Hitler's Jewish Soldiers: The Untold Story of Nazi Racial La

"Science," the Greek word for knowledge, when appended to the word "political," creates what seems like an oxymoron. For who could claim to know politics? More complicated than any game, most people who play it become addicts and die without understanding what they were addicted to. The rest of us suffer under their malpractice as our "leaders." A truer case of the blind leading the blind could not be found. Plumb the depths of confusion here.

Re: Hitler's Jewish Soldiers: The Untold Story of Nazi Racia

Postby admin » Tue May 01, 2018 8:03 am

CHAPTER 7: EXEMPTIONS FROM THE RACIAL LAWS GRANTED BY HITLER

1. Many interviewees, fellow students, and academics have expressed this view.

2. Ibid.

3. Hamann, pp. 71-77; Kershaw, Profiles in Power, p. 19; Redlich, pp. 11-13; Victor, pp. 9, 13, 16, 123.

4. Discussion with Dr. Fritz Redlich at his home in Connecticut on 23 September 2000. See also Monologe im Fuhrerhauptquartier, 1941-1944, p. 357.

5. Kershaw, Hitler, 1889-1936, p. xxv.

6. Hamann, pp. 8, 73-76; Redlich, pp. 6-8, 11, 223-224, 255; Robert G. L. Waite, The Psychopathic God Adolf Hitler (New York, 1977), p. 131.

7. Victor, p. 8; Redlich, pp. 34, 43, 46, 82, 99; Bormann Lang, p. 119.

8. Hamann, p. 76; Maser, p. 21; Bormann Lang, pp. 129-30. For more about Patrick Hitler, see Kershaw, Hitler, 1889-1936, pp. 8-9, 604 n. 28.

9. Redlich, pp. 11, 224, 255.

10. Maser, pp. 15, 36-38; Redlich, p. 6.

11. Redlich, pp. 7-8; Maser, p. 17; Victor, p. 20; Heiden, p. 43.

12. Kershaw, Hitler, 1889-1936, pp. 351-53; Redlich, pp. 79-80, 285-86; Victor, p. 154.

13. Redlich, pp. 9, 257; Maser, p. 61; Heiden, p. 43.

14. Maser, pp. 315, 598-622. Maser is convinced that Hitler fathered an illegitimate son, Jean Marie Loret, during World War I.

15. Waite, pp. 33, 127-37.

16. Kershaw, Hitler, 1889-1936, p. ll; Redlich, pp. 10, 255-56; Victor, p. 22.

17. Maser, pp. 36-37.

18. Kershaw, Hitler, 1889-1936, p. 13; Hamann, p. 16; Redlich, p. 258; Maser, p. 329; Victor, pp. 19-20, 23, 29.

19. Victor, pp. 20, 22.

20. Redlich, pp. 7-8, 223, 256, 281; Victor, p. 20.

21. Kershaw, Profiles in Power, p. 19; Redlich, pp. 6, 11-13, 256; Ralph Giordano, Wenn Hitler den Krieg gewonnen hatte (Hamburg, 1989), p. 103; Victor, pp. 20; Waite, pp. 33, 127-37.

22. Kershaw, Hitler, 1889-1936, p. 7; Hamann, p. 268; Maser, p. 14.

23. Kershaw, Hitler, 1889-1936, p. 7.

24. Victor, p. 17; Hansjurgen Koehler, Inside Information (London, 1940); Hans Frank, Im Angesicht des Galgens (Schliersee, 1955).

25. Victor, pp. 17, 155.

26. Koehler, pp. 145-49. Koehler claims that while he worked under Heydrich, he came across a file created by the chancellors of the Austrian Republic, Engelbert Dollfuss and Kurt von Schuschnigg, both political enemies of Hitler, that claimed that Hitler's grandmother had worked in the Rothschilds' mansion in Vienna, where she became pregnant.

27. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Niklas Frank, 16.10.1996, T-227. See also Maser, pp. 46-47, 269. Frank had even claimed after the war that he was part Jewish. Joseph E. Persico, Nuremberg: Infamy on Trial (New York, 1994), p. 22. Frank's son, Niklas, states that no documents have been found to prove that his family has Jewish ancestry. BA-MA, BMRS, interview N. Frank.

28. Kershaw, Hitler, 1889-1936, p. 9.

29. Waite, p. 127.

30. Supposedly, no records are available to confirm or disprove whether there was a Jewish family by the name of Frankenberger in Graz during this time. According to Kershaw, there were no Jews called Frankenberger in Graz during the 1830S. Moreover, Jews were not allowed in the whole of Styria (Steiermark) because they were not allowed to live in that part of Austria until the 1860s. Kershaw, Hitler, 1889-1936, p. 8. See also Redlich, p. 12; Maser, p. 27.

31. Victor, p. 17.

32. Hamann, pp. 72-74; Redlich, pp. 11, 257; Waite, pp. 130-31; Speer, p. 117; Bracher, pp. 58, 64. There has been much speculation that the town was destroyed by the Russians after the war. The sources are unclear on this point. It is possible that both the Russians and Hitler did their fair share of destruction for their own reasons. Most likely, as mentioned earlier, Hitler had documents from Dollersheim removed and destroyed. Hitler may have known that the parish priest of Dollersheim had altered Hitler's father's birth register by marking out the name Schicklgruber, "replacing 'out of wedlock' by 'within wedlock, ' and entering 'Georg Hitler' in the hitherto empty box for the father's name." Kershaw, Hitler, 1889-1936, p. 5; Redlich, pp. 7-8. See also Maser, pp. 23-24.

33. Redlich, p. 11.

34. Kershaw, Hitler, 1889-1936, p. 86. Hitler's evasion of the Austrian draft does not mean he was a coward. His war record as a dispatch runner in the German army during World War I, where he was wounded three times and awarded both the EKII and EKI (unusual for a corporal), was proof that he was indeed a brave soldier. Kershaw, Hitler, 1889-1936, pp. 91-97; Redlich, pp. 40, 259; O'Neill, p. 5; Keegan, Mask of Command, p. 236.

35. Bormann Lang, p. 119.

36. Victor, pp. 13-14, 17, 147.

37. Redlich, p. 320. See also Monologe im Fuhrerhauptquartier, 1941-1944, p. 310.

38. Waite, p. 129. See also Monologe im Fuhrerhauptquartier, 1941-1944, p. 293.

39. Secretary of Treasury (Reichsfinanzminister) Matthias Erzberger was the leader of the Catholic Zentrum party and was perhaps one of the most hated members of the Middle by the Right in Germany. He had advocated peace at the end of World War I and had attacked the military leadership in the Reichstag during the war. He was assassinated in August 1921. Bauer, p. 78. Craig, Prussian Army, pp. 325, 368.

40. Persico, pp. 327-29; Redlich, pp. 13, 320; Kershaw, Hitler, 1889-1936, p. 569; Friedlander, p. 150; Victor, pp. 18, 125.

41. Redlich, pp. 320, 116, n. 72.

42. BA-B, NS 6/ 487, Bl. 4. See also Maser, p. 388.

43. Redlich, pp. 3, 223-24.

44. Ibid., p. 11.

45. Redlich, pp. 11-12, 72; Giordano, p. 103.

46. Maser, p. 323; Redlich, pp. 78, 284.

47. Hamann, pp. 53-57; Redlich, pp. 22, 115, 323; Victor, p. 41.

48. Heeresadjutant bei Hitler, pp. 31-32.

49. Kershaw, Hitler, 1889-1936, p. 96; Bauer, p. 81; Stern, pp. 161-62; Maser, p. 144; Joachim c. Fest, Hitler (Frankfurt, 1987), p. 103.

50. Kershaw, Hitler, 1889-1936, p. 348; Cooper, German Army, p. 20; Frei, p. 14; Victor, p. 78. Hitler not only knew about the homosexuality of the commander of the SA, Ernst Rohm, but also knew that several of Rohm's lieutenants (e.g., SA leader Edmund Heines) were also "notorious" homosexuals. Kershaw, Hitler, 1889-1936, p. 514; Redlich, pp. 98-99, 273; Friedlander, p. 208.

51. Kershaw, Hitler, 1889-1936, p. 348; Bormann Lang, p. 65.

52. The name Izzy or Isi, derived from the Jewish name Itzig, may have achieved its popular usage as denoting a "dirty Jew" from books such as Gustav Freytag's Debit and Credit (Soll und Haben), published in 1855. Freytag's widely read book portrayed the Jewish merchant Veitalltzig as everything a Nazi would view a Jew as being: dirty, dishonest, and evil. Course on German literature taken with Professor Liselotte Davis at Yale University, spring 1994.

53. Gunther Deschner, Reinhard Heydrich (Berlin, 1987), p. 67; Victor, p. 146. Another biography on Heydrich, which thoroughly deals with Heydrich's supposed Jewish ancestry, was written by Shlomo Aronson: Reinhard Heydrich und die Fruhgeschichte van Gestapo und SD (Stuttgart, 1971). This book is often referred to in order to refute the claim that Heydrich may have been Jewish. See Aronson, pp. 12-17. Historian and professor Hugh Trevor-Roper of Oxford believed that Heydrich did have Jewish ancestry. See G. S. Graber, The Life and Times of Reinhard Heydrich (New York, 1980), p. 81. See also Cornberg and Steiner, p. 161.

54. BA-MA, N 656/9, Bl. 9, p. 3.

55. Call um MacDonald, The Killing of SS Obergruppenfuhrer Reinhard Heydrich (New York, 1989), p. 11.

56. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Joachim Schaper, 25.05.1997, T-351. This seemed to be the general belief in Halle. See Edouard Calic, Reinhard Heydrich: The Chilling Story of the Man Who Masterminded the Nazi Death Camps (New York), 1985, p. 21.

57. Calic, p. 22. The Gauleiter of Halle, Rudolf Jordan, believed that Heydrich's father was Jewish. He cited Riemanns Musik Lexikon from 1916 for proof. He stated that next to Bruno Heydrich's name was the statement that his last name should actually be "Suss." BA-B, NS 22/1051.

58. Felix Kersten, The Kersten Memoirs, 1940-1945 (New York, 1957), pp. 96-97. Joachim Fest believes that Kersten's memoirs have "so far stood up to all checks." Fest believes that they prove that Himmler definitely believed that Heydrich was of Jewish descent. Fest, Face, pp. 335-37, n. II. Professor Richard Evans of Cambridge University believes Kersten's memoirs are full of errors and need to be used with caution. Calic believes that Kersten only "tried to exonerate the SS by claiming that" Heydrich was responsible for the mass murder of Jews and that his murderous lust to kill Jews resulted from "an inferiority complex produced" by his knowledge that he was partially Jewish (Calic, p. 52). This study believes that the memoirs can be used to show that there were many around Heydrich, among them Hitler and Himmler, who may have believed he was Jewish, which must have had a severe effect on Heydrich.

59. Speer, p. 146.

60. Fest, Face, p. 101.

61. Helmut Maurer, Van Mensch zu Mensch. In Canaris' Abwehr (Berlin, 1975), p. 125; Snyder, p. 145.

62. Maurer, pp. 124-26; Charles Wighton, Heydrich: Hitler's Most Evil Henchman (London, 1962), p. 25; Fest, Face, p. 105 n. 26; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Alexander Stahlberg, 3-4.12.1994, T-68; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Theodor Oberlander, 19.09.1994, T-23; Engelmann, pp. 210-11; Walter Schellenberg, The Schellenberg Memoirs (London, 1956), p. 207. Schellenberg's memoirs need to be looked at with caution, since he was fighting for his life when he wrote them and was doing everything he could to cover up his past. Another dubious work that mentions Heydrich's possible Jewish past is that of SS officer Wilhelm Hoettl. See Wilhelm Hoettl, The Secret Front: The Story of Nazi Political Espionage (New York, 1954), pp. 20-30. See Hilberg, p. 677, about Hoettl.

63. BA-MA, N 179, Milchs Tagebucher, Notiz vom 31.01.1933.

64. Office of the United States Chief Counsel for Prosecution of Axis Criminality, ed., U.S.A. Military Tribunals: Case No. 1-2, Nuremberg Trials (Nuremberg, 1949), p. 1776.

65. BA-MA, N 179, Milchs Tagebucher, Notiz vom 01.11.1933, Bl. 46; BA-B, R 15.09/90, Bl. 2, Goring an den Leiter der Reichsstelle fur Sippenforschung, 07.08.1935; BA-MA, BMRS, File Erhard Milch, Heft III; BA-MA, Pers 8-385 Horst Boog uber Erhard Milch, Die Militarelite, p. 351; Wistrich, p. 210; Heiden, p. 500.

66. Williamson Murray, Luftwaffe (Baltimore, 1985), pp. 6-7.

67. Corum, Luftwaffe, pp. 161-62. See also Murray, p. 9.

68. Corum, Luftwaffe, p. 181.

69. Cooper, German Air-Force, p. 13.

70. Adam R. A. Claasen, Hitler's Northern War: The Luftwaffe's Ill-Fated Campaign, 1940-1945 (Kansas, 2001), pp. 99-100.

7 I. Ibid., pp. 121, 140.

72. Ibid., p. 140.

73. Joel S. A. Hayward, Stopped at Stalingrad: The Luftwaffe and Hitler's Defeat in the East, 1942-1943 (Kansas, 1998), p. 286.

74. Hayward, pp. 286-310; Murray, p. 148.

75. Heiden, p. 352.

76. Hajo Herrmann, Eagle's Wings (England, 1991), pp. 38-43; James S. Corum, The Roots of Blitzkrieg (Kansas, 1992), pp. 144-68; Corum, Luftwaffe, pp. 30, 34, 52, 59-61, 125-27, 142-46, 180; James S. Corum, "The Old Eagle as Phoenix: The Luftstreitkrufte Creates an Operational Air War Doctrine, 1919-1920, " Air Power History, (1992): 13-21; Cooper, German Air-Force, pp. 39, 379-89; Dr. A. Baeumker, Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Fuhrung der deutschen Luftfahrttechnik im ersten halben Jahrhundert 1900-1945, Heft XXXXIV der Schriftenreihe "Langfristiges Planen der Forschung und Entwicklung"(Juli 1971); Helmut Wilberg, Absehliefiender flieger=Erfahrungsberieht uber die Schlacht in flandern (Gedruckt in der Buch- und Steindruckerei der Artillerie-fliegerschule Ost I); Hildebrand, pp. 513-14.

77. Corum, Roots of Blitzkrieg, p. 152.

78. Ibid., p. 153.

79. Ibid., p. 151.

80. Ibid., p. 162. Wilberg was instrumental in making arrangements with the Soviets to allow German pilots to train at the Russian air base of Lipetsk.

81. Ibid., p. 167. The manual was called Luftwaffe Regulation 16, The Conduct of Air Operations (Luftkriegsfuhrung).

82. Ibid., p. 168.

83. The Condor Legion "comprised of four fighter-bomber, four fighter, one reconnaissance, and two seaplane squadrons detached from the Luftwaffe." Craig, Prussian Army, p. 487.

84. BA-MA, N 76I!7, Bl. 2, Bericht General Erwin Jaenecke; Herbert Molly Mason Jr., The Rise of the Luftwaffe (New York, 1973), pp. 168-71, 218-21; Corum, Luftwaffe, pp. 147, 183-84, 219-21. The office in Berlin that conducted the operations for the Condor Legion was called Sonderstab W (Special Office W; the W is for Wilberg).

85. BA-MA, N 761/7, Bl. 1-3, Bericht General Erwin Jaenecke.

86. BA-MA, BMRS, File Achim von Bredow, Heft II, Bl.55, Bredow an seine Mutter, 24.10.1941.

87. General Studnitz commanded the Eighty-seventh Infantry Division that invaded Russia in 1941 with Field Marshal Ritter von Leeb's Army Group North.

88. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Wilhelm von Gwinner, 17.11.1994, T-53; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Wilhelm von Gwinner, 16.12.1996, T-280.

89. BA-MA, N 379/ 260, Lebram an Ruge, 10.04.1976.

90. BA-MA, N 379/ 260, Lebram an Ruge, 10'04.1976; BA-MA, N 328/32, Forste an Ehrhardt, 12.12.56.

91. Cajus Bekker, Hitler's Naval War (New York, 1977), p. 70; M. J. Whitley, Destroyer! German Destroyers in World War II (Maryland, 1983), pp. 118, 130; BA-MA, BMRS, File Georg Langheld. For example, from 10 October 1942 until 9 April 1943, Langheld was fleet commander of the Fourth Destroyer Flotilla. From January 1944 until April 1944, he was fleet commander of the Eighth Destroyer Flotilla, and from 20 April 1944 until 10 May 1945, he was fleet commander of the Fifth Destroyer Flotilla.

92. Kurt Pritzkoleit, Die Neuen Herren (Munchen, 1955), pp. 96-97; Meyer, p. 152; Corn berg and Steiner, p. 156.

93. Friedlander, pp. 52-53, 153; Stoltzfus, Resistance, p. viii; Corn berg and Steiner, p. 159.

94. BA-B, R 21/874-878, Bl. 103.

95. Lorzer and Goring had served together during World War I as pilots and were good friends.

96. BA-MA, BMRS, File Lt. Franzel, Bl. 2.

97. Meyer, p. 152; Gerhard Bracke, Melitta Grafin Stauffenberg. Das Leben einer Fliegerin (Munchen, 1990); BA-MA, BMRS, File H. Lange. She flew over twenty-five hundred Sturzfluge with the Stuka dive-bombers Ju 87 and Ju 88. Goring also awarded her the Gold Military Flyer Medal with diamonds and rubies. In 1945, she was shot down by an American fighter.

98. Nazism, 1919-1945, vol. 4, p. 31.

99. Oberfusilier is a private.

100. General von Briesen and Keitel were good friends, which must have also played a role in helping Rudiger von Briesen to get the Genehmigung. This especially could have been the case, since Hitler thought highly of General von Briesen. See Keitel, p. 95.

101. BA-A, Sammlung Judische Soldaten, Oberst v. Briesen, Kommandant von Prag, an einen ungenannten Regimentskommandeur, 07.11.1940; BA-MA, BMRS, File v. Briesen.

102. Thomas, p. 103, n. 39. Nevertheless, Raeder's son-in-law found it advisable to live abroad during the Third Reich.

103. Erich Raeder, Mein Leben. Von 1935 bis Spandau 1955 (Tubingen, 1957), p. 112.

104. BA-B, NS 6/78, Bl. 13-14, Der Stellvertreter des Fuhrers an Gauleiter des Gaues Schleswig-Holstein der NSDAP, Pg. Hinrich Lohse, 03.09.1938, Abschrift von Schreiben Hitlers uber Konteradmiral a.D. Karl Kuhlenthal, 06.07.1938.

105. BA-MA, N 328/20, Kuhlenthal an Forste, 28.10.1950.

106. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Gerhart von Gierke, 05.04.1997, T-344; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Rolf von Gierke, 29.11.1997, T-414.

107. Information gained from Dr. Georg Meyer of the Militargeschichtliches Forschungsamt (Military Research Center), Potsdam/Freiburg, March 1998, "Gluckliche Mischung aus preuBischem Charme und judischer Bescheidenheit."

108. Bernd Gericke, ed., Die lnhaber des Deutschen Kreuzes in Gold, des Deutschen Kreuzes in Silber der Kriegsmarine (Osnabruck, 1993), p. 201.

109. BA-MA, N 328/32, Raeder an Katz, 06.01.1940.

110. Ibid., Bestatigung fur Katz, 06.01.1940.

111. Lieutenant field marshal (Feldmarschalleutnant) is a general's rank. It is the equivalent to the British rank of lieutenant general (Generalleutnant in the Wehrmacht) and was used in the Habsburg monarchy until 1918. From 1918 until 1920, it was used in the Volkswehr of Austria. Afterward, the rank was not used throughout the 1920s and early 1930s. In 1933, the Austrian military (Osterreichisches Bundesheer) reinstated the rank until its incorporation into the Wehrmacht in March of 1938. See 1918-1968 Die Streitkrdfte der Republik Osterreich. Katalog zur Sonderausstellung im Heeresgeschichtlichen Museum Wien 1968 (hrsg.), Heeresgeschichtlichen Museum/Militarwissenschaftlichen Institut Wien (Wien, 1968), pp. 149-57.

112. Johann Friedlander distinguished himself on the General Staff before and during World War I. After 1928, he "headed the defense ministry's department of training, equipment and education." In 1936, he was transferred to the inspector general's office. He retired in 1937. Schmidl, p. 148.

113. As the Russians invaded Poland, where many of the death camps were located, the Nazis evacuated the camps and forced the inmates to walk long distances to concentration camps in the West. During these forced marches, called "death marches, " many of the inmates died of exhaustion and disease. Many also were executed on the side of the road.

114. Senekowitsch, Feldmarschalleutnant Johann Friedlander, pp. 20-28; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Posselt.

115. Office of the United States Chief Counsel for Prosecution of Axis Criminality, ed., Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, Supplement B (Washington, D.C.), 1946, p. 1, 246. This man was probably Ribbentrop's personal physician, Dr. Oscar Bosch. According to family friends, Bosch's contact with Ribbentrop saved Bosch's mother. BA-MA, BMRS, File Oscar Bosch, Bl. 4-5. If it was not Bosch, then it might have been SS Captain Thorner. He was Ribbentrop's secretary in London and a "12.5 percent Jew." Ribbentrop had helped Thorner by taking his case personally to Hitler. John Weitz, Hitler's Diplomat: The Life and Times of Joachim von Ribbentrop (New York, 1992), p. 132.

116. Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression: Supplement B, p. 1, 246.

117. Kesselring: BA-MA, N 431/1154, Beglaubigte Abschrift von Irmgard Horn, 18.03.1947; Sauckel: BA-MA, BMRS, File Hans Sander; Lammers: BA-MA, BMRS, File Ernst Prager and BA-B, Reichskanzlei 7.01 41 12, Bl. 363-65; Canaris: BA-MA, BMRS, File Robert Borchardt, BA-MA, BMRS, File Ernst Bloch; Bormann/Heydrich: BA-MA, WF-ol/r0230; Donitz: Messerschmidt, p. 356, BA-MA, BMRS, File di Simoni; Ribbentrop: BA-MA, BMRS, File Joachim von Ribbentrop, BA-MA, BMRS, File Bosch; v. Manstein, Schmundt v. Gottberg and Raeder: documented throughout this book; v. Schirach: Krackow, p. 98; BA-MA, BMRS, interviews]. Krackow; BA-MA, BMRS, interview R. Krackow; Kaltenbrunner: BA-MA, BMRS, interview Koref.

118. Meyer, p. 152; Cornberg and Steiner, p. 148.

119. Gilbert, Holocaust, p. 615; Craig, Germany, 1866-1945, p. 750.

120. Clark, pp. 339-40. Pringsheim was a well-known professor for Roman and German civil rights in Freiburg and Gottingen, and then in Oxford from 1939 to 1946.

121. Even Adolf Eichmann helped save a half-Jewish cousin and a Jewish couple in Vienna; in addition, he had a Jewish stepmother. While working in Vienna in the late 1930s, Eichmann had a Jewish mistress, an old flame from his youth. Arendt, pp. 30, 88, 137. Eichmann was not alone in committing Rassenschande among the Nazi elite. The famous Stuka pilot and fanatic Nazi, Luftwaffe Colonel Hans-Ulrich Rudel, had a half-Jewish lover, Frau Erika Leykam, during the war. Personal interview conducted with Leykam by Gunter Czernetzky, director of the film project ZeitZeugen Video in Munich; BA-MA, BMRS, File Erika Leykam. Alfred Rosenberg, the Nazi racial theorist and Reich minister of eastern regions, also had a Jewish mislress. Wighton, p. 126.

122. Hitler renamed Lodz Litzmannstadt in honor of General Litzmann. Benz, p. 49. General Litzmann had become famous in 1914 during World War I for breaking through the Russian front near Lodz. He conquered the fortress Brest-Litovsk.

123. They actually were "18.75" Jewish and thus, according to Nazi practice with racial policy, regarded as quarter-Jews.

124. BA-MA, BMRS, File Walter Lehweg-Litzmann, Bl. 7, Stammbaum Lehweg- Litzmann, Bl. II, and Bl. 37, Der Kommandierende General des VIII. Fliegerkorps an Frau Dr. med. Lehweg-Litzmann, OLI 1.1941; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Jam Lehweg-Litzmann, 27.05-1997, T-354.

125. Die Trager des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes, 1939-1945. Die Inhaber der hochsten Auszeiehnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges alter Wehrmachtteile (Osnabruck, 1993), p. 166. Walter Lehweg-Litzmann became a General Staff officer and a squadron commander.

126. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Friedrich Rubien, 27.07.1997, T-394.

127. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Rubien. According to Rubien, the family member Senator Fritz Beindorff paid this amount.

128. Goebbels Diaries, 1942-1943, p. 285.

129. BA-MA, BMRS, File Werner Bujakowsky, Bl. 16.

130. BA-MA, BMRS, File Ludwig Mayer, Bl. 23, Telegram M. Steinhardt to Mayer 27.09.1935, Bl. 25, H. Mayer an ihre Mutter, 06.10.1935 and Bl.30, H. Mayer to v. Tschammer, October 1935.

131. BA-MA, BMRS, File Ludwig Mayer, Bl. 31, H. Mayer to Mr. Avery Brundage, president of the American Olympic Committee, 26.10.1935, Bl. 35, H. Mayer to Dr. Aurelia Henry Reinhardt, 10.12.1935.

132. Klemperer, Buch 1, 12.08.1936, pp. 292-93.

133. BA-MA, BMRS, File Mayer, Bl. 31; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Erika Mayer; Shirer, Nighmare Years, pp. 230-33. See also Friedlander, p. 181.

134. BA-MA, BMRS, File Mayer, Bl. 35; Yahil, p. 71.

135. Apparently, after the women's fencing event was over, Hitler refused to congratulate Mayer; Iona Elek, the gold medalist from Hungary; and Ellen Preis, the bronze medalist from Austria, because they were all of Jewish descent. Engelmann, opp. p. 353.

