The Abandonment of the Jews: American and the Holocaust, 194

"Science," the Greek word for knowledge, when appended to the word "political," creates what seems like an oxymoron. For who could claim to know politics? More complicated than any game, most people who play it become addicts and die without understanding what they were addicted to. The rest of us suffer under their malpractice as our "leaders." A truer case of the blind leading the blind could not be found. Plumb the depths of confusion here.

Re: The Abandonment of the Jews: American and the Holocaust,

Postby admin » Sat Apr 14, 2018 3:34 am

CHAPTER 6. BERMUDA

1 EHR, 101; Jour of Ecclesiastical Hist, 7/78, 357; Stmt by Shertok, 2/24/43, RW 2/23; NYT, 12/13/42, 11, 12/18/ 42, 10, 12/21/42, 17, 1/24/43, 26; CW, 1/1/43, 2, 4/2/43, 13.

2 EHR, 101; CW, 2/5/43, 4, 4/2/43, 13; NYT, 12/13/42, 11, 1/24/43, 26, 1/ 29/43, 9; Reams to Hickerson & Atherton, 12/10/42, SD, EW/694; Achilles to Welles, 3/4/43, SD, EW/848; FR 1943, v I, 138.

3 Parliamentary Debates, Lords, v 126, 811-21.

4 FR 1943, v 1, 134-7. Same source for following 2 paragraphs.

5 Long to Brandt, Travers, & Keeley, 1/25/43, SD, R/3633; FR 1943, v 1, 138- 44; BLD, 316.

6 FR 1943, v 1, 140-4; Wyman, 217- 9.

7 Memorandum on Ber Cf on the Ref Problem (nd), W 3, Ber Cf. Re abundance: Commonweal, 7/28/44, 349; PM, 12/14/42, 1-5.

8 FR 1943, v 1, 143-4.

9 Wyman, ch 3.

10 FR 1943, v 1, 143.

11 Emanuel Celler speech, 10/23/75, at J Hist See of NY; Lawrence Fuchs, The Political Behavior of American Jews (1956), 99; Pepper-Wyman interview, 4/ 10/81; Wayne Cole, America First (1953, 1971), 138-9; Israel, 307.

12 NYT, 3/4/43, 9; L.C., Memorandum, 3/4/43, SD, R/3739; FR 1943, v 1, 144-5.

13 FR 1943, v 1, 144-6; NYT, 3/5/43, 5; L.C., Memorandum, 3.14/43, SD, R/ 3739; FR 1943, v 3, 29; Pickett to Frawley & Vail, 3/5/43, AF, GF, US Govt, SD; Irving Abella and Harold Troper, None Is Too Many: Canada and the Jews of Europe, 1933-1948 (1982), 130-7.

14 NYT, 3/7/43, 30, 3/11/43, 2, 3/28/ 43, 5; BLD, 308, 310; Memo of Phone Convsn, Long & FDR, 3/19/43, BLP, B 202, Refs; Min of Mtg of Jt Com on Eur Affairs, 3/29/43, AHS, Ma I-81.

15 Israel, 306; Long to Welles, 3/18/ 43, SD 548.G1/112; FR 1943, v 1, 147; Taylor to Welles, 4/43, Taylor to Emerson, 7/28/44, MT; MD 711/260, 262, 712/5.

16 FR 1943, v 1, 147; Roberts to FDR, 4/8/43, Hull to FDR, 4/12/43, FDR, OF 3186; Hull to Seymour, 4/10/43, SD 548.Gl/20B; Seymour to Hull, 4/13/43, SD 548.G1/19; Israel, 306.

I7 FR 1943, v1 , 147, 151; BLD, 308; Memo of Phone Convsn, Long & FDR, 3/19/43, BLP, B 202, Refs.

18 FR 1943, v 1, 176-9, 185; BLD, 334.

19 Roberts to FDR, 4/8/43, FDR to Roberts, 4/10/43, FDR, OF 3186; WP, 4/13/43, 4.

20 CW, 3/19/43, 3, 4/2/43, 2; NR, 4/ 26/43, 548.

21 Mtg of JEC, 4/10/43, & attached rpt by Proskauer, AJC, JEC.

22 Mtg of JEC, 4/10/43, AJC, JEC; Proskauer to Welles, 4/12/43, AJC, Proskauer File; FR 1943, v 1, 151; 58th Mtg of PAC, 3/30/43, JM, P67.

23 CW, 6/4/43, 5; Op, 6/43, 5; Israel, 306; Celler speech, 10/23/75, at J Hist Soc of NY; IJPS, 5/21/43; Mtg of JEC, 4/10/43, 4/18/43, AJC, JEC; Proskauer to Bloom, 4/16/43, AJC, PEC.

24 Dickstein to FDR, 4/2/43, Long, undated draft reply for Dickstein, FDR, OF 3186.

25 Wise (for JEC) to Welles, 4/14/43, SD 548.Gl/38; CW, 4/30/43, 11-14; Mtg of JEC, 4/10/43, AJC, JEC; Proskauer to Bloom, 4/16/43, AJC, PEC.

26 Mtg of JEC, 4/18/43, AJC, JEC; NYT, 4/19/43, 4.

27 Long to Wise, 4/20/43, AJC, JEC.

28 McDonald & Warren to Welles, draft, 3/11/43, JM, P67.

29 Berle to Hull & Long, 4/20/43, Brandt to Long, 4/23/43, BLP, B 202, Refs.

30 CR, v 89, 3434; Ans, 6/5/43, 18; WP, 4/20/43, 10.

31 Emerson, Note on Measures for Rescue of Refs, 3/24/43, BLP, B 203, Ref Cf-Ber Cf.

32 Ibid.

33 Proskauer rpt, attached to Mtg of JEC, 4/10/43, AJC, JEC.

34 FR 1943, v 1, 148, 151; KCS, 4/19/ 43, 16; BC Mins, 4/22, AM, 4/23, AM; Jabotinsky to Johnson, 5/6/43, PSC 1/8.

35 For Reams, see above, ch 4. Alexander to Long, 5/7/43, BLP, B 203, Ref Mvt & Natl Groups.

36 FR 1943, v 1, 151; Kunz to Clarkson, 4/12/43, BLP, B 203, Ref Cf-Ber Cf; BC Mins, 4/20, AM; 59th Mtg of PAC, 5/17/43, JM, P67; Schauffler to Branson, 11/6/44, AF, RS, Mign Servs, US Govt Contacts; Schauffler, Re Visa Policy, 12/21/43, AF, GF 4; AJYB, v 45, 455, 470; CJR, 6/43, 277.

37 FR 1943, v 1, 149; Jabotinsky to Johnson, 5/6/43, PSC 1/8.

38 FR 1943, v 1, 152; Kunz to Clarkson, 4/12/43, BLP, B 203, Ref Cf-Ber Cf.

39 Memorandum on Ber Cf on the Ref Problem (nd), W 3, Ber Cf; Views of the Govt of the US [3/43], BLP, B 203, Ref Cf-Ber Cf. Same sources for following 2 paragraphs.

