid Element” (apo-dhatu)? The fluid element may be subjective, or it may be objective. And what is the subjective fluid element? The dependent properties which on one’s own person and body are watery or cohesive, as bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, lymph, tears, serum, spit, nasal mucus, oil of the joints, urine, or whatever other dependent properties which on one’s own person and body are watery or cohesive — this is called the subjective fluid element. Now, whether it be the subjective fluid element, or whether it be the objective fluid element: they are both only the fluid element.

And one should understand according to reality and true wisdom; — ‘This does not belong to me; this am I not; this is not my Ego.'

3. What now is the “Heating Element” (tejo-dhatu)? The heating element may be subjective, or it may be objective. And what is the subjective heating element? The dependent properties which on one’s own person and body are heating and radiating, as that whereby one is heated, consumed, scorched, whereby that which has been eaten, drunk, chewed or tasted, is fully digested, or whatever other dependent properties which on one’s own person and body are heating and radiating — this is called the subjective heating element. Now, whether it be the subjective heating element, or whether it be the objective heating element: they are both only the heating element.

And one should understand according to reality and true wisdom — ‘This does not belong to me; this am I not; this is not my Ego.’

4. What now is the “Vibrating Element” (Vayo- dhatu)? The vibrating element may be subjective, or it may be objective. And what is the subjective vibrating element? The dependent properties which on one’s own person and body are mobile and gaseous, as the upward- going and downward-going winds, the winds of stomach and intestines, in-breathing and out-breathing, or what- ever other dependent properties which on one’s own person and body are mobile and gaseous — this is called the subjective vibrating element. Now, whether it be the subjective vibrating element, or whether it be the objective vibrating element: they are both only the vibrating element.

And one should understand according to reality and true wisdom: ‘This does not belong to me; this am I not; this is not my Ego.’

Just as one calls ‘hut’ the circumscribed space, which comes to be by means of wood and rushes, reeds and clay, even so we call ‘body' the circumscribed space that comes to be by means of bones and sinews, flesh and skin.

Now, though one's eye be intact, yet if the external forms do not fall within the field of vision, and no corresponding conjunction takes place, in that case there occurs no formation of the correspondent aspect of consciousness. Or, though one’s eye be intact and the external forms fall within the field of vision, yet if no corresponding conjunction takes place, in that case also there occurs no formation of the corresponding aspect of consciousness. If, however, one’s eye is intact, and the external forms fall within the field of vision, and the corresponding conjunction takes place, in that case there arises the corresponding aspect of consciousness.

Hence I say: the arising of consciousness is dependent upon conditions, and without these conditions no consciousness arises. And upon whatsoever conditions the arising of consciousness is dependent, after these it is called.

Consciousness, whose arising depends on the eye and forms, is called “eye-consciousness" (cakkhu-vinnana).

Consciousness, whose arising depends on the ear and sounds, is called “ear-consciousness” (sota-vinnana).

Consciousness, whose arising depends on the olfactory organ and odours, is called “olfactory consciousness" (ghdna-vinnana).

Consciousness, whose arising depends on the tongue and taste, is called “tongue-consciousness” (jivha- vinnana).

Consciousness, whose arising depends on the body and bodily contacts, is called “body-consciousness” (kaya-vinnana).

Consciousness, whose arising depends on the mind and ideas, is called “mind-consciousness” (mano-vinnana).

From the psychological standpoint, the sense objects as such do not really exist outside and independently of consciousness. Thus the objects of our visual consciousness, the so-called visible objects, are in no way actual bodies, but merely sensations (drammana) of light and colour within our consciousness. Considered physically, however, i. e. as physical bases (dyatana), they are, as everybody knows, energies passing through the other, the so-called light-waves, which by the physical and chemical reactions induced in the visual organ or base (dyatana), i.e. the optical nerve, give rise to the sensations of light and colour.

Similarly, the objects of hearing are purely subjectively experienced sensations of sounds (saddarammana). The physical “bases of sounds” (saddayatana) however are energies passing through the air to the tympanum in the ear, the so-called air waves, which through the stimulation of the auditory organ or base (sotayatana), i.e. the auditory nerve, give rise to the sensations of sound.

The physical bases of, odours are gases, fumes etc, those of taste are chemical solutions.

All the 5 kinds of sense-impressions may reappear as objects of the “mind-consciousness” (mano-vinnana). Namely, “eye-consciousness” (cahkhu-vinnana) may exist only as long as the eyes are opened. Therefore, the image that continues after shutting the eyes is no longer seen by our “eye-consciousness” but only by our “mind-consciousness.”

Incidentally, it is not quite correct to speak of optical and acoustical delusions and hallucinations, as these, like dreams, are not seen by means of the visual or auditory sense organs but merely by mind.


Whatsoever there is of “form” (rupa) in the consciousness thus arisen, that belongs to the aggregate of bodily form connected with clinging to existence. Whatsoever there is of “feeling” (vedana) therein, that belongs to the aggregate of feeling connected with clinging to existence. Whatsoever there is of “perception” (sanna) therein, that belongs to the aggregate of perception connected with clinging to existence. Whatsoever there are of mental “formations” (sankhara) therein, that belongs to the aggregate of mental formations connected with clinging to existence Whatsoever there is of “consciousness” (vinnana) therein, that belongs to the aggregate of consciousness connected with clinging to existence.