136. Friedlander, p. 181. Several reports state tliat Ball was half-Jewish (Cornberg and Steiner, p. 160). Since Friedlander is an authority on German Jews, his data has been taken for Ball's case.

137. BA-MA, BMRS, File Wolfgang Furstner; Richard D. Mandell, The Nazi Olympics (New York, 1971), pp. 88, 93, He committed suicide in 1936 because of the persecution he experienced as a half-Jew.

138. Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk, Personliche Erinnerungen: II. Teil, 25 Jahre Berlin, 1930-1945 (Essen, 1973), p. 173; Cornberg and Steiner, pp. 159-60; Vuletic, p. 22, n. 37. Lewald was the man who introduced the tradition of carrying the torch from Olympia in Greece to the host city.

139. Mandell, pp. 71-77. Gretel Bergmann, a German athlete of Jewish descent, was not as lucky as Mayer or Ball. Two weeks before the Games, the Nazis informed her that she could not participate because of her Jewish ancestry. She was predicted to win the gold in the high jump, had she been allowed to compete. See also Friedlander, p. 181.

140. Keegan, Second World War, p. 486; Keegan, Mask of Command, p. 281.

141. Hitler, Mein Kampf, pp. 290-91. See also Hitlers Tischgesprache im Fuhrerhauptquartier, p. 310.

142. Speer, p. 145. See also Goebbels Diaries, 1942-1943, pp. 51, 60; John W. Dower, War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War (New York, 1986), p. 207.

143. Hilberg, p. 45; Lauren, p. 124, Stoltzfus, Resistance, p. 42; Dower, pp. 207, 269; Yahil, p. 71.

144. Snyder, p. 170; Craig, Germany, 1866-1945, p. 696.

145. Snyder, p. 170; see also H. R. Trevor-Roper, The Last Days of Hitler (New York, 1947), pp. 21-22; Otto Klineberg, "Racialism in Nazi Germany, " in The Third Reich, ed. Maurice Baumont, John H. E. Fried and Edmond Vermeil (New York, 1955), p. 859; Dower, p. 269; Goebbels Diaries, 1942-1943, pp. 77, 79, 86, 91. Hitler called the Japanese the "Prussians of the East." Hitlers Tischgesprache im Fuhrerhauptquartier, p. 398, n. 388.

146. Goebbels Diaries, 1942-1943, p. 138; Redlich, p. 149; Kershaw, Hitler, 1936- 1945, p. 504.

147. Otto Klineberg, "Racialism in Nazi Germany, " in The Third Reich, p. 859.

148. The mufti left Beirut in 1939, took up residence in Baghdad, and put himself at the pro-Axis political effort there, which culminated in a "pro-Axis coup" in 1941. The mufti proclaimed over the airways a jihad (holy war) against the British, who were occupying Iraq at the time. Although the Germans promised support, it did not arrive in time, and the mufti and his forces were defeated. After the defeat, the mufti left for Berlin in September 1941. The mufti stayed in Germany until the end of the war. Conor Cruise O'Brien, The Siege: The Saga of Israel and Zionism (New York, 1986), pp. 250-52.

149. Lepre, p. 31.

150. Hitler had promised Hajj Amin el-Husseini that he would slaughter the Jewish community in Palestine once German forces had taken over that area. Weinberg, Germany, Hitler, p. 220; Browning, Nazi Policy, Jewish Workers, pp.49-50.

151. Bauer, p. 44.

152. O'Brien, pp. 251-52. Hitler felt that Arab men with blond hair and blue eyes were descendants of the Vandals who had occupied northern Africa. Monologe im Fuhrerhauptquartier 1941-1944, p. 124.

153. Hitlers Tischgesprache im Fuhrerhauptquartier, p. 403. As translated in O'Brien, pp. 251-52. Hitler even claimed that Turkey's leader Ataturk could not have descended from the Turks because he had blue eyes. Monologe im Fuhrerhauptquartier, 1941-1944, p. 217.

154. Hilberg, p. 7; BA-B, NS 19/3134, Bl. 1-2; Maser, p. 282; Hitlers Tischgesprache im Fuhrerhauptquartier, Einfuhrung von Picker, p. 45; Bormann Lang, p. 156; Dimont, pp. 331-32.

155. Horst von McGraw, The Evolution of Hitler's Germany (New York, (973), p. 56; Monologe im Fuhrerhauptquartier, 1941-1944, pp. 96-99, 412-13; Redlich, p. 309; Friedlander, pp. 102, 177; The Speeches of Adolf Hitler, vol I, p. 19.

156. Institut zur Erforschung und Beseitigung des judischen Einflusses auf das deutsche kirchliche Leben. See Friedlander, pp. 326-27.

157. Bauer, p. 133; Redlich, p. 302; Burleigh, pp. 13-14, 259-60.

158. Omer Bartov, Hitler's Army (New York, 199 I), pp. 14, 39; see also Megargee, p. 174.

159. Rudiger Overmans, Deutsche militarische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg (Munchen, 1999), pp. 266, 278.

160. BA-MA, BMRS, File Gert Beschutz, Bl. 3.

161. BA-MA, N 328/45, Ehrhardt an Forste, 14.11.1956; Heeresadjutant bei Hitler, p. 32; Noakes, "Development of Nazi Policy, " pp. 316, 333.

162. BA-MA, N 328/45, Ehrhardt an Forste, 14.11.1956.

163. Heeresadjutant bei Hitler, pp. 121-22, n. 375; BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 140, Engel an Blankenburg, 17.06.1942.

164. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Gert Ascher, 17.11.1997, T-408; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Ursula Ascher, 17.11.1997, T-409.

165. BA-MA, BMRS, File Heinrici, Heft I, Bl. 21, Dr. Heinrici an Rigg, 05-12.1995; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Dr. Heinrici, 16'05-1996, T-203.

166. Ibid.

167. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 140, Engel an Blankenburg, 17.06.1942.

168. BA-MA, WF01/10230, Bl. 1-2, Engel an Kapitan z.S. a.D. Vanselow, 19.11.1940.

169. BA-MA, N 118/4.

170. Deutsche Arbeitsfront (DAF) (German Labor Front).

171. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 93, Engel an die Kanzlei des Fuhrers der NSDAP, 26.09.1941.

172. Stufe means "level." For example, Stufe III wounded soldiers had lost either an arm, a leg, or both feet-to name just a few of the wounds that qualified a soldier for this classification. These soldiers also received fifty Reichsmarks a month. BA-MA, RH 12-23/834, p. 93.

173. Absolon, Wehrgesetz und Wehrdienst, p. 120; See also BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. 1 83, Bl. 91-92, Parteikanzlei, Beforderung von Schwerstbeschadigten, 11.10.1941.

174. This number was probably small because only those who applied were considered for the exemption. In other words, once a Mischlinge was injured, he did not get an exemption de facto. He, like any other Mischlinge attempting to receive an exemption, had to apply for it.

175. BA-B, R 2I!448, Bl. 34, Der Reichsminister des Innern (Schonfeldt) an Rust, 20.02.1942.

176. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 72.

177. Ibid., Bl. 73, OKW an Kanzlei des Fuhrers, 16.09.1943.

178. Ibid., Bl. 67b, "Judische Mischlinge im Wehrdienst, " von Blankenburg.

179. BA -MA, BMRS, File Bamberger, Bl. 2, Lammers und Keitel an Bamberger, 17.08.1943 and Bl. 35-36, Autobiographie.

180. See BA-B, R 21-448, Bl. 35, von Schonfeldt an Rust, 20.2.1942.

181. BA-MA, BMRS, File Emil Lux, Heft IV, Bl. 8. Knoll/Hochschule fur Welthandel an Regierungsdirektor Dr. Kock, 20.07.1944, and Bl. 12, OKW an Rust, 08.10.1943; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Lux. While Lux served in Russia, his mother, Jenny nee Schultz, was persecuted at home and forced to wear the Jewish star. When he returned home from the front and his hospitalization, he found that his mother was gone. The Gestapo had forced her to enter the Jewish Hospital in Berlin at Iranische Strasse.

182. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 67b-68.

183. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 82.

184. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 73, OKW an Kanzlei des Fuhrers, 16.09.1943; BA-MA, BMRS, File G. F. Muller, Bl. p; BA-MA, BMRS, File Haller.

185. Two men in this study received Hitler's declarations this way. However, it is difficult to document men who received this award because of the problems of finding their families or military files.

186. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 72.

187. Kampfzeit (time of struggle) was between 1920 and 1933 when the Nazis struggled for power.

188. Heeresadjutant bei Hitler, pp. 31-32.

189. BA-MA, RH 53-7/ 1120.

190. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Wolter; Das Deutsche Reich und der zweite Weltkrieg. vol. 511, Kroener, pp. 709-12.

191. IfZ, N 71-73, Antrage und positive Entscheidungen gemass §7 der Ersten Verordnung zum Reichsburger-gesetz, 22.05.1941; Losener, pp. 284-85.

192. Meyer, p. 157.

193. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 136-39.

194. Ibid., Bl. 147-48.

195. IfZ, N 71-73, Bl. 106, Zahl der Gnadenentscheidungen nach dem Reichsburgergesetz, 10.09.1942; Losener, p. 310.

196. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 29-45.

197. Ibid., Bl. 43.

198. Rebentisch, p. 435, n. 200. H. G. Adler also said that exemptions probably ran into the thousands. Adler, Der Verwaltete Mensch, p. 302.

199. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 117, "Aktennotiz" von Brack, 10.07.1942.

200. BA-MA, BMRS, interview W. v. Gwinner.

201. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Hamburger; BA-MA, BMRS, File Hamburger, Hamburger an Rigg, 25.11.2000.

202. BA-MA, BMRS, File Prager.

203. BA-MA, WF01-20740, Koken an Engel, 15.10.1942.

204. Ibid., Engel an Koken, 19.10.1942.

205. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Arnim Leidoff, 02.12.1995, T-93.

206. Konigsberg is now Kaliningrad, Russia.

207. Actually, Goring said this phrase. Hitler was never recorded as saying anything like the above.

208. BA-A, Pers 36790 Georg Meyer, Beurteilung vom 01.03.1944. Margot Meyer von Ruhle maintains that this military report was only written as it was because it was a necessary condition for promotion. In other words, it was a formality. BA-MA, BMRS, File Georg Meyer, Meyer von Ruhle an Rigg, 11.01.2001.

209. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Margot Meyer von Ruhle 02.09.1995, T-163; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Helmut Meyer-Krahmer, 27.07.1997, T-393; BA-A, Pers 36848 Helmut Meyer-Krahmer. According to Margot Meyer von Ruhle, Georg was only "12.5 percent or 18.75 percent" Jewish. However, Georg Meyer's cousin, Helmut Meyer-Krahmer, says that this is incorrect. He and his four cousins were all quarter-Jews. According to Meyer-Krahmer, Georg must have obtained false documents to prove that their grandmother was not a full Jew but a half-Jew. He naturally did so to mitigate his situation. Since Meyer- Krahmer knows his family's personal history better than most, his version has been used.

210. BA-MA, BMRS, File Prager.

211. Vogel, p. 313. Philipp Borchardt was later released, and he and his daughter left for England, where they spent the rest of the war.

212. BA-MA, BMRS, interview E. Borchardt; McGuirk, p. 45.

213. BA-A, Pers 4393, Beurteilung, 13.05.1942.

214. BA-MA, BMRS, File Borchardt, Bl. 46, E.M. Heard to Rigg, 02.12.1996. Borchardt defended himself after the war, claiming that he fought for Germany and that his family had a long history of military service and cultural accomplishments. Two brothers of his great-grandfather fought in the War of Independence of 1813-1815. One died in Leipzig. During the Franco-Prussian War, two brothers of his grandfather served in the Prussian army. One was terribly wounded in the Battle of Sedan. One of his father's brothers, Rudolf, was a poet and translator and was friends with Hugo von Hofmannsthal and Rudolf Alexander Schroder. During World War I, Rudolf Borchardt served four years in the German army. Another uncle, Ernst Borchardt, served as a lieutenant and died soon after the war because of his battle injuries. Another uncle, Robert Borchardt, served as an Unteroffizier and died in battle in 1916. Borchardt's father would have served in the army, had he not been born with a deformed left leg. Robert Borchardt claimed that serving Germany as he did was no different from what his Jewish ancestors had done before him.

215. BA-MA, BMRS, File Eike Schweitzer, Bl. 24, Eike Schweitzer an Tante Dorle, 11.01.1942.

216. BA-MA, BMRS, File Schweitzer, Bl. 13.

217. Although Wilberg was in charge of the operations of the Condor Legion, was in charge of the officer school, and was responsible for developing Luftwaffe air doctrine, he still did not become chief of staff, probably because of his ancestry.

218. See Kershaw, Hitler, 1936-1945, pp. 105-6, 289, 386, 417; Nazism 1919-1945, vol. 4, pp. 8-13; Keitel, p. 105; Megargee, p. 65.

219. BA-MA, BMRS, File Gerd Schneider, Bl. 77, Frey an Schiller, 10.02.1943 and Bl. 82, Wehrmachtfursorge, Bescheid-Rente, 26.03.1943.

220. Germany and the Second World War, vol. 4, M. Messerschmidt, p. 8; Seaton, German Army, p. 80; Speer, p. 157; Kershaw, Hitler, 1936-1945, pp. 576-77. See also Wallach, pp. 306-7; Keegan, Mask of Command, pp. 295-98.
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Re: Hitler's Jewish Soldiers: The Untold Story of Nazi Racia

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CHAPTER 8: THE PROCESS OF OBTAINING AN EXEMPTION

1. BA-MA, BMRS, general impression gained from this study; Losener, p. 310; Noakes, "Development of Nazi Policy, " p. 318; BA-MA, N 328/32, Forste an Ehrhardt, 12.12.56.

2. BA-MA, BMRS, N 328/32, Forste an Ehrhardt, 12.12.1956; Gericke, p. 128.

3. BA-MA, BMRS, File Prager.

4. Kershaw, Hitler, 1889-1936, p. 328; Kershaw, Hitler, 1936-1945, pp. 93-94.

5. Kershaw, Hitler, 1889-1936, p. 344.

6. Bauer, p. 100; Yahil, p. 66.

7. BA-B, R 43 II/1273, Bl. 70-84.

8. Vogel, pp. 233-34.

9. BA-MA, BMRS, File Sander, Bl. 3, Hitler an Sander, 30.07.1935 and Bl. 62- 64, Major a.D. Sander an Hans Sander, 27.02.1935; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Stefan Sander, 10.07.1997, T-366.

10. BA-MA, RH 39/154, Schreiben von Frick, 19.08.1937. An exception in the Parry did not automatically allow one to become an officer. In January 1938, the Wehrmacht announced that although a Mischling may have received Hitler's approval to remain in the Party and enter the Wehrmacht, he could not become an officer without an additional approval. BA-MA, RH 53-7/627, Bl. 8, General-Kommando VII. Armee-Korps an Kriegsschule Munchen, 24.01.1938. For example, Hitler declared Sander deutschblutig in 1940, and only then could he become an officer. BA-MA, BMRS, File Sander, Bl. 2, Lammers an Sander, 29.08.1940.

11. It was probably at this time that the clemency forms of Deutschblutigkeitserklarung and Genehmigung came into being.

12. Holocaust, vol. I, Legalizing the Holocaust, p. 31; Erste Verordnung zum Reichsburgergesetz vom 14.11.1935 (RGBl., Teil I, 1935, Nr. 125, pp. 1, 333- 36); Vogel, p. 238.

13. Schleunes, p. 257.

14. Friedlander, p. 188.

15. Absolon, Die Wehrmacht im Dritten Reich. Band III, p. 353.

16. BA-MA, BMRS, general impression gained from this study; Losener, p. 284.

17. Losener, pp. 270-85.

18. For more about Keitel's and Lammers's roles in implementing policy, see Speer, pp. 300-301.

19. BA-MA, BMRS, general data collected; BA-MA, N 328/45, Eherhardt an Forste, 18.12.1956. Noakes in his essay claims that the certificates were bright blue (Noakes, "Development of Nazi Policy, " p. 319; see also Stoltzfus, Resistance, p. 117; Cornberg and Steiner, p. 154). The several certificates signed by Meyer and obtained during this study show that they were green, not blue.

20. No one could be a farmer (Bauer) who had a Jewish ancestor after 1800. Cohn, "Bearers of a Common Fate." p. 330. According to Buttner, non-Aryans were allowed to work in agriculture, but could not own a farm that their heirs could inherit (Erbhofstellen). Buttner, "Persecution, " p. 272. See also Akten-NSDAP, 107-00390-391; RGBl. 1933, Teil I, Nr. 108, p. 686.

21. Akten-NSDAP, 107-00392, p. 7. See also BA-B, NS 19/1614, Bl. 3, Lammers an Himmler, 31.08.1942.

22. BA-B, NS 19/1614, Bl. 3, Lammers an Himmler, 31.08.1942; BA-MA, BMRS, File Walter Hollaender, see also BA-MA, BMRS, File Karl Helwig; BA-MA, BMRS, File Erich Mussgnug.

23. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Otto Wolters; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Frau Hertha-Barbara Hollaender, 21.11.1995, T-171; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Frau Hertha-Barbara Hollaender, 12.11.1996, T-234; Die Trager des Deutschen Kreuzes in Gold, p. 162; BA-MA, BMRS, File Walter Hollaender, Bl. 113, Ritterkreuz-Urkunde, 18.07.1943; BA-A, Pel's Walter Hollaender, Beurteilung vom 11.01.1943; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Jochen Hollaender, 14.12.1996, T-276; BA-MA, BMRS, File Wilhelm Hollaender.

24. BA-B, Sammlung Schumacher, Reichskommissar fur die Festigung des deutschen Volkstums/ Stabshauptamt: Mitteilung Nr. 3, 29.09.1942.

25. Losener, p. 310; Heeresadjutant bei Hitler, pp. 120-22; Dictionary of Nazi Terms, David Bankier Mischlinge; BA-MA, N 328/45, Ebhardt an Forste, 14.11.1956.

26. BA-MA, RW 19/550, Lammers an Reichsminister, Preussischen Ministerprasidenten und Finanzminister, Staatssekretar und Chef der Prasidialkanzlei, Chef der Kanzlei, und Adj. des Fuhrers, 25010.1937; BA-MA, Wi/VIII 45; Noakes, "Development of Nazi Policy, " p. 319: Craig, Germany, 1866-1945, p. 592; for more information about Lammers, see Georg Franz-Willing's book, Die Reichskanzlei, 1933-1945.

27. Robert Koehl, "Feudal Aspects of National Socialism, " American Political Science Review 54 (1960). See also Redlich, p. 104.

28. At this time, Lammers had the power to decide whether an application was worthy of Hitler's time. Applications not good enough for an exemption according to Lammers's initial review were rejected without being seen by Hitler. See also Rebentisch, p. 434; Akten-NSDAP, 107-00392.

29. Gleichschaltung means "coordination."

30. Nazism, 1919-1945, vol. 4, p. 1.

31. Lammers had lost an eye during World War I and wore a glass eye, which gave him a cross-eyed appearance. Rebentisch, p. 49.

32. Rebentisch, pp. 425-26.

33. BA-B, R 43 II/1036, 15.I 2. 1936; Kershaw, Profiles in Power, p. 113; Kershaw, Hitler, 1889-1936, pp. 485, 533; Hilberg, p. 264; Jochen Lang, p. 180.

34. Kershaw, Hitler, 1936-1945, p. 313.

35. U.S.A. Military Tribunals: Case No. 11.2, Heinrich Lammers, p. 161. Monologe im Fuhrerhauptquartier, 1941-1944, p. 141.

36. Friedemann Bedurftig and Christian Zentner, eds., The Encyclopedia of the Third Reich, vol. I (New York, 1991), p. 524.

37. Stoltzfus, Resistance, pp. 73, 120, 246-47. Most Schutzjuden escaped deportation. See Stoltzfus, p. 120 n. 14. See also Cornberg and Steiner, pp. 149-51.

38. BA-MA, N 39/62, Lammers an v. Mackensen, 03.02.1939. See also Friedlander, pp. 270-71.

39. The Spanish Blue Division (25oth Infantry Division, "Division Azul") was made up of Spanish volunteers commanded by General Esteban Infantes and sent by Franco to the eastern front to fight with the army against Russia. Over forty-seven thousand men fought in this division, forty-five hundred were killed in action, and the Wehrmacht estimated that these Spaniards inflicted over forty-nine thousand casualties on the Soviets. Corum, Luftwaffe, p. 219.

40. BA-MA, BMRS, File Erich Rose, Schnez an Rigg, 30.01.2001.

41. BA-MA, Pers 6/ 10046, Alfred Simon, Bl. 49, Generalkommando V. Armeekorps an OKH-P[ersonal] A[mt], 06.09.1937.

42. Ibid., Bl. 45, v. Reichenau an Chef des Heerespersonalamts, 03.08.1937.

43. Ibid., Bl. 50, OKH an Reichs- und PreuBischen Minister des Innern, 11.09.1937.

44. Ibid., Bl. 96, Keitel an Generalkommando VII. Armeekorps, 17.06.1938.

45. BA-MA, Pers 6/ 10046, Pionier-Kommandeur 1, Berurteilung uber Alfred Simon, 01.03.1944.

46. Kriegsschule is a military academy.

47. Rohr, pp. 42-46, 84-85.

48. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Knigge.

49. Heeresadjutant bei Hitler, pp. 10-11, 33, 94, 103.

50. Ibid., p. 10.

51. Heeresadjutant bei Hitler, pp. 53, 80; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Beelitz. Hitler's Luftwaffe adjutant, Nicolaus von Below, wrote that the military adjutants often took walks with Hitler. Below, p. 29.

52. Heeresadjutant bei Hitler, pp. 20, 30-32, 76, 78, 94, 141-42.

53. BA-MA, N 118; BA-MA, BMRS, interview von Knigge; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Beelitz; BA-MA, BMRS, interview v. Helmolt.

54. Schmundt took over HoBbach's position after the Blomberg-Fritsch crisis in 1938. He was above the other military adjutants ("Chefadjutant der Wehrmacht"). Luftwaffe adjutant Nicolaus von Below dubbed him "Primus inter pares." Below, p. 90.

55. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. 1 83, Bl. 67b, "Judische Mischlinge im Wehrdienst, " von Blankenburg; BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. 1 83, Bl. 167, Engel an Blankenburg, 28.04.1942; Heeresadjutant bei Hitler, pp. 32-33, 126-29, 138, 143.

56. Heeresadjutant bei Hitler, pp. 70, 75, 79-80, 127; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Beelitz.

57. Below, p. 27.

58. BA-MA, BMRS, general impression gained from the files on Engel and v. Puttkamer; Below, p. 32.

59. Below, p. 35.

60. BA-MA, BMRS, general data gathered on Mischling soldiers; BA-MA, N 328/ 58, Puttkamer an Forste, 15.04.1957; BA-MA, N 328/58, Ehrhardt an Forste, 14.11.56; see also Meyer, p. 231; BA-MA, BMRS, File Bernhard Rogge; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Helmut Schmoeckel, 25-11.1994, T-63; BA-MA, BMRS, File Helmut Schmoeckel.

61. BA-MA, Pers 612094, OKH Betr.: Deutschblutigkeitserklarung von Offizleren, 02.09.1939.

62. Absolon, Die Wehrmacht im Dritten Reich. Band V, p. 148. Their number is unknown.

63. BA-MA, N 328/45, Ehrhardt an Forste, 14.11.1956; BA-MA, BMRS, File Schmoeckel. It seems that the one navy officer not taken back was Lebram, which made the young man furious. Lebram tried four times to return to the navy (1934, 1935, 1939, and 1941). BA-MA, N 656/27, Lebram an Ruge, 08.04.1976; BA-MA, N 656/2. Eventually, Canaris helped Lebram get a job with Siemens as a Marinebaurat. BA-MA, N 656/2, Bl. 43.

64. BA-MA, N 328/45, Ehrhardt an Forste, 14.11.1956.

65. BA-MA, N 328/32, Forste an Ehrhardt, 12.12.1956.

66. Rogge notes that the Party official that attacked him was the Kreisleiter of Eutin, but it is clear from the document that Rogge was unsure of the spelling of that name.

67. BA-MA, BMRS, File Rogge, Vertraulich, Betr. Absetzung Landrat Bernhard Rogge, Schleswig, Personliche Ausfuhrungen zur Sache, 06.11.1945, Heft I. Special thanks to Peter Tamm, director of the Institut fur Schiffahrts- und Marinegeschichte in Hamburg, for access to Rogge's file. Special thanks for information gained about this incident during a discussion with Dr. Georg Meyer of the Militargeschichtliches Forschungsamt (Military Research Center), Potsdam/Freiburg, March 1998; Karl-Friedrich Merten, Nach Kompass (Cloppenburg, 1994), p. 274.

68. Muggenthaler, p. 136; BA-MA, BMRS, File Friedrich-Karl Rogge, Lebenserinnerungen (Amorbach, 1993), p. 36; Gilbert, Second World War, pp. 35, 51; Edward p. von der Porten, The German Navy in World War II (New York, 1969), p. 134.

69. Charles W. Koburger Jr., Steel Ships, Iron Crosses, and Refugees: The German Navy in the Baltic, 1939-1945 (New York, 1989), pp. 45, 49. An interesting side note about Rogge's military career. At the war's end, he had several men executed for desertion. After the war, he was brought up on charges but was found innocent. Rogge had received so much help from others because of his Jewish past, but did not show much mercy on those who no longer wanted to fight for Nazi Germany. The information gathered on Rogge indicates that he simply claimed that he was following orders. As Georg Meyer said of Rogge in respect to this event, "[H]e was hard as steel."

