Addicted to War: Why the U.S. Can't Kick Militarism (Updated

"Science," the Greek word for knowledge, when appended to the word "political," creates what seems like an oxymoron. For who could claim to know politics? More complicated than any game, most people who play it become addicts and die without understanding what they were addicted to. The rest of us suffer under their malpractice as our "leaders." A truer case of the blind leading the blind could not be found. Plumb the depths of confusion here.

Re: Addicted to War: Why the U.S. Can't Kick Militarism (Upd

Postby admin » Fri Jun 10, 2016 4:03 am

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Americans were stunned by the horror of the September 11 attacks and Bush's bellicose words resonated among many. But others were not so easily led.

Thousands march to protest U.S. war plans for Afghanistan, Washington, D.C., Sept. 2001.

Then as Bush was gearing up to invade Iraq, hundreds of thousands of people took to the streets across the country. It soon became clear that the Vietnam Syndrome was alive and well -- a huge part of the population remained profoundly skeptical about foreign military adventures.

"EMPTY WARHEADS FOUND IN WASHINGTON" -- NO WAR IN IRAQ

Many of the country's largest labor unions and church federations resolved to oppose the war. Over 150 cities, including New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, San Francisco and Cleveland went on record opposing the war.

That never happened before -- not even in the 1960s!

Regime change begins at home!
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Re: Addicted to War: Why the U.S. Can't Kick Militarism (Upd

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The whole world was angry. On February 15 and 16, 2003, millions of people in the U.S. and over sixty other countries participated in the largest international protest in history.

Montreal: 150,000; Toronto: 80,000; San Francisco: 100,000; Seattle: 50,000; Los Angeles: 50,000; Sao Paulo: 30,000; Antarctica: 50; Sydney: 250,000; Athens: 150,000; New York: 300,000; Madrid: 1,000,000; Barcelona: 1,000,000; London: 2,000,000; Paris: 200,000; Berlin: 500,000; Rome: 3,000,000; Tokyo: 25,000; Calcutta: 10,000; Damascus: 200,000; Cape Town: 20,000; Jakarta: 100,000.

The great majority of Americans were not at all eager to go to war. Most people told pollsters they opposed invading Iraq if Bush could not win U.N. support or if a war would result in large numbers of casualties among U.S. troops or Iraqi civilians. After Bush launched the invasion, however, the pro-war media blitz convinced many people that they shouldn't oppose the war because they might endanger U.S. soldiers. [161]

The media forgot to mention that it was Bush who put us in danger in the first place.

And that the best way to get us out of danger is to get us out of here!

There were a few pro-war rallies, but not many people showed up.

Turn Baghdad into a parking lot!

Operation Iraqi Liberation -- OIL

The war ended up polarizing the American population and isolating the United States internationally. And the ugly reality of the American occupation of Iraq has further alienated people here and around the world.

George W. Bush: Don't they know that God is on our side?
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Re: Addicted to War: Why the U.S. Can't Kick Militarism (Upd

Postby admin » Fri Jun 10, 2016 4:04 am

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While the killing continues in Afghanistan and Iraq, Pentagon strategists are busy planning the next round of wars.

What if American casualties reach an unacceptable level, General?

Plan B is a preemptive tactical nuclear strike.

We seem to have reached a point at which war is constantly on the agenda in Washington.

But next time they whip up war fever and ask you to put your life on the line -- whether as a soldier in a distant land or as a potential victim of attack at home -- ask yourself ...

What is this addiction to war doing to the people of the U.S. and the world?

How much does it cost?

MILLION $ A MINUTE
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Re: Addicted to War: Why the U.S. Can't Kick Militarism (Upd

Postby admin » Fri Jun 10, 2016 4:04 am

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Who's going to profit?

WAR PROFITS

Who's going to pay?

And who's going to die?

Think about it. Do something about it.

Kick out the war junkies!

How can we do that?

That's up to us to figure out!
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Re: Addicted to War: Why the U.S. Can't Kick Militarism (Upd

Postby admin » Fri Jun 10, 2016 4:04 am

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The Next Chapter: Do Something About It!