40 Fuller discussion in ch 16.

41 BC Mins, 4/20, AM; FR 1943, v 1, 155.

42 BC Mins, 4/20, AM; Wasserstein, 192.

43 FR 1943, v 1, 49-133; FR 1944, v 1, 1076.

44 BC Mins (all).

45 BC Mins, 4/20, AM, 4/21, PM.

46 BC Mins, 4/21, PM.

47 BC Mins, 4/21, AM; BC Rpt; FR 1943, v 1, 157, 176.

48 BC Mins, 4/21, AM.

49 FR 1943, v 1, 155; BC Mins, 4/20, AM.

50 Shown in ch 16.

51 BC Rpt.

52 BC Mins, 4/20, AM, 4/20, PM, 4/ 21, AM, 4/24, AM.

53 BC Mins, 4/24, AM; FR 1943, v 1, 165.

54 BC Mins, 4/24, AM; BC Rpt.

55 BC Rpt; BC Mins, 4/21, AM, 4/25, AM; FR 1943, v 1, 157-9, 295-6.

56 FR 1943, v I, 157-61; BC Mins, 4/ 21, AM.

57 Israel, 309; FR 1943, v I, 164, 176, 295-9; Long, Memorandum, 4/22/43, SD 548.G1/4-2243; Hull to Deane, 4/ 23/43, SD 548.G 1144; Long, Memorandum, 4/26/43, SD Rl4-2643; BLD, 328.

58 BC Rpt; FR 1943, v I, 179, 307-25, 332-5; FR 1943, The Conferences at Washington and Quebec (1970), 342-6. More detail is in "Proposals for Relief and Evacn of Refs" [7/43] (N Africa section), BLP, B 203, Ref Mvt & Natl Groups.

59 FR 1944, v I, 992; Blickenstaff, Evacn of Stateless Refs to N Afr, 12/27/ 44, Conard, Rpt on Visit to Spain, 10/ 16/44, AF, RS 5 .

60 BC Rpt; A Rpt Drawn Up for the Am Embassy [8/44], Conard, Rpt on Visit to Spain, 10/16/44, AF, RS 5.

61 BC Mins, 4/22, AM, 4/23, AM; BC Rpt; FR 1943, v I, 165-6, 175-6, 184- 9, 196, 214-7, 224-5, 236-7; Explanation of Changes in Proposed Message, u/c Stettinius to FDR, 6/8/44, FDR, OF 3186.

62 BC Rpt; BC Mins, 4/22, AM, 4/23, AM; FR 1943, vi, 163, 170. From 1939 through 1943, the US had contributed a total of $70, 000 to the ICR (Grew to Rayburn, 6/19/45, SD, Rl6-1945).

63 FR 1943, v 1, 171, 186; BC Mins, 4/ 25, AM.

64 FR 1943, v 1, 177-82, 186-7, 190- 5, 199-200, 213-4, 232-3, 237, 247-8.

65 BC Rpt.

66 FR 1943, vi, 173-4.

67 Office Com Mtg, 5/7/43, WJC, U185/2

68 Based on the 10 newspapers listed in ch 2, source note 12.

69 NYT, 4/25/43, 19.

70 CT, 4/18, 12, 4/23, 9; NYT, 4/20, 1; DP, 4/19, 3, 4/23, 7; SFE, 4/20, 10; WP, 4/30, 1; PM, 4/30, 8. All in 1943.

71 DP, 4/19, 3; ST, 4/19, 3; SFE, 4/ 22, 11; CT, 4/23, 9; NYT, 4/25, 19; WP, 4/30, 1. All in 1943.

72 AJYB, v 45, 361; CJR, 6/43, 278, 8/ 43, 393; NJM, 6/43, 314; JF, 5/43, 3; Op, 6/43, 5, 5/43, 4; NYT, 5/4/43, 17.

73 JO, 5/43, 6; Wise & Proskauer to Welles, 5/13/43, Mtg of JEC, 5/24/43, AJC, JEC.

74 AI Rpts, 4th, 5 & 5th, 1; Rosenheim to McDonald, 5/26/43, JM, P40; Shultz to Wise, Goldmann, et ai, 6/3/43, SW, AJCg, L. Shultz; Pat to Shultz, 6/24/43, Proskauer to Held, 6/29/43, AJC, PEC.

75 NYHT, 4/28/43, 2; NYT, 4/28/43, 6; Thomas to Hull, 6/17/43, SD 548.G1/165; Niebuhr, Poling, Oxnam, et al to FDR, 8/6/43, SD, R/4164.

76 CR, v 89, A2154, A2329; Celler to Wise, 5/14/43, AJC, PEC.

77 NYT, 5/24/43, 15; Op, 6/43, 5; Celler, "Once Bitten, Twice Shy, " 7/15/ 43, AJC, Imgn Series, Refs-Rescue of.

78 Bloom to Anathan, 6/14/43, SB, Corresp with Constituents; Celler speech, 10/23/75, at J Hist Soc of NY.

79 Morse, 63.

80 NYT, 4/29/43, 9; NYHT, 4/29/43, 8.

81 Travers to Niebuhr, 8/26/43, SD, R14164.

82 Israel, 316; Brandt, Memorandum, 6/22/43, SD 548.Gl/198; FR 1943, v 1, 310.

83 Niebuhr, Poling, Oxnam, et al to FDR, 8/6/43, SD, Rl4164; NYT, 5/2/ 43, 17; MDW to JMP, 5/19/43, AJC, JEC.

84 NYT, 5/22/43, 4, 6/4/43, 7; NJM, 7/43, 352; CR, v 89, A3363.

85 NYT, 4/22/43, 1; WP, 4/22/43, 6.

86 JF, 6/43, 4.

CHAPTER 7. PAPER WALLS AND PAPER PLANS

1 Wyman, 43, 49, 168-82, 194.

2 Ibid, 193-4, 199, 200, 204; "Quota Immigrants Admitted" (nd), NRS, 506.

3 Wyman, 193-6, 202.

4 Ibid, 200-1.

5 Ibid, 201-2.

6 Ibid, 203; Mayerson to Sapper, 12/ 24/41, NRS 991; Welles to McDonald, 2/17/42, JM, P50.

7 Bernstein & Dijour to Taylor, 4/24/ 42, JM, P55; McDonald & Warren to Welles (draft), 3/11/43, JM, P67; NYT, 5/14/42, 6; FR 1942, v I, 450-7; BC Mins, 4/25, AM; Office of Censorship, Daily Rpt #7000 [9/42], SD, R/3489.

8 Cohu's ltr of 6/3/42 from Marseille, . AF, RS 1. Several other examples in McClelland to Rogers, 3/14/42, AF, RS 1.

9 Niles, Case Com Rpt, 10/13/42, USC, Case Com.

10 The obstruction is clearly seen in the archives of AFSC, JDC, and NRS. Warren's remarks: CEP Jour, 5/5/42; JPC 3050.

11 JPC 3274, 3379, 3436-7; Kaplan, MASC Mtg, 1/12/43, NRS 326; [1st] Draft Mins Mign & Alien Status Sub- Com, 2/17/43, NRS 325; Schauffler, Re Visa Policy, 12/21/43, AF, GF 4; Vail, Trip to Wn, 3/12/43, AF, FS 3.

12 JPC 3340; Mins of MASC, 5/11/43, Kaplan draft, NRS 326; IR, 10/28/43, 327; Rogers to Hiatt, 10/2/42, AF, RS 3; JPC 3282.

13 IR, 10/28/43, 309-55.

14 CR, v 90, 666.

15 Excerpts & Summary of Rpt on Spain from Conard, 11/20/43, AF. RS 6.

16 Schauffler to Heath, 1/5/43, 2/12/ 43, Heath to Vail, 1/19/43, AF, RS 2; Heath to Wriggins, 1/18/43. AF, RS, Ctry FNA, Fr Morocco, Casa; Schauffler to Hartley, 6/18/43, AF, RS 7; Mins of Mtg on 12/30/43 with Katzki, JDC, G/ E, Germany-NRS; Schauffler to Pickett, Vail. et ai, 4/13/43, AF, FS, C/O, HIAS; Translation-Excerpts, 8/9/43. u/ c Dijour to Schauffler. 10/7/43, AF, RS, Ctry FNA, Genl.

