A People's History of the United States: 1492-Present

"Science," the Greek word for knowledge, when appended to the word "political," creates what seems like an oxymoron. For who could claim to know politics? More complicated than any game, most people who play it become addicts and die without understanding what they were addicted to. The rest of us suffer under their malpractice as our "leaders." A truer case of the blind leading the blind could not be found. Plumb the depths of confusion here.

Re: A People's History of the United States: 1492-Present

Postby admin » Thu Oct 17, 2013 5:16 pm

INDEX

abolitionists, 117, 120, 121, 122, 124,
155, 181-90 passim
abortion, 574
Abrams, Elliot, 586, 590
Acheson, Dean, 438
activism, after 1960s, 565
Adamic, Louis, 399-400
Adams, Henry, 258-59
Adams, John, 67, 68, 70, 77, 100, 109,
110
Adams, Mrs. John (Abigail), 109-10
Adams, John Quincy, 130, 132, 153
Adams, Samuel, 60, 61, 66, 93, 95
affirmative action, 574
Afghanistan, 572, 604-05, 659, 678-81
Africa, 363, 429-30
black civilization and culture, 26-27, 28
economic importance, 569
slavery and slave trade, 26, 27-28, 32
African National Congress, 608
Agency for International Development
(AID), 569, 658
Agnew, Spiro, 544, 545
Agricultural Adjustment Administration
(MA), 393, 397
Alabama, Indians in, 127, 128, 133, 136,
137, 141-43
Albright, Madeleine, 659, 666
Aldrich, Nelson W., 351
Allan, Robert, 291
Allen, Ethan, 63
Allen, Robert, 465
Allende, Salvadore, 548, 554
Alliance for Progress, 438
Alperovitz, Gar, 423
Al Qaeda, 678
alternative media, 624-25
American Anti-Slavery Society, 119, 155
American Civil Liberties Union, 436
American colonies, 12-17, 21, 23-25,
29-58
banking and finance, 70, 90, 91-92, 93,
97
business and industry, 48, 49, 51, 52,
65, 84
children, 43, 44, 49, 55
indentured servants 42-47, 23, 25, 32,
37, 42-47
slavery, 23, 27-38 passim, 43, 46, 49,
11, 53-58 passim, 72, 103, 105-06
rebellions, 32-38 passim, 53, 54, 55, 56,
59, 72
taxation, 39, 40, 41, 48, 52, 61, 63, 65,
66, 69, 71, 72, 109
women, 43, 44, 49, 72, 73, 102, 104-11
passim
see also Revolutionary War
American Federation of Labor (AFL),
251, 269, 306, 307, 328-30, 335, 352,
377, 380, 381, 385, 399, 401, 417
American Indian Movement (AIM), 534
American Revolution, see Revolutionary
War
American Tobacco Company, 254, 260,
310
American with Disabilities Act, 629
Ames, Oakes, 255
Amherst, Jeffrey, 87
Anderson, John, 611
Angola, 618
Anthony, Susan, 342-43
Anti-Imperialist League, 311, 314-15,
317
antinuclear movement, 601-05 passim
Aptheker, Herbert, 36, 174, 176, 194,
209
Arab-Americans, 600, 680
Arawak Indians, 1-7 passim, 9, 10, 11
Armour, Philip, 255
Armour and Company, 309
Aspin, Les, 584, 652
Astor, John Jacob, 305
Astor family, 238, 242
Atlantic Charter, 412
Attica prison riot, 520-21, 523
Attucks, Crispus, 67
Avilla, Philip, 621-22
Aziz, Tariq, 596
Aztecs, 11-12

Bacon, Nathaniel, 39, 40-41
Bacon, Robert, 351
Bacon's Rebellion, 37, 39-42, 45, 54,
55, 59
Badillo, Herman, 566
Baez, Joan, 537
Bagley, William, 263
Bailyn, Bernard, 101
Baker, Ella, 404
Baker, James, 596
Baker, Polly, 107
Baldwin, Hanson, 422
Baldwin, Samuel, 52
Ball, George, 561
Ballard, Martha Moore, 111
Baltimore, Lord, 84
Baltimore (Md.), 88, 222-23, 245, 246
Bancroft, George, 90
banking and economy, 101, 130, 189,
206, 224, 238, 242, 254-58 passim,
277, 284, 287
Colonial era; 70, 90, 91-92, 93, 97
crises and depressions, 224, 225,
242-43, 260, 277-78, 323, 386-94
foreign investment capital, 427, 561
international regulation, 349, 414, 561
Banneker, Benjamin, 89
Barbados, 44
Barbot, John, 28
Barnet, Richard, 427
Barlett, Donald, S 80
Barsamian, David, 624-25, 671
Baruch, Bernard, 363
Beard, Charles, 90-91, 98, 371
Beecher, Catharine, 116
Beecher, William, 605
Belcher, Andrew, 51
Bellamy, Edward, 264, 278
Bellush, Bernard, 392-93
Belmont, August, 246, 256
Benavidez, Roy, 578
Benin, 26
Benjamin, Judah, 195
Bennett, Gwendolyn, 445-46
Bennett, 'William, 629
Benston, Margaret, 506
Berger, Victor, 353
Berkeley, 'William, 41, 42, 44
Berkman, Alexander, 272, 277, 321,
372, 375
Bernstein, Barton, 392
Bernstein, Carl, 545
Berrigan, Daniel, 488-89, 602
Berrigan, Philip, 488, 601, 602
Berthoff, Rowland, 84
Beveridge, Albert, 299
Billings, Warren, 359
Bingham, Euls, 575
bin Laden, Osama, 678, 679
Blackett, P. M. S., 423
Black Hawk, 130-31
Black Panthers, 461, 463, 464, 542, 547,
555
blacks, 9
civil rights after Civil War, 198-210
passim
Clinton and, 645
Colonial era, 57, 77, 80, 82, 88
Constitution, 14th Amendment, 202,
204, 260-61, 449, 526
Declaration of Independence, 72-73,
88
demonstrations and protests (1950s
and 1960s), 443, 450-67, 500-01,
542, 547, 555, 667-68, 686
education, 89, 198, 199, 202, 208, 450,
465, 467
effects of Reagan administration,
581-82
farming and Populist movement, 284,
291-92
Ku Klux Klan, 203, 382, 432, 452
labor, 199, 203, 208, 209, 241, 274,
328, 337-38, 381, 404-05, 415, 464,
466, 467
Miami riot (1983), 609
military forces, 10, 77, 82, 88, 191, 192,
193, 195-96, 203, 317, 318-20;
segregation, 404, 415, 419, 449-50
NAACP, 348-39, 382, 447, 464
New Deal, 404
poverty and, 662-63
racism and violence, 24, 203, 209, 210,
221, 315-20, 347, 348, 443, 444, 461,
462-63
transportation segregated, 450,
450-51, 453
unemployment, 570
view of Gulf War, 622
voting, 65, 88-89, 198, 199, 203, 207,
291, 450, 454-55, 456, 458, 459, 461,
465-66
welfare and, 578-79
women, 32, 103, 105-06, 184-85, 193,
202, 347, 504
World War II, 415, 419, 448
see also slavery/slave trade
Blackwell, Elizabeth, 118-19
Bloom, Allan, 629
Bloomer, Amelia, 113, 119
Blumenthal, Michael, 561
Bolden, Dorothy, 509
Bond, Horace Mann, 206-07
Bond, Julian, 485, 621
Bonner, Raymond, 591
Bonus Army, 391, 462
Bosnia, 655, 660
Boston, 220-21, 467, 645
Colonial era, 36, 47, 49-53 passim, 57,
60, 61, 65-67, 69-70, 71, 75
Boston Massacre, 67, 69-70, 71
Boston Tea Party, 67, 69-70, 71, 109
Bourne, Randolph, 359
Bowdoin, James, 94
Braden, Anne, 614
Bradford, William, 15
Brandaon, Luis, 29-30
Brandeis, Louis, 256
Brandon, William, 533
Branfman, Fred, 481
Braverman, Harry, 324
Brecher, Jeremy, 399, 403, 417
Breeden, Bill, 587-88
Brennan, William, 574
Brewer, David J., 261
Breyer, Stephen, 645
Bridenbaugh, Carl, 47-48
Brooke, Edward, 553
Broun, Heywood, 339-40
Brown, Antoinette, 119
Brown, Harold, 566
Brown, H. Rap, 461
Brown, John, 171, 182
Brown, Robert K, 98
Brown, Ronald, 645
Brown, Sam, 566
Brown, William Garrott, 293
Brownell, Herbert, 434.
Brownmiller, Susan, 510
Bruce, Robert, 246-47, 248, 251
Bryan, William Jennings, 294, 301, 362
Bryant, 'William Cullen, 179
Brzezinski, Zbigniew, 560, 561, 565,
566, 599-600
Bulgaria, 426, 592
Bundy, McGeorge, 474
Burbank, David, 250
Burgess, John, 200, 299
Burke, Edmond, 110
Bush, George, 574-75, 576, 580, 610,
611, 633, 643, 645, 661
Gulf War, 594-600, 616, 620-21, 625,
627, 653, 685
Panama invasion, 593-94, 685
Bush, George W., 675-77
"war on terrorism" and, 677-81
business and industry: 48, 49, 51, 52, 65,
84
factory and mill system, 10, 111, 115,
116-17, 216, 221, 228-31, 239, 241,
244, 253, 300, 324-27, 334-39passnn,
346, 349, 381, 380-86, 387, 397
foreign investment and markets, 297,
298, 301, 302-03, 313-14, 362, 438
government and politics, 219, 543,
547-49, 550, 650-51
health and safety conditions, 230, 239,
241, 242, 246, 254, 255, 256, 278,
325, 326, 327, 338-39, 346
insurance and compensation, 349, 352-53
legal and judicial protection, 239-40,
260-62
monopoly and merger, 219, 254-58
reforms, 259-60, 349-53 passim
tariffs, 91, 101, 130, 141, 142, 189, 206,
238, 257
World War II, 417, 425
see also labor; specific fields
Byrd, William, 35
Byrnes, James F, 422, 423