Here are a few groups that are trying to figure that out ...

We've only been able to include in this list a small number of the many groups conducting anti-militarist education and organizing anti-war activities in the U.S. The movement is growing rapidly and is very diverse. Some of the most vibrant organizations are fledging, local groups that we were not able to include here. More organizatins are listed on Frank Dorrel's website (www.addictedtowar.com). We encourage you to contact groups whose activities are most closely aligned with your own concerns, beliefs, and talents.

American Friends Service Committee
1501 Cherry Street, Philadelphia, PA 19102
Tel: 215-241-7000; Fax: 215-241-7177
Email: afscinfo@afsc.org
Website: www.afsc.org
Founded in 1917, AFSC is a Quaker organization that includes people of various faiths committed to humanitarian service. We believe in the worth of every person and have faith in the power of love to overcome violence and injustice. Programs in the U.S., Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East focus on issues related to economic and social justice, youth, peace-building and demilitarization.

Democracy Now! with Amy Goodman
87 Lafayette, New York, NY 10013
Tel: 212-431-9272
Email: mail@democracynow.org
Website: www.democracynow.org
Democracy Now! is a national radio and TV show committed to bringing the voices of the marginalized to the airwaves to discuss global and local issues, including militarism. Democracy Now! is broadcast on the Pacifica radio network (KPFA, 94.1 FM, Berkeley; KPFK, 90.7 FM, Los Angeles; KPFT, 90.1 FM, Houston; WBAI, 99.5 FM, New York; WPFW, 89.3 PM, Washington, DC) and on other community radio stations, Free Speech TV (Dish Network Channel 9415), and public access television stations.

G.I. Rights Hotline
Tel: 800-394-9544; 215-563-4620 (overseas calls)
Email: girights@objector.org
Website: www.girights.org
G.I. Rights Hotline provides information to members of the military about discharges, grievance and complaint procedures, and other civil rights. It helops those who are AWOL/UA, victims of harassment and discrimination, and anyone who wants to get out of the military.

Central Committee of Conscientious Objectors
1515 Cherry Street, Philadelphia, PA 19102
Tel: 215-563-8787; Toll Free: 1-800-NOJROTC
G.I Rights Hotline: 1-800-394-9544
Website: www.objector.org
The CCCO promotes individual and collective resistance to war and preparations for war. Since 1948, we have been helping people to seek discharge from active military service on grounds of conscientious objection, and providing assistance to those faced with a military draft, enlistment obligations, and registration.

Global Peace Campaign
1047 Naka, Kamogawa, Chiba, Japan 296-0111
Tel: 81-470-97-1011; Fax: 81-470-97-1215
Email: yumik@fine.ocn.ne.jp
Website: www.peace2001.org
Founded after the September 11 attacks, GPC supports anti-war education in the United States and Japan. Among its projects have been anti-war billboards and peace ads in major newspapers.
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Re: Addicted to War: Why the U.S. Can't Kick Militarism (Upd

Postby admin » Fri Jun 10, 2016 4:05 am

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Fellowship of Reconciliation
P.O. Box 271, Nyack, NY 10960
Tel: 845-358-4601; Fax: 845-358-4924
Email: info@forusa.org; Website: www.forusa.org
FOR seeks to replace violence, war, racism, and economic injustice with nonviolence, peace, and justice. We are an interfaith organization committed to active nonviolence as a transforming way of life and as a means of radical change. We educate, train, build coalitions, and engage in nonviolent, compassionate actions.

Center on Conscience & War
1830 Connecticut Avenue, NW
Washington, D.C. 20009
Tel: 202-483-2220; Fax: 202-483-1246
Email: nisbco@nisbco.org
Website: www.nisbco.org
Formed in 1940 by religious organizations, CCW defends the rights of conscientious objectors, opposes conscription, and helps those in the military seeking discharge and those facing a crisis of conscience because of draft registration. Services are provided at no charge to all -- U.S. Citizens, documented and undocumented immigrants, and citizens in other countries.

