The Abandonment of the Jews: America and the Holocaust, 194

"Science," the Greek word for knowledge, when appended to the word "political," creates what seems like an oxymoron. For who could claim to know politics? More complicated than any game, most people who play it become addicts and die without understanding what they were addicted to. The rest of us suffer under their malpractice as our "leaders." A truer case of the blind leading the blind could not be found. Plumb the depths of confusion here.

Re: The Abandonment of the Jews: American and the Holocaust,

Postby admin » Sat Apr 14, 2018 3:34 am

CHAPTER 6. BERMUDA

1 EHR, 101; Jour of Ecclesiastical Hist, 7/78, 357; Stmt by Shertok, 2/24/43, RW 2/23; NYT, 12/13/42, 11, 12/18/ 42, 10, 12/21/42, 17, 1/24/43, 26; CW, 1/1/43, 2, 4/2/43, 13.

2 EHR, 101; CW, 2/5/43, 4, 4/2/43, 13; NYT, 12/13/42, 11, 1/24/43, 26, 1/ 29/43, 9; Reams to Hickerson & Atherton, 12/10/42, SD, EW/694; Achilles to Welles, 3/4/43, SD, EW/848; FR 1943, v I, 138.

3 Parliamentary Debates, Lords, v 126, 811-21.

4 FR 1943, v 1, 134-7. Same source for following 2 paragraphs.

5 Long to Brandt, Travers, & Keeley, 1/25/43, SD, R/3633; FR 1943, v 1, 138- 44; BLD, 316.

6 FR 1943, v 1, 140-4; Wyman, 217- 9.

7 Memorandum on Ber Cf on the Ref Problem (nd), W 3, Ber Cf. Re abundance: Commonweal, 7/28/44, 349; PM, 12/14/42, 1-5.

8 FR 1943, v 1, 143-4.

9 Wyman, ch 3.

10 FR 1943, v 1, 143.

11 Emanuel Celler speech, 10/23/75, at J Hist See of NY; Lawrence Fuchs, The Political Behavior of American Jews (1956), 99; Pepper-Wyman interview, 4/ 10/81; Wayne Cole, America First (1953, 1971), 138-9; Israel, 307.

12 NYT, 3/4/43, 9; L.C., Memorandum, 3/4/43, SD, R/3739; FR 1943, v 1, 144-5.

13 FR 1943, v 1, 144-6; NYT, 3/5/43, 5; L.C., Memorandum, 3.14/43, SD, R/ 3739; FR 1943, v 3, 29; Pickett to Frawley & Vail, 3/5/43, AF, GF, US Govt, SD; Irving Abella and Harold Troper, None Is Too Many: Canada and the Jews of Europe, 1933-1948 (1982), 130-7.

14 NYT, 3/7/43, 30, 3/11/43, 2, 3/28/ 43, 5; BLD, 308, 310; Memo of Phone Convsn, Long & FDR, 3/19/43, BLP, B 202, Refs; Min of Mtg of Jt Com on Eur Affairs, 3/29/43, AHS, Ma I-81.

15 Israel, 306; Long to Welles, 3/18/ 43, SD 548.G1/112; FR 1943, v 1, 147; Taylor to Welles, 4/43, Taylor to Emerson, 7/28/44, MT; MD 711/260, 262, 712/5.

16 FR 1943, v 1, 147; Roberts to FDR, 4/8/43, Hull to FDR, 4/12/43, FDR, OF 3186; Hull to Seymour, 4/10/43, SD 548.Gl/20B; Seymour to Hull, 4/13/43, SD 548.G1/19; Israel, 306.

I7 FR 1943, v1 , 147, 151; BLD, 308; Memo of Phone Convsn, Long & FDR, 3/19/43, BLP, B 202, Refs.

18 FR 1943, v 1, 176-9, 185; BLD, 334.

19 Roberts to FDR, 4/8/43, FDR to Roberts, 4/10/43, FDR, OF 3186; WP, 4/13/43, 4.

20 CW, 3/19/43, 3, 4/2/43, 2; NR, 4/ 26/43, 548.

21 Mtg of JEC, 4/10/43, & attached rpt by Proskauer, AJC, JEC.

22 Mtg of JEC, 4/10/43, AJC, JEC; Proskauer to Welles, 4/12/43, AJC, Proskauer File; FR 1943, v 1, 151; 58th Mtg of PAC, 3/30/43, JM, P67.

23 CW, 6/4/43, 5; Op, 6/43, 5; Israel, 306; Celler speech, 10/23/75, at J Hist Soc of NY; IJPS, 5/21/43; Mtg of JEC, 4/10/43, 4/18/43, AJC, JEC; Proskauer to Bloom, 4/16/43, AJC, PEC.

24 Dickstein to FDR, 4/2/43, Long, undated draft reply for Dickstein, FDR, OF 3186.

25 Wise (for JEC) to Welles, 4/14/43, SD 548.Gl/38; CW, 4/30/43, 11-14; Mtg of JEC, 4/10/43, AJC, JEC; Proskauer to Bloom, 4/16/43, AJC, PEC.

26 Mtg of JEC, 4/18/43, AJC, JEC; NYT, 4/19/43, 4.

27 Long to Wise, 4/20/43, AJC, JEC.

28 McDonald & Warren to Welles, draft, 3/11/43, JM, P67.

29 Berle to Hull & Long, 4/20/43, Brandt to Long, 4/23/43, BLP, B 202, Refs.

30 CR, v 89, 3434; Ans, 6/5/43, 18; WP, 4/20/43, 10.

31 Emerson, Note on Measures for Rescue of Refs, 3/24/43, BLP, B 203, Ref Cf-Ber Cf.

32 Ibid.

33 Proskauer rpt, attached to Mtg of JEC, 4/10/43, AJC, JEC.

34 FR 1943, v 1, 148, 151; KCS, 4/19/ 43, 16; BC Mins, 4/22, AM, 4/23, AM; Jabotinsky to Johnson, 5/6/43, PSC 1/8.

35 For Reams, see above, ch 4. Alexander to Long, 5/7/43, BLP, B 203, Ref Mvt & Natl Groups.

36 FR 1943, v 1, 151; Kunz to Clarkson, 4/12/43, BLP, B 203, Ref Cf-Ber Cf; BC Mins, 4/20, AM; 59th Mtg of PAC, 5/17/43, JM, P67; Schauffler to Branson, 11/6/44, AF, RS, Mign Servs, US Govt Contacts; Schauffler, Re Visa Policy, 12/21/43, AF, GF 4; AJYB, v 45, 455, 470; CJR, 6/43, 277.

37 FR 1943, v 1, 149; Jabotinsky to Johnson, 5/6/43, PSC 1/8.

38 FR 1943, v 1, 152; Kunz to Clarkson, 4/12/43, BLP, B 203, Ref Cf-Ber Cf.

39 Memorandum on Ber Cf on the Ref Problem (nd), W 3, Ber Cf; Views of the Govt of the US [3/43], BLP, B 203, Ref Cf-Ber Cf. Same sources for following 2 paragraphs.

40 Fuller discussion in ch 16.

41 BC Mins, 4/20, AM; FR 1943, v 1, 155.

42 BC Mins, 4/20, AM; Wasserstein, 192.

43 FR 1943, v 1, 49-133; FR 1944, v 1, 1076.

44 BC Mins (all).

45 BC Mins, 4/20, AM, 4/21, PM.

46 BC Mins, 4/21, PM.

47 BC Mins, 4/21, AM; BC Rpt; FR 1943, v 1, 157, 176.

48 BC Mins, 4/21, AM.

49 FR 1943, v 1, 155; BC Mins, 4/20, AM.

50 Shown in ch 16.

51 BC Rpt.

52 BC Mins, 4/20, AM, 4/20, PM, 4/ 21, AM, 4/24, AM.

53 BC Mins, 4/24, AM; FR 1943, v 1, 165.

54 BC Mins, 4/24, AM; BC Rpt.

55 BC Rpt; BC Mins, 4/21, AM, 4/25, AM; FR 1943, v 1, 157-9, 295-6.

56 FR 1943, v I, 157-61; BC Mins, 4/ 21, AM.

57 Israel, 309; FR 1943, v I, 164, 176, 295-9; Long, Memorandum, 4/22/43, SD 548.G1/4-2243; Hull to Deane, 4/ 23/43, SD 548.G 1144; Long, Memorandum, 4/26/43, SD Rl4-2643; BLD, 328.

58 BC Rpt; FR 1943, v I, 179, 307-25, 332-5; FR 1943, The Conferences at Washington and Quebec (1970), 342-6. More detail is in "Proposals for Relief and Evacn of Refs" [7/43] (N Africa section), BLP, B 203, Ref Mvt & Natl Groups.

59 FR 1944, v I, 992; Blickenstaff, Evacn of Stateless Refs to N Afr, 12/27/ 44, Conard, Rpt on Visit to Spain, 10/ 16/44, AF, RS 5 .

60 BC Rpt; A Rpt Drawn Up for the Am Embassy [8/44], Conard, Rpt on Visit to Spain, 10/16/44, AF, RS 5.

61 BC Mins, 4/22, AM, 4/23, AM; BC Rpt; FR 1943, v I, 165-6, 175-6, 184- 9, 196, 214-7, 224-5, 236-7; Explanation of Changes in Proposed Message, u/c Stettinius to FDR, 6/8/44, FDR, OF 3186.

62 BC Rpt; BC Mins, 4/22, AM, 4/23, AM; FR 1943, vi, 163, 170. From 1939 through 1943, the US had contributed a total of $70, 000 to the ICR (Grew to Rayburn, 6/19/45, SD, Rl6-1945).

63 FR 1943, v 1, 171, 186; BC Mins, 4/ 25, AM.

64 FR 1943, v 1, 177-82, 186-7, 190- 5, 199-200, 213-4, 232-3, 237, 247-8.

65 BC Rpt.

66 FR 1943, vi, 173-4.

67 Office Com Mtg, 5/7/43, WJC, U185/2

68 Based on the 10 newspapers listed in ch 2, source note 12.

69 NYT, 4/25/43, 19.

70 CT, 4/18, 12, 4/23, 9; NYT, 4/20, 1; DP, 4/19, 3, 4/23, 7; SFE, 4/20, 10; WP, 4/30, 1; PM, 4/30, 8. All in 1943.

71 DP, 4/19, 3; ST, 4/19, 3; SFE, 4/ 22, 11; CT, 4/23, 9; NYT, 4/25, 19; WP, 4/30, 1. All in 1943.

72 AJYB, v 45, 361; CJR, 6/43, 278, 8/ 43, 393; NJM, 6/43, 314; JF, 5/43, 3; Op, 6/43, 5, 5/43, 4; NYT, 5/4/43, 17.

73 JO, 5/43, 6; Wise & Proskauer to Welles, 5/13/43, Mtg of JEC, 5/24/43, AJC, JEC.

74 AI Rpts, 4th, 5 & 5th, 1; Rosenheim to McDonald, 5/26/43, JM, P40; Shultz to Wise, Goldmann, et ai, 6/3/43, SW, AJCg, L. Shultz; Pat to Shultz, 6/24/43, Proskauer to Held, 6/29/43, AJC, PEC.

75 NYHT, 4/28/43, 2; NYT, 4/28/43, 6; Thomas to Hull, 6/17/43, SD 548.G1/165; Niebuhr, Poling, Oxnam, et al to FDR, 8/6/43, SD, R/4164.

76 CR, v 89, A2154, A2329; Celler to Wise, 5/14/43, AJC, PEC.

77 NYT, 5/24/43, 15; Op, 6/43, 5; Celler, "Once Bitten, Twice Shy, " 7/15/ 43, AJC, Imgn Series, Refs-Rescue of.

78 Bloom to Anathan, 6/14/43, SB, Corresp with Constituents; Celler speech, 10/23/75, at J Hist Soc of NY.

79 Morse, 63.

80 NYT, 4/29/43, 9; NYHT, 4/29/43, 8.

81 Travers to Niebuhr, 8/26/43, SD, R14164.

82 Israel, 316; Brandt, Memorandum, 6/22/43, SD 548.Gl/198; FR 1943, v 1, 310.

83 Niebuhr, Poling, Oxnam, et al to FDR, 8/6/43, SD, Rl4164; NYT, 5/2/ 43, 17; MDW to JMP, 5/19/43, AJC, JEC.

84 NYT, 5/22/43, 4, 6/4/43, 7; NJM, 7/43, 352; CR, v 89, A3363.

85 NYT, 4/22/43, 1; WP, 4/22/43, 6.

86 JF, 6/43, 4.

CHAPTER 7. PAPER WALLS AND PAPER PLANS

1 Wyman, 43, 49, 168-82, 194.

2 Ibid, 193-4, 199, 200, 204; "Quota Immigrants Admitted" (nd), NRS, 506.

3 Wyman, 193-6, 202.

4 Ibid, 200-1.

5 Ibid, 201-2.

6 Ibid, 203; Mayerson to Sapper, 12/ 24/41, NRS 991; Welles to McDonald, 2/17/42, JM, P50.

7 Bernstein & Dijour to Taylor, 4/24/ 42, JM, P55; McDonald & Warren to Welles (draft), 3/11/43, JM, P67; NYT, 5/14/42, 6; FR 1942, v I, 450-7; BC Mins, 4/25, AM; Office of Censorship, Daily Rpt #7000 [9/42], SD, R/3489.

8 Cohu's ltr of 6/3/42 from Marseille, . AF, RS 1. Several other examples in McClelland to Rogers, 3/14/42, AF, RS 1.

9 Niles, Case Com Rpt, 10/13/42, USC, Case Com.

10 The obstruction is clearly seen in the archives of AFSC, JDC, and NRS. Warren's remarks: CEP Jour, 5/5/42; JPC 3050.

11 JPC 3274, 3379, 3436-7; Kaplan, MASC Mtg, 1/12/43, NRS 326; [1st] Draft Mins Mign & Alien Status Sub- Com, 2/17/43, NRS 325; Schauffler, Re Visa Policy, 12/21/43, AF, GF 4; Vail, Trip to Wn, 3/12/43, AF, FS 3.

12 JPC 3340; Mins of MASC, 5/11/43, Kaplan draft, NRS 326; IR, 10/28/43, 327; Rogers to Hiatt, 10/2/42, AF, RS 3; JPC 3282.

13 IR, 10/28/43, 309-55.

14 CR, v 90, 666.

15 Excerpts & Summary of Rpt on Spain from Conard, 11/20/43, AF. RS 6.

16 Schauffler to Heath, 1/5/43, 2/12/ 43, Heath to Vail, 1/19/43, AF, RS 2; Heath to Wriggins, 1/18/43. AF, RS, Ctry FNA, Fr Morocco, Casa; Schauffler to Hartley, 6/18/43, AF, RS 7; Mins of Mtg on 12/30/43 with Katzki, JDC, G/ E, Germany-NRS; Schauffler to Pickett, Vail. et ai, 4/13/43, AF, FS, C/O, HIAS; Translation-Excerpts, 8/9/43. u/ c Dijour to Schauffler. 10/7/43, AF, RS, Ctry FNA, Genl.

17 Mayerson to Abrahamson, Monthly Rpt, 10/7/42, NRS 459; numerous individual cases in NRS 575; Schauffler to Judkyn, 11/9/43, AF, RS 3.

18 Pickett to Warren, 5/27/42, AF, GF 1; 54th Mtg of PAC, 6/18/42, JM, P66; [lst] Draft Mins Mign and Alien Status Sub-Com, 2/17/43, NRS 325; Mins of MASC, 5/11/43, Kaplan draft, NRS 326; Rogers, Rpt, Ref Div, For Serv Section, lan-May 1942, AF, RS, Rpts & Discussions.

19 Rogers to Vail, 5/20/42, with enclosure, Rogers to Warren, 6/4/42, AF, GF 1; Detzer to Baer, 6/16/42, WIL, Ref Com, 1938-43, Cases, Schottlaender.

20 JPC 3379; Chamberlain to Schauffler, 3/12/42, AF, GF, For Serv, Switz; Warren to PAC, with enclosures, 5/8/ 42, Warren to PAC, 5/11/42, 54th Mtg of PAC, 6/18/42, JM, P66.

21 DSB, 9/10/44, 277-8; ]PC 3379; "Keppel Study, " 8/23/43, NRS 570; anon memo (probably Keppel to Berle), 8/3/42, Travers to Long, 8/4/42, BLP, B 211, Visa Bd of Appeals; ]PC 3340- 4.

22Visa Bd of Appeals, Rpt, 11/9/42, BLP, B 211, Visa Bd of Appeals.

23 BKR Rpt, 13; Summary of Proceedings- Special Mtg NRS, 1/23/43, AF, RS, ClO, NRS (Mins); Schauffler/Rogers to Conard, 3/27/42, AF, RS, Ctry Port, Ltrs to; NYT, 9/9/43, 25.

24 DSB, 9/10/44, 274; SIB, 6/16/44, NRS 1391; Rescue, 6/44, 3; IR, 7/18/44, 228-9; Petluck to Mign Staff, 8/2/44, NRS 587.

25 Maurice Davie, Refugees in America (1947), 194; Loewenstein, Suggestions for a Better Verification, 9/14/42, SD, R/3179; Elisabeth A. Dexter, "Last Port of Freedom, " draft MS (1942), ch I, p 9; Chr R, 9/42, 331.

26 BKR Rpt, 14.

27 MD 694/191; Warren-Jarvik interview, 1/22179.

28 NYT, 10/15/42, 9; Teleg No. 78 from Tangier to MILID, Wn, 2/23/43, BLP, B 195, Foreign Territories; ltr from War Dept, 5/1/43, SD, R/3805.

29 Schmidt file in AF, OF, N Afr; memo by Heath, 9/22/43, AF, RS 2; Heath to Kimberland, 5/9/44, AF, RS, Ctry FNA, Algeria, Ltrs to; Schauffler, memo re Schmidt, 11/16/43, AF, FS 3.

30 Office of Censorship, Daily Rpt #7000 [9/42], SD, R/3489. The actual facts concerning HICEM are found in Warren, memo on HIAS-ICA, U/C McDonald to Hull, 3/13/42, JM, P50. SD views concerning subversives among refugees are seen in FR 1942, v 1, 450- 6.

31 Standish to Lesser, 3/27/44, W 10, Imgn Memos; NYT, 6/28/42, 1, 7/30/ 42, 1, 34, 7/1/42, 1, 7/10/42, 1, 12/6/42, 59, 7/26/43, 32, 7/16/44, 7, 12/31/44, 16, 3/19/45, 19, 12/8/45, 3; Louis de Jong, The German Fifth Column in the Second World War (1956), 215-21.

32 Greenstein, Summary of Invitation Cf, 10/18/41, AF, GF, C/O, NRS; MD 693/217-8.

33 Ch 2. Baerwald to Beckelman, 9/8/ 42, JDC, Refs, Children; Notes, Mtg of US Com, 9/21/42, Hyman to Levy, 10/ 22/42, JDC, France, Children. Even here, though, the Visa Division raised several technical difficulties (Stmt by Warren, 9/14/42, AF, GF, US Govt, PAC).

34 Schwartz to Leavitt, 12/21/42, 1/ 13/43, Leavitt to Hayes, 1/29/43, Mc- Donald & Warren to Welles, 12/1/42, JDC, Refs, Children; Conard to Pickett, 11/21/42, AF, OF, Port, 1000 Group.

35 Frawley to Pickett & Vail, 12/8/42, AF, GF 3; Mtg of MASC, 12/9/42, NRS 452; JPC 3223, 3283; USCOM, Rpt of Exec Dir to Bd of Dirs, 5/12/43, AF, RS, C/O, USCCEC, Rpts; Radio Script, 517/43, JDC, Refs, Children.

36 Mtg of MASC, 12/9/42, NRS 452; BC Mins, 4/25, AM; Frawley to Pickett, Vail, et ai, 12/24/42, AF, GF 5; SS to Lisbon, 12/26/42, W 44, Evacn of Children from France; Frawley to Pickett, Vail, et aI, 1/6/43, AF, RS 10; Schwartz to Leavitt, 1/4/43, 1/18/43, JDC, Refs, Children; Frawley to Leavitt, 1/13/43, JDC, France, Children; Ben Schauffler to Lang, 1/6/43, AF, OF, Port, USCCEC; Rpt by Escort of 21 on Serpa Pinto, 3/20/43, AF, RS 8; JDC, loose- Leaf Memo #32, 3/22/43, NRS 1302.

37 Katzki to Leavitt, 2/27/43, Wriggins to AF, 4/2/43, 4/6/43, JDC, Refs, Children.

38 JDC, Loose-Leaf Memo #34, 5/21/ 43, NRS 1302; Katzki, Lisbon, to JDC, 4/28/43, AF, RS 10.

39 Memo of telephone message from Warren, 4/12/43, HW to MF, 6/10/43, Olsen to Frawley, 9/30/43, Conard to Lang [12/43], AF, RS 8; Conard to Pickett, 9/24/43, AF, RS, Children, US Com, Case Lists; Thompson to Welles, 5/20/43, ER 894170; Welles to Thompson, 5/28/43, ER 1703/100; Katzki to Leavitt, 9/24/43, JDC, Refs, Children.

40 Olsen to JDC (Leavitt), 6/14/45, JDC, Refs, Children; Conard, Rpt to AF for Dec 1943 to Aug 1944, 8/15/44, AF, RS 4; Gallagher to Olsen, 4/25/45, AF, FS, DP Servs, Children, USCCEC; BC Mins, 4/25, AM.

41 Conard & Wriggins, AF Lisbon Office Mid-Aug Rpt, 8/13/42, along with several letters also in this file, AF, RS 4 (1942); Conard to Vail, 6/10/43, Conard to Schauffler, 8/25/43, Wriggins to Schauffler, 8/10/43, AF, RS 4 (1943).

42 Rpt of the Secy to Exec Com Mtg of JDC, 10/22/41, JDC, Rpts; Katzki to Leavitt, 2/26/43, 2/27/43, 4/14/43, JDC, Refs, Children; Schauffler to Conard, 6/22/43, AF, RS 6.

43 Schauffler to Pickett, Vail, et al, 6/ 11/43, AF, GF 4; Schauffler to Conard, 6/22/43, Schauffler to Rogers, 7/26/43, Rogers to Travers, 8/10/43, Excerpts & Summary of Rpt on Spain from Conard, .11/20/43, AF, RS 6.

44 Brandin, memo on JDC, 6/28/43, CH, B 6, Ref Orgzns.

45 Ibid; BKR Rpt, 23.

46 Notes on Lois Jessup's talk with Mrs. Carlton]. H. Hayes, 4/28/44, AF, FS, AF, Wn Trips.

47 IR, 6/14/45, 154-6.

48 Based on 26 nations with annual quotas totaling 60, 888 (Status of Quotas as of 10/31/45, NRS 502). Statistics from Annual Report of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (1946), 72. An estimated 5, 000 entered during the portion of fiscal 1942 that followed American entry into the war (Kovarsky to Levy, 7/13/42, NRS 505; IR, 2/27/42, 83). The total eligible from Pearl Harbor to V-E Day was 208, 000.

49 MR, 4/44, 13, 6/45, 158, 8/45, 189.

50 BLD, 399.

51 NYT, 12/30/45, IV, 10.

52 Pell to Taylor, 3/2/41, 3/3/41, 3/7/ 41, MT.

53 Pell to Taylor, 3/2/41, 3/7/41, 31 11/41, 4/5/41, MT; 47th Mtg of PAC, 4/14/41, JM, P65.

54 Talk by Malin to AF Staff, 4/28/44, AF, RS9; Pell to Taylor, 3/3/41, 3/7/41, 3/25/41, 1/29/42, 7/1/42, MT; Wyman, 163; 54th Mtg of PAC, 6/18/42, JM, P66.

55 Taylor to Emerson, 5/25/43, 7/28/ 44, Suggestions for Reorganization of ICR, 5/17/43, Taylor to Welles, 6/11/ 43, 7/23/43, FDR to Taylor, 7/7/43, 7/ 28/43, 6/5/44, Taylor to FDR, 7/13/43, 7/14/43, 8/31/43, 5/25/44, Taylor to Hull, 8/31/43, Taylor to Winant, 3/20/ 44, Emerson to Randall, 4/22/44, MT; Taylor, Confidential Memo Regarding Refs 1938-47, 7/30/47, MT, B 8; FR 1943, v I, 190; MD 712/5; McDermott to Brandt, 7/20/43, Taylor to Pell, 7/22/ 43, SD, Rl4101; NYT, 3/16/45, 17.

56 LEH, Memorandum, 2/22/44, W 3, Ber Cf.

57 FR 1943, v 1, 177, 180-2, 186-7, 190-5, 199-200, 213-4; Record of Proceedings of Mtg of Exec Com of ICR, 8/ 4/43, BLP, B 203, Refs, Intergovt Com on; NYT, 3/16/45, 17; Taylor to Welles, 7/23/43, MT.

58 Warren to Fuerst, 5/22/42, IMS, Appeals to NY Fndn; Travers to Bloom, 11/16/43, SB, B 45, Selected Ltrs A-J; ICR, Summary of Activities since Aug 1943, 11/23/43, MT.

59 Suggestions for Reorganization of ICR, 5/17/43, Taylor to Emerson, 5/25/ 43, Taylor to Welles, 6/11/43, 7/23/43, Taylor to FDR, 3/3/44, Taylor to Hull, 4/19/44, MT; MD 700/189-90.

60 Emerson to Taylor, 8/6/43, MT.

61 Emerson to Taylor, 3/5/42, 8/11/ 42, ICR, Summary of Activities since Aug 1943, 11/23/43, MT; 55th Mtg of PAC, 9/9/42, JM, P66; Foreign Affairs, 1/43, 211-20.

62 Interview with Emerson, 4/25/44, AJC, Imgn Series, Imgn 1944-40; Talk by Malin to AF Staff, 4/28/44, Marcuse to Schauffler, 5/18/44, AF, RS 9.

63 Interview with Emerson, 4/25/44, AJC, Imgn Series, Imgn 1944-40; Emerson to Taylor, 3/5/42, MT.

64 W. A. Visser 't Hooft, Memoirs (1973), 169; ICR, Summary of Activities, 11/23/43, MT; Relief& Evacn Projects, 1/27/44, W 50, SD; FR 1943, v 1, 218- 23, 227, 229, 233-4; ICR, Mins of Fourth Plenary Session (8/44), 6; Intl Labour Review, 11/44, 656-7; ICR, Rpt of Fourth Plenary Session (8/44), 9, 26; Emerson, Memorandum, 4/18/44, MT.

65 Ltr 1toBranson on Italian operations, 2/15/45, AF, FS 2; Malin to Dejean, 7/4/44, AF, RS 9.

66 ICR, Rpt of Fourth Plenary Session (8/44), 5; Jones to Branson, 7/16/44, AF, FS, Ctry Italy, Ltrs to.

67 CEP Jour, 10/26/44; Wriggins to Vail, 9/7/44, Wriggins to AF, 10/4/44, Wriggins to Branson, 10/30/44, Branson to Moore, 11/24/44, AF, FS 1; Wriggins to Branson [recd 6/8/44], AF, RS 9; Ltr to Branson on Italian operations, 2/15/ 45, AF, FS 2; Ltr from A. Greenleigh, 9/7/44, JOC, G/E, Austria, ICR; Pehle to Mann, 10/31/44, 12/18/44, Mann to Pehle, 11/14/44, 12/9/44, W 16, Mann; Louise Wood, "Italy Program: 1940- 1941, 1944-1962" (7/70), 14-18, AF files; ICR, Rpt 01 Fourth Plenary Session (8/44), 23.

68. Ltr to Branson on Italian operations, 2/15/45, AF, FS 2; Wriggins to Vail, 9/7/44, AF, FS 1; Mann to Pehle, 10/23/44, 11/14/44, 12/9/44, Pehle to Mann, 10/31/44, W 16, Mann; Ltr from A. Greenleigh, 9/7/44, JOC, GIE, Austria, ICR.

69. Kimberland to Frawley, 6/16/44, 8/ 29/44, AF, RS, Ctry FNA, Algeria, Ltrs from; Frawley to Pickett et aI, 9/11/44, AF, RS, Ctry FNA, Genl; Biehle to Leavitt, 11/6/44, JOC, G/E, Austria, ICR.

70 ICR, Rpt of Fifth Plenary Session (11/45), 22-4; Pehle to Baerwald, 7/22/ 44, JOC, France, Conf 36.

71 Pehle to Stettinius, 11/11/44, W 49, ICR 3; Schauffler to Branson, Jessup, et al, 11/6/44, AF, RS 11; Sumner Welles, Where Are We Heading? (1946), 280.

72 ICR, Mins of Sixth Plenary Session (12/46); ICR, Mins of Seventh Plenary Session (6/47); ICR, Seventh Plenary Session Resolutions (6/47).

CHAPTER 8. THE EMERGENCY COMMITTEE

1 CR, v 89, 4139.

2 NYT, 5/4/43, 17; CR, v 89, 4044-7, 4139-41; Truman to Bergson, 5/7/43, PSC 1/8.

3 CR, v 89, 4139, 8125.

4 Ans, 8/43, 4.

5 Perlzweig to Wise, 6/16/43, SW, AJCg, Perlzweig; Tucker to Wise, 6/17/ 43, AJC, PEC; Welles to Taylor, 6/23/ 43, MT.

6 Bromfield to Taylor, 6/21/43, Taylor to Welles, 6/23/43, Welles to Taylor, 6/ 23/43, Taylor to Bromfield, 6/24/43, MT; Hyman to Pickett, 7/13/43, AF, RS 10.

7 Daily Worker, 7/12/43, Morning Freiheit, 7/12/43, PSC, S 16.

8 Lerner to FOR, 7/14/43, Hassett to SS, 7/15/43, Hull to Lerner, 7/17/43, Berle to FOR, 7/20/43, FOR to Lerner, 7/22/43, FOR, OF 76C; Reams to Ounn, 7/15/43, SO, EW/1008; Ans, 2/ 12/44, 10; NYT, 7/25/43, 30.

9 Bromfield to ER, 6/21/43, ER to Bromfield, 6/25/43, ER 1674/100.

10 Potter to ER, 7/15/43, ER 1694/ 100.

11 Lerner to ER, 7/17/43, ER to Lerner, 7/23/43, ER 1689/100.

12 ER to Potter, 7/26/43, ER 1694/ 100.

13 Ans, 7/5/43, 10, 8/43, 14, 2/46, 18; NYT, 7/13/43, 12, 7/21/43, 13; NYP, 7/22/43, 6; MO 688I166; NYHT, 7/26/ 43, 14.

14 MD 688I147-67; Ans, 8/43, 6-14.

15 Ans, 8/43, 22-3. Same source for following 2 paragraphs.

16 The heavy media exposure is shown in PSC 4/10 and S 16, with a summary in ] Review & Observer, 7/30/43, in S 16. For editorials, eg, NYP, 7/26/43, 26, 27; Nation, 7/31/43, 114; NR, 8/2/43, 124. Lerner: PM, 7/22/43, 2.

17 NYT, 8/12/43, 10, 8/30/43, 10, 9/ 7/43, 16, 9/14/43, 12.

18 NYT, 8/30/43, 10, 8/21/43, 9; FR 1943, v 1, 469-83.

19 Merlin to New Zionist Political Office, Jerusalem, 8/27/43, PSC 1/10; Merlin-Wyman interview, 4/19/73. Examples: NYJA, 8/24/43, 18, 9/2/43, 14, 9/4/43, 4.

20 Additional random examples: SFE, 5/17/44, 9, 8/1/44, 14, 8/22/44, 14, 8/ 25/44, 7, 5/1/45, 14. Merlin-Wyman interviews, 4/19/73, 3/22/79. Quote from NYJA, 8/24/43, 18, 9/4/43, 4.

12 Ans, 2/12/44, 5; Margoshes in Day, 11/25/43, 1.

22 My Day, 8/13/43 release, ER, B 3148; Bergson to ER, 8/11143, with enclosures, FDR to Thompson, 8/16/43, ER 2899/190.

23 Bergson to ER, 10/13/43, Thompson to Bergson, 10/18/43, ER 297/30.9; Bergson to Thompson, 10/19/43, Thompson to Bergson, 10/29/43, with attachment, ER 84/30.1. Mrs. Roosevelt's message was 250 words long.

24 Bergson to Thompson, 1113/43, text of speech: ER 84/30.1.

25 Joseph Lash, Eleanor: The Years Alone (1972), ch. 5.

26 Lerner to FDR, 7/31/43, Watson to Lerner, 8/10/43, 8/30/43, Early to Lerner, 8/22/43, FDR, OF 76C; Lerner to Early, 8/21/43, Bergson to Early, 8/23/ 43, SD, Rl4431 & 4433; YSH, 7-8.

27 CJR, 10/43, 503-4; Long to Brandt, 8/12/43, Long, Memo of Convsn with Bergson and Hirschmann, 9/1143, BLP, B202, Refs; YSH, 5-6; Ans, 11/1/43, 5; A1fangeto Travers, 1117/44, W29, WJC l.

28 Ans, 6/15/44, 9, 3/45, 14, 3/46, 17, 29; YSH. 6-7; Wilf to Niv, 10/26/70, PSC, Reel 11; Kook-Wyman interview, 5/5/73; Kook-Cohen interview, 9/26/68, 17, PSC 11133; Menachem Begin, The Revolt (1951), 63-4; Berman, "The HCNL and Rescue, " 23.

29 Kook-Cohen interview, 9/26/68, 17- 18; FBI, File # 100-316012-29, Item II NY 100-61870 [3/45], pp. 6-7, 14-8, 34-5, 72-3; HCNL, 5/2/45, FBI, File II 100-316012-36; Strickland to Ladd, 3/ 3/45, FBI, File # 100-316012-31.