70. Muggenthaler, p. 140. Without Rogge's support of the army in the Baltic, the Kurland pocket would have never continued its resistance, which tied down thousands of Russian soldiers in 1944. He also allowed twenty-nine divisions and much of their equipment to escape Russian encirclement in 1944 by keeping a thirty-mile choke point open at Riga. He also used his ships to cover the millions of refugees leaving Prussia under the savage advance of the Soviet army in 1944 and 1945. Koburger, pp. 47-48.

71. Fahnrich is an officer candidate.

72. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Helmut Schmoeckel, 25.11.1994, T-63; BA-MA, BMRS, File Helmut Schmoeckel. Before Schmoeckel became a U-boat captain, he was the first adjutant on the heavy cruiser Admiral Hipper. As a U-boat captain, he sank one ship for a total of 1.621 tons.

73. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Thilo Bode, 24.02.1995, T-104.

74. Rohr, p. 108.

75. Rohr, pp. 91, 103; BA-A, Pers 45573, Joachim Rohr an OKH, 03.12.1939.

76. BA-A, Pers 45570, Heinz Rohr an Panzerabwehrabteilung 30, 07.03.1940; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Rohr.

77. BA-MA, BMRS, File Heinz Rohr, Heft II, Teil III, Bl. 25, Rohr an Rigg, 09.02.1997.

78. BA-MA, BMRS, File Joachim Rohr, Bl. 44, Sterbeurkunde.

79. Die Trager des Deutsehen Kreuzes in Gold, p. 304; BA-A, Pers 45573, Grenadier Regiment 6: Beurteilung zum I. April 1943 uber Hptm. Joachim Rohr; BA-MA, BMRS, File H. Rohr, WehrpaB, pp. 22-23, Beforderungen und Ernennungen; BA-A, Pers 45570, Major Heinz Rohr, Panzerregiment I I, Beurteilung uber Heinz Rohr, 08.02.1941.

80. BA-A, Pers 45 570, Beurteilung vom 11.04. I 944; BA-A, Pers 45 573, Beurteilung vom 01.03.1943.

81. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Knigge; BA-MA, NIl 8/4. Captain von Schmeling- Diringhofen took over the First Company in the Seventy-third Infantry Regiment in Celle.

82. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Beelitz.

83. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Beelitz; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Ulrich de Maiziere, 24.03.1997, T-323; Ulrich de Maiziere, In der Pflicht (Bonn, 1989), p. 31; Gedenksehrift. Der Jahrgang 30. 10. Offizier Erganzungsjahrgang des Reiehsheeres 1930-1. April 1980, p. 85.

84. Ursula von Knigge, Meine liebste Mamming. Briefe an Clara Freifrau Knigge, geschrieben von Sohn und Schwiegertoehter in den Jahren, 1928-1945 (Grunwald, 1981), [Privatdruck], p. 170.

85. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Beelitz.

86. General Hans-Heinrich Sixt von Armin was the son of the famous World War I Fourth Army Commander Friedrich Sixt von Armin. General Hans- Heinrich Sixt von Armin led the I 13th Infantry Division during the battle for Stalingrad, and when Field Marshal von Paulus surrendered, Armin also surrendered. He went into Russian captivity and would die on 1 April 1952 as a POW in the Soviet Union.

87. BA-MA, N 431/ 803, Gunther Blumentritts Eidesstattliche Erklarung, 10.06. 1946; BA-MA, BMRS, File Sixt von Armin; Die Trager des Ritterkreuzes, pp. 399-402; Die Trager des Deutschen Kreuzes in Gold, p. 353; BA-MA, Pers 6/1808, Gunter Sachs, Luftflottenkommando 6 Gen. Kdo. II. Flakkorps an OKL, 10.09.1944; ed. Karl Friedrich Hildebrand, ed., Die Generale der deutschen Luftwaffe, 1935-1945: Band 3 (Osnabruck 1992), pp. 158-59; BA-MA, Pers 6/871, Hans-Heinrich Sixt von Armin, Personal-Nachweis; Goerlitz, p. 454.

88. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. 1 83, Bl. 200, "Aktennotiz, Vorsprache beim OKW", 14.02.1940; Rohr, p. 86; IfZ, N 71-73, 27.05.1941; U.S.A. Military Tribunals: Case No. 11.2, Heinrich Lammers, p. 161.

89. BA-MA, BMRS, interview W. Gunther; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Bergmann; see also BA-A, RW 55/3843, Bl. 58.

90. Oberkanonier was a private (artillery).

91. BA-MA, BMRS, File W. Gunther, Bl. 24-31, Gnadengensuch durch Rechtsanwaite Dr. Alfred Holl and Dr. Fritz Hamann fur Wolfram Gunther an Hitler, 17.05.1939.

92. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Wolfram Gunther.

93. BA-MA, BMRS, interview W. Gunther.

94. Reichsstelle fur Sippenforschung.

95. BA-MA, BMRS, File Martin Bier, Bl. 56; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Martin Bier, 25.09.1994, T-28.

96. Bier had courageously defended a defensive position while being heavily attacked by Polish forces. Although his comrade was shot through the head and died, Bier did not give up the position and held it against the enemy. Bier served with the Thirteenth Company of One Hundredth Mountain Regiment.

97. BA-MA, BMRS, File Martin Bier, Bl. 56; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Martin Bier, 25.09.1994, T-28.

98. Ibid.

99. BA-MA, File M. Bier, Bl. 4.

100. Ibid., Bl. 57.

101. Ibid., Bl. 56.

102. BA-MA, WF0I/20740, Schoch an Engel, 10.11.1942.

103. Ibid., Beurteilung des Uffz. Cadek durch Oberst Schoch, 10.11.1 942.

104. BA-MA, BMRS, File Georg Struzyna, Bl. 1-2. Many thanks to Dr. Georg Meyer for this File.

105. IfZ, N71-73, "Herrn Minister auf dem Dienstwege, " Zu I e Ei I IV/40-5017a, 22.05.1940; Losener, p. 285.

106. Ibid.

107. His name has been kept anonymous.

108. BA-MA, BMRS, File Hermann Lange, Teil II, Bl. 7.

109. Offiziersanwarter was an officer candidate.

110. BA-MA, BMRS, File Walther Hofmann, Bl. 22-24, Maier an Hitler, 19.06.1940.

111. Ibid., Bl. 20-21, Hofmann an OKW, 07.06.1940.

112. Oberfahnrich was a rank between Stabsoberfeldwebel and Oberfeldwebel. It was a senior officer candidate.

113. BA-MA, BMRS, File Wilhelm von Gottberg, Heft I, Teil I, Bl. 41.

114. SS General von Gottberg led anti-partisan units in White Russia. While there, he reported throughout 1942 and 1943 that his men had executed thousands of Jews. Hilberg, pp. 251-52; Burleigh, p. 562.

115. BA-MA, BMRS, File Wilhelm von Gottberg, Heft I, Teil II, Band C: "Geschichte der Familie von Gottberg im Zwanzigsten Jahrhundert" (1984), Bl. 25-27; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Helmut von Gottberg, 09-10.11.1996, T-229-230.

116. BA-A, Pers 45573, Bl. 14-15, Elisabeth Rohr an Brauchitsch, 14.01.1940.

117. Ibid., Bl. 19, Chef P[ersonal] A[mt] an Elisabeth Rohr, 29.01.1940.

118. BA-MA, N JI8/3, Engel an Elisabeth Rohr, 26.11.1940. Apparently, her brother Joachim had a contact with a high-ranking officer in the General Staff, who got his sister's case seen by Hitler. As a result of her Deutschblutigkeitserklarung, she was able to marry in 1943. BA-MA, BMRS, File Heinz Rohr, Rohr an Rigg, 22.11.2000.

119. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 167, Engel an Blankenburg, 28.04.1942. See also BA-B. DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 110-11, Bouhler an Bormann, 10.06.1942.

120. See BA-MA, BMRS, File Fischer; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Fischer; BA-MA, BMRS, interview A. von Mettenheim; BA-MA, BMRS, File Krackow; BA-MA, BMRS, interview R. Krackow; BA-MA, BMRS, interview J. Krackow; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Gwinner.

121. BA-MA, BMRS, File Haller, Bl. 4.

122. BA-MA, BMRS, File Haller, Schmundt an Haller, 13.05.1942, Bl. 2.

123. BA-MA, BMRS, File Haller, Frey an Schmundt, 25.05.1942, Bl. 2-3.

124. More precisely, the report stated that OKH wanted proof that the Mischlinge in question had played an important role during an engagement with the enemy.

125. Absolon, Die Wehrmacht im Dritten Reich. Band V, p. 149; Sammlung wehrrechtlicher Gutachten und Vorschriften, Heft 4, p. 73; Sammlung wehrrechtlicher Gutachten und Vorschriften, Heft 20/21, p. 175.

126. This study was unable to document whether some of the 967 half-Jews documented received an EKII and EKI. The numbers presented here are lower than in reality.

127. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 122.

128. BA-MA, BMRS, File Heinrich Levin, Bl. II.

129. Kanonier was an ordinary soldier in the artillery.

130. BA-MA, BMRS, File Viktor Mendel.

131. Absolon, Die Wehrmacht im Dritten Reich. Band V, pp. 149-50.

132. BA-MA, Pers 612094, Berurteilung uber K. Zukertort, 21.04. 1939.

133. Ibid., Schell to Heeres-personal-Amt, 10.07.1939.

134. Ibid., Berurteilung v. 03.07.1941.

135. Ibid., Der Chef des Heereswaffenamtes to Zukertort, 30.07.1941.

136. BA-MA, Pers 612094, Brauchitsch to PA 2, 14.08.1941; BA-MA, BMRS, File Karl Zukertort.

137. BA-MA, File Karl Zukertort, Bl. I.

138. Information gathered during a personal discussion with Kurt-Dagobert Zukertort, 24.07.2001.

139. BA-MA, BMRS, File Johann Zukertort.

140. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Walter Hamburger, 5-6.11.1994, T-47; BA-MA, BMRS, File Walter Hamburger, B. Hamburger an Rigg, 15.12.2000; BA-MA, BMRS, File Hamburger, Hamburger an Rigg, 25.11.2000.

141. BA-MA, BMRS, File Hamburger, Perfall zum Abschied an Fraulein Hamburger, 31.05.1941.

142. Zossen is located south of Berlin and was where the OKH was located.

143. General Bodewin Keitel was head of the Army Personnel Office (Heerespersonalamt) from 26 August 1939 until 2 October 1942. Keilig, p. 4.

144. BA-MA, RH 20-18/71, Kriegstagebuch [Nr.] 3 b der Abt. Ia des AOK 18, Bl. 97. See also Steven R. Welch, "Mischling Deserters from the Wehrmacht, " Leo Baeck Yearbook 44 (1999): 281.

145. BA-MA, RH 21-3/v. 46 (=Panzergruppe 3/I a; Anlagen zum Kriegstagebuch, Bd. IV, 25.5.-22.7.41, Bl. 34.

146. BA-MA, RH 20-18/71, Kriegstagebuch [Nr.] 3 b der Abt. Ia des AOK 18, Bl. 97.

147. Such as the Iron Cross or the Wound Badge.

148. BA-MA, RH 7123, OKH r. 6840/41 g. P[ersonal] A[mt] 2 (Ic), 16.07.1941; BA-MA, RH 7/11, Bl. 7; Vogel, p. 256.

149. Hitlers Tischgesprache im Fuhrerhauptquartier, p. 277. This is a play on words, based on the name of scientist Gregor Mendel. He was a nineteenth-century geneticist, known to many as the father of genetics.

150. One of the criteria Hitler used to measure a person's worth was whether or not he or she looked Jewish. For instance, Hitler only "reluctantly" presented the fighter-ace Adolf Galland with his Ritterkreuz because he looked Jewish (Keegan, Second World War, p. 96). One can be sure that Hitler had his bureaucrats look into Galland's ancestry, just as he had them do with Liebig.

151. Hitlers Tischgesprache im Fuhrerhauptquartier, pp. 277, 398-99; Noakes, "Development of Nazi Policy, " pp. 333-34.

152. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 155-59, Blankenburg an Engel, 23.05.1942; Wistrich, p. 26; Fred Mielke and Alexander Mitscherlich, Doctors of Infamy (New York, 1949), pp. 94, 135.

153. Heeresadjutant bei Hitler, pp. 121-22.

154. Ibid., pp. 31-32, 42, 70, 79, 103, 105, 108, 120-22.

155. Ibid., pp. 52, 79, 109.

156. Heeresadjutant bei Hitler, pp. 31-32. Many documents and a few books have claimed that "hiding" soldiers of Jewish descent happened often. See O'Neill, pp. 77-78; BA-MA, BMRS, File Karl-Heinrich Fricke, Erinnerungen aus 70 Lebensjahren von 1914-1984 (Kaln, 1984).

157. Regional Party offices.

158. District Party offices.

159. Losener in the RMI supposedly also helped people falsify their ancestry. See Losener, p. 309.

160. Heeresadjutant bei Hitler, pp. 31-32.

161. Ibid., p. 122.

162. See Speer, p. 328; Heeresadjutant bei Hitler, pp. 121-22.

163. Heeresadjutant bei Hitler, pp. 121-22.

164. Guderian, p. 449. Guderian's postwar account must be looked at critically. Although it contains valuable information, Guderian wrote it primarily to glorify his role in the development of the Wehrmacht and gives the impression that Guderian could have won the war for Germany had Hitler only allowed him to conduct operations during the 1940s. Guderian also wrote this to present himself as an anti-Nazi. Guderian was anything but anti-Nazi, as Megargee proves in his book Inside Hitler's High Command. See Megargee, p. 213; Kershaw, Hitler, 1936-1945, p. 414.

165. Mogeleiversuchen literally means "attempts to cheat."

166. Heeresadjutant bei Hitler, p. 122. See also Hitlers Tischgesprache im Fuhrerhauptquartier, Notiz von Picker, p. 399.

167. Kershaw, Profiles in Power, p. 114-15.

168. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 117, "Aktennotiz" von Brack, 10.07.1942.

169. Kershaw, Profiles in Power, p. 137; Speer, p. 302; Jochen Lang, pp. 187, 267- 69.

170. Jochen Lang, p. 7.

171. Ibid., p. 208.

172. Kershaw, Profiles in Power, p. 137. See also Speer, pp. 300-301; Engelmann, p. 212; Bracher, p. 346.

173. Kershaw, Profiles in Power, p. 136.

174. Ibid., p. 138.

175. The Encyclopedia of the Third Reich, vol. I, p. 102. This is a play on what Jesus told his disciples, quoted in John 14:6, NIV.

176. Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression: Supplement B, p. 1093; see also Speer, pp. 104- 5, for more insight into the relationship Bormann had with Hitler.

177. Rebentisch, p. 400. See also Below, p. 31.

178. Hitlers Tischgesprache im Fuhrerhauptquartier, p. 425; Messerschmidt, p. 358.

179. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 136, Bormann an Bouhler, 02.06.1942; Rebentisch, p. 435.

180. Kershaw, Profiles in Power, p. 138; Rebentisch, p. 411, Kershaw, Hitler, 1936- 1945, pp. 378, 421.

181. Hitlers Tischgesprache im Fuhrerhauptquartier, pp. 399-400.

182. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 26, Reichsverfugungsblatt Anordnung A 34/42, 23.06.1942; BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 131-32.

183. Sir Stafford Cripps (1899-1952) became the executive head of the Labor Party from 1937 to 1940, and then was the British ambassador to the USSR from 1940 to 1942.

184. When Hitler met with the German military attache to Washington in February 1939, he only wanted to discuss with him Roosevelt's alleged Jewish ancestry. This belief that Roosevelt had Jewish ancestry was shared by many high-ranking Nazi officials. Weinberg, A World at Arms, p. 87; Keegan, Second World War, p. 537; Jochen Lang, p. 235; Hitlers Tischgesprache im Fuhrerhauptquartier, p. 399; Victor, p. 18. It was common for Hitler to believe that the leaders of countries who opposed him were Jews. For example, he believed the majority of the Soviet and American leaders were Jews. Kershaw, Hitler Myth, pp. 237-38; Friedlander, pp. 103, 185; Below, p. 39; Victor, p. 18. See also Hitler, Hitler's Secret Book, p. xxii.

185. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 131-32, Bormann an Bouhler, 02.07.1942.

186. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 115, Bouhler an Bormann, 10.07.1942, BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 128, Reichsverfugungsblatt, Ausgabe A Folge 27/42, 04.07. 1942.

187. The Reich's ordinance bulletin (the official gazette of the Parteikanzlei).

188. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 128, Reichsverfugungsblatt, Ausgabe A Folge 27/ 42, 04.07.1942; BA-B, R 581276; BA-B, R 21/488, Bl. 41; Adams, p. 326; BA-B, Sammlung Schumacher.

189. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. 1 83, Bl. 111.

190. Ibid., Bl. 112, Bouhler an Bormann, 10.07.1942.

191. Reichsamtsleiter Dr. Kurt Blome in the Parteikanzlei.

192. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 112-13, Bouhler an Bormann, 10.07.1942.

193. Ibid., Bl. 113, Bouhler an Bormann, 10.07.1942.

194. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 114, Bouhler an Bormann, 10.07.1942; BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 147, "Aktennotiz" von Blankenburg, 09.07.1942.

195. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 114, Bouhler an Bormann, 10.07.1942.

196. Judenfrage was a Nazi catchword used to justify the expulsion of the Jews.

197. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 115, Bouhler an Bormann, 10.07.1942. Although Bouhler said to Bormann, "Losung der Judenfrage, " it was clear that he meant the extermination of the Jews that was taking place at that time. See Hilberg, p. 562; Peter Padfield, Himmler: Reiehsfuhrer-SS (New York, 1990), p. 303.

198. The Fuhrer's private chancellery dealt mainly with the flood of mail addressed to Hitler. Interestingly enough, although Albert and Martin Bormann worked near to each other and were brothers, they grew to detest each other. Jochen Lang, pp. 60, 140; Kershaw, Hitler, 1936-1945, p. 32. According to Hitler's Luftwaffe adjutant, Nicolaus von Below, these brothers hardly ever spoke to one another although they often were in the same room together during meetings and other functions. According to Below, this hatred started with a dispute over whom Albert had married. Below, p. 30.

199. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 103, Bouhler an A. Bormann, 13.07.1942.

200. Ibid., Bl. 117, "Aktennotiz" von Brack, 10.07.1942.

201. Ibid., Bl. 116a, "Aktennotiz" von Brack, 10.07.1942.

202. Ibid., Bl. 100.

203. Ibid., Bl. 116, "Aktennotiz" aus der Kanzlei des Fuhrers, 10.07.1942.

204. Adam, p. 319.

205. Hilberg, pp. 272-73.

206. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 28, Rundschreiben 164/42, 24.10.1942; BA-B, Sammlung Schumacher, SS-Abschnitt XV Abt. I Ao AZ. I qu W/Wo.

207. BA-MA, BMRS, File Rolf Schenk, Frey an R. Schenk, 09.09.1942.

208. Below, p. 348. Below puts the date for Engel's dismissal at the end of September 1943. However, according to Hildegard von Kotze's commentary on Engel's diary, Engel left his position as Hitler's adjutant in March 1943. See Heeresadjutant bei Hitler, p. 145, Notiz von Hildegard von Kotze.

209. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. 1 83, Bl. 46-48, A. Bormann an Blankenburg, 13.03.1943.

210. Ibid., Bl. 48, Blankenburg an A. Bormann, 17.02.1942.

211. Ibid., Bl. 129-1 29b.

212. Rundschreiben is a circular.

213. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. 1 83, Bl. 28, 46-48.

214. Lifton, p. 452; Hilberg, p. 601.

215. Wachtmeister is a staff sergeant.

216. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. 1 83, Bl. 87-88.

217. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. 1 83, Bl. 77, OKW an Blankenburg, 03.08.1943.

218. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. 1 83, Bl. 48b.

219. Rudolf Absolon, Die Wehrmacht im Dritten Reich. Band VI, p. 315.

220. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. 1 83, Bl. 25-2P, Bormann an Bouhler, 27.09.1943.

221. Ibid.

222. Noakes, "Development of Nazi Policy, " p. 335.

223. Guderian, p. 362.

224. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. 1 83, Bl. 70, Aktennotiz, IIbDi/Schr., Betrifft: Politische Beurteilung von judischen Mischlingen, 12.10.1943.

225. Ibid., Bl. 71, "Aktennotiz fur Herrn Blankenburg, " Betrifft: Bearbeitung der Mischlingssachen, 19.10.1943.

226. BA-MA, BMRS, File Haller, Bl. 37-38, Schmundtan Irmgard Bohrne, 03.11.1943.

227. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. 1 83, Bl. 67-68, IIa/Schr., Judische Mischlinge im Wehrdienst, 28.10.1943. See also BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. 1 83, Bl. 84b.

228. Ibid., Bl. 68.

229. In addition to Schmundt's responsibility as Hitler's Wehrmacht adjutant, he was head of the Army Personnel Office from 2 October 1942 until 20 July 1944. Keilig, p. 4.

230. D. Bradley and R. Schulze-Kossens, eds., Tatigkeitsbericht des Chefs des Heerespersonalamtes General der Infanterie Rudolf Schmundt: 1.10.1942- 29.10.1944. Fortgef v. Wilhelm Burgdorf (Osnabruck, 1984), p. 128 (cited from now on as: Schmundt, Tatigkeitsbericht).

231. Department for Personnel Matters of Officers and Their Offspring (nor including General Staff officers). Keilig, p. 5.

232. Department for Personnel Matters of High-Ranking Officers and Education and Welfare. Keilig, p. 7.

233. Schmundt, Tatigkeitsbericht, p. 128.

234. Group IV (Gruppe IV) in P2 was responsible for officers, officer cadets, and Sonderfuhrer. Keilig, p. 8.

235. Department for Awards. Keilig, p. 12.

236. BA-B, NS 19/87, Bl. 2, Brandt an Klopfer, betr. Liste der Berufsoffiziere, die teils vor Kriegsbeginn, teils auch erst im Kriege Deutschblutigen gleichgestellt wurden, 0 5.09. 1944; BA -A, Sammlung J udische Mischlinge.

237. Joachim von Schmeling-Diringshofen was recalled to active duty in 1939 from China. He died in battle during the summer of 1942.

238. BA-A, Mischlinge in der Wehrmacht, Schreiben Amtsgruppe P2/ 3 Abt. an P5, 11.01.1944.

239. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Otto Wolters, 18'03.1995, T-123; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Otto Wolters, 06.12.1996, T-252.

240. Akten-NSDAP, 101-07569-07588; BA-B, R 43 II/599.

241. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. 1 83, Bl. 53, OKW an Kanzlei des Fuhrers der NSDAP, 18.02. I 944.

242. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. I 83, Bl. 52, Blankenburg an OKW, 11.03.1944.

243. Akten-NSDAP, 107-0040 11402, 4. Die Fuhrerverfugung 48/44; BA -B, Sammlung Schumacher; BA-B, NS 6/347, Bl. 162; Martin Moll, ed., Fuhrererlasse, 1939- 1945 (Stuttgart, 1997), pp. 395-96.

244. Jochen Lang, pp. 236-37.

245. Ibid., p. 262.

246. Ibid., p. 266.

247. BA-B, DZA 62 Ka. 1 83, Bl. 54, OKW an Kanzlei des Fuhrers, betr. Ausnahmebehandlung judischer Mischlinge, 03.03.1944.

248. Adam, p. 331.

249. Unterarzt Erich Rauchfuss. BA-MA, BMRS, Interview Erich Rauchfuss, 02.04.1995, T-127.

250. Adam, pp. 331-32; Meyer, pp. 100, 108, 153.

251. BA-MA, N 179, Telegramm Milchs an Hitler, 21.07.1944.

252. Akten-NSDAP, 107-00386, 1. Derzeitiger Stand des Mischlingsproblems.

253. Ibid., 107-00399, 2. Ausnahmen vom Gesetz der Blutreinheit, a) Judische- Mischlinge.

254. Ibid., 107-00392.

255. Ibid., 107-00405, 4. Die Rangfolge bei der Ausnahmebehandlung van Mischlingen.

256. Ibid., 107-00406-407, 6. Die Tarnung der judischen Mischlinge durch die Gleichstellung mit Deutschblutigen.

257. Ibid., 107-00406-414.

258. Ibid., 107-00415, III. Richtlinien fur die kunftige Sachbearbeitung.

259. Ibid., 107-00417-00418, 3. Die Stellungnahme der NSDAP zu Ausnahmeantragen im Bereich des Staates und der Wehrmacht.

260. Ibid.

261. Stufe IV wounded soldiers lost, for example, either both hands, both legs, or their eyesight, to name just a few of the wounds that qualified one for this classification. Such soldiers also received eighty Reichsmarks a month. BA-MA, RH 12-23/834, p. 93.

262. Akten-NSDAP, 107-00417-00418, 3. Die Stellungnahme der NSDAP zu Ausnahmeantragen im Bereich des Staates und der Wehrmacht.

263. Schmundt, Tatigkeitsbericht, p. 186. For reports on Sachs's 257th Infantry Division in Russia, see BA-MA, RH 26/257. For example, from June 1941 until April 1942, Sachs's division had killed 12, 500 Russians, destroyed thirty tanks, shot down six planes, and taken 2, 626 prisoners.

264. Schmundt, Tatigkeitsbericht, p. 186.

265. BA-MA, RH 261257, Schreiben Sachs an 257. Div., 19.08.1941.

266. BA-B, NS 19/87, B1. I, Vermerk fur Dr. Brandt, 30.08.1944, and B1. 2, Dr. Brandt an Klopfer, 05.09.1944.

267. Schmundt, Tatigkeitsbericht, p. 247.

268. BA-B, R 43 II/599, Bormann an Lammers, 02.11.1944; BA-B, 43II/603b.

269. Absolon, Wehrgesetz und Wehrdienst, p. 119.

270. Kershaw, Profiles in Power, pp. 163-64.

271. This study has documented two soldiers not on the list who were possibly discharged because of this order-Obergefreiter Dieter Fischer and Unterarzt Erich Rauchfuss. BA-MA, BMRS, File Dieter Fischer, Heft II, Amelis von Mettenheim, Die Zwolf Langen Jahre, 1933-1945, B1. 38; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Erich Rauchfuss, 02.04.1995, T-127.