Caldicott, Dr. Helen, 603
Calhoun, John, 168
California: U.S. desire for and
Mexican war, 149, 151, 153, 154,
163, 169, 181
Calley, William, 478-79, 667
Cambodia, 472, 483, 484, 491, 498,
545, 551-53
Camus, Albert, 10
Carmichael, Stokely, 454
Carnegie, Andrew (and Carnegie steel),
255, 257, 258, 260, 262, 276-77, 294,
314, 324
Carroll, Charles, 82-83
Carson, "Kit, " 529
Carter, Amy, 613
Carter, Jimmy, 565-66, 569-72, 575,
581, 601, 605, 611, 631, 633
"human rights" policy, 568
Iran hostage crisis, 573
Latin America policy, 590
military budget increase, 583
Panama Canal Treaty, S68
Carter, Landon, 33
Cass, Lewis, 13 1-32, 134
Catholic Church, 2, 29
conflicts and controversies, 221, 226,
265, 538
Vietnam protests, 488-91, 538
Catton, Bruce, 417
Central Intelligence Agency, 439,
543, 554, 555-56, 583-84, 593,
613-14
in Cuba, 440, 441, 554, 555
Vietnam and Laos, 474, 476, 478, 481,
483, 499
Watergate, 544, 547, 554
Chafe, William, 343
Chafee, Zechariah, 366
Chamorro, Edgar, 585
Chancy, James, 456
Chavez, Cesar, 614, 615
Chechnya, 657
Cheney, Dick, 652
Chernobyl, 613
Cherokee Indians, 10, 54, 55, 126, 127,
128, 132, 133, 136-37, 139-41, 144,
146-48
Chiang Kai-shek, 427, 470
Chicago, 254, 272, 650
labor and socialist groups, 243, 244,
247, 268-73 passim, 278, 279-81
Chicanos, 495, 614, 615-16
Chickasaw Indians, 54, 126, 133, 134,
140, 144
children: Colonial era, 43, 44, 49, 55
Indians, 4, 67, 20
labor, 43, 44, 49, 221, 230-31, 266,
267, 324, 335, 346-47, 403
Children's Defense Fund, 571, 610
Chile, 545, 548, 554, 568
China: civil war, 427, 431
Communism in, 427, 429
as foreign market and Open Door
Policy, 297, 298, 300, 303, 313-14,
321, 410, 657
Indochina and World War II, 412, 424,
470
Japan, war with, 406, 410, 427
Korean war, 428
Chinese immigrants, 253, 254, 265,
266, 382, 648
Chisholm, Shirley, 511
Choctaw Indians, 54, 133, 134, 138-39,
140, 141, 144
Chomsky, Noam, 567, 593, 624--25
Christman, Henry, 211
Churchill, Winston, 17, 303, 412, 421,
426
Cisler, Lucinda, 510
civil rights/civil rights movement, 449
passim, 488, 518, 523, 614
after Civil War, 198-210 passim, 667-68
see also blacks; voting
Civil Rights Act (1875), 198, 204
Civil War, 10, 171, 189-95 passim,
235-38
Clay, Henry, 141, 145
Clean Air Act (1970), 576
Clear, Todd, 647
Cleveland, Grover, 256, 258, 259, 260,
279, 302-03
Clinton, George, 86
Clinton, Bill, 633, 643-65
Cloward, Richard, 402, 466
Coal Mine Health and Safety Act
(1969), 575
Cochran, Thomas, 218, 219, 220, 323
Coin, William Harvey, 293
Colden, Cadwallader, 57
cold war, end of, 592-93
Coles, Robert 498
Collier, John, 21-22, 524
Colombia, 408
Columbus, Christopher 1-5 passim, 7-8,
9, 11, 17, 18, 25, 685
quincentennial, protests against,
625-28
Commons, John, 273
Communism/Communist Party (in
U.S.), 385, 441
and blacks, 447-48
crusade against, 426, 428-37 passim, 441
and labor movement, 385-86, 394,
397, 402, 405, 428, 441, 447
unemployed councils, 394, 447
Workers Alliance, 394
World War II, 407, 420
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE),
453, 464
Congress of Industrial Organizations
(CIO), 399, 401-02, 405, 417
Conkin, Paul, 403
Connery, William P., 384-85, 395
Conot, Robert, 459
Constitution, 9, 10, 46, 90-91, 98-101
passim, 633, 676
adoption of, 70, 86, 91, 96, 98-99
Bill of Rights, 99
1st Amendment 100
13th Amendment, 192, 198, 204
14th Amendment, 198, 204, 260-61,
449, 526
15th Amendment, 198, 449
16th Amendment, 349
17th Amendment, 349
19th Amendment, 384
22nd Amendment, 675
constitutions, state, 83, 110, 291
Continental Congress, 71, 81
contras, 585-87, 613
Conwell, Russell, 262
Cooke, Marvel, 404
Coolidge, Calvin, 387
Cooper, Richard, 590
Copeland, John, 186
Corbin, Margaret, 110
Cornbmy, Lord, 48
Cornell, Ezra, 262
corporate executives, income of, 581
corporations, multinational, 568-69
Cortes, Hernando, 11-12, 14, 17, 18
Cott, Nancy, 111, 114, 115, 117
Cotton, John, 108
cotton, 89, 125, 129, 171, 219, 274, 283,
284, 285, 301, 301, 408, 459
Coulter, E. Merton, 237
Council for a Nuclear Weapons Freeze,
603
Cox, Archibald, 549
"Coxey's Army, " 2.60, 294
Crafts, Thomas, 75
Crane Stephen, 237
Cranston, Alan, 546
Crawford, James, 454-55
Creek Indians, 54, 55, 126, 127-28,
129, 132, 134-35, 141-43
Creel, George, 364, 365, 369
Crevecoeur, Hector St. Jean, 53-54
crime, 637, 665
Crockett, Davy, 136
Croly, Herbert, 350-51
Cub" Castro, Fidel, 439-41.554, 634
Spain and, 3, 5-7, 301, 302, 303
Spanish-American war and
independence of, 309-13, 318, 408,
439
U.S. and, 297, 299, 302-03, 439, 647,
657
Cullen, Countee, 444
Curti, Merle, 383
Czechoslovakia, 429, 592

Daly, Marcus, 289
Darrow, Clarence, 365
D'Aubuisson Roberto, 590
Davidson, Basil, 27
Davis, Angela, 542
Davis, Benjamin 448
Davis, Hugh, 30
Dawley, Alan, 232-33
Day, Luke, 92, 93
death penalty, 574, 645
Debs, Eugene, 278, 279, 281, 330,
339-41, 347-48, 367-68
Declaration of Independence, 70-75
passim, 558, 665, 674, 682
Degler, Carl, 85
Deloria, Vine, Jr., 525-26, 527
Denison, George, 539
Depew, Chauncey, 273
Diem, Ngo Dinh, 472, 473, 47~75
Dix, Dorothea, 121
Dole, Robert, 643
Dole, Sanford B., 299
Dole family, 300
Dominican Republic, 408, 592
Donnelly, Ignatius, 288-89
Dorr, Thomas, 214-16
Dorr's Rebellion, 215-16
Dos Passos, John, 374, 391
Douglas, William 0., 435
Douglass, Frederick, 157-58, 180-81,
182-3, 184, 185, 187, 188, 189, 209
Dreiser, Theodore, 322, 383
Dresden, bombing of, 421
Drew, Charles, 415
Drew, Elizabeth, 595
Drinan, Robert, 553
Du Bois, W. E. B., 23, 175, 185-86,
192, 193, 210, 328-29, 348-49, 363,
448, 686
Dukakis, Michael, 583, 611
Duke, James, 254, 262
Dunbar, Paul Laurence, 445
Dunmore, Lord, 82
Dylan, Bob, 537, 538

Earth Summit (1992), 577
Easley, Ralph, 352, 353
Eastern Europe, 591-92
East Germany, 591
Eastman, Crystal, 343
Eastman, Max, 370-71
East Timor, 567, 595, 655-56
Eaton, john, 133, 139
ecological crisis, 576
Edelman, Marian Wright, 571, 610
Edelman, Peter, 649
Edison, Thomas, 254
education, 9, 21, Ill, 118, 556, 574,
651
blacks, 89, 198, 199, 202, 208, 450,
466, 467
colleges, 219, 262, 263
public schools and high schools,
263-64
women, 110, 115, 118, 123, 509
Ehrlichman, john, 543, 544
Eisenhower, Dwight, 391, 435, 439,
440, 473, 474, 475, 560, 583, 643, 661
Elders, Jocelyn, 645
election of 2000, 675-77
Elkins, Stanley, 33-34
Ellsberg, Daniel, 470, 487-88, 543,
544
El Mozote massacre, 591
El Salvador, 572, 589-91, 606-07, 608,
648
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 146-47, 156,
186, 221
Engel, George, 271
Engerman, Stanley, 173
environmental movement, 575
Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA), 576, 613
Ethiopia: Italian invasion, 409, 410, 421
Ettor, Joseph, 331, 335, 336, 337
Evans, George Henry, 222
Evans, Rowland, 498
Everett, Edward, 146, 219
Evers, Medgar, 538

Fair Employment Practices
Commission, 415
Fairfax, Lord, 84
"fairness doctrine, " 564
Farmer, James, 464
Farmers Alliance, 283-94 passim
farming, 84, 197, 206
Depression (1930s), 392, 397
farmers' movements (19th century),
264, 282-95
grain, 253, 261, 283, 286, 287, 301
mechanization of, 219, 253, 283
Shays' Rebellion, 91-95, 98
tenants and rebellions (Colonial era
and 18th century), 47, 62-65, 84,
85-86, 91-95, 211, 212-14
see also cotton; land; slavery; tobacco
farm workers, 614, 615
Faulkner, Harold, 350
Faulkner, William, 283-84
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI),
433, 434, 462, 463-64, 489, 490, 534,
544, 554-55, 556, 645-46
Federalist Papers, 96-97
Federal Reserve System, 651
Feingold, Henry, 415
feminist movements: 19th century, 117,
119-24 passim, 184-85, 202
early 20th century, 342-46, 349
19605 and 19705, 504-14
19805 and 19905, 616
Fine, Sidney, 400
Firestone, Shulamith, 511, 513
Firestone company, 399
Fischer, Adolph, 271
Fiske, John, 82
Fite, Emerson, 233
Fitzgerald, F. Scott, 383
Flagler, H. M., 207
Fletcher, Benjamin, 48
Flexner, Eleanor, 115, 122, 384
Florida: acquisition of, 129, 685
election of 2000 and, 676-77
Seminole Indians, 127, 128, 129, 141,
143-46
Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley, 334, 336, 344,
347, 436
Fogel, Robert, 173
Foner, Eric, 80
Foner, Philip, 159, 223, 244, 303-04,
308, 309-10, 317, 328, 372, 431
Food Not Bombs, 617
Ford, Ford Madox, 374
Ford, Gerald, 544, 545, 546-47, 549,
550, 551, 552, 556
Ford, Henry, 324, 387
Ford Motor Company, 387, 401
foreign aid, 426-27, 429, 438
Foreman, Grant, 147--48
Forsberg, Randall, 603
Fortune, Thomas, 208-09
Foster, William Z., 381
France, 2, 9, 87, 80, 438
Indochina, 412, 429, 469-71, 472
Seven Years' War, 53, 59, 60, 61, 87
slavery, 28
World War I, 359-60, 361
World War II, 409, 412, 417, 424
Franklin, Benjamin, 44, 80, 85, 91, 107
Franklin, George, 560
Franklin, John Hope, 172
Frelinghuysen, Theodore, 138
Fremont, John c., 189
French and Indian War (Seven Years'
War), 53, 59, 60, 61, 77, 87
Frick, Henry Clay, 260, 276, 277
Friedan, Betty, 505, 506
Friend, Isaac, 45
Fuentes, Carlos, 607
Fugitive Slave Act, 181, 186, 188
Fuller, Margaret, 120
Fussell, Paul, 361