30 YSH, 6; Ans, 11/1/43, 5; Long, Memo of Convsn with Bergson and Hn, 9/1143, BLP, B 202, Refs; Hn to Bergson, 12/1143, PSC 1/10; A1fange to Travers, 1/17/44, W 29, WJC 1; MD 688V77-8; Hn to Pehle, 1125/44, W 53, Hn.

31 MD 688I/32, 35-6.

32 Niebuhr to Dear Friend, 8/10/43, Open Ltr, 8/10/43, FCC, B 49, Genl Secy's Files (Cavert); NR, 8/30/43, 304; World Alliance News Leiter, 9/43, 1-2; CC, 9/8/43, 1004-5.

33 NYT, 9/10/43, 26, 9/25/43, 6; JF, 11/43, 10-12; Stmt to Accompany ]t Resolution, u/c Phiebig to Beck, 9/20/ 43, NRS 505.

34 Celler proposal: see ch 3. Dickstein! Barbour: HJ Res 154 & S] Res 85 (printed in JF, 11/43, 9); Ans, 10/15/43, 23.

35 Ans, 10/15/43, 23; Cavert to Dickstein, 9/28/43, FCC, B 9, Genl Secy's Files (Cavert), Immig; RYP, 9/24/43; CW, 9/24/43, 4, 10/8/43, 4; NJM, 11/ 43, 84, 97; JF, 11143, 3; Biddle to Dickstein, 1114/43, Legis 16453; Stettinius to Dickstein, 10/30/43, SD, R/4490; CR, v 89, index pp. 676, 782.

36 Mohler, Memo for Record, 10/20/ 43, BI 83, Refs-Restrictions on Admission as Visitors, R-4; RR, 63-4; ch 3 above; IR, 6/21/43, 169-75; CR, v 89, 5837.

37 NYT, 10/5/43, 29; WP, 10/6/43, 13; YSH, 9; Kook-Wyman interview, 11/20/78.

38 Proclamations by Union of Orthodox Rabbis and by Union of Grand Rabbis [late 9/43], FDR, OF 76C; Jabotinsky to Altman, 10/12/43, PSC 11 10. The ]TA estimated the number of rabbis at 300; the NYP and the EC stated 400; while several others reported 500 (WP, WTH, Time, and the Yiddish-language dailies Day and Forward).

39 NYT, 10/7/43, 14; WTH, 10/6/43, 25, 10/7/43, 3; ]M], 10/7/43, 1, 2, 10/8/ 43, 3; Forward, 10/7/43, 1, 9; JTA, 10/ 7/43, 4; Wn Star, 10/7/43, 6; Ans, 11/11 43, 4, 11; Time, 10/18/43, 21.

40 WP, 10/6/43, 13; NYT, 10/7/43, 14; Jabotinsky to Altman, 10/12/43, PSC 1/10; Ans, 11/1/43, 4.

41 Bergson to Early, 9/20/43, AW to RR (nd), Lerner to McIntyre, 9/29/43, Levovitz to Early, 10/3/43, MHM to Watson, 10/4/43, Watson to Levovitz, 10/5/43, FDR, OF 76C; WTH, 10/7/43, 3; President's Appointment Diaries, 10/ 6/43, FDR, PPF 1-0(1), B 186; Diary of the President 1943, FDR, PPF 1-0(3), B 19'5; NG, Interview with Rosenman, 10/ 6/43, AHS, Ma 1-93, Rosenman; WP, 10/6/43, 13; NYT, 10/7/43, 9.

42 Ans, 11/1/43, 7-10; JMJ, 10/7/43, 2, 10/8/43, 3, 4; Watson to Gray, 10/5/ 43, FDR, OF 76C; William Hassett, Off the Record with FDR (19'58), 209. For Jewish opposition to the pilgrimage, see a bitter attack in Bitzaron (in Hebrew), 10/43, 67-9, and negative reactions in Am Hebrew, 11/26/43, 9, and Op, 11/ 43, 4.

43 Jabotinsky to Altman, 10/12/43, PSC 1/10.

44 Wn newspapers for 10/7/43: WP, I & B1; Star, 6; WTH, 3; Daily News, 22. In NYC: NYT, 10/7/43, 14; NYP, 10/ 6/43, 5; NYHT and PM had nothing. Time, 10/18/43, 21.

45 Thomas to SS, 10/1/43, Long to Thomas, 10/27/43, SD, R/4521; Current Biography 1942 (1942), 830.

46 Long to Thomas, 10/27/43, SD, RI 4521.

47 CR, v 89, 8125 .

48 Hilberg, 362-3; J Comment, 10/15/ 43.

49 NYT, 10/21/43, 18, 10/26/43, 18, 11/1/43, 5; NY Sun, 10/19/43, 19; WP, 10/28/43; NR, 12/20/43, 866.

50 PC/FDR, 11/5/43, 196-7; FR 1943, v 1, 513-781; Hull, Memoirs, 1252- 1318; NYT, 11/2/43, 1, 14.

51 NYT, 11/19/43, 4.

52 Eg, NYT, 11/5/43, 14; NYHT, 11/ 7/43, II, 2; WP, 11/8/43, 9; Chicago Times, 11/22/43, 20.

53 NYT, 11/10/43, 19; RR, 16.

54 Stettinius to Long, 11/11/43, SD, R/4843.

55 NG, Interview with Rosenman, 10/ 6/43, AHS, Ma 1-93, Rosenman; Kook- Wyman interview, 4/14/73; ERS to The Secretary, 11/17/43, SD, R/4796.

56 Stettinius to Long, 11/11/43, SD, R/4843; ERS to The Secretary, 11/17/ 43, SD, R/4796; FR 1943, v I, 222-3, 238; Winant to SS, 12/24/43, SD, R/ 4900; Winant to SS, 1/10/44, SD, R/ 4978.

CHAPTER 9. THE ZIONISTS

1 CW, 4/30/43, 17; Wyman, 37.

2 Alling to Reams, 4/14/43, W 17, Pal; Howard Sachar, The Course of Modern Jewish History (1958), 392, 460.

3 Esco Fndn for Palestine, Palestine: A Study of Jewish, Arab, and British Policies (1947), II, 943-8; AJYB, v 43, 332- 3; CJR, 9/39, 100, 6/42, 316; WLB, 4/ 62, 33; Rpt on S.S. Darien, 2/11/42, JM, P35; Bauer, From Diplomacy, 117; Wasserstein, 74, 77; AECZA, Memo on Sinking of Ref Ship, 3/42, RW 1/14; Institute of J Affairs, Institute Anniversary Volume (1962), 143.

4 FR 1944, v I, 1012; MD 763/109; CJR, 6/43, 29'5; Esco Fndn, Palestine, II, 9'52; AME 32; Dobkin speech, attached to AME 15; NYT, 2/14/42, II, 11/19/ 42, 3, 11/11/43, 4.

5 Dobkin speech, attached to AME 15; Wasserstein, 49-52, 147.

6 CJR, 4/42, 199, 6/42, 316; JDC, Aiding Jews Overseas (1942 annual rpt), 10-11; NYT, 2/25/42, 7, 2/28/42, 2; Wasserstein, 143-53. A second passenger survived because she was in an Istanbul hospital when the tragedy occurred (Wasserstein, 156).

7 J Week, 9/10/82, 12; G. I. Vaneev, Chernomortsy v Velikoi Otechestvennoi voine (1978), 299.

8 NYT, 3/11/42, 7, 3/13/42, 2, 18, 3/ 21/42, 16; JF, 4/42, 7; ER to Welles, 3/ 9/42, ER 853/70; WLB, 4/62, 33; CW, 3/6/42, 2.

9 Time and Tide, 3/14/42, 211; CW, 3/6/42, 2; Foreign Office, Sinking of M/S Struma, 3/14/42, MT. 392

10 Winterton to Taylor, 5/28/42, MT; Wasserstein, 52-7, 60-1, 78, 145, 148- 50, 156-60; Alling to Reams, 4/14/43, W 17, Pal.

11 Wasserstein, 162; FR 1943, v 1, 350.

12 Even the adamantly anti-Zionist American Council for Judaism opposed the White Paper (NYT, 1/12/44, 15).

13 INN, 175, 203; Halperin, 148, 220- I, 381-3; Goldmann, 221-2; Transactions 45th Annual Convention ZOA, 10/ 42, 479-504, ZAL; Silver, 41, 48, 63-4; AJYB, v 45, 207.

14 Goldmann, 221-2; Halperin, 210, 220-2, 381-2; Emanuel Neumann, In The Arena (1976), 168-9, 213; AJYB, v 45, 207; NP, 5/15/42, 6.

15 AJYB, v 45, 207; Halperin, 210, 220-2.

16 Wise to Richards, 12/10/41, SW, AJCg; Reconstructionist, 5/29/42, 4-5; Neumann, Arena, 190, 213; Halperin, 147-9, 223, 382-3; INN, 148, 175, 203, 383; Goldmann, 222; NJM, 10/43, 42; GCM, 1/12/43.

17 INN, 175, 203, 383; Halperin, 148, 383; Goldmann, 222; Kp I, 15-6, 319, 325, 332-3; GCM, 1/12/43.

18 Kp I, 15-6, 41, 319; Halperin, 130- 2, 226; AJYB, v 45, 213; Proskauer to Gerstenfeld, 3/25/43, AJC, JEC; CBA 2.

19 Kp I, 325, 332-3.

20 Ibid, 47-8; RYP, 6/11/43, 6/25/43, 7/1/43, 7/9-22/43, 8/27/43; CBA 3-5, 12; LJ, 10/43, 1; NP, 9/10/43, 17; G~M, 4/27/43, 5/6/43; JO, 6/43, 12.

21 Kp I, 44-7, 334-44; Halperin, 152, 228-32, 383; Heller to Wise, 1/28/43, SW, VS Govt, Anti-Zm; NP, 5/21/43, 6/11/43, 7/16/43, 8/20/43; Hadassah Handbook on AJCf (nd), ZAL, AZEC unsorted papers; JO, 6/43, 7; JF, 6/43, 5, 29, 7/43, 3; INN, 249, 303.

22 RYP, 7/8/43, 7/9-22/43, 8/27/43; CBA 3, 8, 10; AI Rpts, 4th, 7, 8, & 5th, 9; AJCf, Stmt of Orgzn of Cf and Summary of Resolutions Adopted at 1st Session [1944], 10.

23 AI Rpt, 4th, 7; GCM, 4/27/43; RYP, 7/9-22/43, 8/27/43; Jt Mtg Exec Corns AJCg & WJC, 7/8/43, AJHS, 1- 77, B 6; CM, Exec Com, 7/14-15/43, 8/ 12/43, 10/17/43; INN, 248-50; NP, 8/ 20/43, 2.

24 NYT, 8/30/43, 6; Halperin, 233-4, 237-8, 384; INN, 310-4; Neumann, Arena, 190-2; RYP, 9/24/43.

25 Kp I, 57-8, 67-76, 87-98; NJM, 10/43, 44, 78-80; Op, 10/43, 8-11; INN, 315; Halperin, 233-4; CfR 3.

26 Silver, 13-4; Neumann, Arena, 191; Halperin, 234-6; INN, 316-8; NP, 9/ 10/43, 2.

27 AJH, 3/81, 311-21; Melvin Urofsky, "Rifts in the Movement, " in Urofsky (ed), Essays in Am Zionism: The Herd Year Book (1978), v 8, 196. Silver was associated with the JEC, but he had attended only one of its meetings and had not taken part in its rescue activities (Braunstein to Silver, 3/23/43, AHS, Ma 1-81; mins of the several JEC mtgs, in AJC files).

28 Silver, 14-21.

29 Kp I, 131-4, 139-75, 356; Halperin, 239-40; INN, 319-20. Goldman's remarks: Mins of Pal Com, AJCf Sessions held Aug 31-Sep I, 1943, 73- 7, ZAL, as cited by Aaron Berman in AJH, 3/81, 327.

30 Kp I, 139-77, 180, 279-80; Stmt of AJCf on the Withdrawal of AJC, 11/7/ 43, 13; NYT, 9/2/43, 1; CfR 4; NP, 9/ 10/43, 19.

31 Kp 1, 203-6; NYT, 9/3/43, 13; CW, 9/24/43, 6.

32 Rescue earn, esp pp 80-93, AJHS, 1-67, B 3.

33 Ibid, 148-9, 239-40.

34 Kp I, 61, 125-9, 220-1, 370-1; CJR, 10/43, 503.

35 NP, 9/24/43, 6.

36 RYP, 9/3/43; NP, 9/10/43, 17; Forward, 9/4/43, 6; Day, 9/4/43, I, 9/5/43, 1; JMJ, 9/9/43, 4.

37 AJYB, v 46, 583-7; NYT, 10/25/ 43, 17; cm 10; Admin Com Mtg, 6/23/ 44, pp 158-9, AJHS, 1-77, B 3; Pat to AJCf, 1/12/44, AHS, Ma II-3; Pr Rel, 1/ 10/45, AJHS, 1-67, B 6; CBA 41, 46; CM, Admin Com, 8/24/44. Besides B'nai B'rith, the Union of Am Hebrew Congregations, Central Cf of Am Rabbis, Natl Fedn of Temple Sisterhoods, and Natl Council of Jewish Women did not endorse the Palestine statement (Halperin, 242-4; L], 2/44, 37).

38 Summary of Position of AJC [11/8/ 43], AJC, PEC; Naomi Cohen, Not Free to Desist: The American Jewish Committee, 1906-1966 (1972), 240-9, 536, 552, 555.

39 AI Rpt, 5th, 10.

40 Rauch to Wise, 2/2/44, SW, US Govt, Anti-Zm; How Do Communities Respond to Request for Funds? 3/20/44, AJHS, 1-67, B 6; LJ, 7/44, 28-9. The 3 were Joseph Rauch, Julius Gordon, Maurice Eisendrath.

41 Mins of AECZA Ex Com, 9/20/43, Mins of AECZA, 9/20/43, AHS, 4-2 AZEC; Mins of Exec Com, 10/17/43, AJHS, 1-67, B 6; CM, Int Com, 10/17/ 43; AM 2.

42 Kp II, 42-52; CM, Exec Com, 1/ 25/45, 3/1/45; GCM, 10/4/44; Rescue Com, pp 33, 90-4, AJHS, 1-67, B 4; Digest of Mins of Int Com, 3/21/44, 5/12/ 44, AJHS, 1-67, B 6; CM generally, eg, Pal Com, 3/20/45.

43 Mtg of JEC, 8/10/43, AJC, JEC; CW, 8/20/43, 23.

44 Exec Com Mins, 10/31/43, 11/6/ 43, Int Com Mtg, 11/7/43, AJHS, I-67, B 6; AM 2; NYT, 12/31/43, 10.

45 Exec Com Mtg, 11/6/43, Digest of Mins of Int Com, 11/23/43, 12/15/43, AJHS, 1-67, B 6. See ch 11 for more about developments mentioned in this and the preceding paragraph.

46 Mtg of JEC, 5/24/43, JEC to Welles, 6/1/43, AJC, JEC; Welles to Wise, 6/24/43, WJC, 264/7; Pat to Shultz, 6/ 24/43, AJC, PEC; Mtg of JEC, 7/15/43, 8/10/43, 9/24/43, AJC, JEC; AI Rpts, 4th, 5 & 5th, I; INN, 250.

47 Mtg of JEC, 3/15/43, 7/15/43, 91 24/43, AJC, JEC; Pat to Shultz, 6/24/ 43, AJC, PEC.

48 Shultz to Wise, 3/29/43, SW, AJCg, L Shultz.

49 Mtg of JEC, 9/24/43, 11/5/43, 3/ 15/43, 3/22/43, AJC, JEC; AI Rpt, 5th, 10; Braunstem to Silver, 3/23/43, AHS, Ma 1-81; Isaac Lewin, Churban Europa (1948), 78-83; HaPardes, 12/43, 31-2. In favor of Wise's motion: AJCg, AZEC, B'nai B'rith, Synagogue Council of Am, Hadassah. Against it: AJC, AI, JLC, UOR. (Of these, only JLC affiliated with the Rescue Commission.) Nowhere in the many listings of the organizations represented on the JEC is Hadassah ever mentioned (eg, Kp II, 215; CfR 7; CW, 11/12/43, 20).

50 Cf Rpt, 16; Memo on Functions of AJCf, attached to CM, Digest of Mins of Int Com, 12/15/43; Kp II, 209-20; CM, Exec Com, 1/18/45, 1/25/45; Digest of Mins of Int Com, 3/21/44, AJHS, 1-67, B 6; Rescue Com, pp 33, 90-4, AJHS, 1-67, B 4; Hyman to Warburg, 4/6/44, JDC, Rpts; NYT, 4/20/44, 10, 8/1/44, 17; CBA 21.

51 Cf Rpt, 40-1; Wise, Monsky, Goldstein to Hyman, 11/16/43, Baerwald to Wise, Monsky, Goldstein, 12/7/43, W 2, AJCf; Hyman to Warburg, 4/6/44, JDC, Rpts.

52 INN, 340-4; Digest of Mins of Int Com, 12/15/43, 5/12/44, AJHS, 1-67, B 6; AME 2; Mins of AECZA (#63), 9/ 20/43, AHS, 4-2, AZEC; Mins of AZEC (#1), 10/18/43, AHS, AZEC. Mins Book. Further proof of AZEC's relationship to the Palestine Commission is in Cf Rpt, 67-8; CM, Int Com, 6/29/44, Admin Com, 7/6/44, 7/27/44, 8/10/44 .

53 Pat to AJCf, 1/12/44, AHS, Ma II- 3, AJCf; CM, Exec Com, 10/17/43.

54 Halperin, 246; Western Political Qtrly; 3/72, 109-24.

55 Halperin, 268-70; Cf Rpt, 66; Western Political Qtrly. 3/72, 109-24; AZEC, A Rpt of Activities 1940-46 (nd); Annual Rpt to ZOA, 47th Annual Convention (10/44), 59-63; ACB 4; AJHQ, 9170, 87; Urofsky, "Rifts in the Movement, " 203; AM 2; AME 32; Mins of AECZA, 9/20/43, AHS, 4-2 AZEC.

56 Halperin, 270-1, 391; Urofsky, "Rifts in the Movement, " 201.

57 Halperin, 260, 272-7, 392; Am Zionist, 11/67, 18; Cf Rpt, 66.

58 Halperin, 183-5, 260, 272-7, 392; Am Zionist, 11/67, 18; AJHQ, 9170, 98-9.

59 Halperin, 182-4; AJHQ, 9170, 92- 4; Neumann, Arena, 150-5; NP, 3/31/ 44, 339-40; Carl Hermann Voss, "The Am Christian Pal Com, " in Urofsky (ed), Essays in Am Zionism: The Herzl Year Book (1978), v 8. APC and CCP merged in 1946 to become Am Christian Pal Com.

60 NYT, 10/12/43, 20, 11/2/43, 19; AJYB, v 46, 172; CW, 10/29/43, 2, 11/ 5/43, 2.

61 NYT, 11/11/43, 4. The British decision had been made in July 1943 (Wasserstein, 339).

62 Silver, 55-6; Ben Halpern (intro), The Jewish National Home in Palestine (1944, 1970), xxiii-iv, 1-2, 505; NYT, 1/28, 10, 2/2, 25, 2/9, 14, 2/10, 16, 2/ 16, 10, 2/17, II, 3/5, I, 3/6, I, 3/18, 4 (all in 1944); Marks to Luxford, 2/12/ 44, W 6, Cong Records; Stimson to Connally, 217/44, Legis 16433; FR 1944, v 5, 560-657; FR 1945, v 8, 6680; Hull, Memoirs, 1535; MD 708/44, 709/16-8; Informal Mtg at Statler Hotel, Wn, 3/9/ 44, SW, Zm; AM 8; HSD, v 46, 52-6.

63 AME 18, 19, 20; AM 6, 7; Stone to Silver, 2/22/44, AHS, Ma II-21, Bloom; MD 709/18; 16-page transcript entitled "H. Res. 418" [12/5/44], P II, Legis 16433; NR, 3/20/44, 366; NYP, 3/8/44, 23, 3/20/44, 19; Pehle to Stettinius, 3/ 20/44, W 17, Pal.

64 MPD, v 5, 1339; MD 709/18; Pehle to Stettinius, 3/20/44, W 17, Pal.

65 NYT, 3/10, 1, 6/28, 14, 7/21, 12, 10/13, 15, 10/16, 19, 11/30, 5 (all in 1944); AJYB, v 46, 174; Informal Mtg at Statler Hotel, Wn, 3/9/44, SW, Zm; Silver to Wise, 6/28/44, Wise to Silver, 6/ 29/44, SW, Corresp, Silver; Wise to Frankfurter, 7/26/44, 10/16/44, SW, Corresp, Frankfurter; J. Joseph Huthmacher, Senator Robert F. Wagner (1968), 306; FR 1944, v 5, 616; Stimson to Taft, 10/10/44, RT 819.

66 Wise to Stettinius, 11/16/44, Stettinius to FDR, 11/17/44, FDR to Stettinius, 11/20/44, Stettinius to FDR, 12/8/ 44, FDR, File Memo, 12/9/44, FDR, OF 700; NYT, 12/12/44, 16, 2/21/45, 8, 3/ 17/45, 13, 8/28/45, 15, 10/19/45, 4; JTA, 12/12/44, I; FR 1944, v 5, 640-6; Memo of Cf of Silver and Sack with Connally, 11/27/44, AHS, Ma 11-30, Connally; AM 16; Wise to Silver, 11/15/ 44, Silver to Wise, 11/22/44, SW, Corresp, Silver; Wise to Stettinius, 12/1/44, SW, US Govt, SD; Neumann, Arena, 199-202.

67 Neumann, Arena, 202-3; NYT, 12/ 26/44, 19; AME 33; AM 17; Wise to Frankfurter, 10/28/44, SW, Corresp, Frankfurter; Goldstein, Stmt Relating to Pal Resolution (nd), Stmt submitted by Silver to JTA, 12/29/44, SW, Zm; Mins of ZOA Exec Com, 12/19/44, Mins of Special Mtg of ZOA Exec Com, 12/26/ 44, SW, ZOA Exec Com; Voss, 267; NP, 1/19/45, 82-3.

68 AZEC, A Rpt of Activities 1940-46 (nd), 14-5; Urofsky, "Rifts in the Movement, " 206-9; NYT, 6/26/45, 10.

69 NYT, 11/3D, 10, 12/2, IV, 3, 12/13, 10, 12/18, 1, 12/20, 12 (all in 1945); CR, v 91, 12138; IR, 12/31/45, 323-4; Truman to Wagner, 12/10/45, RW 2/32; Huthmacher, Wagner, 331-2; J Social Studies, 1173, 42-72.

70 Neumann, Arena, 212-3; Am Zionist, 11/67, 20.

71 For several sources on this question, see Reviews in Am History, 3/81, 138- 43. Also see sources in preceding note.

72 Digest of Mins of Int Com, 11/23/ 43, AJHS, 1-67, B 6; AME 22; CJR, 8/ 44, 430-1; GCM, 6/1/44; Day, 6/28/44, 1; JO, 9/44, 8; LJ, 7/44, 26-32, 9/44, 56; CBA 14-17, 19-21, 27-8, 30; Admin Com Mtg, 6/23/44, p 156, AJHS, 1-77, B 3.

73 NJM, 7/44, 360-1, 1/45, 150-1, 167; INN, 347-53; NYT, 12/4/44, 15, 12/6/44, 6; Mins of Int Com, 2/25/45, . AHS, 4-2-23, AZEC-AJCf; Pr Rel, 11/ 17/48, AJHS, 1-67, B 6.

74 Halperin, 249-50; Cantril, 385; Voss-Wyman interview, 2/11/78.

75 Commentary, 3/62, 264; Reconstructionist, 6/23/44, 32; Selig Adler, "Am Jewry and That Explosive Statehood Question, " in B. Korn (ed), A Bicentennial Festschrift for Jacob R. Marcus (1976), 12, 16-7. Adler's essay also relates to several other aspects of the present chapter.

76 CW, 9/24/43, 3; Neumann-Wyman interview, 11/20/78; Neumann, Arena, 186-7; Voss-Wyman interview, 2/11/ 78.

77 Voss, 249-50; Transactions 45th Annual Convention ZOA, 10/42, 479- 504, ZAL; Noah Lucas, Modern History of Israel (1975), 187; Silver, 41, 48, 63- 4.

78 AECZA Mins, 5/3/43, ZAL.

79 Yalkut Moreshet, 6/71, 71-7, 95.

80 Silver, 14-21, 48-52. This view is also seen in AM 9.

81 A few examples of Zionist support for opening other countries (besides Palestine) to Jews; Op, 1/44, 14-5, 10/44, 14; JF, 8/42, 13-16, 11/43, 3-4, 9, 12/ 43, 9-10; CW, 9/24/43, 4; Wise to Goldmann, Kubowitzki, et al, 4/16/43, WJC, U185/2; J Affairs, 11/41; J Agency to WRB, 2/20/44, W 14, J Agency for Pal; Bulletin (Am Christian Pal Com), 10/46, 2-3, 4/48, 2; MD 720/293; Wise to Pehle, 8/13/44, TH 5.
 
CHAPTER 10. THE CABINET WAR

1 Firsthand accounts appear in Morgenthau's article in Collier's, 11/1/47, and in DuBois, Devil's Chemists, ch 19.

2 See, eg, John Blum, Roosevelt and Morgenthau (1970), 88, 98-100, 222-3, 236, 384-5, 485-6, 564-5; Blum, From the Morgenthau Diaries, v 3 (1967), 202- 6; Pol Sci Qtrly, 6/71, 234, 242-9, 258; Hull, Memoirs, 1379-80, 1388.

3 Ch 5 above.

4 MD 693/220; Wise to Welles, 3/31/ 43, SW to Atherton, 4/5/43, Hull to Bern, 4/10/43, SD 862.4016/2266 & 2266A; Harrison to SS, 4/20/43, Hull to Bern, 4/27/43, SD 862.4016/2269 & 2268; MD 688Il/99-100, 142.

5 Harrison to SS, 4/20/43, Hull to Bern, 5/25/43, SD 862.4016/2269; Wise to Welles, 5/3/43, SD, R/3821; Harrison to SS, 6/14/43, 7/3/43, 7/10/43, SD 862.4016/2274, 2276, & 2278; Meltzer, Convsn with Goldmann, 5/12/43, SD, R/3827; Riegner-Jarvik interview, 10/4/ 78.

6 Convsn Welles, Wise, & Goldmann, 4/30/43, AZEC unsorted papers, ZAL; Wise to Welles, 5/3/43, SD, R/3821; Meltzer, Proposed Arrangement for Relief, 7/30/43, SD, R/4 211; Reams to Long, 5/17/43, SD 862.4016/2269; Reams, draft teleg for Bern, 5/18/43, SD, R/2269; Meltzer, Convsn with Goldmann, 7/14/43, SD, R/4 063; MD 646/68, 6881/15; Harrison to SS, 6/22/ 43, SD 862.4016/2275; Reams, Memo of 7/12/43, sections on France and Rumania, BLP, B 203, Ref Mvt and Natl Groups; Relief and Evaon Projects, 1/ 27/44, P 24, W 50, SD.

7 MD 646/68, 649/218, 6881/11, 15- 6, 693/220; W ] Hull to Meltzer & Reams, 7/19/43, SD, R/4 102; Reams to Long, 5/17/43, SD 862.4016/2269.

8 MD 688II/69.

9 Wise to FDR, 7/23/43, FDR to Wise, 8/14/43, FOR, OF 76C; Wise, 277-8; MD  6881/5-7.

10 MD  6881/10, 17, 198-201; Meltzer, Proposed Arrangement for Relief, 7/30/ 43, Brandt to Feis, 8/3/43, SD, R/4211 & 4212; JHK to FE, Eu, et al, 9/14/43, SD, R/4502; Meltzer to Feis, Acheson, 8/2/43, SD 862.4016/2286.

11 MD 68811201.

12 MD 6881/85, 88-9, 688II/66-75.

13 MD 6881185-6, 693/227; Long, Convsn with Pehle, 10/28/43, SD 862.4016/2292; BLD, 277.

14 Reams to Long & Matthews, 10/25/ 43, Stettinius to Bern, 10/26/43, Long, Memo, 10/26/43, SD 862.4016/2292; MD 68811170-2.

15 Reinstein, Telephone convsn with Palin, 11/12/43, SD 862.4016/2292; Relief and Evacn Projects, 1/27/44, p 24, W 50, SD; MD 68811109-10.

16 MD  688I/111-8, 134-7, 140.

17 MD  688I/166, 688II/47A, 48-9; Collier's, 11/1/47, 62. For this episode through British documents, see Wasserstein, 246-9.

18 Wasserstein, 248.

19 MD 688II/61, 82-91, 106-30.

20 MD 693/200-1.

21 MD 688II/85.

22 Handler to Cox, 6/18/43, OC; MD 642/210-3, 643/278-80, 688II/117-20; Cox to Stettinius, 10/13/43, 11/27/43, Advisor on Political Relations to Stettinius, 10/18/43, SD, R/5128 & 5129.

23 MD 688II/63-75, 82-90.

24 MD 688II/97, 148-51, 186.

25 MD 688II/151, 163, 224, 694/196- 7; Hull to Bern, 12/18/43, SD 862.4016/ 2295; Relief and Evacn Projects, 1/27/ 44, P 24, W 50, SD.

26 MD 688II/88, 122, 148, 163.

27 MD 693/81, 101; Collier's, 11/1/47, 65.

28 MD 688II/156, 164.

29 MD 688II/156-7, 164-5.

30 MD 688II/63-5, 88-90, 153-4, 163, 166-9, 173, 176, 693/221, 694/196- 7.

31 MD 688II/99-100; DuBois, Devil's Chemists, 187.

32 MD 688II/99-100, 213. This effort to block the information flow was first made public by William Langer in a speech (12/19/44) on the Senate floor (CR, v 90, 9695).

33 MD 688II/154-5, 173-4, 186-8, 200, 206-8, 694/75.

34 MD 688II/119, 136-8, 167-8, 191- 2, 249-51, 694/88, 97-8.

35 MD 688II/240-1, 692/25, 287-92, 693/82-91, 188-229.

36 MD 693/188-9, 196, 212-29, 694/ 80-110.

37 MD 693/214; Hyman to Long, 10/ 6/43, SD, R/4 556; Travers, Memo for File, 11/5/43, SD, R/4 780; Hodel, Memo for Files, 12/8/43, Leavitt to Pehle, 12/31/43, cable to Bern, u/c Pehle to Long, 1/3/44, W 2, AJJDC (Children from France); MD  689/202, 692/18; Hull to Bern, 1/5/44, SD 862.4016/2295.

38 Long, Convsn with Goldmann, 9/ 16/43, SD, R/4 542.

39 MD 693/201, 228; FR 1943, v 1, 374-6, 379, 386-7.

40 MD 693/204, 232-6; Brenner to Luxford, 1/28/44, W 27, WRB 1; RR, 202-3; Winant to SS, 1/12/45, W 25, Situation in Germany; Hartwig, Remnant Groups, 2/23/44, W 29, WJC 1.

41b FR 1943, v 1, 259-60; MD  688II/117, 123.

42 MD 692/15-27; Reams, Memo of 7/12/43, BLP, B 203, Ref Mvt & Natl Groups. Eg, see Morse, 65-7, and "Children from Occupied Areas into Sweden" (nd), W 32, Sweden, 2B.

43 Relief and Evacn Projects, 1/27/44, W 50, SD; MD  701/242-3.

44 Reams to Stettinius, 10/8/43, BLP, B 202, Refs.

45 MD 688II/122, 701/243; NYT, 8/ 4/43, 1, 8/6/43, 14; Joseph Tenenbaum, Peace for the Jews (1945), 64.

46 Advisor on Political Relations to Stettinius, 10/18/43, SD, R/5129.

47 Wyman, 146; Israel, 225-6; BLD, 245-6; Flournoy to Travers & Holmes, 3/30/45, Travers to Foster, 4/6/45, SD 150.01 Bills/3-3045; JPC 3246.

48 Chapman to Ickes, 1/6/45, HI, SD 1945-46; MD 6881/201.

49 DuBois-Jarvik interview, 10/23/78; Mohler to Mulholland, 9/13/34, BI 40, Jews-Jewish, J-1; MD 718/173, 222; Wyman, 157, 163-6.

50 MD 688II/122. Hull's lengthy Memoirs devote 2 pages to refugees and rescue (1538-40). BG, 5/3/43, 1, 11; CJR, 8/43, 394; MD 694/192; Dorothy Detzer, Appointment on the Hill (1948), 230; Denny-Wyman interview, 5/11/65; JPC 3057; Stettinius to SS, 1/8/44, BLP, B 202, Refs.

51 Israel, 308-9; MD 688IV138, 694/ 67-8; RR, 181.

52 Israel, 216-7, 231-2, 243, 260, 366; BLD, 256, 262, 276-9, 283, 383, 501- 5, 522.

53 Eg, BLD, 385, 392; Israel, 269.

54 NYP, 12/20/43, 3; SFE, 12/22/43, 12.
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CHAPTER 11. THE RESCUE RESOLUTION

1 RR, 16.

2 Harper to Meyer, 10/6/44, PSC 1/ 14; WP, 11/24/43, 12; NYT, 11/10/43, 19, 12/21/43, 10.

3 RR, 15, 211; Baldwin to Wn EC, 1/ 27/44, JI, EC #48.

4 Eg, APRR, 5-20; NYT, 11/5/42, 1, 12/10/42, 23, 11/16/43, 6, 12/17/43, 31; Ans, 1/44, 9, 12-13; NYP, eg, 11/10, 4, 11/23, 2, 8, 12/1, 8, 12/11, 1, 3, 12/13, 23 (all in 1943); Krupp to Bloom, with petition, 11/22/43, Legis 16431; Buckley to Bloom, 11/19/43, Zaritzky to Bloom, 11/20/43, Smith to Bloom [11/ 20/43], Legis 16432; NY Daily Mirror, 1/28/44, 21; JMJ, 11/24/43, 1, 11/25/ 43, 3; McIntyre to SS, 11/20/43, FDR, OF 76C.