And it is impossible that any one can explain the passing out of one existence and the entering into a new existence, or the growth, increase and development of consciousness, independent of bodily form, feeling, perception and mental formations.

All formations are “transient” (anicca); all formations are “subject to suffering” (dukkha); all things are “without an Ego-entity” (anatta). Form is transient, feeling is transient, perception is transient, mental formations are transient, consciousness is transient.

And that which is transient is subject to suffering; and of that which is transient and subject to suffering and change, one cannot rightly say: — ‘This belongs to me; this am I; this is my Ego.’

Therefore, whatever there be of bodily form, of feeling, perception, mental formations or consciousness, whether one's own or external, whether gross or subtle, lofty or low, far or near, one should understand according to reality and true wisdom: — ‘This does not belong to me; this am I not; this is not my Ego.'

Suppose, a man, who can see, were to behold the many bubbles on the Ganges as they are driving along. And he should watch them and carefully examine them. After carefully examining them, they will appear to him as empty, unreal, and unsubstantial. In exactly the same way does the monk behold all the bodily forms, feelings, perceptions, mental formations and states of consciousness — whether they be of the past, or the present, or the future, far or near. And he watches them and examines them carefully, and, after carefully examining them, they appear to him as empty, void and without an Ego.

In the “absolute souse” (paramattha) there are only numberless processes, countless waves in this ever-surging sea of forms, feelings, perceptions, mental formations and states of consciousness, and none amongst all these constantly changing phenomena constitutes any permanent entity, an ‘Ego’ (atta), nor docs there exist any Ego-entity apart from them.


Whoso delights in bodily form, or feeling, or perception, or mental formations, or consciousness, he delights in suffering; and whoso delights in suffering will not be freed from suffering. Thus I say.

"How can you find delight and mirth
Where there is burning without end?
In deepest darkness you are wrapped!
Why do you not seek for the light?

"Look at this puppet here, well rigged,
A heap of many sores, piled up,
Diseased and full of greediness,
Unstable and impermanent!

"Devoured by old age is this frame,
A prey of sickness, weak and frail;
To pieces breaks this putrid body,
All life must truly end in death.”


Did you never see in the world a man or a woman, eighty, ninety, or a hundred years old, frail, crooked as a gable-roof, bent down, supported on a staff, with tottering steps, infirm, youth long since fled, with broken teeth, grey and scanty hair, or bald-headed, wrinkled, with blotched limbs? And did the thought never come to you, that you also are subject to decay, that you cannot escape it?

Did you never see in the world a man or a woman, who, being sick, afflicted and grievously ill, and wallowing in the own filth, was lifted up by some people and put to bed by others? And did the thought never come to you, that you also are subject to disease, that you cannot escape it?

Did you never see in the world the corpse of a man or a woman, one or two or three days after death, swollen up, blue-black in colour, and full of corruption? And did the thought never come to you, that you also are subject to death, that you cannot escape it?

Inconceivable is the beginning of this Samsara, not to be discovered a first beginning of beings, who, obstructed by ignorance and ensnared by craving, are hurrying and hastening through this round of rebirths.

Samsara — the wheel of existence, lit. the “Perpetual Wandering” — is the name by which is designated the sea of life ever restlessly heaving up and down, the symbol of this continuous process of ever again and again being born, growing old, suffering and dying. More precisely put: Samsara is the unbroken chain of the fivefold Khandha-combinations, which, constantly changing from moment to moment, follow continuously one upon the other, through inconceivable periods of time. Of this Samsara, a single lifetime constitutes only a vanishingly tiny fraction; hence to be able to comprehend the first noble truth, one must let one’s gaze rest upon the Samsara, upon this frightful chain of rebirths, and not merely upon one single lifetime, which of course may be sometimes not very painful.


Which do you think is more: the flood of tears, which weeping and wailing you have shed upon this long way — hurrying and hastening through this round of rebirths, united to the undesired, separated from the desired — this or the waters of the four oceans?

Long time have yon suffered the death of father and mother, of sons, daughters, brothers and sisters. And whilst you were thus suffering, you have verily shed more tears upon this long way, than there is water in the four oceans.

Which do you think is more: the streams of blood that, through your being beheaded, have flowed upon this long way, or the waters in the four oceans?

Long time have you been caught as dacoits or highway men or adulterers; and, through your being beheaded, verily more blood has flowed upon this long way, than there is water in the four oceans.

But how is this possible?

Inconceivable is the beginning of this Samsara, not to be discovered a first beginning of beings, who, obstructed by ignorance and ensnared by craving, are hurrying and hastening through this round of rebirths.

And thus have you long time undergone suffering, undergone torment, undergone misfortune and filled the graveyards full, verily long enough to be dissatisfied with every form of existence, long enough to turn away and free yourselves from them all.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 30194
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: The Word of the Buddha, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera

Postby admin » Tue Jan 14, 2020 9:58 am

THE SECOND TRUTH. THE NOBLE TRUTH OF THE ORIGIN OF SUFFERING.

What now is the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering? It is that craving which gives rise to fresh rebirth, and, bound up with pleasure and lust, now here, now there, finds ever fresh delight.