Global Exchange
2017 Mission Street #303
San Francisco, CA 94110
Tel: 415-255-7296; Fax: 415-255-7498
Website: www.globalexchange.org
Global Exchange is a not-for-profit international human rights organization. Through diverse programs including reality tours to dozens of countries, fair trade stores, corporate accountability campaigns, anti-war work, green economy promotion, we seek to accelerate the paradigm shift from money values and violence to life values and nonviolence.

Peace Action
1819 H. Street NW, Suite #420 and #425,
Washington, DC 20006
Phone: 202-862-9740; Fax: 202-862-9762
Website: www.peace-action.org
PA (formerly SANE/Freeze) works to achieve the abolition of nuclear weapons, develop a peace-oriented economy, and end the international weapons trade. We promote non-military solutions to international conflicts.

International Action Center
39 W. 14th St. # 206, New York, NY 10011
Tel: 212-633-6646; Fax: 212-633-2889
Emai1: iacenter@iacenter.org
Website: www.iacenter.org
Founded by former U.S. Attorney General Ramsey Clark, the IAC provides information and organizes resistance to U.S. militarism, war, and corporate greed, linking these issues with struggles against domestic racism and oppression.

Military Families Speak Out
P.O. Box 549, Jamaica Plain, MA 02130
Tel: 617-522-9323; Email: mfso@mfso.org
Website: www.mfso.org
Also see: www.bringthemhomenow.org
MFSO is made up of people opposed to war in Iraq who have relatives or loved ones in the military. Starting with 2 families in Nov. 2002, we grew to include over 1,000 families within a year. Together with several veterans groups, we founded the "Bring Them Home NOW! Campaign."

War Resisters League
339 Lafayette Street
New York, NY 10012
Tel: 212-228-0450; Email: wrl@warresisters.org
Website: www. warresisters.org
WRL is a pacifist organization founded in 1923. We believe in using nonviolence to remove all the causes of war. We produce educational resources (including The Nonviolent Activist magazine), work in coalition with other peace groups, and provide training in civil disobedience, war tax resistance, and other acts of putting conscience into action.

School of the Americas Watch
PO Box 4566, Washington DC 20017
Tel: 202-234-3440; Fax: 202-636-4505
Website: www.soaw.org
SOAW works in solidarity with the people of Latin America to change oppressive U.S. foreign policies. In particular, we work to close the School of the Americas/Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation, where the Pentagon trains Latin American military officers in methods of repression and torture.
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Re: Addicted to War: Why the U.S. Can't Kick Militarism (Upd

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Office of the Americas
8124 W. 3rd Street, Suite 202
Los Angeles, CA 90048-4309
Phone: 323-852-9808; Email: ooa@igc.org
Website: www.officeoftheamericas.org
OOA is a non-profit corporation dedicated to furthering the cause of justice and peace through broad-based education including delegations, participation in television, radio, and print media, and presentations to university and high school classes and civic and religious organizations.

Teaching for Change
PO Box 73038; Washington, DC 20056
Toll Free: 1-800-763-9131
Tel: 202-588-7204; Fax: 202-238-0109
Email: tfe@teachingforchange.org
Website: www.teachingforchange.org
TFC promotes social and economic justice through public education. We provide vital services and resources in the DC Metro area and nationally for K-12 teachers, parents and teacher educators, through our catalog, training and other support.

True Majority
PO Box 1976, Old Chelsea Station,
New York, NY 10113-1976
Tel: 212-243-3416
Website: www.truemajority.com
TM , led by Ben Cohen (founder of Ben and Jerry's), monitors Congress on issues of social justice and environmental issues. When your voice needs to be heard, you get an e-mail alert; by clicking reply you send a fax to your congressperson. We seek to ease the nuclear nightmare, renounce the militarization of space, and make globalization work for, not against, working people.

Voices in the Wilderness
1460 West Carmen Ave.
Chicago, IL 60640
Tel: 773-784-8065
Website: www.nonviolence.org/vitw
VITW is an American and British campaign that stands in solidarity with the iraqi people. Between 1996 and 2003, more than fifty delegations traveled to Iraq to challenge the sanctions. Members of the Iraq Peace Team, a group of nonviolent activists, have been on the ground in Iraq throughout the US/UK invasion and occupation.