5 Hearings were held Nov 19, 23, 24, 26, and Dec 2. NYHT, 11/20/43, 5; NYP, 11/19/43, 5, 11/24/43, 4; RR, 17, 35-42, 73-87, 93-4, 149, 212-6; Bloom to McCosker, 11/20/43, Moore to Bloom, 11/22/43, Bloom to Moore, Hale & McClintock, 11/23/43, Legis 16432.

6 RR, 35-42, 95-107, 123-5, 133; JTA, 11/24/43, 4.

7 RR, 30-2, 57-8, 66-7, 88-91, 100, 106, 110-1, 136, 216, 236.

8 RR, 30, 88, 132-3; Forward, 11/26/ 43, 2.

9 NYP, 11/24/43, 4, 12/11/43, 3; Bloom to Thackrey, 11/24/43, Legis 16432; RR, 156-60.

10 RR, 161-210, 239 (esp 161-84, 201-6).

11 RR, 182-5, 188-91, 196-201, 204- 5.

12 RR, 184, 196, 204-8; JTA, 12/13/ 43, 2.

13 FR 1943, v 1, 170, 225-7; RR, 184, 206-8.

14 Convsn Goldmann & Shulman with Bloom, 12/8/43, AHS, Ma 1-80, Bloom; JTA, 12/13/43, 2, 12/21/43, 1; NYT, 12/11/43, 1; RR, 199-201; BLD, 381- 3; FR 1943, v 1, 226-7; MD 692/22, 694/97.

15 RR, 163, 166, 171, 191; Wyman, 217-9, 258; NYT, 12/27/43, 11, 12/31/ 43, 14; Cf Rpt, 43; CW, 12/24/43, 16- 7.

16 JTA, 12/22/43, 1; FR 1943, v 1, 241, 244; CJR, 2/44, 63; RR, 184.

17 RR, 169; Remarks on Testimony of Long, u/c Gottschalk to Slawson, 12/ 21/43, AJC, Imgn Series, Refs-Rescue of; Proskauer to Long, 12/28/43, AJC, PEC; Cf Rpt, 44; CW, 12/24/43, 16.

18 NYT, 12/11/43, 1; CT, 12/11/43, 8.

19 NYP, 12/11/43, 1, 3, 12/13/43, 23; NYWT, 12/13/43, 21; PM, 12/14/43, PSC 4/14; PM, 12/20/43, 1, 3; Nation, 12/25/43, 748; NR, 12/20/43, 867-8; NYT, 12/27/43, 11, 12/31/43, 14; CW, 12/24/43, 14-7.

20 JPC 713, 718-9; Proskauer to Long, 12/28/43, Long to Proskauer [1/ 14/44], AJC, PEC; JR, 2/28/44, 64-79.

21 IR, 2/28/44, 64-79.

22 JTA, 12/19/43, 3; NYT, 12/12/43, 8; SFE, 12/21/43, 6; CR, v 90, 662-6.

23 BLD, 386; Berle to Stettinius, 1/20/ 44, SD, R/5193; MD 694/191-2; Israel, xxiv.

24 The EC's campaign for the Rescue Resolution was supported only by the UOR and AI (E. Silver to Bloom, 11/25/ 43, Legis 16432; UOR to Gillette et al, 11/14/43, VH, B 24). Part of the Zionist reaction to the resolution was discussed in ch 9. Digest of Mins of Int Com, 11/ 23/43, 12/15/43, AJHS, 1-67, B 6; CfR 6.

25 RR, 217-47. Wise implied that the AJCf would not itself have proposed legislation for a rescue commission (RR, 240-1). To understand Wise's testimony, one should read it in conjunction with an AJCf press release of 12/2/43 (Legis 16432), which summarized a written statement Wise distributed to the House committee (RR, 220). Much of Wise's testimony dealt with Jewish rights in Palestine. He also advocated (but said almost nothing about) rescue camps in neutral and United Nations countries, pressure on Axis satellites to release Jews, an intergovernmental rescue agency, food shipments through the blockade, and permission to send funds to Europe (RR, 220-32, 237).

26 RR, 220-1.

27 RR, 235, 238; NYT, 11/20/43, 6; NYHT, 11/20/43, 5; Kuppinger to Long, 11/22/43, SD, R/5029; Merlin- Wyman interview, 9/6/73; Jabotinsky to Kitty & Ted, 1/11144, JI, EC#70.

28 Digest of Mins of Int Com, 11123/ 43, 12/15/43, Exec Com Mins, 11/6/43, AJHS, 1-67, B 6.

29 YSH, 9, 12; Ans, 2/12/44, 20, 6/15/ 44, 19, 21; APRR, 33, 42; LJ, 1/44, 53; AJCf Pr Rel, 12/29/43, SD, R/5025; Lewin, Churban Europa, 81-3. Asked in 1979 whether the Zionist leadership had tried to obstruct the resolution, Dean A1fange replied, "No doubt about it" (Alfange-Wyman interview, 3/22/79).

30 Interview Gillette, Feuer, & Sack [1/17/44], AHS, Ma 11-35, Gillette; Gillette to Levinthal, 10/30/45, PSC 1/21; Address of Sen Guy M. Gillette, 12/20/ 44, The Work Is Still Ahead [12/44], PSC 6/27; Oakland Tribune, 1/3/44, u/ c Keane to McCrillis, 1/27/44, HI, Associations.

31 Interview Gillette, Feuer, & Sack [1/17/44], AHS, Ma 11-35, Gillette; MD 693/234-6; Gillette to Selden, 8/1/44, PSC 1112; RR, 218-21.

32 Exec Com Mins, 10/31/43, 11/6/ 43, Digest of Mins of Int Com, 11/23/ 43, 12/15/43, AJHS, 1-67, B 6; AJCf Pr Rel, 12/29/43, SD, R/5025; CfR 6; CW, 12/10/43, 3. A few months later, hostility reached a point where Wise described Bergson as "equally as great an enemy of the Jews as Hitler" (Wilson, Convsn with Goldmann et al. 5/19/44, SD 867N.01/2347).

33 Day, 12/6/43, 6, 12/10/43, 6; JMJ, 12/5/43, 4; Daily J Courier (Chicago), 12/7/43, 4; APRR, 21-34; Celler, Briel in Support of Baldwin-Rogers Resolution, 12/6/43, Legis 16432; NYT, 12/22/43, 3. For the advertisements, see, eg, NYT, 11/24/43, 13, 12/17/43, 31; NYP, 1/13/ 44, 20-1; JMJ, 1/11/44, 10.

34 IR, 1/10/44, 14; MD 693/198; Gillette to Thomas, 1124/44, ET, B 80, C-5 Congress; Kook-Wyman interview, 1/ 10174; NYT, 12/21/43, 10; JTA, 12/22/ 43, 2; Sen Rpt No 625 (78 Cong, 1st ses), 12/20/43.

35 SFE, 12/22/43, 12; NYP, 12/20/43, 3; Convsn Goldmann & Shulman with Bloom, 12/8/43, AHS, Ma 1-80, Bloom; MD 693/198

36 Numerous letters in "Jewish File" in Legis 16431; RR, 222; Flegelman to Bloom, 1/25/44, Engelman to Bloom, 2/ 1/44, Bloom to Jacoby, 2/3/44, Legis 16433; J Times (Baltimore), 12/24/43, 14; Celler to Bloom, 1/14/44, Bloom to Celler, 1/14/44, Legis 16431.

37 Eg, Bonardelli to Bloom, 3/25/40, Yarmish to Bloom, 2/3/44, SB, B 47, Misc Ltrs & Papers; Steinreich to Bloom, 12/30/43, Kalmanowitz to Bloom, 12/3/43, SB, B 46, Selected Ltrs; de Sola Pool to Bloom, 9/23/42, Goldstein to Bloom, 5/17/42, Bloom to Goldstein, 11/11/43, Halifax to Bloom, 11/26/43, SB, B 45, Selected Ltrs; ] Digest, 7/41, 31; Celler speech, 10/23/75, at J Hist Soc of NY; Celler-Jarvik interview, 10/4/78.

38 MD 693/198, 694/88.

39 AJCf Pr Rel, 12/29/43, SD, R/5025; NYT, 12/31/43, 10; Kenen to Members of Int Com, 5/12/44, AJHS, 1-67, B 6.

40 MD 688II/138, 693/198, 694/88-9.

41 MD 688II/119, 136, 191, 693/198, 694/88, 97-8, 710/194.

42 MD 694/97.

43 Ch 10 above; MD 694/80-110, 190, 193-202; MD 688II/191-2, 250-1. The executive order was prepared by Cox, one of his assistants, Milton Handler, and Ben Cohen, then with the Office of War Mobilization (Handler to Cox, 1/ 14/44 [twice], drafts of exec order, draft memo for Director of Budget [1/15/44], OC).

44 Merlin-DuBois interview, 8/13/81; Commentary, 9/83, 16.

45 MD 694/190-3.

46 NYP, 3/9/44, 36; MD 694/97; Fuchs, Political Behavior, 71-5, 99-107.

47 Detzer, Appointment, 242-3; WP, 1/25/44, 10; Jabotinsky to Kitty & Ted, 1/11/44, JI, EC#70; [Jabotinsky] to Ben Eliezer, 1/11/44, PSC 1/11; NYT, 1/23/44, 11; CJR, 4/44, 177; Ans, 2/12/ 44, 9; CSM, 1/24/44, 1, 6.

48 WP, 1/25/44, 10; CSM, 1/24/44, 6; NYT, 1/27/44, 4; IR, 3/27/44, 126; Weadick to Lawlor, 4/4/44, 4/5/44, BI 98, WRB, W-1; Detzer, Appointment, 242-3; printed EC brochure, cover missing, p 9, PSC 9/69; Gillette to Thomas, 1/24/44, ET, B 80, C-5 Congress; Ans, 2/12/44, 7, 11, 16, 18; CfR 7; NP, 2/4/44, 227, 235; Rescue Com, pp 14-6, 140, AJHS, 1-67, B 4; MD 693/235-6, 694/59-60, 89; RGH, Jr, to Berle, 1/21/44, SD, R/5062

49 Wilson, Convsn with Goldmann et al. 5/19/44, SD 867N.Ol/2347; MD 707/220-1, 710/194, 735/24, 26, 77.

CHAPTER 12: WHEN ARE THE AMERICANS COMING?"

1 Federal Register, 1/26/44, 935.

2 "'Action Taken, " 1/18/44, W 28, WRB3; Stewart to Pehle, 2/8/44, W 50, TD.

3 MD 697/165, 708/43-5, 696/169; HSD, v 46, 34; McCloy's penciled note on Morgenthau to McCloy, 1/28/44, ASW5.

4 MD 694/191-2, 696/168-74, 701/ 167, 702/146, 708/42-3, 711/100; Warren to SS, 5/5/44, SD, R/5499; FR 1945, v 2, 1146-7; Schauffler to Branson, Jessup, et ai, 11/6/44, AF, RS 11.

5 FSR, 6; Stewart to Pehle, 2/25/44, W 52, Admin Matters; Hn to Steinhardt, 4/24/44, LS.

6 MD 695/35, 696/124-5, 146, 183- 219, 697/41, 699/105, 251-2, 700/108; HSD, v 46, 34; CEP Jour, 2/17/44.

7 MD 696/171, 183-92, 225, 697/41, 159, 166; FDR to SS, 1/25/44, Hull 53/ 165; Collier's, 11/1/47, 65.

8 MD 697/13, 16, 30, 40-1, 698/30, 699/105, 251-2, 700/12, 24, 26, 101; PC/FDR, 2/4/44, 21-2.

9 MD 701/174-7.

10 FSR, 62; MD 700/257-8, 722/157, 724/321, 727/214, 728/11.2; Standish to Friedman, 4/5/44, W 30, Reprs; Warren to Pehle, 5/17/44, SD, R/5051; Berle, Convsn with Joy, 5/23/44, SD, R/6245.

11 Hodel, Memo of Cf, 1/19/44, W27, WRB 1; Hodel, Memo for Files, W 7, EC; WH, 443-5; FSR, 11-12.

12 Mtg at Harvard Club, 2/17/44, "Afternoon Session, " 2/26/44, W 9, Free World House; W 4, Com on Special Ref Probs; Biog Sketches of Members of Joy's Com (nd), W 22, Radio (Abrahamson); USC, F: Dr. Joy-Com on Spec Ref Probs; Brundage, Stmt Re USC & WRB, 5/17/44, USC, WRB; Joy to Berle, 5/26/44, SD, R/6246; MD 735/ 82.

13 MD 696/86, 697/53; FR 1944, v 1, 987-9; FSR, 7.

14 MD 709/28-9, 710/194-5, 718/ 224-5, 720/291; Pollak, WRB Staff Cf, 2/23/44, W 27, WRB 1; Pehle to Warren, 4/26/44, W 33, Measures Directed.

15 MD 709/28-9, 722/341; SW[eadick], Memo for Record, 8/15/44, Mohler to Mulholland, 12/7/44, BI 98, WRB, WI; Cumming to Bohlen, Matthews, & Dunn, 5/10/44, SD, R/6422; WH, 428; Hn to Steinhardt, 6/10/44, LS; Wkly Rpt, "since 2/2/44, " W 28; Friedman to Stewart, 2/22/44, W 53, Standish; Ira Hirschmann, speech at Brandeis Univ, 4/17/77. Re War Dept, see ch 15 below.

16 MD 700/227, 709/23, 741/237, 763/109, 814/143-4; Hirschmann, 146- 7; JWP, Memo, 4/24/44, W 30, Reprs; Draft Cable to Winant, 10/31/44, W 30, Clearance of Licensing; FR 1944, v 1, 1097-8; WH, 382-6.

17 MD 694/207, 696/150-6, 709/27, 711/136, 716/178; Pehle to Heller, Rosenwald, & Wise, 4/7/44, W 26, UJA; Montor, Mins of Mtg on WRB, 2/4/44, Mins of Mtg with Pehle, 2/10/44, JDC, WRB.

18 Lesser, Memo, 2/23/44, W 27, WRB 1; Montor, Mins of Mtg on WRB, 2/4/44, Mins of Mtg with Pehle, 2/10/ 44, Montor to Leavitt, 2/14/44, Beck to Leavitt, 2/17/44, translation from Forward, 2/26/44, Hyman to Pehle, 2/28/ 44, Hyman to Resnick, 2/29/44, JDC, WRB; MD 696/176. At one point, Pehle asked the UJA to pledge a set amount for WRB·supervised projects, but pointed out that the WRB could not publicly endorse the UJA, because it had to remain impartial in its relations with the private agencies. No specific UJA pledge was made. (Mins of Mtg with Pehle, 2/10/44, JDC, WRB.)

19 MD 706/131, 716/178; Heller, Rosenwald, & Wise to Pehle, 4/4/44, Pehle to Heller, Rosenwald, & Wise, 4/7/44, W 26, UJA; Hyman to Pehle, 2/28/44, Hyman to Resnick, 2/29/44, Mins of Mtg with WRB, 3/30/44, Draft of ltr to WRB horn UJA, 3/31/44, Montor to Heller, Rosenwald, & Wise, 4/10/44, JDC, WRB.

20 WH, 6-7; FSR, 13-15; MD 699/ 119, 716/178; Coons to Voorsanger, 7/ 10/44, JDC, WRB.

21 Foreign War Relief Operations (House Doc 262), 7/17/45, iii-vi, 1-95.

22 Draft Memo from President to Dir of Budget, 1/14/44, Handler to Cox, 1/ 14/44, with attached draft Memo for Dir of Budget, draft Memo for Dir of Budget [1/15/44], OC.

23 MD 706/22, 170; DuBois, Memo for Files, W 27, WRB 1.

24 WH, 412; FSR, 8, 9; Interview with Emerson, 4/25/44, AJC, Imgn Series, Imgn 1944-40.

25 MD 707/220-4, 708/1-3, 709/16- 18, 711/209-14, 718/172-3, 722/157, 726/33-9, 148-50, 727/214, 728/112, 732/258; FR 1944, v 1, 1037; Pehle to Harriman, 5/19/44, W 34, Hung 2 (last); MPD, v 5, 1338-41.

26 Eg, MD 84811/346-7.

27 Hodel, Memo for Files, 1/28/44, W 53, Hn; Hirschmann, 130; H II, 35.

28 MD 702/175-6, 183, 704/92-6, 760/88; H I, 1-3; Viteles, Excerpt of Rpt on Visit to Turkey, 7/23/44, JDC, G/E, Tur Refs; Barlas, Rpt on Imgn, 12/ 18/43, AHS, File 4-2-19, AZEC; Resnik, Rpt on Activities [3/44], W 41, Tur 5; Hn to Cox, 3/13/44, OC; H II, 30.

29 WH, 17, 32-3; MD 706/164; HI, 2-7; H II, 8, 12, 17-8, Exh L; Russell to Warren, 12/27/44, SD, R/1-545; Friedman, War Ref Work, 5/11/44, W 41, Tur 5; Convsn Katzki &. Chaoul, 8/ 23/44, W 37, Bulg; McCormack to Exec Dir, 2/19/[45], W 28, WRB 3; Yalkut Moreshet, 6171, 81; H III, 3.

30 MD 704/53.

31 MD 704/96; Excerpt, Hn to Rothschild, 3/6/44, JDC, G/E, Tur Refs; H I, Appen: Observations; WH, 17; H II, 17-8; Hn to Cox, 3/13/44, OC; Transit Policy of Turkish Govt, 4/5/44, W 29, W]C 1; Admin Com Mtg, 6/23/44, pp 38-52, AJHS, 1-77, B 3.

32 H II, 26-7.

33 [Hn] to Goldwasser, 2/14/44, W 18, Pal Certs; HI, 4; MD 703/101, 105- 7, 704/51-4, 705/294; WH, 442. Land was influenced by Leo Crowley of the Foreign Econ Admn and Oscar Cox of the Lend-Lease Admn. They guaranteed funds to replace the ship. (Crowley to Land, 2/24/44, OC.)

34 Wyman, 146, 191-2; PM, 10/3/43, 6; CW, 10/8/43, 2; Hn to Steinhardt, 6/ 10/44, LS; Resnik, Rpt on Activities [3/ 44], JDC, G/E, Tur Refs; Jabotinsky, Rpt to EC, 6/14/44, PSC 3/65; Hn to Steinhardt, 4/6/44, 4/24/44, 6/1/44, 7/ 3/44, Hn to Billikopf, 4/22/44, Allen to Steinhardt, 4/22/44, 5/12/44, Baerwald to Steinhardt, 5/4/44, LS.

35 WH, 20-1, 24-9; MD 714/28, 717/ 127, 720/126-9, 319, 722/154, 366, 723/368-9, 724/95; Simond, Rpt #12, 4/24/44, Rpt #13, 5/22/44, W 59, Jews in Rum; FSR, 22; H I, 5; NYT, 3/29/44, 4,

36 MD 720/126-9.

37 NYT, 4/19/44, 1, 5/4/44, 6, 5/22/ 44, 5; Hirschmann, 140-1; FSR, 21; Norweb to SS, 4/20/44, W 17, Pal; Friedman, War Ref Work, 5/11/44, Kolb to Simond, 5/31/44, W 41, Tur 5; Resnik to Schwartz, Re: Tari, 6/18/44, JDC, Tur (Resnik's Rpt); WH, 29-30; MD 702/175, 724/122. The 3 boats were the Mtika, Man'ka, and Bellacitta.

38 WH, 30, 35, 37-9; NYT, 5/31/44, 3; Steinhardt to Baerwald, 6/9/44, JDC, G/E, Balkans; Resnik to Schwartz, Re: Tari, 6/18/44, JDC, Tur (Resnik's Rpt); H II, 7, 10, 30. The 4 were the Kazbec, Marina, Bulbul, and Mefkura.

39 Leavitt to Schwartz, 6/23/44, Leavitt to Pehle, 6/23/44, JDC, G/E, Balkans; Pehle to Leavitt, 6/20/44, JDC, Emgn Projs from Balkans; NYT, 4/11/ 44, 2.

40 MD 762/212-3; Memo on Convsns with Bulbul Passengers [8/44], Memo beginning, "Further interrogation of captains, " 8/22/44, W 40, Tur 2B; WH, 38; H II, 10; WLB, 4/62, 33; NYT, 8/ 17/44, 9; Hull to Bern, 7/21/44, Steinhardt to SS, 10/26/44, W 25, Schleifer; Schleifer to Steinhardt, 9/29/44, Rosenblatt to Steinhardt, 11/16/44, LS.

41 H III, 2; WH, 29-30; MD 716/281- 2, 285, 719/109, 722/367-8, 737/202; FSR, 21; Hn to Kelley, 7/31/44, W 43, Tur 11; Hn to Kelley, 8/5/44, W 72, Rum &. Bulg; Katzki, Mins of Mtg, 8/ 21/44, W 40, Tur 2B; H I, Appen: Observations.

42 H II, 25-6; H III, 6; FSR, 22-3; Hn to Kelley, 8/10/44, W 45, Evacns from Greece.

43 Ch 5 above; Friedman, Evacn of Refs from Transnistria, 2/14/44, Friedman to Pehle, 4/15/44, W 43, Transnistria; MD 703/177-80; Berry to SS, 12/ 11/43, SD, R/4859; Jt Mtg of Governing Council &. Admin Com, 1/19/44, AJCg.

44 Friedman to Pehle, 4/15/44, W 43, Transnistria; WH, 190-1; NYT, 10/18/ 44, 8; FSR, 23; MD 710/278; Steinhardt to Barlas, 4/3/44, AHS, Ma 11-80, Steinhardt; H III, 8.

45 WH, 190-1; MD 710/278, 711/ 139, 712/126; Hirschmann, 159; "Communication Dated March 15, 1944, " W 72, Rum &. Bulg; FR 1944, vi, 1045-6; McCormack to Exec Dir, 2/19/[45], W 28, WRB 3; NYP, 4/18/44, 4; NYT, 3/ 14/44, 4, 4/19/44, 1.

46 Hirschmann, ch 11; Hirschmann, speech at Brandeis Univ, 4/17/77.

47 FR 1944, v 1, 1047; H II, 4, 33; WH, 196.

48 H II, 13, 16, 31, Exhs 1& J; H III, 3; NYT, 8/23/44, 9, 8/30/44, 8, 10/18/ 44, 8; WH, 186.

49 H III, I, 8; Pehle to Leavitt, 9/29/ 44, JDC, Tur Genl; WH, 40.

50 FSR, 20; MD 748/270, 820/261; WH, 42, 188, 198; SD files Rl10-1944 & R/11-2144; Grew to Paris, 2/22/45, SD, R/2-2245; Berry to SS, 3/13/45, SD, R/3-1345; Stettinius to Rome, 4/12/ 45, SD, R/4-1245; Baruch to SS, 5/16/ 45, SD, R/5-1645; Pehle to Morgenthau, 1/24/45, W 36, Rum 1.

51 Excerpt from Katzki ltr, 11/10/44, JDC, Tur Genl; WH, 40-2; Katzki to Packer, 12/8/44, W 43, Tur 11; MD 802/194; Russell to Warren, 12/27/44, SD, R/1-545; NYT, 1/9/45, 8; Wasserstein, 341.

52 FSR, 63; WH, 42; WRB Pr Rel 18, 5/1/45, O'Dwyer; FR 1945, v 2, 1126- 7; H I, Appen: Observations; Hn to Cox, 3/13/44, Oc.

53 Institute of J Affairs, Institute Anniversary Volume, 73; MJ, 4/45, 96; Mohler to O'Boyle, 12/22/43, CH, B 6, Ref Orgzns; FSR, 36. The total for the Jewish exodus to Spain in 1942 and 1943 was possibly as high as 6, 000, but more likely it was not over 4, 000 (BC Mins, 4/21, AM). Some issues dealt with in this section on Spain are discussed in detail in Avni, esp ch 4. At some points, my sources have led me to differ from Avni's analyses.

54 Hayes to SS, 5/31/43, SD, R/3894; CH 3.

55 Schwartz·Elizur interview, 11/29/ 61, 17, 20; NYT, 2/9/43, 26; WH, 121- 2; Butterworth to SS, 8/2/44, SD, Rl8- 244; FR 1943, v 1, 275-8, 281, 288-91, 298-9; Pehle, Memo for Files, 7/17/44, W 25, Sp; Mann Rpt; MD 706/145; Hayes to SS, 5/31/43, SD, R/3894; anonymous to Blickenstaff, u/c Blickenstaff to AF Lisbon, 5/11/44, AF, RS, Ctry Sp, Ltrs from; Conard, Rpt on Visit to Spain, 10/16/44, AF, RS 5.

56 Excerpts & Summary of Rpt on Spain from Conard, 11/20/43, AF, RS 6. It should be noted, though, that Spain had recently come through a debilitating civil war. That drawback could have been overcome, however, by Allied shipments to Spain of food for refugees.

57 Sequerra to AJDC Lisbon, 7/25/43, AF, RS 10.

58 Hayes to SS, 5/31/43, SD, R/3894; Blickenstaff to Hayes, 6/23/43, CH, B 6, Ref Orgzns; CH I; CH 2; CH 3; Avni, 107-10; Relief & Evacn Projects, 1/27/ 44, W 50, SD.

59 A Short Sum of Program of Office of RSARO, 7/18/44, Conard, Rpt on Visit to Spain, 10/16/44, AF, RS 5; Blickenstaff to Brubaker, 1/16/43, AF, RS, Ctry Sp (1942); Rpt from Spain, 8/ 19/43, AF, RS 6; CH 2; Blickenstaff to Hayes, 1/13/45, CH, B 1, Jan-Mar 1945 Dept; NYT, 7/21/44, 5; JDC Digest, 6/43, 2; Chr R, 4/43, 138. Actually, Blickenstaff was with the Brethren Service Committee, on loan to AF. During 1943, the USC associated itself with RSARO. The WRS-NCWC did so in 1944.

60 CH 1; CH 2; Relief & Evacn Projects, 1/27/44, W 50, SD; MD 717/32; Hodel, Memo of Convsn with Leavitt, 2/1/44, W 31, Sp; A Short Sum of Program of Office of RSARO, 7/18/44, AF, RS 5. Estimates of Jewish refugees still in Spain ran from 2, 000 to 3, 000. Hayes's summary of the refugee situation in 1942 and 1943 appears in Hayes, 111-26.

61 Wkly Rpt, "since 2/2/44, " W 28; MD 701/18-9; FR 1944, v 1, 992-4; Standish to Pehle, 3/15/44, W 31, Sp.

62 Wkly Rpt, "since 2/2/44, " W 28; MD 701/169; Discussion of Proposed Cable to Hayes, 2/14/44, W 25, Sp; NYT, 5/3/44, 1; Hayes to Hull, 12/ 27/43, Hull 53/164; Walser, Convsn with Hull, 5/26/43, "Our Spanish Policy" (nd), Hull 83/373; Hayes, 181- 225.

63 Discussion of Proposed Cable to Hayes, 2/14/44, W 25, Sp; MD 702/ 143; FR 1944, v 1, 992-4.

64 FR 1944, v 1, 996-9; CH 2; MD 714/217, 721/264

65 FR 1944, v 1, 999, 1013-5; JBF, Memo, 3/30/44, W 31, Sp; MD 712/ 119-20, 721/264.

66 FR 1944, v 1, 987-9; MD 702/37, 714/217; FSR, 37; WH, 120.

67 FSR, 36; Hodel to Pehle, 2/10/44, W 30, Reprs; Hayes to SS, 3/3/44, Hull to Madrid, 3/16/44, W 8, McDonald, Exhs; MD 709/26, 712/119-22; WH, 114, 672; Mann Rpt.

68 WH, 124; Pehle, Memos for the Files, 7/17/44, 7/20/44, W 25, Sp; Pehle to Stettinius, 8/7/44, Pehle to Shaw, 8/ 17/44, Pehle to Dexter, 8/21/44, Draft cable to Hayes from Pehle, 8/23/44, W 30, Reprs.

69 MD 714/218, 218C-D, 717/140, 721/264, 726/121, 734/299; Hull to Madrid, 3/18/44, W 8, McDonald, Exhs; WH, 113, 117-8; Memo of Matters Discussed by Leavitt in Wn, 3/29/44, JDC, Rpts; Warren, Convsn with Thorold & Vance, 6/21/44, SD, R/6-2144; 5-page anonymous WRB memo re Hayes (nd), Rains, Re Sequerra, 4/13/44, W 25, Sp; Mann Rpt; Pehle to Leavitt, 7/ 13/44, JDC, Emgn Projects from Balkans.

70 Mann Rpt; MD 710/193, 714/218; "Afternoon Session, " 2/26/44, W 9, Free World House.

71 Lash, Eleanor: The Years Alone, 101; MD 720/281, 721/31, 212; Mann Rpt; FSR, 37; Norweb to SS, 7/8/44, Pehle, Memos for the Files, 7/17/44, 7/ 20/44, W 25, Sp; Pehle to Stettinius, 8/ 7/44, W 30, Reprs.

72 Hayes to SS, 1/24/44, SD, R/5131; CH 2; Hayes, Memo re Baraibar, 3/18/ 43, CH, B 3, Jordana; MD 754/232, 778/54, 783/111, 801/37-41, 63-4, 804/197.

73 Discussions with Carlton J. H. Hayes, 4/24/42, AF, GF, For Serv, Sp; CEP Jour, 4/23/42; The Ref Problem in Spain, 4/21/42, Memo on Genl Conditions in Spain, 4/22/42, Chamberlain note to Hayes [4/42], CH, B 6, Ref Orgzns.

74 MD 702/37, 736/138; FR 1944, vI, 999, 1015n; CH 2; Pehle, Memo for Files, 7/20/44, W 25, Sp; Mann Rpt.

75 Hayes to Hull, 12/27/43, Hull 53/ 164; Walser, Convsn with Hull, 5/26/ 43, "Our Spanish Policy" (nd), Hull 83/ 373; Hull, Memoirs, 1329-34; Hayes, 181-225, 230-1.

76 [Pehle], Memorandum [7/44] which begins, "On July 17 and again on July 20, " W25, Sp. For a different interpretation of Hayes's response to the WRB, see J. P. Willson's article in AJHQ, 12/72.

77 Riegner to Reagan, 3/23/44, 4/28/ 44, W 62, WJC; Goldmann, Memo "Jews in Fr, " 3/23/44, W 29, WJC 1; Lichtenstein to Mereminski, 6/17/44, SD, R/6-1944; MD 713/214, 714/63, 718/154, 722/253, 723/353, 726/118; Schwartz-Elizur interview, 11/29/61, 10; Spiegler to Pehle, 4/11/44, W 9, HIAS; RM, 8-9; A. Leon Kubowitzki, Survey on the Rescue Activities of the WJC, 1940-1944 (1944), 43.

78 FSR, 37, 62; Emgn Figures, U/C Cleveland to Joy, 2/7/45, USC, AF; WH, 125; Hayes to SS, 10/16/44, SD, R/10-1644.

79 WH, 126-7; FSR, 38; NYT, 4/ 17/44, 25; E. Dexter to Strunsky, 4/21/ 44, E. Dexter to Cahill, 5/24/44, USC, Ltrs from Lisbon; Mann Rpt.

80 Anne Dacie, Yugoslav Refugees in Italy (1945), 5; Saxon, Rpt to Pehle, 4/ 19/44, W 70, Evacn of Yugo Refs. The Allied armies found and freed 3, 000 to 4, 000Jews who were already in southern Italy. Interned in camps by the Mussolini government, they included Italian Jews along with refugees from Central and Eastern Europe. (MD 701/86; Seagrave to FATIMA, 4/14/44, W 14, It 2; WH, 96.)

81 Malin to Emerson, 2/24/44, AF, RS 9; DSB, 6/10/44, 533; Ackermann to Pehle, 3/7/44, 11/4/44, WI, Ack; AAF, 399, 520-3; Resnik, Rpt on Activities [3/44], W 41, Tur 5; Yugo ref camps in Egypt, 5/21/44, W 4, Camps; Pehle to Leavitt, 10/20/44, W 14, It 2.

82 WH, 101; Ackermann to Murphy, 5/5/44, Ackermann to Pehle, 3/7/44, 11/4/44, W 1, Ack; Ackermann to Pehle, 6/8/44, Pehle to Stettinius, 6/16/ 44, Marks & Sargoy, Memo for Files Re Yugo Ref Situation [6/44 or 7/44], W 70, Evacn of Yugo Refs; Wilson to AGWAR, 5/24/44, W 14, It 2; FSR, 64; FR 1944, v 1, 1078-9.

83 WH, 96-7, 100; MD 704/59, 716/ 198, 719/78, 725/155; FSR, 62; Saxon, Rpt to Pehle, 4/10/44, Ackermann, Memo for Files, 4/14/44, Vucinich to Langer, 4/20/44, W 70, Evacn of Yugo Refs.

854 WH, 100-2; Ackermann to Pehle, 3/7/44, 5/7/44, Ackermann to Murphy, 5/5/44, W 1, Ack; FSR, 64.

85 MD 732/62-4, 738/177; JBF, Memo, 5/27/44, W 70, Evacn of Yugo Refs; Ackermann to Pehle, 6/17/44, 11/ 4/44, W 1, Ack; FR 1944, v 1, 1053, 1059-60.

86 Wilson to AGWAR, 6/9/44, 6/14/ 44, MIDEAST TO AFHQ, 8/9/44, W 14, It 2; Ackermann to Pehle, 6/17/44, 8/14/44, 11/4/44, W 1, Ack; JBF, Memo, 5/27/44, W 70, Evacn of Yugo Refs; WH, 104, 140, 229; Weatherford to Jessup, 2/20/45, AF, FS, Ctry FNA, Algeria, Ltrs from; FR 1944, v 1, 1063- 4, 1080-1, 1093-4; Goldsmith to CAO, AFHQ, 9/8/44, ulc Kimberland to Vail, 9/13/44, AF, RS, Ctry FNA, Algeria, Ltrs from.