In the absolute sense, it is no real being, no self-determined, unchangeable Ego-entity that is reborn. Moreover, there is nothing that remains the same even for two consecutive moments; for the 5 Khandha’s, or “Aggregates of Existence,” are in a state of perpetual change, of continual dissolution and renewal. They die every moment, and every moment new ones are born. Hence it follows, that there is no such thing as a real existence or “being” (in lat. ‘esse’), but only — as it were — an endless process, a continuous change, a "Becoming" (bhava), consisting in a ‘producing’ and in a ‘being produced,’ in a “process of action” (kamma-bhava) and a “process of reaction, or rebirth” (uppatti-bhava).

This process of perpetual ‘producing’ and ‘being produced’ may best be compared with an ocean wave. In the case of a wave there is not the slightest quantity of water travelling over the surface of the sea. But the wave structure, that hastens over the surface of the water, creating the appearance of one and the same mass of water, is in reality nothing but the continuous rising and falling of continuous but quite different masses of water, produced by the transmission of force generated by the wind. Even so the Buddha did not teach that Ego-entities haston through the ocean of rebirth, but merely life- waves, which, according to their nature and activities (good or evil), manifest themselves here as men, there as animals, and elsewhere as invisible beings.


There is the “Sensual Craving” (kama-tanha), the "Craving for Eternal Existence" (bhava-tanha), the “Craving for Temporal Happiness” (vibhava-tanha).

Bhava-tanha is, according to the Visuddhi-Magga, intimately connected with the so-called “Eternity-Belief” (bhava- or sassata- ditthi), i.e. the belief in an absolute and eternal Ego-entity persisting independent of our body.

Vibhava-tanha is the outcome of the so-called “Annihilation-Belief” (vibhava - or uccheda-ditthi), i.e. the delusive materialistic notion of a more or less real Ego, which is annihilated at death and does not stand in any causal relation with the time before birth and the time after death.


But where does this craving arise and take root? Wherever in the world there is the delightful and pleasurable, there this craving arises and takes root. Eye, ear, nose, tongue, body and mind are delightful and pleasurable: there this craving arises and takes root.

Forms, sounds, smells, tastes, bodily touches and ideas are delightful and pleasurable: there this craving arises and takes root.

Consciousness, sense contact, the feeling born of sense contact, perception, will, craving, thinking and reflecting are delightful and pleasurable: there this craving arises and takes root.

If namely, when perceiving a visible form, a sound, odour, taste, bodily contact or an idea in the mind, the object is pleasant, one is attracted, and if unpleasant, one is repelled.

Thus, whatever kind of "Feeling" (vedana) one experiences, — pleasant, unpleasant or indifferent — one approves of and cherishes the feeling and clings to it; and while doing so, lust springs up; but lust for feelings means “Clinging to existence” (upadana); and on clinging to existence depends the (action-) "Process of Becoming" (bhava, here kamma-bhava); on the process of becoming depends (future) “Birth” (jati); and dependent on birth are “Decay and Death,” sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair. Thus arises this whole mass of suffering.

This is called the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering.

Verily, due to sensuous craving, conditioned through sensuous craving, impelled by sensuous craving, entirely moved by sensuous craving, kings fight with kings, princes with princes, priests with priests, citizens with citizens; the mother quarrels with the son, the son with the mother, the father with the son, the son with the father; brother quarrels with brother, brother with sister, sister with brother, friend with friend. Thus given to dissension, quarrelling and fighting, they fall upon one another with fists, sticks or weapons. And thereby they suffer death or deadly pain.

And further, due to sensuous craving, conditioned through sensuous craving, impelled by sensuous craving, entirely moved by sensuous craving, people break into houses, rob and plunder, pillage whole houses, commit highway robbery, seduce the wives of others, Then the rulers have such people caught and inflict on them various forms of punishment. And thereby they incur death or deadly pain. Now, this is the misery of sensuous craving, the heaping up of suffering in this present life, due to sensuous craving, conditioned through sensuous craving, caused by sensuous craving, entirely dependent on sensuous craving.

And further, people take the evil way in deeds, the evil way in words, the evil way in thoughts; and by taking the evil way in deeds, words and thoughts, at the dissolution of the body, after death, they fall into a downward state of existence, a state of suffering, into perdition and the abyss of hell. But this is the misery of sensuous craving, the heaping up of suffering in the future life, due to sensuous craving, conditioned through sensuous craving, caused by sensuous craving, entirely dependent on sensuous craving.

"Not in the air, nor ocean-midst,
Nor hiding in the mountain clefts,
Not wilt thou find a place on earth,
Where thou art freed from evil deeds."


'For: owners of their deeds are the beings, heirs of their deeds, their deeds are the womb from which they sprang, with their deeds they are bound up, their deeds are their refuge Whatever deeds they do — good or evil — of such they will be the heirs.

And wherever the beings spring into existence, there their deeds will ripen; and wherever their deeds ripen, there they will earn the fruits of those deeds, be it in this life, or be it in the next life, or be it in any other future life.

There will come a time, when the mighty ocean will dry up, vanish, and be no more. There will come a time, when the mighty earth will be devoured by fire, perish, and be no more. But yet there will be no end to the suffering of beings, who, obstructed by ignorance and ensnared by craving, are hurrying and hastening through this round of rebirths.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 30194
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: The Word of the Buddha, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera

Postby admin » Tue Jan 14, 2020 9:59 am

THE THIRD TRUTH. THE NOBLE TRUTH OF THE EXTINCTION OF SUFFERING.