Gage, Nicholas, 572
Gage, Thomas, 65
Galbraith, John, 386
Garland, Hamlin, 282-83
Garner, Deborah Sampson, 110
Garner, Lloyd, 413, 414
Garrison, William Lloyd, 122, 187, 190
The Liberator, 157, 182, 184
Garvey, Marcus, 382
Gary, Elbert, 350
Gatewood, William, 318, 319
Gaylin, Willard, 516
gay movements, 616-17, 645
General Motors, 400
Genovese, Eugene, 175, 176, 177, 194
George, Henry, 264, 272, 273
Georgia, 82, 83
Indians, 52, 126, 127, 128, 133,
134-35, 136, 137, 139, 140-41, 146
German immigrants, 43, 46, 49, 160,
226, 265, 279
socialism, 244, 249, 268, 270, 340
Germany, 409
Spanish Civil War, 409, 421
World War 1, 359-60, 361-62
World War II, 17, 407, 410, 411,
412-13, 415, 421, 424
Germany, East, 429
Gerry, Elbridge, 91
Gettleman, Marvin, 214
Giddings, Joshua, 154
Gilman, Charlotte Perkins, 342
Ginsburg, Ruth, 645
Giraud, Henri, 412
global warming, 577
Gold, Harry, 433-34
gold, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 11, 12, 18, 134, 139
Golden, John, 352
Goldman, Emma, 272, 277-78, 321,
345, 372, 375, 503 .
Gompers, Samuel, 306, 308, 328, 352,
365, 380, 381
Gonzalez, Henry, 587
Goodman, Andrew, 456
Goodwyn, Lawrence, 284-85, 286, 288,
289, 290-91, 292, 293
Goodyear company, 400
Gould, Jay, 254, 255, 258
Gorbachev, Mikhail, 591
Gore, Albert, 675-77
Grady, Henry, 207
Graham, Billy, 538
Grant, Ulysses, 199, 204, 242
Grantham, Thomas, 41
Great Britain, 2, 9, 10, 12, 42, 183, 425,
426, 470
King George's War, 52
parliamentary government setup, 73,
74
private property, 16, 27, 42
Queen Anne's War, 52
Seven Years' War, 53, 59, 60, 61, 87
slavery, 28, 29
War of 1812, 127
World War I, 359-60, 361, 362
World War II, 17, 407, 410, 411, 413,
414, 417, 421, 424
see also American colonies;
Revolutionary War
Greece, 425-27, 429, 551
Greek immigrants, 265
Greeley, Horace, 159, 190-91
Green, James", J.40
Greene, jack, 59
Greene, Nathanael, 83
Greenglass, David, 433
Greenspan, Alan, 651
Greider, WilIiam, 580, 581
Grenada, 588-89, 685
Grenville, Richard, 12
Grimke, Angelina, 120, 121
Grimke, Sarah, 121J.-21
Grover, William, 575-76
Groves, Leslie, 423
Guam, 312, 4D8
Guatemala, 439, 586, 648
Guinier, Lani, 645
Gulf War, 594-600, 618-25, 652,
653-54
Gutman, Herbert, 173, 178, 229
Gwertzman, Bernard, 588-89

Haig, Alexander, 546, 605
Haig, Douglas, 361J.-61
Haiti, 303, 408
Haldeman, Robert, 543
Hall, Bolton, 307, 308
Hallgren, Mauritz, 389-90
Hamby, Alonzo, 428
Hamer, Fannie Lou, 505
Hamilton, Alexander, 77, 95-96, 97, 98,
101, 219, 417
Hamilton, Richard E., 492
Hammond, James, 174
Hampton, Fred, 463, 555
Hancock, John, 85
Haney, Evan, 531
Hanna, Mar, 351
Harburg, Yip, 391J.-91
Harding, Warren, 368, 384
Harlan, Jobe, 204, 205
Harper, Frances Ellen Watkins, 202
Harriman, Averell, 414
Harriman, E. H., 351
Harris, Joel Chandler, 208
Harris, Patricia, 566
Harrison, Benjamin, 259, 260
Harrison, William Henry, 126, 132
Harte, Bret, 265
Havel, Vaclav, 592
Hawaii, interest in and annexation of,
297, 299, 300, 302, 306, 312, 408
Hay, John, 309
Hayes, Rutherford, 205, 246, 258
Hays, Samuel, 353
Haymarket affair, 272, 32 I
Haywood, Big Bill, 330, 335, 336,
337-38, 340, 341, 373
Headley, Joel Tyler, 236
health and safety, 111, 117, 118-19,
662, 663
in business and industry, 230, 239, 241,
242, 246, 254, 255, 256, 278, 325,
326, 327, 338-39, 346
disease and epidemics, 40, 218, 221,
240
Indians, 16, 87
insurance and compensation, 349,
352-53, 651, 664
and nuclear development, 441
railroads, 245-46, 255, 256, 278
health care coverage, 611, 612
health degradation, 638
Hearst, William Randolph, 294, 390
Heller, Joseph, 418
Hekos, Richard, 548
Hemingway, Ernest, 374
Henretta, James, 57
Henry, Patrick, 68-69, 126
Herndon, .Angelo, 447
Hersh, Seymour, 479, 573
Hertsgaard, Mark, 591, 594
Hiatt, Howard, 603
Hill, Anita, 574
Hill, Christopher, 74
Hill, James J., 351
Hill, Joe, 334-35
Hiroshima, bombing of, 9, 17, 422
Hispaniola, 3, 4, 7, 32, 685
Hitchcock, Ethan Allen, 149, 150, 151,
166
Hitler, Adolf 407, 409, 410, 415
Ho Chi Minh, 469, 470, 472
Hoerder, Dirk, 66, 67
Hoffman, Abbie, 613
Hoffman, Ronald, 82, 83
Hofstadter, Richard, 57, 187, 189, 192,
351, 361, 362, 563
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 366, 368
Homestead strike, 276-77, 294, 321
Honduras, 585
Hoover, Herbert, -387, 392, 563
Hopi Indians, 19, 529-30
Hopkins, Harry, 414
Horwitz, Morton, 239, 239-40
House of Representatives, election of, 96
Houston, Sam, 136
Howard, Michael, 598
Hudson, Hosea, 398-99, 447
Huggins, Nathan, 445
Hughes, Langston, 404-05, 443, 445, 467
Hull, Cordell, 409
Humphrey, Hubert 431, 456, 487
Humphrey, R. M., 290
Hungary, 592
Hunt, E. Howard, 543
Hunt, Harriot, 118
Huntington, Samuel, 558-60, 566
Hussein, Saddam, 594, 599, 622-23,
653, 666-67
Hutchinson, Anne, 108-09
Hutchinson, Thomas, 52-53, 57, 61
Huxley, Aldous, 460

Ickes, Harold 413
Illich, Ivan, 539
immigration, 49, 125, 216, 221, 225,
227-28, 230, 238, 244, 253, 254,
265-67, 306, 324, 647-49
quotas set, 382
see also individual ethnic groups
imperialism, 314-15, 569
indentured servants 42-47, 23, 25, 32,
37, 42-47
Indians, Central and South American,
3-7 passim, 11-12, 18, 53
see also Arawak Indians
Indians, North American: anti-Columbus
Protests, 625-28
Alcatraz, occupation of, 528-29
Bacon's Rebellion, 37, 39, 45, 54, 55,
59
civilization and culture, 17-22, 135-36,
137, 531-32
Colonial era, 12-17 passim, 24, 25, 29,
39, 41, 53-54, 57, 58, 59, 72, 86-87,
87-88
death from disease introduced by
whites, 16, 87
Declaration of Independence and
Constitution, 65, 72, 86, 96
French and Indian War, 53, 59, 60, 61,
77, 87
Indian Removal and warfare, 126-27,
295, 524, 529-30
protests by (20th century), 523-37
on reservations, 17, 524
Revolutionary War, 77, 80, 87, 125,
126
Indians (cont'd.)
suffrage denied, 65, 96
treaties with, 128-34 passim, 136, 138,
141-42, 144-45, 146, 526, 529
see also individual tribes
Indochina, 412, 429, 430, 469-72
see also Vietnam/Vietnam war
Indonesia, 429, 567, 595, 655-56
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW),
330-38, 341, 344, 347, 350, 354, 359,
369, 370, 372-73, 377_79, 382
International Monetary Fund, 414, 440,
658, 674
International Telephone and Telegraph
(ITT), 543, 548, 554
Iran, 438, 567, 586, 595, 599, 604
Iran/contra affair, 586-87
Iraq, 594-600, 647, 652, 653-54, 681,
685
Irish immigrants, 46, 49, 100, 159, 160,
177, 225, 226-27, 230, 235, 243, 254,
255, 265, 382
Iriye, Akira, 410
Iroquois, League of the, 19-20, 21, 86,
130 see also Mohawk Indians
Isaac, Rhys, 68
Israel, 586, 595, 596, 681
Italian immigrants, 226, 244, 265, 266,
349, 382
Italy, 438
Ethiopia invaded by, 409, 410, 421
Spanish Civil War, 409, 421
World War II, 411, 412, 423-24