Not in Our Name
Tel: 212-969-8058
Email: info@notinourname.net
Website: www.notinourname.net
NION is a creative coalition of anti-war activists that has grown into one of the most formidable resistance efforts since the Vietnam War. The NION Pledge of Resistance was created to inspire protest and show solidarity with the people of nations harmed by U.S. militarism.

Witness for Peace
707 8th St., SE Suite 100
Washington, DC 20003
Tel: 202-547-6112; Fax: 202-547-6103
Website: www.witnessforpeace.org
WFP is a grassroots organization that works for peace, justice, and sustainable economies in Latin America and the Caribbean by changing U.S. policies and corporate practices that contribute to poverty and oppression. Our programs include Individual Witness, Speaking Tours, Delegations, and Call-A-Week.

Veterans for Peace
438 N. Skinker
St. Louis, MO. 63130
Tel: 314-725-6005; Email: vfp@igc.org
Website: www. veteransforpeace.org
VFP is an organization of men and women who served in the military and are now working to abolish war. We educate our fellow citizens about the true costs of militarism, work to change our nation's priorities, and conduct projects to heal the wounds of war.

Women's International League for Peace and Freedom
1213 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107
Tel: 215-563-7110; Fax: 215-563-5527
Email: wilpf@wilpf.org
Website: www. wilpf.org
WILPF works through peaceful means to achieve world disarmament, full rights for women, racial and economic justice, and an end to all forms of violence. We seek to establish political, social, and psychological conditions that can assure peace, freedom, and justice for all.
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Re: Addicted to War: Why the U.S. Can't Kick Militarism (Upd