17 Mayerson to Abrahamson, Monthly Rpt, 10/7/42, NRS 459; numerous individual cases in NRS 575; Schauffler to Judkyn, 11/9/43, AF, RS 3.

18 Pickett to Warren, 5/27/42, AF, GF 1; 54th Mtg of PAC, 6/18/42, JM, P66; [lst] Draft Mins Mign and Alien Status Sub-Com, 2/17/43, NRS 325; Mins of MASC, 5/11/43, Kaplan draft, NRS 326; Rogers, Rpt, Ref Div, For Serv Section, lan-May 1942, AF, RS, Rpts & Discussions.

19 Rogers to Vail, 5/20/42, with enclosure, Rogers to Warren, 6/4/42, AF, GF 1; Detzer to Baer, 6/16/42, WIL, Ref Com, 1938-43, Cases, Schottlaender.

20 JPC 3379; Chamberlain to Schauffler, 3/12/42, AF, GF, For Serv, Switz; Warren to PAC, with enclosures, 5/8/ 42, Warren to PAC, 5/11/42, 54th Mtg of PAC, 6/18/42, JM, P66.

21 DSB, 9/10/44, 277-8; ]PC 3379; "Keppel Study, " 8/23/43, NRS 570; anon memo (probably Keppel to Berle), 8/3/42, Travers to Long, 8/4/42, BLP, B 211, Visa Bd of Appeals; ]PC 3340- 4.

22Visa Bd of Appeals, Rpt, 11/9/42, BLP, B 211, Visa Bd of Appeals.

23 BKR Rpt, 13; Summary of Proceedings- Special Mtg NRS, 1/23/43, AF, RS, ClO, NRS (Mins); Schauffler/Rogers to Conard, 3/27/42, AF, RS, Ctry Port, Ltrs to; NYT, 9/9/43, 25.

24 DSB, 9/10/44, 274; SIB, 6/16/44, NRS 1391; Rescue, 6/44, 3; IR, 7/18/44, 228-9; Petluck to Mign Staff, 8/2/44, NRS 587.

25 Maurice Davie, Refugees in America (1947), 194; Loewenstein, Suggestions for a Better Verification, 9/14/42, SD, R/3179; Elisabeth A. Dexter, "Last Port of Freedom, " draft MS (1942), ch I, p 9; Chr R, 9/42, 331.

26 BKR Rpt, 14.

27 MD 694/191; Warren-Jarvik interview, 1/22179.

28 NYT, 10/15/42, 9; Teleg No. 78 from Tangier to MILID, Wn, 2/23/43, BLP, B 195, Foreign Territories; ltr from War Dept, 5/1/43, SD, R/3805.

29 Schmidt file in AF, OF, N Afr; memo by Heath, 9/22/43, AF, RS 2; Heath to Kimberland, 5/9/44, AF, RS, Ctry FNA, Algeria, Ltrs to; Schauffler, memo re Schmidt, 11/16/43, AF, FS 3.

30 Office of Censorship, Daily Rpt #7000 [9/42], SD, R/3489. The actual facts concerning HICEM are found in Warren, memo on HIAS-ICA, U/C McDonald to Hull, 3/13/42, JM, P50. SD views concerning subversives among refugees are seen in FR 1942, v 1, 450- 6.

31 Standish to Lesser, 3/27/44, W 10, Imgn Memos; NYT, 6/28/42, 1, 7/30/ 42, 1, 34, 7/1/42, 1, 7/10/42, 1, 12/6/42, 59, 7/26/43, 32, 7/16/44, 7, 12/31/44, 16, 3/19/45, 19, 12/8/45, 3; Louis de Jong, The German Fifth Column in the Second World War (1956), 215-21.

32 Greenstein, Summary of Invitation Cf, 10/18/41, AF, GF, C/O, NRS; MD 693/217-8.

33 Ch 2. Baerwald to Beckelman, 9/8/ 42, JDC, Refs, Children; Notes, Mtg of US Com, 9/21/42, Hyman to Levy, 10/ 22/42, JDC, France, Children. Even here, though, the Visa Division raised several technical difficulties (Stmt by Warren, 9/14/42, AF, GF, US Govt, PAC).

34 Schwartz to Leavitt, 12/21/42, 1/ 13/43, Leavitt to Hayes, 1/29/43, Mc- Donald & Warren to Welles, 12/1/42, JDC, Refs, Children; Conard to Pickett, 11/21/42, AF, OF, Port, 1000 Group.

35 Frawley to Pickett & Vail, 12/8/42, AF, GF 3; Mtg of MASC, 12/9/42, NRS 452; JPC 3223, 3283; USCOM, Rpt of Exec Dir to Bd of Dirs, 5/12/43, AF, RS, C/O, USCCEC, Rpts; Radio Script, 517/43, JDC, Refs, Children.

36 Mtg of MASC, 12/9/42, NRS 452; BC Mins, 4/25, AM; Frawley to Pickett, Vail, et ai, 12/24/42, AF, GF 5; SS to Lisbon, 12/26/42, W 44, Evacn of Children from France; Frawley to Pickett, Vail, et aI, 1/6/43, AF, RS 10; Schwartz to Leavitt, 1/4/43, 1/18/43, JDC, Refs, Children; Frawley to Leavitt, 1/13/43, JDC, France, Children; Ben Schauffler to Lang, 1/6/43, AF, OF, Port, USCCEC; Rpt by Escort of 21 on Serpa Pinto, 3/20/43, AF, RS 8; JDC, loose- Leaf Memo #32, 3/22/43, NRS 1302.

37 Katzki to Leavitt, 2/27/43, Wriggins to AF, 4/2/43, 4/6/43, JDC, Refs, Children.

38 JDC, Loose-Leaf Memo #34, 5/21/ 43, NRS 1302; Katzki, Lisbon, to JDC, 4/28/43, AF, RS 10.

39 Memo of telephone message from Warren, 4/12/43, HW to MF, 6/10/43, Olsen to Frawley, 9/30/43, Conard to Lang [12/43], AF, RS 8; Conard to Pickett, 9/24/43, AF, RS, Children, US Com, Case Lists; Thompson to Welles, 5/20/43, ER 894170; Welles to Thompson, 5/28/43, ER 1703/100; Katzki to Leavitt, 9/24/43, JDC, Refs, Children.

40 Olsen to JDC (Leavitt), 6/14/45, JDC, Refs, Children; Conard, Rpt to AF for Dec 1943 to Aug 1944, 8/15/44, AF, RS 4; Gallagher to Olsen, 4/25/45, AF, FS, DP Servs, Children, USCCEC; BC Mins, 4/25, AM.

41 Conard & Wriggins, AF Lisbon Office Mid-Aug Rpt, 8/13/42, along with several letters also in this file, AF, RS 4 (1942); Conard to Vail, 6/10/43, Conard to Schauffler, 8/25/43, Wriggins to Schauffler, 8/10/43, AF, RS 4 (1943).

42 Rpt of the Secy to Exec Com Mtg of JDC, 10/22/41, JDC, Rpts; Katzki to Leavitt, 2/26/43, 2/27/43, 4/14/43, JDC, Refs, Children; Schauffler to Conard, 6/22/43, AF, RS 6.