Jackson, Andrew, 126-27, 187, 216, 217
Indian policy, 10, 127-30, 133, 135,
136, 137, 140, 141, 216
Jackson, George, 519-20
Jackson, Maynard, 466
Jackson, Aunt Molly, 393
James, Henry, 323, 360
James, William, 300, 314
Jamestown, 12, 23, 24, 26, 30, 40, 104
Japan, 297, 471, 558
China, war with, 406, 410, 427
and Indochina, 469, 470
"opening of, " 299, 408, 410, 411
World War 11, 9, 17, 410-11, 413,
421-24, 469, 470
Japanese-Americans, internment of, 416
Jay, John, 96
Jefferson, Thomas, 83, 89, 95, 97, 110,
117, 126, 128
Declaration of Independence, 71, 72
Jennings, Francis, 14-15, 16, 86, 87, 88
Jewish immigrants, 265, 268, 340; 349,
382
Jews: Germany and World War II, 409,
415
Palestine, 414
Spain, 2
John Paul 11, Pope, 576
Johnson, Andrew, 197, 199
Johnson, Lyndon, 431, 509, 526, 601
blacks and civil rights, 456, 456, 459,
463, 464
Vietnam, 411, 475, 476, 481, 483-84,
500-01, 685
Johnson, U. Alexis, 475
Jones, James, 418
Jones, Mother Mary, 330, 338, 346, 354
Jordan, June, 600, 638
Josephson, Matthew, 259, 260
Julien, Claude, 545

Kahn, Herman, 441
Kaufman, Irving, 434
Kay, Marvin L. Michael, 63, 64-65
Keller, Helen, 341, 345-46, 503
Kemble, Fanny, 176-77
Kennan, George, 583, 592
Kennedy, Edward, 594
Kennedy, John E, 431-32, 437, 438,
441, 442, 526, 560
blacks and civil rights, 453, 456, 457,
458
Southeast Asia and Vietnam, 473, 474,
475-76
Kennedy, Robert, 454, 456
Kenya, 659, 678, 682
Kerry, John, 594
Khadafi, Muarnmar, 591
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 451-52, 461,
462, 485, 644
"King Philips War, " 16, 40
Kissinger, Henry, 9, 441, 484, 491, 498,
544, 548, 551, 552, 553-54, 556, 569
Kistiakowsky, George, 604
Kitt, Eartha, 487
Kleindienst, Richard, 544, 547, 548
Knights of Labor, 251, 267-68, 269,
273, 274, 279, 285, 289, 307
Knox, Henry, 81, 95, 126
Kolchin, Peter, 199
Kolko, Gabriel, 350, 413
Koning, Hans, 17-18
Korea/Korean war, 428, 429, 647, 652,
685
Kornbluh, Joyce, 332
Kovic, Ron, 496-97, 619, 621
Kozol, Jonathan, 539
Kristol, Irving, 435
Kropotkin, Peter, 271
Krushchev, Nikita, 592
Ku Klux Klan, 203, 382, 432, 452, 636
Kurds, 656
Kuwait, 594-96, 598, 622, 627, 653

labor: blacks, 199, 203, 208, 209, 241,
274, 328, 337-38, 381, 404-05, 415,
466, 467
children, 43, 44, 49, 221, 230-3 1, 266,
267, 324, 335, 346-47, 403
Colonial era, 23, 25, 27-28, 29, 30, 32,
37, 42-47, 50, 53, 55, 56, 57, 62, 80,
104-05
Constitution, support for, 99
convicts, 209, 275, 292
Depression and unemployment,
386-95 passim
factories and mills, 10, 111, 115,
116-17, 216, 221, 228-31, 239, 241,
243-44, 253, 300, 324-27, 334-39
passim, 346, 349, 381, 386, 387, 397
Fair Employment Practices
Commission, 415
health and safety in working
conditions, 230, 239, 241, 242, 246,
254, 255, 256, 278, 325, 326, 327,
338-39, 346
insurance and compensation, 349,
352-53
ILGWU, 326
immigrants, 49, 125, 216, 221, 225,
227-28, 230, 238, 244, 253, 254,
265-67, 307, 324
see also individual ethnic groups
Independent Labor party, 272
Indians, 25, 29, 53
Knights of Labor, 251, 267-68, 269,
273, 274, 279, 285, 289, 306
minimum-wage (1938), 403
National Labor Relations Board, 401,
402, 574
1980s and 1990s, 617
organization (unions, strikes); 19th
century, 218-19, 221, 222, 223,
225-51 passim, 260, 265, 267-83,
293, 310; 20th century, 324, 326,
330, 334-39 passim, 346-47, 354,
377-82, 386, 392, 397, 399-402
passim, 406, 407, 415, 416, 417-18,
575, 578, 668-74
socialism and, 244-45, 249, 268-73,
278, 281, 282, 307-08, 336, 339-40,
382, 385, 406, 547
Spanish American war and, 317
Wagner Act, 395, 401
women, 10, 32, 43, 44, 103, 104-05,
110, 111, 114-15, 123, 228_31,
234-35, 240-41, 253, 257, 267-68,
324-27 passim, 336, 338-39, 347,
405-06, 504, 506-11 passim
Workingmen's party, 244-45, 248-49
see also American Federation of Labor;
Congress of Industrial Organizations;
farming; Industrial Workers of the
World; slavery
Lafeber, Walter, 301, 304
La Follette, Robert, 353
LaGuardia, Fiorello, 384, 385, 388, 684
LaMonte, Robert, 354
Land, Aubrey, 57
land: Bacon's Rebellion, 37, 39-42, 45,
54, 55, 59
blacks and post-Civil War problems,
197-98, 199
"eminent domain" favoring business,
239
Homestead Acts, 206, 238, 282
Indians, 13, 20, 86-88, 128
Indian Removal and treaties, 126-28,
295, 526, 529
private property, Colonial era, 13, 17,
47, 48, 49, 54, 84, 85; in Europe, 16,
27, 74; law's regard for, 260-62; as
land (cont'd)
qualification for voting, 49, 65, 83,
96, 214-16, 291; after Revolutionary
War, 84, 85, 86-87, 99, 126; tenants
and rebellions, 47, 62--65, 84, 85-86,
91-95, 98, 211, 212-14
Proclamation of 1763, 59, 71, 87 .
railroads acquisition of, 220, 238, 239,
283
territorial expansion, 9, 87-88, Ill,
124, 685: Florida, 129; Louisiana
Purchase, 126, 149; Mexico/Mexican
war, 10, 149-69 passim, 181, 297, 408,
411, 492; overseas, 297-300; see afro
Spanish-American war
see also farming
Laos, 472, 473, 481-83, 484, 556
las Casas, Bartolome de, 5-7
Latin America, 53, 299, 408
Alliance for Progress, 438
Good Neighbor Policy, 439
Monroe Doctrine, 297, 408
Organization of American States, 440
slavery, 25, 32, 173
see also Indians, Central and South
American
Latinos, 615-16
Lattimore, Owen, 432, 436
Lease, Mary Ellen, 288
Lebanon, 439, 586, 595 '...
Lee, Richard, 42
Lee, Richard Henry, 81
Lee, Robert E., 185, 192, 195
Lehman, John, 597
Lehrmann, Leonard, 628
Leisler, Benjamin, 48
Lekachman, Robert, S 71
Lemon, James T, 50
Lenin, V. I., 363
Leontief, Wassily, 577
lesbianism, 511
LeSeuer, Meridel, 406
Lester, julius, 459-60
Levine, Lawrence, 179
Levy, Howard, 493
Levy, Leonard, 100
Lewinsky, Monica, 659
Lewis, John, 457
Lewis, John L., 399, 401
Lewis, Mollie, 405
Lewis, Sinclair, 383-84
Liddy, G. Gordon, 543
Lincoln, Abraham, 130, 153-54, 238, 631
slavery and Civil War, 171, 187-92
passim, 194, 197, 233, 410
Lincoln, Benjamin, 94, 95
Lingg, Louis, 271
Link, Arthur, 364
Lloyd, Henry Demarest, 293, 294-95
Locke, John, 47, 73-74
Lockridge, Kenneth, 50
Lodge, Henry Cabot, 158-59, 299, 300,
301, 305, 351
Lodge, Henry Cabot, II, 366, 444,
474-75, 499
Logan, Rayford, 347
Loguen, J.W., 181-82
London, Jack, 322, 365
Louisiana Purchase, 126, 149, 685
Lowell, James Russell, 155
Lowell, Robert, 487
Lowell (Mass.): textile mills, 10, 115,
116-17, 228-29, 230, 263, 397, 418
Ludlow Massacre, 355-57
Lusitania, 362
Luther, Seth, 214, 224
Lynd, Alice, 406
Lynd, Helen, 383, 503
Lynd, Robert, 383, 503
Lynd, Staughton, 85, 99, 406, 486