272. BA-MA, BMRS, File Werner Maltzahn.

273. BA-MA, Pers 6/7363, Major Friedrich Gebhard, Gebhard an Generalkommando XI. A.K., Hannover, 21.10.1944.

274. Waffen-SS/SS lieutenant colonel.

275. BA-MA, Pers 619887, Bl. 41, Suchanek an Burgdorf, 15.09.1944.

276. Ibid., Bl. 41, Burgdorf an Suchanek, 26.09.1944.

277. Ibid., B1. 25, Beurteilung vom 27.11.1943.

278. Ibid., Burgdorf an Bloch, 15.02.1945.

279. BA-MA, BMRS, File Bloch, Walther Brockhoff an Sabine Bloch, 31.10.1945; BA-MA, BMRS, interview M. Bloch.

280. BA-MA, BMRS, File Bloch, Brockhoff an Sabine Bloch, 31.10.1945.

281. BA-MA, 6/7363, Friedrich Gebhard, Ag I/I. (Zentral-) Abt. (11c) an Stellv. Generalkommando XI. A.K. Hannover, 30.09.1944; BA-MA, Pers. Karl Helwig, Ag I/I. (Zentral-) Abt. (IIc) an Stelly. Generalkommando VII.A.K. Munchen, 30.09. 1944.

282. BA-MA, BMRS, File Binder, B1. 68, 81; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Binder. Binder was told in February 1945 that Hitler had declared him an Ehrenarier (honorable Aryan) and promoted him to first lieutenant.

283. BA-A, Pers 14492, Hans-Gunther von Gersdorff, Dienstlaufbahn, Bl. 4.

284. Ibid., B1. 5-6, 4. Artillerieregiment Aktz. 22a/34II vom 08.05.1934 ("Einschreiben"). This description of Aryan ancestry most probably comes from Minister Frick's description of it. See BA-B, R 43 III 418a.

285. Supposedly this woman was a rather famous horseback rider in her youth.

286. BA-A, Pers 14492, B1. 5-6.

287. Ibid., B1. 23, v. Schwedler an Frau Marie Fritsch (fruhere v. Gersdorff), 30.08.1935.

288. Ibid., Bl. 25, Fritsch an v. Schwedler, 02.09.1935.

289. Ibid., B1. 28-31, Fritsch an v. Blomberg, 05.09.1935.

290. Ibid., v. Blomberg an Fritsch, 18.09.1935.

291. Ibid., B1. 34-37, Fritsch an v. Blomberg, 02.10.1935.

292. Ibid., B1. 46-50, Fritsch an Y. Schwedler, 28. 10.1935, B1. 58-61, Fritsch an Adolf Hitler 17.12.1935, B1. 66-67, Fritsch an v. Schwedler, 07.01.1936, and B1. 68, v. Schwedler an Fritsch, 17.01.1936.

293. BA-A, Pers 14492, Bl. 82, Engel an OKW, 05.04.1940; MA-A, Pers 15499, Wilhelm von Gonberg, Bl. 2, Dienstlaufbahn, 27.08.1939; BA-MA, BMRS, interview H. von Gonberg.

294. BA-MA, BMRS, File Wilhelm von Gottberg, Bl. 41, Brauchitsch an Brockhusen, 29.02.1940.

295. Ibid., Bl. 42, Meissner an Irmgard von Brockhusen, 29.02.1940.

296. BA-A, Pers 14492, Bl. roo-ro5, 109, Gericht der Division Nr. 154, Dresden, Feldurteil unterzeichnet von Dr. Schirmer, 16.02.1942.

297. BA-A, Pers 14492, Bl. 75-82.

298. BA-MA, BMRS, File Ernst Prager, Heft III, Bl. I, Polizeiprasident in Berlin, Abt. II, Justrowski an Prager, 01.04-1937; Ibid., Bl. 60-61, Prager an Stephan Prager, 07.04.1937.

299. Ibid., Bl. 8, Prager an Stephan Prager, 19.07.1937.

300. Ibid., Bl. 9, Prager an Stephan Prager, 27.08.1937.

301. Haehnelt was the commander of the Second Army's Air Group during World War I and had been a strong proponent of air defense. Corum, Luftwaffe, P.78.

302. BA-MA, BMRS, File Ernst Prager, Heft III, Bl. 9, Prager an Stephan Prager, 27.08.1937, & Bl. 132, Bestatigung von Heinrich Prager, Vater Ernst Pragers, 20.11.1945.

303. Ibid., Bl. II, Prager an Stephan Prager, 22.12.1937.

304. Ibid., Bl. 14, Prager an Stephan Prager, 14.02.1938.

305. BA-MA, BMRS, File Ernst Prager, Heft II, Bl. 27-30, Prager an OKW, Betrifft: Anlage I zum Gesuch um Wiederverwendung, 24.05.1941.

306. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Stephan Prager, 11.10.1997, T-402.

307. BA-MA, BMRS, File Prager, Heft III, Bl. 50, Prager an Stephan Prager, 15.06.1941.

308. BA-MA, BMRS, interview S. Prager.

309. BA-MA, BMRS, File Prager, Heft III, Bl. 50, Prager an Stephan Prager, 15.06.1941.

310. BA-MA, BMRS, File Prager, Heft III, Bl. 57-58, Prager an Stephan Prager, 06.07.1941. Losener reported that after the war, no more than a dozen mixed marriages were approved, which was a very small number compared with the large number of applications they received. Losener, pp. 284-85.

311. BA-MA, BMRS, File Prager, Heft III, Bl. 57-58, Prager an Stephan Prager, 06.07.1941.

312. Ibid., Bl. 57-58, Prager an Stephan Prager, 06.07.1941.

313. Ibid., Bl. 54-55, Prager an Stephan Prager, 26.06.1941.

314. Ibid., Bl. 133, Heinrich Prager an Gericht in Kulmbach, 20.11.1941.

315. Ibid., Bl. 17, Prager an Stephan Prager, 17.11.1941.

316. Ibid., S. Prager to Rigg, 05.07.2001.

317. Ibid., Bl. 16.

318. Jews could not travel as of 10 October 1941 without special permission. Maser, p. 266.

319. BA-MA, BMRS, File Prager, Heft III, Bl. 17.

320. Ibid., Bl. 16. Prager an Stephan Prager, 17.11.1941.

321. Ibid.

322. Prager had described half-Jew Robert Borchardt.

323. BA-MA, BMRS, File Prager, Heft III, Bl. 21, Prager an Stephan Prager, 26.11.1941.

324. Amt fur Rassenforschung.

325. BA-MA, BMRS, File Prager, Heft III, Bl. 17, Prager an Stephan Prager, 17.11.1941.

326. BA-MA, BMRS, File Prager, Heft II, Bl. 53, Prager an Fraulein Kurschner, 21.12.1941.

327. Ibid., Bl. 65-73, 168, Abschiedsansprache fur Hella Prager von Stephan Prager, 10.06.1996.

328. BA-B, R 7.01 Reichskanzlei 41 12, Bl. 292, Haehnelt an Lammers, 02.04.1943.

329. Ibid., Bl. 294, Lammers an Haehnelt, 08.04.1943.

330. Messerschmidt, p. 355.

331. Prager's aunt and uncle, Mathilde and Stefan Blanck, both died in Theresienstadt. Another aunt, Elisabeth Schmitt nee Prager, died in Bergen-Belsen sometime in 1942. See also BA-MA, BMRS, File Ernst Prager, Heft II, Bl. 167.

332. An interesting side note to Prager's case happened a few days before the U.S. Army captured Beyreuth when he had four Luftwaffe deserters executed. He claimed after the war that had he not executed these men, who had tried to escape before and had planned to murder their guard, he might have been shot himself and discipline among the 1, 000 men he commanded might have broken down. Regardless of Prager's reasons, this act caused him some problems after 1945. Although it was known that he and his family were victims of the Nazis, he was denounced as a Nazi sympathizer. As a result, he had to go through a denazification process. Despite humiliating deliberations, Prager was eventually found innocent of all charges of being a Nazi. BA-MA, BMRS, File Prager, Heft II, Bl. 133-140; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Prager. Another interesting note to the Prager story happened several years after the war when the German government awarded him the rank of colonel. This happened after Prager had taken his case to court arguing that without the racial laws, he would have attained this rank. He was proud to receive what he termed "his rightful place in the army." BA-MA, BMRS, interview Prager.

333. BA-MA, BMRS, File Rainer Gartner, Heft IV, Bl. 8-9; Ibid., Bl. 11-14, Gartner an seine Eltern, 02.02.1942.

334. Ibid., Bl. 9, Gartner an seine Eltern, 05.01.1942, Gartner an seine Mutter, 02.02.1942.

335. BA-MA, BMRS, File Gartner, Heft III, Bl. 63-65, Dr. Robert Gartner an Emil Gartner, 20.03.1942.

336. Ibid., Bl. 65.

337. Ibid.

338. Ibid., Bl. 64, Dr. Biermann an Dr. Robert Gartner, (o.D.).

339. Ibid., Bl. 42-44, Gartner an seinen Vater, 12.02.1942.

340. Ibid, Heft IV, Bl. 9, Gartner an seine Eltern, 05.01.1942; Ibid., Heft IV, Bl. 9, Gartner an seinen Vater, 05.01.1942.

341. Ibid., Heft IV, Bl. I, Gartner an seinen Vater, 07.03.1942.

342. Ibid., Heft III, Bl. 40, Dr. Robert Gartner an Rainer Gartner, 15.03.1942.

343. Ibid., Bl. 38, Notiz auf Schreiben Dr. Biermann-Ratjen an Dr. Robert Gartner, 17.03.1942.

344. Ibid., Bl. 63, Dr. Robert Gartner an Emil Gartner, 26.03.1942.

345. Ibid., Bl. 45-55.

346. Ibid., Heft III, Bl. 55, Dr. Robert Gartner an Rainer Gartner, 27.03.1942.

347. Ibid., Bl. 42, Bestatigung van Schwenn Lindemann, 30.03.1942.

348. Ibid., Heft II, Bl. 7-8, Hannerle an Rainer Gartner, 20.08.1942.

349. Ibid., Bl. 42, Hauptmann Giese an Eltern Gartner, 14.01.1945.

350. Ibid., Heft IV, Bl. 115, Gartner an Giese, 10.02.1945.

351. BA-MA, BMRS, File Dieter Fischer, Heft I, Bl. 80-8 I, Mettenheim an OKW, 09.09.1941.

352. Ibid., Frey an Mettenheim, 13.09.1941.

353. Ibid., Bl. 77, Frey an Mettenheim, 21.10.1941.

354. BA-MA, BMRS, File Dieter Fischer, Heft I, Bl. 64, Mettenheim an OKW, 04.11.1943.

355. BA-MA, BMRS, File Dieter Fischer, Heft II, Die Zwolf Langen Jahre 1933- 1945, van Amelis van Mettenheim, Bl. 18-23.

356. Ibid., Bl. 19.

357. BA-MA, BMRS, File Dieter Fischer, Heft I, Bl. 63, OKW an v. Mettenheim, 22.11.1943.
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Re: Hitler's Jewish Soldiers: The Untold Story of Nazi Racia

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CHAPTER 9: WHAT DID MISCHLINGE KNOW ABOUT THE HOLOCAUST?

1. Stephen G. Fritz, Frontsoldaten: The German Soldier in World War II (Lexington, 1995), p. 3.

2. A literal translation of Judenlummel is "Jewish lout" or "jerk."

3. Krackow, pp. 69-79; BA-MA, BMRS, interview J. Krackow.

4. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Reinhard.

5. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Scholz.

6. Noakes, "Development of Nazi Policy, " p. 305.

7. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Hans Pollak, 07.12.1995, T-72. Pollak was wounded five times during the war.

8. BA-MA, BMRS, File Hans Gunzel, Bl. 43; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Rosemarie Mirauer, 24.02.1997, T-315; BA-MA, BMRS, File Gunther Mirauer, Bl. 56; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Czempin; BA-MA, BMRS, File Hans-Geert Falkenberg, Heft I, Bl. 34-42; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Hans-Geert Falkenberg, 02.02.1997, T-289; BA-MA, BMRS, Hans Gunzel, Bl. 43.

9. BMRS, File Hans-Geert Falkenberg, Heft I, Bl. 34-42, 56; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Hans-Geert Falkenberg, 02.02.1997, T-289. Richard Albert Falkenberg (Mountfalcon) served as a private from January 1940 to 1943. In 1943, he was promoted to sergeant and remained at this rank until his honorable discharge in 1945.

10. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Heinz-Georg Heymann, 09.04.1995, T-138.

11. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Dietrich Moll, 04.03.1995, T-111.

12. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Hamburger.

13. BM-MA, BMRS, interview Bergmann; Bergmann, pp. 6-7.

14. BA-MA, BMRS, File Hans-Geert Falkenberg, Bl. 56-57.

15. Ibid., File Hans-Geert Falkenberg, Bl. 60-61, Klein an Falkenberg, 08.07.1940.

16. Ibid., Bl. 60-61.

17. Ibid., Bl. 57, Klein an Falkenberg, 05.04.1942.

18. Ibid., Bl. 58, Klein an Falkenberg, 10.05-1942.

19. Owings, p. 460.

20. BA-MA, BMRS, File Werner Maltzahn, Bl. 2-4.

21. BA-MA, Msg 1/1364, Bl. 59-60.

22. BA-MA, BMRS, File Wolfgang Lennert, BJ. 18, Lennert an seine Mutter, 17.01.1941; BA-MA, BMRS, File Wolfgang Lennert, Bl. 17, Lennert an seine Mutter, 13.01.1941.

23. Ibid., Bl. I.

24. BA-MA, BMRS, Bl. 20, Lennert an seine Mutter, 28'07.1942; Freie Universitat Berlin: Zentralinstitut fur Sozialwissenschaftliche Forschung, ed., Gedenkbuch Berlins der judischer Opfer des Nationalsozialismus (Berlin, 1995).

25. BA-MA, BMRS, File Wolfgang Lennert, Lennert an seine Mutter, 12.10.1942.

26. Gedenkbuch judischen Opfer.

27. Feldwebel is a staff sergeant.

28. BA-MA, BMRS, File Georg-Friedrich Muller, Bl. 48; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Georg-Friedrich Muller, 04.02.1997, T-293.

29. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Bergmann; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Peter Cahn, 17.03.1995, T-121 and 11.12.1996, T-268. See also Bergmann, pp. 136, 147.

30. Bergmann, pp. 208-9; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Bergmann.

31. Posselt, p. 42.

32. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Posselt; Posse1t, pp. 42-44.

33. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Posselt.

34. BA-MA, BMRS, File Angress, Bl. 3, 16; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Angress.

35. BA-MA, BMRS, interview H. Pollak.

36. BA-MA, BMRS, interview H. S., 16.11.1995, C-52.

37. BA-MA, BMRS, File Hermann Schucht, Bl. 3, Abschiedsbrief seiner Mutter an Hermann Schucht, 15.10. 1942.

38. BA-MA, BMRS, File Richard Czempin, Bl. 62.

39. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Czempin. Czempin's Jewish father had also committed suicide to prevent his deportation.

40. BA-MA, BMRS, File Joachim Gaehde, Bl. 38.

41. Kershaw, Hitler, 1936-1945, pp. 134-35, 320, 321-24, 349-52, 383, 470, 521; Hilberg, pp. 3, 128, 138, 141, 258, 260-61; Losener, p. 296; Burleigh, p. 592; Gordon, p. 97; BA-MA, BMRS, File H. Rehfeld.

42. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Horst Schmechel; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Hans Schmechel.

43. Not his real name.

44. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Horst G. (Reinhard), 20.11.1994, T-57.

45. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Steinwasser.

46. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Steinwasser; BA-MA, BMRS, File Fritz Steinwasser, Bl. 102.

47. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Steinwasser; BA-MA, BMRS, File Steinwasser, Bl. 102.

48. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Frau Hertha-Barbara Hollaender, 21.11.1995, T-171; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Frau Hertha-Barbara Hollaender, 12.11.1996, T-234.

49. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Braun, 10-14.08.1994, T-Io; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Braun, 07.01.1996, T-190.

50. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Braun, 10-14.08.1994, T-Io; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Braun, 07.01.1996, T-190; BA-MA, BMRS, File Braun, Braun an Rigg, 22.12.2000.

51. Bergmann, p. 238.

51. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Bergmann.

53. BA-MA, BMRS, File Klaus Florey.

54. Ibid., Florey to Rigg, 05.07.2001.

55. BA-MA, BMRS, File Bleicher, "Wie ich den 8. Mai 1945 erlebte: Ein personlicher Bericht eines Betroffenen": BA-MA, interview Heinz Bleicher, 10.02.1995, T-90.

56. See also Kaplan, p. 195.

57. BA-MA, BMRS, File Hanns Rehfeld.

58. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Lowy.

59. Although some Waffen-SS personnel did serve in the concentration camps, Dr. Josef Mengele being one of the most famous examples, most Waffen-SS did not serve in the concentration camps. Lifton, p. 340.

60. BA-MA, BMRS, File Heinz-Gunther Lowy, Bl. 2, Lowy an Rigg, 16.03.1996; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Lowy.

61. BA-MA, BMRS, File Florey.

62. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Catharin; BA-MA, BMRS, File Catharin, Bl. 7, Catharin an Rigg.

63. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Hans Doppes, 19.05-1996, T-207; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Hanns Bauer, 29.03.1998, T-421; BA-MA, interview Ferdinand Lichtwitz, 18.07.1997; BA-MA, BMRS, File Ferdinand Lichtwitz; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Rolf Schenk, 23.05-1997, T-H9; BA-MA, BMRS, File Rolf Schenk; BA-MA, BMRS, File Herbert Simon., Bl. 1 I; BA-MA, BMRS, File Erik Blumenfeld; BA-MA, BMRS, File Eisner; BA-MA, BMRS, File Helmuth Rosenbaum, Bl. 9.

64. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Lichtwitz.

65. BA-MA, BMRS, File R. Schenk; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Schenk.

66. U.S.A. Military Tribunals: Case No. 1-2, Nuremberg Trials, p. 2, 514.

67. Lifton, p. 286; Persico, p. 370.

68. Office of the United States Chief Counsel for Prosecution of Axis Criminality, ed., Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, vol. 2 (Washington, D.C., 1946), p. 445.

69. Ibid., p. 446.

70. Hilberg, p. 599.

71. U.S.A. Military Tribunals: Case No. 12, p. 10, 261.

72. Discussion with the author on 28 October 1998.

73. Senior civil servant. Killy was responsible for finance, budget, labor, audit and civil service matters in the Reichskanzlei. Hilberg, p. 44.

74. Rebentisch, pp. 59-60; Hilberg, p. 53; Meyer, p. 153; Cornberg and Steiner, pp. 155-56.

75. Hilberg, p. 53. Rebentisch disputes Hilberg's claim about Killy. See Rebentisch, p. 437, n. 207. Since Killy was a high-ranking official in the Reichskanzlei, he could not have avoided taking part in the Holocaust, actively or passively. However, Losener writes that Killy was a good friend of his and helped him with Mischlinge. Losener, p. 272.

76. BA-MA, BMRS, File Hans Eppinger. He is credited with formulating many significant concepts in hepatology. He identified what is now called viral hepatitis as a hepatocellular disorder and even developed the classification of jaundice.

77. Ibid.

78. Ibid., Bl. 1. Eppinger was not only distraught about his upcoming trial, but also apparently grieving his son's death, which had happened on the Russian front.

79. For a complete biography on Stella Goldschlag see Peter Wyden, Stella: One Woman's True Tale of Evil, Betrayal, and Survival in Hitler's Germany; see also Stoltzfus, Resistance, p. 222; Beate Meyer and Hermann Simon, Juden in Berlin, 1938-1945 (Berlin, 2000), pp. 237-52.

80. Wyden, pp. 300-301.

81. Ibid., p. 17.

82. Ibid., p. 231.

83. Stoltzfus, Resistance, pp. 166, 184, 279-81. There were other "catchers" who worked with Stella and Abrahamsohn-Bruno Goldstein, Ruth Danziger, Ralf Isaaksohn, and a man named Frieldaender, to name just a few. See Wyden, pp. 139-42, 240, 274-76.

84. Kaplan, p. 210.

85. SS first lieutenant.

86. This camp operated from 18 August 1943 until 29 July 1944. The inmates worked at the Factory Lenta (S.D. Werkstatten). Internationaler Suchdienst, Verzeichnis der Haftstatten unter dem Reichsfuhrer-SS, Comite International Geneve (Red Cross), 1979, p. 251.

87. BA-MA, BMRS, File Fritz Scherwitz, Bl. 13.

88. BA-MA, BMRS, File Fritz Scherwitz, Bl. 22. Others have claimed that he helped people in the camp (see BA-MA, BMRS, File Scherwitz, Bl. 25-31). Anita Kugler, however, disputes the accuracy of these sources, which originally came from the Simon Wiesenthal Center in Israel, in her forthcoming biography of Scherwitz, Der judische SS-Offizier (personal communication from Kugler, 21 March 2002).

89. The rabbi who said this wishes to remain unknown.

90. BA-MA, BMRS, interview H. Pollak.

91. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Gaupp, 27.04.1996, T-198.

92. BA-MA, BMRS, File Schliesser.

93. They had just been pulled out of the combat zone west of Moscow, where they had been in constant combat for eleven months. BA-MA, BMRS, File Horst von Oppenfeld, Oppenfeld to Rigg, 12.02.2001.

94. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Oppenfeld.

95. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Rudolf Sachs, 20.11.1995, T-168.

96. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Fritz Kassowitz, 04.01.1996, T-183; BA-MA, BMRS, File Fritz Kassowitz.

97. BA-MA, BMRS, File Ernst Prager, Heft I, Bl. 144; BA-MA, BMRS, File Ernst Prager, S. Prager to Rigg, 05.07.2001.

98. Ibid.; BA-MA, BMRS, interview S. Prager.

99. BA-MA, BMRS, File Ernst Prager, Heft III, Bl. 121.

100. BA-MA, N 379/v. 226, Bl. 39, Langheld an Ruge, 12.05.1956.

101. BA-MA, 328/45, Ehrhardt an Forste, 14.11.1956. This intervention must have happened sometime between 1940 and 1941 because it was stated that HeB secured her protection. After Bormann took over HeWs duties in May '941, it is not known what happened to Frau Langheld nee Gerson. However, in the letters Langheld wrote after the war, he mentioned that only his aunts and not his mother died, so one might conclude that she made it safely through the war.

102. Klemperer, Buch II, p. 477, 32.01.1944.

103. SS major.

104. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Kruger; Kruger, pp. 92-94.

105. Kruger, p. 94.

106. Rose had fought on the side of Franco's forces during the Spanish Civil War.

107. Rose's father, Siegbert Emil Rose, had been a medical officer (Oberstabsarzt) in the army during World War I.

108. The literal translation for Schwein is "pig, " but here it means "jerk."

109. BA-MA, BMRS, File Rose, Schnez an Rigg, 30.01.2001. Rose's parents were killed in Auschwitz soon after their arrival.

110. de Maizicre, p. 3 I; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Albert Schnez, 24.03.1997, T-323.

111. BA-MA, BMRS, File Schliesser; BA-MA, BMRS, Effenberg, Bl. 9 pp. 1-6.

112. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Techel.

113. Bergmann, p. 257.

114. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Bergmann.

I 15. BA-MA, BMRS, File Schliesser.

116. BA-MA, BMRS, File Hans Schmitt, Schmitt to Rigg, 30.03.2001.

117. Captain Sternberg would later go down with his U-boat.

118. BA-MA, BMRS, File Martin Bier, Bl. 33.

119. BA-MA, BMRS, File M. Bier, Bl. 17; BA-MA, BMRS, File Gerhard Bier, Bl. 13; BA-MA, BMRS, interview M. Bier; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Gerhard Bier, 25.09.1995, T-27; BA-MA, BMRS, interview Schlesinger.

120. BA-MA, BMRS, File Meissinger, Meissinger to Rigg, 21.07.2001.

121. Ibid.

122. Ibid., Meissinger to Rigg, 27.01.2001.

123. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Gunzel; BA-MA, BMRS, File Gunzel, Bl. 3. Hans Gunzel received the Wound Badge and the EKII. Peter Gunzel received the EKII and the EKI.

124. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Herder.

125. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Dieckmann.

126. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Sydow, 17.12.1994.

127. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Max Mannheimer, 18.11.1994, T-55.

128. Johannes Steinhoff, Peter Pechel, and Dennis Showalter, eds., Deutsche im Zweiten Weltkrieg: Zeitzeugen Sprechen (Munchen, 1989), pp. 218, 452.

129. Schmidt, "Politischer Rlickblick auf eine unpolitische Jugend, " in Kindheit unter Hitler, p. 236.

130. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Fuchs.

131. BA-MA, BMRS, interview Harald Etheimer, 02.09.1995, T-164. See also BA-MA, BMRS, interview Bleicher.

132. Dawidowicz, War against Jews, pp. 349-50. See also Bauer, p. 247.

133. Steinberg, All or Nothing, pp. 50-51. See also Kaplan, pp. 184, 227.

134. Yahil, p. 99. See also Langer, Holocaust Testimonies, p. 138; Kaplan, p. 172.

135. Kaplan, p. 194.

136. Ian Kershaw, "Popular Opinion in the Third Reich, " in Government, Party, and People in Nazi Germany, p. 71.

137. Dawidowicz, War against Jews, p. 306.
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Re: Hitler's Jewish Soldiers: The Untold Story of Nazi Racia

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CONCLUSION

1. Charles Kelly Barrow, R. B. Rosenburg, and J. H. Segars, eds., Forgotten Confederates: An Anthology about Black Southerners (Atlanta, 1995); Richard Rollins, Black Southerners in Gray: Essays on Afro-Americans in Confederate Armies (California, 1994); Patricia W. Romero and Charles H. Wesley, International Library of Negro Life and History (New York, 1969), pp. 27, 56-58, 112-14, 143-44; James I. Robertson, Soldiers Blue and Gray (South Carolina, 1998), pp. 30-35; Richard Beringer, Herman Hattaway, Archer Jones, and William Stil, The Elements of Confederate Defeat: Nationalism, War Aims, and Religion (London, 1988), p. 177.

