PALESTINE -- PEACE NOT APARTHEID, by Jimmy Carter

"Science," the Greek word for knowledge, when appended to the word "political," creates what seems like an oxymoron. For who could claim to know politics? More complicated than any game, most people who play it become addicts and die without understanding what they were addicted to. The rest of us suffer under their malpractice as our "leaders." A truer case of the blind leading the blind could not be found. Plumb the depths of confusion here.

Re: PALESTINE -- PEACE NOT APARTHEID, by Jimmy Carter

Postby admin » Sun Oct 25, 2015 11:02 pm

Appendix I

U.N. RESOLUTION 242, 1967 UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 242, NOVEMBER 22, 1967

The Security Council,

Expressing its continuing concern with the grave situation in the Middle East,

Emphasizing the inadmissibility of the acquisition of territory by war and the need to work for a just and lasting peace in which every State in the area can live in security,

Emphasizing further that all Member States in their acceptance of the Charter of the United Nations have undertaken a commitment to act in accordance with Article 2 of the Charter,

1. Affirms that the fulfillment of Charter principles requires the establishment of a just and lasting peace in the Middle East which should include the application of both the following principles:

(i) Withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from territories occupied in the recent conflict;

(ii) Termination of all claims or states of belligerency and respect for and acknowledgment of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of every State in the area and their right to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries free from threats or acts of force;

2. Affirms further the necessity

(a) For guaranteeing freedom of navigation through international ways in the area;

(b) For achieving a just settlement of the refugee problem;

(c) For guaranteeing the territorial inviolability and political independence of every State in the area, through measures including the establishment of demilitarized zones;

3. Requests the Secretary-General to designate a Special Representative to proceed to the Middle East to establish and maintain contacts with the States concerned in order to promote agreement and assist efforts to achieve a peaceful and accepted settlement in accordance with the provisions and principles of this resolution.

4. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Security Council on the progress of the efforts of the Special Representative as soon as possible.
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Re: PALESTINE -- PEACE NOT APARTHEID, by Jimmy Carter

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Appendix 2

U.N. RESOLUTION 338, 1973 UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 338, OCTOBER 21-22, 1973

The Security Council

1. Calls upon all parties to the present fighting to cease all firing and terminate all military activity immediately, no later than 12 hours after the moment of the adoption of this decision, in the positions they now occupy;

2. Calls upon the parties concerned to start immediately after the cease-fire the implementation of Security Council Resolution 242 (1967) in all of its parts;

3. Decides that, immediately and concurrently with the cease-fire, negotiations start between the parties concerned under appropriate auspices aimed at establishing a just and durable peace in the Middle East.
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Re: PALESTINE -- PEACE NOT APARTHEID, by Jimmy Carter

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Appendix 3

CAMP DAVID ACCORDS, 1978 A FRAMEWORK FOR PEACE IN THE MIDDLE EAST AGREED AT CAMP DAVID

Documents Agreed To at Camp David, September 17, 1978

Muhammad Anwar al-Sadat, President of the Arab Republic of Egypt, and Menachem Begin, Prime Minister of Israel, met with Jimmy Carter, President of the United States of America, at Camp David from September 5 to September 17, 1978, and have agreed on the following framework for peace in the Middle East. They invite other parties to the Arab-Israeli conflict to adhere to it.

PREAMBLE

The search for peace in the Middle East must be guided by the following:

- The agreed basis for a peaceful settlement of the conflict between Israel and its neighbors is United Nations Security Council Resolution 242, in all its parts. [1]

- After four wars during thirty years, despite intensive human efforts, the Middle East, which is the cradle of civilization and the birthplace of three great religions, does not yet enjoy the blessings of peace. The people of the Middle East yearn for peace so that the vast human and natural resources of the region can be turned to the pursuits of peace and so that this area can become a model for coexistence and cooperation among nations.

- The historic initiative of President Sadat in visiting Jerusalem and the reception accorded to him by the Parliament, government and people of Israel, and the reciprocal visit of Prime Minister Begin to Ismailia, the peace proposals made by both leaders, as well as the warm reception of these missions by the people of both countries, have created an unprecedented opportunity for peace which must not be lost if this generation and future generations are to be spared the tragedies of war.

- The provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and the other accepted norms of international law and legitimacy now provide accepted standards for the conduct of relations among all states.

- To achieve a relationship of peace, in the spirit of Article 2 of the United Nations Charter, future negotiations between Israel and any neighbor prepared to negotiate peace and security with it, are necessary for the purpose of carrying out all the provisions and principles of Resolutions 242 and 338.

- Peace requires respect for the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of every state in the area and their right to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries free from threats or acts of force. Progress toward that goal can accelerate movement toward a new era of reconciliation in the Middle East marked by cooperation in promoting economic development, in maintaining stability, and in assuring security.

- Security is enhanced by a relationship of peace and by cooperation between nations which enjoy normal relations. In addition, under the terms of peace treaties, the parties can, on the basis of reciprocity, agree to special security arrangements such as demilitarized zones, limited armaments areas, early warning stations, the presence of international forces, liaison, agreed measures for monitoring, and other arrangements that they agree are useful.

FRAMEWORK

Taking these factors into account, the parties are determined to reach a just, comprehensive, and durable settlement of the Middle East conflict through the conclusion of peace treaties based on Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338 in all their parts. Their purpose is to achieve peace and good neighborly relations. They recognize that, for peace to endure, it must involve all those who have been most deeply affected by the conflict. They therefore agree that this framework as appropriate is intended by them to constitute a basis for peace not only between Egypt and Israel, but also between Israel and each of its other neighbors which is prepared to negotiate peace with Israel on this basis. With that objective in mind, they have agreed to proceed as follows:

A. West Bank and Gaza

1. Egypt, Israel, Jordan, and the representatives of the Palestinian people should participate in negotiations on the resolution of the Palestinian problem in all its aspects. To achieve that objective, negotiations relating to the West Bank and Gaza should proceed in three stages:

(a) Egypt and Israel agree that, in order to ensure a peaceful and orderly transfer of authority, and taking into account the security concerns of all the parties, there should be transitional arrangements for the West Bank and Gaza for a period not exceeding five years. In order to provide full autonomy to the inhabitants, under these arrangements the Israeli military government and its civilian administration will be withdrawn as soon as a self-governing authority has been freely elected by the inhabitants of these areas to replace the existing military government. To negotiate the details of a transitional arrangement, the Government of Jordan will be invited to join the negotiations on the basis of this framework. These new arrangements should give due consideration both to the principle of self-government by the inhabitants of these territories and to the legitimate security concerns of the parties involved.

(b) Egypt, Israel, and Jordan will agree on the modalities for establishing the elected self-governing authority in the West Bank and Gaza. The delegations of Egypt and Jordan may include Palestinians from the West Bank and Gaza or other Palestinians as mutually agreed. The parties will negotiate an agreement which will define the powers and responsibilities of the self-governing authority to be exercised in the West Bank and Gaza. A withdrawal of Israeli armed forces will take place and there will be a redeployment of the remaining Israeli forces into specified security locations. The agreement will also include arrangements for assuring internal and external security and public order. A strong local police force will be established, which may include Jordanian citizens. In addition, Israeli and Jordanian forces will participate in joint patrols and in the manning of control posts to assure the security of the borders.

(c) When the self-governing authority (administrative council) in the West Bank and Gaza is established and inaugurated, the transitional period of five years will begin. As soon as possible, but not later than the third year after the beginning of the transitional period, negotiations will take place to determine the final status of the West Bank and Gaza and its relationship with its neighbors, and to conclude a peace treaty between Israel and Jordan by the end of the transitional period. These negotiations will be conducted among Egypt, Israel, Jordan, and the elected representatives of the inhabitants of the West Bank and Gaza. Two separate but related committees will be convened, one committee, consisting of representatives of the four parties which will negotiate and agree on the final status of the West Bank and Gaza, and its relationships with its neighbors, and the second committee, consisting of representatives of Israel and representatives of Jordan to be joined by the elected representatives of the inhabitants of the West Bank and Gaza, to negotiate the peace treaty between Israel and Jordan, taking into account the agreement reached on the final status of the West Bank and Gaza. The negotiations shall be based on all the provisions and principles of U.N. Security Council Resolution 242. The negotiations will resolve, among other matters, the location of the boundaries and the nature of the security arrangements. The solution from the negotiations must also recognize the legitimate rights of the Palestinian people and their just requirements. In this way, the Palestinians will participate in the determination of their own future through;

1) The negotiations among Egypt, Israel, Jordan and the representatives of the inhabitants of the West Bank and Gaza to agree on the final status of the West Bank and Gaza and other outstanding issues by the end of the transitional period.