43 Schauffler to Pickett, Vail, et al, 6/ 11/43, AF, GF 4; Schauffler to Conard, 6/22/43, Schauffler to Rogers, 7/26/43, Rogers to Travers, 8/10/43, Excerpts & Summary of Rpt on Spain from Conard, .11/20/43, AF, RS 6.

44 Brandin, memo on JDC, 6/28/43, CH, B 6, Ref Orgzns.

45 Ibid; BKR Rpt, 23.

46 Notes on Lois Jessup's talk with Mrs. Carlton]. H. Hayes, 4/28/44, AF, FS, AF, Wn Trips.

47 IR, 6/14/45, 154-6.

48 Based on 26 nations with annual quotas totaling 60, 888 (Status of Quotas as of 10/31/45, NRS 502). Statistics from Annual Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (1946), 72. An estimated 5, 000 entered during the portion of fiscal 1942 that followed American entry into the war (Kovarsky to Levy, 7/13/42, NRS 505; IR, 2/27/42, 83). The total eligible from Pearl Harbor to V-E Day was 208, 000.

49 MR, 4/44, 13, 6/45, 158, 8/45, 189.

50 BLD, 399.

51 NYT, 12/30/45, IV, 10.

52 Pell to Taylor, 3/2/41, 3/3/41, 3/7/ 41, MT.

53 Pell to Taylor, 3/2/41, 3/7/41, 31 11/41, 4/5/41, MT; 47th Mtg of PAC, 4/14/41, JM, P65.

54 Talk by Malin to AF Staff, 4/28/44, AF, RS9; Pell to Taylor, 3/3/41, 3/7/41, 3/25/41, 1/29/42, 7/1/42, MT; Wyman, 163; 54th Mtg of PAC, 6/18/42, JM, P66.

55 Taylor to Emerson, 5/25/43, 7/28/ 44, Suggestions for Reorganization of ICR, 5/17/43, Taylor to Welles, 6/11/ 43, 7/23/43, FDR to Taylor, 7/7/43, 7/ 28/43, 6/5/44, Taylor to FDR, 7/13/43, 7/14/43, 8/31/43, 5/25/44, Taylor to Hull, 8/31/43, Taylor to Winant, 3/20/ 44, Emerson to Randall, 4/22/44, MT; Taylor, Confidential Memo Regarding Refs 1938-47, 7/30/47, MT, B 8; FR 1943, v I, 190; MD 712/5; McDermott to Brandt, 7/20/43, Taylor to Pell, 7/22/ 43, SD, Rl4101; NYT, 3/16/45, 17.

56 LEH, Memorandum, 2/22/44, W 3, Ber Cf.

57 FR 1943, v 1, 177, 180-2, 186-7, 190-5, 199-200, 213-4; Record of Proceedings of Mtg of Exec Com of ICR, 8/ 4/43, BLP, B 203, Refs, Intergovt Com on; NYT, 3/16/45, 17; Taylor to Welles, 7/23/43, MT.

58 Warren to Fuerst, 5/22/42, IMS, Appeals to NY Fndn; Travers to Bloom, 11/16/43, SB, B 45, Selected Ltrs A-J; ICR, Summary of Activities since Aug 1943, 11/23/43, MT.

59 Suggestions for Reorganization of ICR, 5/17/43, Taylor to Emerson, 5/25/ 43, Taylor to Welles, 6/11/43, 7/23/43, Taylor to FDR, 3/3/44, Taylor to Hull, 4/19/44, MT; MD 700/189-90.

60 Emerson to Taylor, 8/6/43, MT.

61 Emerson to Taylor, 3/5/42, 8/11/ 42, ICR, Summary of Activities since Aug 1943, 11/23/43, MT; 55th Mtg of PAC, 9/9/42, JM, P66; Foreign Affairs, 1/43, 211-20.

62 Interview with Emerson, 4/25/44, AJC, Imgn Series, Imgn 1944-40; Talk by Malin to AF Staff, 4/28/44, Marcuse to Schauffler, 5/18/44, AF, RS 9.

63 Interview with Emerson, 4/25/44, AJC, Imgn Series, Imgn 1944-40; Emerson to Taylor, 3/5/42, MT.

64 W. A. Visser 't Hooft, Memoirs (1973), 169; ICR, Summary of Activities, 11/23/43, MT; Relief& Evacn Projects, 1/27/44, W 50, SD; FR 1943, v 1, 218- 23, 227, 229, 233-4; ICR, Mins of Fourth Plenary Session (8/44), 6; Intl Labour Review, 11/44, 656-7; ICR, Rpt of Fourth Plenary Session (8/44), 9, 26; Emerson, Memorandum, 4/18/44, MT.

65 Ltr 1toBranson on Italian operations, 2/15/45, AF, FS 2; Malin to Dejean, 7/4/44, AF, RS 9.

66 ICR, Rpt of Fourth Plenary Session (8/44), 5; Jones to Branson, 7/16/44, AF, FS, Ctry Italy, Ltrs to.

67 CEP Jour, 10/26/44; Wriggins to Vail, 9/7/44, Wriggins to AF, 10/4/44, Wriggins to Branson, 10/30/44, Branson to Moore, 11/24/44, AF, FS 1; Wriggins to Branson [recd 6/8/44], AF, RS 9; Ltr to Branson on Italian operations, 2/15/ 45, AF, FS 2; Ltr from A. Greenleigh, 9/7/44, JOC, G/E, Austria, ICR; Pehle to Mann, 10/31/44, 12/18/44, Mann to Pehle, 11/14/44, 12/9/44, W 16, Mann; Louise Wood, "Italy Program: 1940- 1941, 1944-1962" (7/70), 14-18, AF files; ICR, Rpt 01 Fourth Plenary Session (8/44), 23.

68. Ltr to Branson on Italian operations, 2/15/45, AF, FS 2; Wriggins to Vail, 9/7/44, AF, FS 1; Mann to Pehle, 10/23/44, 11/14/44, 12/9/44, Pehle to Mann, 10/31/44, W 16, Mann; Ltr from A. Greenleigh, 9/7/44, JOC, GIE, Austria, ICR.

69. Kimberland to Frawley, 6/16/44, 8/ 29/44, AF, RS, Ctry FNA, Algeria, Ltrs from; Frawley to Pickett et aI, 9/11/44, AF, RS, Ctry FNA, Genl; Biehle to Leavitt, 11/6/44, JOC, G/E, Austria, ICR.

70 ICR, Rpt of Fifth Plenary Session (11/45), 22-4; Pehle to Baerwald, 7/22/ 44, JOC, France, Conf 36.

71 Pehle to Stettinius, 11/11/44, W 49, ICR 3; Schauffler to Branson, Jessup, et al, 11/6/44, AF, RS 11; Sumner Welles, Where Are We Heading? (1946), 280.

72 ICR, Mins of Sixth Plenary Session (12/46); ICR, Mins of Seventh Plenary Session (6/47); ICR, Seventh Plenary Session Resolutions (6/47).

CHAPTER 8. THE EMERGENCY COMMITTEE

1 CR, v 89, 4139.

2 NYT, 5/4/43, 17; CR, v 89, 4044-7, 4139-41; Truman to Bergson, 5/7/43, PSC 1/8.

3 CR, v 89, 4139, 8125.

4 Ans, 8/43, 4.

5 Perlzweig to Wise, 6/16/43, SW, AJCg, Perlzweig; Tucker to Wise, 6/17/ 43, AJC, PEC; Welles to Taylor, 6/23/ 43, MT.

6 Bromfield to Taylor, 6/21/43, Taylor to Welles, 6/23/43, Welles to Taylor, 6/ 23/43, Taylor to Bromfield, 6/24/43, MT; Hyman to Pickett, 7/13/43, AF, RS 10.