87 MD 701/86; WH, 96; Ackermann to Pehle, 8/14/44, W 1, Ack; Malin to Emerson, 2/24/44, AF, RS 9; Pinkerton to SS, 6/5/44, W 17, Pal; TS, 13, 16.

88 Ackermann to Pehle, 8/9/44, 11/4/ 44, W 1, Ack; MD 762/16, 786/207. One report from Hungary indicated that 7, 000 Jews reached Yugoslav partisan territory in summer 1944; but it could not be confirmed.

89 Hilberg, 432; FR 1944, v 1, 1123; MD 761/133, 767/42.

90 WH, 105-6; FR 1944, v 1, 1124, 1132, 1140.

91 MD 761/133, 767/42; FR 1944, v 1, 1123, 1149; WH, 106.

92 Mann to Pehle, 1/13/45, Margolis to Mann, 1/12/45, W 16, Mann; FSR, 27; Olsen to Pehle, 10/12/44, W 53, Olsen; Johnson to SS, 2/13/44 (2 items), W 31, Sweden l.

93 FSR, 27; WH, 84-5; OR; Margolis to Mann, 1/12/45, Mann to Pehle, 1/13/ 45, W 16, Mann; MD 777/166.

94 Olsen to Pehle, 6/12/44, W 72, Sweden; WH, 84-5; MD 764/78-9, 767/184, 777/166; FSR, 28; OFR.

95 MD 767/186.

96 MD 764/79, 777/166; FSR, 28-9; WH, 87-8; OR.

97 OR; MD 767/185; AJYB, v 47, 638; Rpt from Laura Margolis, 11/44, W 45, Evacns to & thru Sweden.

98 FSR, 28; WH, 80-1, 92-3; Olsen to Pehle, 10/12/44, W 53, Olsen; OR.

99 Johnson to SS, 2/15/44, W 31, Sweden 1; Wkly Review, 12/26/44, JDC, Rpts, Wkly Review; MD 724/76, 79.

100 MD 767/187, 843/333, 847/218; Johnson to SS, 7/15/44, 9/11/44, W 70, Ger Proposals thru Sweden; WH, 94; Hilberg, 362; FSR, 29; OFR; YVS, v 6, 217-8; file on Felix Kersten, in Joseph Tenenbaum Collection, F: 16 #15, YIVO; Felix Kersten, The Kersten Memoirs, 1940-1945 (1956), 9-21, 275-90; Hugo Valentin, "Rescue Activities in Scandinavia, " in Yivo Annual of J Social Science, v 8 (1953), 247-5l.

101 Margolis to Mann, 1/12/45, Mann to Pehle, 1/13/45, Hodel to Mann, 2/5/ 45, W 16, Mann; Rpt from Laura Margolis, 11/44, W 45, Evacns to & thru Sweden.

102 FSR, 29, 32; WH, 43; RM, 31-3.

103 McC biography (nd), AF, GF(44), US Govt, WRB; RM, 3; McC to Dear Friends, 3/31/43, 5/29/43, McC to Olgiatti, 3/21/44, AF, FS(44), Ctry Switz, Relief Serv, Admin Ltrs from Geneva; MD 736/211, 803/182-4; FSR, 29.

104 Pehle to Lesser, 6/6/44, W 70, Funds for ... Switz; MD 736/211-4, 803/177-84, 850/162-77; WH, 43-4, 53-4; RM, 3, 27-30, 69, & passim; FSR, 30.

105 FSR, 31; RM, 3-7, 11; MD 803/ 183.

106 FSR, 30-1; MD 688IV195; WH, 56.

107 WH, 56-9; MD 688II/195-6, 692/ 33-5, 39, 699/140, 717/20-1; Lesser, J Children in Fr, 2/11/44, Murphy, Re Children from Fr, 2/17/44, W 44, Evacn Abandoned Children from Fr; Riegner to McC, 8/28/44, W 63, WJC 1944. At the same time, the SD assured Spain and Portugal that the US would remove up to 1, 000 children if they were taken into those two countries from France (WH, 59).

108 FSR, 31; RM, 60-1; MD 767/38, 803/188.

109 McCormack to Exec Dir, 2/19/ [45], W 28, WRB 3; Refs in Switz: Convsn with SM, 7/26/44, W 64, AJJDC; RM, 16; 53, 60-1, 64; FR 1944, v 1, 1126-7; WH, 66-9; MD 768/244.

110 FR 1942, v 1, 469; NYT, 8/21/42, 7, 8/25/42, 3, 8/30/42, 18, 9/23/42, 4, 10/7/42, 5; MD 706/159-60; Pehle to Mayer, 4/25/44, W 21, Mayer; Sternbuch to McC, 6/22/44, W 62, UOR; Freudenberg to Cavert, 1/8/43, FCC, B 29, Genl Secy's Files, Foreign Corresp. For a discussion of Swiss refugee policy, see Bauer I, 226-32.

111 Arieh Tartakower & Kurt Grossmann, The Jewish Refugee (1944), 285- 6, 343-4; Harrison to SS, 3/30/44, W 32, Switz; W. A. Visser 't Hooft, Memoirs, 171; MD 706/159; Pehle to Mayer, 4/25/44, W 21, Mayer; FR 1942, v 1, 469; FR 1943, v 1, 359; Sternbuch to McC, 6/22/44, W 62, UOR. Numerical estimates are based on Harrison to SS, 2/15/44, W 32, Switz; MD 798/315; & Jensen, Ref Prob in Switz, 2/21/44, SD, R/2-2144.

112 Visser 't Hooft, Memoirs, 171; Harrison to SS, 3/30/44, W 32, Switz; Refs in Switz: Convsn with SM, 7/26/44, W 64, AJJDC; Ostrow to White, 3/18/45, W 44, Mvt of Refs from Switz 2; NYT, 8/21/42, 7, 8/30/42, 18, 9/23/42, 4; FR 1942, v 1, 469-70; Pehle to Mayer, 4/ 25/44, W 21, Mayer; MD 706/159-60; Edgar Bonjour, Gesehiehte der sehweizerisehen Neutralitat, v 6 (1970), 39-44.

113 McC, Rpt #8, 5/29/43, AF, FS, Ctry Switz, Relief Office, Ltrs from; Pehle to Mayer, 4/25/44, W 21, Mayer; Akzin, Memo, 1/26/45, W 32, Switz; MD 688IVI95-6; FR 1942, v 1, 469- 70.

114 The issue of deterrence of potential escapes was raised in MD 706/159; Pehle to Mayer, 4/25/44, W 21, Mayer.

115 Hungarian Jewish population from Braham I, 1143.

CHAPTER 13. HUNGARY

1 Hilberg, 511-7, 528-9, 535-9; Braham II, xiii-xviii; YVS, v 7, 127-8; WH, 142; Mario Fenyo, Hitler, Horthy, and Hungary: German-Hungarian Relations, 1941-1944 (1972), 159, 172, 182- 4; Braham I, 926-7.

2 Braham II, xx; Hilberg, 535-6; Fenyo, Hungary, 183.

3 WH, 150; Hilberg, 536-7; Harrison to SS, 6/24/44, ASW 3; H II, Exh M l. Additional examples in PR, 1979 (v24/ 1), 54-5.

4 MB & GFl, "We are sending you, " 5/22/44, W 61, Extmn Camps.

5 MD 767/189.

6 MD 717/145; NYT, 4/28/44, 5, 5/ 10/44, 5.

7 NYT, 5/18/44, 5; FR 1944, v 1, 1043-4; WH, 147; MD 732/258; Hull to Stockholm, 5/20/44, SD, R/6079B; Harrison to SS, 6/24/44, ASW 3. Despite some inaccuracies, the NYT report was correct on the main points.

8 FSR, 24; FR 1944, v 1, 1027-8, 1049-50; WH, 144-50, 170-1, 296-7; Summary of Steps, 7/13/44, W 34, Hung 1; RM, 15; Anger, 59, 92.

9 FSR, 52-5; Summary of Steps, 7/13/ 44, W 34, Hung 1.

10 NYT, 3/25/44, 4, 6/18/44, 24, 6/ 27/44, 6, 7/10/44, 9, 7/15/44, 3; FR 1944, v 1, 1065; WP, 6/22/44, 5; MD 735/217-9, 746/297; Weinstein to Pehle, 6/29/44, W 33, Measures Directed; YSH, 35-9; FSR, 53-4; CJR, 8/ 44, 402.

11 FSR, 52-3; Summary of Steps, 7/ 13/44, W 34, Hung 1; Marks to Friedman & Weinstein, 5/15/44, W 35, Hung 4; Weinstein to Pehle, 6/29/44, W 33, Measures Directed.

12 Summary of Steps, 7/13/44, W 34, Hung 1; Eugene Levai, Black Book on the Martyrdom of Hungarian Jewry (1948), 231-2; FR 1944, v 1, 1068-9; Braham I, 714; Johnson to SS, 7/1/44, ASW 3; handwritten note by McC re Burckhardt, stapled to 5/29/44 ltr, W 60, Swiss Relief Com; WH, 5, 417; MD 720/318, 735/238, 742/139, 753/270.

13 MD 735/238, 753/270-1; WJC, Unity in Dispersion: A History of the WJC (1948), 185-6. The report originated with two Jews who escaped from Auschwitz to Slovakia in April 1944. It reached Switzerland in mid-June and several days later was publicized in the Swiss press. Some historians believe this publicity precipitated the Pope's appeal to Horthy. That is unlikely, for the publicity began only the day before the Pope acted and was not widespread until several days afterward. The report is discussed further in ch 15 below. (Vierte/Jahrshefte fur Zeitgeschichte, 4/ 79, 279; Braham I, 712-5, 754, 811, 951, 978-9, 1078.)

14 MD 753/270-1; RM, 19.

15 Veesenmayer via Ritter to Ribbentrop, 7/6/44, RG 242, German Foreign Ministry, T-120, Roll 100, fr 110651-5 (summary in Hilberg, 548-9); Fenyo, Hungary, 202-4; Hilberg, 547; Braham I, 1144; WH, 307-8; FR 1944, v 1, 1068-9, 1088-9, 1099, 1116-9; Jena Levai, Feher Konyv: Kulfoldi Akciok Zsidok Megmentesere (1946), 56-9; MD 766/125-6; Summary of Steps, 7/13/44, Pehle to Morgenthau, 9/6/44, W 34, Hung 1; McC to Pehle, 11/27/44, W 57, Jews in Hung; H II, 24-5. For a discussion of tM Horthy government's decision to stop the deportations, see Braham I, chs 23, 25.

16 Braham II, xxiv-vi; Braham III, 144, 147-250 passim; MD 758/135; FR 1944, vI, 1128; NYT, 7/19/44, 5. Some evidence indicates that Horthy had in mind the release of only those Jews who already had Palestine certificates or special Swedish passports (a total of about 7, 500), along with all children under 10. But the Red Cross, the WRB, and the British definitely understood the offer to refer to several tens of thousands. (FR 1944, v 1, 1099, 1103, 1118, 1128; Braham I, 979; Cabinet Com on Refs, Mins, 8/4/44, PRO, CAB 95/15; Rescue Attempts during the Holocaust: Proceedings of the 2nd Yad Vashem International Historical Conf [1977], 220; PehIe to Morgenthau, 9/6/44, W 34, Hung 1.)

17 FR 1944, v 1, 1106-8, 1120; Note by AE to Cabinet Com on Refs, 8/3/44, pp 5-6, PRO, CAB 95/15; MD 761/ 136-7, 763/33; WH, 156; Friedman, draft message to DuBois, 8/12/44, W 70, Hung/Horthy.

18 FR 1944, vi, 1120-1; MD 761/130, 197, 763/108; WLB, v 27, 1973/74, 44- 7; Note by AE to Cabinet Com on Refs, 8/3/44, Cabinet Com on Refs, Mins, 8/ 4/44, PRO, CAB 95/15; AE to War Cabinet, 8/8/44, PRO, CAB 66/53, War Cab Mins, WP(44)434. For an informed contemporary discussion of the Horthy offer, see I. F. Stone's piece in PM, 8/2/ 44, 2.

19 Pehle to Stettinius, 7/29/44, Friedman, Memos for Files, 8/12/44, 8/14/ 44, Friedman, draft message to DuBois, 8/12/44, W 70, Hung/Horthy; AE to War Cabinet, 8/8/44, p 4, PRO, CAB 66/53, War Cab Mins, WP(44)434; FR 1944, v 1, 1112-5, 1125-7; MD 763/ 106-9, 766/125; DuBois, Devit's Chemists, 197-9; Josiah DuBois, speech at Brandeis Univ, 4/17/77; NYT, 8/18/44, 5.

20 FR 1944, v 1, 1142; Winant to Eden, 8/16/44, W 70, Hung/Horthy; DuBois, Devil's Chemists, 197-9.

21 MD 761/209, 762/74, 768/242-4; Cf Rpt, 58; WH, 66-7, 157.

22 WH, 166; Pehle to Cass, 10/10/44, W 23, Cass; MD 763/109, 766/134, 767/36-7, 778/38.

23 H II, 20; WH, 164-6; MD 762/16, 767/38, 772/298, 803/188; Ackermann to Pehle, 8/9/44, 11/4/44, W 1, Ack; RM, 28-9; Brown, Press Cf with Pehle & Hn, 10/17/44, W 41, Tur 5.

24 WH, 155, 297; RM, 19; Reply to Questionnaire to Apostolic Delegation, 8/18/44, W 35, Hung 4; MD 762/73, 765/185; H II, 24; Hirschmann, 181-5; Braham I, 1075-6; Anger, 58-9, 92; McC to Huddle, 2/9/45, W 57, Jews in Hung; FR 1944, v 1, 1186; Bauer 1, 441, 446; Lester, 93; NYT Mag, 3/30/80, 28, 5/4/80, 142. Zionist youth, esp the Hechaluz group, also arranged some escapes from Hungary and rescued Budapest Jews caught by violently anti- Semitic Arrow Cross troopers (Braham I, 928, 982, 998, 1002).

25 Lester, 61-4; NYT, 4/26/45, 12; NYT Mag, 3/30/80, 38; Margolis to Mann, 1/12/45, W 16, Mann; MD 748/ 213, 750/70, 751/153-6, 756/339, 763/ 109. JDC provided the funds for Wallenberg's mission (WH, 90; MD 770/ 246). Charles Lutz, the Swiss consul general, was also crucial to the effort to protect Jews (Anger, passim; Braham I, 1079-83).

26 NYT, 4/26/45, 12; OFR; MD 758/ 136, 774/34; FSR, 25; Anger, 46-50, 58- 60, 67, 92; Lester, 7-8, 94, 112, & ch 7; Margolis to Mann, 1/12/45, W 16, Mann; Johnson to SS, 3/7/45, W 34, Hung 2; WH, 91.

27 Braham II, xxiv-vi; Hilberg, 550- 4; NYT, 10/17/44, 9, 12/29/44, 5; Anger, passim; WH, 172-3; MD 800/ 189-90; JTA, 12/27/44, 2.

28 Hilberg, 552-3; Braham II, xxvi; WH, 172-3; MD 804/196, 805/173; JTA, 12/24/44, 1; NYT, 12/29/44, 5.

29 Anger, 68-71, 89-93; MD 788/ 235; Lester, 105-10; Johnson to SS, 3/ 7/45, W 34, Hung 2; BG, 8/10/79, 2; FSR, 25.

30 Braham I, 1144; NYT, 4/15/45, 12; Uvai, Black Book, 471.

31 Anger, 58-60, 67, 92-3; Lester, 5- 7, 88-9, 93-5, 112-4; Braham I, 847, 873-4, 1085, 1089, 1092-4, 1143-5.

32 NYT Mag, 3/30/80, 21; BG, 8/10/ 79; 2; WH, 91; OFR.

33 Johnson to SS, 4/19/45, 6/7/45, W 36, Hung 8; NYT Mag, 3/30/80, 24, 32, 35; NYT, 8/4/79, 5; BG, 8/10/79, 1-2. For more on issues raised in this paragraph, see Lester, chs 2, 10, 11, & pp 155-73; also Anger, 147, 161-2. Wallenberg was made an honorary American citizen by act of Congress in 1981.

34 BG, 8/10/79, 1-2; NYT Mag, 3/30/ 80, 35; NYT, 8/4/79, 5.

35 O'Dwyer to Penrose, 9/12/45, O'Dwyer.

36 Bauer II, 94-9, 114-6; Bauer III, 7- 9; Wasserstein, 249; Hilberg, 542; Braham I, 942. On the Brand affair generally, also see Braham I, ch 29. In my account of the Brand episode, I have reo lied heavily on the work of Yehuda Bauer.

37 Bauer II, 144-9, 153-4; Bauer III, 9; Wasserstein, 250; YVS, v 8, 15.

38 Bauer II, 94, 109-13; Bauer III, 8; Wasserstein, 249; FR 1944, v 1, 1050; PTO, "Handed to High Commissioner, " 5/26/44, W 70, J. Brandt; H IV.

39 Bauer II, 111-2, 129-30; PTO, "Handed to High Commissioner, " 5/ 26/44, Squires Memo, 6/4/44, u/c Steinhardt to SS, 6/8/44, W 70, ]. Brandt; H IV; Wasserstein, 250.

40 Bauer II, 119-26, 153; Bauer III, 9; Hn, Convsn with Brandt, 10/10/44, W 70, ]. Brandt; H IV; Wasserstein, 255.

41 Wasserstein, 250-1, 255; Steinhardt to SS, 6/5/44, Pinkerton to SS, 6/ 19/44, W 70, J. Brandt; H IV; Bauer II, 136-7; Steinhardt to SS, 6/21/44, SD, R/6364; Bauer III, 11; FR 1944, v 1, 1061-2, 1074-5, 1091; MD 741/48.

42 Bauer II, 132; Bauer III, 10-11; Cabinet Com on Refs, 5/31/44, PRO, CAB 95/15/32 (cited in Wasserstein, 252); FR 1944, v 1, 1056-8; Wasser· stein, 252-3.

43 Hull to Moscow, 6/9/44, Copy of Teleg Received from Foreign Off dated 7/18/44, W 70, ]. Brandt; FR 1944, v 1, 1074; Bauer II, 135, 141-3, 149-50; Wasserstein, 258-62; Bauer III, 11-2.

44 Braham I, 649-53, 948, 952-4; Bauer I, 398-9; Bauer III, 9-10; Hilberg, 543-5.

45 FSR, 40-1; Bauer III, 5, 12-13; MJM & FH, Memo for Files Re Special Negots, 1/17/45, W 71, S. Mayer; MD 823/91.

46 Pehle to Stettinius, 8/17/44, W 70, Hung/Horthy; MJM & FH, Memo for Files Re Special Negots, 1/17/45, W 71, S. Mayer; FSR, 40-1; Bauer III, 14-6.

47 RM, 22-4; Harrison to SS, 8/26/44, W 58, Jews in Hung; MD 762/31; Pehle to Stettinius, 8/17/44, W 70, Hung/ Horthy; FSR, 40-1; AAB, Jr to Stettinius, 9/16/44, SD, R/9-1644.

48 MD 762/31; Harrison to SS, 8/26/ 44, W 58, Jews in Hung; Bauer III, 5; McC to Huddle & Reagan, 10/4/44, W 64, AJJDC.

49 Wyler to Mayer, 8/23/44, Harrison to SS, 8/26/44, McC, Personal notes [by hand] on convsn with Saly M, 8/23/44, W 58, Jews in Hung; Bauer III, 17-8.

50 FSR, 41; Bauer III, 19-21, 29-34, 43; Harrison to SS, 8/26/44, McC, Personal notes [by hand] on convsn with Saly M, 8/23/44, W 58, Jews in Hung; MJM & FH, Memo for Files Re Special Negots, 1/17/45, W 71, S. Mayer; MD 767/151; Norweb to SS, 11/13/44, SD, R/11-1344; Harrison to SS, 11/16/44, Stettinius to Bern, 11/18/44, W 57, ]ews in Hung.

51 Huddle to SS, 12/13/44, 12/28/44, Stettinius to Bern, 12/19/44, W 57, Jews in Hung; MJM & FH, Memo for Files Re Special Negots, 1/17/45, W 71, S. Mayer; WH, 217, 885; Stettinius to Bern, 1/6/45, W 64, AJJDC; Bauer III, 37, 45.

52 YVS, v 8, 19; Bauer III, 23, 34-5, 43; Braham I, 963; FSR, 41.

53 Mayer, McClelland, the WRB, the JDC, and (to a lesser extent) historian Yehuda Bauer have claimed these and other achievements for the negotiations. But they do not supply convincing evidence. (Mayer, Rpt summarizing results, 12/28/44, W 57, ]ews in Hung; RM, 22- 6; FSR, 42; Wise to Dear Friend, 11/7/ 45, JDC, WRB; NY Sunday Mirror, 11/ 25/45, 4, 26; Bauer I, 433-4; Bauer III, 18-9, 43-5.) A useful assessment appears in Braham I, 967-8.

54 Norweb to SS, 6/13/44, W 70, J. Brandt; Harrison to SS, 7/5/44, McC, Memo on whole tractor affair, 7/21-2/ 44, W 58, Jews in Hung; Bauer III, 25.

55 Sources in preceding note; also Harrison to SS, 7/26/44, W 62, UOR; Braham I, 955, 958, 1016.

56 MD 761/139-41; McC, Memo on whole tractor affair, 7/21-22/44, W 58, Jews in Hung; Harrison to SS, 7/26/44, 7/29/44, W 62, UOR; Bauer III, 26, 34, 42; PR, 1979 (v 24/1), 57-8; JDC, Saly Mayer file #21(2). When he gave Sternbuch the first sum, Mayer apparently was unaware of the tractors deal. But he relayed the subsequent funds with knowledge of their intended use.

57 Cable from Sternbuch & Donnenbaum, 7/14/44, VH, B 20; Bauer III, 13, 17, 44; Henry Feingold, The Politics of Rescue: The Roosevelt Administration and the Holocaust, 1938-1945 (1970), 277; Reitlinger, Final Solution, 438; YVS, v 8, 19; Morse, 373; VH to Morgenthau, 8/30/44, VH, B 23; Sternbuch, Declaration [11/21/45], VH, B 8; PR, 1979 (v 24/1), 57-8.

58 J Life, 11/52, 35; RM, 66; Bauer III, 26; Musy, 2; McC, Rpt of interview with Sternbuch, 1/19/45, Huddle to SS, 1/ 28/45, W 62, UOR; Huddle to SS, 2/8/ 45, W 43, Mvt from Switz 1; FH, Special Negots with Gestapo, 2/28/45, W 71, Negots in Switz. I have used Musy's own accounts of events with great caution. No critical point is based on them unless it is firmly supported by other evidence.

59 Huddle to SS, 12/9/44, McC to Abegg, 12/20/44, McC, Sternbuch- Musy-Himmler-J Affair, 2/6/45, McC, Rpt of interview with Sternbuch, 1/19/ 45, W 62, UOR; RM, 65-6; Musy, 3; Walter Schellenberg, The Labyrinth (1956), 378; Cable from Sternbuch & Donnenbaum, 7/14/44, VH, B 20; MD 761/152, 823/95.

60 O'Dwyer to Stettinius, Morgenthau, & Stimson, 2/28/45, W 71, Negots in Switz; Sternbuch to VH, 10/31/44, 1/ 16/45, VH, B 10; Levine to Sternbuch, 3/8/45, VH, B 14; MD 823/102-4. On use of Polish cable, see page 46.

61 Schellenberg, Labyrinth, 378; Musy, 3-5; Huddle to SS, 2/8/45, W 43, Mvt from Switz 1; Sternbuch to VH, 10/31/ 44, VH, B 10; Bauer III, 26.

62 Sternbuch to VH, 11/20/44, 11/22/ 44, VH, B 9; Sternbuch to VH, 11/21/ 44, VH, B 8; Bauer III, 32-3; Huddle to SS, 12/9/44, W 62, UOR; FH, Special Negots with Gestapo, 2/28/45, W 71, Negots in Switz.

63 Sternbuch to VH, 11/21/44, Kotler & Kalmanowitz to Sternbuch, 12/5/44, VH, B 8; PR, 1977 (v 22/4), 17; Hodel, Memos for Files, 11/25/44, 1/11/45, 1/ 24/45, FH, Special Negots with Gestapo, 2/28/45, W 71, Negots in Switz; Akzin to Hodel, 1/9/45, W 27, VH; VH (Germany), Pictorial Review (1948), 245; Irving Bunim, oral history on VH, 12/12/76, P 11; NYHT, 12/9/45, 3.

64 Sternbuch to VH, 12/6/44, VH, B 20; YVS, v 8, 19; Bauer III, 34-5, 44; Feingold, Politics of Rescue, 278-9; Morse, 373.

65 Hodel, Memo for Files, 1/24/45, FH, Special Negots with Gestapo, 2/28/ 45, W 71, Negots in Switz; MD 812/ 238.

66 McC, Rpt of interview with Sternbuch, 1/19/45, Huddle to SS, 1/28/45, McC, Sternbuch-Musy-Himmler-J Affair, 2/6/45, W 62, UOR; Huddle to SS, 2/8/45, W 43, Mvt from Switz 1.

67 McC, Sternbuch-Musy-Himmler- J Affair, 2/6/45, MWA: Our informant Mr. Gassett, 2/10/45, W 62, UOR; MD 818/178; Huddle to SS, 2/8/45, W 43, Mvt from Switz 1. Felix Kersten (Memoirs, 204-5, 230-2, 282) also claims credit for the release of this trainload.

68 Sternbuch to VH, 2/10/45, VH, B 9; FSR, 43; VH to Morgenthau, 2/19/ 45, Hodel, Memo for Files, 2/21/45, FH, Special Negots with Gestapo, 2/28/ 45, W 71, Negots in Switz; MD 823/95, 238-47, 824/39; FR 1945, v 2, 1131-2; VH to O'Dwyer, 3/15/45, Leavitt to VH, 5/2/45, VH, B 18.

69 MD 818/173, 823/90-113, 238-53, 824/39, 242-4; Hodel, Memo for Files, 2/21/45, W 71, Negots in Switz; HSD, v 50, 146-7; Levine to Sternbuch, 3/8/ 45 (via Polish cable), VH, B 14.

70 Sternbuch to VH, 2/13/45, VH, B 18; Sternbuch to VH, 2/17/45, VH, B 10; FH, Special Negots with Gestapo, 2/28/45, W 71, Negots in Switz; McC to Bigelow, 3/23/45, McC, Convsn with Musy, 4/9-10/45, W 62, VOR; MD 824/43; Sternbuch to VH, 4/24/45, VH, B 17; Count Folke Bernadotte, The Curtain Falls (1945), 47; Harrison to SS, 4/ 19/45, W 44, Switz/New Prog; McC, "Musys left yesterday" (handwritten note), 3/15/45, McC to O'Dwyer, 4/6/ 45, W 62, UOR.

71 WH, 8-9; FSR, 19; Pehle to Stettinius, 8/17/44, W 70, Hung/Horthy; MD 823/249, 824/244; FR 1944, v 1, 1145.

72 J Agency to Foreign Off, 7/6/44, Weizmann Archives (Israel); Shertok to Goldmann, 7/8/44, u/c Perlzweig to Pehle, 7/21/44, W 34, Hung 1; Goldmann to Stettinius, 617/44, SD, R/6300; MD 720/297-9; WJC, Unity in Dispersion, 187-8.

73 PR, 1979 (v 24/1), 59; Council of J Federations, Budgeting Bulletin, 6/44, VH, B 17; Office Rpt to Com Members & Patrons ofVH [8/45], VH, B 8; Leav· itt to Stameshkin, 517/43, JDC, Rpts; MD 823/107.

74 NY & Wn press from NYT, WP, & clippings in W 35, Hung 5. Other cities based on analysis from May through Aug 1944 of CT, DN, DP, KCS, LAT, SFE, & ST. NR, 7/31/44, 117.

75 Re Palestine resolution: see ch 9 above. One leaves the Stephen Wise Papers, for instance, impressed by the amount of activity devoted in 1944 to the Palestine resolution. Cf Rpt, 24-34.

76 NYT, 8/1/44, 17; NYHT, 8/1/44, 13; NYP, 7/28/44, 15; Cf Rpt, 35, 56- 7; CBA 21; Digest of Mins of Int Com, 9/12/44, AHS, 4-2-23, AZEC-AJCf. Roosevelt sent a feeble message to the demonstration. When journalist I. F. Stone criticized it, as well as FDR's rescue record, the Communist New Masses denounced Stone. Communist policy then was to shield FDR from any disapproval. (FDR to Wise, 7/30/44, FDR, PPF 5029; PM, 8/2/44, 2; New Masses, 8/15/44, 18-9.)

77 YSH, 31-41; Wechsler to Pehle, 4/ 5/44, W 7, EC; Toth, Eordogh, et al to Cicognani, 6/29/44, PSC 1/12; NYT, 6/ 18/44, 24, 7/10/44, 9; several telegrams re Hungary to FDR in 7/44, in FDR, OF 76C; CJR, 10/44, 511; Ans, 8/29/44, 22.

78 NYP, 2/10/44, 20-1, 4/10/44, 16, 8/9/44, 25, 9/12/44, 17; WP, 3/27/44, 7; NYT, 4/15/44, 6, 4/30/44, 24, 8/25/ 44, 6; CJR, 10/44, 571; copies of legislation, W 34, Hung 2 (last). Re Hearst: eg, Chicago Herald-Am, 7/11/44, PSC 5/ 20; Boston Record, 7/17/44, 18; NY Mirror, 7/30/44, 8/1/44, PSC, Folio 6 & 5/ 23; SFE, 8/1/44, 14. Resolutions were introduced by Sens Ferguson, Gillette, Taft, Thomas, Murray, and Reprs Baldwin, Lane, Scott, & Somers.

79 Ans, 8/29/44, 25, 28, 11/44, 16; Smertenko to FDR, 7/24/44, FDR, OF 3186; Pehle, Memo, 2/10/44, Pehle to Stettinius, 3/20/44, W 17, Pal; JWP, Memo for Winant, 4/24/44, W 30, Reprs; FR 1944, v 1, 1007; Pehle, Memo, 3/9/44, TH 1; Berman, "The HCNL & Rescue, " ch 5.

80 Ans, 9/12/44, 2; AME 30; Wagner to Satisky, 10/12/44, RW 2/29; NYT, 8/ 30/44, 15.

81 Murray to SS, 8/29/44, SD, R/8- 2544; Merriam to Morin, 11/16/44, SD, R/11-1644; Hull to FDR, 8/30/44, FDR, OF 700; Cf Rpt, 28, 79; Silver & Wise to Taft, 9/8/44, RT 818; Silver & Wise to Scott, 9/8/44, AHS, 4-2·50, AZEC; Tenenbaum to Wagner, 9/1/44, RW 2/ 28; CM, Digest of Mins of Int Com, 9/ 12/44, 10/24/44; Wilson, Convsn with Goldmann et al ("Z Attitude Toward Palestine"), 9/13/44, SD, copy in PSC 3/67; Lipsky to Taft, 9/13/44, RT 819; AJH, 3/81, 322-3; AME 30.

82 AME 30; NP, 9/15/44, 500; Ans, 6/ 15/44 issue; NYT, 5/19/44, 8, 5/25/44, 5, 6/17/44, 5, 7/20/44, 4; NYP, 5/19/ 44, 8; WP, 5/19/44, 13, 5/25/44, 7; Smertenko to Thomas, 1/14/44, with enclosure, ET, B 85, J-3 (J Lit); CJR, 8/44, 402-3; HCNL, A Call by the Hebrew Nation, 5/17/44, Bergson to Hull, 6/19/ 44, FOR, OF 3186.

83 AME 3, 27; AM 2; Cf Rpt, 78; Smolar in Omaha J Press, 5/26/44, PSC 5/ 17; NYT, 5/19/44, 8; NP, 5/19/44, 402; Op, 6/44, 6; RYP, 6/9/44; JO, 9/44, 9; CJR, 8/44, 431-2; J Examiner (Brooklyn), 6/30/44, J News (Detroit), 6/14/44, PSC 5/19.

84 Smertenko to Thomas, 1/14/44, with enclosure, ET, B 85, J-3 (J Lit); Kook-Wyman interview, 5/5/73; HCNL, A Call by the Hebrew Nation, 5/17/44, FDR, OF 3186; Ans, 11/44, 20-2, 1/45, 23, 7/45, 21, 24; Helen to ER, 3/14/45, Thompson to Douglas, 3/21/45, ER 1756/100; ER to Tully, 3/20/45, ER 1765/100. For more on this very complex issue, see Ans, June 1944 through 1947, esp 8/29/44, 14-7; also, Berman, "The HCNL & Rescue."

85 AME 24, 27; CBA 22; CJR, 4/44, 180-1; Biron in J News (Detroit), 6/16/ 44, PSC 5/19; PM, 8/9/44, 24; Shapiro to Chairmen of Local EC's, 5/11/44, AHS, Ma II-6, ALFP; Silver to Manson, 6/7/44, AHS, II, 4-2-14, AZEC; VF, ALFP generally, esp "Withdrawals & Replies, " 2/8/45; Berman, "The HCNL & Rescue," ch 4; IJPS, 5/18/45, 5; Smertenko to Pepper, 5/22/45, PSC 1/18; "Wn Post a Victim," 10/44, Shapiro to [name obliterated], 10/24/44, Lewis to X, 11/29/44, PSC 13/57.
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Re: The Abandonment of the Jews: American and the Holocaust,

Postby admin » Sat Apr 21, 2018 2:54 am

CHAPTER 14. "LATE AND LITTLE"

1 FSR, 46; WH, 112; MD 704/52.

2 Pehle to Kuhn, 3/24/44, W 33, Measures Directed; NYT, 8/30/43, 3, 11/2/ 43, 14, 11/5/43, 14; CW, 11/12/43, 12; Kahn to Ickes, 1/5/44, HI, Associations; HID, 8522-3. The two times that reference had been made specifically to Jews were 7/21/42 (messages from FDR & Churchill to the NYC mass meeting) & 12/17/42 (UN war-crimes declaration). Major war-crimes warnings that did not mention Jews, besides those from the Quebec and Moscow Conferences, included those of 1/13/42 (EHR, 82, 86- 7), 8121/42 (DSB, 8/22/42, 710), 10/7/ 42 (NYT, 10/8/42, 1), 6/30/43 (NYT, 7/1/43, 4), 7/30/43 (NYT, 7/31/43, 3).