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Reference Notes

I. For updated information on the U.S. military budget, see the Center for Defense Information website (http://www.cdi.org). Discretionary spending is money that must be specifically appropriated by Congress every year, as opposed to mandatory budget items, such as social security benefits and interest payments on the national debt.
2. Giles cited in Howard Zinn, A People's History of the United States (New York: Harper-Collins, 1980), p. 153.
3. Zinn, pp. 125-146; Dee Brown, Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971).
4. Black Elk cited in Brown, p. 419.
5. Zinn, pp. 147-166.
6. Den by cited in David Healy, U.S. Expansionism: The Imperialist Urge in the 1890s (Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin, 1970), pp. 122-123.
7. Platt cited in Healy, p. 173.
8. Roosevelt cited in Zinn, p. 290.
9. Zinn, pp. 290-305; Beveridge cited in Zinn, p. 306.
10. Beveridge cited in Healy, p. 174.
11. Beveridge cited in Rubin Westin, Racism in U. S. Imperialism (Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, 1972), p. 46.
12. Zinn, pp. 305-313; Michael Parenti, The Sword and the Dollar (New York: St. Martins Press, 1989), pp. 42-43.
13. Zinn, pp. 290-305.
14. Hawaii: Joseph Gerson, "The Sun Never Sets," in Joseph Gerson, ed., The Sun Never Sets -- Confronting the Network of Foreign U.S. Military Bases (Boston: South End Press, 1991), pp. 6,10; Panama: T. Harry Williams, et al., A History of the United States [Since 1865], 2nd edition (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1965), pp. 372-373.
15. David Cooney, A Chronology of the U.S. Navy: 1775-1965 (New York: Franklin Watts, 1965), pp. 181-257.
16. Catherine Sunshine, The Caribbean: Struggle, Survival and Sovereignty (Boston: South End Press, 1985), p. 32.
17. George Black, The Good Neighbor (New York: Pantheon Books, 1988), pp. 31-58; Sunshine, pp. 28-34.
18. Taft cited in William Appleman Williams, Americans in a Changing World: A History of the U.S. in a Changing World (New York: Harper and Row, 1978), pp. 123-124.
19. Newspaper report cited in Westin, p. 226.
20. Sunshine, p. 83.
21. This and subsequent passages are from Smedley Butler, "War Is a Racket," (New York: Round Table Press, 1935); reproduced at: http://www.veteransforpeace.org/war_is_ ... 033103.htm.
22. Page cited in William Foster, Outline Political History of the Americas (New York: International Publishers, 1951 ), p. 362.
23. Foster, p. 360.
24. CFR/State Department policy statement cited in Lawrence Shoup and William Minter, Imperial Brain Trust: The Council on Foreign Relations and US. Foreign Policy (New York: Monthly Review, 1977), p. 130.
25. CFR memorandum cited in Shoup and Minter, p. 170.
26. Hiroshima-Nagasaki: A Pictorial Record of the Atomic Destruction (Tokyo: Hiroshima-Nagasaki Publishing Committee, 1978), p. 17.
27. Truman cited in Paul Boyer, By the Bombs Early Light: American Thought and Culture at the Dawn of the Atomic Age (New York: Pantheon, 1985)
28. The bombing was also intended to preempt Soviet involvement in the war against Japan: Zinn, pp. 413-415.
29. Welch cited in Victor Perlo, Militarism and Industry: Arms Profiteering in the Missile Age (New York: International Publishers, 1963 ), p. 144.
30. Gerson, p. 12.
31. Korea International War Crimes Tribunal, "Report on U.S. Crimes in Korea: 1945-2001," (Washington, D.C.: Korea Truth Commission Task Force, 2001), p. xi; Encyclopedia Britannica, 1967 ed., V. 13, p. 475; Selected Manpower Statistics, Fiscal Year 1984 (Washington D.C.: Dept. of Defense, 1985 ), p. 111.
32. Sunshine, p. 142; Black, p. 118.
33. Noam Chomsky, "Patterns of Intervention," in Joseph Gerson, ed., The Deadly Connection: Nuclear l11ar and U.S. Intervention (Philadelphia: New Society, 1986), p. 66; Zinn, p. 469; Sean Murphy et al, No Fire, No Thunder: The Threat of Chemical and Biological Weapons (New York: Monthly Review, 1984), pp. 22- 24, 64, 78-79; Parenti, p. 44; Selected Manpower Statistics; Marilyn Young, The Vietnam Wars: 1945-1990 (New York: Harper-Collins, 1991).
34. Robert Fisk, Pity the Nation: Lebanon at War (Oxford University Press, 1992); Sandra Mackey, Lebanon: Death of a Nation (New York: Congdon & Weed, 1989).
35. Black, p. 156.
36. Schultz cited in Black, p. 156.
37. Noam Chomsky, The Culture of Terrorism (Boston: South End Press, 1988), p. 29; Associated Press "Libyan Court Wants Americans Arrested for 1986 Bombing," March 22, 1999.
38. Noam Chomsky, Fateful Triangle: The United States, Israel & The Palestinians ( Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1999).
39. William Blum, Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II (Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1995).
40. Jack Nelson-Pallmeyer, School of Assassins (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1999).
41. Charles Bergquist, et al., Violence in Columbia: The Contemporary Crisis in Historical Perspective (Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1992); W.M. Leo Grande and K. Sharpe, "A Plan, But No Clear Objective," Washington Post, April 1, 2001; Mark Cook, "Colombia, the Politics of Escalation," Covert Action Quarterly, Fall/Winter 1999.
42. Peter Wyden, Bay of Pigs: The Untold Story (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1979).
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Re: Addicted to War: Why the U.S. Can't Kick Militarism (Upd