What now is the Noble Truth of the Extinction of Suffering? It is the complete fading away and extinction of this craving, its forsaking and giving up, the liberation and detachment from it.

But where may this craving vanish, where may it be extinguished? Wherever in the world there are delightful and pleasurable things, there this craving may vanish, there it may be extinguished.

Be it in the past, present or future: whosoever of the monks or priests regards the delightful and pleasurable things in the world as “impermanent” (anicca), “miserable” (dukkha) and “without an Ego” (an-atta), as a disease and sorrow, it is he who overcomes the craving.

And released from Sensual Craving, released from the Craving for Existence, he does not return, does not enter again into existence.

For, through the total fading away and extinction of “Craving” (tanha) "Clinging to Existence” (upadana) is extinguished; through the extinction of the clinging to existence the (action-) “Process of Becoming” (bhava) is extinguished; through the extinction of the process of becoming “Rebirth” (jati) is extinguished; and through the extinction of rebirth “'Decay and Death,” sorrow, lamentation, suffering, grief and despair are extinguished. Thus comes about the extinction of this whole mass of suffering.

Hence, the annihilation, cessation and overcoming of bodily form, feeling, perception, mental formations and consciousness, this is the extinction of suffering, the end of disease, the overcoming of old age and death.

The undulatory motion, which we call wave — and which in the ignorant spectator creates the illusion of one and the same mass of water moving over the surface of the lake — is produced and fed by the wind and maintained by the stored-up energies. Now, after the wind has ceased and no fresh wind again whips up the water of the lake, the stored-up energies will gradually be consumed, and thus the whole undulatory motion will come to an end. Similarly, if fire docs not get now fuel, it will, after consuming all the old fuel, become extinct.


Just so this Five-Khandha-process— which in the ignorant worldling creates the illusion of an Ego-entity — is produced and fed by the life-affirming craving (tanha) and maintained for some time by means of the stored-up life-energies. Now, after the fuel (upadana), i.e. the craving and clinging to life, has ceased and no new craving impells again this Five-Khandha-process, life will continue as long as there are still life-energies stored up, but at their consumation at death the Five-Khandha-process will reach final extinction.

Thus, Nibbana or “Extinction” (Sanskrit: nirvana; from nir + va, to cease blowing, to become extinct) may be considered under two aspects, namely as:

1. “Extinction of Impurities” (kilesa-parinibbana), which generally takes place during the life-time of the so-called Arahat or Holy One.

2. “Extinction of the Five-Khandha-process” (khandha-parinibbana), which takes place at his death.

This, truly, is the Peace, this is the Highest, namely the end of all formations, the forsaking of every substratum of rebirth, the fading away of craving, detachment, extinction, Nibbana.

Enraptured with lust, enraged with anger, blinded by delusion, overwhelmed, with mind ensnared, man aims at his own ruin, at the others’ ruin, at the ruin of both parties, and he experiences mental pain and grief. But if lust, anger and delusion are given up, man aims neither at his own ruin, nor at the others’ ruin, nor at the ruin of both parties, and he experiences no mental pain and grief. Thus is Nibbana immediate, visible in this life, inviting, attractive and comprehensible to the wise.

The extinction of greed, the extinction of anger, the extinction of delusion: this, indeed, is called Nibbana.

And for a disciple thus freed, in whose heart dwells peace, there is nothing to be added to what has been done, and naught more remains for him to do. Just as a rock of one solid mass remains unshaken by the wind, even so, neither forms, nor sounds, nor odours, nor tastes, nor contacts of any kind, neither the desired nor the undesired, can cause such an one to waver. Steadfast is his mind, gained is deliverance.

And he who has considered all the contrasts on this earth and is no more disturbed by any thing whatever in the world, the peaceful-One, freed from rage, from sorrow and from longing, he has passed beyond birth and decay.

Verily, there is a realm, where there is neither the solid, nor the fluid, neither heat nor motion, neither this world nor any other world, neither sun nor moon.

This I call neither arising nor passing away, neither standing still, nor being born, nor dying. There is neither foothold, nor development, nor any basis. This is the end of suffering.

There is an Unborn, Unoriginated, Uncreated, Unformed. If there were not this Unborn, this Unoriginated, this Uncreated, this Unformed, escape from the world of the born, the originated, the created, the formed, would not be possible.

But since there is an Unborn, Unoriginated, Uncreated, Unformed, therefore is escape possible from the world of the born, the originated, the created, the formed.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 30194
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: The Word of the Buddha, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera

Postby admin » Tue Jan 14, 2020 10:01 am

THE FOURTH TRUTH. THE NOBLE TRUTH OF THE PATH THAT LEADS TO THE EXTINCTION OF SUFFERING.

To give oneself up to indulgence in Sensual Pleasure, the base, common, vulgar, unholy, unprofitable, and also to give oneself up to Self- mortification, the painful, unholy, unprofitable: both these two extremes the Perfect One has avoided and found out the Middle Path which makes one both to see and to know, which leads to peace, to discernment, to enlightenment, to Nibbana.