3 Wkly Rpt, "since 2/2/44, " W 28; MD 702/142, 704/52, 706/124, 708/1- 3; early draft of Declaration by the President [3/44], PSC 3/62; NYT, 3/25/44, 1, 4; PPA, 103-5.

4 MD 707/223, 242-3, 708/1-3, 42; Stettinius to Early, 3/8/44, FDR, PSF: Refs (copy in PSC 3/62).

5 MD 708/1-3, 42; Pehle, Memo for Files, 3/9/44, W 28, WRB 3.

6 MD 7071219-34, 239A, 708/4; PPA, 105.

7 MD 708/1-3; PPA, 104-5; NYT, 3/ 25/44, 4; FR 1944, v 1, 1033, 1037, 1069.

8 FSR, 51; WH, 314; MD 714/21-2; FR 1944, v 1, 1088-9, 1101, 1161-3.

9 NYT, 10/11/44, 4, 11/8/44, 21; FR 1944, v 1, 1250; Schoenfeld to SS, 9/29/ 44, SD, EW/9-2944; WH, 298; FSR, 55; MD 791/103-4; Lesser, "Germans, " 9/ 27/44, Pehle to McCloy, 9/28/44, W 72, Eisenhower Stmt; Convsn ER with Rosenheim et al, 10/14/44, JM, 324 ER; SHAEF to War Dept, 10/14/44, ASW 2. A specific reference to Jewish inmates was deleted on the advice of the Psychological Warfare Division, which maintained that it would hand the Germans a "powerful propaganda line."

10 WH, 326; FR 1944, v 1, 1174-5; FSR, 55-6; NYT, 4/24/45, 1.

11 WH, 12; FSR, 70; MD 805/8, 11- 7.

12 NYT, 10/8/42, I, 12/29/42, 3, 2/2/ 45, 6; FR 1942, v 1, 48-71; FR 1943, v 1, 402-38; EHR, 82-106; Pell to FDR, 4/12/43, SD, EW/994.

13 Pell to Hull, 11/11/43, 6120/44, SD, EW/1218 & 6·2044; Stettinius to Hackworth, 4/18/44, SD, EW/4-1844; AJHQ, 6176, 343-5; Winant to SS, 10/ 6144, W 19, Punishment; MD 805/8, 12; NYT, 1/11/45, 9; Draft by GHH for FDR to Pell, 6/13/44, SD, EW/6-1344; WH, 423; Pell to FDR, 3/5/45, SD, EW/3-1645; FR 1944, v 1, 1322, 1401- 5; Mann to Pehle, 1/13/45, W 16, Mann.

14 Winant to SS, 10/6/44, Akzin to Marks, 12/22/44, W 19, Punishment; AJHQ, 6/76, 335, 340-5; Pell to SS, 4/ 24/44 (#500), CP; Stettinius to Hackworth, 4/18/44, SD, EW/4-1844; FR 1943, v 1, 407; Mann to Pehle, 9/19/44, W 70, England; Pell to Hull, 6/20/44, SD, EW/6-2044; Pell to FDR, 3/5/45, SD, EW/3-1645; Pell OH, 584-7.

15 MD 805/8-17, 27, 815/101; Stettinius to Pehle, 12/14/44, Friedman, Memo for Files Re WC, 12/16/44, Pehle to Morgenthau, 1/17/45, W 19, Punishment; WH, 424; Stettinius to FDR, 12/ 27/44, FDR, PSF: WCC (copy in CP).

16 Fite, Convsn with Pell, 12/7/44, SD, EW/12-744; Pell to FDR, 3/5/45, SD, EW/3-1645; Pell's 15-page retrospective [summer 1945], CP; Hackworth, Convsn with Pell, 1/9/45, Stettinius to Pell, 1/17/45, SD, EW/1- 945; NYT, 1/30/45, 3; Pell OH, 589- 91; GGT to FDR, 1/9/45, FDR, OF 5152 (copy in CP); Stettinius to FDR, 12/27/44, FDR, PSF: WCC (copy in CP); WP, 1/31/45, 10; Claiborne Pell- Jarvik interview, 1/22/79. Stettinius replaced Hull as secy of state on 12/1/44.

17 Hackworth, Convsn with Pell, 1/9/ 45, SD, EW/1-945; Pell to FDR, 3/5/45, SD, EW/3-1645; Stettinius to FDR, 12/ 27/44 (& FDR's pencil note on it), FDR, PSF: WCC (copy in CP).

18 WH, 423; Grew, Convsn with Pell, 1/24/45, SD, EW/1-2445; Hackworth, Convsn with Stone, 2/8/45, SD, EW/2- 845; Pell to FDR, 1/9/45, 1/17/45, Pell to Watson (nd), Pell to Watson, 1/15/ 45, Watson to Pell, 1/16/45, Tully to Pell, 1/24/45, FDR, OF 5152 (copies in CP); Pell to FDR, 3/5/45, FDR to Stettinius, 3/16/45, SD, EW/3-1645; Pell to FDR, 4/5/45, FDR to Stettinius, 4/9/45, SD, EW/4-945; "The following information" (nd), PSC 1/16; Ans, 2/45, 20; Hackworth, Convsn with Pell, 1/24/45, SD, EW/1-2445; CJR, 4/45, 195; NYT, 1/27/45, 1, 5, 1/30/45, 3, 1/31/45, 20, 2/2/45, 6; WP, 1/31/45, 10; MD 805/ 27, 815/101-2; CW, 2/2/45, 2; NYP, 2/ 2/45, 18; Pehle to Morgenthau, 1/17/45, W 19, Punishment; AJCf, Pr Rei, 1/31/ 45, AJCf Pr Rels, ZAL; Perlzweig to OfficeCom, 2/1/45, SW, AJCg, Perlzweig.

19 Grew, Convsn with FDR, 3/2/45, SD 500.CC/3-245; Henry L. Stimson & McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace & War (1947), 585-7; SG, 1/46, 5; Robert H. Jackson, Rpt of Robert H. Jackson, US Representative to the Inti Cf on Military Trials (1949), vii, 3-9; FR 1944, v 1, 1398; HSD, v 48, 188; MD 815/101-2; Ulio to Rosenberg, 9/29/44, VH, B8.

20 MD 815/101-2; FR 1944, v 1, 1378-80; WH, 12.

21 NYT, 1/27/45, 5, 5/3/45, 9, 5/13/ 45, 8, 8/9/45, I, 10, 11; Hackworth, Convsn with Pell, 1/24/45, SD, EW/1- 2445; Pell to FDR, 3/5/45, SD, EW/3- 1645; Grew to Pell, 1/29/45, CP; Grew, Convsn with FDR, 3/2/45, SD 5oo.CCI 3-245; Winant to SS, 4/4/45, Acheson to London (for Rosenman), 4/5/45, SD, EW/4-445; Jackson, Report, 420-9; Robert H. Jackson, The Nurnberg Case (1947), v-vi, 23; Robert H. Jackson, The Case Against the Nazi War Criminals (1946), viii; Bradley Smith, Reaching Judgment at Nuremberg (1977), 60 & chs 2-3 generally.

22 Pehle to Ernst, 4/11/44, W 7, Ernst; FR 1944, v 1, 1007-8, 1018-9, 1053, 1058-9, 1071; MD 693/101, 697/90, 705/288, 291, 707/235-6, 708/276, 712/ 109, 726/116; Stettinius to Morgenthau, 2/1/44, Smith to Marks, 4/29/44, W 47, Temp Havens/NAfr; FSR, 63; Russell to Warren, 12/27/44, SD, R/12·2744.

23 Wolff to Anderson, 1/11/44, "Camp Lyautey, Fedhala, Morocco (Near Casablanca)" (nd), Hayes to SS, 1/8/45, W 39, Evacns to Lyautey; Conard, Rpt on Visit to Spain, 10/16/44, AF, RS 5; NAfr Ref Ctr, Camp Marecha! Lyautey, 9/12/44, AF, RS, Ctry FNA, Genl; FSR, 61-2; WH, 222-4; Murphy, Relief & Evacn Projects, 2/17/44, W 28, WRB 3; Ackermann to Pehle, 3/4/44, 11/4/44, Beckelman to Anderson, 2/20/ 44, W I, Ack; Hayes to SS, 2/16/44, W 8, McDonald, Exhs; MD 702/86-7; Stmt on Casablanca Ref Camp, 5/29/44, OC; Standish to Lesser (4/44], W 49, ICR 3.

24 MD 716/258, 736/224; WH, 222, 442; Ackermann to Pehle, 11/4/44, W I, Ack; Pehle to Land, 7/11/44, W 50, WSA.

25 Hayes to SS, 1/8/45, Rpt on Fedhala Camp, 8/28/44, u/c Offie to SS, 9/ 22/44, W 39, Evacn to Lyautey; Emgn Figures, u/c Cleveland to Joy, 2/7/45, USC, AF; Blickenstaff, Evacn of Stateless Refs to N Afr, 12/27/44, u/c Blickenstaff to AF Lisbon, 12/27/44, Conard, Rpt on Visit to Spain, 10/16/44, AF, RS 5; Beckelman to Anderson, 2/20/44, W I, Ack; FR 1944, v 1, 996-7; WH, 11, 225-8. The camp was named Marechal Lyautey.

26 FR 1944, v 1, 1064, 1080, 1093-4; Weatherford to Jessup, 2/20/45, AF, FS, Ctry FNA, Algeria, Ltrs from; WH, 140, 229; Ackermann to Pehle, 11/4/44, W 1, Ack. This camp was called Jeanne d'Arc Ref Camp. The Allied military incorrectly estimated its capacity at 10, 000 to 40, 000. The French hampered its use by imposing regulations making refugee exit through liberated France difficult. (Marks, Memo for Files, 4/11/45, W 16, Mann.)

27 MD 707/239-40, 712/229; WH, 232; Standish to Lesser (4/44], W 49, ICR; HID, 9783; Burton to Joy, 5/7/44, USC, Sen Burton; Pehle, Memo, 4/15/ 44, TH 1.

28 MD 707/239-40; Pehle to Ackermann, 4/13/44, W I, Ack; JPC 1025-7; Marks & Murphy, Cfs Held in Office of Ennis (3/44], TH 1. Emergency camps in the US had been suggested at least as early as summer 1942 (eg, AI Rpt, 4th, 6, 15; NYP, 6/21/43, 23).

29 MD 716/175.

30 MD 716/171-3.

31 MD 708/43; HSD, v 46, 86, 114-5, 145, v 47, 21; Stimson to Pehle, 3/31/ 44, ASW 5; Pehle, Memo, 3/9/44, TH 1; Hull, Morgenthau, & Stimson to FDR, 5/8/44, FDR, OF 3186; Estb TH. Earlier discussions of the plan with the 3 secretaries are covered in MD 709/27, 712/229, 716/174, 178-9; Pehle, Memo for Files, 3/9/44, TH 1. Stimson's Diary for Mar 9, 21, & 31 clearly shows his resolute restrictionism. There is also a hint of anti-Semitism, but a broader examination of Stimson's diary and papers tends to nullify that impression (MD 708/44).

32 MD 726/33-9, 146-62.

33 MD 726/33; HSD, v 46, 114-5, v 47, 21; Travers to Hull, 5/5/44, Warren to SS, 5/5/44, SD, R/5499; Estb TH.

34 Hull, Morgenthau, & Stimson to FDR, 5/8/44, FDR, OF 3186; Estb TH; HSD, v 46, 209; MD 716/175, 178. The attorney general advised that legal justification existed for instituting the plan by executive action (Gitlin to Cooley, 4/ 3/44, 4/8/44, Cooley to Ally Gen, 4/10/ 44, Legis 17437; Estb TH).

35 NYT, 6/3/44, 15; MD 717/196, 198, 741/234; NYP, 4/5/44, 24, 4/15/ 44, 10, 4/21/44, 4; Grafton script, 4/23/ 44, W 66, G-H.

36 All dates in 1944. Eg, NYP, 4/20, 23, 4/22, 4, 5/15, 18-9, 5/31, 6, 6/1, 4, 19, 23, 6/2, 1, 6/5, 17, 6/10, 11; NYHT, 4/20, 22, 5/27, 10; NYT, 5/4, 18, 6/10, 14, 6/12, 21; Lesser to Sheerin, 5/1, W 25, Sheerin; NY Daily Mirror, 5/13, 13; Gomberg to Beck & Rosenwald, 5/16, NRS 557; BG, 5/8, 10, 6/28, 13; MD 724/108-12, 738/42; Pringle, History of the War, 4/19, Wise to Pehle, 4/3, Baerwald to WRB, 4/26, TH 1; NR, 5/15, 666; Nation, 6/10, 670-1; Commonweal, 5/12, 76-7, 6/9, 172; CC. 5/24, 636; Weinstein to Pehle. 4/20, W 22, Radio/Grafton; CfR 10; Kalmanowitz to Pehle, 5/8, W 68, T-V; Draft Itr to FDR. 5/9, AJC, Imgn Series. Refs-Rescue of; YSH, 28.

37 MD 721/181. 735/217-9. 738/42- 3, 741/234; Frenyear to Hull. 5/12/44. Frenyear to Pehle. 5/17/44, FDR, OF 5477; WHo231; Cavert to Smith. 5/22/ 44, FCC, B 100. FCC 1940-49; Ingraham to Pehle. 4/20/44. W 29, YWCA; Pickett to FDR. 4/27/44, W 66, A; Atkinson to Pehle, 5/3/44, W 66. C-D; Joy to Burton. 5/12144. USC, Sen Burton; McDonald to FDR, 5/12/44, W 67. M-N; Green to FDR, 5/8/44, FDR, OF 3186; NYT, 5/26/44, 19.5/30/44, 8; IR. 7/10/44, 226.

38 Pickett. Memo on Visit to Wn. 4/4/ 44. AF. FS. Wn Trips; MD 722/340; NYHT, 4/19/44, 1; NYT, 4/19/44. 1; Gomberg to Beck & Rosenwald, 5/8/44, 5/16/44, 5/31/44. Beck to Gomberg, 5/ 12/44. NRS 557; Dept Heads' Mtg. 5/2/ 44. NRS 734; Gomberg to Slobodin, 9/ 26/45. NRS 559; Lesser to Pehle, 3/21/ 44, TH 1; Wn EC Mins. 4/13/44, JI. EC #48.

39 MD 722/134, 726/146. The poll registered 23% disapproval & 7% "don't know." WRB files include 3-1/2, boxes (66-69) of incoming correspondence on free ports. It was very heavily favorable (Towler to Hodel [9/44], W 52, Admin Matters).

40 Pehle, Memo, 5/11/44, TH 2; MD 732/62-3; Pehle to Hull, Morgenthau, & Stimson. 5/20/44, FDR. OF 3186.

41 Ch 12 above, Italy section; MD 732/63-4; DuBois, Memo for Files, 5/ 26/44. TH 2.

42 Pehle to FDR. 5/18/44. FDR. OF 3186.

43 Ch 12 above, Italy section; PC/ FDR, 5/30/44, 203; MD 737/85; Gomberg to Beck & Rosenwald, 5/31/44. NRS 557.

44 MD 738/39-40.

45 PC/FDR. 6/2/44, 212-4.

46 McCloy to Morgenthau. 6/2/44. TH 3; MD 741/47-8; PCIFDR, 6/9/44, 233-4; NYT. 6/10/44. 1, 9.

47 Proposed Message by the President to the Congress (nd). u/c Pehle to FDR. 5/18/44. FDR. OF 3186; PPA. 168-71; NYT, 6/13/44. 1, 8.

48 See pages 136. 153-4; PM, 8/2/44. 2.

49 MD 712/229; Pehle. Memo. 5/11/ 44. TH 2; Estb TH.

50 Pehle to Steinhardt, 4/22/44. W 26, Tur; Pehle to Ackermann, 4/25/44, W 1. Ack; Estb TH; MD 741/234.

51 Warren to 55, 5/5/44, SD, R/5499; DuBois, Memo for Files, 5/26/44, TH 2; ch 12 above, Italy section.

52 Joy to Grossmann, 6/10/44, USC, F: Dr. Joy-Com on Spec Ref Probs. Pehle later informed FDR that the Ft Ontario contribution had persuaded the British to allow 1, 500 refugees into Libya and the French to agree to the camp at Philippeville. Actually, the British acceded to the Libyan proposal before FDR accepted the Ft Ontario plan. And the decision on Philippeville was the result of pressure from the Allied military. (Pehle to FDR. 10/4/44, FDR, OF 4849; FR 1944. v 1. 1058. 1064, 1080. 1093-4.)

53 Pro free ports: eg, MD 743/43-6; Ans. 7/15/44. 17; NR, 6/19/44, 801; Nation, 8/12/44. 171; Christian Council on Pal. Pr Rei. 8/4/44; Towler to Hodel [9/ 44]. W 52, Admin Matters; Fry to FDR. 6/14/44. AJCg (LA) to Pehle. 8/3/44, W 66, A; Detzer to Pehle. 6/26/44. W 68, Ltrs from WRB; Petitions in W 68. Admsn of Refs; NYP, 6/22/44. 10; NYT, 8/5/44, 24; WH, 234; FDR to Hun, 8/14/44, FDR, OF 3186.

54 Watertown Daily Times [8/27/44], u/c Speight to FDR. 8/29/44, W 68, 5; Jordan to FDR [6/44], W 67, I-J; Mann to Sirs, 6/12/44, Fast to Johnson, 6/15/ 44, W 68, Disapproval; Mott to Hull, 6/ 21/44, SD, R/6373; NY Sun, 7/29/44, 6; WTH, 8/19/44, Memo beginning, "Mrs. Brown, representing Life Magazine, " 8/ 30/44, TH 5.

55 Miami Herald, 6/15/44, 6A, 7/28/ 44, 6A, 9/28/44, 4A; Watertown Daily Times [8/27/44], u/c Speight to FDR, 8/29/44, W 68, S; Kinnear to Wallgren, 8/30/44, W 27, Wallgren; John Trevor, Refugees 1944 (7/44), Wilmeth to Dickstein, 7/27/44, Hetzel to Dickstein, 7/ 30/44, Legis 16453; NYT, 10/13/44, 8; WH, 948; NYP, 7/3/44, 15, 8/10/44, 7; Standish to Lesser [4/44], W 49, ICR 3; HID, 9783; Joy to Burton, 5/4/44, Burton to Joy, 5/7/44, USC, Sen Burton; Pehle, Memo, 4/15/44, TH 1; Biddle to FDR, 12/29/44, FDR, OF 3186; Dubin, Rpt on discussion with Travers, 12/5/45, NRS 558; Dubin to Loeb, 5/23/45, NRS 552; Macon Telegraph, 8/8/44, TH 5.

56 TS, 10-3, 17-9; FO Rpt 1, p 39; NYT, 8/5/44, 13, 8/6/44, 29; SG, 9/44, 386; IR, 9/28/44, 295-6; Probs & Recomndns (nd), u/c Marks to O'Dwyer, 3/20/45, TH 10; WH, 235; FO Statistics Memo #6, 3/19/45, u/c Rose to Larned, 4/7/45, IMS, Oswego Proj. 7% were Roman Catholic; 3%, Greek Orthodox; 1%, Protestant.

57 TS, 22.

58 Rpts Office Narrative Rpt for 8/44, WRA 180; MD 763/33; Newspaper clippings in TH 5; JR, 9/28/44, 293; Myer to WRB, 9/19/44, u/c Pehle to FDR, 10/4/44, FDR, OF 4849.

59 WH, 11; US Dept of Interior, WRA: A Story of Human Conservation (1946), 164.

60 FO Statistics Memo #6, 3/19/45, IMS, Oswego Proj; FO Rpt 1, p 39; Myer to WRB, 9/19/44, FDR, OF 4849; Memo beginning, "Experience proves that living in a camp" [4/20/45], NRS 552; Schuchman's rpt [8/44], NRS 557.

61 Myer to WRB, 9/19/44, FDR, OF 4849; TS, 21, 28, 36-7; FSR, 65; FO Rpt 1, p 42; IR, 9/28/44, 296; FOH, 57.

62 Myer to WRB, 9/19/44, FDR, OF 4849; TS, 30-3; Memo beginning, "Experience proves" [4/20/45], NRS 552; Excerpt of ltr from Smart, 9/23/44, u/c Dubin to Beck 10/30/44, Dubin to Beck, 10/11/44, Gomberg to Dubin, 11/ 1/44, NRS556; Reifer, Confidential Rpt, 1/22/45, USC, WRA; JPC 1022-4, 1037-41.

63 Myer to WRB, 9/19/44, FDR, OF 4849; TS, 40.

64 JPC 1012, 1052-3; FOH, 109-10, 178-9; MD 754/225; Schuchman's rpt [8/44], Brandeis, Rpt on ERS [8/30/44], NRS 557; PM, 2/26/45, 10; TS, 11-2; Interview with Mrs. Reifer, 8/11/44, USC, WRA; Wolff to AF, 5/5/45, with enclosure, draft Memorial to the President & Congress [5/45], u/c Smart to Jones, 5/8/45, AF, FS 4.

65 Bondy, Emerg Ref Shelter Ft Ont, 1/45, NRS 559; Myer to O'Dwyer, 3/16/ 45, with enclosures, Probs & Recomndns (nd), u/c Marks to O'Dwyer, 3/20/45, TH 10.

66TS, 41; Nell to ER, 12/12/44, ER 2994/190 Misc; Wolff to ER, 2/1/45, with enclosure, ER 944/70 Morgenthau; Godfrey to ER, 2/17/45, ER to Godfrey, 2/24/45, ER 1758/100; Schauffler to Jones, 2/21/45, AF, FS 4; JPC 1022-4; Holstein to Wise, 2/2/45, NRS 552; Notes on Mtg of Com on Camps, 11/14/ 44, USC, WRA; Myer to WRB, 9/19/44, FDR, OF 4849.

57 Bondy, Emerg Ref Shelter Ft Ont, 1/45, NRS 559; Memo beginning, "Experience proves" [4/20/45], NRS 552; TS, 41-3; Pitts to Myer, 6/4/45, WRA 202; Powers, Final Rpt of Shelter Director, 4/18/46, pp 13-9, FO Rpts; FO Rpt 1, pp 39, 41; Gruber to kkes, 9/24/44, WRA220; Smart, AMessage to the People of FO, 11/9/44, Pitts to All Shelter Residents, 6/20/45, WRA 005.3; Harding to Myer, 1/31/45, Rpt of Sanitary Inspection of Shelter Kitchens, 3/20/45, WRA290; Schroeder, Final Rpt of Mess Operations Section, 2/20/46, FO Rpts; Reifer, Rpt on Work at FO, 1/22-2/22/ 45, USC, WRA; The Children of A --- B ---, u/c Myer to O'Dwyer, 3/16/45, TH 10.

68 Bondy, Emerg Ref Shelter Ft Ont, 1/45, NRS559; Bondy, Observations on ERS (nd), FO Rpts; Schuchman's rpt [8/44], Brandeis, Rpt on ERS [8/30/44], NRS 557; Announcement by Shelter Dir, 1/3/45, WRA220; Smart, An Apology, 8/19/44, WRA 005.3; Interview with Mrs. Reifer, 8/11/44, USC, WRA.

69 Wolff to ER, 2/1/45, ER 944170 Morgenthau; Godfrey to ER, 2/17/45, ER 1758/100; Schauffler to Jones, 2/21/ 45, AF, FS 4; JPC 983, 1022-4, 1052- 3; Myer to Ickes, 12/7/44, TH 9; FO Rpt 3, p 14; MD 825/300-3; HID, 9783, 9789, 9812; Ickes to Byrnes, 7/31/ 45, SD, R/7-3145; Shaughnessy to Carusi, 12/28/44, Legis 17436.

70 MD 825/300-3; JPC 1022-4; Smart to Myer, 9/4/44, WRA 001.

71 JPC 985, 1037-41; Biddle to FDR, 12/29/44, FDR to Atty Gen, 1/17/45, FDR, OF 3186; MD 825/299, 8281/102- 3, 829IV391, 852/141; Schauffler, Bkgd of Oswego Situation, 3/28/45, MEJ, WRA: Re ERS, Oswego, 5/2/45, AF, FS 4; Cf Held in Office of Under Secy of Interior, 12/28/44, Stmts of US Govt Officials, 12/26/44, TH 9; FO Rpt 3, p 13; TS, 91-2; O'Dwyer, Memo for Files, 3/14/45, TH 10.

72 MD 8281/103.

73 NYWT, 9/22/44, TH 6; PM, 2/15/ 45, 20; ER to Spitzer, 3/13/45, ER to Selden-Goth, 3/5/45, ER 1764/100; ER to Godfrey, 2/24/45, ER 1758/100.

74 Myer to Ickes, 1217/44, TH 9; F-- K--, u/c Myer to O'Dwyer, 3/ 16/45, TH 10; Koppelmann to Dickstein, 7/6/45, Legis 17436; TS, 71.

75 Schauffler, Bkgd of Oswego Situation, 3/28/45, Jones to Curtis, 5/11/45, Am Chr Com for Refs et al to O'Dwyer [5/15/45], AF, FS 4; Margolies, Wkly Rpts of Welfare Section, 3/11-17/45, 4/ 8-14/45, 4/15-21/45, WRA 007.1; Probs & Recomndns (nd), u/c Marks to O'Dwyer, 3/20/45, TH 10; JPC 1037- 41; FOH, passim; Markley, New Residents of Am: Final Study of Attitudes, 2/13/46, p 49, FO Rpts; NYHT, 3/13/ 45, 21.

76 Cf Held in Office of Under Secy of Interior, 12/28/44, TH 9; IMS, Statistical Section of a Study Made at FO, 5/1/ 45, pp 13-4, Hutchinson to Myer, 5/16/ 45, IMS, Oswego Proj.

77 Myer to O'Dwyer, 3/16/45, with enclosures, Black to ER, 3/5/45, TH 10; PM, 2/26/45, 10; FOH, 39-40; Myer to Ickes, 12/7/44, TH 9; TS, 71; Mins of Com on Camps, 5/11/45, AF, FS 4.

78 CEP Jour, 12/14/45; JPC 1046-7, 1074; Robinson, Larned, et al to HST, 10/22/45, NRS 558; NYT, 8/26/45, 1, 34, 35, 9/30/45, 1, 38, 39; Sherman to Wahl, 11/16/45, Legis 17436.

79 JPC 1065, 1074; Robinson, Larned, et al to HST, 10/22/45, NRS 558; Sherman to Wahl, 11/16/45, Legis 17436.

80 JPC 1072.

81 FO Rpt 3, pp 18-24; WRA, Semi- Annual Rpt, 7/1/45-12/31/45, pp 32- 3, FO Rpts; HID, 10190; JPC 1037-41, 1054, 1059-63, 1066, 1073-5; Ickes to Byrnes, 7/31/45, SD, R/7-3145; Sherman to Wahl, 11/16/45, Legis 17436; Dubin to Hurwitz, 1/30/46, NRS 557; Robinson, Larned, et al to HST, 10/22/ 45, Levy to Dubin, 12/11/45, Dubin, Mins of Mtg held 12/12/45, NRS 558; Smart to Myer, 5/4/45, WRA 213; Friends of FO, Stmt by Sponsors Com (nd), u/c Smart to HST, 7/9/45, WRA 111; NYT, 6/3/45, 17, 6/11/45, 16, 7/ 16/45, 9; Vance to Halla, 8/2/45, SD, R/ 7-645; FOH, 8-9, 100-2.

82 NYT, 5/17/45, 3; FOH, passim, esp ii, 1-5, 25-30, 41-96; Smart to Dickstein, 6/19/45, with enclosure, Legis 17436; "A. Preliminary Statement" (handwritten notes) (nd), Legis 17437; Myer to Ickes, 6/30/45, with enclosed "Rpt on the Hearing at FO, " WRA 003; Memo beginning, "In accordance with an Exec Memo, " 10/1/45, Dubin to Perlman, 11/20/45, NRS 558. For press coverage: Newspaper Clippings file of TH; Clippings file of Legis 17436.

83 Memo beginning, "To be used only in the event" (nd), Resol passed by House Com on Imgn [7/3/45], Cooley, Memo for File, 7/6/45, Pr Rei [7/6/45] (not issued), Dickstein, Com on Imgn Resol, 7/6/45, Cooley to Smart, 7/9/45, Legis 17436; Notes on mtg of Camp Com, 7/10/45, USC, Am Council; FO Rpt 3, pp 19-24; WRA, Semi-Annual Rpt, 7/1/45-12/31/45, p 33, FO Rpts; NYHT, 6/27/45, 3; Myer to Ickes, 6/30/ 45, WRA 003; NYT, 10/5/45, 21, 10/ 16/45, 25; Dickstein to HST, 10/3/45, NRS558.

84 NYT, 12/23/45, 1, 10. For Truman's overall policy on rhe European DP problem, see Leonard Dinnerstein, Am & the Survivors of the Holocaust (1982).

85 JPC 1087-91, 2075. Sixty-six of the refugees had already returned voluntarily to Yugoslavia (Vance et al to State, Justice, & Interior Depts, 10/24/45, TI:I, Paneling. of Refs at FO).

86 JPC 1091.

87 AJC, Memo to Members, '1/14/46, AJC, Imgn Series, Refs-Rescue of; Syracuse Post-Standard, 1/2/46, wRA 190.

88 Saunders to Smart, 9/20/44, Silver· man to Smart, 5/14/45, Smart to Silverman, 5/18/45, WRA 130; Oswego Palladium-Times, 8/4/45, WRA 190; Nash to Markley, 9/7/44, Smart to Nash, 9/11/44, WRA 170; Rpts Office Narrative Rpt for 8/44, WRA 180; FO Rpt 2, p 7; Markley, New Residents of Am, 2/13/46, p 20, Markley, Prelim Rpt 2, 1/21/46, pp 4-5, Markley, Prelim Rpt 7, 1/28/46, p 3, FO Rpts; FOH, 53-77; Whitney to Jones, 9/9/44, AF, RS, Internees, AF Proj at ERS, FO; Godfrey to ER, 2/17/45, ER 1758/100; PM, 2/27/ 45, 10; NYP, 11/22/44, 8; Time, 8/6/45, 22.

89 FO Rpt 2, p 8; TS, 8; Godfrey to ER, 2/17/45, ER 1758/100.

90 Pitts to Myer, 6/12/45, WRA 007.1; numerous newspaper clippings in WRA 190; Syracuse Post-Standard [7/2/45], Legis 17436; Markley, Prelim Rpt 7, 1/ 28/46, P 1, FO Rpts.

91 FOH, 56; FO Rpt 2, p 8; Burke to Wagner, 5/21/45, Nase to Hawkes, 5/ 31/45, TH, May-June 1945; Myer to Ickes, 6/30/45, with enclosed "Rpt on the Hearing at FO, " WRA 003; Quinn to HST, 6/4/45, SD, R/6-445; Ltr from Litchfield, 6/10/45, SD, R/5-1045. The extensive press coverage on the hearings is reflected in TH, Newspaper Clippings file; & in Legis 17436, Clippings file; also Time, 8/6/45, 22, and Newsweek 7/ 16/45, 30. Correspondence to the Dickstein committee, including the 3 quotations, is in: Com VI-Incoming Corresp file in Legis 17436.

92 Eg, Biddle to FDR, 12/29/44, FDR, OF 3186; Joy to Burton, 5/4/44, Burton to Joy, 5/7/44, USC, Sen Burton; Dubin to Loeb, 5/23/45, NRS 552; Dubin, Rpt on discussion wirh Travers, 12/5/45, NRS 558; Pehle, Memo, 4/15/44, TH 1; Draft Itr to Mrs. Morgenthau [10/44], TH 7; HID, 9783.

93 Memo on Ber Cf on rhe Ref Prob (nd), W 3, Ber Cf.

94 FR 1944, v 1, 1076; MD 758/71; H II, 16, Exh K; WH, 286.

95 Clattenburg, Convsn with Schenkolewski, 5/25/44, SD, R/6406; FR 1944, vI, 1076, 1146-7, 1175-80, 1188; WH, 284-5; RM, 56.

96 RM, 55; FSR, 43-4; Memo Concerning Jewish Civil Internees, 5/1/44, W 56, Jews in Eur: Feb-Apr; AI Rpt, 5th, 4; Segal to Slawson, 4/20/44, AJC, Imgn Series, Refs-Rescue of. Some of the camps were at Vittel, Compiegne, Liebenau, & Tittmoning (WH, 247). On this topic, also see YVS, v 1, 125-52.

97 FSR, 33; WH, 247, 253; BL to Travers, 12/16/43, BLP, B 202, Refs; RM, 54-5; FR 1944, vi, 1000-1; Memo Concerning Jewish Civil Internees, 5/11 44, W 56, Jews in Eur: Feb-Apr.

98 MD 718/224, 723/347-8; Polish Emb (Wn), Memo, 12/24/43, SD, R/ 5054; Travers to Tress, 1/11144, SD, R/ 5053; RM, 57; JM, Memo for Files Re Paraguayan Citizens in Fr, 2/21/44, W 46, LA Passports 1; Hull to Istanbul, 12/ 29/43, SD, R/4969.