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43. Richard Leonard, South Africa at War: White Power and the Crisis in Southern Africa (Westport, CT: Lawrence Hill, 1983); Richard Bloomfield, ed., Regional Conflict and U.S. Policy: Angola and Mozambique (Algonac, MI: Reference Publications, 1988); Alex Vines, RENAMO: Terrorism and Mozambique (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1991); Joseph Hanlon and James Currey, Mozambique: Who Calls the Shots? (London: Zed, 1991).
44. Regan cited in Black, p. 170.
45. John K. Cooley, Unholy Wars: Afghanistan, America and International Terrorism (London: Pluto Press, 2000).
46. Chalmers Johnson, "American Militarism and Blowback," in Carl Boggs, ed., Masters of War: Militarism and Blowback in the Era of American Empire (New York: Routledge, 2003), pp. 113-115.
47. National Security Council documenbt cited in New York times, Feb. 23, 1991.
48. Doug Ireland, "Press clips," Village Voice, Nov. 13, 1990.
49. Tim Wheeler, "Reagan, Noriega and citicorp," People's Daily World, Feb. 25, 1988.
50. Kenneth Sharpe and Joseph Treaster, "Cocaine is Again Surging Out of Panama," New York Times, Aug. 13, 1991.
51. tom Wicker, "What Price Panama?," New York Times, June 15, 1990; Nathaniel Sheppard, Jr., "Year Later Panama Still; Aches," Chicago Tribune, Dec. 16, 1990, p. 1; Associated Press, "Ex-Senator Says U.S. Massacred Panamanians" Chicago Tribune, Nov. 15, 1990.
52. Daniel Yergin, The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money and Power (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991), pp. 200-203; Michel Moushabeck, "Iraq: Years of turbulence," in Phyllis Bennis and Michel Moushabeck eds., Beyond the Storm: A Gulf Crisis Reader (New York: Olive Branch Press, 1991), pp. 26-28.
53. State Department statement cited in Joseph Gersen, et al., "The U.S. in the Middle East," in Gersen, ed., Deadly Connection, p. 167.
54. Michael Tanzer, The Energy Crisis: World Struggle for Power and Wealth (New York: Monthly Review, 1974).
55. The Ba'ath Party was soon thrown out of the government, but came back to power in a 1968 coup that was also aided by the CIA (Roger Morris, "A Tyrant 40 Years in the Making," New York Times, March 14, 2003; Moushabeck, pp. 29-30).
56. Kissinger cited in Hans von Sponek and Denis Halliday, "The Hostage Nation," The Guardian, Nov. 29, 2001.
57. Alan Friedman, Spider's Web: The Secret History of How the White House Illegally Armed Iraq (New York: Bantam Books, 1993); Clyde Farnsworth, "Military Exports to Iraq Under Scrutiny, Congressional Aides Say," New York Times, June 24, 1991; Michael Klare, "Behind Desert Storm: The New Military Paradigm," Technology Review, May-June 1991, p. 36; Philip Shenon, "Iraq Links Germs for Weapons to U.S. and France," New York Times, March 16, 2003.
58. Christopher Dickey and Evan Thomas, "How Saddam Happened," Newsweek,l Sept. 23, 2002; Elaine Sciolino, "Iraq Chemical Arms Condemned, But West Once Looked the Other Way," New York Times, Felbruary 13, 2003.
59. Philip Green "Who Really Shot Down Flight 655?" The Nation, Aug. 13-20, 1988, pp. 125-126.
60. Bush cited in Yergin, p. 773.
61. Hitchins; Bush cited in Newsweek, Jan. 7,. 1991, p. 19.
62. Michael Klare, "High Death Weapons of the gulf War," The Nation, June 3, 1991; Malcolm Browne, "Allies Are Said to Choose Napalm for Strikes on Iraqi Fortifications," New York times, Feb. 23, 1991; John Donnelly, "Iraqi cancers offer clues to Gulf War Syndrome: Uranium residue a prime suspect," Miami Herald, April 6, 1998.
63. Bush cited in Mitchel Cohen, "'What We Say Goes!': How Bush Senior Sold the Bombing of Iraq," Counterpunch, Dec. 28, 2002.
64. Middle East Watch, Needless Deaths in the Gulf War: Civilian Casualties During the Air Campaign and Violations of the Laws of War (New York: Human Rights Watch, 1991); Mark Fireman, "Eyewitnesses Report Misery, Devastation in the cities of Iraq," Seattle Times, Feb. 5, 1991); George Esper, "500 Die in Bombed Shelter in Baghdad," Chicago Sun Times, Feb. 13, 1991; David Evans, "Study: Hyperwar Devastated Iraq," Chicago Tribune, May 29, 1991.