It is the Noble Rightfold Path, the way that leads The Rightfold Path, to the extinction of suffering, namely:

III. Wisdom Panna

1. Right Understanding, Samma-ditthi

2. Right Mindedness, Samma-sankappa

I. Morality Sila

3. Right Speech, Samma-vaca

4. Right Action, Samma-kammanta

5. Right Living, Samma-ajiva

II. Concentration Samadhi

6. Right Effort Samma-vayama

7. Right Attentiveness, Samma sati

8. Right Concentration, Samma-samadhi

Any absolute progress on this path of inner culture and virtue is of necessity based upon Right Understanding; this, in fact, is the very reason, why Right Understanding takes rank as the first step of the eightfold path. The order, however, in which the different parts of the path are brought to perfection, is; Morality, Concentration and Wisdom, in Pali: Sila, Samadhi and Panna.

Right Understanding and Wisdom are thus the Alpha and the Omega of the entire teaching of the Buddha.


This is the Middle Path which the Perfect One has found out, which makes one both to see and to know, which leads to peace, to discernment, to enlightenment, to Nibbana.

Free from pain and torture is this path, free from groaning and suffering, it is the perfect path.

Truly, like this path there is no other path to the purity of insight. If you follow this path, you will put an end to suffering.

But each one has to struggle for himself, the Perfect Ones have only pointed out the way.

Give ear then, for the Immortal is found. I reveal, I set forth the Truth. As I reveal it to you, so act! And that supreme goal of the holy life, for the sake of which sons of good families go forth from home to the homeless state: this you will in no long time, in this very life, make known to yourself, realise and attain to it.
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 30194
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: The Word of the Buddha, by Nyanatiloka Mahathera

Postby admin » Tue Jan 14, 2020 10:04 am

FIRST STEP. RIGHT UNDERSTANDING (Samma-ditthi)

What now is Right Understanding?

1. To understand suffering; 2. to understand the origin of suffering; 3. to understand the extinction of suffering; 4. to understand the path that leads to the extinction of suffering. This is called Right Understanding.

Or, when the noble disciple understands, what demerit is and the root of demerit, what merit is and the root of merit, then he has Right Understanding.

As “demeritorious” (a-kusala) is considered every deed by body, speech or mind, which influences our existence unfavourably and manifests itself in its effects as suffering, be it in this or any future form of existence.


What now is "demerit" (a-kusala)?

Bodily Action (kaya-kamma).

1. Destruction of living beings is demerit.

2. Stealing is demerit.

3. Unlawful sexual intercourse is demerit.
 
Verbal Action (vaci-kamma).

4. Lying is demerit.

5. Tale-bearing is demerit.

6. Harsh language is demerit.

7. Frivolous talk is demerit.

Mental Action (mano-kamma).

8. Covetousness is demerit.

9. Ill-will is demerit.

10. Wrong views are demerit.  

The state of “Will” (cetana) is really that which counts as action (kamma), It may manifest itself as action of the body, or of speech; if it does not outwardly manifest itself, it is counted as mental action.


And what is the root of demerit? Greed (lobha) is a root of demerit; Anger (dosa) is a root of demerit; Delusion (moha) is a root of dement.

The state of lobha as well as that of dosa is always accompanied by moha, as moha, ignorance, is the primary root of all evil.


Therefore, I say, these demeritorious actions are of three kinds: either due to greed, or due to anger, or due to delusion.

What now is merit (kusala)?

Bodily Action (kaya-kamma).

1. To abstain from killing is merit.

2. To abstain from stealing is merit.

3. To abstain from unlawful sexual intercourse is merit.

Verbal Action (vaci-kamma)

4. To abstain from lying is merit.

5. To abstain from tale- bearing is merit.

6. To abstain from harsh language is merit.

7. To abstain from frivolous talk is merit.

Mental Action (mano-kamma).

8. Absence of covetousness is merit.

9. Absence of ill-will is merit.

10. Right understanding is merit.

And what is the Root of Merit? Absence of greed (a-lobha = unselfishness) is a root of merit; absence of anger (a-dosa = benevolence) is a root of merit; absence of delusion (a-moha = wisdom) is a root of merit.

Or, when one understands that form, feeling, perception, mental formations and consciousness are transient, [subject to suffering and without an Ego] also in that case one possesses Right Understanding.

Should anyone say that he does not wish to lead the holy life under the Blessed One, unless the Blessed One first tells him, whether the world is eternal or temporal, finite or infinite; whether the life principle is identical with the body, or something different; whether the Perfect One continues after death etc. — Such an one would die, ere the Perfect One could tell him all this.

It is as if a man were pierced by a poisoned arrow, and his friends, companions, or near relations called in a surgeon, but that man should say: "I will not have this arrow pulled out until I know, who the man is, that has wounded me: whether he is a noble, a prince, a citizen, or a servant;" or: "what his name is and to what family he belongs”; or: “whether he is tall, or short, or of medium height.” Verily, such a man would die, ere he could adequately learn all this.

Therefore, the man, who seeks his own welfare, should pull out this arrow— this arrow of lamentation, pain and sorrow.

For, whether the theory exists, or whether it does not exist, that the world is eternal, or temporal, or finite, or infinite — certainly, there is birth, there is decay, there is death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair, the extinction of which, attainable even in this present life, I make known unto you.

There is, for instance, an unlearned worldling, void of regard for holy men, ignorant of the teaching of holy men, untrained in the noble doctrine. And his heart is possessed and overcome by Self-Illusion, by Scepticism, by Attachment to Rule and Ritual, by Sensual Lust and by Ill-will, and how to free himself from these things, he does not really know.