MacArthur, Arthur, 316-17
MacArthur, Douglas, 391
McAlister, Elizabeth, 601
McCarthy, Joseph, 428, 431
McCone, John, 548
McCord, James, Jr., 542, 543
Macdonald, Dwight, 420
McFarlane, Robert, 587
McGovern, George, 545, 553
McKay, Claude, 444
McKinley, William, 295, 299, 303, 304,
305-06, 312-13, 314, 320
McKinnon, Cynthia, 621
McKissick, Floyd, 464
MacLeish, Archibald, 414
McLoughlin, William G., 83-84
MacMichael, David, 618
McNamara, Robert, 475-76, 484, 550
McNaughton, John, 481, 499
McPherson, James, 194
Macune, Charles, 287
MeVeigh, Timothy, 646, 649
Madison, Dolly, 110
Madison, James, 33, 91, 96, 97-98, 132,
632
Mahan, A. T., 298, 300
Maier, Pauline, 67-68
Mailer, Norman, 418-19
Main, Jackson, 80, 98
Malcolm X, 457-58, 461
Manning, Robert, 560-61
Marcos, Ferdinand, 572
Markham, Edwin, 324
Marshall, George, 422, 438
Marshall, Thurgood, 574, 548-49
Marshall Plan, 438
Martin, Luther, 91
Martineau, Harriet, 113
Martinez, Elizabeth, 616
Marx, Karl, 12, 242, 243, 250, 258, 293
Maryland, Colonial era, 34, 35, 44, 46,
47, 50, 57, 68, 82, 83
Mason, John, 14-15
Massachusetts: Colonial era 13-17
passim, 21, 47-54 passim, 65-67,
69-70, 71, 72, 78, 83, 91_95
labor (19th century), 222-23, 228-33,
234, 236, 241, 243-44
reform movements, 115, 119, 120-21
see also Boston
Massachusetts Bay Colony, 13, 15-16,
47-48, 108-09
Mather, Cotton, 15
Matthews, Mary Musgrove, 109
Mattick, Paul, 395
Mayaguez incident, 551_54, 588
meatpacking industry, 253, 254, 308-09,
322, 330, 349
media censorship, 671-72
Mellon, Andrew, 384
Mellon, James, 255
Mencken, H. L., 647
Mexican immigrants. 648
Mexican war, 10, 152-69, 181, 408, 411,
492
Mexico, 11-12, 150, 357, 658, 685
Meyers, Marvin, 130
Middle East: oil interests, 413-14, 426,
439, 439, 549, 595
military forces: blacks, 10, 77, 82, 88,
191, 192, 193, 195-96, 203, 317,
318-20; segregation, 404, 415, 419,
449
G. W Bush administration and, 678-82
Clinton administration and, 644,
651-57, 660-61, 663-67
Depression and Bonus Army, 391, 462
draft evasion: Civil War, 192;
Revolutionary War, 75, 79; World
War I and World War II, 418
draft registration, 605-06
foreign bases, 312; Cuba, 311, 312; see
also Panama/Panama Canal
and Indians, 125, 127-32 passim, 134,
135, 141-48 passim
Indians and Revolutionary War, 77, 87,
125, 126
intervention overseas and expansion,
298, 300
naval impressment in Colonial era, 51,
52, 66, 67, 79
Reagan buildup, 577, 594-85
rearmament since World War II, 426,
428, 436, 437, 441, 644, 654, 664
share of national budget, 569-60
strikebreaking in early days; 235,
246-51 passim, 269, 274, 276, 278
see also individual wars and conflicts
Miller, Arthur, 487
Miller, Douglas, 216-17, 429
Miller, Samuel, 261
Miller, William 218, 219, 220, 323
Millis, Walter, 309
Mills, C. Wright, 438
Mills, Sid, 526-27
Milosevic, Slobodan, 660-61
Minear, Richard, 411
minerals and mining, 207, 242, 253,
306-07, 395
gold, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 11, 12, 18, 134, 139
strikes, 235, 243-44, 275, 35+-56
United Mine Workers, 307, 330, 354,
355
Mississippi, Indians in, 127, 128, 133,
138-39
Mitchell, John, 543, 544
Mitford, Jessica, 538
Mittelberger, Gottlieb, 43
Mohawk Indians, 86-87
Akwesasne Notes, 527, 532, 534, 535-36
see also Iroquois
"Molly Maguires, " 243-44
Mondale, Walter, 611
Monroe, James, 97
Monroe Doctrine, 297, 408
Montezuma, 11, 12
Montgomery, David, 226
Mooney, Tom, 359
Moore, Ely, 227
Morgan, Edmund, 13, 25, 37-38, 56, 84
Morgan, J. P. (and companies), 207,
242, 246, 255-56, 257, 258, 305, 323,
350, 351, 362-63, 618
Morison, Samuel Eliot, 7-8, 17
Morris, Gouverneur, 81, 84
Morris, Richard, 44-45, 46, SO, 84, 308
Morris, Robert, 70, 80, 81
Morris, William, 271
Moses, Bob, 453
Mott, Lucretia, 122
Moundbuilders, 19
Moylan, Mary, 489-90
Muhammad Ali, 485
Mullen, Peg, 623
Mullin, Gerald, 33, 34, 36
Multiculturalism, 629
multinational corporations, 568-69
Mumford, Lewis, 383
Munsey, Frank, 353
Murrin, John, 84
Mussolini, Benito, 409
Muste, A.J., 420, 424
Myers, Gustavus, 238, 255-56
My Lai, 478-79, 667

Nader, Ralph, 676
Nagasaki, bombing of, 422, 423-24
Nardella, Luigi, 385
Nash, Gary B., 20, 21, 50, 54, 60, 61, 62
National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People
(NAACP), 348-49, 382, 447, 464
National Civic Federation, 352-53, 354,
364
National Labor Relations Board, 401,
402, 574
National Labor Union, 240, 241-42
National Recovery Act (NRA), 392-93
National Resources Defense Council,
576
Native Americans see Indians, North
American
Navajo Indians, 529
Navasky, Victor, 454
Neblett, Carver, 455
Nelson, Gaylord, 553
Netherlands: exploration and
colonization, 23, 26, 48, 211
slave trade, 28, 29
New Deal, 392-93, 395, 397, 403-04,
414, 417, 425, 649, 650
New Jersey: Colonial era, 51-52, 62,
81
labor, 230, 247
New Mexico, 149, 164, 169
Newton, Huey, 461
Newton, John, 27-28
New York: Colonial era, 35-36, 37, 48,
49, 50, 51, 54, 68, 83, 110
Indians, 54, 86-87, 130; see also
Iroquois; Mohawk Indians
landholding and tenants, 62, 63, 84,
85-86, 211, 212-14
New York City: Colonial era, 48-49, 50,
57, 60, 61-62, 67
blacks (1930s), 404
labor: 18th century, 50, 57, 99; 19th
century, 1I7, 223, 224--25, 227-28,
234, 235, 240, 242-43, 251, 266, 267,
268, 270, 273, 278; 20th century,
324-27
poverty, 48-49, 60, 218, 240, 385, 647,
650
Niagara movement, 348, 349
Nicaragua, 298, 408, 567, 572, 585, 608
9/11 terrorist attacks, 677-82
Nixon, E. D., 451
Nixon, Richard, 464, 526, 529, 575,
605, 633
Vietnam and Southeast Asia, 479,
483-84, 491, 497, 500, 501
see also Watergate
Noriega, Manuel, 593-94
Norris, Frank, 322
North American Free Trade Agreement
(NAFTA), 658
North Carolina, 128, 200
Colonial era, 47, 50, 54, 63-65, 68, 71,
7l, 82, 83
North, Oliver, 586, 587, 593
Novak, Robert, 498
Nowack, Marion, 429
nuclear energy, 566
armament and World War II, 9, 17,
422-24, 432, 434, 437, 441
protests against, 613, 667
Nunn, Sam, 587

Oakes, Richard, 528
Occupational Safety and Health Act
(OSHA), 575
Offner, Arnold, 409
Oglethorpe, James, 109
O'Hare, Kate Richards, 342, 343, 372
oil, 253, 256-57, 301
Cuba, 439, 440
Middle East, 413-14, 426, 439, 439,
549
Oliver, Andrew, 61
Oliver, Peter, 78
Olney, Richard, 279
Open Door Policy, 298, 408, 410, 413
Operation Desert Storm, 594-97
Operation Urgent Fury, 588
Organization of American States, 440
Osceola Indians, 145, 146
O'Sullivan, John, 151
Otis, James, 57, 60, 61, 66
Ottley, Roi, 404

Page, Thomas Nelson, 208
Paine, Robert Treat, 168
Paine, Thomas, 62, 69, 70, 111
Pal, Radhabinod, 411
Palestine, 414
Panama/Panama Canal, 408
U.S. military invasion (1989), 593-94,
685
Pankhurst, Christabel, 512
Parker, Theodore, 156-57, 221
Parks, Rosa, 450-51
Parsons, Albert, 249, 268, 270, 271
Paterson, Matthew, 85
Patterson, Ben 290
Patton, George S., 391
peace dividend, 625
Pennsylvania: Colonial era, 57-58, 62,
70, 83
labor and strikes, 226, 230, 243-44,
247, 306
see also Philadelphia; Pittsburgh
Pentagon Papers, 412, 461, 472, 473,
474, 476, 481, 488, 499, 500, 543,
566, 567
Peoples Party, see Populist party
Pequot Indians 14-15
Perkins, George W, 350, 351
Perot, Ross, 643
Peru, 12
Pessen, Edward, 218, 222
Philadelphia, 88, 254
Colonial era, 49-50, 60, 70, 80, 111
labor, 221, 226, 233, 266
poor, 49-50, 218, 221
Philippines, 300
U.S. and, 10, 312-20, 567
rebellions against 10, 313, 408, 429
Phillips, Kevin, 579-80, 582
Phillips, Ulrich, 34, 174-75, 176
Phillips, Wendell, 188, 189-90
Physicians for Social Responsibility, 603
Picasso, Pablo, 435
Pike, Douglas, 473
Pilgrims, 13, 21
"Pitcher, Molly, " 110
Pittsburgh: labor and strikes, 243-44,
246-48, 276-77, 294
Piven, Frances, 402, 457-58
Pizarro, 12, 17, 18
Plains Indians, 104
Plowshares Eight, 602
Poindexter, John, 587
Poland, 426, 592
"Political correctness, " 629
Polk, James, 150, lSI-52, 158, 159, 411
Polk, Leonidas, 289, 290
Pollack, Norman, 293
Polo, Marco, 2
"Pontiac's Conspiracy, " 87
Popper, David, 554
Populist Party, 283, 286-95 passim, 301
Portugal, 2, 26, 27, 29
Powell, Colin, 593, 652
Powderly, Terence, 269
Powhatan, 12, 13
Pratt, Julius, 302
President, election of, 96
Prison conditions and reform, 119, 121,
124, 514-24 passim, 616, 646-47
convict labor, 209, 275, 292
Progressive period and reforms, 349-54
property, see land
Prosser, Gabriel, 171
Puerto Rico, 32, 312, 408
Puritans, 14, 15-16, 17, 40