7 Daily Worker, 7/12/43, Morning Freiheit, 7/12/43, PSC, S 16.

8 Lerner to FOR, 7/14/43, Hassett to SS, 7/15/43, Hull to Lerner, 7/17/43, Berle to FOR, 7/20/43, FOR to Lerner, 7/22/43, FOR, OF 76C; Reams to Ounn, 7/15/43, SO, EW/1008; Ans, 2/ 12/44, 10; NYT, 7/25/43, 30.

9 Bromfield to ER, 6/21/43, ER to Bromfield, 6/25/43, ER 1674/100.

10 Potter to ER, 7/15/43, ER 1694/ 100.

11 Lerner to ER, 7/17/43, ER to Lerner, 7/23/43, ER 1689/100.

12 ER to Potter, 7/26/43, ER 1694/ 100.

13 Ans, 7/5/43, 10, 8/43, 14, 2/46, 18; NYT, 7/13/43, 12, 7/21/43, 13; NYP, 7/22/43, 6; MO 688I166; NYHT, 7/26/ 43, 14.

14 MD 688I147-67; Ans, 8/43, 6-14.

15 Ans, 8/43, 22-3. Same source for following 2 paragraphs.

16 The heavy media exposure is shown in PSC 4/10 and S 16, with a summary in ] Review & Observer, 7/30/43, in S 16. For editorials, eg, NYP, 7/26/43, 26, 27; Nation, 7/31/43, 114; NR, 8/2/43, 124. Lerner: PM, 7/22/43, 2.

17 NYT, 8/12/43, 10, 8/30/43, 10, 9/ 7/43, 16, 9/14/43, 12.

18 NYT, 8/30/43, 10, 8/21/43, 9; FR 1943, v 1, 469-83.

19 Merlin to New Zionist Political Office, Jerusalem, 8/27/43, PSC 1/10; Merlin-Wyman interview, 4/19/73. Examples: NYJA, 8/24/43, 18, 9/2/43, 14, 9/4/43, 4.

20 Additional random examples: SFE, 5/17/44, 9, 8/1/44, 14, 8/22/44, 14, 8/ 25/44, 7, 5/1/45, 14. Merlin-Wyman interviews, 4/19/73, 3/22/79. Quote from NYJA, 8/24/43, 18, 9/4/43, 4.

12 Ans, 2/12/44, 5; Margoshes in Day, 11/25/43, 1.

22 My Day, 8/13/43 release, ER, B 3148; Bergson to ER, 8/11143, with enclosures, FDR to Thompson, 8/16/43, ER 2899/190.

23 Bergson to ER, 10/13/43, Thompson to Bergson, 10/18/43, ER 297/30.9; Bergson to Thompson, 10/19/43, Thompson to Bergson, 10/29/43, with attachment, ER 84/30.1. Mrs. Roosevelt's message was 250 words long.

24 Bergson to Thompson, 1113/43, text of speech: ER 84/30.1.

25 Joseph Lash, Eleanor: The Years Alone (1972), ch. 5.

26 Lerner to FDR, 7/31/43, Watson to Lerner, 8/10/43, 8/30/43, Early to Lerner, 8/22/43, FDR, OF 76C; Lerner to Early, 8/21/43, Bergson to Early, 8/23/ 43, SD, Rl4431 & 4433; YSH, 7-8.

27 CJR, 10/43, 503-4; Long to Brandt, 8/12/43, Long, Memo of Convsn with Bergson and Hirschmann, 9/1143, BLP, B202, Refs; YSH, 5-6; Ans, 11/1/43, 5; A1fangeto Travers, 1117/44, W29, WJC l.

28 Ans, 6/15/44, 9, 3/45, 14, 3/46, 17, 29; YSH. 6-7; Wilf to Niv, 10/26/70, PSC, Reel 11; Kook-Wyman interview, 5/5/73; Kook-Cohen interview, 9/26/68, 17, PSC 11133; Menachem Begin, The Revolt (1951), 63-4; Berman, "The HCNL and Rescue, " 23.

29 Kook-Cohen interview, 9/26/68, 17- 18; FBI, File # 100-316012-29, Item II NY 100-61870 [3/45], pp. 6-7, 14-8, 34-5, 72-3; HCNL, 5/2/45, FBI, File II 100-316012-36; Strickland to Ladd, 3/ 3/45, FBI, File # 100-316012-31.

30 YSH, 6; Ans, 11/1/43, 5; Long, Memo of Convsn with Bergson and Hn, 9/1143, BLP, B 202, Refs; Hn to Bergson, 12/1143, PSC 1/10; A1fange to Travers, 1/17/44, W 29, WJC 1; MD 688V77-8; Hn to Pehle, 1125/44, W 53, Hn.

31 MD 688I/32, 35-6.

32 Niebuhr to Dear Friend, 8/10/43, Open Ltr, 8/10/43, FCC, B 49, Genl Secy's Files (Cavert); NR, 8/30/43, 304; World Alliance News Leiter, 9/43, 1-2; CC, 9/8/43, 1004-5.

33 NYT, 9/10/43, 26, 9/25/43, 6; JF, 11/43, 10-12; Stmt to Accompany ]t Resolution, u/c Phiebig to Beck, 9/20/ 43, NRS 505.

34 Celler proposal: see ch 3. Dickstein! Barbour: HJ Res 154 & S] Res 85 (printed in JF, 11/43, 9); Ans, 10/15/43, 23.

35 Ans, 10/15/43, 23; Cavert to Dickstein, 9/28/43, FCC, B 9, Genl Secy's Files (Cavert), Immig; RYP, 9/24/43; CW, 9/24/43, 4, 10/8/43, 4; NJM, 11/ 43, 84, 97; JF, 11143, 3; Biddle to Dickstein, 1114/43, Legis 16453; Stettinius to Dickstein, 10/30/43, SD, R/4490; CR, v 89, index pp. 676, 782.

36 Mohler, Memo for Record, 10/20/ 43, BI 83, Refs-Restrictions on Admission as Visitors, R-4; RR, 63-4; ch 3 above; IR, 6/21/43, 169-75; CR, v 89, 5837.

37 NYT, 10/5/43, 29; WP, 10/6/43, 13; YSH, 9; Kook-Wyman interview, 11/20/78.

38 Proclamations by Union of Orthodox Rabbis and by Union of Grand Rabbis [late 9/43], FDR, OF 76C; Jabotinsky to Altman, 10/12/43, PSC 11 10. The ]TA estimated the number of rabbis at 300; the NYP and the EC stated 400; while several others reported 500 (WP, WTH, Time, and the Yiddish-language dailies Day and Forward).

39 NYT, 10/7/43, 14; WTH, 10/6/43, 25, 10/7/43, 3; ]M], 10/7/43, 1, 2, 10/8/ 43, 3; Forward, 10/7/43, 1, 9; JTA, 10/ 7/43, 4; Wn Star, 10/7/43, 6; Ans, 11/11 43, 4, 11; Time, 10/18/43, 21.

40 WP, 10/6/43, 13; NYT, 10/7/43, 14; Jabotinsky to Altman, 10/12/43, PSC 1/10; Ans, 11/1/43, 4.

41 Bergson to Early, 9/20/43, AW to RR (nd), Lerner to McIntyre, 9/29/43, Levovitz to Early, 10/3/43, MHM to Watson, 10/4/43, Watson to Levovitz, 10/5/43, FDR, OF 76C; WTH, 10/7/43, 3; President's Appointment Diaries, 10/ 6/43, FDR, PPF 1-0(1), B 186; Diary of the President 1943, FDR, PPF 1-0(3), B 19'5; NG, Interview with Rosenman, 10/ 6/43, AHS, Ma 1-93, Rosenman; WP, 10/6/43, 13; NYT, 10/7/43, 9.