Self-Illusion (sakkaya-ditthi) may reveal itself as: —

1. “Spiritualism” — bhava - or sassata-ditthi, lit. “Eternity-belief” — i.e. the belief that one’s Ego is existing independently of the material body, and continuing even after the dissolution of the latter.

2. “Materialism" — vibhava- or uccheda-ditthi, lit. “Annihilation-belief” — i.e. the belief that this present life constitutes the Ego, and hence that it is annihilated at the death of the material body.


Not knowing what is worthy of consideration and what is unworthy of consideration, he considers the unworthy and not the worthy.

Und unwisely he considers thus: “Have I been in the past? Or, have I not been in the past? What have I been in the past? How have I been in the past? From what state and into what state did I change in the past? — Shall I be in the future? Or, shall I not be in the future? What shall I be in the future? How shall I be in the future? From what state and into what state shall I change in the future?" — And the present also fills him with doubt: "Am I? Or, am I not? What am I? How am I? This being, whence has it come? Whither will it go?"

And with such unwise considerations, he falls into one or other of the six views, and it becomes his conviction and firm belief: "I have an Ego"; or: "I have no Ego"; or: "With the Ego I perceive the Ego"; or: "With that which is no Ego I perceive the Ego "; or: "With the Ego I perceive that which is no Ego”. Or, he falls into the following view: "This my Ego, which can think and feel, and which, now here, now there, experiences the fruit of good and evil deeds: — this my Ego is permanent, stable, eternal, not subject to change and will thus eternally remain the same”.

If there really existed the Ego, there would be also something which belonged to the Ego. As, however, in truth and reality, neither an Ego nor anything belonging to an Ego can be found, is it therefore not really an utter fools’ doctrine to say: "This is the world, this am I; after death I shall be permanent, persisting and eternal"?

These are called mere views, a thicket of views, a puppet-show of views, a moil of views, a snare of views; and ensnared in the fetter of views, the ignorant worldling will not be freed from rebirth, from decay and from death, from sorrow, pain, grief and despair; he will not be freed, I say, from suffering.

The learned and noble disciple, however, who has regard for holy men, knows the teaching of holy men, is well trained in the noble doctrine, he understands what is worthy of consideration and what is unworthy. And knowing this, he considers the worthy and not the unworthy. What suffering is, he wisely considers. What the origin of suffering is, he wisely considers; what the extinction of suffering is, h e wisely considers; what the path is that leads to the extinction of suffering, he wisely considers.

And by thus considering, three fetters vanish, namely: Self-illusion, Scepticism and Attachment to Rule and Ritual.

But those disciples, in whom these three fetters have vanished, they have all “entered the Stream" (sota-panna), have for ever escaped the states of woe, and are assured of dual enlightenment.

"More than any earthly power,
More than all the joys of heaven,
More than rule o’er all the world,
Is the Entrance to the Stream."


And verily those, who are filled with unshaken faith towards me, all those have entered the stream.

There are ten “Fetters” — sannojana — by which the beings are hound to the wheel of existence. They are: — 1. Self-Illusion (sakkaya-ditthi). 2. Scepticism (vicikiccha). 3. Attachment to Rule and Ritual (silabbata-paramasa). 4. Sensual Lust (kama-raja). 5. Ill-will (vyapada). 6. Craving for the world of pure Form (rupa-raja). 7. Craving for the Formless World (arupu-raja). 8. Pride (mana). 9. Restlessness (ud-dhacca), 10. Ignorance (avijja).

A Sotapan, in Pali Sotapanna, lit. "Stream-Enterer” — i.e. "one who has entered the stream leading to Nibbana" — is free from the first 3 fetters.

A Sakadagamn, lit “Once-Returner" — namely to this sensuous sphere — has overcome the 4th and 5th fetters in their grosser form.

An Anigamin, lit. “Non-Returner”, is wholly freed from the first 5 fetters, which bind to rebirth in the sensuous sphere (kima-loka); after death, whilst living in the sphere of pure form (rupa-loka), he will reach the goal.

An Arahat, i.e. the perfectly "Holy-One", is freed from all the 10 fetters.


Therefore, I say, Right Understanding is of two kinds:

1. The view that alms and offerings are not useless; that there is fruit and result both of good and bad actions; that there are such things as this life and the next life; that father and mother, as also spontaneously born beings (in the heavenly worlds) are no mere words; that there are in the world monks and priests, who are spotless and perfect, who can explain this life and the next life, which they themselves have understood: — this is called the "Mundane Right Understanding" (lokiya-samma-ditthi), which yields worldly fruits and brings good results.

2. But whatsoever there is of wisdom, of penetration, of right understanding, conjoined with the “Path" (of the Sotapanna, Sakadagamin, Anagamin or Arahat) — the mind being turned away from the world and conjoined with the path, the holy path being pursued: — this is called the “Ultramundane Right Understanding” (lokuttara-samma-ditthi), which is not of the world, but is ultramundane and conjoined with the paths.

Thus, there are two kinds of the Rightfold Path:

1. The "mundane" (lokiya, practised by the “Worldling” (puthujjana); 2. the “ultra-mundane” (lokuttara), practised by the "Noble Disciples" ariya-puggala.