2. Ervin L. Jordan Jr., "Different Drummers," in Black Southerners in Gray, p.67.

3. Romero and Wesley, p. 39. See also Richard Rollins, "Black Southerners in Gray," in Black Southerners in Gray, pp. 7-8, 17; Arthur W. Bergeron Jr., "Louisiana's Free Men of Color, " in Black Southerners in Gray, pp. 37-38.

4. Rudolph Young, "Black Confederates in Lincoln County, North Carolina," in Black Southerners in Gray; p. 121; James H. Brewer, The Confederate Negro (Durham, 1969), p. 3. Brewer puts the number of African-Americans who served in the Confederate military between fifty thousand and sixty thousand.

5. Samuel Eliot Morison and Henry Steele Commager, The Growth of the American Republic, vol. 2, (Oxford, 1958), pp. 785-87; Charles B. MacDonald, The Mighty Endeavor: American Armed Forces in the European Theater in World War II (Oxford, 1969), pp. 248, 263, 498-500; Lauren, pp. 72-75, 188; Allen Millett and Peter Maslowski, For the Common Defense (New York, 1984), p. 349; Omar N. Bradley and Clay Blair, A General's Life: An Autobiography by General of the Army Omar N. Bradley (New York, 1981), pp. 484-86, 543.

6. Robert B. Edgerton, Warriors of the Rising Sun (New York, 1997), p. 226; William Manchester, Goodbye Darkness (New York, 1979), pp. 166, 183; Robert T. Oliver, A History of the Korean People in Modern Times: 1800 to the Present (Newark, 1993), pp. 110-24. Many Koreans were conscripted by the Japanese armed forces and sent to battle in Manchuria and the Pacific Islands. Several kamikaze pilots were in fact brainwashed Korean high school students. Although Koreans were severely discriminated against in the army, several reached high ranks. For example, Lieutenant General Sa-ick Hong, the commandant of the infamous Manila POW camp, was a Korean and was later executed by the Americans as a war criminal (Japan deliberately transferred him to the prison post near the end of the war). Former Korean president Chung-hee Park was a graduate of the Japanese Military Academy and fought for Japan in Manchuria as an officer. Many thanks to Dr. Kwan-sa You for translating this information from Kap-jae Cho: "Spit on my Grave- The Life of Park Chung-hee, " Chosun I1bo, Seoul, Korea, article no. 104- 116, 1998.

7. It seems that only Japanese living in the coastal areas of California, Oregon, and Washington had to leave for the internment camps. Those Japanese who lived in Hawaii, for example, were not put into camps.

8. Morison and Commager, p. 788; Lauren, pp. 132-33. Not until 21 June 2000 were twenty-two Japanese Americans awarded the Medal of Honor for actions performed during World War II. They had been denied these honors because of their ancestry. These Japanese Americans served in the 442nd Army Regiment, the most decorated regiment of the war. Some people claim that this was a political move on President Clinton's part during election year to secure the American Asian vote for Gore. For example, every World War II army regiment averaged around one Medal of Honor, but the fact that twenty-two men received this medal from one regiment is quite remarkable if not impossible. As historian and army colonel James Corum says, "It smells of politics."

9. See Stoltzfus, Resistance, pp. 85, 248.

10. Turner, p. 36.

11. Walter Gorlitz, "Reichenau," in Hitler's Generals, p. 215.

12. Heeresadjutant bei Hitler, p. 70. See also Guderian, p. 86.

13. Bartov, pp. 129-30; Jurgen Forster, in The Final Solution, p. 97; Jurgen Forster, "Securing 'Living-Space,''' in Germany and the Second World War, vol. 4, pp. 1, 209-14.

14. Jurgen Forster, "Securing 'Living-Space,'" in Germany and the Second World War, vol. 4, p. 1, 213.

15. Bartov, p. 130; Breithaupt, pp. 135-37; Jurgen Forster, The Final Solution, p. 97; Jurgen Forster, Germany and the Second World War, vol. 4, pp. 1213-16. 16. Jurgen Forster, "Hitler's Decision in Favor of War against the Soviet Union, " in Germany and the Second World War, vol. 4, pp. 36-37.

17. See Yahil, pp. 257-58, 272-74; Gilbert, Holocaust, p. 210.

18. Kershaw, Hitler, 1936-1945, pp. 406, 709.

19. Hitler quite often let his ideological beliefs get in the way of military necessity. For example, during the war with Russia, Hitler could have mobilized five million women to work in the factories, thereby freeing up to three million men for military service. However, he did not use these women because of "both the physical and moral harm upon German women and damage to their psychic and emotional life and possibly their potential as mothers" if they worked. Craig, Germany, 1866-1945, pp. 735-36, 745-46. See also Rebentisch, p. 403 n. 93; Stephan Salter, "Class Harmony or Class Conflict? The Industrial Working Class and the National Socialist Regime, " in Government, Party, and People in Nazi Germany, pp. 89-91; Kershaw, Hitler, 1936-1945, pp. 563, 567-68.

20. BA-MA, BMRS, general impression gained from this study; Rebentisch, p. 435, n. 200; Adler, Der Verwaltete Mensch, p. 302.

21. Victor, p. 197.

22. Bracher, p. 404.

23. Losener, pp. 281, 311. Judenfreund was described by Robert Gellately as a "term of abuse and a catch-all accusation that could be levelled at persons who had uttered a mild disagreement with some aspect of the racial policies, or had otherwise given reason for suspicion that they did not accept the letter or spirit of Nazi anti-Semitism." Gellately, Gestapo and German Society, p. 160.

24. Losener, p. 311; see also Noakes, "Development of Nazi Policy, " pp. 3I 3, 353-54.

25. For evidence of Hitler's direct handling of the Holocaust, see Kershaw, Profiles in Power, pp. 82, 115, 157, 178; Kershaw, Nazi Dictatorship, pp. 80-107; Kershaw, Hitler, 1936-1945, pp. 147, 152, 461-64, 468-69, 487, 520-21, 583- 84, 636; Richard Breitman "Himmler, The Architect of Genocide, " in Final Solution, p. 73; Christopher R. Browning, "Hitler and the Euphoria of Victory: The Path to the Final Solution, " in Final Solution, pp. 137, 143-45; Goebbels Diaries, 1942-1943, pp. 86, 92, 148, 244, 300; Redlich, pp. 54-55, 104-5, 170- 76, 264, 316; Monologe im Fuhrerhauptquartier, 1941-1944, pp. 90, 99, 130, 195, 229; Weinberg, Germany, Hitler, p. 223; Friedlander, p. 3; Maser, pp. 256, 384; Browning, Nazi Policy, Jewish Workers, pp. 1-3; Browning, Ordinary Men, p. 49; Evans, pp. 85, 213-15, 220.

26. Helmut Krausnick and Hildegard von Kotze, eds., Es spricht der Fuhrer: Sieben exemplarische Hitler-Reden (Gutersloh, 1966), p. 147. As translated by Friedlander, p. 187.

27. Kershaw, Profiles in Power, p. 110. See also Kershaw, Hitler, 1889-1936, p. 532; Kershaw, Hitler, 1936-1945, pp. 93, 421.

28. Kershaw, Profiles in Power, p. 157; Redlich, pp. 170, 321; Evans, pp. 11, 78, 82, 89-90.

29. Kershaw, Profiles in Power, pp. 157, 178; Kershaw, Hitler, 1889-1936, p. 345; Kershaw, Hitler, 1936-1945, pp. 244, 248, 349, 352-58, 461-69, 479, 488, 492, 520-22, 589; Kershaw, Nazi Dictatorship, p. 105; Die Wehrmacht, Jurgen Forster, pp. 953, 960; Bauer, pp. 155, 194-95; Martin Broszat, German National Socialism, 1919-1945 (California, 1966), p. 52; Weinberg, Germany, Hitler, p. 226; Rebentisch, p. 429; Benz, p. I; Redlich, pp. 154, 173-75, 177, 321-22, 327-28; Browning, Nazi Policy, Jewish Workers, pp. 3, 14-15, 33, 39; Browning, Ordinary Men, p. 10; Evans, pp. 57, 81.

30. Redlich, p. 170.
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Re: Hitler's Jewish Soldiers: The Untold Story of Nazi Racia

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D 2797, P 18/130

Bryan Mark Rigg-Sammlung (Collection), Bundesarchiv-Militararchiv- Freiburg (BA-MA, BMRS), Germany
BA-MA, BMRS,


File Heinz Gunther Angress
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Lecture given at Yale by Shlomo Perel, 22 April 1994
Liste von aktiven Offizieren

INTERVIEWS
BA-MA, BMRS, interview


H. A., 18.1 l.1997
Heinz Gunter Angress, 10.12.1994
Gen Ascher, 17.11.1997 Ursula Ascher, 17.11.1997
Hermann Aub, 14.12.1996
Egon Bahr, 13.02.1995
Heinrich Bamberger, 08.11.1994
Fritz Baruch, 31.07.1997
Hanns-Heinz Bauer, 29.03.1998
Dietrich Beelitz 16.11.1997
Elisabeth Behrend, 03.03.1997
Wolfgang Behrendt, 21.11.1994
Wilhelmina Benasuli, 19.01.1997
Hans B. (Bernheim), 29.10.1998
Rabbi Chaskel Besser, 15.01.1995
Gerhard Bier, 25.09.1994
Manin Bier, 25.09.1994
Heinz Bleicher, 10.02.1995
Manin Bloch, 13.10.1996
Manin Bloch, 04.12.1996
Adolf Blum, 22.04.1995
Lenni Blum, 22.04.1995
Thilo Bode, 24.02.1995
Elisabeth Borchardt, 18.02.1995
Margot Braun, 07.01.1996
Robert Braun, 10-14-08.1994
Robert Braun, 11.03.1995
Robert Braun, 07.01.1996
Felix Bruck, 18.04.1997
Walter Bruck, 12.07.1997
Dietmar Brucher, 17.02.1995
Klaus Budzinski, 15.11.1994
Susi Byk, 23.11.1995
Hans Cahn, 11.12.1996
Peter Cahn, 17.03.1995
Peter Cahn, 11.12.1996
Alfred Catharin, 04.01.1996
Richard Czempin, 09.02.1995
Ulrich de Maiziere, 24.03.1997
Hans-Oskar Lowenstein de Witt, 06.12.1994
Yoav Delarea, 05.07.1998
Hans Doppes, 19.05.1996
Wolfgang Eben, 13.07.1997
Harald Etheimer, 02.09.1995
Hans-Geert Falkenberg, 02.02.1997
Gerhard Fecht, 18.11.1997
Dieter Fischer, 12.12.1996
Herbert Frank, 27.06.1995
Niklas Frank, 16.10.1996
Hugo Freund., 30.11.1994
Ludwig von Friedeburg, 01.12.1997
Hugo Fuchs, 08.07.1995
Peter Gaupp, 17.01.1995
Peter Gaupp, 27.04.1996
Ursula Gaupp, 08.07.1995
Ursula Gaupp, 27.04.1996
Horst Geitner, 38.03.1997
Gerhart von Gierke, 05.04.1997
Hildegard von Gierke, 29.11.1997
Rolf von Gierke, 29.11.1997
Hansotto Goebel, 07.12.1996
Werner Goldberg, 17.10.1994
Horst G. (Reinhard), 20.11.1994
J. G., 05.01.1995
Harald von Gottberg, 09.07.1997
Helmut von Gottberg, 09-10.11.1996
Rolf Gottschalk, 01.12.1994
Werner Gramsch, 16.11.1996
Michael Gunther, 19.02.1997
Wolfram Gunther, 12.08.1996
Hans Gunzel, 23-24.07.1997
Wilhelm von Gwinner, 17.11.1994
Wilhelm von Gwinner, 16.12.1996
Walter Hamburger, 5-6.11.1994
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Bernt von Helmolt, 22.07.1997
Eva Heinrichs, 09.02.1997
Kurt Heinrichs, 09.02.1997
Dr. Heinrici, 16.05.1996
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Jochen Hollaender, 14.12.1996
Hertha-Barbara Hollaender, 21.11.1995
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Karl Neubronner, 09.04.1995
Heinz Neumaier, 21.04.1995
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Shlomo Perel, 10.09.1994
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Hanns Rehfeld, 16.11.1996
Johannes Reich, 28.12.1995
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Richard Riess, 15.10.1994
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Friedrich Rubien, 27.07.1997
Jurgen Ruge, 15.04.1995
H. S., 16.11.1995
Rudolf Sachs, 20.11.1995
Christoph-Michael Salinger, 08.10.1998
Stefan Sander, 10.07.1997
Joachim Schaper, 25.05.1997
Gunther Scheffler, 10.03.1995
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Karl-Heinz Scheffler, 09.03.1995
Karl-Heinz Scheffler, 19.05.1996
Walter Scheinberger, 18.03.1995
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Gerhard Schiller, 11.02.1995
Heinz Schindler, 26.10.1997
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Peter Schliesser, 28.04.1996
Horst Schmechel, 29.11.1994
Helmut Schmidt, 22.11.1995
Helmut Schmidt, 15.10.1996
Egbert von Schmidt-Pauli, 13.09.1994
Hans Schmoeckel , 08.12.1994
Helmut Schmoeckel, 25.11.1994
Walter Schneinberger, 02.07.1995
Albert Schnez, 24.03.1997
Walter Schonewald, 06.01.1996
August Sohn, 17.05.1996
Wolfgang Spier, 06.12.1994
Arno Spitz, 17.06.1996
Friedrich-Christian Stahl, 12.11.1997
Alexander Stahlberg, 3-4.12.1994
Fritz Steinwasser, 13.12.1994
Fritz Steinwasser, 07.02.1997
Rolf von Sydow, 17.12.1994
Rosa Taraba, 08.01.1996
Karl-Arnd Techel, 29.05.1997
Maria-Anna von Menxel, 22.04.1995
Frau Rolf Vogel, 18.03.1995
Wolfgang Voigt, 09.04-1995
Reiner Wiehl, 17.05.1996
Joachim Wilberg, 05.04.1995
Frau Joachim Wilberg, 05.04.1995
Otto Wolters, 18.03.1995
Otto Wolters, 16.12.1996
Gerhard Wundermacher, 20.11.1995
Joachim Zeiter, 27.10.1997
Rolf Zeiter, 14.05.1996
Kurt Zeunert, 06.02.1997

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Re: Hitler's Jewish Soldiers: The Untold Story of Nazi Racia