railroads, 205, 206, 207, 218, 219, 220,
227, 238, 239, 259, 261, 323
Cuba, 310
land acquired by, 220, 238, 239, 283
regulation, 349, 351
safety, 246, 255, 256, 278
unions and strikes, 235, 245-51, 260,
269, 270, 278, 279-81
see also transportation
Ramusio, Giambattista, 26
Randolph, A. Philip, 404, 458, 464
Randolph, Edmund, 68
Rankin, Jeannette, 371-72
Rantoul, Robert, 218
Rather, Dan, 598
Rawick, George, 177-78, 193
Reagan, Ronald, 564, 573-74, 577, 578,
580, 581, 611, 633, 645, 661
arms race and, 604
bombing of Libya, 591
budget cutbacks, 609-10
Grenada invasion, 588-89, 685
intervention in Central America,
585-87, 605-D8
Record, George L., 374
Redding, J. Saunders, 23
Reed, John, 373
Rehnquist, William, 574
religion; conflicts and controversies,
221, 226, 265
Constitutional guarantees, 83, 99
women, 108-09, 117, 118, 120
Remarque, Erich Maria, 360
Remini, Robert, 217
Reno, Janet, 645-46
Reston, James, 441, 442, 553
Revolutionary War, 50, 58-85, 492,
633
events leading to, 59, 60, 61, 62, 65-75
passim
hostilities, 71, 85, 88
Indians, 77, 80, 87, 125, 126
Reynolds, Malvina, 537-38
Rhode Island: Colonial era, 14, 48, 54,
67, 91, 93
Dorr's Rebellion, 214-16
labor, 230, 2J 5, 241, 397
Rich, Adrienne, 512-13
Robeson, Paul, 448
Robinson, John, 20-21
Robinson, Patricia, 465, 508-9
Rockefeller, David, 465, 560, 561, 565
Rockefeller, John D., 242, 255, 256,
257, 258, 262, 356
Rockefeller, Nelson, 521
Rockefeller, William, 305
Rockefeller family, 301 , 323, 351,
354-56, 464-65, 570
Rogin, Michael, 125, 128, 134
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 409, 415, 439,
631, 643
Middle East, 413-14
New Deal, 392-93, 395, 397, 403,
403-04, 414, 417, 425, 441
World War II, 410, 411, 412, 415, 416,
420
Roosevelt, .Mrs. Franklin D., 403
Roosevelt, James, 435
Roosevelt, Theodore, 208, 273, 297, 298,
300, 300, 301, 312, 341, 346, 347, 369
reform and big business, 349, 350, 351,
353
Root, Elihu, 273, 316, 351, 368
Romero, Archbishop Oscar, 590
Rosenberg, Julius and Ethel, 432-35
passim
Rosengarten, Theodore, 397-98
Rositzke, Harry, 583
Rossi, Alice, 504
Rostow, Eugene v., 416
Ruffin, Josephine St. Pierre, 193
Rumania, 426
Rusk, Dean, 298, 366, 476, 499
Russett, Bruce, 410, 411
Russia, 598, 657, see also Soviet Union
Russian immigrants, 226, 265, 375, 382
Russo, Anthony, 470, 487, 488
Rwanda, 655
Ryan, Jack, 618
Ryan, Thomas Fortune, 305

Sacco and Vanzetti case, 376
Safe Water Drinking Act, 576
Sage, Russell, 207, 305
Salsedo, Andrea, 375-76
Sampson, Anthony, 413-I4
Sanders, Bernie, 622
Sandinistas, 585, 593
Sandford, Mrs. John, 112
Sanger, Margaret, 343
Santa Anna, Antonio Lopez de, 166,
167-68
Sartre, Jean-Paul, 435
Sasway, Benjamin, 606
Saudi Arabia, 413-14, 623, 678, 681
Savak, 573
savings and loan scandal, 582-83
Schell, Jonathan, 477, 604
Schenck, Charles, 365-66
Schlesinger, Arthur, 130, 352, 441, 458
Schlesinger, James, 550, 552, 566, 619
"School of the Americas," 569, 667
Schroeder, John, 152, 153, 158
Schutz, Carl, 301
Schwerner, Michael, 456
Scotch immigrants, 49
Scott, Dred, 187, 198
Scott, William, 78
Scott, Winfield, 10, 145, 147, 157, 166
Scottsboro Boys, 398, 444, 447
Seaton, Esta, 51 I
Seeger, Pete, 537
Seminole Indians, 127, 128, 129, 141,
143-46
Seminole War, 143-46
Senate, election of, 96, 349
Seneca Indians, 526; see also Iroquois
Seven Years' War (French and Indian
War 53, 59, 60, 61, 77, 87
Shah of Iran 572, 573
Shalom Stephen, 589, 591
Shattuci, Job, 92
Shaw, George Bernard, 271
Shaw, Irwin, 374
Shaw, Nate, 178-79, 397-98
Shays, Daniel, 93-94, 95
Shays' Rebellion, 91-95, 98
Sherman, William T, 197
Sherman Anti-Trust act, 259-60, 351
Sherwin, Martin 422, 423, 424
Shy, John, 77, 78, 79
Simon, William, 558
Sinclair, Upton, 322, 365
Sioux Indians, 104, 524
Slater, Samuel, 115
slavery/slave trade, 12, 28-29, 30_31
abolitionists, 117, 120, 121, 122, 124,
155, 181-90 passim
African states, 27-28
Colonial era, 23, 27-38 passim, 43, 46,
49, 50, 53-58 passim, 72, 103, 105-06;
rebellions, 32-38 passim, 53, 54, 55,
56, 59, 72
Constitution, 13th Amendment, 192,
198, 204
Declaration of Independence 72-73
Dutch, 28, 29
18th century, 33, 58, 88, 89, 91, 98
English, 28, 29
French, 28
Indians, 3-7 passim, 32
19th century, 171-94; Fugitive Slave
Act, 181, 186, 188; rebellions and
conspiracies, 171, 174, 175, 183
passim, 194; see also Civil War
Portuguese, 25, 29
Spanish, 3-7 passim, 25, 32
Smith, Abbot, 43, 45, 46-47, 53
Smith, Adam, 74
Smith, Henry Nash, 282
Smith, John, 13
Smith, Justin H., 158-59, 166-67
Smith, Ruby Doris, 453, 504
Smith, Sir Thomas, 24
Sobell, Morton, 434
Socialism/Socialist party, 264, 322,
330-50 passim, 352, 353, 359, 374, 558
and labor, 244-45, 249, 268-73, 278,
281, 282, 307-08, 336, 339-40, 382,
385, 406, 547
Spanish-American war, 307-08
Socialism/Socialist party (cont'd.)
World War I, 10, 359, 364-70, 372
World War II, 420
Social Security Act, 403
Somalia, 654-55
Somoza dictatorship, 572, 585
Sons of liberty, 66, 68, 71
Sorensen, Theodore, 546
Sorge, F. A., 242
Sousa, Jerry, 518, 522
Sonth Africa, 321, 430, 566, 568, 608
South Carolina, 141, 142, 199-200
Colonial era, 36, 47, 53-57 passim, 68,
73, 77, 82, 83
Soviet Union, 17, 426, 568, 613
Afghanistan invasion, 572, 604-05
Bolshevik Revolution, 373, 380, 409
cold war with U.S., 425, 429, 437, 448,
583-84
and Cuba, 440
disintegration of, 584, 591-92, 625,
638, 644, 651-52
immigrants returned to, by U.S., 375
labor leaders flee 00, 373, 386
World War II, 407, 410, 411, 413, 423, 424
Spain, 2, 32
Civil War, 409, 420, 486
exploration and colonization, 1-5, 7-8,
9, 11-12, 14, 17-18, 25
and Cuba, 3, 5-7, 301, 302, 303, 304
Florida, 129
loss of Puerto Rico, Guam, and
Philippines to U.S., 312
and Mexico, 11-12
and Peru, 12
slavery, 3-7 passim, 25, 32
Spanish American war, 10, 295, 300,
303-10, 312
Speckled Snake, 136
Spies, August, 270-71
Spock, Dr. Benjamin, 618
Spotswood, Alexander, 34
Spring, Joe!, 263
Spruill, Julia, 106, 109
Stalin, Joseph, 17, 592
Stamp Act of 1765, 61, 65, 66, 69, 71
Stampp, Kenneth, 31, 35
Standard Oil Company, 256-57, 260,
301, 323
Stanford, Leland, 262
Stans, Maurice, 544, 547
Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, 119, 122
Star Wars program, 584
steel, 253, 257, 258, 276-77, 294, 310,
324, 363, 380-81, 401, 408
Steele, James, 580
Steffens, Lincoln, 323
Stein, Herbert, 575
Steinbeck, John, 389
Steiner, Stan, 533
Steinke, Richard, 492-93
Stillman, James, 323, 351
Stockwell, John, 617
Stone, I. F., 553
Stone, Lucy, 119
Stout, Linda, 614
Student Nonviolent Coordinating
Committee (SNCC), 453, 454, 455,
459, 485
Sudan, 659, 678
suffrage, see voting
Sulzberger, C. L., 501, 551
Sununu, John, 595
Supreme Court, 141, 216, 260-61,
596, 645
on abortion, 510, 574, 616
appointment of, 96, 260
business and economic interests
protected by, 260-62
and civil rights, 187, 198, 204, 205,
450, 451
on Communist party, 435
election of 2000 and, 677
on free speech, 366
Indians, rights of, 526
on Japanese-American evacuation, 416
NRA declared unconstitutional, 393
on Pentagon Papers, 488
on prison conditions, 523
on school desegregation, 582
on sit-downs, 402
Vietnam war, constitutionality of, 476,
498
on White House tapes, 547
Swan, E. S., 328
Swift, Gustavus, 254

Taft, William Howard, 347, 349, 350
"talk radio, " 564
Tanzania, 659, 678, 682
Tarbell, Ida, 323
tariffs, 91, 101, 130, 141, 142, 189, 206,
238, 257
Tatum, Georgia Lee, 23 7
taxation: Colonial era, 39, 40, 41, 48,
52, 61, 63, 66, 71, 72
Stamp Act, 61, 65, 66, 69, 71
18th century, 83-84, 91, 100, 101
income, 260, 349, 384, 580-81
Taylor, Frederick W, 324
Taylor, Maxwell, 475
Taylor, Zachary, 150, 151, 152, 153,
160, 164, 165
Tecumseh, 127, 132-33
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), 393,
403
Terkel, Sruds, 390, 391, 394
terrorism, 591, 649
"war on..., " 678-82
Texas: annexation and boundary
dispute, 149, 150, 159, 169
textile mills, 243-44, 253, 300, 334-37,
346, 381, 385, 386, 397
Thomas, Clarence, 574
Thoreau, Henry David, 156
Thorpe, Grace, 528
Three Mile Island, 613
Tiffany, Charles, 207
Tikas, Lou, 355
Tilimon, Johnnie, 513-14
tobacco, 24, 171, 254, 260, 283, 301, 310
Tocqueville, Alexis de, 218
Todd, John, 120
Tragle, Henry, 174
transportation, 125, 218, 219, 239, 283
segregation, 450, 450-51, 453
see also railroads
Trilateral Commission, 558, 560-61, 566
Trollope, Frances, 116
Trotter, William Monroe, 348
Truman, Harry, 425, 426, 434-35, 438,
470, 473, 560, 583
civil fights, 448-49
Korean war, 427, 428, 438, 685
security Program and anti-
Communism, 428, 430, 432, 435, 436
World War II, 17, 412, 422, 423-24
Truman Doctrine, 426-27, 429
Trumbo, Dalton, 374, 496-97
Truth, Sojourner, 124, 184-85, 193, 202
Tubman, Harriet, 175, 185, 193
Tumulty, Joseph, 374-75
Turkey, 426, 429, 551, 656
Turner, Henry MacNeal, 200
Turner, Nat, 171, 174, 185
Twain, Mark, 316, 321
Tyler John, 215

unemployment, 557-58, 570, 578, 650
unions, see labor organization
United Fruit Company, 439, 508
United Mine Workers, 307, 330, 354, 355
United Nations, 415, 427, 470, 653-55
U.S. Steel, 257, 331, 350, 363, 381