(2) Submitting their agreement to a vote by the elected representatives of the inhabitants of the West Bank and Gaza.

(3) Providing for the elected representatives of the inhabitants of the West Bank and Gaza to decide how they shall govern themselves consistent with the provisions of their agreement.

(4) Participating as stated above in the work of the committee negotiating the peace treaty between Israel and Jordan.

2. All necessary measures will be taken and provisions made to assure the security of Israel and its neighbors during the transitional period and beyond. To assist in providing such security, a strong local police force will be constituted by the self-governing authority. It will be composed of inhabitants of the West Bank and Gaza. The police will maintain continuing liaison on internal security matters with the designated Israeli, Jordanian, and Egyptian officers.

3. During the transitional period, representatives of Egypt, Israel, Jordan, and the self-governing authority will constitute a continuing committee to decide by agreement on the modalities of admission of persons displaced from the West Bank and Gaza in 1967, together with necessary measures to prevent disruption and disorder. Other matters of common concern may also be dealt with by this committee.

4. Egypt and Israel will work with each other and with other interested parties to establish agreed procedures for a prompt, just, and permanent implementation of the resolution of the refugee problem.

B. Egypt-Israel

1. Egypt and Israel undertake not to resort to the threat or the use of force to settle disputes. Any disputes shall be settled by peaceful means in accordance with the provisions of Article 33 of the Charter of the United Nations.

2. In order to achieve peace between them, the parties agree to negotiate in good faith with a goal of concluding within three months from the signing of this Framework a peace treaty between them, while inviting the other parties to the conflict to proceed simultaneously to negotiate and conclude similar peace treaties with a view to achieving a comprehensive peace in the area. The Framework for the Conclusion of a Peace Treaty between Egypt and Israel will govern the peace negotiations between them. The parties will agree on the modalities and the timetable for the implementation of their obligations under the treaty.

C. Associated Principles

1. Egypt and Israel state that the principles and provisions described below should apply to peace treaties between Israel and each of its neighbors -- Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon.

2. Signatories shall establish among themselves relationships normal to states at peace with one another. To this end, they should undertake to abide by all the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations. Steps to be taken in this respect include:

(a) full recognition;

(b) abolishing economic boycotts;

(c) guaranteeing that under their jurisdiction the citizens of the other parties shall enjoy the protection of the due process of law.

3. Signatories should explore possibilities for economic development in the context of final peace treaties, with the objective of contributing to the atmosphere of peace, cooperation, and friendship which is their common goal.

4. Claims Commissions may be established for the mutual settlement of all financial claims.

5. The United States shall be invited to participate in the talks on matters related to the modalities of the implementation of the agreements and working out the timetable for the carrying out of the obligations of the parties.

6. The United Nations Security Council shall be requested to endorse the peace treaties and ensure that their provisions shall not be violated. The permanent members of the Security Council shall be requested to underwrite the peace treaties and ensure respect for their provisions. They shall also be requested to conform their policies and actions with the undertakings contained in this Framework.

For the Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt;
A. Sadat

For the Government of Israel:
M. Begin

Witnessed by;
Jimmy Carter
President of the United States of America

_______________

Notes:

1. The text of Resolutions 242 and 338 are annexed to this document.
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Re: PALESTINE -- PEACE NOT APARTHEID, by Jimmy Carter

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Appendix 4

FRAMEWORK FOR EGYPT-ISRAEL PEACE TREATY, 1978

In order to achieve peace between them, Israel and Egypt agree to negotiate in good faith with a goal of concluding within three months of the signing of this framework a peace treaty between them.

It is agreed that;

The site of the negotiations will be under a United Na tions flag at a location or locations to be mutually agreed.

All of the principles of U.N. Resolution 242 will apply in this resolution of the dispute between Israel and Egypt.

Unless otherwise mutually agreed, terms of the peace treaty will be implemented between two and three years after the peace treaty is signed.

The following matters are agreed between the parties:

(a) the full exercise of Egyptian sovereignty up to the internationally recognized border between Egypt and mandated Palestine;

(b) the withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from the Sinai;

(c) the use of airfields left by the Israelis near El Arish, Rafah, Ras en Naqb, and Sharm el Sheikh for civilian purposes only, including possible commercial use by all nations;

(d) the right of free passage by ships of Israel through the Gulf of Suez and the Suez Canal on the basis of the Constantinople Convention of 1888 applying to all nations; the Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba are international waterways to be open to all nations for unimpeded and nonsuspendable freedom of navigation and overflight;

(e) the construction of a highway between the Sinai and Jordan near Elat with guaranteed free and peaceful passage by Egypt and Jordan; and

(f) the stationing of military forces listed below.

STATIONING OF FORCES

A. No more than one division (mechanized or infantry) of Egyptian armed forces will be stationed within an area lying approximately 50 kilometers (km) east of the Gulf of Suez and the Suez Canal.

B. Only United Nations forces and civil police equipped with light weapons to perform normal police functions will be stationed within an area lying west of the international border and the Gulf of Aqaba, varying in width from 20 km to 40 km.

C. In the area within 3 km east of the international border there will be Israeli limited military forces not to exceed four infantry battalions and United Nations observers.

D. Border patrol units, not to exceed three battalions, will supplement the civil police in maintaining order in the area not included above.

The exact demarcation of the above areas will be as decided during the peace negotiations.

Early warning stations may exist to ensure compliance with the terms of the agreement.

United Nations forces will be stationed:

(a) in part of the area in the Sinai lying within about 20 km of the Mediterranean Sea and adjacent to the international border, and (b) in the Sharm el Sheikh area to ensure freedom of passage through the Strait of Tiran; and these forces will not be removed unless such removal is approved by the Security Council of the United Nations with a unanimous vote of the five permanent members.

After a peace treaty is signed, and after the interim withdrawal is complete, normal relations will be established between Egypt and Israel, including; full recognition, including diplomatic, economic, and cultural relations; termination of economic boycotts and barriers to the free movement of goods and people; and mutual protection of citizens by the due process of law.

INTERIM WITHDRAWAL

Between three months and nine months after the signing of the peace treaty, all Israeli forces will withdraw east of a line extending from a point east of El Arish to Ras Muhammad, the exact location of this line to be determined by mutual agreement.

For the Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt: A. Sadat

For the Government of Israel:
M. Begin

Witnessed by:
Jimmy Carter
President of the United States of America

_______________

Note:

The texts of the documents were released on September 18.
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Re: PALESTINE -- PEACE NOT APARTHEID, by Jimmy Carter

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Appendix 5

U.N. RESOLUTION 465, 1980 UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTION 465, MARCH 1, 1980

The Security Council,

Taking note of the reports of the Commission of the Security Council established under resolution 446 (1979) to examine the situation relating to settlements in the Arab territories occupied since 1967, including Jerusalem, contained in documents S/13450 and Corr. 1 and S/13679,

Taking note also of letters from the Permanent Representative of Jordan (S/13801) and the Permanent Representative of Morocco, Chairman of the Islamic Group (S/13802),

Strongly deploring the refusal by Israel to cooperate with the Commission and regretting its formal rejection of resolutions 446 (1979) and 452 (1979).

Affirming once more that the Fourth Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War of 12 August 1949 is applicable to the Arab territories occupied by Israel since 1967, including Jerusalem,

Deploring the decision of the Government of Israel to officially support Israeli settlement in the Palestinian and other Arab territories occupied since 1967.