99 MD 718/89-90, 224; FR 1944, v 1, 1000-1, 1023-4; WH, 247.

100 MD 718/90-2, 173, 194, 222-4, 719/181; C1attenburg, Memo of Cf [4/ 10/44], SD, R/3-2344.

101 MD 718/92, 106-15, 172, 192, 225; AI Rpt, 6th, 5; FR 1944, v 1, 1023- 4; Tait to Huddle, 4/19/44 (twice), JKH to Tait, 4/21144, W 56, Jews in Eur.

102 Clattenburg, Memo of Cf [4/10/ 44], SD, R/3-2344; MD 719/158, 180.

103 Clattenburg, Memo of Cf [4/10/ 44], SD, R/3-2344; FR 1944, v 1, 1024- 5; MD 718/194.

104 Clattenburg, Memo of Cf [4/10/ 44], SD, R/3-2344; FR 1944, v 1, 1026- 7, 1086-7; WH, 252-62. Peru did not comply (WH, 261).

105 WH, 262, 268-9; FR 1944, v 1, 1071-3, 1085-6, 1100-2, 1131, 1141, 1154, 1161; RM, 56-7; FSR, 34; Mc- Cormack to Exec Dir, 2/19[45], W 28, WRB (2 entries: Lat Am Passports & Exchange).

106 Rosenheim to Pehle, 112/45, W 46, LA Passports; RM, 57; Rescue, 10/44, 11; Am Legation (Bern) to Swiss Div of Foreign Interests, 2/15/45, W 56, Jews in Eur; PR, 1977 (v 22/4), 12; MD 718/ 89-90, 759/220.

107 Hayes, Memo re Baraibar, 3/18/43, CH, B 3, Jordana; Excerpts & Summary of Rpt on Spain from Conard, 11/20/43, AF, RS 6; Avni, 131-8. More regarding the Sephardic Jews appears in Avni, ch 5.

108 Hayes, Memo re Baraibar, 3/18/43, CH, B 3, Jordana; Blickenstaff to Boyer- Mas, 12/7/43, u/c Mann Rpt; Excerpts & Summary of Rpt on Spain from Conard, 11/20/43, AF, RS 6; Avni, 141-2.

109 Avni, 142, 144, 147-56; Blickenstaff to Pan de Soraluce, 11/10/43, AF, FS, Ctry Sp 1943-45, Ltrs, Conlid; MD 702/36; Rescue, 11/44, 7; NYT, 2/17/ 44, 7.

110 Avni, 162; MD 752/131, 778/54, 793/287; Hull to Madrid, 9/11/44, SD, R/9-1144; Pehle to Leavitt, 10/24/44, W 19, AJJDC 1. WH, 274, mentions the evacuation of an additional 500 Sephardic Jews in late spring or summer 1944. FR 1944, v 1, 1036, repeats it. This is an error, probably based on a misreading of MD 752/131. The correct information appears in CH 2, pp 5-6, & CH 3, p4.

111 Kershner to Joy, 1/31144, use, AF; FR 1944, v 2, 266, 271-2; MD 706/ 311; FSR, 55-6.

112 GR, i, ii, iv, 14; Laughlin to Pehle, 3/7/44, W 9, Gr Relief Prog; FR 1943, v 4, 167-8, 172-5; Hull to Cairo, 3/23/ 44, SD, R/5481B; NYT, 10/6/44, 1, 4, 5, 11/1/44, 7. The depth of suffering in Greece is readily seen in NYT dispatches in early 1942 (eg, 1/19, 3, 1128, 12, 2/7, 4, 2/15, 25, 3/1, 27). The agreement with Germany permitted the removal of surplus varieties of food from Greece, but only if they were replaced with other food (GR, i). There were several indications of German violations (eg, NYT, 9/7/43, 12, 1/9/44, 31, 8/2/ 44, 8, 8/3/44, 10). But other reputable reports denied violations (eg, CSM, 4/9/ 43, 11; NYT, 4/20/43, 22, 4/21/43, 11).

113 Hyman, Extension of Relief in Occupied Poland, 11/13/42, Baerwald to Wise, 11/27/42, JDC, G/E, Poland, Gen; AF Mins, For Serv Section (Ctr, Ref & Relief), 5/27/43; AF Mins, Jt For Serv Exec Com (Ctr, Ref & Relief), 6/ 24/43; Boris Shub, Starvation Over Europe (Made in Germany) (1943); CW, 4/ 30/43, 3-8; NYT, 11/13/43, 8.

114 NYT, 5/12/43, 4; FR 1943, v 1, 387; FR 1944, v 2, 254; FR 1945, v 5, 29.

115 Long, Convsn with Goldmann, Wise, & Acheson, 9/29/42, Brandt, Convsn with Leavitt, Baerwald, Hyman, et al, 12/2/42, BLP, B 209, Special Div Relief for Jews; BLD, 261-2; Hayes to Leavitt, 8/4/42, Buchman to Hayes, 8/ 7/42, Leavitt to Schwartz, 12/13/42, Katzki to AJDC, 5/4/43, 6/8/43, 8/19/ 43, Leavitt to AJDC Lisbon, 8/2/43, JDC, G/E, Poland, Gen; CW, 5/14/43, 13-4; JF, 3/42, 4-5, 3/43, 3; FR 1943, v 1, 386-7; Lehman to Acheson, 3/16/43, BLP, B 194, For Relief& Rehab.

116 Detzer, Appointment, 244-9; Kershner to ER, 6/5/42, ER 2607/170; NYT, 12/4/42, 17; NYT (1943), 1/23, 7, 3/12, 7, 5/21, 18, 1115, 2, 11/8, 6, 11/15, 24, 11/16, 20, 12/27, 15; NYT, 3/12/44, rv, 6; Israel, 160; AF Mins, Jt For SeIVExec Com (Ctr, Ref & Relief), 6/24/43, 11/1/ 43; Johnson to ER, 3/30/44, ER 1729/ 100.

117 NYT (1943), 7/9, 4, 11/5, 2, 11/11, 8, 11/12, 14, 11/27, 12, 12/21, 10; NYT (1944), 1/28, 19, 1/30, 36, 2/16, 34, 3/ 12, rv, 6, 4/18, 5, 6/5, 14; Sen Rpt No 624 (78 Cong, 1st ses), 12/20/43; SFE, 12/21/43, 9; Detzer, Appointment, 245- 51; S Res 100, u/c Mins of Exec Com of NRS, 5/20/43, AF, RS, C/O, NRS; WP, 1/25/44, 10, 3/25/44, 10; Johnson to ER, 3/30/44, ER 1729/100. The Gallup poll recorded 22% opposed & 13% with no opinion (NYT, 2/12/44, 6).

118 FR 1944, v 2, 252-64, 268-81, 285-300; FR 1945, v 5, 26-31; CEP Jour, 7/13/44; Stettinius, Convsn with Kershner, 8/9/44, BLP, B 202, Relief.

119 My Day, 3/6/44 release, ER, B 3148; WP, 3/2/44, 13.

120 CEP Jour, 1/16/43, 3/26/43, 4/12/ 43, 6/15/43, 7/13/44; Long, Convsn with Pehle, 10/28/43, SD 862.4016/ 2292; BLD, 258, 277.

121 MD 701/262.

122 WH, 10, 351; FSR, 57-8; Schauffler to Branson, 4/11/44, AF, FS, Food & Feeding; Peduck to Mign Staff, 3/24/ 44, NRS 585; NYT, 4/15/44, 12.

123 WH, 10, 329; FSR, 56-7. This proposal had been advocated by the UOR as early as 1942 and by the JEC in the program it sent to Bermuda in 1943 (BG, 6/25/42, 14; CW, 4/30/43, 14).

124 WH, 329-30, 1176-8; Huber to Harrison, 5/12/44, W 47, IRC.

125 MD 744/191, 755/290; Rpt to the President, u/c O'Dwyer to HST, 6/25/ 45, W 51, Food Pkgs 6; Foreign War Relief Operations (House Doc 262), 7/ 17/45, 94; Zollinger to Pehle, 7/26/44, PSC 1/12; WH, 336; RM, 45; Burckhardt, Communique 284b, 5/17/45, W 60, ICRC/Camps.

126 MD 744/191; FR 1944, v 2, 267; Rpt to the President, u/c O'Dwyer to HST, 6/25/45, W 51, Food Pkgs 6; RM, 46; FSR, 14-5, 58; WH, 7, 341-2. At the end of 1944, blockade authorities authorized 300, 000 additional food parcels, and Roosevelt allotted $1, 125, 000 more from foreign-war-relief funds. But these parcels were not ready before the war in Europe ended.

127 FSR, 58-9; WH, 342-5; FR 1945, v 2, 1136-40; MD 826/90-4, 840/226.

128 Harrison to SS, 3/22/45, W 60, ICRC/Camps; MD 834/172, 840/226; RM, 52-3; FSR, 59; McC to O'Dwyer, 4/13/45, W 4, Central L I; Harrison to SS, 4/27/45, 5/4/45, W 44, Switz-New Prog. Felix Kersten was probably involved in these arrangements (Kersten, Memoirs, 9-21, 275-80).

129 Numbers in parentheses refer to pages in this book.

Evacuation: via Turkey, 4, 000-5, 000 (pages 216-20); via Spain, 1, 000 (page 226); from Finland, 150 (page 231); to Switz, 4, 250 (page 233); to Switz by negotiations, 2, 896 (pages 246-7, 250); Hungary to Rumania, 2, 000 (page 233); Hungary to Yugoslavia, some (pages 229, 233).

Protection: McClelland's fund, 8, 000 & up (page 232); exchanges & Latin American document recognition, 2, 000 (pages 277, 279).

Diplomatic/Psychological: Transnistria (pages 219-20); Budapest (pages 237-8, 240-3).

Non-Jews Evacuated: to Sweden, 16, 200 (pages 229-30); to Switz, 1, 400 (page 284); Yugoslavs (by reopening flow in spring 1944), 5, 000-6, 000 (pages 227-8); also Wilson to AGWAR for CCS, 5/24/44, 6/9/44, W 14, It 2).

The WRB left no final estimate of the numbers it helped save, only referring to "tens of thousands" (WH, 13). In Feb 1945, the WRB did calculate that about 126, 604 (Jews & non-Jews) had been rescued since its formation (McCormack to Exec Dir, 2/19[45], W 28, WRB 3).

130 Hn to Lubin, 4/20/44, FDR, OF 5477; Hn to Cox, 3/13/44, OC; H III, 8. Excluding Soviet Jews, about 1, 000, 000Jews remained alive in Europe at the end of the war-though estimates ranged as high as 1, 500, 000 (FSR, 72; Pinkerton to SS, 6/23/45, SO, R/6-2345; NYT, 1/11/45, 17, 5/24/45, 7).

131 Hyman to Warburg, 5/10/44, JDC, Rpts; CEP Jour, 4/4/44; RM, 75.

132 WH, 1300; Pickett to Pehle, 10/ 18/44, AF, RS, US Govt, WRB; Kalmanowitz to Pehle, 2/1/45, W 27, VH; Mohler to Mulholland, 6/11/45, Mulholland to Mohler, 6/13/45, BI 98, WRB, W-1.

133 AAF, 636-7, 649; NYT, 7/24/44, 1, 8/3/44, 1, 8/22/44, 1; KCS, 8/6/44, lOA, 8/25/44, 2; WP, 8/31/44, 4; Marks, Draft Exec Order, 9/12/44, W 28, WRB 3; MD 799/179-80, 800/1-6, 12, 245; NYHT, 12/1/44, 17.

134 Pehle to Hoffman, 12/23/44, W 9, M Hoffman; MD 809/91, 812/202; Memo beginning, "The Emerg Com ... has noted with regret" (nd), A. W. Bennet Papers, B 25, F I, J Affairs; Bergson to Celler, 1/8/45, PSC 1/16; NYP, 1/29/ 45, 4; NYT, 1/28/45, 19; Pehle to WRB, 1/27/45, W 28, WRB 3.

135 O'Dwyer biographical data, 4/6/ 45, W 26, Un J Welfare Fund; FEA, Brief Review of O'Dwyer's Activities (nd), O'Dwyer; NYT, 4/7/42, 23, 6/24/ 44, 7, 9/5/44, 3, 11/7/45, 2.

136 AF Mins, For Serv Staff, 3/19/45; MD 816/45-6, 823/240, 825/134, 826/ 14; Schauffler to Jones, 2/21/45, AF, FS 4; O'Dwyer's Press Cf, 1/31/45, W 28, WRB 3; NYT, 1/31/45, 23, 2/2/45, 4, 5/2/45, 12.

137 MD 825/92, 134, 8281/104, 831/ 229-30, 839/110, 124-6A, 243, 847/31- 2, 132-4; Schauffler to Jones, 2/21/45, Jones to Schauffler, 5/16/45, MEJ, Cf with Silverman, 5/2/45, AF, FS 4; NYP, 1/29/45, 4; 3 vols of press clippings on O'Dwyer & the mayoralty race, W 53, O'Dwyer; NYT, 5/30/45. 21. O'Dwyer announced his availability for the mayoralty of New York on May 31. He was elected in November by a wide margin. (NYT, 6/1/45, 1, 11/7/45, 1.)

138 DuBois-Jarvik interview, 10/23/78; Pehle-Jarvik interview, 10/16/78. The WRB was officially disbanded by executive order on 9/14/45 (Federal Register, 9/15/45, 11789).
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Re: The Abandonment of the Jews: American and the Holocaust,

Postby admin » Sat Apr 21, 2018 2:54 am

CHAPTER 15. THE BOMBING OF AUSCHWITZ

1 15AF, Historical Summary: First Year of Operations (1944), 5, in RG 243, 58, Sec 3.

2 Rudolf Vrba & Alan Bestic, I Cannot Forgive (1964), 198, 231-4, 247-9; GEC (quotation is from pp 14, 16).

3 Vrba & Bestic, I Cannot Forgive, 249-50; Braham I, 1014; Livia Rotkirchen, The Destruction of Slovak Jewry: A Documentary History (1961), xli; Dulles to McC, 6/15/44, with enclosures, McC to Pehle, 10/12/44, W 61, Extmn Camps; Gerhart Riegner to David Wyman, 5/25/77; MD 750/354- 60, 751/239, 800/193; WH, 447.

4 WLB, v 27, 1973/74, 42; Manchester Guardian, 6/27/44, 4, 8, 6/28/44, 8; NYT, 6/20/44, 5. McClelland telegraphed an 8-page summary of the report to Washington on 7/6/44 (Harrison to SS, 7/6/44, W 56, Jews in Eur; MD 750/354-60).

5 "Explanation of wire from our friends in Slovakia" (nd), with attached telegram, W 62, UOR Gan-June 1944).

6 "Just now a second telegramme" [5/ 23/44], with attached telegram, McC to de Jong, 5/25/44, with enclosure, Harrison to SS, 6/2/44, Sternbuch to McC, 6/22/44, W 62, UOR.

7 Pinkerton to SS, 6/2/44, W 34, Hung 2 (last); Yalkut Moreshet, 6/71, 87-8, 102.

8 MB & GFl, "We are sending you, " 5/22/44, W 61, Extmn Camps; Riegner to Wyman, 5/25/77.

9 Dulles to McC, 6/15/44, with enclosures, W 61, Extmn Camps; Riegner to Wyman, 5/25/77; MD 750/184-8.

10 Paraphrase of cable [6/12/44], attached to Hilldring to OPD, 6/23/44, RG 165(1); Polityka, 8/9/75; PR, 1977 (v 22/4), 14; Rosenheim to Morgenthau, Hull, Stimson, 6/18/44, W 35, Hung 5.

11 Office of ASW to WRB, 6/20/44, ASW 5; Hilldring to OPD, 6/23/44, RG 165(1); Pehle, Memo for Files, 6/24/44, W 35, Hung 5.

12 Ray Cline, Washington Command Post: The Operations Division (1951), ix; CAD D/F (Hilldring to OPD), 6/23/44, inc date stamps, RG 16.5, CAD 383.7 (1) (1-21-43) Sec 2; Hull to ASW, 11114/ 44, ASW 2; all of RG 165(1).

13 FR 1944, v 1, 987-90; MD 699/22; TRH, Memo for Record [6/26/44], RG 165(1); Pasco to Gailey, 2/7/44, Handy to Chief of Staff, 2/8/44, JHC, Memo for Record (nd), RG 165, OPD 334.8, WRB, Sec I, case 1.

14 TRH, Memo for Record [6/26/44], RG 165(1); Morgenthau to McCloy, 1/ 28/44, ASW 5.

15 Same as preceding note; also Mc- Narney to ASW, 2/6/44, ASW 5.

16 WH, 439, 1315; Gerhardt, Memo for Sub-com, 2/11/44, Mtg Held at 4:00, 2/11/44, ASW 5; Saxon, Rpt to Pehle, 4/10/44, Ackermann to Pehle, 5/24/44, W 70, Evacn of Yugo Refs. Five months later, Caffey remained wholly uncooperative (Ackermann to Pehle, 9/7/44, W I, Ack). Herbert Lehman, director of UNRRA, found the military similarly unwilling to cooperate in his organization's efforts (Allan Nevins, Herbert H. Lehman & His Era [1963], chs 11-12).

17 OPD DIF (Hull to CAD), 6/26/44, RG 165(1).

18 Gerhardt, Memo for Sub-com, 2/ 11/44, Mtg Held at 4:00, 2/11144, ASW 5.

19 FR 1943, v 1, 176, 295-9; BL, "I talked to Gen Strong, " 4/22/43, SD 548.G1I4-2243; BL, Memo, 4/26/43, SD, Rl4-2643. Re transport of non-Jewish refugees to Africa, see pages 338-9.

20 FR 1943, v 1, 366; Relief & Evacn Projects, 1/27/44, BLP, B 204, Refs Relief & Evacn Proj; MD 689/203-5, 693/ 190, 196, 200; Hilldring to ASW, 1125/ 44, ASW 4; Stettinius to The Secy, 1/8/ 44, BLP. B 202, Refs; Mtg Held at 4:00, 2/11/44, ASW 5.

21 Stettinius to The Secy, 1/8/44, BLP, B 202, Refs.

22 MD 699/31-2, 701/165; WH, 98- 9. Ultimately, most of the Jews on Rab were evacuated by Tito's partisans and survived the war. But several hundred were caught by the Germans and deported. Britain's extreme callousness toward the Rab refugees was traced by Menachem Shelach in Yalkut Moreshet, 4/83, 203-11.

23 Harrison to SS, 6/24/44, ASW 3.

24 Pehle to McCloy, 6/29/44, HAG to McCloy, 7/3/44, McCloy to Pehle, 7/4/ 44, ASW 3.

25 Akzin to Lesser, 6/29/44, W 35, Hung 5.

26 MD 750/184-8; Summary of Steps, 7/13/44, Pehle to Stettinius, 7/13/44, Draft memos to Secy War, to President, & to Stimson, 7/13/44, Pehle to Morgenthau, 9/6/44, W 34, Hung 1; Pehle to McCloy, 10/3/44, W 35, Hung 5.

27 Smertenko to FDR, 7/24/44, SD, R/ 7-2444.

28 Ans, 7/5/43, 6; NYT, 7/20/44, 4; FR 1943, v 1, 406-7; Smertenko to FDR, 7/24/44, SD, R/7-2444; FH, Memo for Files, 8/5/44, AA, draft Itr to Smertenko (nd), W 35, Hung 5; Bergson to Jt Chiefs of Staff, 9/16/44, JCS 180th Mtg (Retaliation for Extmn), 10/3/44, Hull, Memo for Record, 10/5/44, JCS, Memo for Record (nd), Leahy to HCNL, 10/4/44, RG 218, CCS 385.3 (9-16-44); Bergson to FDR, 10/17/44, FDR, OF 3186.

29 Kubowitzki to McCloy, 8/9/44, ASW 1.

30 McCloy to Kubowitzki, 8/14/44, ASW 1. No such study was ever made.

31 Akzin to Pehle, 9/2/44, W 35, Hung 5; Kalmanowitz to Pehle, 9/11/ 44, W 36, Hung 6.

32 Winant to SS, 9/29/44, Proskauer to Pehle, 9/26/44, UOR & VH to Pehle, 9/26/44, W 18, Poland 1; Lesser, "Germans, " 9/27/44, Pehle to Morgenthau, 11/3/44, W 72, Eisenhower Stmt; Pehle to McCloy, 10/3/44, ASW 3.

33 HAG to McCloy, 10/5/44, ASW 3.

34 OPD Routing Form, 9/29/44, RG 165, OPD 383.7, Sec 2, case 26(2); Arnold to Spaatz (41089), 10/4/44, Daily Staff Mtg #4, 10/5/44, Spz, B 19, Oct 44 Official; Anderson to Spaatz (CSI78EC) [10/5/44], Spz, B 37, Cables Oct 44.

35 Mannon to Pehle, 11/16/44, Hodel, Memo, 11/2/44, Pehle to McCloy, 11/8/ 44, W 6, Ger Extmn Camps; Pehle-Jarvik interview, 10/16/78.

36 OPD Routing Form, 11/8/44, RG 165, OPD 000.5, Sec 3, case 53; Hull to ASW, 11114/44, ASW 2.

37 Hull to ASW, 11/14/44, McCloy to Pehle, 11/18/44, ASW 2. The US Air Force's ability to reach Auschwitz is shown later in this chapter.

38 Garlinski, 260-2.

39 AAF, xii, 47, 66, 792-3; WF, 132- 3, 136; Sunderman, 174.

40 AAF, 283; Eaker to Spaatz (CS440IE), 5/8/44, Spz I, Oil Tgts; Eaker to Spaatz (CS719IE), 6/27/44, Spz, B 35, Cables June 44; CS; M Rpts, reel A6465 (7/7/44), fr 1029, 1031, 1040, 1050, 1052, 1138, 1178; Infield, 166. It should be noted that neither the Normandy invasion of June 6 nor the ensuing drive across France drew on 15AF resources. The August invasion of southern France only very briefly took a small amount of 15AF power, for the tactical 12AF assumed most of that responsibility. (AAF, 174-9, 297, 420- 37.)

41 Aiming Points Rpts, Oswiecim, 11 21/44, Blechhammer N & S, 3/15/44, RG 243, Sec 4-1g (141, 142, 163); Spaatz to Eaker (586), 4/27/44, Eaker to Spaatz (CS440IE), 5/8/44, Spz 1, Oil Tgts. The Air Force made reconnaissance photographs of the Auschwitz complex on Apr 4, 1944, and had a map of it available in May (M Rpts, reel A6494, fr 1602).

42 AAF, 177-9, 292-6, 645, 794-6; WF, 46-7, 237-40.

43 AAF, 177-8; WF, facing 47; CS; Infield, 181; KCS, 8/21/44, 4. There actually were two major target complexes at Blechhammer, North & South.

44 DO, 8/44; CS; Syn Oil Plant of I. G. Farben at Oswiecim (nd), RG 243, GS 5612. The all-black 332 Fighter Group piloted 57 of the Mustangs (AAF, facing 329).

45 DO, 9/44; Syn Oil Plant of I. G. Farben at Oswiecim (nd), RG 243, GS 5612; Hefte van Auschwitz, v 8 (1964), 66. The Liberators attacked from the west, thus flying directly over the gas chambers.

46 NYT, 8/21/44, 6, 9/14/44, 6; WP, 8/21/44, 3 (UP rpt); KCS, 8/21/44, 4, 9/14/44, 2 (AP rpts).

47 DO, 12/44.

48 DO, 8/44; CS; M Rpts, reel A6473 (8/22/44), fr 595; Infield, 181.

49 AAF, 72-9, 149-62, 371-2, 405, 652; WF, 260; 15AF Attacks Against Bridges, 6/7/44, Spz, B 18, June 44 Official; Miller to Maxwell, 10/18/44, Spz 1, Com & Trans.

50 AAF, 473, 655, 736, 746; Hilary Saunders, Royal Air Force, 1939-1945, v 3 (1954), 223-5.

51 Braham I, 794; CS; M Rpts, reel A6465 (7/7/44), fr 1029, 1031, 1040, 1050, 1178, reel A6473 (8/20/44), fr 172-3, 178, 214, reel A6473 (8/22/44), fr 583, 595, 606, 816, reel A6474 (8/27/ 44), fr 730, 733, 741, 746, reel A6477 (9/13/44), fr 623, 651, reel A6481 (10/ 13/44), fr 740, 775, 942, 957, reel A6481 (10/14/44), fr 1412, 1441, 1446, reel A6482 (10/17/44), fr 658.

52 Sternbuch to VH, 8/28/44, 9/13/ 44, VH, B 20; M Rpts, reel A6477 (9/ 13/44), fr 623, 651; CS; Interpretation Rpt No DB 214, 9/16/44 (Vrutky), RG 243, GS 5612.

53 Smolen, 209-13.

54 Jan Sehn, German Crimes in Poland, v 1 (1946), 84-5, 88, fig 7; GEC, 6, 7, 15, 22; Garlinski, 77, 89; Ota Kraus & Erich Kulka, The Death Factory (1966), 15 (fig 2); MD 750/184-8, 354-60; NYT, 2/24/79, 2; Studies in Intelligence, winter 1978-79, 11-29; Military Intelligence, 1/83, 50-5.

55 Syn Oil Plant of I. G.-Farben at Oswiecim (nd), RG 243, GS 5612; Military Intelligence, 1/83, 50-5.

56 AAF, 795. Bombing accuracy was also hampered by darkness. But the missions to Upper Silesia took place in daylight. (DO, 7/44-11/44.)

57 Eaker to Giles, 8/31/44, 10/5/44, IE, B 22, Corresp with Giles II; Cabell to Eaker, 10/30/44, IE, B 24, MAAF II; 00, 7/44-11/44; Eaker to Spaatz (CS171IE), 9/14/44, Spz, B 36, Cables Sept 44; Robert Poirier to David Wyman, 3/8/80; Notes on CE, Bari, 10/ 15/44, Spz 1, Flak Defenses; CS.

58 M Rpts, reel A6473 (8/20/44), fr 140, reel A6477 (9/13/44), fr 628.

59 MD750/354-60, 184-8; Olga Lengyel, Five Chimneys (1947), 123, 155-6; C___ B___ interview with Wyman, 4/17/77; C___ B___ to David Wyman, 4/18/78. Similar reactions have been recorded by many survivors of Auschwitz. Eg, Pelagia Lewinska, Twenty Months at Auschwitz (1968), 21; Elie Wiesel, Night (1960), 67; J Observer, 1/79, 45; Commentary, 7/78, 9- 10.

60 Sunderman, 320-1; AAF, 376-7, 382-3, 399. If necessary, medium bombers could have landed at partisan-held airfields in Yugoslavia.

61 AAF, 283; M Rpts, Narrative Rpt, Mission #702, 82 Fighter Group (6/10/ 44) (Xerox copy).

62 Infield, 68; Eaker to Spaatz (CS440IE), 5/8/44, Spz 1, Oil Tgts.

63 Philip Birtles, Mosquito (1980), 20- 5, 57, 88-93, 137-8, 145-6, 183- 5; Sunderman, 324-7; Saunders, RAF, v 3, 91, 406; NYT, 10/29/44, 7. At least 44 Mosquitoes (and probably more) were stationed at Allied air bases in Italy in June 1944 (EA Munday [Air Historical Branch, Ministry of Defence, London] to David Wyman, 3/29/83).

64 Birtles, Mosquito, 90-5, 135-40; Saunders, RAF, v 3, 91-2; Pehle to McCloy, 11/8/44, McCloy to Pehle, 11/ 18/44, ASW 2.

65 DO & M Rpts show that alternate targets were routinely assigned for each mission and that they were struck fairly often.

66 Smolen, 22, 193-4, 200-1; GEC, 16.

67 Hilberg, 215-9, 255, 628-9; Sehn, German Crimes, v 1, 85-6; Filip Friedman, This Was Oswiecim (1946), 54-5; GEC, part 2, 13.

68 Hilberg, 284, 328-9, 453, 473, 547, 630-1, 727-8; Raul Hilberg to David Wyman, 5/27/77; Smolen, 209-13; Friedman, Oswiecim, 25; YVS, v 8, 22.

69 Ernst Schnabel, Anne Frank: A Portrait in Courage (1958), 117, 135, 148- 52, 160, 166, 174; Jacob Presser, The Destruction 01 the Dutch Jews (1969), 483-4.

70 OWl Pr Rei, 6/13/44, W 4, Camps; Hilldring to McCloy, 1/25/44, ASW 4; Ackermann to Murphy, 5/5/44, Ackermann to Pehle, 5/11/44, W 1, Ack. The evacuation of 100, 000 non-Jews is discussed in ch 16.

71 Japan Qtrly, fall 1975, 340-5; Harper's, 2/47, 105; Amherst: The College & Its Alumni, winter 1976, 31. Stimson himself regarded Kyoto as "a target of considerable military importance" (Harper's, 2/47, 105).

72 AAF, 316; Infield, ch 13; John Slessor, The Central Blue (1957), 612-3, 620-1; Burns, 534-5.

73 Slessor, Central Blue, 614-20; Db· server (London), 8/16/64, 9; AAF, 316.

74 Winston Churchill, The Second World War: Triumph & Tragedy (1953), 128-45; AAF, 317; Warsaw Dropping Opns [10/9/44], Anderson to Kuter, 9/ 24/44, Spz 2. With the election at hand, concern about the Polish-American vote may have influenced FDR. He and other Democratic leaders were worried about holding this large, normally Democratic constituency. (Robert Divine, Foreign Policy & U.S. Presidential Elections, 1940-1948 (1974), 109-12, 138-42.)

75 Anderson to Kuter, 9/24/44, War· saw Dropping Opns [10/9/44], Spz 2; McDonald to Dep Commanding Gen, Opns, 10/14/44, Spz, B 139, Neut & Occup Countries: Poland; Infield, 169.

76 McDonald to Dep Commanding Gen, Opns, 10/14/44, Spz, B 139, Neut & Occup Counties: Poland.

77 Ibid.

78 Burns, 534-5; Churchill, Triumph & Tragedy, 135, 139-44; AAF, 317; Anderson to Kuter, 9/24/44, Warsaw Dropping Opns [10/9/44], Spz 2. Archives I have searched concerning FDR and the Auschwitz bombing issue in· c1ude those of FDR, War Dept, WRB, Stimson, Hopkins, Rosenman, ER, Henry Morgenthau, Jr. An exhaustive search made in 1983by Washington Post reporter Morton Mintz showed that the bombing proposals almost certainly did not reach Roosevelt and most likely were not discussed at all beyond OPD (WP, 4/17/83, D1-D2; telephone convsns Morton Mintz & David Wyman, 3/25/ 83, 3/29/83, 4/5/83).

79 Hull to ASW, 11/14/44, ASW 2; CS; Infield, 181; M Rpts, reel A6473 (8/ 20/44), fr 170, 172.

80 Hilberg, 631; Garlinski, 247-9; Yuri Suhl (ed), They Fought Back (1967), 219-23.

CHAPTER 16. RESPONSIBILITY  
1 Parts of this chapter are supported by data presented in the foregoing chapters. For the most part, only new sources of information will be cited in the notes for this chapter. Wise to FDR, 3/4/45, FDR, PPF 3292, Wise.

2 MD 701/250. In July 1943, FDR did speak briefly about the Riegner plan with Stephen Wise. But this was subsidiary to their main discussion. The President also saw the seven Jewish congressmen in April 1943.See ch 4, source note 42.

3 Led by Stephen Wise, millions of American Jews venerated FDR (eg, Wise, ch 13; Celler to FDR, 12/15/44, PSC 3/63; Neumann, Arena, 184, 200, 206-7; JO, 1/42, 2; NYT, 6/29/43, 13). To note but one typical example, Louis Levinthal, president of ZOA, drew consolation in the wake of the Bermuda fiasco from his belief that "we do have genuine, loyal friends, in government and outside of government circles, and none more genuine, more loyal than our beloved President, Franklin Delano Roosevelt" (NP, 5/7/43, 15). Helen Fein provides insight into the Jewish relationship with FDR in Patterns of Prejudice, 9/73, 22-8. Also relevant is Fuchs, Political Behavior, 71-5, 99-107.

4 Burns, 397; Alfange-Wyman interview, 3/22/79.

5 MD 106/275-6, 147/375, 151/32, 155/41-2, 692/288-90, 694/191; MPD, v 5, 1200-1, 1338-41; Hull, Memoirs, 1530-1; Convsn ER with Rosenheim et al, 10/14/44, JM, 324 ER; NG, Interview with Rosenman, 10/6/43, AHS, Ma 1-93, Rosenman; Celler speech, 10/23/ 75, at J Hist Soc of NY.

6 FR, The Conferences at Washington, 1941-1942, & Casablanca, 1943 (1968), 608, 611; Wyman, 27, 232; Davie, Refugees in America, 6.

7 OC, B 101, Refugee file; HID, 9789, 10187, 10190; Kingdon to Ickes, 2/1/45, Ickes to Rogers, 12/9/43, HI, Associations; CW, 1/18/43, 2; Lubin to Hassett, 3/8/45, 3/12/45, FDR, OF 700.

8 Eg, Flournoy to Travers & Holmes, 3/30/45, SD 150.01Bills/3-3045; Martin Weil, A Pretty Good Club (1978), esp ch 2.

9 NYT, 10/31142, 5, 9/11/43, 8, 6/27/ 44, 6, 7/15/44, 3; MD 6921291, 695/31, 696/87.

10 Description of Cone Camp at Oswiecim, 8/43, u/c Belin to Langer, 4/10/ 44, RG 226, R & A 66059.

11 Dulles to McC, 6/15/44; with enclosures, W 61, Extmn Camps; ass R & A Field Memo 257, 5/10/45, ass Records 1944, Hoover Institution; CJR, 10/44, 524. Visser 't Hooft (Memoirs, 168) gives further evidence of Dulles's indifference. Werner Rings's account of events in Switzerland connected with the Vrba-Wetzler report, including Dulles's reaction to it, is heavily flawed (Advokaten des Feindes [1966], 144-6).