Van Buren, Martin, 130, 146, 148, 217,
224
Vandenberg, Arthur, 415
Vanderbilt, Cornelius, 262
Vanderbilt family, 242
Van Every, Dale, 135-36, 137, 138-39,
142, 143, 146
Vanzetti, Bartolomeo, 376
Vesco, Robert, 544, 547
Vesey, Denmark, 171, 173-74
Vietnam/Vietnam war, 9, 366-67, 411,
469, 472-501, 542, 549-54, 556, 558,
563, 618, 618-19, 631, 652
opposition to, 461, 484-94, 500-01,
516, 518, 523, 541, 542, 554, 567
Pentagon Papers, 412, 470, 472, 473,
474, 476, 481, 488, 499, 500
War Powers Act, 588
Vincent, Henry, 286
Vinson, Fred, 434, 435
Virginia (Colonial era), 12, 13, 18, 25,
41-47 passim, 50, 55, 56, 68, 78, 82,
84, 86
Bacon's Rebellion, 37, 39-42, 45, 54,
55, 59
House of Burgesses, birth of, 43
slavery, 25, 30, 32-38 passim, 47, 72
see also Jamestown
Vogel, Virgil, 15
voting: blacks, 65, 88-89, 198, 199, 203,
voting (cont'd.)
207, 291, 449, 454-55, 456, 458, 459,
461, 465-66, 610
Constitution, 96
15th Amendment, 198, 449
Indians, 65, 96
low voter turnout, 563
1960s and 1970s, 562
property qualifications, 49, 65, 83, 96,
214-16, 291
women, 65, 96, 110, 114, 123, 342, 343,
344-45, 384, 503
see also civil rights/civil rights movement

Wadsworth, James, 359
Wake Island, 312
Walker, Charles R., 394
Walker, David, 180, 184
Walker, Margaret, 446
Wall, John, 618
Wallace, Henry, 428, 449
Wampanoag Indians, 15-16, 40
War of 1812, 127
War on Poverty, 601
War Powers Act, 553, 588
War Resister's League, 437
Washburn, Wilcomb, 40
Washington, Booker T, 208, 209, 348
Washington, George, 85, 91, 95, 97,
125, 126
Revolutionary War, 79~80, 81, 82, 145
Washington, Mrs. George (Martha), 110
Watergate, 488, 542-49 passim, 554,
558, 631
Watergate scandal, 563, 618
Watson, Tom, 291-92
Wayland, Francis, 156
Wayne, Anthony, 81, 87
wealth distribution, 571, 612, 629,
662-64, 668
Weatherby, William, 404
Weaver, James, 289
Webster, Daniel, 142, 145, 181, 216
Weems, John, 162, 166, 167
Weil, Simone, 420
Weinberger, Caspar, 584, 585, 605
Wiener, Jon, 595
Weinstein, James, 351, 353, 365
welfare, attack on, 578-79, 647-50
Welles, Sumner, 412
Welter, Barbara, 112
West Germany, 591
Westmoreland, William, 500, 550
Wheeler, Burton, 385
White, Walter, 419
Whitman, Walt, 154
Wicker, Tom, 521, 566
Wiebe, Robert, 350
Willard, Emma, 117-18
Williams, Roger, 16-17
Williams, William Appleman, 301-02
Wilson, Charles E., 425
Wilson, Darryl B., 530
Wilson, Edmund, 237-38
Wilson, James, 70, 80
Wilson, James Q., 587
Wilson, Woodrow, 347, 349, 350, 356,
362, 381
World War 1, 361, 362, 364, 365
Winthrop, John, 13, 14, 48, 108-09
Winthrop, Robert, 158
Witt, Shirley Hill, 533
Wittner, Lawrence, 419, 425
Wollstonecraft, Mary, 111
women: abolitionists, 117, 120, 121,
122, 124
abortion, 509-10, 511
blacks, 32, 103, 105-06, 184-85, 193,
202, 347, 504
change in status, 503-14
Colonial Era, 43, 44, 49, 72, 73, 102,
104-11 passim
Declaration of Independence and
Constitution, 72, 73, 96, 102
education, 110, 115, 118, 123, 509
exploitation and oppression, 9, 103~24
passim
feminist movements: 19th century, 117,
119-23 passim, 184-85, 202; early
20th century, 342-46, 349; 1960s and
1970s, 504-14; 1980s and 1990s, 616
Indians, 5, 7, 19, 20, 104
in antinuclear movement, 603
labor, 10, 32, 43, 44, 103, 104-05, 110,
111, 114-15, 123, 228-31, 234-35,
240-41, 253, 257, 267-68, 324-27
passim, 336, 338-39, 347, 406, 504,
506-11 passim; see also labor, factory
and mill system
property ownership denied, 114, 123
rape, 510, 511
socialists, 341-46 passim
voting, 65, 96, 110, 114, 123, 342, 343,
344-45, 384, 503
World War II, 416
Wood, Leonard, 311, 312
Woodford, Stewart, 304
Woodward, C. Vann, 205, 206, 274--75,
292
Woodward, Carl, 545
Worcester, Samuel, 141
Workingmen's party, 244-45, 248-49
World Bank, 566, 658, 674
World Trade Organization (WTO),
672-74
World War 1, 10, 359-74, 376, 418,
492
World War II, 10, 407-25 passim,
492
Germany and Japan, bombing of, 9, 17,
421-23, 481
and labor, 402, 407, 415, 416, 417-18,
504
Wright, Frances, 121-22, 221
Wright, Margaret, 465
Wright, Richard, 446-47

Yeltsin, Boris, 657
Young, Andrew, 554, 566
Young, Marilyn, 300, 625
Young, Thomas, 62
Yugoslavia, 4~6, 660-61

Zuni Indians, 19, 104
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Re: A People's History of the United States: 1492-Present

Postby admin » Thu Oct 17, 2013 5:18 pm

About the Author

Image
Howard Zinn. Photo by Jeff Zinn.

Meet Howard Zinn

HOWARD ZINN is a historian, playwright, and social activist. He came of age in the slums of Brooklyn. His working-class immigrant home lacked even a modest library; he managed, however, to find his first book on the street. Upon reading that book, Tarzan and the Jewels of Opar, he resolved to read a great many more books, and possibly to write a few as well-he was eight, maybe nine years old. As a young adult, he worked in a shipyard for three years. He flew bomber missions during World War II, after which he returned to Brooklyn, got married, and occupied a basement apartment.

He went to college under the GI Bill and received his Ph.D. from Columbia University. He has taught at Spelman College and Boston University, and has been a visiting professor at the University of Paris and the University of Bologna. He has received the Thomas Merton Award, the Eugene V. Debs Award, the Upton Sinclair Award, and the Lannan Literary Award.

He enjoys "old, good films like Bridge on the River Kwai, and half-old, funny films like Midnight Run." He likes dramatic and political movies "if they're well done." He likes Oliver Stone "when he's doing something like Salvador." He "sneaks out" to Dunkin' Donuts for a cup of coffee (small with cream and sugar), and complements the beverage with a powdered doughnut. Once a devoted tennis player, , he now maintains his physique on daily walks. He has no pets ("they would tie me down"). He lives with his wife, painter Roslyn Zinn, in Auburndale, Massachusetts. They have two children and five grandchildren.
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Re: A People's History of the United States: 1492-Present

Postby admin » Thu Oct 17, 2013 5:18 pm

A Discussion with Howard Zinn

Is it true that you'd have preferred to write romance novels?

[laughs] Where did you get that? It's true that I'd rather write plays, which I have done. It's more fun to write for the theater because it's not as isolated an occupation.

A People's History of the United States has found its way into many places. Describe its proliferation among various languages, along with its curious development into a cartoon.

It's been translated by now into a dozen languages -- into Spanish, French, Italian, German, Turkish, Arabic, Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Swedish, Norwegian. Czech, Portuguese, and it's being translated into Russian, Greek, and Hebrew. I don't know if it will happen, but there's a group in Canada that wants to do an animated version of A People's History. And there's a group in New York that is planning a documentary series for television and schools. This would be a series of films based on A People's History, maybe six to eight hours.

A March 1999 article in The Nation opened: "The contracts are signed, the treatment is being written, and Fox Television plans to fast-track production on a ten- to twelve-hour miniseries based on lefty historian Howard Zinn's A People's History of the United States, scheduled to run early next year." Br, what happened, Howard?

That was something of an exaggeration. Maybe the writer was anticipating too much. [laughs] There was a contract with Fox Television, and Fox was at one point planning a series of films based on A People's History, and then after a few years of back and forth. they dropped the idea, after which it was taken up by HBO. We were under contract with HBO for a couple years and they actually hired a number of writers to write movie scripts -- John Sayles wrote one, Howard Fast did another, several other scripts were written -- then HBO decided against going ahead.

Do you think Fox and HBO were influenced by cultural transformations in the wake of 9/11?

It's hard to tell. When people in the film industry drop things, they don't give you explanations. And so, in the case of Fox we don't know. After all, Fox is owned by Rupert Murdoch [laughs]. Well, come to think of it, Murdoch owns HarperCollins too, and that hasn't interfered with HarperCollins's handling of the book. But did political considerations enter into it? Fox dropped it before 9/11. No, 1don't think 9/11 1had anything to do with it. They may have found that it was too difficult and complicated a project. When John Sayles's script was turned down by HBO, he said, "Well, I think HBO probably doesn't consider it sexy enough." It may be that the television medium is a very difficult form for transforming history into feature films.
In 2003, A People's History sold its one millionth copy. Dick Cheney threw you a big shindig, right?

Yes it was. I recall that it took place in Dunkin' Donuts [laughs].

Seriously, though, there was a celebration at the 92nd Street YMHA, right?

Yes. We had a great cast of actors who agreed to read. We had James Earl Jones and Danny Glover and Marisa Tomei and Harris Yulin and Alfre Woodard. A number of the things they read were from the book, and a number of things were connected with the spirit of A People's History. A little book called The People Speak came out of that. We didn't just have actors reading; we had other people in the arts as well. We had Kurt Vonnegut reading Eugene Debs, Alice Walker reading a poem by Langston Hughes, and we had my son, Jeff, reading the voice of an IWW (Industrial Workers of the World) organizer and poet, Arturo Giovannitti. I can tell you that as soon as they announced the event, it was sold out almost immediately.