65. "War Summary: Closing the Gate," New York Times, Feb. 28, 1991; Associated Press, "Army Tanks Buried Iraqi Soldiers Alive," Greeley Tribune, Sept. 12, 1991.
66. Bush cited in Robert Borosage, "How Bush kept the guns from turning into butter," Rolling Stone, Feb. 21, 1991, p. 20.
67. Ramsey Clark, The Fire This Time: U.S. War Crimes in the Gulf (New York: International Action Center, 2002), pp. 64-44, 209; Thomas Nagy, "The Secret Behind the Sanctions: How the U.S. Intentionally Destroyed Iraq's Water Supply," The Progressive, Sept. 2001.
68. John Pilger, "Collateral Damage," in Anthony Arnove, ed., Iraq Under Siege: The Deadly Impact of Sanctions and War (Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 2000), pp. 59-66.
69. Noam Chomsky, A New Generation Draws the Line: Kosovo, East Timor and the Standards of the West (London: Verso, 2001), p. 11.
70. Nick Wood, "U.S. 'Covered Up' for Kosovo Ally," London Observer, Sept. 10, 2000; Norman Kempster, "Crisis in Yugoslavia, Rebel Force May Prove to be a Difficult Ally," Los Angeles Times, April 1, 1999; Diana Johnstone, "hawks and Eagles: 'Greater NATO' Flies to the Aid of 'Greater Albania'", Covert Action Quarterly, Spring/summer, 1999, p. 6-12.
71. Noam Chomsky, the New Military Humanism: Lessons from Kosovo (Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1999).
72. Bin Laden cited in Wall Street Journal, Oct. 7, 2001.
73. Bush cited in "The President's Words," The Los Angeles Times, Sept. 22, 2001.
74. Bosch cited in Alexander Cockburn, "The Tribulations of Joe Doherty," Wall Street Journal, reprinted in the Congressional Record, Aug. 3, 1990, p. E2639.
75. Ibid; John Rice, "Man with CIA Links Accused of Plotting to Kill Castro," Associated Press, No. 18, 2000; Frances Robles and Glenn Garvin, "Four Held in Plot Against Castro," Miami Herald, Nov. 19, 2000; Jill Mullin, "The Burden of a Violent History," Miami New Times, April 20, 2000.
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76. Joe Conason, "The Bush Pardons," http://archive.salon.com/news/col/cona/ ... 7/pardons/.
77. Bosch cited in Cockburn.
78. Blum.
79. A limited field investigation documented 824 civilian deaths caused by the U.S.-led bombing campaign (www.globalexchange.org/countries/afghan ... report.pdf). A more comprehensive investigation based on press reports estimated that U.S. bombs killed between 3100 and 3600 Afghan civilians (Marc Herold, "U.S. bombing and Afghan civilian deaths: The official neglect of unworthy bodies," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Sept. 2002, pp. 626-634; also see: http://pubpages.unh.edu/~mwherold). Many more died because the bombing cut off relief supplies.
80. Seymour Hersh, "The Other War: Why Bush's Afghanistan problem won't go away," New Yorker, April 12, 2004.
81. Bush cited in Barry Horstmann, "We cannot wait for a mushroom cloud," Cincinnati Post, Oct. 8, 2002.
82. For a review of the manipulation of evidence, see Sheldon Rampton and John Stauber, Weapons of Mass Deception: The Uses of Propaganda in Bush's War on Iraq (JP Tarcher, July 2003). The broader purposes of the U.S. invasion of Iraq were advanced in a policy paper, Rebuilding America's Defenses, published by the Project for a New American Century in September 2000. PNAC members Dick Cheney, Donald Rumsfeld, Paul Wolfowitz, and Richard Perle, became key members of the incoming Bush Administration and the paper became a blueprint for the administration's aggressive foreign policy. The authors declared: "The United States has for decades sought to play a more permanent role in Gulf regional security. While the unresolved conflict with Iraq provides the immediate justification, the need for a substantial American force presence in the Gulf transcends the issue of the regime of Saddam Hussein." The paper can be found at: www.newamericancentury.org.