Deeply concerned over the practices of the Israeli authorities in implementing that settlement policy in the occupied Arab territories, including Jerusalem, and its consequences for the local Arab and Palestinian population,

Taking into account the need to consider measures for the impartial protection of private and public land and property, and water resources,

Bearing in mind the specific status of Jerusalem and, in particular, the need for protection and preservation of the unique spiritual and religious dimension of the Holy Places in the city,

Drawing attention to the grave consequences which the settlement policy is bound to have on any attempt to reach a comprehensive, just and lasting peace in the Middle East,

Recalling pertinent Security Council resolutions, specifically resolutions 237 (1967) of 14 June 1967, 252 (1968) of 21 May 1968, 267 (1969) of 3 July 1969, 271 (1969) of 15 September 1969 and 298 (1971) of 25 September 1971, as well as the consensus statement made by the President of the ecurity Council on 11 November 1976,

Having invited Mr. Fahd Qawasmeh, Mayor of Al-Khalil (Hebron), in the occupied territory, to supply it with information pursuant to rule 39 of the provisional rules of procedure,

Commends the work done by the Commission in preparing the report contained in document S/13679;

2. Accepts the conclusions and recommendations contained in the above-mentioned report of the Commission;

3. Calls upon all parties, particularly the Government of Israel, to co-operate with the Commission;

4. Strongly deplores the decision of Israel to prohibit the free travel of Mayor Fahd Qawasmeh in order to appear before the Security Council, and requests Israel to permit his free travel to the United Nations headquarters for that purpose;

5. Determines that all measures taken by Israel to change the physical character, demographic composition, institutional structure or status of the Palestinian and other Arab territories occupied since 1967, including Jerusalem, or any part thereof, have no legal validity and that Israel's policy and practices of settling parts of its population and new immigrants in those territories constitute a flagrant violation of the Fourth Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War and also constitute a serious obstruction to achieving a comprehensive, just and lasting peace in the Middle East;

6. Strongly deplores the continuation and persistence of Israel in pursuing those policies and practices and calls upon the Government and people of Israel to rescind those measures, to dismantle the existing settlements and in particular to cease, on an urgent basis, the establishment, construction and planning of settlements in the Arab territories occupied since 1967, including Jerusalem;

7. Calls upon all States not to provide Israel with any assistance to be used specifically in connexion with settlements in the occupied territories;

8. Requests the Commission to continue to examine the situation relating to settlements in the Arab territories occupied since 1967, including Jerusalem, to investigate the reported serious depletion of natural resources, particularly the water resources, with a view to ensuring the protection of those important natural resources of the territories under occupation, and to keep under close scrutiny the implementation of the present resolution;

9. Requests the Commission to report to the Security Council before 1 September 1980, and decides to convene at the earliest possible date thereafter in order to consider the report and the full implementation of the present resolution.
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Re: PALESTINE -- PEACE NOT APARTHEID, by Jimmy Carter

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Appendix 6

ARAB PEACE PROPOSAL, 2002

THE ARAB LEAGUE "PEACE PLAN ," MARCH 28, 2002

The Council of the League of Arab States at the Summit Level, at its 14th Ordinary Session;

Reaffirming the resolution taken in June 1996 at the Cairo Extraordinary Arab Summit that a just and comprehensive peace in the Middle East is the strategic option of the Arab Countries, to be achieved in accordance with International Legality, and which would require a comparable commitment on the part of the Israeli Government;

Having listened to the statement made by His Royal Highness Prince Abdullah Bin Abdullaziz, the Crown Prince of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in which his Highness presented his Initiative, calling for full Israeli withdrawal from all the Arab territories occupied since June 1967, in implementation of Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338, reaffirmed by the Madrid Conference of 1991 and the land for peace principle, and Israel's acceptance of an independent Palestinian State, with East Jerusalem as its capital, in return for the establishment of normal relations in the context of a comprehensive peace with Israel;

Emanating from the conviction of the Arab countries that a military solution to the conflict will not achieve peace or provide security for the parties, the council;

1. Requests Israel to reconsider its policies and declare that a just peace is its strategic option as well.

2. Further calls upon Israel to affirm:

a. Full Israeli withdrawal from all the territories occupied since 1967, including the Syrian Golan Heights to the lines of June 4, 1967 as well as the remaining occupied Lebanese territories in the south of Lebanon.

b. Achievement of a just solution to the Palestinian Refugee problem to be agreed upon in accordance with UN General Assembly Resolution 194.

c. The acceptance of the establishment of a Sovereign Independent Palestinian State on the Palestinian territories occupied since the 4th of June 1967 in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, with East Jerusalem as its capital.

3. Consequently, the Arab Countries affirm the following:

a. Consider the Arab-Israeli conflict ended, and enter into a peace agreement with Israel, and provide security for all the states of the region.

b. Establish normal relations with Israel in the context of this comprehensive peace.

4. Assures the rejection of all forms of Palestinian patriation which conflict with the special circumstances of the Arab host countries.

5. Calls upon the government of Israel and all Israelis to accept this initiative in order to safeguard the prospects for peace and stop the further shedding of blood, enabling the Arab countries and Israel to live in peace and good neighbourliness and provide future generations with security, stability and prosperity.

6. Invites the international community and all countries and organisations to support this initiative.

7. Requests the chairman of the summit to form a special committee composed of some of its concerned member states and the secretary general of the League of Arab States to pursue the necessary contacts to gain support for this initiative at all levels, particularly from the United Nations, the Security Council, the United States of America, the Russian Federation, the Muslim states and the European Union.
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Re: PALESTINE -- PEACE NOT APARTHEID, by Jimmy Carter

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Appendix 7

ISRAELIS RESPONSE TO THE ROADMAP, MAY 25, 2003

1. Both at the commencement of and during the process, and as a condition to its continuance, calm will be maintained. The Palestinians will dismantle the existing security organizations and implement security reforms during the course of which new organizations will be formed and act to combat terror, violence and incitement (incitement must cease immediately and the Palestinian Authority must educate for peace). These organizations will engage in genuine prevention of terror and violence through arrests, interrogations, prevention and the enforcement of the legal groundwork for investigations, prosecution and punishment. In the first phase of the plan and as a condition for progress to the second phase, the Palestinians will complete the dismantling of terrorist organizations (Hamas, Islamic Jihad, the Popular Front, the Democratic Front Al-Aqsa Brigades and other apparatuses) and their infrastructure, collection of all illegal weapons and their transfer to a third party for the sake of being removed from the area and destroyed, cessation of weapons smuggling and weapons production inside the Palestinian Authority, activation of the full prevention apparatus and cessation of incitement. There will be no progress to the second phase without the fulfillment of all above-mentioned conditions relating to the war against terror. The security plans to be implemented are the Tenet and Zinni plans. (As in the other mutual frameworks, the Roadmap will not state that Israel must cease violence and incitement against the Palestinians.)

2. Full performance will be a condition for progress between phases and for progress within phases. The first condition for progress will be the complete cessation of terror, violence and incitement. Progress between phases will come only following the full implementation of the preceding phase. Attention will be paid not to timelines, but to performance benchmarks. (Timelines will serve only as reference points.)

3. The emergence of a new and different leadership in the Palestinian Authority within the framework of governmental reform: The formation of a new leadership constitutes a condition for progress to the second phase of the plan. In this framework, elections will be conducted for the Palestinian Legislative Council following coordination with Israel.

4. The Monitoring mechanism will be under American management. The chief verification activity will concentrate upon the creation of another Palestinian entity and progress in the civil reform process within the Palestinian Authority. Verification will be performed exclusively on a professional basis and per issue (economic, legal, financial) without the existence of a combined or unified mechanism. Substantive decisions will remain in the hands of both parties.

5. The character of the provisional Palestinian state will be determined through negotiations between the Palestinian Authority and Israel. The provisional state will have provisional borders and certain aspects of sovereignty, be fully demilitarized with no military forces, but only with police and internal security forces of limited scope and armaments, be without the authority to undertake defense alliances or military cooperation, and Israeli control over the entry and exit of all persons and cargo, as well as of its air space and electromagnetic spectrum.

6. In connection to both the introductory statements and the final settlement, declared references must be made to Israel's right to exist as a Jewish state and to the waiver of any right of return for Palestinian refugees to the State of Israel.

7. End of the process will lead to the end of all claims and not only the end of the conflict.

8. The future settlement will be reached through agreement and direct negotiations between the two parties, in accordance with the vision outlined by President Bush in his 24 June address.