42 Ans, 11/1/43, 7-10; JMJ, 10/7/43, 2, 10/8/43, 3, 4; Watson to Gray, 10/5/ 43, FDR, OF 76C; William Hassett, Off the Record with FDR (19'58), 209. For Jewish opposition to the pilgrimage, see a bitter attack in Bitzaron (in Hebrew), 10/43, 67-9, and negative reactions in Am Hebrew, 11/26/43, 9, and Op, 11/ 43, 4.

43 Jabotinsky to Altman, 10/12/43, PSC 1/10.

44 Wn newspapers for 10/7/43: WP, I & B1; Star, 6; WTH, 3; Daily News, 22. In NYC: NYT, 10/7/43, 14; NYP, 10/ 6/43, 5; NYHT and PM had nothing. Time, 10/18/43, 21.

45 Thomas to SS, 10/1/43, Long to Thomas, 10/27/43, SD, R/4521; Current Biography 1942 (1942), 830.

46 Long to Thomas, 10/27/43, SD, RI 4521.

47 CR, v 89, 8125 .

48 Hilberg, 362-3; J Comment, 10/15/ 43.

49 NYT, 10/21/43, 18, 10/26/43, 18, 11/1/43, 5; NY Sun, 10/19/43, 19; WP, 10/28/43; NR, 12/20/43, 866.

50 PC/FDR, 11/5/43, 196-7; FR 1943, v 1, 513-781; Hull, Memoirs, 1252- 1318; NYT, 11/2/43, 1, 14.

51 NYT, 11/19/43, 4.

52 Eg, NYT, 11/5/43, 14; NYHT, 11/ 7/43, II, 2; WP, 11/8/43, 9; Chicago Times, 11/22/43, 20.

53 NYT, 11/10/43, 19; RR, 16.

54 Stettinius to Long, 11/11/43, SD, R/4843.

55 NG, Interview with Rosenman, 10/ 6/43, AHS, Ma 1-93, Rosenman; Kook- Wyman interview, 4/14/73; ERS to The Secretary, 11/17/43, SD, R/4796.

56 Stettinius to Long, 11/11/43, SD, R/4843; ERS to The Secretary, 11/17/ 43, SD, R/4796; FR 1943, v I, 222-3, 238; Winant to SS, 12/24/43, SD, R/ 4900; Winant to SS, 1/10/44, SD, R/ 4978.

CHAPTER 9. THE ZIONISTS

1 CW, 4/30/43, 17; Wyman, 37.

2 Alling to Reams, 4/14/43, W 17, Pal; Howard Sachar, The Course of Modern Jewish History (1958), 392, 460.

3 Esco Fndn for Palestine, Palestine: A Study of Jewish, Arab, and British Policies (1947), II, 943-8; AJYB, v 43, 332- 3; CJR, 9/39, 100, 6/42, 316; WLB, 4/ 62, 33; Rpt on S.S. Darien, 2/11/42, JM, P35; Bauer, From Diplomacy, 117; Wasserstein, 74, 77; AECZA, Memo on Sinking of Ref Ship, 3/42, RW 1/14; Institute of J Affairs, Institute Anniversary Volume (1962), 143.

4 FR 1944, v I, 1012; MD 763/109; CJR, 6/43, 29'5; Esco Fndn, Palestine, II, 9'52; AME 32; Dobkin speech, attached to AME 15; NYT, 2/14/42, II, 11/19/ 42, 3, 11/11/43, 4.

5 Dobkin speech, attached to AME 15; Wasserstein, 49-52, 147.

6 CJR, 4/42, 199, 6/42, 316; JDC, Aiding Jews Overseas (1942 annual rpt), 10-11; NYT, 2/25/42, 7, 2/28/42, 2; Wasserstein, 143-53. A second passenger survived because she was in an Istanbul hospital when the tragedy occurred (Wasserstein, 156).

7 J Week, 9/10/82, 12; G. I. Vaneev, Chernomortsy v Velikoi Otechestvennoi voine (1978), 299.

8 NYT, 3/11/42, 7, 3/13/42, 2, 18, 3/ 21/42, 16; JF, 4/42, 7; ER to Welles, 3/ 9/42, ER 853/70; WLB, 4/62, 33; CW, 3/6/42, 2.

9 Time and Tide, 3/14/42, 211; CW, 3/6/42, 2; Foreign Office, Sinking of M/S Struma, 3/14/42, MT. 392

10 Winterton to Taylor, 5/28/42, MT; Wasserstein, 52-7, 60-1, 78, 145, 148- 50, 156-60; Alling to Reams, 4/14/43, W 17, Pal.

11 Wasserstein, 162; FR 1943, v 1, 350.

12 Even the adamantly anti-Zionist American Council for Judaism opposed the White Paper (NYT, 1/12/44, 15).

13 INN, 175, 203; Halperin, 148, 220- I, 381-3; Goldmann, 221-2; Transactions 45th Annual Convention ZOA, 10/ 42, 479-504, ZAL; Silver, 41, 48, 63-4; AJYB, v 45, 207.

14 Goldmann, 221-2; Halperin, 210, 220-2, 381-2; Emanuel Neumann, In The Arena (1976), 168-9, 213; AJYB, v 45, 207; NP, 5/15/42, 6.

15 AJYB, v 45, 207; Halperin, 210, 220-2.

16 Wise to Richards, 12/10/41, SW, AJCg; Reconstructionist, 5/29/42, 4-5; Neumann, Arena, 190, 213; Halperin, 147-9, 223, 382-3; INN, 148, 175, 203, 383; Goldmann, 222; NJM, 10/43, 42; GCM, 1/12/43.

17 INN, 175, 203, 383; Halperin, 148, 383; Goldmann, 222; Kp I, 15-6, 319, 325, 332-3; GCM, 1/12/43.

18 Kp I, 15-6, 41, 319; Halperin, 130- 2, 226; AJYB, v 45, 213; Proskauer to Gerstenfeld, 3/25/43, AJC, JEC; CBA 2.

19 Kp I, 325, 332-3.

20 Ibid, 47-8; RYP, 6/11/43, 6/25/43, 7/1/43, 7/9-22/43, 8/27/43; CBA 3-5, 12; LJ, 10/43, 1; NP, 9/10/43, 17; G~M, 4/27/43, 5/6/43; JO, 6/43, 12.

21 Kp I, 44-7, 334-44; Halperin, 152, 228-32, 383; Heller to Wise, 1/28/43, SW, VS Govt, Anti-Zm; NP, 5/21/43, 6/11/43, 7/16/43, 8/20/43; Hadassah Handbook on AJCf (nd), ZAL, AZEC unsorted papers; JO, 6/43, 7; JF, 6/43, 5, 29, 7/43, 3; INN, 249, 303.

22 RYP, 7/8/43, 7/9-22/43, 8/27/43; CBA 3, 8, 10; AI Rpts, 4th, 7, 8, & 5th, 9; AJCf, Stmt of Orgzn of Cf and Summary of Resolutions Adopted at 1st Session [1944], 10.

23 AI Rpt, 4th, 7; GCM, 4/27/43; RYP, 7/9-22/43, 8/27/43; Jt Mtg Exec Corns AJCg & WJC, 7/8/43, AJHS, 1- 77, B 6; CM, Exec Com, 7/14-15/43, 8/ 12/43, 10/17/43; INN, 248-50; NP, 8/ 20/43, 2.