83. An Associated Press research team surveyed the records of 60 Iraqi hospitals (less than half the total number) and found unambiguous evidence of at least 3,240 war-related civilian deaths (Niko Price, "First Tally Puts Iraqi Civilian Deaths at 3240," Atlanta Journal-Constitution, June 10, 2003). A careful survey of press reports indicated that between 9,137 and 10,994 Iraqi civilians had been killed as of mid-May 2004 (www.iraqbodycount.net).
84. Unnamed senior Bush Administration official cited in "Pentagon Expects Long-Term Access to Key Iraq Bases," New York Times, April 20, 2003.
85. Pressure to convert Iraq into a base for U.S. troops presumably increased after it became clear that the U.S. military would have to leave Saudi Arabia (see David Rennie, "America to Withdraw Troops from Saudi Arabia," Telegraph, April 30, 2003). For a discussion of the strategic importance of oil reserves in Iraq and the rest of the Middle East, see Michael Klare, Resource Wars: The New Landscape of Global Conflict (New York: Henry Holt, 2001).
86. Kareem Fahim, "Recalling Ahmed Chalabi," Village voice, April 9-15, 2003; John Cassidy, "Beneath the sand: Can a shattered country be rebuilt with oil?" New Yorker, July 14, 2003. Chalabi cited in "In Iraqi War Scenario, Oil is a Key Issue," Washington Post, Sept. 15, 2002. Although Chalabi continues to favor privatization of the oil industry, U.S. officials abandoned the idea of privatizatino in the oil sphere, at least for now, so as not to fan anti-American sentiments (Chip Cummins, "State-run oil company is being weighed for Iraq," Wall Street Journal, Jan. 7, 2004).
87. Powell cited in The Economist, April 5, 2003, For an analysis of the results of other instances of "regime change" initiated by the U.S., see William Blum, Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II (Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1995).
88. Sabrina Tavernise, "U.S. Tells Iraq Oil Ministers Not to Act Without Its OK," New York Times, April 30, 2003; "To the victor go the spoils in Iraq Reconstruction," Reuters, April 15, 2003; "The Oil Spoils," The Nation, June 16, 2003.
89. Edward Wong, "Direct Election of Iraq Assembly Pushed by Cleric," New York Times, Jan. 12, 2004; Steven Weisman, "Bush Team Revising Planning for Iraqi Self-Rule," New York times, Jan. 13, 2004. Bremer cited in Booth and Chandrasekaran, "Occupation Forces Halting Elections Throughout Iraq," Washington Post, June 28, 2003.
90. Seymour Hersh, "Torture at Abu Ghraib," New Yorker, May 10, 2004. Prisoners held by the U.S. military in Afghanistan and in Guantanamo, Cuba were treated in similar fashion, indicating systemic practices of torture and abuse approved at the highest levels (Seymour Hersh, "The Gray Zone," New Yorker, May 24, 2004.)
91. Ashcroft continued: "[W]e will help make that freedom permanent by assisting them to establish an equitable criminal justice system based on the rule of law and standards of basic human rights." One of the team selected by Ashcroft, Lane McCotter, had been forced to resign as director of Utah prisons after a prisoner abuse scandal. He was assigned to rehabilitate Hussein's infamous Abu Ghraib prison, which soon gained renewed notoriety in American hands (Fox Butterfield, "Mistreatment of Prisoners is Called Routine in U.S.," New York times, May 8, 2004).
92. Alex Gourevitch, "Exporting Censorship to Iraq," American Prospect, Oct. 1, 2003; Amnesty International, Iraq: One Year on the Human Rights Situation Remains dire (web.amnesty.org)
93. Bush cited in "U.S. Attributes Explosion at Iraqi Mosque to Bomb-Making Activity," New York Times, July 3. 2003.
94. BBC News, "Picture Emerges of Falluja Siege," April 23, 2004 (www.bbc.co.uk).
95. Unnamed American soldier quoted in David Rhode, "Search for Guns in Iraq and Surprise Under a Robe," New York times, June 3, 2003.
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