9. There will be no involvement with issues pertaining to the final settlement. Among issues not to be discussed: settlement in Judea, Samaria and Gaza (excluding a settlement freeze and illegal outposts), the status of the Palestinian Authority and its institutions in Jerusalem, and all other matters whose substance relates to the final settlement.

10. The removal of references other than 242 and 338 (1397, the Saudi Initiative and the Arab Initiative adopted in Beirut). A settlement based upon the Roadmap will be an autonomous settlement that derives its validity therefrom. The only possible reference should be to Resolutions 242 and 338, and then only as an outline for the conduct of future negotiations on a permanent settlement.

11. Promotion of the reform process in the Palestinian Authority: A transitional Palestinian constitution will be composed, a Palestinian legal infrastructure will be constructed and cooperation with Israel in this field will be renewed. In the economic sphere: International efforts to rehabilitate the Palestinian economy will continue. In the financial sphere: The American-Israeli-Palestinian agreement will be implemented in full as a condition for the continued transfer of tax revenues.

12. The deployment of IDF forces along the September 2000 lines will be subject to the stipulation of Article 4 (absolute quiet) and will be carried out in keeping with changes to be required by the nature of the new circumstances and needs created thereby. Emphasis will be placed on the division of responsibilities and civilian authority as in September 2000, and not on the position of forces on the ground at that time.

13. Subject to security conditions, Israel will work to restore Palestinian life to normal; promote the economic situation, cultivation of commercial connections, encouragement and assistance for the activities of recognized humanitarian agencies. No reference will be made to the Bertini Report as a binding source document within the framework of the humanitarian issue.

14. Arab states will assist the process through the condemnation of terrorist activity. No link will be established between the Palestinian track and other tracks (Syrian-Lebanese).
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Re: PALESTINE -- PEACE NOT APARTHEID, by Jimmy Carter

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

More than a quarter century ago, I joined Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin in signing a peace treaty between their two nations, following four wars since the nation of Israel became a reality. These leaders had committed themselves to justice for the Palestinians, the withdrawal of Israeli military and political forces from the occupied territories, and an opportunity for Israelis and all their neighbors to live in harmony with each other. The parliaments in Cairo and Jerusalem ratified the agreements, which were overwhelmingly approved by the citizens ofboth countries and have never been violated.

Since then, many of the promises have been broken and there have been constant cycles of bloodshed and a rising tide of mistrust and hatred. This book is designed to examine the root causes of the continuing conflict and to spell out the only clear path to permanent peace and justice in the Holy Land.

Most of my personal involvement in the troubled region since leaving the White House has been as a representative of The Carter Center, an organization that is dedicated to promoting peace, freedom, human rights, and the alleviation of suffering. My associates there have helped me to understand the complex interrelationships within Israel, among the Palestinians, and between them and the neighboring governments. Matthew Hodes, David Carroll, and others have been actively involved in formulating reasonable peace proposals and encouraging democracy. My personal assistants, Faye Perdue and Lauren Gay, have provided good advice in the preparation of my manuscripts, and Dr. Steve Hochman has joined my wife, Rosalynn, in perusing the text to detect and eliminate errors.

At Simon & Schuster, I have had the invaluable assistance of Alice Mayhew as my astute and forceful editor; Serena Jones, her assistant; and Paul Pugliese, who prepared the maps. I also want to express my gratitude to Lynn Nesbit, my agent, who has blessed me by arranging this partnership with such an extraordinary publishing firm.

The University of Arkansas Press has been very gracious in permitting me to use some of the material originally published in my Blood of Abraham, which is still in print and will now have an updated chronology and assessment of recent developments in the Middle East.
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Re: PALESTINE -- PEACE NOT APARTHEID, by Jimmy Carter

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INDEX

Page references in italics refer to maps.

Abbas, Mahmoud (Abu Mazen), 174,
179,180,203,208
Carter and, 172-73, 181-82
Oslo Agreement and, 133,158
as president of Palestinian
Authority, 172-73,182-83,185,
186,187,211,213,214
as prime minister of Palestinian
Authority, 158-59,162
at Roadmap summit meeting, 161
Abdul Aziz, King of Saudi Arabia, 100
Abdullah, King of Saudi Arabia, 102,
156,157,211
Abdullah ibn-Hussein, King of
Jordan, 82-83,84
Abdullah II, King ofJordan, 88, 161
Abraham, 19,64, 120
Aelia Capitolina, 56
Afghanistan,209
Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud, 18
AIPAC,130
Al-Aqsa Mosque, 149
Allen by Bridge, 28-29,82, 116, 121,
123
Amal, 97
American Indians, 27-28
Amman, 82,87, 113
Annan, Kofi, 159,202
apartheid, 30,189,215
Aqaba, 161, 168
)
Arabic language, 43, 56, 211
Arab League, 76, 94, 100,102, 130,
156
Peace Proposal of(2002), 14, 102,
205,211-12,238-40
Arabs,71-102
Christian, 56, 57,58,65,67 ,110,
114,121,126-27,142, 146,189,
194-95,200,201-2
domestic problems of, 14
Israeli, 68, 188
nationalism and, 57
recognition of Israel by, 13, 14, 17,
18,38,53,84,143-44,166,
184-86,207 ,208, 210,216
seventh-century conquest by, 56
see also Palestinians; specific countries
Arafat, Suha, 143
Arafat, Yasir, 37,42,95,109, 147,172,
177,179,208,213
Abbas and, 158-59
Carter and, 130,139-41,143-44
Clinton's proposal rejected by,
150-51
death of, 169
as father, 143
Geneva Initiative and, 167
G. W. Bush's call for ouster of, 157
Israeli attack on office compound
of,156-57
251


Arafat, Yasir (cont.)
1996 Palestinian election and, 142,
143,145
Nobel Peace Prize awarded to, 134
Oslo Agreement and, 133-36
Palestinian name of, 120
as PLO chairman, 59,62-63,94,
115,129,130,140
political self-interest ascribed to,
120
Taba peace talks and, 152
terrorism disavowed by, 129
arms-for-hostages scandal, 105
Ashkenazi Jews,41
Ashrawi, Hanan, 114,146, 154
Assad, Bashar al-, 80-81
Assad, Hafez al-, 42, 85,86,94,96, 97
Carter and, 7-80,81,130
character of, 72,73
death of, 80
Middle East perspective of, 74-80
power seized by, 73
in Yom Kippur War, 34,37
Atrash, Imad, 172
Avidar, Giora, 23,24, 26
Awad, Mubarak, 114
Baker, James, 130,131-32,141
Barak,Aharon,46,125-26
Barak, Ehud, 149, 150-51, 152
Barghouti, Marwan, 179, 198, 203 ,
213-14
Bar Lev, Haim, 31
Baz, Osama el-, 47
Begin, Menachem, 170
Carter's disappointment with, 106 7
Egypt-Israel peace negotiations
and, 42-52, 65, 68, 106, 109, 136;
see also Camp David Accords;
Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty
elected prime minister of Israel, 32,
40-41
militant Zionist background of, 41
occupied territories policy of, 40
INDEX
Beilin,Yossi, 133,140,163-64,166,
181
Beirut, 44,94, 95-96,97, 113,156,
198
Beirut Center for Research and
Information,200
Benvenisti, Meron, 124-25
Bethlehem, 24,57 ,85, 132, 143,172,
194
Bible, 18-19, 22, 29,32,55,65,90,
112
Blair, Tony, 167
Blood of Abraham (Carter), 19n
B'Tselem (human rights
organization), 116-17
Buergenthal, Thomas, 193
Bush, George H.W.,132
administration of, 129-32
Bush, George W., 155-62,163,174,
193
dialogue engagement policy of,
202-3
Caesarea Maritima,109
Cairo, 35,51,89,113
Camp David Accords (1978),15,
45-51,54,64,80,91,95,104,
106-7, 113, 115, 136, 186,205 ,
207,215
Carter's more complete account of,
46n
contents of, 48-50
honoring and breeching of, 51-53,
106,109, 110,111
negotiating process for, 45-47
participants in, 46
PLO's later acceptance of, 130, 140
text of, 47-48,220-29
Camp David peace talks (2000), 149
Cana, 24,26
Canaan, Land of, 55
Capernaum, 24,26
Carter, Jimmy:
Assad and, 72-80,81
252