12 Lesser to Pehle, 4/18/44, JBF, Memo beginning, "1. The WRB established by, " 4/20/44, W 50, OSS.

13 Margoshes in Day, 3/19/43, 1; Allan Winkler, Politics of Propaganda (1978), index; Allan Winkler to Eliyho Matzozky, 12/28/78 (copy in Wyman files); Mannon, Memo for Files, 11/22/44, Davis to Pehle, 11123/44, W 6, Ger Extmn Camps; Mtg of PC, 12/17/42, WJC, UI85/3; WJC, Unity in Dispersion, 163.

14 Wyman, 48; MD 696/204, 206, 219, 697/17; Ltrs to Shad Polier, 1/39, in Memo to File re Ref Children, 5/13/75, private files of Justine Wise Polier; McDonald to Welles, 8/8/41, JM, P50; McDonald to Grew, 5/21/45, JM, P3; McDonald· to Rosenheim, 2/25/43, JM, P49; McDonald to Taylor, 6/3/43, JM, P55; 57th Mtg of PAC, 3/9/43, JM, P67; Schauffler to Branson et al, 11/6/44, AF, RS 11; Schauffler, Re Visa Policy in SD, with enclosure, 12/21/43, AF, GF 4.

15 55th Mtg of PAC, 9/9/42, Warren to PAC, 10/16/42, 56th Mtg of PAC, 12/1/42, Warren to McDonald, 2/2/42, 54th Mtg of PAC, 6/18/42, JM, P66; JPC 655-6; Warren to McDonald, 5/9/ 44, McDonald to FDR, 5/12/44, JM, P68. The last recorded meeting of the PAC took place in Dec 1943.It met only 10 times between Pearl Harbor and V-E Day.

16 Warren to McDonald, Wise, & Baerwald, 1/18/41, Warren to Mc- Donald & Baerwald, 5/3/41, JM, P65; Lourie to Warren, 11/10/41, JM, P66; JDC file G/E, Austria, Intergovernmental Advisory Com 1938-43, esp Baerwald to Warren, 12/24/41, McDonald to Leavitt, 1/14/43, Buchman to Rosner, 1/19/43, Baerwald to Bressler & Hyman, 5/20/38, Morrissey to Speers, 3/19/41.

17 Convsn ER with Rosenheim et al, 10/14/44, JM, 324 ER; McDonald to ER, 9/5/41, JM, P43; ER to Welles, 3/ 9/42, Boettiger to Thompson, 8/31/42, ER 853/70; FDR to Undersecy of State, 12/10/42, with note ER to FDR, FDR, OF 76C; MD 692/288, 694/86; printed EC brochure, cover missing, p 12, PSC 9/69.

18 Niles: MD 726/146-7. Baruch: Jordan Schwarz, The Speculator: Bernard M. Baruch in Washington (1981), 306- 8, 417-26, 437, 446-7, 457-9, 467-74, 559-66. Lehman: nothing on rescue appears in the relevant archives or in Nevins, Lehman & His Era. Frankfurter: MD 696/122-3; Frankfurter Papers genly; Bruce Murphy, The Brandeis/ Frankfurter Connection (1982), chs 6-8 genly & esp pp 243-5, 252-7, 273-4, 287-96, 308-10. Laqueur's statement (Terrible Secret, 94) that Frankfurter raised the extermination issue with FDR in 1942 is wrong; it is apparently based on the same error by Feingold (Politics of Rescue, 170, 333). Cf Voss, 248-51.

19 MD 693/205-6, 209-10, 694/190, 707/243; Stettinius to Early, 3/8/44, FDR, PSF, Refs; SIR to Watson, 3/17/ 44, FDR to Wise, 7/30/44, with attached note, FDR, PPF 5029; NG, Interview with Rosenman, 10/6/43, AHS, Ma 1-93, Rosenman. Also see Samuel Hand, Counsel & Advise: A Political Biography of Samuel I. Rosenman (1979), 139-40, 233.

20 Berlin, Confidential Memo, 2/24/ 43, AHS, Ma 1-62; BC Mins, 4/25, AM; RR, 63-4; Travers to Foster, 4/6/45, SD 150.01 Bills/3-3045; Joy to Burton, 5/4/ 44, Burton to Joy, 5/7/44, USC, Sen Burton; Biddle to FDR, 12/29/44, FDR, OF 3186; Schauffler, Re Visa Policy in SD, 12/21/43, AF, GF 4; JPC 3246, 3379-80; Kaplan, MASC Mtg, 1/12/43, NRS 326; NYT, 9/22/42, 16; CR, v 89, 8594-5; Com Mtg with Shaughnessy, 11/20/44, Legis 16453; BMM, Memo for Record, 10/20/43, Mohler to Ready, 10/20/43, BI 83, Refs-Restrictions on Admission as Visitors, R-4.

21 [1st] Draft Mins Mign & Alien Status Sub-Com, 2/17/43, NRS 325; Kaplan, MASC Mtg, 1/12/43, NRS 326; Dubin, Rpt on discussion with Travers, 12/5/45, NRS 558; JPC 3246, 3274; Frawley to Vail et al, 10/8/42, Frawley to Pickett & Vail, 12/8/42, AF, GF 3.

22 CW, 1/8/43, 13; NY Daily Mirror, 12/10/43, 25; NYJA, 9/4/43, 4.

23 Randall to Dear Friend, 7/43, Randall & Black to Swing, 5/26/44, WIL, Ref Com, 1938-43, Releases; Randall, The Voice of Thy Brother's Blood (1944) (quote from p 30); Randall to ER, 6/28/ 44, ER 2946/190 Mise; CM, Admin Com, 5/25/44; Digest of Mins of Int Com, 3/21/44, AJHS, 1-67, B 6.

24 NYT, 12/21/42, 17, 3/17/43, 8, 4/ 26/43, 17; Voss-Wyman interview, 2/ 11/78.

25 CC, 12/9/42, 1518-9; Hilberg, 337; Shoah, spr 1981, 20. The general statement on the near silence of the Protestant press is based on my analysis of ten periodicals: Christendom, Christian Century, Christian Register, Christianity and Crisis, Christianity and Society, Churchman, Federal Council Bulletin, Lutheran, Religion in Life, Religious Digest. (The last, while not strictly a Protestant magazine, was heavily Protestant in emphasis.)

Robert Ross, in So It Was True: The American Protestant Press and the Nazi Persecution of the Jews (1980), asserted that "the whole story" of the Nazi extermination of the Jews was published "extensively, continuously, and often comprehensively in the American Protestant press" (p 258). A close reading of his book, however, shows that what Ross actually demonstrated regarding the extermination period (mid-1941 to spring 1945) is the following: (1) two tiny-circulation publications issued by organizations dedicated to converting Jews to Christianity provided fairly thorough (but far from extensive) coverage; (2) the Christian Century and a very few other mainline Protestant periodicals published occasional (and often inconspicuous) reports; and (3) some 25 other Protestant journals said even less, or nothing at all.

The major problem with Ross's assessment of the data is that he added up all the references to Nazi actions against Jews that appeared in some 30 periodicals, and considered that to be such extensive reporting that American Protestants in general were exposed to the whole story. For instance, he found that in 1943 over 100 references appeared in the 31 periodicals he studied. But he did not take cognizance of the fact that few Protestants were reading more than one or two of the magazines. Seen another way, his findings show that, on the average, each periodical carried only a little over three references to the Jewish catastrophe during the entire critical year of 1943 and that no publication had more than nine. Furthermore, as Ross himself noted, many of the reports were only brief items. This is hardly extensive press exposure. Moreover, as he also showed, these Protestant periodicals printed many more references in 1943 than in any of the other extermination years. (So It Was True, 152-284, esp 164, 169-70, 183, 188- 92, 197-202, 217, 220-5, 254-9, 264, 276, 280, 284; also the source notes for these pages.)

26 Mins of Mtg with Pehle, 2/10/44, JDC, WRB; Staff planning cfs, 6/14/44, 7/13/44, AF, FS, Planning Com (Policy); W S Bennet to A W Bennet, 5/10/ 46, A. W. Bennet Papers, B 25, F 1, J Mfairs; Newscast (ACCR), 2/41, 5, 3/41, 5, 4/41, 2, 9-10/44, 2, 1-2/45, 2; Mohler to Mulholland, 8/5/40, BI 87, R-8; Leiper to Pickett, 4/3/40, ACCR, Rpt of Com on Orgzn, 11/26/40, AF, GF, CI 0, ACCR; AJHQ, 12nl, 125-7; Cavert to Dexter, 9/15/43, FCC, B 9, Genl Secy's Files, Foreign Corresp; CEP Jour, 3/17/42, 5/26/42.

27 NCWC, Progress Rpt 1943: WRS-NCWC (1943), 1; Chr R, 5/43, 179.

28 J. F. Rummel, Tenth Annual Rpt of the Catholic Com for Refs [1946], 27; Staff planning cfs, 6/14/44, 7/13/44, AF, FS, Planning Com (Policy); Mulholland to Mohler, 1/22/37, Mohler to Mulholland, 2/13/37, 11/9/37, BI 80, Refs-CCR 1937, R-l; Mohler to Mulholland, 8/5/40, BI 87, R-8; AJHQ, 12nl, 127; SW to Mohler, 6/5/41, Mankiewicz to Dear Sir, 6/11/41, Burger to Mohler, 8/22/41, BMM, Memo for Record, 9/ 10/41, BI 80, Refs-CCR 1941, R-l; J. F. Rummel, Seventh Annua/ Rpt of the Catholic Com for Refs [1943], 13, 24. In 1944, the Natl War Fund supplied 90% of CCR's expenses and 77% of ACCR's (J. F. Rummel, Eighth Annual Rpt of the Catholic Com for Refs [1944], 25; J. F. Rummel, Ninth Annua/ Rpt of the Catho/ ic Com for Refs [1945], 26; Newscast, 1-2/45, 2).

29 America: eg, 9/19/42, 654-5, 658, 3/13/43, 630, 6/12/43, 266, 9/9/44, 550, 1On/44 , 10-1, 5/26/45, 145; Commonweal: eg, 12/11/42, 204-5, 12/18/42, 220, 2/19/43, 435, 6/4/43, 181-8, 5/12/ 44, 76-7, 6/9/44, 172, 3/23/45, 558. Other Catholic publications analyzed were Catholic Action, Catholic Digest, Catholic Mind, Catholic Worker, Catholic World, & Review of Politics. The Catholic Mind printed 2 or 3 inconspicuous references to the mass murder of European Jews (2/44, 120, 8/44, 450, 11/44, 664i. The Catholic Worker published 2 articles calling for rescue (5/43, 1, 6/43, 1, 9). Regarding the National Catholic Welfare Conference and its Bureau of Immigration: BMM, "Summarization of correspondence ... to Archbishop Rummel, " 2/25/41, BI 82, Ref Problems, R- 3; Mohler to Ready, 9/ 8/44, BMM, Memo for Record, 9/6/44, BI 98, WRB, W-l; Mulholland to Mohler, 9/7/34, BI 40, Jews-Jewish, J-1; Mulholland to Mohler, 3/26/38" BI 80, Refs-CCR 1938, R-l; Mohler to Mulholland, 5/3/38, BI 82, Refs, German-Austrian 1938, R-3; Mohler to Ready, 10/ 20/43, BI 83, Refs, Restrictions on Admsn, R-4; Mohler to Mulholland, 11/ 29/44, BI 81, Refs, Child, USCCEC, R- 2; Carroll to Pehle, 3/22/44, W 17, NCWC; Haim Genizi, "The Attitude of American Catholics toward Catholic Refugees from Nazism: 1933-1935, " in Proceedings of the Seventh World Congress of Jewish Studies Holocaust Research (1980), 27-9, 37-8.

30 Mulholland to Mohler, 8/31/44, 3/ 13/45, Mohler to Mulholland, 9/6/44, 12/7/44, 4/28/45, 6/11/45, BI 98, WRB, W-1; Mulholland to Mohler, 7/25/39, BI 79, Quotas, Q-1; Mohler to Mulholland, 5/25/34, Mulholland to Mohler, 4/ 6/37, 3/16/39, Mohler to Mulholland & Calleros, 4/12/38, BI 82, Refs, German, R-3; Buckley to Mohler, 8/4/41, BI 6, Religious; Mohler to Mulholland, 6/7/ 43, BI 84, R-5; Mohler to Ready, 9/22/ 41, BI 83, Refs, Eur, PAC, R-4; Mohler to O'Boyle, 3/7/45, BI 35, IMS, 1-5.

31 Richie to Rogers, 5/28/42, Wriggins to Schauffler, 7/17/42, Wriggins to Rogers, 4/9/43, 6/3/43, Conard, Rpt to AF, 8/15/44, AF, RS 4; Jessup, Cf with Swanstrom, O'Conner, & Amiel, 2/9/ 44, A Short Sum of Program of Office of RSARO, 7/18/44, Conard, Rpt on Visit to Spain, 10/16/44, AF, RS5; USC, Catholic Orgzns folder; Brandt, Convsn with Swanstrom, 10/7/43, BLP, B 202, Refs; Mohler to O'Boyle, 12/22/43, CH, B 6, Ref Orgzns; Egan & Arniel to O'Boyle, 3/28/44, Amiel to O'Boyle, 5/ 23/44, W 17, NCWC; Catholic Refs in Lisbon (nd), BI 84, R-5; NCWC, Progress Rpt 1943: WRS-NCWC (1943), I, 3, 6, 8-9; NCWC, Rpt to Board o/Trustees WRS-NCWC Aug 1943-Sept 1944 (1944), 13-4, 26.

32 PM's news coverage of Holocaust-related developments was relatively thorough from November 1942 through the Bermuda Conference. After that it was sporadic. For instance, it had almost nothing on the Oct 1943 Washington pilgrimage of 400 rabbis, on the Rescue Resolution hearings, or on the emergence of the WRB.

33 Eg, Schoenberg & Gallo to Bloom, 11/19/43, Legis 16432; Robertson to FDR, 5/26/43, FDR, OF 76C; JTA, 12/ 16/43, 4; JF, 4/43, 3, 11/43, 10-2; Held et al to FDR, 5/4/44, Green to FDR, 5/ 8/44, FDR, OF 3186; N. A., Notes on Informal Cf, 6/24/43, JDe, Refs, Gen.

34 Ans, 8/43, 6, 12, 15, 11/44, 18; The Work Is Still Ahead [12/44], pp 6-7, PSC 6/27; CW, 2/5/43, 5; Ronald Steel, Walter Lippmann & the American Century (1980), 330-3, 373; Roger Manvell, Films & the Second World War (1974), 196-9; CC, 12/29/43, 1545; Commonweal, 9/24/43, 563.

35 Daily Worker, 7/12/43, Morning FreIheit, 7/12/43, PSC, S 16; New Masses, 5/11/43, 3-4, 11/30/43, 4, 8/ 15/44, 18-9.

36 Mins of Exec Com, 11/6/43, Digest of Mins of Int Com, 11/23/43, 3/21/44, AJHS, 1-67, B 6; CfR 7; NYT, 1/31/44, 5, 8/13/44, 19; LAT, 5/31/44, II, 3; SFE, 8/18/44, 7, 8/30/44, 3; Peterson to Proskauer, 5/24/44, AJC, PEC; MD 707/220; CW, 1/21/44, 20, 1/28/44, 16; J. Woodford Howard, Jr., Mr. Justice Murphy: A Political Biography (1968), 353; Scott to Smith, 5/22/44, TH 2; NJM, 6/44, 321; CJR, 12/44, 630; Liberty, 1/6/45, 15ff; Chr R, 8/44, 281-3.

37 Based on extensive sampling of the NYC daily press.

38 Based on a thorough analysis of WP & a sampling of other Washington newspapers. Specific references: WP, Oct 3-6 & 8, 1944, &10/13/44, 16.

39 Based on a thorough survey of BG, CT, DN, DP, KCS, LAT, SFE, and ST; and a sampling of many other newspapers.

40 Life had almost nothing; Time and Newsweek had only a few, mostly minor, items (eg, Life, 10/11/43, 93, 8/28/44, 34, 9/18/44, 17-8; Time, 12/28/42, 24, 3/1/43, 30, 3/8/43, 29-30, 5/31/43, 24, 9/6/43, 26, 1/10/44, 78, 9/11/44, 36; Newsweek, 12/14/42, 104, 12/28/42, 46, 3/8/43, 48, 3/15/43, 36, 5/24/43, 54, 9/ 13/43, 40, 12/6/43, 22, 9/11/44, 64, 67, 12/4/44, 59). RD, 2/43, 107-10; Am Mercury, 2/43, 194-203, 11/44, 567-75; Collier's, 2/20/43, 17££, 2/27/43, 29££, 8/ 28/43, 62, 4/22/44, 30, 10/14/44, 18££; Saturday Evening Post, 6/12/43, 16££, 10/28/44, 18ff; NP, 3/19/43, 21, 7/16/ 43, 15. Karski's articles were adapted from Story of a Secret State, his book on the Polish underground, published in fall 1944 for the Book-of-the-Month Club (Scherman to Pehle, 12/13/44, W 6, Ger Extmn Camps).

41 Ciechanowski, Defeat in Victory, 180, 182.

42 Eg, 1943 Radio Scripts, JM, Manuscripts & Speeches file; PC Mtg Mins, 12/29/42, WJC, U185/2; Murphy to Weinstein, 4/4/44, W 22, Radio/Misc; Pehle to Green, 4/7/44, W 22, Radio/A. Green.

43 Manvell, Films & the Second World War, 167-83; CC, 5/19/43, 622, 10/6/ 43, 1150, 1/5/44, 31, 3/8/44, 319, 5/31/ 44, 679; Shultz' to J W Wise, 1/6/43, WJC, 2681V; Activities of AJCg & WJC with Respect to Hitler Program [1/43], WJC, U185/2; Suid-Wyman interview, 11/15/78; CW, 11/20/42, 5; Raymond Fielding, The March of Time, 1933- 1951 (1978), index; David Culbert to David Wyman, 10/31/78. Feature films dealing with refugees and/or Nazi atrocities included Watch on the Rhine, Hangmen Also Die, North Star, The Last Chance, None Shall Escape, The Seventh Cross, Diary of a Nazi, Edge of Darkness, The Hitler Gang. In the last, the narrator did speak, near the end, of the extermination of whole peoples: the Jews, the Poles.

44 Ch 2 above.

45 This is discussed by Robert Weintraub in J Week, 10/26/80, 32. Several newspapers used NYT copyrighted articles on events overseas.

46 Arthur Koestler published a penetrating essay on this problem in NYT, 1/ 9/44, VI, 5. Other useful discussions include those in YVS, v 7, 53-5 (by Louis de Jong), & in Walter Laqueur's The Terrible Secret, esp 2-3, 199-206.

47 Commonweal, 10/16/42, 604, 12/ 11/42, 204-5, 12/18/42, 220, 2/19/43, 435, 3/26/43, 566, 6/4/43, 181-8, 11/ 12/43, 93; America, 9/19/42, 654-5, 658, 3/13/43, 630, 6/12/43, 266, 5/26/ 45, 145; chs 2, 3, 6, 10 above; Berle, Memo of Convsn with Vahervuori, 12/ 8/42, SD, Rl3495Y2; BG, 5/3/43, 1, 11; Reams to Stettinius, 10/8/43, BLP, B 202, Refs.

48 YV Bulletin, #6/7, 1960, 25-6.

49 NYT, 8/30/44, 9.

50 Eg (all on 8/30/44): NYT, 1, 9; WP, 2; SFE, 1, 6; DN, 1; LAT, 4; CT, 6. Also, Time, 8/21144, 36, 38, 9/11/44, 36; Newsweek, 9/11/44, 64, 67; Life, 8/ 28/44, 34, 9/18/44, 17-8; Sat Eve Post, 10/28/44, 18ff.Newsweek's report did state that about half of the 1, 500, 000 killed at Majdanek were Jews. And Life reported that most of the victims were Jews. In his book Six Presidents, Too Many Wars (1972), Bill Lawrence mentioned that his report (to the NYT) had specified that most of the Majdanek victims were Jews, but the Russian censors had cut that part out (p 100).Unlike the press, State Department officials recognized the connection of Majdanek with the Holocaust (NYT, 9/11/44, 10). Koestler: NYT, 1/9/44, VI, 5.

51 GEC; McC to Pehle, 10/12/44, W 61, Extmn Camps; MD 750/354-60, 751/239. The version released by the WRB also included the report of a Polish military officer who had escaped from Auschwitz. A summary of the data appeared in some US newspapers in July 1944, but it attracted little notice. (NYT, 7/3/44, 3, 7/6/44, 6; Wn Star, 7/3/44, 2; ST, 7/3/44, 2; KCS, 7/3/44, 12.).

52 Roswell McClelland to David Wyman, 9/18/80; Pehle to McCloy, 11/ 8/44, W 6, Ger Extmn Camps; MD 790/ 135-6.

53 MD 799/231-6, 802/254; W 5, Ger Extmn Camps, Newspaper Clippings folders. Eg, NYT, 11/26/44, 1, 24; WP, 11/26/44, 1, 11; Collier's, 1/6/45, 62.

54 Mannon to Pehle, 11/16/44, W 6, Ger Extmn Camps.

55 All in 1945: SFE, 5/2, 8; LAT, 4/ 21, 1; KCS, 4/23, 6; ST, 4/25, 1; DP, 4/ 25, 24; NYT, 4/22, 13, 4/27, 3.

56 All in 1945: NYT, 4/21, 5, 4/23, 5; DP, 4123, 22, 5/15, 1; LAT, 4/22, 1, 2, 4/27, 7, 4/28, 1, 5/15, II, 1, 5/16, II, 4, 5/18, II, 1; KCS, 5/13, 1; CT, 4123, 4, 4/29, 20; SFE, 4/29, 1, 5/16, 7; DN, 5/ 10, 2, 5/16, 1.

57 Hilberg, 632-3.

58 Eg, NYT, 4/25/45, 3; CT, 4/26/45, 3; DN, 4/26/45, II, 10, 5/2/45, 11.

59 Based on analysis of the 10 newspapers listed in ch 2, source note 12. Quotation is from SFE, 4/22/45, 4.

60 1st para: eg, NYT, 4/18, 8, 4/23, 5, 4/28, 6; WP, 4/10, 1-3, 4/16, 1, 4, 4/ 18, 1, 2, 4/21, 1, 3, 4/24, I, 7, 4/28, 1; Collier's, 6/16, 14, 28, 6/23, 16ff (all in 1945). 2nd para: NYT, 5/8/45, 12; LAT, 5/8/45, 4; WP, 5/8/45, 3; NYT, 8/4/79, 2; J Advocate (Boston), 9/28/78, II, 23.

61 Cantril, 383.

62 Cantril, 1070-1; WP, 12/3/44, 1. In the November poll, 12% thought the information was not true, and 12% had no opinion. In May, 9% thought the reports partly true but exaggerated, 3% considered them untrue, and 3% did not answer. Those who said they believed the reports were asked for their "best guess" as to how many had been murdered. In November, the most typical answer was 100, 000. In May, it was 1, 000, 000.

63 Ch 1 above; ch 14 above, section on Ft Ontario; Mtg of PC, 12/17/42, WJC, U185/3; Voss-Wyman interview, 2/11/ 78.

64 NYT, 5/14/44, VI, 9.

65 See pages 62-3; IR, 10/13/43, 291, 297; N. W. Ayre & Son's Directory of Newspapers & Periodicals (1943); Matzozky, "Am J Press Reaction"; RYP genly; AJYB, v 46, 473-81. Mass meetings were covered in chs 2 and 5 and elsewhere above. Also, many thousands of Jews sent letters and telegrams to Washington concerning rescue. (Seen in FDR Papers, WRB Papers, and elsewhere. Also, MPD, v 5, 1340.)

66 Ch 4 above.

67 Chs 4-6 above.

68 Ch 9 above; Adler, "American Jewry & That Explosive Statehood Question, " 12, 16-7; AJYB, v 44, 476- 7.

69 Ch 9 above; Adler, "American Jewry, " 7.

70 Chs 8 & 11 above.

71 Ch 9 above; Voss-Wyman interview, 2/11/78; AJH, 3/81, 310-30.

72 Mds, 3/64, 9; Reconstructionist, 1/ 21/44, 3-4; J Examiner, 1/14/44, 4.

73 Mds, 3/64, 9; Neumann, Arena, 189; GCM, 11/12/42, 12/3/42; Meltzer, Convsn with Goldmann, 7/14/43, SD, R/4063; Lesser, Memo for Files, 7/21/ 44, W 70, J. Brandt; In the Dispersion, winter 1963-64, 6-7; Reconstructionist, summer 1983, 4; Martyrdom & Resistance, 11/83, 11; YV Bulletin, 4/57, 4; PM, 5/18/43, 9; JF, 6/43, 3.

74 JDC's share of funding is based on data on pages 213-4.

75 Sources for these rescue proposals include: NYT, 2/25/43, 10; Proposed Action, 2/19/43, Shultz to Levy, 2/24/ 43, RW 2/23; CW, 3/5/43, 16, 4/30/43, 11-4; Ans, 8/43, 22-3, 3/10/44, 8-9; Asofsky to Pehle, 2/10/44, W 9, HIAS; Mtg at Harvard Club, 2/17/44, "Afternoon Session, " 2/26/44, W 9, Free World House; Memo from Exec of J Agency to WRB via Hn, 2/20/44, W 14, J Ag for Pal; AF to Pehle, 2/25/44, AF, RS, US Govt, WRB, AF Proposal; Baerwald to Pehle, 2/28/44, W 2, AJJDC (Mise); Silver to Pehle, 2/29/44, W 1, Al of Am; Comsn on Rescue of AJCf to WRB [3/1/44], W 2, AJCf; Kalmanowitz & Kotler to Pehle, 3/7/44, W 26, UOR; Welt to Pehle, 3/7/44, W 17, Natl Council of J Women; Digest of Suggestions [4/44], W 50, Measures Proposed; Pehle, Memo for Winant, 4/24/44, W 30, Reprs; Cf Rpt, 17-8, 57.

76 Warren to SS, 5/4/44, SD, R/5499; Wasserstein, 252-3.

77 MD 697/190, 720/297-9; WH, 8- 9; FSR, 19; Shertok to Goldmann, 7/8/ 44, u/c Perlzweig to Pehle, 7/21144, W 34, Hung 1; Goldmann to Stettinius, 6/ 7/44, SD, R/63OO; WJC, Unity in Dispersion, 187-8; PR, 1979 (v24/1), 59; Office Rpt to Com Members & Patrons of VH [8/45], VH, B 8.

78 CW, 5/28/43, 14; Berle to Hull & Long, 4/20/43, BLP, B 202, Refs; Marcus & Paxton, Vichy France & the Jews, 320.

79 FR 1943, vi, 179; Rosenblatt to Silver, 1/28/44, AHS, 4-2-16 AZEC.

80 Ch 5 above.

81 Mtg of Steering Com of JEC, 4/2/ 43, AJC, JEC; MD 692/33-4; Katzki to Leavitt, 7/13/43, Leavitt to Brandt, 8/ 20/43, Brandt to Leavitt, 8/24/43, JDC, Bulgaria Genl.

82 A few of the many possibilities can be seen in Riegner to Reagan, 3/23/44, W 62, WJC; Sternbuch to VH, 6/1/44, VH, B 5; Sternbuch & Donnenbaum to VH, 7/14/44, VH, B 20; & the Riegner & Goldmann plans, discussed in ch 10 above.

83 FSR, 24.; FR 1944, v 1, 1049-50; WH, 147-50, 296-7; Anger, 11-3.

84 WH, 188, 198; MD 706/125, 727/ 214, 728/112, 732/258, 734/10; FR 1943, v 1, 167; FR 1944, v 1, 1008-11, 1016-7, 1037, 1069-70, 1074; Garlinski, 250-1; Baruch to SS, 5/16/45, SD, R/5-1645; Pehle to Harriman, 5/19/44, W 34, Hung 2 (last).

85 Wasserstein, 252, 323-9; Mins of Mtg of Jt Com, 3/29/43, Silver to Shulman, 4/9/43, ALIS, Ma 1-81; Daily Telegraph & Morning Post (London), .116/43, 4; Ans, 10/15/43, 4-6, 3/10/44, 15-6; MD 692/289-90, 699/22, 741/237; Reams to Dunn & Matthews, 2/3/44, BLP, B 202, Refs; WLB, v 27, 1973/74, 43; Bauer II, 131, 140; FR 1944, v 1, 1005.

86 Ch 15 above.

87 MB & GFI, "We are sending you, " 5/22/44, W 61, Extmn Camps; Call (Workmen's Circle), 10/43, 15; Wasserstein, 295-303.

88 Elie Wiesel, Legends of Our Time (1968), 164-5, 186-9; Braham I, 962. Goebbels, for instance, believed that the British and Americans "are happy that we are exterminating the Jewish riffraff (Louis Lochner [ed], The Goebbels Diaries [1948], 241).

89 Wiesel, Legends, 166-7, 187-9; MD 717/145; WJC, Unity in Dispersion, 184; Hilberg, 618-24, 628-9, 647-53; Rudolf Vrba to David Wyman, 2/17/77; Kalmanowitz to Berle [5/44], W 34, Hung 1. The Jewish agents who were finally parachuted into Axis territory were too few, very late, burdened with unrelated tasks required by the British, and poorly supported (Marie Syrkin, Blessed Is the Match [1947], 13-76; Dorothy & Pesach Bar-Adon, Seven Who Fell [1947], 9-23; Wasserstein, 288-95).

90 Hull to Am Consul Karachi, 8/16/ 43, Tellier to Johnson, 1/5/44, W 18, Polish Ref Proj; FR 1943, v 1, 322; Blocker to SS, 11/4/43, SD, R/4751; Yost to de Anzorena, 5/25/43, SD, R/ 3830A; Hilldring to ASW, 1/25/44, ASW 4; ch 14 above, section on Search for Havens; ch 12 above, section on Italy.

91 RR, 169; Wriggins to Schauffler, 8/ 10/43, AF, RS 4; Memos on Telephone Convsns between Schwartz& Leavitt, 4/ 17/42, 4/28/42, 5/12/42, JDC, Rpts, Eur Telephone Convsns; Memo on Findings of Emerg Cf, 8/43, Legis 16431; Proskauer to Long, 12/28/43, AJC, PEC; CW, 6/4/43, 14, 12/24/43, 16; CR, v 90, 663; Rescue, 9/44, 2, 2/45, 5; CJR, 4/43, 171; AF Lisbon Office, Mid-Aug Rpt, 8/ 13/42, AF, GF, For Serv, Port; AF Lisbon Office, Mid-Oct Rpt [10/10/42], AP, RS 4; NRS Community Bulletin, 11- 12/42, 4; Rpt of Exec Dir to Exec Com, 9/20/43, NRS 269; List of ship arrivals, 2/24/42, NRS 505; Petluck to Mign Staff, 7/12/44, NRS 586; Petluck to Mign Staff, 12/18/44, NRS 590; NYT, 3/21/42, 18, 11/3/42, 11. The 3 Portuguese ships were the Serpa Pinto, Nyassa, & Guine. Jewish organizations chartered Portuguese liners without trouble the few times there were enough refugees with US visas to justify that step (eg, Schauffler to Pickett et al, 5/12/42, AP, GF 1).

92 NYT, 12/19/43, 4; Bennet to Pehle, 5/11/44, TH 2; Long, Convsn with Strong, 2/12/43, Long to Strong, 2/22/ 43, BL to Atherton, 3/11/43, BLP, B 212, Genl (VD); Vail, Trip to Wn, 3/12/ 43, AP, FS 3; Heath to Vail, 1/19/43, Schauffler to Heath, 2/12/43, AP, RS 2; Heath to Wriggins, 1/18/43, AF, RS, Ctry FNA, Fr Morocco, Casa.

93 Pehle, Memo, 5/11/44, TH 2; Lubin to Hassett, 3/8/45, FDR, OF 700; Algiers to War Dept, 2/17/43, BLP, B 195, Foreign Territories; CSM, 4/9/43, 9.

94 MD 717/201; Pickett to Cary et al, 12/16/43, AF, FS, Ctry Sweden; Heath to Jessup, 3/31/44, AF, FS, Ctry Sweden, Genl; NYP, 4/23/4j, 13; DuBois, Memo for Files, 5/26/44, TH 2.

95 See pages 130-3; Probs & Recomndns (nd), u/c Marks to O'Dwyer, 3/20/45, TH 10; Standish to Lesser, 3/ 27/44, W 10, Imgn Memos; FR 1942, v 1, 454-6; MD 692/291; Wasserstein, 49, 51, 145, 355-6. When SD officials wished, however, even suspicious persons received quick permission to enter the US. One case involved the servant of a US diplomat. (BL to Welles, 5/14/42, BLP, B 212, VD, Indiv Cases 1941.)

96 See pages 105, 107; Visser 't Hooft, Memoirs, ch 23, esp p 167.

97 Ans, 2/12/44, 9; MD 707/223; Drafts for Pr Rel on Exec Order establishing WRB, 1/22/44, FDR, OF 5477; Stettinius to Early, 3/8/44, FDR, PSF: Refs; Kp I, 119; Special Com on Eur Situation, Mins, 12/14/42, WJC, U185/ 3; "Afternoon Session, " 2/26/44, W 9, Free World House; Wasserstein, 184, 190, 353; Visser 't Hooft, Memoirs, 169.

98 YV Bulletin, 4/57, 4; HID, 9374; Israel, 307; CW, 5/7/43, 3-4, 6/4/43, 15; PM, 7/22/43, 2; NYP, 7/22/43, 26; NR, 8/30/43, 305; Pepper-Wyman interview, 4/10/81; Celler speech, 10/23/ 75, at J Hist Soc of NY; Celler-Jarvik interview, 10/4/78; CJR, 6/43, 312.