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Part 1 of 2

INDEX

Abel, Leona Margarethe. See
Friedlander, Leona Margarethe
Abiturient, 112
Abraham (biblical character), 6-7,
276
Abrahamsohn, Gunther, 258, 377
Abstammungsnachweis (certificate of
descent), 317-318
Abwehr, 103, 106, 177
Active officers: Jews in Prussian army,
70
Adenauer, Chancellor Konrad, 292
Adler, H. G., 4
Admiral Hipper (heavy cruiser), 363
Adonai (God), 8
Africa, 284
African Americans, in the
Confederate armed forces and
World War I and II, 267
African colonies (German), 20
African Jews. See Ethiopian Jews
Ahasverus (eternal or wandering Jew),
109, 326
Ahnenpass (ancestral passport), 318
Air Ministry, Berlin, 132
Air-to-ground missiles, 132
Aktion Barthold (OT), 161
Aktion Hasse (OT), 160, 161, 342
Aktion Mitte (OT), 160, 161, 342
Allgemeines Marineamt, 154
Allies, 44, 46
Alsace-Lorraine, 59, 302
American Olympic Team, 183
Amin el-Husseini, Hajj (Mufti), 184,
355-356
Ancestry Declarations, 118, 120, 130,
137, 15f
Angress, Heinz-Gunther, 109, 252
Anschluss, 59, 102, 175
Anti-Comintern Pact (1936), 184
Anti-Semitism, 4, 11, 13-14, 16, 24,
27, 34, 48, 74, 85, 94, 95, 108,
109, 137, 145, 174, 182, 184,
267, 270, 308, 309
as felt by Mischlinge, 109
origin of term, 280
in Vienna, 324
in the Wehrmacht, 137-138
Apocrypha, 280
Arabs, 184
Aramean nomads, 6
Arco- Valley, Count Anton, 15, 28 1
Argentina, 125
Ariernachweis (certificate of
Aryanhood), 317-318
Arierparagraph (Aryan paragraph),
13, 77-79, 88, 94, 95, 99, 101,
102, 179, 200, 204, 207, 235,
280, 310, 312, 333
first Supplementary Decree to, 77
implementation in the Reichswehr,
82, 333
issued for the Reichswehr, 80-8 1
Manstein's view of, 84-85, 269
non-Aryans responses to, 78, 82,
83, 84, 235-237
number of non-Aryans discharged
from the Reichswehr because
of, 81-82
Arisierung (Aryanization of non-
Aryans), 130, 141, 177-178,
180, 186, 195, 203, 207, 209,
213, 214, 218, 230, 239-240,
260, 261, 332
Aristocracy Uunker), intermarriage
with and opposition to Jews,
68-69
Armin, General Friedrich Sixt von, 363
Armin, General Hans-Heinrich Sixt
von, 208, 363-364
Army Corps of Engineers and
Communication Units, 91
Army Group South, 269
Army Medical Corps, 128
Army Personnel Group Office (PI),
91, 229
Army Personnel Group Office (P2),
229>318
Army Personnel Group Office (P5),
229
Army Personnel Office, 15 1, 204, 218,
229, 235. See also OKH
Personnel Office
Army Personnel Office (P2 Group
IV), 194, 229
Army Reserve Police Units, 137
Army Weapons Development Office,
216
Aronson, Shlomo, 349
Aryan, 15, 20, 22, 24, 27-33, 35, 38-
42, 46, 50, 54-55, 59-60, 73, 75,
76, 88, 89, 90, 91, 94, 95, 96, 99,
103, 104, 113, 123, 130, 135,
136, 137, 139, 141, 143, 149,
150, 156, 157, 160, 167, 169,
170, 174, 180, 181, 183, 184,
185, 198, 201, 207, 209, 211,
212, 213, 219, 223, 233, 235,
236, 238, 242, 258, 270, 271,
278, 280
family members of Jews and
Mischlinge, 96, 97
Hitler's definition of, 16
Nazi definition of, 79
Aryan Declarations, 89, 137, 151
Aryanization (Arisierung). See
Arisierung
Ascher, Paul, 125, 186
Ascher, Sammy, 78, 310, 311
Asenath Ooseph's wife), 7
Assault Badge, 114, 139
Assimilation, 2, 21, 51-65, 88, 95, 299,
300, 303
Association of High-Ranking Civil
Servants, 80
Association of National German
Jews, 12, 88
Ataturk (leader of Turkey), 356
Atlantic (military front during World
War II), 82
Atlantis (surface raider), 206-207
Auerstedt (Battle of, 1806), 67
Auschwitz extermination camp, 18,
22, 24, 41, 152, 164, 167, 170,
181, 251, 254, 255, 256, 257,
262, 264, 271, 283, 328, 343
Ausnahmebehandlung (exceptional
treatment), 126, 201, 232, 236
Ausnahmebewilligung (special
exemption), 237
Australia, 40
Austria, 59-60, 174, 298-299
Anschlug of, 59, 102, 106-107
number of Jews in 1910, 308
number of Jews in 1938, 302
number of Mischlinge in 1938, 302
policy toward Jews in the military,
69, 307
Austrian army, 106, 306, 307
number of Jewish soldiers from the
17th to 19th century, 66, 69
number of Jews who died in
World War 1, 73
number of Jews who fought
against Napoleon, 69
number of Jews who fought for
the Austro-Hungarian Empire,
73
policy toward Jews, 69, 73-74
Austrian Bundesheer, 106
Austrian Jews, 2, 308
Austrian Republic, 348
Austrians and anti-Semitism in 1938,
106
Automedon (U.K. steamship), 40
B., Valerie (nee Bergmann), 37
Backenkohler, Margarete. See Lutjens,
Margarete
Backenkohler, Admiral Otto, 82, 313
Baden (province in Germany), 161
Baden Gauleiter, 187
Baeck, Rabbi Leo, 72
Bahr, Egon, 123
Balkans, 131, 133, 238
Ball, Rudi, 184, 355
Ballin, Albert, 71, 307
Baltic Germans, 60
Baltic Sea, 262
Baltic States, 169
Baltzer, Admiral Martin, 154
Bamberger, Heinrich, 118, 188, 328
Bang, Ferdinand, 115
Baptism, 7, 52, 58, 70
Baptized Jews, 67, 7 1
Barbarossa (invasion of Russia, 22
June 1941), 134, 135, 334
Barkai, A vraham, 299, 300, 302
Basel (Switzerland), 161
Battle Group Rogge, 207
Bauer, OT-Frontflihrer, 165
Bauer, Yehuda, 170
Bavaria (province in Germany), 68, 304
Bavarian army: policies toward Jews,
68, 71
Bavarian State Office of Reparations,
46
Bayreuth (Germany), 241
Beck, General Ludwig, 83, 84, 85, 87
Beckhardt, Fritz, 73, 308
Beelitz, General Dietrich, 84, 208
Behr, Stephan, 299
Behrendt, Wolfgang, 32
Beindorff, Friedrich, 183
Beindorff, Fritz, 354
Beindorff, Johann-Christoph, 183
Beindorff, Klaus, 183
Beindorff, Wolfgang, 183
Belci (Rumania), 255
Belgium, 169
Belle- Alliance (Battle of, 1815), 68
Belorussia (Russia), 169
Below, Nicolaus von (Luftwaffe
adjutant), 205-206, 209, 210,
324, 361, 368
Belzec death camp, 251
Benary, Lieutenant Colonel Albert,
13-14, 280
Bendeix, Johanna. See Broell, Johanna
Bendemann, Admiral Felix von, 307
Bergen- Belsen concentration camp,
264
Berges, August (Marinestabsrichter;
naval judge), 26
Bergmann, Dieter, 22, 25, 28, 37, 41,
42, 48, 123, 124, 125, 164, 248-
249, 251, 252, 255, 262
Bergmann, Ernst, 22
Bergmann, Gretel, 355
Bergmann, Ulrich, 125
Bergmann, Valerie, 37
Bering, Dietz, 54
Berlin (defense of 1945), 166
Berlin (Germany), xi, 15, 45, 146, 147,
156, 160, 161, 203, 251, 253,
258, 261
Berlin Artillery School, 68
Berlin High Military Court
(Oberkriegsgericht), 87
Berlin Jewish Community Center, 68
Berlin Opera House, 41
Berlin's Police Headquarters, 237
Berlin's Sports Palace, 145
Berlling, Lieutenant, 153
Bernheim, Hans, 110
Beschiitz, Gert, 311
Beschiitz, Max, 311
Bessarabian Germans, 60
Besser, Rabbi Chaskel, 92
Bewahrungsbataillon (penal
battalions), 136, 153, 154, 335
Bewahrungssoldat, 136
Beyer, Herbert, 160, 162, 163
Bible (Christian), 185
Bier, Georg, 263
Bier, Gerhard, 170, 263
Bier, Gustav, 263
Bier, Martin, 210-211, 263
Biermann-Ratjen, Hans-Harder, 242,
243
Bildung (education), 12
Binder, Fritz, 42, 48, 371
Birth rate (Germany), 54, 300
Bismarck (battleship), 82, 125, 186,
313
Bismarck, Herbert von, 305
Bismarck, Marguerite von (nee Gratin
Hoyos), 305
Bismarck, Chancellor Otto von, 69,
301, 304, 308
Bittgesuch (request for clemency), 205
"Black" persons, 20
Blanck, Mathilde, 58, 260
Blankenburg, Oberberichsleiter
Werner, 26, 31, 116-117, 126,
146, 188, 192, 193, 205, 214,
219, 224, 226, 227, 228, 230
BGu, Bruno, 61, 284, 302, 342
Bleicher, Heinz, 122-123, 255, 256
Bleicher, Helen (nee Wolff), 255
Blitzkrieg, history of operational
concept, 178
Bloch, Eduard, 175-176
Bloch, Ernst, 160, 234, 342
Blomberg, Frau Margarethe (nee
Gruhn), 105, 324
Blomberg, General Werner von, 30,
79, 80, 81, 82, 85, 86, 87, 100,
102, 106, 177, 200, 201, 205,
236, 237, 324
Hitler removes from Wehrmacht,
105
on Mischlinge, 101
on Nazi teachings in the
Wehrmacht, [or
and Nuremberg Laws, 99, 102
views on Hitler, 86
views on how many non-Aryans
served in Reichswehr, 80
on why non-Aryans could serve,
88
Blome, Kurt, 224, 227
"Blood, " 16-17, 19-20, 22-24, 29, 32,
79, 101, 128, 143, 150, 156, 159,
167, 168, 171, 195, 211, 219,
222, 236, 270, 283
"Blood and Soil" (Blut und Boden),
14, 84, 280, 3 15
"Blue Max." See Pour le Merite Medal
Blum, Adolf, 48
Blum, Lenni, 48
Blumenfeld, Erik, 24, 286
Blumentritt, General Guenther, 208
Bode, Thilo, 207
Boehm, Admiral Hermann, 179
Bohr, Niels, 345
Bohrne, Irmgard, 135, 229
Bolsheviks and Bolshevism, 12, 15,
108, 133, 137, 232, 269
Borchardt, Ernst, 196
Borchardt, Philipp, 196, 358
Borchardt, Robert, 84, 196, 239-240,
314
Borchardt, (Uncle) Robert, 358
Borchardt, Rudolf, 358-359
Bormann, Albert, 226-227, 228, 368
Bormann, Martin, 17, 133, 144, 146,
147, 151, 157, 159-160, 162-
163, 167, 175, 182, 192, 193,
203, 220, 221, 222, 223-228,
230, 231, 233, 272, 273, 368,
378
Bosch, Oscar, 353
Bossart, Egon, 44
Bouhler, Philipp, 117, 126, 15 1, 183,
192, 193, 205, 219-220, 221,
223-225, 227-228, 287, 328, 368
Boycott (1 April 1933), 77
Bracher, Karl Dietrich, 271
Brack, Viktor, 116, 221, 328
Brauchitsch, Field Marshal Walther
von, 113, 145, 207, 213, 214,
237
Brauer, Carl, 29
Braun, Leopold, 13
Braun, Margot, 22
Braun, Robert, 13, 22, 24, 33, 107,
120, 121, 171, 255
Braunschweig (Germany), 200
Bredow, Ada von, 112
Bredow, Graf Achim von, 37, 112,
179
Bredow, Graf Wolf von, 37
Breslau (Germany), 35, 161, 256, 291,
343
Breslau Ortsgruppenleiter, 90
Brest (France), 132
Briesen, General Kurt von, 18o, 352
Briesen, Rudiger von, 180, 352
British Asian possessions, 40
British Commander-in-Chief, Far
East, 40
Brockdorff-Ahlefeldt, General Count
Erich von, 142
Brockhoff, Walther, 234
Brockhusen, Irmgard von (nee
Hindenburg), 213, 237
Broell, Johanna (nee Bendeix), 142
Brucher, Dietmar, 110-111, 124
Bruck, Felix, 104, 131
Brunner, Alois, 169
Buchenwald concentration camp, 106,
170, 248, 250, 254, 255, 257,
286, 343
Budzinski, Klaus, 165
Bujakowsky, Werner, 183
Bukovinian Germans, 60
Bundesarchiv (Freiburg), xii
Bundeswehr Ministry of Defense, 84
Burg, Major Meno, 68, 69
Burgdorf, General Wilhelm, 232, 234,
235
Burkner, Felix, 137, 146, 159-160341
Buschbekc, E. H., 302
Butow, Alfred, 35, 44, 46
Buttner, Ursula, 3, 166, 303, 360
Cadek, Karl, 211-212
Cahn, Max, 342
Cahn, Ottilie (Tilly) Cahn (nee
Schulze), 341-342
Cahn, Peter, 164
Calic, Edouard, 350
California (U.S.A.), 183
Calvelli-Adorno, Franz, 263
Cambridge University (England), xi-xii
Canaan, 6
Canaris, Admiral Wilhelm, 106, 177,
182, 324, 342
Capitalism, 185
Casernes Mortier (OT) forced labor
camp, near the metro station
Porte des Lilas in Paris, 164,
165
Casualties (German, during the
Russian Campaign), 185-186
Catharin, Alfred, 256
Catholicism, 173, 300
Caucasus, 283
Celle Mortar School, 250
Central Archives of German Jews, 92-
93
Central Association of German
Citizens of Jewish Faith, 61,
71-72, 73
Chemical Warfare Service (World
War 1), 73
Chiang Kai-shek, 83, 314
China, 83, 84, 205, 239, 314, 315, 369
"Chosen" people, 6, 15
Christ, 15. See also Jesus
Christian Germans, 2, 72-73, 185
Christians and Christianity, 17, 20,
75, 185
conversion to Judaism, 17
Jews and Mischlinge conversion
to, 16, 18, 35, 46, 52, 58, 212,
238, 240, 298, 299, 301, 306,
309
persecution of Jews and
Mischlinge, 23
Ch ristmas, 255
Chromosomes, 17
Circumcision (bris), 7, 28, 32, 34, 44,
249, 291
Citadel (Zitadelle), 40
Civil War (U.S.), 267
Cohen, Claus, 165
Cohen, Hermann, 72
Cohen, Joachim, 141, 142
Cohn, Richard, 89
Cohn, Werner, 4, 61
Colli, Robert, 90-9 1
Colombia, 45
Colonial Troops (German) 309
Commissar Order. See
Kommissarbefehl
Commissars (Soviet), 134
Communism and Communists, 11,
15, 44, 74, 184, 269
Concentration camp prisoners (KZ-Haftlinge),
45
Concentration/extennination camps,
18, 22, 24, 33, 41, 76, 106, 130,
133, 141, 148, 152, 162, 164,
165, 167, 170, 181, 196, 217,
240, 248, 250, 251, 252, 253,
254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 260,
261, 262, 264, 265, 271, 286
Condor Legion, 179, 35 1, 359
Confederate Armed Forces, number
of African-American who
fought for, 267, 379
Confederate States of America, 267
Congress of Vienna (1815), 301
Conservative Movement (Judaism), 9,
48
Conti, Leonardo, 227
Conversion(s), 7-8, 55, 58, 70, 278,
299
Hitler's explanation of why Jews
convert, 21
number of c. of Austrian Jews in
Vienna, 52
number of c. of German Jews, 51-
53
in Prussian army, 71
Comely, Hans, 122
Corum, James, 30, 79, 177, F2, 380
Covenant (B'rit), 6
Crete (Battle of, 194 1), 120, 125
Crimea (Russia), 67
Crimean Karaimes, 283
Cripps, Sir Stafford, 223
Croneiss, SA-Colonel Theo, 29
Crystal Night (9-10 November 1938).
See Reichskristallnacht
Cushite, 7
Czechoslovakia, 59, 294, 302
Czempin, Alex, 252-253
Czempin, Robert, 252-253, 375
D., Anton, 47
Dachau concentration camp, 165, 170,
196, 217, 248, 254, 257, 258
DAF. See Deutsche Arbeitsfront
Daitsch (German), 12
Dalberg, Gert, 74
Dan (Israelite tribe), 276
Danes (half-Jewish), 168
Danite, 6, 276
Dankbardt, Herr, 157
Danzig (Germany), 59-60, 252, 302
Danzig Artillery School, 68
Danziger, Ruth, 377
Dark Ages, 12
Darn~, Walter, 280, 3 15
Das Schwarze Korps (SS organ), 58, 88
Dawidowicz, Lucy, 265
Death sentences (during the Third
Reich), 340
Deimling, General von, 74
Deist, Wilhelm, 105-106
De Lange, Nicholas, 8
Denmark, 118, 168-169, 345
Denunciations, 89, 93, 94, 102
Deportation(s), 90, 126, 135, 136, 139,
142, 152, 153, 155, 162, 170,
240, 251-253, 261-262
Aryan relatives help prevent d. of
Mischling relatives, 169, 268
Mischling help (or try to) prevent
d. of relatives, 140-141, 240-
241, 261
Der Blaue Engel (film), 293
Derenburg OT forced labor camp
(Harz), 164
Destroyer flotillas, 18o
Der Sturmer (anti-Semitic
newspaper), 17, 109, 169
Deuteronomy, 8
Deutschblutig (of German blood), 3 1,
105, 115, 126, 135, 142, 144,
147, 148, 157, 159, 187, 188,
189-198, 199, 201, 205, 206,
207, 21T, 212, 213, 24, 215,
217, 218, 222, 223, 224, 227,
232, 233, 237, 240, 245, 289
Deutschblutigkeitserkldrung (German
blood certificates), 31-32, 91,
103, 105, 115, 126, 137, 139,
144, 148, 149, 159, 162-163,
180, 183, 186, 187, 188, 189-
198, 199, 201, 203, 205, 206,
207, 208, 211, 212, 213, 214,
215, 216, 217, 218, 223, 224,
227, 229, 230, 232, 233, 235,
23h 238, 239, 240, 241, 245,
260, 270-271, 289, 359, 365
Deutsche Arbeitsfront (DAF; German
Labor Front), 187
Deutsche Dienststelle, xii
Deutsches Afrika-Korps (German
Africa Corps), 103, 131-132
Deutsches Arzteblatt (German Medical
Doctors Magazine), 128
Deutsche Versuchsanstalt fur
Luftfahrt (DVL), 132
Deutsche Vortrupp. See German
Vanguard
Devil, Hitler as, 41
Diaspora, 8
Dieckmann, Heinz, 41, 44, 264, 295
Dietrich, Marlene, 293
Dietz, Heinrich, 156-157, 187-188,
189, 192, 228, 341
Dinter, Arthur, 320
Dirlewanger, SS-Oberfuhrer Oskar,
344
Dissidents (Jewish), 51-53, 298, 299
Divorce, 33
Doehla, General Heinrich, 89
Dohnanyi, Hans von, 286
Dolibois, John E., 30, 288
Dollersheim (Austria), 174, 348
Dollfuss, Engelbert, 348
Donitz, Grand Admiral Karl, 154
Down Syndrome, 30
Draft (16 March 1935), 88
Draney concentration camp, 33, 256
Dresden Gestapo headquarters, 261
Dresden Kriegsschule, 204
Droscher, Wilhelm, 33, 39, 171
Du-Bois Reymond, Prosper, 118
Du-Bois Reymond, Tycho, 118
Diinaburg (Dugavpils) (Latvia), 254
Eastern Jews (Ostjuden), 11-13, 15,
24, 109-110, 269
Eberbach, General Heinrich, 212
Ebert, Sonja, 145
Ebert, Wolfgang, 145
Egypt, 6, 276
Ehrhardt, Admiral Werner, 186
Ehrlich, Captain, 142
Eichmann, Adolf (SSObersturmbannfuhrer),
21,
128, 129, 139, 147, 171, 260,
261, 354
8th Destroyer Flotilla, 352
Einem, Karl von (Prussian War
minister and general), 71
Einsatzgruppen ("task groups";
mobile killing units), 135, 255
Einstein, Frau, 165
Einstein, Kurt, 163
Eisenach (Germany), 185
Eisenhower, General Dwight D., 3 13
Eisner, Kurt, 15, 281
Eisner, Mijail (Michael), 47
Eisner, Werner, 22, 47, 152
Eitel, Christa, 197-198
Eitel, Ludwig, 197-198
EKI (Iron Cross First Class), 34, 39,
72, 74, 76, 80, 90, 111, 163, 176,
204, 20h 208, 209, 212, 214,
237, 260, 290, 324, 378
EKII (Iron Cross Second Class), 34,
39, 74, 76, 105, 111, 114, 119,
120, 122, 124, 139, 140, 163,
180, 188, 195, 204, 207, 208,
209, 210, 214, 218, 237, 245,
248, 252, 260, 261, 290, 324,
336, 378
Elek, lona, 355
11th Army, 269
Elmer, Dora. See Rogoszinsky, Dora
Emancipation
of 1806, 60, 302
of 1812, 59, 67, 301
of 1871, 59, 301
Emigration, 88, 247-248, 303
Emperor (Japanese), 40
Enabling Act (March 1933), 77
Endlosung (Final Solution), 128, 147,
167, 168, 176, 250
Engel, Army Adjutant Gerhard, 80,
91, 117, 140, 155, 180, 182, 187,
189, 192, 194, 205-206, 207,
208, 209, 210, 211, 214, 219-
221, 225, 226, 239, 270, 272,
312-313, 368-369
Engelbert, Ulrich, 74
England, 69, 124, 248
Ephraim, Veitel, 67
Eppenstein, Ritter Hermann von, 316
Eppinger, Hans, 258, 259, 377
Erdmann, Georg, 194, 229-230, 2]2,
233
Erzberger, Matthias, 175, 349
Etheimer, Harald, 165, 265
Ethiopia, 7
Ethiopian Jews (Falashas), 8-9, 278
Euler, Wilfried, 3 13
Euphrates, 6
Europa Europa (film), xi
"Euthanasia Action" (notorious T-4
office), 30, 169, 170, 328, 346-
347
Evans, Richard, 350
Execution, 26, 153-154, 254, 256, 259
Exemptions
corruption in getting, 183
for half-Jews, 117, 126, 130, 148,
150, 157, 172-194
of non-Aryans, 89
number of, 189-194
for quarter-Jews, 117-118, 140,
147, 157, 172-194
under the Nuremberg Racial Laws,
98
in the Wehrmacht, 101-102
why Hitler granted exemptions,
172-189
Extermination camps. See
Concentration/extermination
camps
Ezra (Jewish prophet), 99, 321
Falk, Walter, 87, 316
Falkenberg, Hans-Geert, 21, 37-38,
165, 248, 249, 250, 251, 292, 344
Falkenberg, Richard Albert, 248, 374
Falkenhausen, General Alexander
von, 83
Falscher Makel (wrong blemish), 48, 296
Falsifying documents. See Lying
Fecht, Gerhard, 23
Fehr, Bettina, 303
Fest, Joachim, 350
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb, 52
5th Destroyer Flotilla, 352
5th Division, 204
5th Luftflotte, 182
5th Panzerjager Company, 3 14
56th Infantry Division, 209
Fighter Pilot Aces (World War II), 39
Fikentscher, Admiralstabsarzt, [15
"Final Solution." See Endlosung
First Final Solution Conference. See
Wannsee Conference
Fischer, Dieter, 113-114, 119, 116-
137, 371
Fischer, Eberhardt, 246
Fischer, Erwin, 113, 327
Flanders Campaign (World War I),
178
Fleischmann, Herr, 164-165
Florey, Gretel (nee Pick), 111
Florey, Klaus, 111, 255, 256, 306, 326
Flying Dutchman, The (opera), 16
Foertsch, Hermann, 84
Fontane, Theodor, 69
Foreign Ministry's "Jewish Desk"
(Judenreferat), 147
Foreign Office, 184
408th Division (Breslau), 90
4th Destroyer Flotilla, 352
4th Panzer Division, 212
France, 59, 70, 90, 118, 119, 127, 129,
131, 134, 142, 164, 165, 169,
178, 215, 224
Francken, Edgar, 146-147, 338
Francken, Hermann, 146, 338
Francken, Julie (nee Spier), 338
Francken, Max, 338
Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871), 70,
306
Frank, Hans, 168, 173, 348
Frank, Ludwig (Reichstag deputy), 72
Frank, Niklas, 173, 348
Frankenberger family, 173, 174, 348
Frankenreiter family, 173
Frankfurt (Germany), 47-48, 161, 246
Frankl, Wilhelm, 72
Franzel, H., 180
Frauenschaft meeting (Nazi), 90
Frederick the Great, 66-67, 304
Free French, 132
Freiburg (Germany), xii
Freikorps, 74, 309
French Campaign (1940), 118, 127
French colonial soldiers, 20
French POW's, 122, 257
Freund, Hugo, 42
Freund, Sigmund, 70, 266
Frey, Commander Richard, 3 1, 155,
198, 214, 220, 221, 225, 22~
242-243, 245, 270
Freytag, Gustav, 349
Frick, Wilhelm (Interior minister), 17,
21, 79, 96, 99, 101, 200, 201, 371
Friedeburg, Admiral Hans-Georg
von, 82-83, 313-314
Friedlander, Hugo, 136, 137
Friedlander, Johann (lieutenant field
marshal), 181, 353
Friedlander, Leona Margarethe (nee
Abel), 181
Friedlander, Saul, 4, 310, 355
Fritsch, Theodor, 28 1
Fritsch, General Werner Freiherr von,
85, 89, 103, 105, 205, 269
Fromm, General Friedrich, 159
Frontbewahrungseinheit (Front-line
penal company), 136
Fuchs, Erwin, 19
Fuchs, Hugo, 76, 265
Furstner, Wolfgang, 184
Gablenz, General Carl-August, 257
Gaehde, Joachim, 25, 253
Galland, Adolf, 366
Gallipoli (Battle of 1916), 307
Gartner, Emil, 243
Gartner, Marianne, 129, 242, 243
Gartner, Rainer, 129, 241-244
Gartner, Robert, 242-244
Gartow, xii
Gauleiter and Gauleitung(en), 124,
220, 223, 225, 227, 230, 318, 323
Gaupp, Peter, 78, 98, 121, 259, 310, 329
Gebhard, Friedrich, 233-234
Geheime Reichssachen, 257
Geitner, Horst, 119, 328
Gellately, Robert, 381
Geltungsjuden (Jews by legal fiction),
17, 149, 170, 181, 250, 282
Genehmigung (exemption), 26, 39,
136, 140, 141, 146, 150, 180,
189-198, 203, 205, 210, 211,
215, 223, 239, 245, 251, 270-
271, 287, 352, 359
General Government (Poland), 135, 168
General Staff (Wehrmacht), 152, 261,
262
General Wehrmacht Domestic Office,
3 1, 155
Gentiles, 10, 48, 291, 296
Gerber, Hannah. See Meissinger,
Hannah
Gercke, Achim (expert for Racial
Research in the RMI), 29, 60,
96, 3 13
Gerlach, Heinz, 27, 40
German combat helicopters, 333
German Cross in Gold, 39, 91, 181,
182, 199, 202, 208, 232, 260
German Cross in Silver, 39
German Hero's Day, 108
German-Israeli Society (Deutsch-
Israelische Gesellschaft), 286
German Labor Front. See Deutsche
Arbeitsfront
German navy. See Kriegsmarine
German Vanguard (Deutsche
Vortrupp), 13, 88
Gersdorff, Hans-Gunther von, 235-237
Gersdorff, Frau Marie von, 235-237
Gerson, Frau. See Langheld, Frau
Gestapo (Secret State Police), 17, 21,
24, 31, 33-37, 42, 51, 90, 123,
124, 133, 140, 161, 173, 181,
210, 245, 248, 258, 259, 262,
264, 282, 291, 327, 357
Getreuer, Josef, 106-107
Ghetto Qewish), 12, 14, 54, 109, 168,
169, 249, 251, 254, 255
Giese, Captain, 244
Gilbert, Martin, 18
Girgensohn, SA-Gruppenfuhrer, 146
Gladisch, Admiral Walter, 260
Gleiehsehaltung (coordination of
political, social, and public life),
202
Gleiehstellung (equalization), 240
Globke, Hans, 38, 99, 167, 292
Glogau (Glog6w, Poland), 161
Glusk Ghetto, 249
Gnadenakt (act of mercy), 105
Gnadengesueh (petition for clemency),
205, 207, 209, 214, 217
God, 6-8, 15, 47, 92, 11O, 134, 135,
249, 250, 276, 291, 296, 326
Goebbels, Propaganda Minister
Joseph, 30, 149, 171, 183, 203,
327, 347
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 52, 296
Goethe Institute, xi-xii
Goldberg, Werner, 141-142
Golden Wound Badge, 39, 248, 260, 292
Goldmann, Erwin, 23
Gold Medals for Bravery (Austrian),
73, 309
Goldner, Helene (Halina), 251
Goldschlag, Stella, 258, 377
Goldstein, Bruno, 377
Goring, Albert, 316
Goring, Emmy, 85, 316
Goring, Hermann, xiii, 21, 29-30, 40,
78, 85-86, 100, !O3, 107, 108-
109, 119, 128, 147, 157, 178,
179, 180, 203, 204, 216, 221,
222, 227, 231, 242, 316, 352
Guard Battalion, 119
Jewish ancestory of, 285
Gotha, Emma, 253
Gotha, Wilhelm, 253
Gottberg family, 237
Gottberg, SS-General Curt, 182, 213,
365
Gottberg, Helmut von, 213, 286
Gottberg, Horst von, 236
Gottberg, Wilhelm von, 213, 236, 237
Gottglaubig (a believer in God), 319
Gottlieb, Rabbi Dovid, 7
Goy (Gentile), 45, 291. See also
Gentiles
Grafemus, Luise (nee Ester Manuel), 68
Graf Spee (pocket battleship), 125
Graz (Austria), 174, 175, 348
Greece, 168
Greifer (catchers), 258, 377
Grenacher, Werner. See Lowy, Karl-
Heinz
Grimm, Gerd, 121
GroG, Walter (chief of Party race
political officer), 128, 136, 142,
143
GroG-Rosen concentration camp,
Lower Silesia, 170
Gruber, Heinrich, 116, 328
Grun, Jurgen, 31, 289
Grundmann, Walter, 185
Gsell, Max, 188
Guderian, General Heinz, 220, 228, 367
Gunther, Hans, 301
Gunther, Michael, 111-112, 326, 327
Gunther, SS-Sturmbannfuhrer Rolf, 261
Gunther, Wolfram, 138-139, 209-210
Gunzel, Hans, 49, 120, 264, 378
Gunzel, Peter, 264, 378
Gussmann, Reichsreferent, 156-157
Gutmann, Hugo, 176
Guttstadt, Gerhard, 162
Gwinner, Wilhelm von, 179, 194
Gypsies, 160, 161, 165
Haber, Fritz Jacob, 73, 308
Hadamar Euthanasia Center, 169
Haehnelt, General Wilhelm, 238, 239,
372
Haffner, Sebastian, 52
Hahn, General Johannes von, 307
Haiti, 286
Halakah (rabbinical law), 7, 9-11, 16,
18, 27, 32, 45, 277, 283
Halder, General Franz, 127, 134, 152
Half-Blacks, 267
Half-Jews
activities after discharge because of
Racial Laws, 132-133
battle deaths documented in this
study, 123
Conscription Laws of 1935, 88,
107
declaring as Jews, 95-97, 128-129,
143-144
definition of, 97
desertions of, 153-154
discharge of (8 and 20 April 1940),
117-118, 133, 209
discharge orders of 194 1, 128
exemptions for, 117, 124, 135, 199-
235
extermination of, 95-97, 128-129,
143-144, 151, 166-171
fallen h. do not receive the same
honors as Aryans, 125-126
Hitler's views on their service in
1940, 126
illegitimate children born to, 151,
152, 153
loyal Germans, 150
marriage regulations of, 97
on the Nazi sterilizing half-Jews, 155
number of during the Third Reich,
54, 59-65, 96
number of half-Jewish Wehrmacht
and SS soldiers based on this
study, 63-64, 123, 193
number of discharged in 1940,
126-127
officers, 119-120
OT forced labor camps, 157, 160-
166
persecution of family
members, 139-142
protect their Jewish family
members, 140-142
responses to the military Racial
Laws, 111-112, 120-123, 138-
139
stipulations for exemptions, 118
treatment of by comrades and
superiors, 49-50, 119-123
try to immigrate, 147-248
university studies, 126
in the Volkssturm, 16o
Wehrmacht policy prevent many
from having to go to Russia,
145, 150
Halle (Germany), 176
Haller, Martha, 214-215
Haller family, 214-215
Hamann, Fritz, 209
Hamberger, Heinrich, 49-50
Hamburg (Germany), 26, 31, 71, 161,
170, 171, 255, 280
Hamburger, Walter, 124, 194, 217,
248
Handler, Marie, 250
Hanover's General Command, 233
Hanstein, Eberhard von, 241, 261
Hardenberg, Staatskanzler Karl
Augustvon, 67-68, 301
Harz Mountains (Germany), 164
Hauck, Michael, 47, 54
Hauptverbindungsamt, 156
Hazai, General Baron Samuel, 73
Heard, Maria (nee Borchardt), 196
Hebrews (Ivrim), 6-7, 276
Hebrew University, 297
Heckert, Johannes, 137, 138
Heine, Heinrich, 7, 54, 69
Heine-Geldern, Gustav von, 69
Heines, Edmund, 349
Heinrici, Getrude (nee Strupp), 186
Heinrici, Gisela, 186
Heinrici, General Gotthard, 166, 186
Heinrici, Hartmut, 186
Heliopolis (city of), 276
Helmolt, Bernt von, 140, 142, 336
Helmolt, Eiche von, 336
Helmolt family, 141
Helwig, Karl, 89
Hempfling, Maria, 153
Henle, Carl, 324
Henle, Ernst, 324
Henle, Franz, 324
Henle, Karl, 105, 323-324
Hensel, Getrud (nee Hahn), 326
Hensel, Kurt, 326
Hensel, Wilhelm, 326
Herder, Hans, 24, 264
Herder, Johann Gottfried von, 52
Hermann, Claus, 145
Hermann, 55-General Fritz Hermann,
29
Herrenmenschen (supermen), 42
Herwig, Holgar, 71, 305
Hess, Moses, 8
HeB, Rudolf, 30, 177, 221, 378
Hessemann, Colonel, 229
Heydrich, Bruno, 176, 350
Heydrich, 55-General Reinhard, 58-
59, 108, 133, 147, 151, 156, 168,
176-177, 182, 200, 226, 273,
348, 349-350
Heymann, Georg-Jakob, 248
Heymann, Heinz-Georg, 248
Hiedler, Georg, 174
Hilberg, Raul, 59, 258, 278, 284, 377
Hildebrandt, Richard, 167
Himelstein, Sonja. See Ebert, Sonja
Himmelfahrtskommandos (straight to
heaven detachments), 136
Himmelheber, Kathe (nee Jacoby), 90,
318
Himmler, Heinrich, 30, 133, 149, 152,
159, 160, 165, 166, 167, 169,
175, 176, 182, 225, 226, 231-
232, 234, 257, 273, 313, 346
Hindenburg, Field Marshal Paul von,
7~ 80, 84, 8~ 100, 213, 23~ 310
Hindenburg exemptions, 77-78, 80,
81, 99, 200, 333
Hirschfeld, Paul-Ludwig, 79, 91-92,
319
Hitler, Adolf, xiii, 1-2
anti-Semitic rages, 16
on Arabs, 184-185
Arierparagraph, 78
commander of Armed Forces, 105-
106
Conscription Law, 88
to deal with half-Jews after war,
151, 171, 225
definition of "Jews, " 14-16, 97,
135, 282
definition of Mischlinge, 19-20, 97
draft-dodger 174, 349
Eastern Jews, 13
eradication/ extermination of Jews,
133, 144, 145, 166, 203, 271-
273, 381
exemptions for Jews, 107-108, 149,
181, 182, 261
exemptions for Mischlinge
(reviews applications for
clemency), 101-103, 105, 112,
115, 117, 118, 135, 139, 140,
141, 142, 146, 148, 150, 162-
163, 172-198, 199-235, 237,
258, 260, 366
experiences with Jews during
World War I, 80
on Field Marshal Milch, 29
insane and retarded relatives, 175
on the Italians, 184
on intermarriage, 69, 143
invades Austria, 106
on the Japanese, 184
on Jesus, 185
on Jewish conversion, 21
Mischling civil servants, 163
on Mischling officers, 100, 114
on Mischlinge's offspring, 143
on mixed-marriages, 107-108, 115,
129, 155, 197-198, 201, 219
mobilization of women, 380-381
on non-Aryan wives of
Wehrmacht personnel, 103
Nuremberg Racial Laws, 94-98
oath to, 86-87
obsession with Jews, 100
orders military census for
Mischlinge, 114
Parkinson's disease, 166
personal experiences with Jews,
175
popularity, 87-88, 97, 127, 134
possible Jewish past, 172-175
possible son, 173
rejects proposal to declare half-
Jews Jews, 129, 149, 150, 155,
226
relationship with Hindenburg, 77,
310
revolution in Germany (1919), 15
sterilizing half-Jews, 170
takes control of the Army 1941,
145
tired of dealing with Mischlinge,
151
Versailles Treaty, 88
view of Aryan chamber maids
working in Jewish homes, 174-
175
view of Blomberg, 8 1
view of Heydrich, 176-177
view of Milch, 177-178
view of Rahm, 176
view of Wilberg, 178-179
views of assimilation, 55
views of half-Jews serving after 8
April 1940, 126, 148, 150, 162,
186
views on Mischlinge, 99, 143
views of Muslims, 18
views on number of non-Aryans in
the military, 80
views of Reichswehr, 86
Wehrmacht policy on, 104
Wehrmacht recruiting policy, 101
why half-Jews were discharged in
1940, 116
why non-Aryans could serve, 88,
143
Hitler, Alois (formerly Schicklgruber)
(father), 173, 174
Hitler, Alois Jr. (half-brother), 173
Hitler, Patrick, 172
Hitler Youth, xi
Hitze, Amsrat, 238-239
Hoernlein, General, 232
Hoettl, Wilhelm, 350
Hofmann, Walther, 212-213
Hohenborn, Prussian War Minister
Adolf Wild von, 309
Hohenemser, Kurt, 132
Hohenemser, Kurt Heinrich, 333
Holl, Alfred, 209
Hollaender, Frederick, 293
Hollaender, Hertha-Barbara, 254-255
Hollaender, Colonel Walter, 39-40,
201-202, 254-255, 293
Holland, 169
Holocaust, 1, 3, 92, 97, 133, 135, 136,
147, 161, 165, 166, 169, 182,
198, 225, 246, 247-266, 275, 335
Homosexuals and homosexuality, 25-
26, 105, 125, 156, 160, 176, 200
Hong, General Sa-ick, 380
Honorary Aryans, 184
Hogbach, Friedrich (Wehrmacht
adjutant), 61, 361
House of Hohenzollern's Kight's
Cross with Swords, 74
Humber College, 7
Humboldts, 52
Hungary and Hungarian Jews, 168,
257, 271, 306
Ich war Hitlerjunge Salomon (film), xi
Imhausen, Arthur, 18o
Immelmann, Max, 304
Imperial Opera House of Vienna, 16
Infantes, General Esteban, 361
Institute for the Research and
Elimination of Jewish
Influences on Christian Living
(Eisenach), 185
Institut fur Zeitgeschichte, xii
Intermarriage, 2, 35-36, 52, 54, 60,
95
among the aristocracy of Prussia
and Austria, 68-69
rates of, in Germany and Austria,
56-57, 299-300
"International Jewry, " 108
Iron Curtain, 9
Isaac (biblical character), 276
Isaaksohn, Ralf, 377
Islam, 283
Israel Qacob; biblical character), 6
Israel (nation), 6, 8-10, 47-48, 280,
281, 315, 321
Israel (Nazi law enforcing use of this
name for male Jews), 113
Israeli Army and soldiers, 9, 307
Israelites, 7
Italy and Italians, 131, 168, 184
Itzig, Daniel, 67
lvrim (Hebrews), 6-7
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Re: Hitler's Jewish Soldiers: The Untold Story of Nazi Racia