Bible studies and teaching by, 22,32
CINs briefing of, 93
Egypt-Israel peace negotiations
and, 39-53; see also Camp David
Accords; Egypt-Israel Peace
Treaty
elected president of U.S., 38,60
Geneva Initiative and, 163-68,
180-81
Middle East peace as goal of, 11
Middle East visits of, 21-35,43,51,
67-68,72,74,79,80-82,89-90,
94,96, 97,100-101, 103,106-7,
109-11,113-27, 130,133-34,
139-46,169-74,180-85, 211
Nobel Peace Prize awarded to, 164
at Oslo Agreement \Vhite House
signing ceremony, 134
Palestinians and, 113-27, 139-46
private and public comments made
in Israel to, 33
retired from White House, 11
subsequent U.S. administrations
and, 80-81,82,104,131, 141, 174
two-state solution supported by, 39,
113,140
Carter, Rosalynn, 22,44,74,81,82,
100,103, 106,107,114,117, 134,
139-40,143,144, 171,180,182
Carter Center, 105,166,184
elections monitored by, 139,
141-46,169-72,177
mission of, 103
Central Election Commission, 142,
171,181
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 93
Chazan, Naomi, 212-13
checkpoints, 141,142,145,151, 170,
175,195
Chirac,Jacques,167
Christians, 75, 80
Arab, 56,57,58,65,67,110,114,
121,126-27,142,146,189,
194-95,200
J
INDEX
denominations of, 127
holy sites of, 22, 24,90, 194
Jews persecuted by, 64-65
in Lebanon, 92,93,94,95
Mennonite,171
Church of the Annunciation, 24
Clinton, Bill, 134,138,147-54,
167
administration of, 134,163
Congress, U.S., 44,123,209
Crusades, 56,79,80
Damascus, 113,130
David, King of Israel, 56
Dayan, Moshe, 21,46,110
Dayan, Uri, 142,145
Dead Sea, 29
democracy, 69
Arab states and, 14
Carter Center's promotion of, 103,
139
in Israel, 32,68, 77, 127
NDI's promotion of, 141
Dome of the Rock, 149
Druze, 92,93
Dweik, Aziz, 185,198
Eastern Europe, 65
East Jerusalem, 69,75,151,189
Carter in, 111, 170-72, 182
in Geneva Initiative, 166
Jordan's control of, 83
1996 Palestinian election and,
142-43,144-45
Palestinian population of, 59n
Palestinians guaranteed ownership
of,28
rival claims to, 142
in Six-Day War, 84
in 2005 Palestinian election,
170-72
in 2006 Palestinian election, 182
U.N. Security Council Resolution
465 and, 52
253


Eban,Abba, 21,30,109
Egypt, 31,71,74,85,89-92,107,
108,163,175
Carter in, 51,89,139
Gaza Strip administered by, 57
Israeli tourists in (1980s), 89
land taken by Israel from, see Gaza
Strip
in 1948 war, 66
other Arab countries' relations
with, 43,52, 79,90,130
Palestinians in, 89
in peace negotiations with Israel,
39-53,64, 79,86,87,88,91-92,
106,109,205; see also Camp
Davjd Accords; Egypt Israel
Peace Treaty
population of, 90
in Six-Day War, 58-59
i11 United Arab Republic, 73
in Yom Kippur War, 34-35,37
Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty (1979), text
of, 230-33
elections, Israeli:
of1977,40
of1992,132
of1993,110
of 1996, 147
of 1999, 149
of2001, 154,155
of2006,188
electio11s,Lebanese:
of1982,95
of2005, 97,99
elections, Palestinian, 15, 137
of 1996, 139-46
Oslo Agreement and, 134,141
of2005,169-72
of2006,177-88,210
elections, U.S.:
of 1976,38,60
of 1980, 11, 51n
European Union, 16, 102n, 159,
207
INDEX
F ahd ibn Abd, King of Saudi Arabia,
100
Faisal, King of Iraq, 83
Fatah, al-, 59,144,145,173, 178,179,
181,182,183, 185,198,203,213
Fourth Geneva Convention, 193,197
France, 28,56,92-93,95
Galilee, Sea of; 26,27 ,58
Gaza City, 143
Gaza Strip, 17, 23,40,62,86,87, 89,
109,122,126,137,146,172,
174-76,210
ambulances not authorized in, 117
Camp David Accords and, 46, 48
Carter in, 114,116
in Clinton's proposal, 150
Egypt's administration of, 57
intifada's effect on, 135-36
Israel's 2006 bombardment and
reinvasion of, 176, 196, 197-98,
200,201
Israel's withdrawal from, 168,169,
173,174-75,177,183, 190,208
living conditions in, 175-76,190
in Mandate of Palestine, 56
1996 Palestinian election and, 141,
145,146
Palestinian population of, 59n, 175
Palestinians guaranteed ownership
of,28
refugee camps in, 58
settlements in, 104,151,168,
174-75,177,208
in Six-Day War, 22,59
U.N. Security Council resolutions
and, 39
village leagues in, 135
Gemayel, Amin, 96
Gemayel, Bashir, 95,96
Geneva Convention, Fourth, 193,197
Geneva Initiative (2003), 140, 152n,
163-68,165,180-81,205
provjsions of, 166
254


support for, 167
website for complete text of, 16611
Ghilardi, Claudia, 194
Golan Heights, 16,23,75, 98
Assad's proposal on, 130
Carter in, 26-27,72
Israel's annexation of, 72, 103-4
Israel's capture of, 22,26, 59, 72
Jewish settlements in, 26-27, 72, 77
in Yom Kippur War, 34
Gorbachev, Mikhail, 129
Great Britain, 84, 95
in creation of Middle East
countries, 83
Irgun actions against, 41
Palestine and, 56,57, 58,65-66, 83
"Greater Israel," 74, 130, 195
Greek Catholics, 92
Greek Orthodox Christians, 92,127
"greenline,"23
Gulf War, 131
Hamas, 13,17,146,176,181,186,
188,203,208,213,214
Carter and, 184
cease-fire and, 179, 184
Israel's imprisoning members of,
184,198
political strength ot~ 173, 177,
178-79,182-83,210
recognition of Israel opposed by,
144, 173-74,184-86
in 2006 Palestinian election, 177,
178-79,182-83,210
Haniyeh, Ismail, 185,186,203
Hariri, Rafiq, 99
Hariri, Sa ad, 99
Hassan, Crown Prince, 87
Hebrew Bible, 29,112
Hebrew language, 23,26,211
Hebrew University, 185
Hebron, 24,120-21,182
Herut Party (Israeli), 32
Herzliya Conference (2006),180
)
255
INDEX
Hezbo1lah, 13,17,93, 96-97,98,99,
198-202
High Court of Justice, Israeli, 117
Hit tin, battle of, 80
Holocaust, 18, 66
Holst, Johann, 133,134
holy sites, 76, 83
Christian, 22,24,90, 194
Geneva Initiative and, 166
Jewish, 120, 150
Muslim, 99,101,149, 150
Samaritan,26
tourist income from, 85
in U.N. partition plan, 57
hudna, 179,184
Hume, John, 167
Hussein, King of Jordan, 42,60,73,
80,82, 84-88, 109, 129
Husseini, Faisal, 114
International Court of Justice,
193-94
International Herald Tribune, 205
International Quartet, 181,183,186
members of, 102n, 159,207
peace proposal of, see Roadmap for
Peace
intifada, 105,135,179
second, 149-50,155,206
Iran, 13,14,18, 82,93,97,105,203,
209
Iraq, 14,43,58,66,67,81,83, 103,
131,203
Iraq War, 12-13
Irgun, 41,51
iron %11, The, 195n
Islam, see Muslims
Islamic fundamentalism, 13
Islamic law, 185
Israel:
Arab recognition of, 13,14, 17,18,
38,53,84,143-44,166,184-86,
207,208,210,216
arms embargo against, 28