24 NYT, 8/30/43, 6; Halperin, 233-4, 237-8, 384; INN, 310-4; Neumann, Arena, 190-2; RYP, 9/24/43.

25 Kp I, 57-8, 67-76, 87-98; NJM, 10/43, 44, 78-80; Op, 10/43, 8-11; INN, 315; Halperin, 233-4; CfR 3.

26 Silver, 13-4; Neumann, Arena, 191; Halperin, 234-6; INN, 316-8; NP, 9/ 10/43, 2.

27 AJH, 3/81, 311-21; Melvin Urofsky, "Rifts in the Movement, " in Urofsky (ed), Essays in Am Zionism: The Herd Year Book (1978), v 8, 196. Silver was associated with the JEC, but he had attended only one of its meetings and had not taken part in its rescue activities (Braunstein to Silver, 3/23/43, AHS, Ma 1-81; mins of the several JEC mtgs, in AJC files).

28 Silver, 14-21.

29 Kp I, 131-4, 139-75, 356; Halperin, 239-40; INN, 319-20. Goldman's remarks: Mins of Pal Com, AJCf Sessions held Aug 31-Sep I, 1943, 73- 7, ZAL, as cited by Aaron Berman in AJH, 3/81, 327.

30 Kp I, 139-77, 180, 279-80; Stmt of AJCf on the Withdrawal of AJC, 11/7/ 43, 13; NYT, 9/2/43, 1; CfR 4; NP, 9/ 10/43, 19.

31 Kp 1, 203-6; NYT, 9/3/43, 13; CW, 9/24/43, 6.

32 Rescue earn, esp pp 80-93, AJHS, 1-67, B 3.

33 Ibid, 148-9, 239-40.

34 Kp I, 61, 125-9, 220-1, 370-1; CJR, 10/43, 503.

35 NP, 9/24/43, 6.

36 RYP, 9/3/43; NP, 9/10/43, 17; Forward, 9/4/43, 6; Day, 9/4/43, I, 9/5/43, 1; JMJ, 9/9/43, 4.

37 AJYB, v 46, 583-7; NYT, 10/25/ 43, 17; cm 10; Admin Com Mtg, 6/23/ 44, pp 158-9, AJHS, 1-77, B 3; Pat to AJCf, 1/12/44, AHS, Ma II-3; Pr Rel, 1/ 10/45, AJHS, 1-67, B 6; CBA 41, 46; CM, Admin Com, 8/24/44. Besides B'nai B'rith, the Union of Am Hebrew Congregations, Central Cf of Am Rabbis, Natl Fedn of Temple Sisterhoods, and Natl Council of Jewish Women did not endorse the Palestine statement (Halperin, 242-4; L], 2/44, 37).

38 Summary of Position of AJC [11/8/ 43], AJC, PEC; Naomi Cohen, Not Free to Desist: The American Jewish Committee, 1906-1966 (1972), 240-9, 536, 552, 555.

39 AI Rpt, 5th, 10.

40 Rauch to Wise, 2/2/44, SW, US Govt, Anti-Zm; How Do Communities Respond to Request for Funds? 3/20/44, AJHS, 1-67, B 6; LJ, 7/44, 28-9. The 3 were Joseph Rauch, Julius Gordon, Maurice Eisendrath.

41 Mins of AECZA Ex Com, 9/20/43, Mins of AECZA, 9/20/43, AHS, 4-2 AZEC; Mins of Exec Com, 10/17/43, AJHS, 1-67, B 6; CM, Int Com, 10/17/ 43; AM 2.

42 Kp II, 42-52; CM, Exec Com, 1/ 25/45, 3/1/45; GCM, 10/4/44; Rescue Com, pp 33, 90-4, AJHS, 1-67, B 4; Digest of Mins of Int Com, 3/21/44, 5/12/ 44, AJHS, 1-67, B 6; CM generally, eg, Pal Com, 3/20/45.

43 Mtg of JEC, 8/10/43, AJC, JEC; CW, 8/20/43, 23.

44 Exec Com Mins, 10/31/43, 11/6/ 43, Int Com Mtg, 11/7/43, AJHS, I-67, B 6; AM 2; NYT, 12/31/43, 10.

45 Exec Com Mtg, 11/6/43, Digest of Mins of Int Com, 11/23/43, 12/15/43, AJHS, 1-67, B 6. See ch 11 for more about developments mentioned in this and the preceding paragraph.

46 Mtg of JEC, 5/24/43, JEC to Welles, 6/1/43, AJC, JEC; Welles to Wise, 6/24/43, WJC, 264/7; Pat to Shultz, 6/ 24/43, AJC, PEC; Mtg of JEC, 7/15/43, 8/10/43, 9/24/43, AJC, JEC; AI Rpts, 4th, 5 & 5th, I; INN, 250.

47 Mtg of JEC, 3/15/43, 7/15/43, 91 24/43, AJC, JEC; Pat to Shultz, 6/24/ 43, AJC, PEC.

48 Shultz to Wise, 3/29/43, SW, AJCg, L Shultz.

49 Mtg of JEC, 9/24/43, 11/5/43, 3/ 15/43, 3/22/43, AJC, JEC; AI Rpt, 5th, 10; Braunstem to Silver, 3/23/43, AHS, Ma 1-81; Isaac Lewin, Churban Europa (1948), 78-83; HaPardes, 12/43, 31-2. In favor of Wise's motion: AJCg, AZEC, B'nai B'rith, Synagogue Council of Am, Hadassah. Against it: AJC, AI, JLC, UOR. (Of these, only JLC affiliated with the Rescue Commission.) Nowhere in the many listings of the organizations represented on the JEC is Hadassah ever mentioned (eg, Kp II, 215; CfR 7; CW, 11/12/43, 20).

50 Cf Rpt, 16; Memo on Functions of AJCf, attached to CM, Digest of Mins of Int Com, 12/15/43; Kp II, 209-20; CM, Exec Com, 1/18/45, 1/25/45; Digest of Mins of Int Com, 3/21/44, AJHS, 1-67, B 6; Rescue Com, pp 33, 90-4, AJHS, 1-67, B 4; Hyman to Warburg, 4/6/44, JDC, Rpts; NYT, 4/20/44, 10, 8/1/44, 17; CBA 21.

51 Cf Rpt, 40-1; Wise, Monsky, Goldstein to Hyman, 11/16/43, Baerwald to Wise, Monsky, Goldstein, 12/7/43, W 2, AJCf; Hyman to Warburg, 4/6/44, JDC, Rpts.

52 INN, 340-4; Digest of Mins of Int Com, 12/15/43, 5/12/44, AJHS, 1-67, B 6; AME 2; Mins of AECZA (#63), 9/ 20/43, AHS, 4-2, AZEC; Mins of AZEC (#1), 10/18/43, AHS, AZEC. Mins Book. Further proof of AZEC's relationship to the Palestine Commission is in Cf Rpt, 67-8; CM, Int Com, 6/29/44, Admin Com, 7/6/44, 7/27/44, 8/10/44 .

53 Pat to AJCf, 1/12/44, AHS, Ma II- 3, AJCf; CM, Exec Com, 10/17/43.

54 Halperin, 246; Western Political Qtrly; 3/72, 109-24.

55 Halperin, 268-70; Cf Rpt, 66; Western Political Qtrly. 3/72, 109-24; AZEC, A Rpt of Activities 1940-46 (nd); Annual Rpt to ZOA, 47th Annual Convention (10/44), 59-63; ACB 4; AJHQ, 9170, 87; Urofsky, "Rifts in the Movement, " 203; AM 2; AME 32; Mins of AECZA, 9/20/43, AHS, 4-2 AZEC.