Postby admin » Wed May 02, 2018 12:21 am

Part 2 of 2

Jackson, Robert H., 288
Jacob (Israel; biblical character), 6, 276
Jacobson, Jacob, 93
Jacoby, Edgar, 90, 91, 92, 318
Jacoby, Kathe. See Himmelheber,
Kathe
Jacoby, Marianne (nee Gunther), 3 18
Jaenecke, General Erwin, 179
Japan and Japanese, 40, 84, 184, 267,
315, 311, 380
Japanese Americans (Nisei), 267, 380
Japanese army, 267, 380
Jeekes (German Jews), 11, 279
J elnya (Russia), 259
J ena (Battle of, 1806), 67
Jerusalem (Israel), 171, 184
Jesuit priests, 318
Jesus, 185, 222, 326, 329
Jew(s)
appearance of according to the
Nazis, 25
biblical definition of, 6-7
citizenship of, 95
Conscription Laws of Wehrmacht
1935, 88
decorated Jewish veterans of the
War of Independence (1813-
1815), 68
decorations J. earned in the
Wehrmacht documented in this
study, 39
exemptions for, 100, 107-108
fighting with the Free French, 131
German J. and assimilation, 51
Hitler wants to eradicate, 133, 137
hope to secure equal rights with
service in World War I, 74
how Hitler defined, 14-15, 311
how the Nazis defined behavior of,
25
KIA J. who served in the
Wehrmacht documented in this
study, 39
Nazi definition/view of, 128, 281
number in Alsace-Lorraine 1940,
59-60
number in Austria 1938, 59
number in Germany 1933-1939,
59, 30 1
number in Sudetenland in 1939,
59
number of Jewish dead at
Waterloo (Battle of, 1815), 68
number of Jewish volunteers for
the War of Independence
(1813-1815), 68
number of J. who died during the
Franco-Prussian War (1870-
1871), 70
number of J. who served in the
Austrian military during its war
with Napoleon, 66, 68
number of J. who served in the
Austrian military in the 19th c.,
66
number of J. who served in the
Prussian army (1815-1844), 68;
(1864-1871), 70
number of J. who served in/died in
World War I, 72
number of J. who served in the
Wehrmacht and SS based on
this study, 63-66
number who fought for Prussia in
the War of Independence, 68
Nuremberg Racial Laws, 95
Party members, 258
patnotlsm, 71-75, 240
persecution of in Poland, 11O
present-day definition, 7-9
reject Mischlinge, 34-35, 45, 47t
treatment of during the invasion of
Russia, 133-134
try to serve in the Wehrmacht, 88-
89, 317
Wehrmacht policy with, 76, 134,
135, 155
Jewish "Anarchy, " 135
Jewish businessmen, 71
Jewish chaplains, 72, 73
Jewish community in Nuremberg, 285
Jewish Evacuation Office, 21
Jewish Frontline Soldier Federation,
84
Jewish Hospital in Berlin, 34, 140,
357
Jewish Identification Cards, 107
Jewish Mountaineers (Caucasus), 283
Jewish passports (under Nazi law),
113
Jewish pilots (World War I), 72
"Jewish Question, " 78, 98, 108, 144,
171, 265, 271
Jewish Star, 123, 129, 139, 160, 168,
170, 249, 357
Jihad (holy war) 355
Jodi, General Alfred, 134, 145, 219,
221
Jordan, Wolfgang, 122
Joseph (biblical character), 7
Joseph II, Emperor of Austria, 69
JU-88 Twin Engine Bomber, 182
Judah, 6
Judaism 8, 27, 185, 299
Mischlinge have contact with, 33, 220
Mischlinge reject, 24, 96
Nazi views of, 18, 167, 283
Judas (biblical character), 249
judenzahlung Qewish census), 75,
307, 309
jud Sufi (anti-Semitic film), 27
junker. See aristocracy
Kaddish, 252, 253, 296
Kaferle, Alfred, 187
Kaiser, Karl Helmut, 45
Kallauch, Gunther, 45
Kaltenbrunner, Ernst, 156, 182
Kampfzeit (Time of Struggle), 189,
222, 223
Kant, Immanuel, 52
Kanzlei des Fuhrers (KdF), 26, 3 1,
116, 117, 130, 1p, 183, 187,
188, 193, 194, 205, 210, 219,
222, 225, 227, 228, 229, 230,
231, 287, 328
Kaplan, Marion, 124, 265
Karaimes, 283
Karry, Heinz-Herbert, 164
Kassel, 17
Kassowitz, Fritz, 259-260
Katz, Erich, 181
Katzenberger, Lehmann, 285
Kaulbars, Helene. See Kopp, Helene
Kaulbars, Louis, 34
Kaulbars, Sarah. See Moses, Sarah
Keitel, General Bodewin, 218, 366
Keitel, Field Marshal Wilhelm, xiii,
93, 106, 114, 117, 128, 133, 135,
136, 137, 139, 143, 159-160,
188, 201, 208, 218, 221, 329,
342, 352
Kershaw, Ian, 81, 98, 115, 173, 203,
221, 265, 270, 307, 308, 310,
316, 324
Kersten, Felix, 176, 350
Kesselring, Field Marshal, 182
Khan, Tartar, 67
[ 420] lNDEX
Kienitz, General Werner, 90
Killy, Leo, 258, 259, 376-377
King of Prussia, 69
Kirchholtes, Hans, 170
Klein, Ida (nee Lowe), 249
Kleist, Field Marshal Ewald von, 283
Klemperer, Professor Victor, 27-28,
78, 104, 116, 168, 183, 261
Klewansky, Eugen, 36, 291
Klewansky, Hannah, 36-37
Klingenfuss, Karl, 155
Klug, Major, 318
Knigge, Ursula von (nee Schmeling-
Diringshofen), 205
Knorr, General Admiral Eduard von,
70
Koehler, Hansjurgen, 173, 348
Kohn, Werner, 153-154
Koken, Gerhard, 194-195
Koken, Lutz, 194-195
Kommissarbefehl (Commissar Order),
134, 334
Konfessionslos, 298, 299, 300, 3 19
Konigsberg (cruiser), 82
Konigsberg (Germany), 195
Kopp, Helene, 34
Kopp, Helmuth, 34-35, 45, 47, 295
Kopp, Wilhelm, 34
Koreans, 267, 380
Koref, Hans, 44, 99
Korner, Hans-Joachim, 42, 90, 3 18
Korner, Ilse, 42
Kostring, General Ernst, 283
Krackow, Edith, 49
Krackow, Hans, 93, 140, 247
Krackow, Jurgen, 39, 140, 142, 247, 292
Krackow, Reinhard, 39, 49, 93
Krackow, Ursula, 247
Krampnitz Cavalry School, 159
Kreigsmarine, 26, 82, 154, 287, 311
policy toward Mischlinge, 108,
13 1, 206, 207, 230
Kreisleitungen, 220, J18
Kreuzer, Unteroffizier, 93
Kromer, Ortsgruppenleiter Alfred, 90
Kruger, Answald, 261
Kruger, Camilla, 261
Kruger, Helene, 140
Kruger, Helmut, 11, 38-39, 43, 110,
124, 132, 150
Kruger, Ortsgruppenleiter Hermann,
11
Kube, Wilhelm, 169
Kubler, General Ludwig, 210
Kuh, Adelheid, 3 13
Kuhl, General Bernhard, 103
Kuhl, Heinz-Jurgen, 103
Kuhlenthal, Admiral Karl, 181
Kuhn, Rita, 250
Kulmbach (Germany), 241
Kursk (Batrle of, 1943), 40
Kyffhauser Publishing House, 305
Ladach, First Lieutenant, 119
Lammers, State Secretary Hans
Heinrich, 88, 89, 99, 101, 117,
133, 136, 142, 147, 148, 151,
167, 182, 183, 193, 200, 201,
202-203, 208, 209, 221-222,
224, 231, 233, 238, 240-241,
273, 360
Landsberg, Elly (nee Mockrauer), 28,
251
Lange, Hermann, 45
Langheld, Frau (nee Gerson), 261, 378
Langheld, Georg, 179- 18o, 199, 260-
261, 352, 378
Lankes, Hans-Christian, 124, 137
Lanz, General Hubert, 210
Latvia, 92
Latvian SS, 254
Law of Restoration of the Civil
Service (7 April 1933). See
A rierparagraph
Law of Rerum (Israel), 9-10, 278
League of Anti-Semites, 280
Lebanon, 9
Lebram, Hans-Heinrich, 82, 83, 3 12,
313, 362
Lebram, Walter, 82, 313
Le Coutre, Joachim, 121
Leeb, General Emil, 216
Lefevre, Herbert, 26
Leftin, Joachim, 3 1
Legion Condor. See Condor Legion
Lehwess-Litzmann, Walter, 182, 354
Leidoff, Arnim, 195
Leipelt, Hans, 286
Leipzig (Germany), 248
Leipzig (light cruiser), 207
Lemelsen, General Joachim, 204
Lennert, Wolfgang, 250, 251
Lenta concentration camp (outside
Riga), 258, 377
Lenz, Fritz, 299, 300
Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim, 52
L'Estocq, Christoph von, 87
Levin, Heinrich, 215-216
Levine, Eugen, 15
Leviticus, 6
Lewald, Theodor, 184, 355
Lewinski, Erich von. See Manstein,
Erich von
Leykam, Erika, 354
Lichtwitz, Ferdinand, 123, 164-165, 257
Liebe, Thea, 153
Liebig, Herr von, 219
Liebscher, Ernst, 227
Lilienstern, General Hans Riihle von,
195
Lilienstern, Lisa Riihle von, 195
Lilienstern, Margot Riihle von. See
Meyer, Georg
Lindau, Admiral Eugen, 91
Lindemann, General Fritz, 286
Lindemann, Schwenn, 244
Link, Hartmut. See Ostendorff,
Hartmut
Linnarz, General, 229
Lipetsk (air base in Russia), 351
Lithuania, 92
Lithuanian Germans, 60
Litzmann, General Karl, 182, 354
Litzmann family, 182
Lodz (Litzmannstadt) (Poland), 255,
354
Loret, Jean Marie (Hitler's possible
son), 347
Lorzer, General Bruno, 18o, 352
Losener, Bernhard (desk officer for
racial law in the RMI), 23-24,
36, 63, 96, 98, 12~ 222, 226,
271-272, 337, 366, 372, 377
estimates the number of
Mischlinge, 60-61
fears the deleterious effects of
deportations on half-Jews, 139,
142
fights to keep half-Jews as half-
Jews 128-129, 143-144, 149,
271-272
and Nuremberg Racial Laws, 94,
96-97
Lowe, Ida. See Klein, Ida
Lowen, Heinz, 3 1
Lowen, Joachim, 3 1
Lowenstein, Leo, 84, 88, 3 15
Lowenstein de Witt, Hans-Oskar, 170
Lowy, Heinz-Gunther, 42, 47, 256,
296
Ludendorff, General Erich, 73, 308, 333
Luderitz, Otto, 42, 120
Ludwig, Ernst, 42, 163
Lueger, Karl, 285
Luftstreitkrafte (air service in World
War I), 178
Luftwaffe, 21-22, 30, 85, 100, 119,
120, 128, 13 1, 164, 177- 179,
180, 211, 230, 241, 248, 253, 311
Lutjens, Gunther, 82, 186, 313
Lutjens, Margarete, 313
Lux, Emil, 124, 140, 188
Lux, Jenny (nee Schultz), 140, 357
Luxembourg, i69
Luxemburg, Rose, 15
Lying (about ancestry), 89-90, 93,
100, 118-119, 181
Maccabees, 14, 280
Mackensen, Field Marshal August
von, 100, 134, 203
Madagascar, 253
Mahler, Gustav, 16, 281
Maier, Adam Carl, 212-213
Maimonides, Moses, 276
Main Office for Racial Research, 17
Majdanek death camp, 250
Maltzahn, General Freiherr van, 209
Maltzahn, General Werner, 233, 250,
251
Mampe, 49, 296
Mannheim (Germany), 47
Mannheimer, Max, 264
Manstein, Field Marshal Erich van,
xii, 83, 84-85, 182, 205, 269,
314, 315, 333
Manstein, Rudiger von, 314
Manuel, Esther. See Grafemus, Luise
Maoz, Asher, 6
Margold, Franz, 294
Marr, Heinrich, 280
Marr, Wilhelm, 280
Marx, Karl, 7
Maser, Werner, 347
Masturbation, 25
Maternal descent Oewish), 7
Mauthausen concentration camp, 106,
264
Mayer, Anton, 154
Mayer, Helene, 183, 201, 355
McGee, Monnie, 303
Medical officers, 72, 78, 107
Mein Kampf (My Struggle), 55, 143,
174, 184, 281
Meiring, Kerstin, 402
Meissinger, Ernst, 125
Meissinger, Hannah (nee Gerber),
263-264
Meissinger, Hans, 41, 43, 125-126,
132, 263-264
Meissinger, Rosa, 43, 12 5-126
Meissner, Otto, 237
Mellentin, Colonel van, 314
Memelland, 59-60, 102
Mendel, Johann Gregor, 320, 366
Mendel, Viktor, 216
Mendel's Laws of Genetics, 96, 219, 320
Mendelssohn, Alexander, 91
Mendelssohn, Marine-Oberbaurat
Fran~ 25, 91, 92, 100
Mendelssohn, Moses, 29, 51, 67-68,
91, 196, 287
Mendelssohn, Nathan, 68
Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Felix, 7-8
Menge, Klaus, 30
Mengele, Josef, 376
Menneking, Rolf, 91
Menton, Colonel, 196
Messerschmidt, Manfred, 4, 80, 81,
135
Messerschmidt Me 262 fighter jets,
163
Mettenheim, Clara von, 113-114, 116,
244-246, 327
Mettenheim, Heinrich von, 244-246
Mettenheim family, 117, 244-246
Metz, General Richard, 250, 251
Metz (France), 70
Meyer, Beate, 4, J1, 37, 132, 136, 192
Meyer, Dr. Georg, 157, 363
Meyer, Major Georg, 195, 358
Meyer, Kurt (head of the Riech Office
for Genealogy Research), 29,
94, 201
Meyer, Margot (nee Ruhle von
Lilienstern), 195, 358
Meyer, Rolf, 195
Meyer, Ulrich, 195
Meyer-Krahmer, Helmut, 195
Meyerhof family, 104
Middle East, 184
Milch, Anton, 29, 288
Milch, Clara, 29
Milch, Field Marshal Erhard, 29-30,
139-140, 177-178, 193, 201,
23 1, 257, 258, 259, 288
Milch, Helga, 30
Military Service Book (Wehrpass),
133, 145
Millies, Peter, xi
Mine-laying operations, 18-
Ministry of Religions (Israel), 10
Minsk concentration camp, 170, 256
Mischehen (mixed marriages), 230
Mischling civil servants, 163
Mischling question, 136, 156, 167, 225
Mischlinge (partial Jews), 98
applications for clemency, 112,
121, 130
blame Orthodox Jews for anti-
Semitism, 48
celebrate German World War II
victories, 110, 124
citizenship (Nazi), 99, 101, 135,
183, 211
coping with being M., 42-50
decorations M. earned documented
in this study, 39, 215, 365
definition of, 19-26; 275, 321
discharged from Austrian military
1938, 106
distaste for Eastern Jews, 109-110
enter Bundeswehr after the war,
328, 373
excited by war, 124-125
families of confused about Racial
Laws, 115
feelings of discriminated against by
Jews, 36-37, 46-48
history of term, 19-20
Hitler's definition of, 19-20
how M. struggled to be Aryan, 38-42
how M. viewed their clemency,
194-198
how M. view themselves and the
racial laws, 26-38
knowledge of ancestry, 57-58, 93
knowledge of Holocaust, 48, 147,
247-266
Kriegsmarine policy on, 108
M. KIA documented in this study,
39, 125, 129, 136, 140, 179, 196,
197, 217, 244, 245, 246, 250,
262, 336, 352, 369
Nazi regulation of marriages of, 143
non-German M., 168
number in the Protectorate, 59
number living during the Third
Reich, 54-55, 59-65, 299-302
number of M. soldiers based on
this study, 1, 63, 268
Nuremburg Laws, 20
Party members, 26, 41, 91, 96, 100,
105, 153, 178, 200
persecution of Jewish family
members of, 112-114, 116-117,
139-144
policy of dealing with KIA M.,
188-189
rediscover Jewish roots, 46
rejected by Jews and Jewish
Organization, 34-37
respond to military Racial Laws,
111-112
serve in the Israeli Army, 47
social rejection of, 33-34
views of fundamentalist/Orthodox
Jews, 46-48
views of the Nuremberg Racial
Laws, 98-99
views of the Wehrmacht, 41-43
in the Volkssturm, 160
voted for Hitler, 41
Wehrmacht treatment, 99-107,
127-128, 165
wounded veterans, 187-188, 202,
212, 232, 357, 370
Mischpoke Oewish family), 110
Mixed marriages, 55, 107-108, 129,
299-301, 321. See also
Intermarriage
number in Austria and Germany,
54, 58
Mockrauer, Elly. See Landsberg, Elly
Model, Field Marshal Walter, 39-40
Moll, Dietrich, 248
Moll, Leonard, 248
Moscow (Russia), 31, 144
Moses (biblical character), 6-7
Moses, Sarah, 34
Mossner, Jakob Wilhelm, 69
Mossner, General Walther von, 69
Mount Sinai, 6-7
Mufti of Palestine. See Amin
el-Husseini, Hajj
Miihlbacher, Hans, 27, 41, 109, 132
Miihlbacher, Olga, 36, 129-130
Mulattoes, 267, 286
[ 424] [NDEX
Muller, Georg-Friedrich, 25 1, 252
Muller, Gestapo Chief Heinrich, 169,
346
Munich (Germany), 15, 17, 49, 161, 258
Munich Nazi Party Court, 17
Munich Police Station, 93
Munich War School, 105
Muslims, 18
Namibia (Africa), 284
Napoleon, Emperor of France, 68,
301, 302
Nast-Kolb, Hermann, 160
Nationalist Army (China), 83, 84
National Socialist German Workers'
Party (NSDAP). See Nazi Party
National Socialist(s), 103, 106, 195,
202, 204, 208, 234, 237
Naumann, Max, 12, 88, 279
Navy Personnel Office, 91, 154
Nazi Party 11, 23, 26, 79, 97, 99, 102-
103, 130, 133, 143, 149, 151,
155, 156, 159, 165, 177, 180,
182, 184, 187, 188, 189, 199,
200, 201, 20~ 211, 214, 216,
219, 220, 222, 223, 224, 225,
226, 228, 230, 232, 272, 333, 359
ancestry of mem bers, 20
emblem, 81
Neuengamme concentration camp,
170, 255
Neue Zurcher Zeitung (newspaper), 163
Neumann, Heinrich, 17
New York (U.S.A.), 248
New Zealand, 40
Night of the Long Knives (30 June
1934), 86
9th Army, 39-40
Nippold, Otto (Deputy Gauleiter),
210
Noakes, Jeremy, 3, 228, 267, 312, 360
Non-Aryan (Nichtarier), 13-14, 92,
93, 97, 103, 176, 184, 200, 201,
204, 271, 321
affected by the Arierparagraph, 77,
80, 235-237, 314
Conscription Laws of 1935, 88
definition of, 78-79
denunciations of, 89, 93
go to China, 83
Manstein's view of, 84-85
Nuremberg Racial Laws, 94
prohibited from marrying
Wehrmacht personnel, 89
Stuttgart organization for, 23
Wehrmacht personnel not allowed
to shop at stores of, 89
North Africa, 14
Norway, 118, 178, 180, 182
Norwegian Campaign (1940), 178
"Nose Problem, " 25
Number of Mischlinge, 51-65
Nuremberg Party Rally (1935), 94
Nuremberg Racial Laws, 20, 24, 35,
94-102, 144, 167, 175, 192, 200,
201, 202, 204, 20~ 210, 218,
22~ 28~ 29~ 318, 322, 334
implemented in Austria 1938, 106
viewed by Germans, 98-99
Nuremberg trials, 127, 221, 222, 249,
250, 257, 288
Oath (military)
during the Third Reich 86-87, 106
during the Weimar Republic, 86
in World War I, 74, 86, 309
Oder (Battle of), 166
Office for Jewish Affairs (Hermes
Weg in Frankfurt), 113
Office of Racial Affairs, 235
Office of Racial Research, 240
OKH (Oberkommando der Heeres;
Army High Command), 63,
100, 107, 114, 137, 209, 214,
218, 219, 228, 229, 261, 365
OKH Personnel Office, 90, 104, 118,
130, 133, 150-151, 192, 194,
204, 216, 217, 242. See also
Army Personnel Office
OKH Personnel Office (P2 Group
IV). See Army Personnel Office
(P2 Group IV)
OKL (Oberkommando der
Luftwaffe; Luftwaffe High
Command), 107, 242
OKM (Oberkommando der Marine;
Kriegsmarine High Command),
107
OKW (Oberkommando des
Wehrmacht; Wehrmacht High
Command), 104, 107, 114, 115,
116, 117, 118, 127, 130, 132, 134,
13~ 13h 152, 15~ 15h 18h 188,
189, 193, 194, 208, 209, 213, 215,
217, 225, 226, 22h 228, 229, 230,
231, 232, 238, 241, 242, 244, 245,
246, 261
Old Testament. See Tanach
Olympic games (1936), 183-184
On (city of), 7, 276
One-eighth Jews, 82-83, 96, 118
100th Mountain Regiment Thirteenth
Company, 364
113th Infantry Division, 208
156th Artillery Regiment, 237
Oppenfeld, Horst von, 48, 132, 259,
333, 377
Oppenfeld, Moritz von, 333
Oppenheim, Moritz, 68
Oppenheim family, 48
Orders of the Iron Crown Third
Class (Austrian), 73, 309
Organisation Todt (OT). See OT
forced labor camps
Orthodox Jews, 2, 12, 35, 47-48, 109, 278
Orthodox Movement Qudaism), 9-10
Ostendorff, Hartmut (birthname
Link), 25
Oster, Colonel Hans, 182, 314
Ostjuden. See Eastern Jews
Ost Linde OT forced labor camp,
161, 164
Ostmark (Austria), 106, 107
Oswalt, Henry, 54
OT forced labor camps, 44, 132, 140,
157, 159, 160-166, 168, 170,
234, 253, 262-263, 266, 272,
294, 342
Pagler, Walter, 309
Palestine, 184-185, 276, 279, 355-356
Palestinian Arabs, 184-185
Paris (France), 164
Parteikanzlei (Party chancellery), 17,
29, 130, 133, 144, 151, 160, 193,
194, 210, 220, 221, 222, 22h
228, 23 1, 272, 281
Partial Jews (also called Mischlinge),
1, 54, 59-61
Partisch, Arthur, 78
Partsch, Karl, 47
Party (Nazi). See Nazi Party
Party Genealogy Office, 102
Party Race-Political Office, 128
Paternal descent, 6-7
Patzig, Admiral Conrad, 91, 154
Paulas Bund, 4
Pentateuch. See Torah
Perel, Shlomo, xi, 8, 41, 297
Perfall, General Gustav Freiherr von,
217
Perjell, Josef, 8
Petersson, Gisela (nee Heinrici). See
Heinrici, Gisela
Pfundtner, State Secretary Hans, 61,
94, 133
Pick, Carl, 253
Pick, Else, 253
Pick, Franz, 306
Pick, Gretel. See Florey, Gretel