INDEX
Israel (cont.):
in arms-for-hostages scandal, 105
in bilateral peace talks, 131
Carter in, 21-35,68,106-7,
109-11,180-85,211
class and ethnicity in, 41
Clinton's proposal and, 150-54,
148
disagreements and unity in, 68-69,
95,104,107-8,110,111-12,
175,188,209
dividing wall built by, see wall
dual nature of, 112
entering of, see border crossings;
checkpoints
historical overview of, 64-69
independence and 1949 borders of,
57-58,66, 76-77, .'(iii
Iraq's nuclear reactor destroyed by,
103
Jordan's peace treaty with, 80, 137,
205
Lebanese prisoners held by, 98
Lebanon invaded and occupied by,
44-45,60, 92,94-98, 104, 196,
198-200
military intelligence and, 31
national unity governments in, 132
1949-67 map of, xiv
1967-82 map of, 49
1982-2006 map of, 61
2002 map of, 153
nuclear weapons arsenal of, 12
Oslo Agreement and, 133-38
Palestinian land acquisition by, 13,
74,87,124-25,131, 174,190,
195-96,206,210
Palestinian population of, 59n
par1iament of, see Knesset
peace negotiations with Egypt and,
39-53, 64, 79,86, 87, 88,91-92,
106, 109,205; see also Camp
David Accords; Egypt-Israel
Peace Treaty
permanent legal borders of, 202,
207-8
PLO's attacks on, 44-45,60,79,85
political coalitions necessary in, 32
Roadmap for Peace rejected by,
159-60,241-46
secularity of, 26,29, 32
Shebaa Farms, 98
Soviet and Russian immigration to,
25-26,30,130
Syria's move on Lebanon approved
by, 94
Syria's relations with, 72
treatment of Palestinians justified
by,122-27
in 2006 conflict with Hezbollah,
17,198-202
unilateral decisions made by,
189-90,208,210
U.N. membership of, 74
U.N. partition plan map, xiii
U .N .Security Council resolutions
approved by, 59
U.S. immigration to, 30
Wye River Memorandum and, 149
see also wars
Israeli, adoption of term, 57
Israeli Civil Administration, 137
Israeli Defense Forces, 116-17
Israeli-Syrian withdrawal agreement
(1974),205
Israel-U.S. relationship, 17, 77, 202,
209
aid money in, 132
growing Arab animosity toward,
12
Israel's independence and, 66
Rabin-Carter relationship and, 22
in Reagan administration, 104-5,
108,112
2006 Israel-Hezbo1lah conflict and,
17,198-200
weapons and military supplies and,
31, 34,44-45
256


Jericho,24, 137,182
Jerusalem, 39,69,75,82,84,85,124,
132,152,164,186
Camp David Accords and, 47-48
Carter in, 23-24, 31-32,51 , 106,
110-11, 115,117,172
City of David (Old City), 24,166
in Clinton's proposal, 150
in Crusades, 80
PLO's office in, 114
under Roman rule, 56
Sadatin,42
in Six-Day War, 59
in U.N. partition plan, 57, xiii
see also East Jerusalem
Jesus, 24,26,28,171,194
Jewish Agency; 57
Jews:
Ashkenazi, 41
demographic decline of, 196
Diaspora and persecution of,
64-65,86
fleeing of Arab countries by, 67
holy sites of, 120,150
immigration to Palestine by, 65-66
as one people, 77
orthodox,32
Palestinians compared with, 86
Roman Empire and, 56
Sephardic, 40-41
Soviet, 130
in U.S., 38, 51n
John the Baptist, 28
Jordan, 16,42,43,52,71,73,74,
81-88,107,109, 161, 183
Carter in, 72,81-82
creation of, 83
crossing into Israel from, 28-29,
82,108,116,121, 123, 151
East Jerusalem controlled by, 66
independence of, 84
Israel's peace treaty with, 80, 137,
205
in Mandate of Palestine, 56
)
INDEX
Palestinian refu
g
ees in 58
8
7
83
, , ~, ,
85,86
peace talks held between Israe] and
,
131
PLO ousted from, 60, 64, 85
in Six-Day War, 59,84-85
West Bank controlled by, 57, 66,
83-84, 129; see also West Bank
Jordan River, 22,24,28-29,56,58,
81
Jordan River valley, 87, 150,151,174,
195-96
Judaea, 56
Kadima Party (Israel), 178, 180, 188
Keeping Faith (Carter), 46n
Khalid, King of Saudi Arabia,
100-101
Khalil, Samiha, 142
Khomeini, Ayatollah, 97
kibbutzim,26-27
King, Martin Luther,Jr. 187
Kingdom of David, 15-16
Kissinger, Henry, 35,72
Knesset, 31-32,68,107, 119,125,
169,172,188,211,212
Korea, People's Democratic Republic
of (North Korea), 14,209
Kuperwasser, Yossi, 202
Kuttab,Jonathan,212
Kuwait, 131
Labor Party (Israel), 30,32,40,132,
149,181,188
Landau, Uzi, 156-57
Larsen, Terje, 133,134
League of Nations, 56
Lebanon, 16,71,74,79, 80, 82,
92-99,156, 203
arms-for-hostages scandal and,
105
Carter in, 96, 97
civil war in, 94
formation of, 92
257


Lebanon (cont,)
Israel's invasions and occupation of,
44-45,60,92,94-98,104,196,
198-202
neutrality sought by, 93-94,98
in 1948 war, 66
Palestinian refugees in, 58,60, 95
peace talks held between Syria and,
131
PLO in, 60,64,85, 94,95-96,
104
PLO's attacks on Israel launched
from, 44, 60, 94
religious and political divisions in,
92-95, 97,99
Shebaa Farms region and, 98-99,
198,200
Syria's control of, 60,76,80,94, 96,
99
in 2006 conflict between Hezbollah
and Israel, 17,198-202
Leshem, Yossi, 172
Likud Party, 40,51,105,108-9, 110,
125,132,147,178,180, 188
Livni, Tzipi, 181
Madrid peace conference (1991 ), 15,
131
Mandate of Palestine, 56,57,75,83
Mandela, Nelson, 167
Marine Corp, U.S., 97
Maronite Christians, 92,93, 95
Meir, Golda, 21,24,27,82
Carter's meetings with, 23,31-32
resignation of, 37
Mennonite Christians, 171
Middle East:
Assad's views on, 74-80
bilateral peace talks held for, 131
Carter in, 21-35,43,51,67-68,72,
80-82,89-90,94, 96,97,
100-101, 103,106-7, 109-11,
113-27,130,133-34,139-46,
169-74,180-85,211
INDEX
Carter's previous book on, 19n
current pOlitical map of, xii
global peace threatened by
instability in, 11-12
impediments to peace in, 13-14,
67,88, 91-92, 101, 105,110,
112,138,147,154,157, 162,
189,205-6,208-9
requirements for peace in, 15-18,
71,187,200,206-8, 212-13,216
see also specific countries
military tribunals, 114, 118-19, 197
Mitterrand, Franr;ois, 141
Moses, 90
Mount of Olives, 143,194
Mount Sinai, 90
Mubarak, Hosni, 91
Muhammad, Prophet, 64, 83
Muslims, 64,88
fundamentalist, 13
holy sites of, 99,101,149,150
Jews and Christians compared by,
64-65
in Lebanon, 92-93,94,95
Ramadan and, 144
seventh-centuryconquest by, 56
Sunni-Sbia split among, 13
My Life (Clinton), 138
Nasrallah, Hassan, 97,202
Nasser, Gamal Abdel, 73, 85
Natashe, Abed al-Halak, 213-14
National Democratic Institute (NDI),
141,169,177
Nazareth,24-26
Nazareth Village, 171
Negev desert, 58, 169
Netanya,156
Netanyahu, Binyamin, 147
Nicaraguan Contras, 105
Nobel Peace Prize, 91,134,164,207
nuclear weapons:
on alert in Yom Kippur War, 35
Israel's arsenal of, 12
258