56 Halperin, 270-1, 391; Urofsky, "Rifts in the Movement, " 201.

57 Halperin, 260, 272-7, 392; Am Zionist, 11/67, 18; Cf Rpt, 66.

58 Halperin, 183-5, 260, 272-7, 392; Am Zionist, 11/67, 18; AJHQ, 9170, 98-9.

59 Halperin, 182-4; AJHQ, 9170, 92- 4; Neumann, Arena, 150-5; NP, 3/31/ 44, 339-40; Carl Hermann Voss, "The Am Christian Pal Com, " in Urofsky (ed), Essays in Am Zionism: The Herzl Year Book (1978), v 8. APC and CCP merged in 1946 to become Am Christian Pal Com.

60 NYT, 10/12/43, 20, 11/2/43, 19; AJYB, v 46, 172; CW, 10/29/43, 2, 11/ 5/43, 2.

61 NYT, 11/11/43, 4. The British decision had been made in July 1943 (Wasserstein, 339).

62 Silver, 55-6; Ben Halpern (intro), The Jewish National Home in Palestine (1944, 1970), xxiii-iv, 1-2, 505; NYT, 1/28, 10, 2/2, 25, 2/9, 14, 2/10, 16, 2/ 16, 10, 2/17, II, 3/5, I, 3/6, I, 3/18, 4 (all in 1944); Marks to Luxford, 2/12/ 44, W 6, Cong Records; Stimson to Connally, 217/44, Legis 16433; FR 1944, v 5, 560-657; FR 1945, v 8, 6680; Hull, Memoirs, 1535; MD 708/44, 709/16-8; Informal Mtg at Statler Hotel, Wn, 3/9/ 44, SW, Zm; AM 8; HSD, v 46, 52-6.

63 AME 18, 19, 20; AM 6, 7; Stone to Silver, 2/22/44, AHS, Ma II-21, Bloom; MD 709/18; 16-page transcript entitled "H. Res. 418" [12/5/44], P II, Legis 16433; NR, 3/20/44, 366; NYP, 3/8/44, 23, 3/20/44, 19; Pehle to Stettinius, 3/ 20/44, W 17, Pal.

64 MPD, v 5, 1339; MD 709/18; Pehle to Stettinius, 3/20/44, W 17, Pal.

65 NYT, 3/10, 1, 6/28, 14, 7/21, 12, 10/13, 15, 10/16, 19, 11/30, 5 (all in 1944); AJYB, v 46, 174; Informal Mtg at Statler Hotel, Wn, 3/9/44, SW, Zm; Silver to Wise, 6/28/44, Wise to Silver, 6/ 29/44, SW, Corresp, Silver; Wise to Frankfurter, 7/26/44, 10/16/44, SW, Corresp, Frankfurter; J. Joseph Huthmacher, Senator Robert F. Wagner (1968), 306; FR 1944, v 5, 616; Stimson to Taft, 10/10/44, RT 819.

66 Wise to Stettinius, 11/16/44, Stettinius to FDR, 11/17/44, FDR to Stettinius, 11/20/44, Stettinius to FDR, 12/8/ 44, FDR, File Memo, 12/9/44, FDR, OF 700; NYT, 12/12/44, 16, 2/21/45, 8, 3/ 17/45, 13, 8/28/45, 15, 10/19/45, 4; JTA, 12/12/44, I; FR 1944, v 5, 640-6; Memo of Cf of Silver and Sack with Connally, 11/27/44, AHS, Ma 11-30, Connally; AM 16; Wise to Silver, 11/15/ 44, Silver to Wise, 11/22/44, SW, Corresp, Silver; Wise to Stettinius, 12/1/44, SW, US Govt, SD; Neumann, Arena, 199-202.

67 Neumann, Arena, 202-3; NYT, 12/ 26/44, 19; AME 33; AM 17; Wise to Frankfurter, 10/28/44, SW, Corresp, Frankfurter; Goldstein, Stmt Relating to Pal Resolution (nd), Stmt submitted by Silver to JTA, 12/29/44, SW, Zm; Mins of ZOA Exec Com, 12/19/44, Mins of Special Mtg of ZOA Exec Com, 12/26/ 44, SW, ZOA Exec Com; Voss, 267; NP, 1/19/45, 82-3.

68 AZEC, A Rpt of Activities 1940-46 (nd), 14-5; Urofsky, "Rifts in the Movement, " 206-9; NYT, 6/26/45, 10.

69 NYT, 11/3D, 10, 12/2, IV, 3, 12/13, 10, 12/18, 1, 12/20, 12 (all in 1945); CR, v 91, 12138; IR, 12/31/45, 323-4; Truman to Wagner, 12/10/45, RW 2/32; Huthmacher, Wagner, 331-2; J Social Studies, 1173, 42-72.

70 Neumann, Arena, 212-3; Am Zionist, 11/67, 20.

71 For several sources on this question, see Reviews in Am History, 3/81, 138- 43. Also see sources in preceding note.

72 Digest of Mins of Int Com, 11/23/ 43, AJHS, 1-67, B 6; AME 22; CJR, 8/ 44, 430-1; GCM, 6/1/44; Day, 6/28/44, 1; JO, 9/44, 8; LJ, 7/44, 26-32, 9/44, 56; CBA 14-17, 19-21, 27-8, 30; Admin Com Mtg, 6/23/44, p 156, AJHS, 1-77, B 3.

73 NJM, 7/44, 360-1, 1/45, 150-1, 167; INN, 347-53; NYT, 12/4/44, 15, 12/6/44, 6; Mins of Int Com, 2/25/45, . AHS, 4-2-23, AZEC-AJCf; Pr Rel, 11/ 17/48, AJHS, 1-67, B 6.

74 Halperin, 249-50; Cantril, 385; Voss-Wyman interview, 2/11/78.

75 Commentary, 3/62, 264; Reconstructionist, 6/23/44, 32; Selig Adler, "Am Jewry and That Explosive Statehood Question, " in B. Korn (ed), A Bicentennial Festschrift for Jacob R. Marcus (1976), 12, 16-7. Adler's essay also relates to several other aspects of the present chapter.

76 CW, 9/24/43, 3; Neumann-Wyman interview, 11/20/78; Neumann, Arena, 186-7; Voss-Wyman interview, 2/11/ 78.

77 Voss, 249-50; Transactions 45th Annual Convention ZOA, 10/42, 479- 504, ZAL; Noah Lucas, Modern History of Israel (1975), 187; Silver, 41, 48, 63- 4.

78 AECZA Mins, 5/3/43, ZAL.

79 Yalkut Moreshet, 6/71, 71-7, 95.

80 Silver, 14-21, 48-52. This view is also seen in AM 9.

81 A few examples of Zionist support for opening other countries (besides Palestine) to Jews; Op, 1/44, 14-5, 10/44, 14; JF, 8/42, 13-16, 11/43, 3-4, 9, 12/ 43, 9-10; CW, 9/24/43, 4; Wise to Goldmann, Kubowitzki, et al, 4/16/43, WJC, U185/2; J Affairs, 11/41; J Agency to WRB, 2/20/44, W 14, J Agency for Pal; Bulletin (Am Christian Pal Com), 10/46, 2-3, 4/48, 2; MD 720/293; Wise to Pehle, 8/13/44, TH 5  
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