Pick, Paula. See Techel, Paula
Pinneberg (Germany), 90
Plebiscite of 1935 (Saarland), 59
Plorin, Frau, 126
PI orin, Herr, 125-126
Pogroms, 11
Poland, 59, 109-111, 112, 113, 134,
168, 169, 185, 207, 208, 210,
217, 255
Polish Campaign (1939), 109-113
Polish Jews, 13, 109-110, 122
Polish soldiers, 111
Political Police (politische Polizei), 103
Pollak, Hans, 24, 248, 252, 259
Poltiz, H., 192
Pope John Paul II, 283
Posen (Germany), 182
Posselt, Alfred, 251-252
Potsdam Garrison, 142
Potsdam Recruiting Station, 145
Pour le Merite Medal, 68, 96, 304
recipient Wilhelm Frankl, 72
POW (Prisoner of War), 44, 46
Prager, Ernst, 80, 139, 142, 194, 195-
196, 199, 230, 237-241, 260, 373
Prager, Heinrich, 139, 240-24 1, 260
Prager, Hella, 238, 240, 260
Prager, Stephan, 237-241, 260
Prague and Nazi Racial Office, 17
Preis, Ellen, 355
Preuschen, Frau von (nee Manstein), 316
Pringsheim, Fritz, 182, 354
Prinz Eugen (heavy cruiser), 82, 207
Privileged Mixed Marriage
(Privilegierte Mischehe), 33, 97,
107-108, 290
"Prominent Jews" Barracks
(Theresienstadt), 260
Propaganda (Nazi), 25
Protectorate, 168
Protestant, 300
Prussia, 301, 304
number of Jews in P. in the early
19th century, 304
number of Jews who served in
army (1864-1871), 70
Prussian army, 66, 70, 304
Prussian General Staff, 70
Prussian War Ministry, 75, 309
Prussian War of Independence (1813-
1815), 68
Puppe, Heinz, 37, 46
Pursuit Plans Staff, 257
Puttkamer, Karl-Jesko Otto von (Navy
adjutant), 186, 205, 209, 210
Quarter-blacks, 267
Quarter-Jews
battle deaths documented in this
study, 123
Conscription Laws of 1935, 88
declaring Jews, 95-96
definition of, 97
exemptions for, 117- 118, 199-235
fathers in OT forced labor camps,
163
Hitler's future plans with, 135,
147, 167
marriage regulations of, 97, 218
Nazi regulation of marriages of,
143
number of during the Third Reich,
55, 59-65, 303
number of quarter-Jewish
Wehrmacht soldiers based on
this study, 63-64
Wehrmacht policy, 104, 107, 114,
137
in the Volkssturm, 160
Rabbinate (Israel's Religious Court),
8-9
Race, 8, 15-16, 19, 54, 277
Race defilement. See Rassenschande
Racial Office (Nazi), 151
Rademacher, Franz, 147, 151
Raeder, Admiral Erich, 82, 103, 108-
109, 131, 179, 180, 181, 206,
261, 313, 325, 352
Ranke, Hans, 99
Raphael, Marc, 67
Rascher, Sigmund, 257
Rassenschande (race defilement), 22,
152, 153, 285>354
Rath, Hermann, 164
Rathenau, Walther, 73
Raubel, Geli (Hitler's niece), 172
Rauchflig, Erich, 371
Ravensbrlick concentration camp, 170
Rebentisch, Dieter, 377
Red Terror, 15
Redlich, Fritz, 172, 174, 175
Reform Movement Qudaism), 9-10, 48
Rehfeld, Hanns, 35-36, 161, 255-256
Rehfeld, Helmut, 161, 343
Rehfeld, Martin, 35
Rehfeld, Nathalie (nee Schey), 35
Rehoboth bastards, 20, 284
Reichenau, Field Marshal Walter von,
t4, 85, 86, 87, 89, 94, 102-103,
200, 202, 204, 269, 316
Reich Ministry of the Interior (RMI),
23, 29, 36, 60, 96, 97, 99, 114,
129, 130, 144, 187, 192, 193,
201, 210, 212, 222, 227, 228,
238, 272, 292
number of potential Mischling
soldiers 61
Reich Office of Genealogy Research,
29, 94, 201, 210
Reich Security Main Office for the
Eastern Territories, 168
Reichskanzlei, 100, 130, 137, 157, 183,
192, 193, 194, 200, 201, 203,
20h 209, 210, 215, 217, 229,
242, 376
Reiehskristallnaeht (Crystal Nicht)
(9-10 November 1938), 36, 107,
170, 248, 291
Reichstag 72, 75, 94, 99
Reichsverfugungsblatt, 223
Reichswehr, 81, 178, 280
Arierparagraph, 79, 200, 3 12
response to Hitler, 79, 86-87
Reichswehr Ministerial Office, 14
Reichswehr Music Corps, 81
Reinecke, General Hermann, 114, 257
Reinhard, Horst, 254
Reinhard, Ludwig, 142, 248
Reinhard, Marie, 254
Reserve Officers in Austrian military
and Prussian Army, 70
Resistance Group (20 July 1944), 24,
296
Revolution (1848), 69
Rhineland, 20, 59, 284
Rhineland Bastards, 20
Ribbentrop, Joachim von, 182, 35 3
Riess, Ernst, 294
Riess, Richard, 43, 122, 132
Riga (Latvia), 144, 255. See also Lenta
concentration camp
Risshon, Professor, 243
Ritterkreuz (Knight's Cross), 39-40,
84, 91, 103, 140, 163, 178, 182,
196, 202, 208, 209, 210, 240,
271, 366
Ritterkreuz and Oak Leaves, 40, 139
River Plate (Battle of, 1939), 125
Rogge, Admiral Bernhard, 32, 40,
206-207, 362-363
Rogoszinsky, Dora (nee Elmer), 37
Rohm, Captain Ernst, 87, 176-177,
200, 349
Rohr, Elisabeth, 205, 213-214
Rohr, Ferdinand, 115
Rohr, Heinz, 115, 204-205, 206, 207-
208, 213-214
Rohr, Joachim, 115, 204-205, 206,
207-208, 213-214, 365
Rohr, Margot, 214, 365
Rohr, Willy, 115, 204
Roman Legions, 184
Romm, Oskar "Ossi, " 39
Rommel, Field Marshal Erwin, 40,
103, 131-132, 314
Roosevelt, President Franklin, 223,
367
Ropczyce (Poland), 109
Roper, Dr., 229
Roper family, 229
Rose, Erich, 203-204, 261-262, 378
Rose, Siegbert Emil, 378
Rosenau, Clara. See Milch, Clara
Rosenberg, Alfred, 354
Rozenblit, Marsha, 299
Rosenstrasse Protest, 171, 347
Rositz OT forced labor camp, near
Altenburg in Thuringen, 160,
163, 164, 165
Roth, Jurgen, 238
Roth, Kreisleiter Reinhard, 102
Rothschild family, 348
Royal Air Force, 40
Rubien, Friedrich, 183, 354
Rudel, Hans-Ulrich, 354
Rufeisen, Oswald (Brother Daniel),
278
Ruge, H., 140-141
Ruge, Jurgen, 140-141
Rumania, 255
Ruppin, Arthur, 52, 55, 58, 297, 299,
300, 301
Russia, 92, 127, 130, 131, 133, 134,
136, 137, 169, 185, 188, 198,
208, 221, 239, 240, 250, 263
Russian Front, 1J9, 144, 145, 146, 270
Russian Jews, 9, 145, 245
Russian soldiers, 45, 125, 256
Rust, Minister of Education
Bernhard, 27, 40, 287
Ryeszow (Galicia) Ghetto, 25 1
SA (Sturmabteilung: Brownshirts), 17,
23, 26, 81, 86, 87, 146, 176, 200,
226, 242, 244, 247, 248-249,
282, 316, 349
Chief of Staff in the Reichskanzlei,
146
Saarland, 59
Sabbath, 12
Sachs, General Gunther, 208
Sachs, General Karl, 231, 234, 370
Sachs, Rudolf, 17, 22-23, 259, 260
Sachs, Traute (nee Siedler), 22-23
Sachsenhausen concentration camp,
76, 141, 162, 170, 248, 265, 311
Salemon, General Konstantin
Nathanael van, 66-67
Salinger, Michael-Christoph, 121,
161, 164, 329
Samuel, Olga (Olli) Getrud. See
Scholz, Olga (Olli) Getrud
Sander, Hans, 200, 359
Sanders, General Otto Liman van, 307
Sara (Nazi law enforcing use of this
name for female Jews), 113
Satan, 16
Sauckel, Fritz, 157, 160, 182, 200
Saxony (province in Germany), 164
Scandinavia, 279
Scharnhorst, Gerhard van (Minister
of War), 67, 304
Scheffler, Gunther, 34
Scheffler, Helena (nee Weiss), 34, 291
Scheffler, Hubertus, 34
Scheffler, Karl-Heinz, 34, 122, 291
Scheffler, Max, 34, 291
Schei berger, Ernst, 164
Scheinberger, Heinz, 164
Scheinberger, Walter, 146
Schell, Adolf von, 216
Schellenberg, Walter, 350
Schenck, Hans, 115
Schenck, Konrad, 111, 115, 138
Schenk, Rolf, 257
Scherwitz, Fritz (real name, Eleke
Sirewiz), 258-259
Schey, Nathalie. See Rehfeld, Nathalie
Schicklgruber, Alois, 174
Schicklgruber, Maria, 173, 174
Schicklgruber family, 175, 348
Schiller, Friedrich van, 52
Schiller, Renate, 197-198
Schindler, Heinz, 136, 137
Schindling, Robert, 164
Schinek, Kurt, 153-154
Schirach, Baldur von, 182
Schlebrugge, Hans van, 102-103
Schlepegrell, Heinrich, 142
Schlesien (battleship), 207
Schlesinger, Friedrich, 110, 122, 139,
161
Schlesremkamber, Lieutenant, 139
Schleunes, Karl, 201
Schliesser, Otto, 4 1, 294
Schliesser, Peter, 41, 164, 259, 262,
282, 294
Schlike, First Lieutenant, 111
Schmechel, Hans, 253
Schmechel, Heinz, 253
Schmechel, Horst, 165, 344
Schmechel, Walter, 253
Schmeling- Diringshofen, Joachim
van, 229-230, 369
Schmeling-Diringshofen, Klaus van,
83, 84, 94, 205, 206, 208, 229,
3150363
Schmeling-Diringshofen, Ursula, 208
Schmidt, Chancellor Helmut, 43, 264-
265
Schmidt, Rudolf, 39, 139-140
Schmoeckel, Helmut, 207, 208, 363
Schmoeckel, Werner, 207
Schmiickle, Gerd, 84
Schmundt, Rudolf (Wehrmacht
adjutant), 116, 126, 135, 154-
155, 160, 182, 188, 203, 205,
210, 21~ 220, 228-229, 232,
261, 273, 361, 369
Schneersohn, Lubavitcher Rebbe, 342
Schnez, General Albert (in the
Bundeswehr), 261
Schochet, Rabbi Jacob, 7, 10
Schoeps, Hans Joachim, 13, 88, 279
Schoh, Hans-Wolfgang, 211-212
Scholz, Julius, 34, 290
Scholz, Olga (Olli) Getrud (nee
Samuel), 248
Scholz, Peter, 34, 248
Schonewald, Walter, 48
Schrader, Captain von, 3 12
Schucht, Frau, 252, 253
Schucht, Hermann, 252
Schucht, Luise (nee Friedenthal), 252
Schuh, Captain, 175
Schultz, Bruno Kurt, 17, 167
Schuschnigg, Kurt von, 348
Schutzjuden
court Jews, 67, 304
protected Jews (Third Reich), 203
Schwedler, General Viktor von, 235-
237
Schweitzer, Eike, 196-197
Scotland, 221
SD (Sicherheitsdienst Security
Service), 133, 150, 176, 283, 334
Second Wannsee Conference (Second
Final Solution Conference), 148
Seeckt, Dorothee von (nee Fabian), 314
Seeckt, General Hans von, 83, 113,
114, 178, 205, 314
Seegers, General, 9 1, 229, 3 18
Seile, Irene, 285
Selbstfahrlafette (self-propelled
artillery piece), 45, 295
Seldis, Werner, 146
Selig mann, Henriette, 235
Serelman, Hans, 22
7th Army, 211
7th Army Corps, 90, 94, 105
73rd Infantry Regiment First
Company, 363
Seven Years' War, 67
Sex
development of Mischlinge's sexual
lives, 25
Hitler bans sexual relations
between half-Jews and Aryans,
133, 334
Hitler's view of Jews and, 16, 55, 174
Shema (Holy Jewish prayer), 8, 45,
92, 277
Siedler, Traute. See Sachs, Traute
Siemens (German Business), 157
Silver Wound Badge, 74, 188, 252, 336
Simon, Alfred, 204
Simsch, Siegfried, 39
Sinai, Mount, 6-7, 276
Singapore, 40
Sippenhaft, 162, 343
Sirewiz, Eleke. See Schwerwitz, Fritz
696th Propaganda Company, 90
Sixt, General Friedrich, 211
6th Army, 178, 269
6th Luftgaukommando, 128
Slave owners, 267
Slezak, Gretl, 175
Snyder, Louis L., 288
Socialist Revolution, 15
Sommer, Peter, 100
Sondergenehmigung, 26
Sonderstab, W(ilberg), 351
South America, 45
Soviets, 40
Spain and Spaniards, 14, 20, 239
Spanish Blue Division (250th Infantry
Division), 203, 204, 261, 361, 378
Spanish Civil War, 179
Speer, Albert, 157-158, 163, 175, 177,
184, 203, 257
Spier, Julius, 30
Spier, Ruth, 30
Spier, Wolfgang, 30, 121
SS (Schutzstaffel; Protection Squad),
25, 37, 63, 91, 122, 128, 133,
135, 140, 144, 152, 161, 162,
, 65, 167, 170, 173, 175, 176,
177, 181, 184, 232, 234, 251,
254, 255, 260, 261, 283, 314, 334
ancestry of members, 20
on Jews trying to enlist in the
Wehrmacht, 88
in OT camps, 164
SS Building Administration, 163
SS Headquarters in Berlin, 76, 26 1
SS Main Office for Race and
Resettlement, 167
SS Reich Main Security Office, 58
SS Special Regiment Dirlewanger, 165
Stahlberg, Alexander, xii, 314, 333
Stahlhelm, 242
Stalingrad (Battle of, 1942-1943), 152,
178, 197, 198, 363-364
Stauffenberg, Colonel Claus Schenk
Graf von, 48, 132, 259, 296,
333, 352
Stauffenberg, Melitta Gratin Schenk
von, 180
Stein, Edith (religious name, Teresa
Benedicta of the Cross), 18,
283, 298
Steinberg, Jonathan, 71, 138, 265
Steinbrech, Liselotte, 153
Steinhoff, General Johannes, 39, '39-
140
Steinthal, Hermann, 52, 162
Steinwasser, Fritz, 111, 170, 254
Sterilization (Nazi policy of)
of Mischlinge, 135-136, 142, 143,
144, 147, 148-149, 151-152,
155, 170
number of in Germany, 136, 170
of Rhineland Bastards, 20
Sternberg, Heinz, 263
Stettin (Germany), 37
Stoltzfus, Nathan, 4, 97, 268, 284
Storm Battalion Rohr, 204
Storm (Sturm) Regiment 195, 40
Strantz, General, 327
StrauB und Thorney, Lulu von, 185
Streicher, Julius, 17, 96, 155, 320
Strupp, Getrude. See Heinrici,
Getrude
Struz yna, Georg, 212
Stuckart, Wilhelm, 94, 96, 97, 99, 128,
144, 147, 148-149, 150, 167,
292, 321
Stud, General Erich, 216
Studnitz, General von, 179, 352
Stumpff, General Hans-Jurgen, 182
Sturmgeschiitz (assault gun), 209, 295
Stutthof concentration camp, 252
Submarines. See U-boats
Suchanek, Obersturmbannfuhrer, 234
Sudetenland, 59-60, 102
Suicide, 24, 33, 82, 96, 106, 142, 162,
164, 196, 206, 237, 252, 253,
258, 262, 324, 375
Supplementary Decree to the
Arierparagraph, 78
Surface Raider, 40, 206
Sweden, 262
Switzerland, 153, 161, 256, 262, 263, 308
Sydow, Rolf von, 25, 27, 38, 90, 92
Synagogue, 110
Talmud (oral Torah), 7, 12, 276
Tanach Gewish Bible), 7, 276
Taraba, Karl, 143
Taraba, Rosa, 143
Tats Gewish Mountaineers), 283
Techel, Arnold, 103
Techel, Karl-Arnd, 46, 120, 125, 262
Techel, Paula (nee Pick), 103
Technical University in Dresden, 28
Tel-Aviv University, 6
loth Army Corps, 100
Test Pilots, 180
Theilhaber, Felix, 52, 54, 299, 300, 303
Theresienstadt concentration camp,
130, 133, 148, 170, 181, 196,
240, 251, 252, 253, 254, 260,
261, 315, 318
Third Final Solution Conference, 155
35th Infantry Division, 307
Thorner, SS-Captain, 353
Thule Society, 28 1
Tippelskirch, General von, 18o
Todt, Fritz, 294
Toleration Patent of 1782 (Austria), 69
Tomaszow (Poland), 110
Torah (Five Books of Moses:
Pentateuch), 6-8, 276
Torpedo boats, 91
Treblinka extermination camp, 257
Trembelis, Aristoteles, 164
Trevor-Roper, Hugh, 349
Tristan and Isolde (opera), 16
Trondheim (Norway), 180
Troop Office, 83
Tschammer und Osten, Rich Sport
Leadervon, 183-184
Tuckolsky, Kurt, 8
Turkey, 307, 356
Turkey's Half-Moon Medal, 74
Turner, Henry, 268
12th Flak Division, 208
250th Infantry Division, 203, 204,
261, 361
257th Infantry Division, 370
288th Sonderverband (Special Unit), 314
U-boat bunkers, 132
U-boats (Kriegsmarine), 82, 91, 363
U-473, 263
U-802, 207
U-858, 207
"U-boats" (people of Jewish descent
in hiding), 161
U man (Battle of), 196
Umbreit, Hans, 310
United Kingdom, 248
United States, 103, 197, 248, 267
University of Berlin, 74
Untermenschen (subhumans), 41
VI Flying Bombs, 164
Valhynian Germans, 60
Vanselow, Jochen, 187
Veronal (barbiturate), 252
Versailles Treaty (1919), 16, 124, 178
Victor, George, 174
Vielberth, Wilhelm, 122
Vienna (Austria), 12, 16, 49, 52, 109,
111, 122, 161, 173, 184, 285,
294, 298, 299, 348
Jewish officers buried in the Jewish
cemetery, 73
Vogel, Rolf, xvi, 328
Vogtherr, Dr., 228
Voigt, Wolfgang, 131
Volk, SS- Hauptsturmfuhrer, 29
Yolk (German people), 17, 23-24, 28,
55, 85, 15 1, 159, 167, 185, 209,
222, 229, 231, 250, 282
Volkmann, Herr, 17
Volkssturm, Deutscher (people's
militia), 16o, 342
Volunteers (Wehrmacht), 104
Vuletic, Aleksandar-Sasa, 4
Waffen-SS (armed forces of the SS),
31, 42, 47, 63, 100, 256, 376
Wagner, General Eduard, 133
Wagner, Gerhard (Reichsarztefuhrer;
Reich doctors' leader), 95, 97
Wagner, Richard, 16
Wagner, Gauleiter Robert, 102-103
Waite, Robert, 173, 174
Walbaum, Gefreiter, 180
Waldmann, Generaloverstabarzt
Anton, 128
Wannsee Conference (1942), 147, 149,
151
Wannsee Conference (Second), 148
Warburg, Max, 73
Warburg, Otto, 18o
War College, 179
War Ministry, 104
Warsaw (Poland), 124, 169, 254
War Service Cross Second Class, 195,
204
Warzecha, Admiral Walter, 154
Waterloo (Battle of, 1815), 68
Webfehler (weaving flaw; ancestral
defect), 48, 296
Wecker, Captain, 210-211
Wegener, Edward, 181
Wegener, Admiral Wolf, 181
Wehlau, Fanny (nee Milch), 288
Wehlau, Sigmund, 288
Wehrkreis III Berlin, 83
Wehrkreis VII Munich, 192
Wehrmacht, 1-2, 89, 275
abandon Mischling and Jewish
veterans, 160, 271
on association with Jews, 104
Bormann accuses of being a
hiding place for Mischlinge,
159-160
decree that personnel must prove
Aryan descent of wives, 103
discharge of officers with Jewish
wives, 108
female Mischlinge in, 180, 303, 352
forced labor, 156-157, 271
implement Nuremberg Laws, 99,
200-201
implementation of the 8 April 1940
and 20 April 1940 Decrees,
117-120, 146, 149, 151-154
invades Austria, 106
on Jews serving, 88-89
on Jewish World War I veterans,
203-204
on marriage of its personnel, 89
number of personnel 1940, 64, 127,
146, 208-209
Party interference with, 228
policy on Mischlinge, 104, 107,
117- 118, 126- 13 1, 136- 137,
145, 146, 149, 150, 162, 165-
166, 192, 193, 194, 204, 205,
208-209, 210, 211, 213, 214,
215, 216-219, 226, 227, 228-
230, 23 1, 232, 235-239, 242-
246, 261, 269, 270, 323, 359
on shopping at non-Aryan stores,
89
Wehrmachtausstellung, 295
Wehrmacht Office, 114
Wehrpass. See Military Service Book
Wehrunwurdig (unworthy of military
service), 133
Weigmann, Horst Siegfried, 261
Weimar Republic, 79, 301, 314
Weiss, Helena. See Scheffler, Helena
Weissenfels OT forced labor camp
(Saxony), 41, 164
Welch, Steven, 4
Weltanschauung, 12, 8 1, 185, 233,
258, 270, 279
Werneyer, Major, 318
White Rose opposition group, 24
Wiedemann, Fritz, 324
Wiehl, Reiner, 171
Wierhzn-Pesch, Lieutenant, 39
Wilberg, General Helmut, 20, 177-
179, 193, 197, 351, 359
Wilhelm II, Kaiser, 69, 71, 74, 309
Willstatter, Richard, 73
Wistrich, Robert, 30, 288
Witzleben, General Erwin van, 85
Wolf, Admiral Ernst, 91
Wolfenbuttel OT forced labor camp
(Braunschweig), 162, 163
Wolff, Helen. See Bleicher, Helen
Wolff, Jacob, 67
Wolff, SS-General Karl, 257
Wollenberg, Heinz, 163
Wolters, Otto, 63-64, 230
World War 1, 13, 16, 31, 34, 71-75,
80, 88, 100, 127, 175, 176, 178,
182, 211, 216, 242, 267, 304,
315, 324, 333, 348, 358-359
World War I Veterans (Jewish), 77-
78, 139, 141, 189, 203, 204, 206,
223, 237, 271, 272, 291, 306,
324, 333, 358-359, 378
World War II, 1, 18, 76, 109, 179,
267
Wound Badge, 111, 114, 139, 260,
326, 378
Wundermacher, Gerhard, 157
Yahil, Leni, 60, 265
Yale University, xi-xii
Yiddischkeit (Judaism), 12
Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement), 70,
306
Z-8 Bruno Heinemann (destroyer),
180
Zeise, Dr., 93-94
Zeitz OT forced labor camp, 164
Zelter, Joachim, 49, 296
Zeiter, Karl-Frederick, 296
Zeiter, Rolf, 49
Zerbst OT forced labor camp, 163
Zionism, 8, 51
Zippes, Joseph, 72
Zipporah (Moses's wife), 7
Zossen (Army High Command), 218,
366
Zuckmayer, Carl, 20
Zuelzer, Wolf, 12, 170
Zukertort, General Johannes, 217
Zukertort, General Karl, 206, 216-217
Zukertort, Karl Adolf, 217
Zukertort, Kurt Dagobert, 217
Zu Klampen, Gerd, 120
Zurndorfer, Josef, 73
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