occupied territories, 34,43,59,67,
69,140,162,209
Begin's policy regarding, 40
Camp David Accords and, 46-50,
52-53,80
financial isolation of, 87
forced exit of non-Jews from, 121
Israeli opinions regarding, 23, 30
Jordanian views of, 86-88
1996 Palestinian election and,
141-46
Oslo Agreement and, 135-37
Palestinian National Authority's
jurisdiction in, 63n
Palestinians isolated in, 141,
151-52,175-76,190, 195,210
Reagan administration's position
on, 104-5,108
social changes in, 87
U.N. Security Council resolutions
and, 38-39,59,207
water issues in, 28,58,87 ,112, 121,
151,168,192
see also East Jerusalem; Gaza; Golan
Heights; settlements; wall; West
Bank
Olmert, Ehud, 140-51,173,177-78,
180,186,190,198,202
Oslo Agreement (1993), 133-38,141,
143,149,152,158,163,178,
184,205,213,215
Israel's advantages gained from,
135-37
Nobel Peace Prize awarded for,
134,207
provisions of, 134
Sharon's opposition to, 147,155
Vi1hite House signing ceremony
held for, 134
Ottoman Empire, 56,65,83, 92
Palestine:
Great Britain and, 41, 56, 57,58,
65-66, 83
.Ji
INDEX
history of, 55-60
Jewish immigration to, 6-)-66
other names for, 55-56
population and religious
demographics of, 58,65-66
U.N. partition and, 28, 57-58
Palestine Liberation Organization
(PLO), 43,52,105,115,162,
163,184,186,187, 214
Camp David Accords discussed by,
130,140
Carter and, 130, 139-41
charter of, 146
financial Support for, 85
formation of, 58
goals of, 62-63
Hamas's challenge to, 173-74,178
Israel attacked by, 44-45,60,79,
85,94
Israeli ambassador assassinated by,
94
Jerusalem office of, 114
in Lebanon, 60,64,85,94,95-96,
104
Oslo Agreement and, 133-38
Ousted from Jordan, 60, 64, 85
political status of, 37-38, 59-60,
63-64, 104
popular support for, 119-20
U.N. observer status of, 60,63
U.N. Security Council resolutions
accepted by, 129, 134-35
U.S. and, 38,42,129
Palestine National Charter, 143
Palestinian Agricultural Relief
Committees (PARC), 195n
Palestinian Legislative Council, 141,
143-46, 177
Palestinian National Authority, 137,
158
bankruptcy faced by, 181,182
formation and jurisdiction of, 63n,
134
Israel's refusal to recognize, 184
259


Palestinian National Council, 135
Palestinian refugees, 67, 110, 187
Carter's position on, 39, 140
compensation and, 28,74
in Gaza Strip, 58, 5971, 175
Geneva Initiative and, 166
in Jordan, 58,82,83,85, 86
in Lebanon, 58,60, 95
number of, .)8, 59n
right of return and, 28,43,62,74,
150,164,166,167
in Syria, 58
in West Bank, 58, 59n
Palestinians:
American Indians compared with,
27-28
Assad's views on, 77
border-crossing delays of, 116
Camp David Accords and, 46,
48-50
Carter's visits with, 113-27,139-46
citizenship and, 111
Clinton's proposal and, 150-54,148
complaints to Carter by, 116-27
definition of, 57-58
destruction of homes of, 116-17,
122,123
Geneva Initiative response of, 167
imprisonment of, 196-97
interception of foreign aid sent to,
122,123-24,210
intifadas and, 105,135,149-50,155
Israel's acquisition of land of, 13,
74,87,124-25,131,174,190,
195-96,206,210
jews compared with, 86
leadership of, 13, 203; see also
elections, Palestinian
Likud's position on, 108-9
Meir on identity of, 27
overview of, 55-64
peace talks held between Israel and,
131
population of, 58, 59n
INDEX
in prison, 146
range of concerns of, 61
right to self-determination of, 14,
17,18,48,50,52,80, 193,213
Roadmap for Peace and, 159
sale of manufactured goods and
farm produce forbidden to, 121,
176,183
single-mindedness of, 187
state advocated for, see two-state
solution
Wye River Memorandum and, 149
Paris, 130,139-41
Peres, Shimon, 133,134,138,142,
146,147,181
Peretz, Amir, 181
Philistines, 55
Powell, Colin, 157,167
prisoners:
exchanges of, 196, 197-98, 200
held by Israel, 146, 184, 196-97,
210,214
Qalqiliya, 192
Qana, 98
Quartet, see International Quartet
Qurei, Ahmed (Abu Ala), 133
Rabbo, Yasser Abed, 163,166
Rabin, Yitzhak, 21
assassination of, 138
Carter and, 22,24,29-30
Nobel Peace Prize awarded to, 134
Oslo Agreement and, 133-34,
136-37
as prime minister of Israel, 37, 40,
132
in Six-Day War, 22
Ramahi, Mahmoud, 184-85
Ramallah, 143,146,156-57,172,181,
182,184
Reagan, Ronald, 87,95,104-5,108,
205
administration of, 103-12
260


"realignment,"210
religious parties, Jewish, 32,127
Rice, Condoleezza, 174
Roadmap for Peace, 173,174, 178,
187,189,202-3,205,206, 207,
213,215,216
announcement of, 159
flawof, 167
ignoring or abandoning of, 160,
162,202
Israel's reservations about, 159-60,
241-46
summit meeting held for, 161
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 100
Russia, 16, 30,93
in International Quartet, 102n,
159,207
see also Soviet Union
Russian Orthodox Christians, 93
Sabra and Shatila refugee camps, 95
Sadat, Anwar, 85-86,90
assassination of, 79,91
Carter's relationship with, 89
Egypt-Israel peace negotiations
and, 39-40,42-52, 65, 109; see
also Camp David Accords;
Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty
Jews and Christians compared by,
64-65
Nobel Peace Prize awarded to, 90
in Yom Kippur War, 34,37
Sadat,Jehan,44
St. Catherine's Monastery, 90
Saladin, 80
Samaritans, 26, 142
Santa Marta Monastery, 194
Saudi Arabia, 43,71,99-102
Carter in, 100-101
regional importance of, 99-100,
102
U.S. and, 100
Sea of Galilee, 26,27,58
Second Jewish Revolt, 56
J
INDEX
Sephardic J ews, 40-41
settlements, 91, 112,147,158,163,
212
acquisition of land for, 124-25
Camp David Accords and, 50
in Clinton's proposal, 150
freezing of, 87
in Gaza Strip, 104,151,168,
174-75,177,208
in Geneva Initiative, 166
G. H. W. Bush's policy on, 130-32
in Golan Heights, 26-27,72, 77
growth of, 150-51
Likud policy on, 105
2002 map of, 153
U .N .Security Council resolutions
on, 27,38-39,52
U.S. and, 120
in West Bank, 104,107,125,
150-51,187,189,202
Shamir, Yitzhak, 108-9,140
Sharm al-Sheikh, 149
Sharon, Ariel, 168,173,180,190
Arafatand, 156-57, Ib3
Carter and, 169-70
elected prime minister, 154, 155
Geneva Initiative condemned by,
167
Hussein's overthrow advocated by,
109
illness of, 177
Kadima Party formed by, 178
Oslo Agreement opposed by, 147,
155
at Roadmap summit meeting, 161
Sabra and Shatila massacre and, 95
settlement enlargement
encouraged by, 147
at Temple Mount, 149,158
village leagues installed in occupied
territories by, 135
Shas Party (Israel), 188
Shebaa Farms, 98-99, 198,200
ShiaMuslims,13,92,97
261