Now, in understanding wrong understanding as wrong, and right understanding as right, one practises "Right Understanding (1. step); and in making efforts to overcome wrong understanding, and to arouse right understanding, one practises "Right Effort" (6. step); and in overcoming wrong understanding with attentive mind, and dwelling with attentive mind in possession of right understanding, one practises "Right Attentiveness (7. step). Hence, there are three things that accompany and follow upon right understanding, namely: right understanding, right effort, and right attentiveness.

Now, if any one should put the question, whether I admit any view at all, he should be answered thus: —

The Perfect One is free from any theory, for the Perfect One has understood what the body is, and how it arises, and passes away. He has understood what feeling is, and how it arises, and passes away. He has understood what perception is, and how it arises, and passes away. He has understood what the mental formations are, and how they arise, and pass away. He has understood what consciousness is, and how it arises, and passes away. Therefore, I say, the Perfect One has won complete deliverance through the extinction, fading away, disappearance, rejection, and getting rid of all opinions and conjectures, of all inclination to the vain* glory of 'I’ and 'mine.'

Whether Perfect Ones (Buddhas) appear in the world, or whether Perfect Ones do not appear in the world, it still remains a firm condition, an immutable fact and fixed law: that all formations are “impermanent” (anicca); that all formations are "subject to suffering” (dukkha); that everything is "without an Ego" (an-atta).

The word "sankhara" (formation) comprises all things which have a beginning and ail end, the so-called created or "formed things" (sankhara-dhamma), i.e. all possible physical and mental constituents of existence. The word "dhamma”, however, has a still wider application and is all-embracing, as it comprises also the things which have no beginning or end, the so-called uncreated or "unformed things" (asankhata-dhamma), as akasa (cosmic space) and nibbana.

For this reason, it would be wrong to say that all dhammas are impermanent and subject to change, for the Nibbana-dhamma and dkasa are permanent and free from change. And for the same reason one has to say that not only all the sankharas (sankhata-dhamma), but that all the dhammas (including the asankhata-dhamma's) lack an Ego (an-atta).


A bodily form, a feeling, a perception, a mental formation, a consciousness, that is permanent and persistent, eternal and not subject to change, such a thing the wise men in this world do not recognise; and I also say, there is no such thing.

And it is impossible that a being possessed of Right Understanding should regard anything as an Ego.

Now, if someone should say that feeling is his Ego, he should be answered thus: "There are three kinds of feeling: pleasurable, painful, and indifferent feeling. Which of these three feelings now do you consider as your Ego?” At the moment namely of experiencing one of these feelings, one does not experience the other two. These three kinds of feeling are impermanent, of dependent origin, are subject to decay and dissolution, to fading away and extinction. Whosoever, in experiencing one of these feelings, thinks that this is his Ego, will, after the extinction of that feeling, admit that his Ego has become dissolved. And thus he will consider his Ego already in this present life as impermanent, mixed up with pleasure and pain, subject to rising and passing away.

If any one should say that feeling is not his Ego, and that his Ego is inaccessible to feeling, he should be asked thus: "Now, where there is no feeling, is it there possible to say: 'This am I’?"

Or, someone might say: “Feeling indeed is not my Ego, but also it is untrue that my Ego is inaccessible to feeling; for it is my Ego that feels, for my Ego has the faculty of feeling.” Such a one should be answered thus: “Suppose, feeling should become altogether totally extinguished; now, if there, after the extinction of feeling, no feeling whatever exists, is it then possible to say: 'This am I’?"

To say that the mind, or the mind-objects, or the mind-consciousness constitute the Ego: such an assertion is unfounded. For an arising and a passing away is seen there; and seeing the arising and passing away of these things, one should come to the conclusion that one’s Ego arises and passes away.

It would be better for the unlearned worldling to regard this body, built up of the four elements, as his Ego, rather than the mind. For it is evident that this body may last for a year, for two years, for three, four, five, or ten years, or even for a hundred years and more; but that which is called thought, or mind, or mind-consciousness, is continuously, during day and night, arising as one thing and passing away as another thing.

Therefore, whatsoever there is of bodily form, of feeling, of perception, of mental formations, of consciousness, whether one’s own or external, gross or subtle, lofty or low, far or near: there one should understand according to reality and true wisdom: 'This does not belong to me; this am I not; this is not my Ego.’

If now any one should ask: "Have you been in the past, and is it untrue that you have not been? Will you be in the future, and is it untrue that you will not be? Are you, and is it untrue that you are not?" — you ought to say that you have been in the past, and that it is untrue that you have not been; that you will be in the future, and that it is untrue that you will not be; that you are, and that it is untrue that you are not.

In the past only the past existence was real, but unreal the future and present existence. In the future only the future existence will be real, but unreal the past and present existence. Now only the present existence is real, but unreal the past and future existence.

Verily, he who perceives the “Dependent Origination” (paticca-samuppada) perceives the truth; and he who perceives the truth perceives the dependent origination. For, just as from the cow comes the milk, from milk curds, from curds butter, from butter ghee, from ghee the scum (of ghee); and when it is milk, it is not counted as curds, or butter, or ghee, or scum of ghee, but only as milk; and when it is curds, it is only counted as curds: — even so was my past existence at that time real, but unreal the future and present existence; and my future existence will be at one time real, but unreal the past and present existence; and my present existence is now real, but unreal the past and future existence. All these are merely popular designations and expressions, mere conventional teems of speaking, mere popular notions. The Perfect One, indeed, makes use of these, without, however, clinging to them.