It's a mite unsettling to reread your account of the first Gulf War. You argue, in this account, that the United States acted in order to revive Bush Sr.'s approval ratings, and to achieve greater sway over OPEC. "But those motives," you conclude, "were not presented to the American public. It was told that the United States wanted to liberate Kuwait from Iraqi control." So, too, do you argue: "The justification for war that seemed most compelling was that Iraq was on its way to building a nuclear bomb, but the evidence for this was very weak." Care to reflect on this?

Our own intelligence agency, the CIA, had no clear evidence that Iraq could build a bomb for several years. So the evidence indeed was weak. Can you really believe that Bush Sr. was anguished over the takeover of Kuwait by Iraq? Other countries have occupied parts of other countries, and we didn't go to war over that. We didn't go to war over the Israeli occupation of Palestinian lands. So Bush's rationale for the war against Iraq was very hard to believe, given the long history of the United States's interest in Middle Eastern oil, especially since the end of World War II. For instance, the covert action to overthrow the government of Iran in 1953 came about because Iran was nationalizing oil. Iraq is the second largest possessor of oil reserves in the world. The oil motive is a far, far more likely one than the motive of liberating Kuwait.

What comparison. then, would you make between Gulf Wars I and II?

The comparison is very strong in that in both cases false reasons were given for the invasion. In the case of Gulf War I, the false reason was the takeover of Kuwait. In the case of Gulf War II, the false reason was weapons of mass destruction. Neither argument is believable. With weapons of mass destruction, it's already been shown that it was simply a deception practiced on the American people. The Bush administration was determined to go to war, and again. behind it all was oil, and the control of oil.

You don't cotton to ''just war" theories. This very likely represents your most controversial posture, and it's a real hot potato. How, though, has the present war in Iraq failed or satisfied the traditional "just war" theory?

Michael Walzer, who wrote the standard modern book on just war theory, [Just and Unjust Wars], has supported some wars. But even he says the current war doesn't meet the requirement of just cause, doesn't meet the requirement of a war for defense, doesn't meet the requirement of proportionality -- because the killing of huge numbers of Iraqi civilians, and the destruction of cities is far, far out of proportion to any possible gain in human rights that has come out of this war.

How would you critique the moral ''justification'' for, say, the war in Korea? You don't seem all that affectionate toward Truman's decision to intervene there.

Well, Korea is an example of a situation that I have described as pointing to an important difference between just cause and just war. A cause may be just -- in other words, the defense of South Korea against an invasion by North Korea may be a just cause -- but a just cause is not necessarily corrected by war. And so it maybe wrong for North Korea to invade South Korea, but it's pretty hard to justify the killing of several million people in order to prevent one half of a divided country's military action to unify that country, even though that action maybe unjust. So I think it was a misguided, immoral decision to go to war in Korea. We spent three years at war -- where were we at the end of it, with three million people dead? We still had dictatorial regimes in both North Korea and South Korea.

You persistently focus on the impact of war upon civilians. In the U.S. invasion of Panama, for instance, you note that "hundreds, perhaps thousands of civilians were killed" and upward of fourteen thousand were left homeless. How well do you think the media have reported the effects of war upon the people of Iraq?

Well, the media have been shamefully negligent in reporting the effect of the war on the civilian population of Iraq. I'm sure that if you took a poll of Americans to see how much they knew about civilian death in Iraq, you would get a blank. The British medical journal The Lancet published a report saying that up to one hundred thousand civilians in Iraq have died as a result of this war. This was in some of the newspapers for a day and then disappeared. It was not reported on any major television station. And certainly while the numbers are given of American dead, there are no numbers given of Iraqi dead. In fact, the Pentagon says it doesn't keep such records. Aside from the neglect of the reporting of Iraqi dead, the American press doesn't even give an adequate report of terrible injuries done to Americans. Maybe ten thousand to fifteen thousand Americans have been badly wounded in the war. Thousands have lost limbs or been blinded, and there has been no adequate coverage of this in the American press.

The 9/11 Commission Report was a finalist for the National Book Award. What are your thoughts about its vaguely bizarre nomination? And what, in your view, is the dominant lesson contained in this report?

Well, I think the report misses the crucial issues connected with 9/11. I think the report mostly focuses on intelligence failures, failures to anticipate 9/11, the bureaucratic inefficiency -- the FBI and the CIA and the lack of sufficient communication between them. It seems the main proposals that came out of this report were proposals for reorganizing intelligence agencies. Now all of this is very superficial. All of this ignores fundamental questions about 9/11. The most fundamental questions being: What were the motives behind those attacks, and to what extent were those motives connected with American foreign policy? The 9/11 Commission dodges the issue of relationships between American foreign policy and the creation of enormous anger in the Middle East -- an anger which is felt by millions of people in the Middle East, which then leads to a small number of fanatics engaging in terrorist attacks. To point to the way in which American foreign policy has inflamed people against us and therefore led to terrorist attacks is not therefore to justify, of course, the terrorist attack; it's simply to say we need to look for more profound causes of 9/11 than intelligence failures.

President Clinton -- what do you consider his greatest achievement and his biggest disappointment?

His greatest achievement ... well, the truth is, I don't believe that Bill Clinton had any great achievements in office. If you can begin to talk about a greatest achievement, you can say it was a negative one. It was a negative one meaning he did not plunge his country into war the way his successor did. On the other hand, his foreign policy was an aggressive one. His maintenance of sanctions against Iraq was responsible for the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people, according to United Nations officials. He was the first to raise the specter of weapons of mass destruction, and used that in order to bomb Iraq again and again while not engaging in major war. He continued what Reagan had started, and that is the attempt to dismantle FDR's social reform program by doing away with aid to families with dependent children. So I think his administration only did good in relation to the administration that followed him. At one point, Clinton's secretary of state, Madeleine Albright, was questioned about the deaths of all the people in Iraq as the result of sanctions, and she said, "It was worth it, we had to pay that price." Well, of course, we didn't pay that price; the children of Iraq paid that price. One of the first things Clinton did when he came into office was to bomb Baghdad -- supposedly because Baghdad was responsible for a failed assassination attempt on George Bush, Sr., but there was no proof for that. He was obviously trying to show that he was a tough guy. a tough president who would be willing to use military means to boost his standing with the public. So Bill Clinton is to my mind one of the most overrated presidents of the last several decades.

What do you admire most about the United States?

Let me make it clear that when I say "admire the United States, " the United States is not the government. There is very little in the government that I admire -- certainly not in the present, and certainly not in recent years -- but there is much that I admire in the United States, and what I admire is the spirit of independence and thought, which has allowed so many Americans to protest against policies they disagreed with. What I admire most in the United States is the spirit of those people who have protested against the war in Iraq, those black people in the South who demonstrated and protested and risked so much to do away with racial segregation. That is what is most admirable about this country. Working people who have been trying in every possible way against great odds to improve conditions in their lives. I read about hotel workers going out on strike, or the United Parcel workers going out on strike to better their conditions that is part of the noble tradition in America of working people getting together and doing what the government will not do for them, trying to create a modicum of economic justice.

You are frequently called a "radical" historian. Do you accept this label?

I like it. I accept it. Because I believe radical solutions are needed. "Radical" means getting to the roots, means going to fundamental things. and I believe we need fundamental changes in our society, fundamental changes in ending policies of war and expansion, fundamental changes in our economic system. fundamental changes in dealing with the environment -- all of those are radical, you might say.

How might this term, radical, correspond to your actions off the page throughout your lifetime?

Well, I suppose the civil rights movement was considered a radical movement in the South until it sparked the national movement of support. The young people in the SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, pronounced "snick"), mostly young black people in the South, were considered the radical part of the civil rights movement, and I was involved with them. I was on their executive committee. They did what were considered radical things: sit-ins and demonstrations and acts of civil disobedience.

And you participated in sit-ins?

That's right. I was teaching in the South, and living with my family in Atlanta, Georgia, teaching at Spelman College, a black women's college, and became involved with the SNCC, and went around the South from Atlanta to Albany, Georgia. and Selma, Alabama, and various towns in Mississippi, and participated in what the movement was doing.

How did being there, at that time, influence your approach to writing and communicating history?

Being involved in the southern movement, and being aware that what was happening at the grass roots in the South was not being recorded, made me very conscious of the idea of a people's history. Most history skims the surface and records things from the top; tells us what presidents did, or Congress, or the Supreme Court. What was happening below, in the South -- the church meetings, the things that ordinary black people were doing to struggle against segregation -- these things were not being recorded. So what that experience of being involved in the southern movement did for me was to give me a different idea of what democracy is. Because in junior high school, and in our schools in general, democracy is presented as the structure of government: the Constitution. the three branches of government. What I realized is that democracy does not come through these institutions. These institutions are very often obstacles to democracy. and democracy comes alive when ordinary people get together and create a social movement for change, as they did in the civil rights movement and the antiwar movement and the women's movement. That was probably the most important thing I learned while teaching and being active in the South for seven years.

Have you ever broken down and posted a copy of your book to, say, a reactionary president or senator?

I've never done anything like that. Other people have. When I wrote a book during the early years of the Vietnam War, a book called Vietnam: The Logic of Withdrawal, there was a businessman in Ohio who bought up five hundred copies and sent one to every congressman, and to President Johnson.

Did you ever learn whether this approach achieved an impact?

Well, let's put it this way, the war continued. The last chapter in the book was a speech I'd written for Johnson -- not ordered by him [laughs] -- announcing our withdrawal from Vietnam. Of course Johnson never delivered that speech, although the following year he did refuse to run again, and began peace negotiations. I don't want to claim that my book led to that. I don't think my book had a direct effect on people in office. That book went through seven or eight printings, and I think it had its effect mostly on people who joined the peace movement.

More and more, the Left seems hell-bent on reclaiming the religious high ground. This effort commenced before the installation of George W. Bush, but the effort spiked somewhat after his reelection. How do you view this trend?

I think it's a good thing for the Right-wing capture of the Bible to be challenged, and for people who are progressive and religious -- like Jim Wallis, like Harvey Cox, like Daniel Berrigan -- to point out statements in the Bible that support the idea of peace and equality, and serving the poor rather than the rich. Theological doctrines and the Bible are susceptible to all sorts of interpretations, and therefore it is wrong to allow one political group to monopolize the interpretation of the Bible, and it is right to offer a challenge that will cause Christians to think about whether Jesus would approve of war, would approve of siphoning off the wealth of the country for the rich.

Is there anything you would like to add, Howard?

I think that it's extremely important for young people to learn a different history that will make them skeptical of what they hear from authority. I think if young people knew, for instance, the history of lies and violence that have accompanied American foreign policy, they would not be enticed into joining the armed forces.
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