Shultz, George, 108
Sinai, Mount, 90
Sinai desert, 22,23, 34,43,46, 47, 50,
59,106,109,175, 207-8
Siniora, Fouad, 199
Six-Day War, 25,29,31,51,73, 74
land taken by Israel in, 22,59, 67,
72, 84-85, 98, see also occupied
territories
outbreak of, 58-59
South Africa, Republic of, 30,189
Soviet Union, 38,43
Arabs armed by, 34
emigration to Israel from, 25-26,
130
glasnost era jn, 129
Madrid peace conference and, 131
Syria aided by, 73-74, 129-30
Yom Kippur War and, 34-35
see also Russia
State Department, U.S., 44,131
Straits ofTiran, 58
Suez Canal, 22,50
suicide bombings, 147,155-56,194,
206,213
Sunni Muslims, 13,92, 99
Supreme Court, Israeli, 116,125-26,
194
"Sword of the Spirit," 29
Syrja, 31,42, 67, 71-81,93, 97, 132,
137,156
Carter in, 72,79,94,130,139
Hariri's assassination and, 99
Israel's relations with, 72
Israel's withdrawal agreement with,
205
land taken by Israel from, see Golan
Heights
Lebanon controlled by, 60,76,80,
94, 96, 99
Madrid peace conference and,
131
in 1948 war, 66
Palestinian refugees in, 58
INDEX
relations broken off between Egypt
and,43
Shebaa Farms and, 98-99
in Six-Day War, 59
Soviet aid to, 73-74,129-30
in United Arab Republic, 73
U.S. relations with, 81, 203
in Yom Kippur War, 34, 37
Syria Palaestina, 56
Tabapeacetalks(2001), 152,163
Tel Aviv, 122
Temple Mount, 84,149,150,158,166
terrorism, 13,15,77,123,154,158,
185
PLO's disavowal of, 129, 135,178
see also suicide bombings
Tiran, Straits of, 58
Transjordan, 66,83
Truman, Harry, 66
Truman Research Institute, 185
Turks, Ottoman, 56,65, 83,92
two-state solution, 213
Barghouti and Natashe's
endorsement of, 213-16
Camp David Accords and, 48
Carter's support for, 39,113,140,
166
Clinton's proposal for, 150
in Geneva Initiative, 166,167
G. W. Bush's support for, 157
Palestinian support for, 185,203,
211
in Roadmap for Peace, 162
United Arab Republic, 73
United Nations, 16, 18,30,81,
120-21,156,193
Emergency Forces of, 59
in International Quartet, 102n,
159,207
Israel admitted to, 74
Israel's 1949 borders recognized by,
57
262


Israel's attack on Qana outpost of,
98
Palestine partition plan of, xiii, 28,
57-58
peace-keeping troops of, 45,59
PLO's observer status in, 60, 63
relief agencies of, 84
Security Council vetoes of, 209-10
Special Rapporteur on the Right to
Food of, 176
U.N. Security Council Resolution
194(1948),156,166
U .N .Security Council Resolution
242 (1967),38,73-74, 111, 156,
158,212,215
Camp David Accords and, 47, 48, 50
Israel's compliance with, 107 , 149
1949 borders of Israel confirmed
by, 38,207
PLO acceptance of, 38,134-35
text of, 217-18
U.N. Security Council Resolution
338 (1973),38,73-74,212
Camp David Accords and, 48
Israel's compliance with, 149
PLO's acceptance of, 134-35
text of, 219
U.N. Security Council Resolution
465 (1980):
settlements and, 52
text of, 234-37
U.N. Security Council Resolution
1559 (2004),99
U.N. Security Council Resolution
1701 (2006),200
U.N. Security Council resolutions,
14,44-45,157,162,214
Clinton's proposaJ as replacement
for, 150
occupied territories and, 38-39, 59
PLO's acceptance of, 129,134-35
regarding settlements, 27,38-39
United States:
Assad's views of, 78
)
INDEX
financial support for settlements
and, 120
honest broker role of, 16
immigration to Israel from, 30
in International Quartet, 102n,
159,207
Israel's 1949 borders recognized by,
57
Jewsin,38,51n
Lebanon and, 95-96,97
Madrid peace conference and, 131
other foreign affairs concerns of, 14
peace efforts abandoned by, 206
peace talks sponsored by, 149
PLO and, 38,42,129
recent lack of Middle East peace
efforts by, 13,202-3
Saudi Arabia and, 100, 102
Security Council veto of, 209-10
Soviet Union and, 129
Syria's move on Lebanon approved
by,94
Syria's relations with, 8J .203
U.N. Security Council resolutions
and, 38-39,44-45, 59
Yom Kippur War and, 34-35
see also Israel U.S. relationship
Upper Nazareth, 25
USAID (U.S. Agency for
International Development),
122,123-24
village leagues, 135
Walesa, Lech, 167
wall, 178,180,188,189-200, 191
declared illegal, 193-94
description of, 190-92
Palestinian land acquisition and,
174,190,195-96
"permanent resident permits" and,
192
as security fence, 174, 190, 194
war crimes, 117
263


INDEX
wars between Arabs and Israel:
casualty figures in, 67, 110, 155 ,
206
civilian casualties in, 17, 95, 98,
198-99
cycle of violence and retaliation in,
15,60,67 ,85, 197-99,206, 210
of 1948,57-58,65, 72,83
see also Lebanon, Israel's invasions
and occupation of; Six-Day War;
Yom Kippur War
water, 28, 58,87 , 112, 121, 151,168,
192
Weizman, Ezer, 46, 50-51,109-10
Weizman, Reuma, 109
Weizmann, Chaim, 34
West Bank, 16,23,34,40,62,69,75,
81,86,87,109,115,122,125,
146,172,209,210
Camp David Accords and, 46,48,
52-53
Carter in, 29-30,114
in Clinton's proposal, 150,148
fragmentation of, 151
Geneva Initiative and, 164-65, 167
imprisonment of Hamas members
in, 184,198
intifada's effect on, 135-36
Israel's "belligerent occupation" of,
194
Jordan's control of, 57, 66,83-84,
129
in Mandate of Palestine, 56
1996 Palestinian election and, 141,
146
Oslo Agreement and, 134
Palestinian population of, 59n,
83-84
Palestinians guaranteed ownership
of,28
refugee camps in, 58,83
settlements in, 104,107,125,
150-51,187 ,189, 202
in Six-Day War, 22,29,59, 85
Taba peace talks and, 152
U.N. Security Council resolutions
and,39
village leagues in, 135
wall in, see wall
Western Europe, 65
Western Wall, 150,166
White House, 134
Wolfensohn, james, 181
women in 1996 Palestinian election,
142,145,146
World War I, 56,65,83, 92
World War II, 86
Holocaust and, 18, 66
Wye River Memorandum (1998),
149
Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial, 106
Yemen,133-34
Yom Kippur War:
outbreak and outcome of, 34-35
political effects of, 37
Zahar,Mahmoudal-, 144,185
Zeira, Eliahu, 31
Zionism, 41,51, 57, 65-66
264


INDEX
wars betWeen Arabs and Israel:
casualty figures in, 67, 110, 155 ,
206
civilian casualties in, 17, 95, 98,
198-99
cycle of violence and retaliation in,
15,60,67 ,85, 197-99,206, 210
of 1948,57-58,65, 72,83
see also Lebanon, Israel's invasions
and occupation of; Six-Day War;
Yom Kippur War
water, 28, 58,87 , 112, 121, 151,168,
192
Weizman, Ezer, 46, 50-51,109-10
Weizman, Reuma, 109
Weizmann, Chaim, 34
West Bank, 16,23,34,40,62,69,75,
81,86,87,109,115,122,125,
146,172,209,210
Camp David Accords and, 46,48,
52-53
Carter in, 29-30,114
in Clinton's proposal, 150,148
fragmentation of, 151
Geneva Initiative and, 164-65, 167
imprisonment ofHamas members
in, 184,198
intifada's effect on, 135-36
Israel's "belligerent occupation" of,
194
Jordan's control of, 57, 66,83-84,
129
in Mandate of Palestine, 56
1996 Palestinian election and, 141,
146
Oslo Agreement and, 134
Palestinian population of, 59n,
83-84
Palestinians guaranteed ownership
of, 28
refugee camps in, 58,83
settlements in, 104,107,125,
150-51,187 ,189, 202
in Six-Day War, 22,29,59, 85
Taba peace talks and, 152
U.N. Security Council resolutions
and,39
village leagues in, 135
wall in, see wall
Western Europe, 65
Western Wall, 150,166
White House, 134
Wolfensohn, James, 181
women in 1996 Palestinian election,
142,145,146
World War I, 56,65,83, 92
World War II, 86
Holocaust and, 18, 66
Wye River Memorandum (1998),
149
Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial, 106
Yemen,133-34
Yom Kippur War:
outbreak and outcome of, 34-35
political effects of, 37
Zahar, Mahmoudal-, 144,185
Zeira, Eliahu, 31
Zionism, 41,51, 57, 65-66
264
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