Thus, he who does not understand bodily form, feeling, perception, mental formations and consciousness according to reality (i.e. as void of a personality or Ego), and not their arising, their extinction, and the way to their extinction, he is liable to believe, either that the Perfect One continues after death, or that he does not continue after death, and so forth.

Verily, if one holds the view that the vital principle (Ego) is identical with this body, in that case a holy life is not possible; or, if one holds the view that the vital principle is something quite different from the body, in that case also a holy life is not possible. Both these two Extremes the Perfect One has avoided and shown the Middle Doctrine, which says:

On “Delusion" (avijja) depend the (life-affirming) “Activities" (sankhara) — On the activities depends “Consciousness” (vinnana: here, rebirth-consciousness in the womb of the mother).-— On consciousness depends the “Psycho-physical Combination” (nama-rupa).-- On the psycho-physical combination depends the "Sixfold Sense-activity” (chal-ayatana). — On the sixfold sense-activity depends the “Sensorial Impression” (phassa). — On the sensorial impression depends “Feeling "(vedana). — On feeling depends “Craving” (tanha), — On craving depends "Clinging to Existence (upadana). — On clinging to existence depends the “Process of Becoming” (bhava; here: kamma-bhava, or action-process). — On the process of becoming depends “Rebirth” (jati). — On rebirth depends "Decay and Death" (jara-marana), sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair. Thus arises this whole mass of suffering. This is called the noble truth of the origin of suffering.

In whom, however, Delusion (avijja) has disappeared and wisdom arisen, such a disciple heaps up neither meritorious, nor demeritorious activities, nor activities leading to immovability.

Thus, through the entire fading away and extinction of this “Delusion”, the (life-affirming) “Activities” are extinguished. Through the extinction of the activities, “Consciousness” (rebirth) is extinguished. Through the extinction of consciousness, the "Psycho-physical combination" is extinguished. Through the extinction of the psycho-physical combination, the sixfold "Sense-activity” is extinguished. Through the extinction of the sixfold sense-activity, the “Sensorial Impression” is extinguished. Through the extinction of the sensorial impression, “Feeling” is extinguished. Through the extinction of feeling, "Craving" is extinguished. Through the extinction of craving, "Clinging to Existence" is extinguished. Through the extinction of clinging to existence, the "Process of Becoming" is extinguished. Through the extinction of the process of becoming, "Re- birth" is extinguished. Through the extinction of rebirth, decay and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair are extinguished. Thus takes place the extinction of this whole mass of suffering. This is called the noble truth of the extinction of suffering.

Verily, because beings, obstructed by delusion (avijja) and ensnared by craving (tanha), now here, now there, seek ever fresh delight, therefore it comes to ever fresh rebirth.

And the action (kamma) that is done out of greed, anger and delusion (lobha, dosa, moha), that springs from them, has its source and origin there: — this action ripens wherever one is reborn; and wherever this action ripens, there one experiences the fruits of this action, be if in this life, or the next life, or in some future life.

However, through the fading away of delusion, through the arising of wisdom, through the extinction of craving, no future rebirth takes place again.

For the actions, which are not done out of greed, anger and delusion, which have not sprung from them, which have not their source and origin there,: — such actions are, through the absence of greed, anger and delusion, abandoned, rooted out, like a palm tree torn out of the soil, destroyed, and not liable to spring up again.

In this respect one may rightly say of me, that I teach annihilation, that I propound my doctrine for the purpose of annihilation, and that I herein train my disciples. For, certainly, I teach annihilation, — the annihilation namely of greed, anger and delusion, as well as of the manifold evil and demeritorious things.

The Paticca-Samuppada is the teaching of the strict conformity to law of everything that happens, whether in the realm of the physical or the psychical. It shows how the totality of phenomena, physical and mental, the entire phenomenal world that depends wholly upon the six senses, together with all its suffering — and this is the vital point of the teaching — is not all the mere play of blind chance, but has an existence that is dependent upon conditions, and that, precisely with the removal of these conditions, those things that have arisen in dependence upon them — thus also all suffering — must perforce disappear and cease to be. Accordingly, the Paticca-samuppada, above everything else, seeks to set forth how the arising of suffering is dependent upon conditions, and how, through the removal of these conditions, all suffering must disappear. Hence, the Paticca-samuppada serves in the elucidation of the 2nd and the 3rd Noble Truth, by explaining them from their very foundations upwards and giving them fixed philosophical form.

The following diagram shows at a glance the relationship of dependence existing between, past, present and future existence.

Past Existence Kamma-bhava (Action-process)

1. Delusion (together with craving, clinging, and so forth)

2. (Life affirming) Activities

Present Existence. Uppatti-bhava (Birth-process)

3. Consciousness

4. Psycho-physical Combination.

5. Sixfold Sense-activity

6. Sensorial Impression

7. Feeling

Present Existence. Kamma-bhava (Action-process)

8. Craving

9. Clinging to existence (together with craving, delusion etc)

10. Process of Becoming

Future Existence. Uppatti-bhava (Birth-process)

11. Rebirth (cp. 3-7)

12. Decay and Death

(See my article "The Dependent Origination" in the Journal of the Mahabodhi Society, XXV, 5-6).
admin
Site Admin
 
Posts: 30194
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Next

Return to Ancien Regime

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 2 guests