In public announcements, American and British officials used numerous euphemisms to avoid mentioning Jews; eg, persecuted peoples, unfortunate people, political refugees, persecuted minorities, racial and political refugees, oppressed minorities.

A prime example of insinuation that the war was fought for the Jews appeared in NY Daily News, 10/3/45, 4.

99 Draft for FDR to Teller, u/c Bohlen to Early, 3/27/44, FDR, OF 76C.

100 Eg, appendix A; ch 15 above; Smertenko to FDR, 7/24/44, FDR, OF 3186.

101 Howard to Cox, 7/3/43, OC; Jones to Sub-Com on Balkans, For Serv Staff, 4/27/45, AF, FS, Balkans; SG, 9/44, 389; NYT, 2/27/44, 8, 3/8/44, 3, 4/11/ 45, 15; Nuseirat Camp, 5/10/44, Aleppo Camps, 5/10/44, W 4, Camps; FR 1942, v 1, 462; FR 1943, v 1, 381; Memo concerning maintenance of Greek refs, 2/6/ 43, BLP, B 199, Near Eastern Affairs; Hertha Kraus, International Relief in Action, 1914-1943 (1944), 228. Much of the British military's assistance was nominally credited to the British government's Middle East Relief and Refugee Administration.

102 Ch 12 above, section on Italy; Scattergood, Jugoslav Ref Camp-El Shatt, 4/21/44, AF, RS, Ctry FNA, Algeria, Ltrs from; NYT, 7/24/44, 12; AAF, 339, 520-3; Dacie, Yugoslav Refugees, 14-5; Akzin & McCormack to Hodel, 2/2/45, W 48, UNRRA (Rpt On) 2.

103 NYT, 1/12/42, 5, 1/14/42, 6, 8/29/ 42, 2, 11/5/42, 14, 1/25/43, 4, 8/23/43, 8, 12/12/43, 41, 3/23/44, 8; IR, 9/28/44, 294; Survey of Recent Activities of HMG, 6/29/44, PRO, CAB 95/15; RR, 164; MD 704/68; Translation of Memo from Polish Minister, 2/10/44, W 17, MERRA; Goldsmith, Rpt on Visits to UNRRA-MERRA Camps, 8/14/44, W 4, Camps. Among the Poles were 1, 228 Jews (NYT, 2/20/43, 6).

104 NYT, 12/7/44, 16, 4/5/45, 25, 9/4/ 45, 9.

105 Ch 14 above, Food/Blockade section; GR, 14; RR, 209.

106 NYT, 8/17/42, 4; Wriggins to Tibbetts, 12/4/43, AF, FS, Ctry Egypt, Ltrs; MD 704/68-9; War Refs [12/44], Translation of Polish Minister Delegate's Rpt [early 1944], W 17, MERRA; Akzin & McCormack to Hodel, 2/2/45, W 48, UNRRA (Rpt On) 2; Nuseirat Camp, 5/10/44, Goldsmith, Rpt on Visits to UNRRA-MERRA Camps, 8/14/ 44, W 4, Camps; Barratt-Brown, Notes on Ref Camps in Middle East, 8/43, AF, RS, Refs, Inti Sanctuaries for; Survey of Recent Activities of HMG, 6/29/44, PRO, CAB 95/15; NCWC, Rpt to Board of Trustees WRS-NCWC: Aug 1943- Sept 1944 (1944), 7-11. The 25, 000 figure is the most reasonable estimate based on available data.

107 Esco Fndn, Palestine, 11, 953.

108 Goldsmith, Rpt on Visits to UNRRA-MERRA Camps, 8/14/44, W 4, Camps; Akzin & McCormack to Hodel, 2/2/45, W 48, UNRRA (Rpt On) 2; Jones to Sub-Com on Balkans, For Serv Staff, 4/27/45, AF, FS, Balkans; DSB, 6/10/44, 533-4; NYT, 4/11/45, 15; Rpt on Fedala Camp, 8/28/44, u/c Offie to SS, 9/22/44, W 39, Evacn to Lyautey; WH, 226-9; Weatherford to Jessup, 2/20/45, AF, FS, Ctry FNA, Algeria, Ltrs from.

109 ER to Welles, 3/9/42, Welles to ER, 3/14/42, ER 853/70; BC Mins, 4/ 20, PM.

110 Merlin to Shubow, 3/20/43, AJHS, AJCg, Uncataloged Box, F: CJA.

APPENDIX A. EASTER AT BERMUDA

1 All of this appendix is based on BC Mins, 4/25, AM.

2 Mins of MASC, 5/11/43, Kaplan draft, NRS 326.

3 Points 3 and 4 are covered in ch 16.

APPENDIX B. THE CONFLICT BETWEEN THE REGULAR ZIONISTS AND THE BERGSONITES

1 Eg, IJPS, 2/28/44, 8; Bromfield to Bridges, 9/16/44, PSC 1/13; Bridges to Cavert, 3/10/45, PSC 1/17; Cavert to Smith, 5/22/44, FCC, B 100, Genl; Voss-Wyman interview, 2/11/78; Kook- Wyman interview, 5/5173; A1fange- Wyman interview, 3/22/79; Wilson, Convsn with Goldmann et al, 5/19/44, SD 867N.01/2347; The Work Is Still Ahead [12/44], p 21, PSC 6/27; PM, 8/ 9/44, 24; Gillette to Shapiro, 1/13/44, PSC 1/11; AME 24; HID, 8498, 8519, 8559; Wise to Ickes, 12/23/43, Frank to Ickes, 4/20/44, HI, Associations. Systematization: eg, Shapiro to Horwitt, 11/29/ 44, AZEC to Adler, 11/29/44, PSC 13/ 57; "Withdrawals and Replies, " 2/8/45, VF, ALFP; VF, ALFP, generally; Levinthal to Szold, 12/18/42, RW 2/20; Drazin, Feuer, & Gordis to Rosenberg, 5/18/44, Shapiro to Lindey, 7/6/44, Shapiro to [name obliterated], 10/24/ 44, PSC 13/57.

2 Eg, Stmt by AZEC on ALFP, 1/10/ 44, Legis 16431; card distributed by J Welfare Fund of Chicago, 10/11/44, Rabinoff to Hyman, 10/20/44, W 15, JWF of Chicago; Wilson, Convsn with Goldmann et al, 5/19/44, SD 867N.01/2347; Silver to Taft, 6/15/44, AHS, Ma II-84, Taft; MD 735/60, 77; Meyer Weisgal ... So For: An Autobiography (1971), 188; Merriam to Nemzer, 6/1/44, BA #21; Murray to Stettinius, 5/31/44, SD 867N.Ol/2352; Murray to Stettinius, 6/ 1/44, 6/2/44, SD 867N.01/6-144; Wilson, Convsn with Goldmann et al ("Zt Attitude Toward Palestine"), 9/13/44, SD, copy in PSC 3/67; Memo on Efforts to Deport Bergson, 7/26/44, and other material in PSC 10/9; Frank to Guthman, 5/19/45, PSC, 1/18; Gillette to Byrnes, 10/11/45, Stern to Byrnes, 10/ 16/45, Stern to Russell, 10/16/45, PSC 1/21; Halifax to FO, 5/24/44, PRO, FO 371/40131; Balfour to Jerusalem, 8/9/ 45, Chancery (Wn) to Eastern Dept, 8/ 6/45, PRO, FO 371/45399; NYP, 7/14/ 44, 16, 11/5/45, 11, 11/9/45, 33; NYHT, 5/23/44, 7; Wilson, Convsn with Waldman et al, 1/10/44, BLP, B 200, Pal; Thomas to Finucane, 7/3/44, ET, B 85, Jus-4 Imgn.

3 Eg, ACB 6; Kook-Wyman interview, 4/19 n3; anonymous to Ruth & Dick, 6/ 21/49, PSC 3/58; EC, Save Human Lives [3/44], P 22, PSC 5/16; Harper to Meyer, 10/6/44, PSC 1/14; Selden to Kampelman, 12/22/59, PSC 13/59; FBI file 100-316012; Alfange-Wyman interview, 3/22n9; Budgeting Bulletin, B-3, 1/12/44, VF, EC.

4 MD 735/77; Neumann to Wise, 10/ 7/42, SW, World Affairs, 1. Goldstein; Levinthal to Szold, 12/18/42, RW 2/20; Cf Rpt, 78; AM 2; AME 3, 6-8, 10, 22- 5, 27, 30; Alfange-Wyman interview, 3/ 22n9; Wilson, Convsn with Goldmann et al, 5/19/44, SD 867N.01/2347; Mins of Mtg with Pehle, 2/10/44, AHS, Ma II 90, WRB; Weisgal, So Far, 188.

5 Arthur Goren to David Wyman, 1/ 19/74; NP, 1/21/44, 205.

6 Levison to Kobacker, 12/23/40, PSC 1/4; "To Whose Tune Are You Dancing?" (nd), PSC 13/59; Goldmann to Bergson, 8/27/43, PSC 1/9; Neumann- Wyman interview, 11/20n8; Merlin- Wyman interview, 4/19n3; Goren to Wyman, 1/19/74; AME 7. Re negotiations: PSC, B I, folders 5-10; Bauer, From Diplomacy, 236.

7 Numerous examples appear in SW, esp the Zm 1940-43 file. A few other examples: CW, 1/22/43, 9; JF, 1/43, 8- 9; Voss, 266; Rosenheim to Steinhardt, 8/16/44, Schenkolewski to Steinhardt, 8/16/44, LS; Wise to Korn, 5/16/44, SW, Corresp, Korn; Extension of Relief in Occupied Poland, 11/13/42, 11/17/ 42, JDC, G/E, Poland; FRA[dlerstein], "WJC, " 1/30/42, JJS[chwartz] to JDC, 3/17/44, Leavitt to Stameshkin, 5/7/43, JDC, Rpts; JDC files on UJA for 1941 & 1945; AJYB, v 44, 476-7, v 47, 260, 333; NIT, 6/4/45, 32; Akzin to Hodel, 1/9/45, W 27, VH; MD 699/142; Adler, "Am Jewry and That Explosive Statehood Question, " 5-21.
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Re: The Abandonment of the Jews: American and the Holocaust,

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Archival Materials


Abbreviations: FDRL = Franklin D. Roosevelt Library (Hyde Park, NY) LC = Library of Congress (Washington)

Agudath Israel of America Papers (NYC)
American Friends Service Committee Archives (Phila)
American Jewish Committee Archives (NYC)
American Jewish Congress Papers (partial) (NYC)
American Jewish Historical Society Archives (Waltham, Mass)
American Jewish Conference Papers (partial)
American Jewish Congress Papers (partial)
American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee Archives (NYC)
Yitshaq Ben-Ami (personal file, from Dept of Justice)
Augustus W. Bennet Papers (Syracuse Univ)
William S. Bennet Papers (Syracuse Univ)
Sol Bloom Papers (NY Public Library)
Irving Bunim Oral History (Yeshiva Univ)
Emanuel Celler Papers (LC)
Joseph P. Chamberlain Papers (YIVO Institute, NYC)
Columbia University Oral Histoty Collection: Joseph C. Baldwin, William S. Bennet, Samuel Dickstein, Warren Moscow, William O'Dwyer, Herbert C. Pell, Joseph M. Proskauer, George Rublee
Oscar Cox Papers (FDRL)
Ira C. Eaker Papers (LC)
Federal Bureau of Investigation (selected files on Bergson organizations)
Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America Papers (Phila)
Felix Frankfurter Papers (LC)
Carlton J. H. Hayes Papers (Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Columbia Univ)
Cordell Hull Papers (LC)
Harold L. Ickes Diary (LC)
Harold L. Ickes Papers (LC)
International Migration Service Papers (originals at Univ of Minnesota; copies at Travelers Aid International Social Service of America, NYC)
Jabotinsky Institute (Tel Aviv)
Jewish Labor Committee Archives (NYC)
Breckinridge Long Diary (LC)
Breckinridge Long Papers (LC)
James G. McDonald Papers (Columbia Univ)
Morgenthau Diaries (FDRL)
Morgenthau Presidential Diaries (FDRL)
National Archives (Washington)
RG 107 Secretary of War
165 War Dept General & Special Staffs
210 War Relocation Authority, Emergency Refugee Shelter, Reports
210 War Relocation Authority, Emergency Refugee Shelter, Temporary Havens in the US
210 War Relocation Authority, Field Office Records, Emergency Refugee Shelter, Central Files
218 US Joint Chiefs of Staff
226 Office of Strategic Services
243 US Strategic Bombing Survey
Legislative Branch
State Dept decimal files: 150.01 Bills; 548.Gl (Bermuda Conf); 740.00116 European War; 840.48 Refugees; 862.4016 (Germany-Race Problems); 867N.01 (Near East)
National Catholic Welfare Conference, Bureau of Immigration Papers (United States Catholic Conference Records, Migration & Refugee Division; housed at Center for Migration Studies, Staten Island)
National Refugee Service Papers (YIVO Institute, NYC)
Paul O'Dwyer (personal files)
Palestine Statehood Committee Papers (Yale Univ)
Claiborne Pell (personal files)
Public Record Office (London): CAB 65, 66, 95; FO 371
Eleanor Roosevelt Papers (FDRL)
Franklin D. Roosevelt Papers; & Press Conferences of President Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDRL)
Abba Hillel Silver Papers (The Temple, Cleveland)
Albert F. Simpson Historical Research Center (Maxwell AFB, Ala)
Carl A. Spaatz Papers (LC)
Laurence Steinhardt Papers (LC)
Henry 1. Stimson Diaries (Yale Univ)
Henry 1. Stimson Papers (Yale Univ)
Robert Taft Papers (LC)
Myron C. Taylor Papers (FDRL)
Joseph Tenenbaum Collection (YIVO Institute, NYC)
Elbert Thomas Papers (FDRL)
Unitarian Universalist Service Committee Papers (Tufts Univ)
Vaad Hahatzala Papers (Yeshiva Univ Archives)
Robert Wagner Papers (Georgetown Univ)
War Refugee Board Records (FDRL)
Stephen S. Wise Papers (American Jewish Historical Society)
Women's International League for Peace & Freedom Papers (Swarthmore Col)
World Jewish Congress Papers (NYC)
Zionist Archives & Library (NYC)
American Jewish Conference Papers (partial)
American Zionist Emergency Council: Minutes & Executive Committee Minutes "Vertical Files" (on Bergson organizations)

Interviews

Dean Alfange by David Wyman, 3/22/79
Emanuel Celler by Wyman, 3/23/79
Dorothy Detzer Denny by Wyman, 5/11/65
Josiah E. DuBois, Jr., by Laurence Jarvik, 10/23/78
Eileen Egan by Wyman, 3/23/79
Samuel Grafton by Wyman, 3/23/79
Hillel Kook by Natan Cohen, 9/26/68 (transcript in PSC 11/33)
Hillel Kook by Wyman, 4/14 & 19/73, 5/5/73, 1/10/74, 11/20/78
Samuel Merlin by Wyman, 4/19/73, 9/6/73, 3/22/79
Emanuel Neumann by Wyman, 11/20/78
John Pehle by Jarvik, 10/16/78
Claiborne Pell by Jarvik, 1/22/79
Claude Pepper by Wyman, 4/10/81
Justine Wise Polier by Wyman, 3/21n9
Gerhart Riegner by Jarvik, 10/4/78
Dore Schary by Wyman, 3/21/79
Joseph Schwartz by Judith Elizur, 11/29/61 (item 291, Oral History Division, Institute for Contemporary Jewry, Hebrew Univ, Jerusalem)
Lawrence Suid by Wyman, 11/15/78
Ted Thackrey by Wyman, 11/20/78, 3/22/79
Carl Hermann Voss by Wyman, 2/11/78
George L. Warren by Jarvik, 1/22/79

Published Documents

Bulkley, Robert, Frederick Keppel, & F. D. G. Ribble. Report to the President: Board of Appeals on Visa Cases: Nov 9, 1942 (1942).

Foreign War Relief Operations. House Doc 262,79 Cong, 1 ses (July 17,1945).

Halpern, Ben (ed). The Jewish National Home in Palestine (1944, 1970).

Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees. Minutes of Fourth Plenary Session (1944).

--. Report of Fourth Plenary Session (1944).

--. Report of Fifth Plenary Session (1945).

--. Minutes of Sixth Plenary Session (1946).

--. Minutes of Seventh Plenary Session (1947).

--. Seventh Plenary Session Resolutions (1947).

"Investigation of Problems Presented by Refugees at Fort Ontario Refugee Shelter," Hearings before Subcommittee VI of the Committee on Immigration & Naturalization, House of Representatives, 79 Cong, 1 ses (June 25-26, 1945).

US Dept of State. Foreign Relations of the United States, volumes for 1941-1945.

US House of Representatives. Problems of World War II & Its Aftermath: Part 2, The Palestine Question (1976).

US Immigration & Naturalization Service. Annual Reports, 1941-1946.

Newspapers, General

Atlanta Constitution
Boston Globe
Boston Herald
Boston Record
ChicagoTribune
Christian Science Monitor
Cleveland Plain Dealer
Dallas News
Denver Post
Kansas City Star
Los Angeles Times
Miami Herald
New Orleans Times-Picayune
New York Daily Mirror
New York Daily News
New York Herald Tribune
New York Journal-American
New York Post
New York Sun
New York Times
New York World Telegram
Oswego Palladium Times
PM (NYC)
San Francisco Examiner
Seattle Times
Syracuse Post-Standard
Washington Daily News
Washington Post
Washington Star
Washington Times-Herald

Newspapers, Jewish

YIDDISH-LANGUAGE


Day (NYC)
Forward (NYC)
Jewish Morning Journal (NYC)

ENGLISH-LANGUAGE

California Jewish Voice (LA)
Every Friday (Cincinnati)
Independent Jewish Press Service News
Jewish Advocate (Boston)
Jewish Chronicle (Columbus, O)
Jewish Examiner (Bklyn)
Jewish Exponent (Phila)
Jewish Ledger (Rochester, NY)
Jewish News (Detroit)
Jewish Review (NYC)
Jewish Review & Observer (Cleveland)
Jewish Standard (Jersey City)
Jewish Telegraphic Agency
Daily News Bulletin
Jewish Times (Baltimore)
Jewish Times (Phila)
Jewish Week (NYC)

Periodicals & Serials

America
American Hebrew
American Jewish Archives
American Jewish Historical Quarterly
American Jewish History
American Jewish Year Book
American Legion Magazine
American Mercury
American Vindicator
Answer
Atlantic Monthly
Bulletin of Activities & Digest of the Press (AJCf)
Bulletin of the World Jewish Congress
Call (Workmen's Circle)
Catholic Action
Catholic Digest
Catholic Mind
Catholic Worker
Catholic World
Central Conference of American Rabbis Yearbook
Christendom
Christian Century
Christianity and Crisis
Christianity and Society
Christian Register
Churchman
Collier's
Commentary
Commonweal
Conference Record
"Confidential Bulletin" (AZEC)
Congressional Digest
Congressional Record
Congress Weekly
Contemporary Jewish Record
Cross and the Flag
Defender Magazine
Dept of State Bulletin
Federal Council Bulletin
Foreign Affairs
Foreign Service (VFW)
Galilean Magazine
The Ghetto Speaks
Information Bulletin (Am Council for Judaism)
Information Service (Federal Council of Churches)
International Labour Review
Interpreter Releases
JDC Digest
Jewish Affairs
Jewish Comment
Jewish Digest
Jewish Forum
Jewish Frontier
Jewish Outlook
Jewish Social Studies
Jewish Veteran
Liberal Judaism
Life
Lutheran
Menorah Journal
Midstream
Monthly Review (US Imgn & Naturalization Service)
Nation
National Jewish Monthly
National Legionnaire
National Record
New Masses
New Palestine
New Republic
Newscast (ACCR)
Newsweek
NRS Community Bulletin
Opinion
Palestine (AZEC)
Parliamentary Debates
Polish Fortnightly Review
Polish Review
Public Opinion Quarterly
Reader's Digest
Reconstructionist
Religion in Life
Religious Digest
Rescue (HIAS)
Rescue and Re/uge (USCCEC)
"Review of the Yiddish Press"
Saturday Evening Post
Social Justice
"Special Information Bulletin" (NRS)
Survey Graphic
Time
Wiener Library Bulletin
World Alliance News Letter
Yad Vashem Bulletin
Yad Vashem Studies
YIVO Annual of Jewish Social Science
Zionews

Books

Abella, Irving, and Harold Troper. None Is Too Many (1982).
Anger, Per. With Raoul Wallenberg in Budapest (1981).
Avni, Haim. Spain, the Jews, and Franco (1982).
Bauer, Yehuda. American Jewry and the Holocaust (1981).
--. Flight and Rescue: BRICHAH (1970).
--. From Diplomacy to Resistance (1970).
--. The Holocaust in Historical Perspective (1978).
Ben-Ami, Yitshaq. Years o/Wrath, Days of Glory (1982).
Birtles, Philip. Mosquito: A Pictorial History of the DH98 (1980).
Blum, John M. From the Morgenthau Diaries, v 3 (1967).
--. Roosevelt and Morgenthau (1970).
Bonjour, Edgar. Geschichte der schweizenschen Neutralitat, v 6 (1970).
Braham, Randolph 1. (ed). The Destruction 0/ Hungarian Jewry: A Documentary Account, v 1 (1963).
--. Eichmann and the Destruction 0/ Hungarian Jewry (1961).
-- (ed). Hungarian-Jewish Studies, v 2 & 3 (1969, 1973).
--. The Politics o/Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary, 2 vols (1981).
Buchanan, A. Russell. The United States and World War II, 2 vols (1964).
Burns, James M. Roosevelt: The Soldier of Freedom (1970).
Cantril, Hadley (ed). Public Opinion: 1935-1946 (1951).
Celler, Emanuel. You Never Leave Brooklyn (1953).
Ciechanowski, Jan. De/eat in Victory (1947).
Cohen, Naomi. Not Free to Desist: The American Jewish Committee, 1906-1966 (1972).
Craven, Wesley F., & James L. Cate (eds). The Army Air Forces in World War II, v 3 (1951).
Dallek, Robert. Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy (1979).
Davie, Maurice R. Refugees in America (1947).
Dawidowicz, Lucy S. The War Against the Jews (1975).
de Jong, Louis, The German Fifth Column in the Second World War (1956).
Detzer, Dorothy. Appointment on the Hill (1948).
Diamond, Sander. The Nazi Movement in the United States (1974).
Dinnerstein, Leonard. America and the Survivors of the Holocaust (1982).
Divine, Robert A. Foreign Policy and U.S. Presidential Elections, 1940-1948 (1974).
DuBois, Josiah E., Jr. The Devil's Chemists (1952).
Esco Foundation for Palestine. Palestine: A Study of Jewish, Arab, and British Policies, v 2 (1947).
Fein, Helen. Accounting for Genocide (1979).
Feingold, Henry L. The Politics of Rescue (1970).
Fielding, Raymond. The March of Time, 1933-1951 (1978).
Fisher, Julius S. Transnistria: The Forgotten Cemetery (1969).
Friedman, Filip. This Was Oswiecim (1946).
Fuchs, Lawrence H. The Political Behavior of American Jews (1956).
Garlinski, Jozef. Fighting Auschwitz (1975).
Gilbert, Martin. Auschwitz and the Allies (1981).
Goldmann, Nahum. The Autobiography of Nahum Goldmann (1969).
Gutman, Yisrael, & Efraim Zuroff (eds). Rescue Attempts during the Holocaust: Proceedings of the Second Yad Vashem International Historical Conference (1977).
Halperin, Samuel. The Political World of Amencan Zionism (1961).
Hand, Samuel. Counsel and Advise: A Political Biography of Samuel I. Rosenman (1979).
Hassett, William D. Off the Record with FDR (1958).
Hayes, Carlton J. H. Wartime Mission in Spain, 1942-1945 (1946).
Hilberg, Raul. The Destruction of the European Jews (1961).
Hirschmann, Ira. Caution to the Winds (1962).
Howard, J. Woodford, Jr. Mr. Justice Murphy: A Political Biography (1968).
Hull, Cordell. Memoirs (1948).
Huthmacher, J. Joseph. Senator Robert F. Wagner and the Rise of Urban Liberalism (1968).
Infield, Glenn. The Poltava Affair (1973).
Institute of Jewish Affairs. The Institute Anniversary Volume (1962).
International Committee of the Red Cross. Inter Arma Caritas: The Work of the ICRC during the Second World War (1947).
--. Report of the ICRC on Its Activities during the Second World War, 3 vols (1948).
Israel, Fred. The War Diary of Breckinridge Long (1966).
Karski, Jan. Story of a Secret State (1944).
Kersten, Felix. The Kersten Memoirs (1956).
Kohanski, Alexander (ed). The American Jewish Conference: Its Organization and Proceedings of the First Session, August 29-September 2, 1943 (1944).
-- (ed). The American Jewish Conference: Proceedings of the Second Session, December 3-5, 1944 (1945).
Kraus, Ota, & Erich Kulka. The Death Factory (1966).
Laqueur, Walter. The Terrible Secret (1980).
Lash, Joseph. Eleanor: The Years Alone (1972).
Lester, Elenore. Wallenberg: The Man in the Iron Web (1982).
Levai, Jeno (Eugene). Black Book on the Martyrdom of Hungarian Jewry (1948).
--. Eichmann in Hungary (1961).
Lewin, Isaac. Churban Europa (1948).
Lowrie, Donald A. The Hunted Children (1963).
Manvell, Roger. Films and the Second World War (1974).
Marrus, Michael R, & Robert O. Paxton. Vichy France and the Jews (1981).
Morley, John F. Vatican Diplomacy and the Jews During the Holocaust (1980).
Morse, Arthur D. While Six Million Died (1968).
Murphy, Bruce. The Brandeis/Frankfurter Connection (1982).
Neumann, Emanuel. In The Arena (1976).
Nevins, Allan. Herbert H. Lehman and His Era (1963).
Office of Strategic Services. The Overseas Targets: War Report of the OSS (1976):
Panstwowe Muzeum w Oswiecimiu. Hefte von Auschwitz, v 8 (1964).
Penkower, Monty. The Jews Were Expendable (1983).
Pickett, Clarence E. For More Than Bread (1953).
Polier, Justine Wise, & James W. Wise (eds). The Personal Letters of Stephen Wise (1956).
Reitlinger, Gerald. The Final Solution (1953).
Rosenman, Samuel I. (ed). The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt, v 13 (1950).
Ross, Robert W. So It Was True (1980).
Rotkirchen, Livia. The Destruction of Slovak Jewry: A Documentary History (1961).
Sachar, Howard M. A History of Israel (1979).
Schellenberg, Walter. The Labyrinth (1956).
Schwarz, Jordan A. The Speculator: Bernard M. Baruch in Washington (1981).
Sehn, Jan. German Crimes in Poland, v 1 (1946).
Sherwood, Robert E. Roosevelt and Hopkins (1948).
Shub, Boris. Starvation Over Europe (1943).
Silver, Abba Hillel. Vision and Victory (1949).
Silver, Daniel J. (ed). In the Time of Harvest: Essays in Honor of Abba Hillel Silver (1963).
Silverberg, Robert. If I Forget Thee O Jerusalem (1970).
Smith, Bradley. Reaching Judgment at Nuremberg (1977).
Smith, R. Harris. OSS: The Secret History (1972).
Smolen, Kazimierz. From the History of KL-Auschwitz, v 1 (1967).
Steel, Ronald. Walter Lippmann and the American Century (1980).
Stember, Charles (ed). Jews in the Mind of America (1966).
Stimson, Henry L., & McGeorge Bundy. On Active Service in Peace and War (1947).
Sunderman, James (ed). World War II in the Air: Europe (1963).
Syrkin, Marie. Blessed Is the Match (1947).
Tartakower, Arieh, & Kurt Grossmann. The Jewish Refugee (1944).
Tull, Charles. Father Coughlin and the New Deal (1965).
Urofsky, Melvin I. (ed). Essays in American Zionism 1917-1948 (1978).
--. A Voice That Spoke for Justice (1982).
Visser 't Hooft, W. A. Memoirs (1973).
Voss, Carl Hermann. Rabbi and Minister: The Friendship of Stephen S. Wise and John Haynes Holmes (1964).
-- (ed). Stephen S. Wise: Servant of the People (1969).
Vrba, Rudolf, & Alan Bestic. I Cannot Forgive (1964).
Wasserstein, Bernard. Britain and the Jews of Europe, 1939-1945 (1979).
Webster, Charles, & Noble Frankland. The Strategic Air Offensive Against Germany, 1939-1945, v 3 (1961).
Weisgal, Meyer. Autobiography (1971).
Weizmann, Chaim. Trial and Error (1949).
Wiesel, Elie. Legends of Our Time (1968).
--. Night (1960).
Winkler, Allan M. The Politics of Propaganda: The Office of War Information (1978).
Wischnitzer, Mark. Visas to Freedom: The History of HIAS (1956).
Wise, Stephen S. Challenging Years: The Autobiography of Stephen Wise (1949).
World Jewish Congress. Unity in Dispersion: A History of the WJC (1948).
Wyman, David. Paper Walls: America and the Refugee Crisis (1968).

Pamphlets and Booklets

American Jewish Committee. Statement on Withdrawal from the American Jewish Conference (1943).

American Jewish Conference. Report of the Interim Committee and the Commission on Rescue, Commission on Palestine, Commission on Post-War (1944).

--. Statement of Organization of Conference and Summary of Resolutions Adopted at First Session [1944].

--. Statement on the Withdrawal of the American Jewish Committee (1943).

American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee. Aiding Jews Overseas (1942).

American Zionist Emergency Council. A Report of Activities, 1940-1946 [1946].

Berlin, Isaiah. Zionist Politics in Wartime Washington (1972).

Celler, Emanuel. Brief in Support of Baldwin-Rogers Resolution (1943).

Dacie, Anne. Yugoslav Refugees in Italy (1945).

Emergency Committee to Save the Jewish People of Europe. The American Press and the Rescue Resolution (1944).

--. The Work Is Still Ahead [1944].

Ginzberg, Eli. Report to American Jews (1942).

Kubowitzki, A. Leon. Survey on the Rescue Activities of the World Jewish Congress, 1940-1944 (1944).

National Catholic Welfare Conference. Progress Report 1943: WRS-NCWC (1943).

--. Report to the Board of Trustees WRS-NCWC: August 1943-September 1944 (1944).

Pickett, Clarence E. A Summary of Activities 1943 (1944).

Randall, Mercedes. The Voice of Thy Brother's Blood (1944).

Rummel, Joseph F. Seventh Annual Report of the Catholic Committee for Refugees [1943]; Eighth ... [1944]; Ninth ... [1945]; Tenth ... [1946].

Trevor, John. Refugees 1944 (1944).

US 15th Air Force. Historical Summary: First Year of Operations (1944).

US War Relocation Authority. Token Shipment: The Story of America's War Refugee Shelter [1946].

War Refugee Board. Final Summary Report of the Executive Director (1945).

--. German Extermination Camps (1944).

Zionist Organization of America. Annual Report to ZOA, 47th Annual Convention (1944).

Articles

Abbreviations: AJHQ = American Jewish Historical Quarterly; J = Jewish; YVS = Yad Vashem Studies.

American Jewish History has several relevant articles in its issues of March 1979, March 1981, and June 1983.

Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science has several relevant articles in its July 1980 issue.

Adler, Selig. "American Jewry and That Explosive Statehood Question, 1933-1945," in Bertram Korn (ed), A Bicentennial Festschrift for Jacob Rader Marcus (1976).

Bauer, Yehuda. "The Negotiations between Saly Mayer and the Representatives of the S.S. in 1944-1945," in Gutman & Zuroff (eds), Rescue Attempts during the Holocaust (1977).

--. "When Did They Know?" Midstream (4/68).

Berman, Aaron. "American Zionism and the Rescue of European Jewry: An Ideological Perspective," Am J Hist (3/81).

Bernays, Murray C. "Legal Basis of the Nuremberg Trials," Survey Graphic (1/46).

Bierbrier, Doreen. "The American Zionist Emergency Council: An Analysis of a Pressure Group," AJHQ (9/70).

Blayney, Michael S. "Herbert Pell, War Crimes, and the Jews," AJHQ (6/76).

Brugioni, Dino A. "Auschwitz-Birkenau," Military Intelligence (1/83).

Brugioni, Dino A., & Robert G. Poirier. "The Holocaust Revisited: A Retrospective Analysis of the Auschwitz-Birkenau Extermination Complex," Studies in Intelligence (winter 1978-79).

Cary, Otis. "The Sparing of Kyoto," Japan Qtrly (fall 1975).

Conway, John S. "Between Apprehension and Indifference: Allied Attitudes to the Destruction of Hungarian Jewry," Wiener LIbrary Bulletin, v 27 (1973-74), ns #30/31.

--. "Fruhe Augenzeugenberichte aus Auschwitz," Vierteljahrshefte fur Zeitgeschichte (4/79).

de Jong, Louis. "The Netherlands and Auschwitz," YVS, v 7 (1968).

"Doomed Ships: Refugee Ordeals on the High Seas," Wiener Library Bulletin (4/62).

Eck, Nathan. "The Rescue of Jews with the Aid of Passports and Citizenship Papers of Latin American States," YVS, v 1 (1957).

Emerson, Herbert. "Postwar Problems of Refugees," Foreign Affairs (1/43).

Fein, Helen. "Reviewing the Toll: Jewish Dead, Losses and Victims of the Holocaust," Shoah (spring 1981).

--. "Toleration of Genocide," Patterns of Prejudice (9/73).

Feuer, Leon I. "Abba Hillel Silver: A Personal Memoir," Am J Archives (11/67). Also see 11/68 issue, pp 127-8.

--. "The Forgotten Year," Am Zionist (11/67).

Fox, John P. "The Jewish Factor in British War' Crimes Policy in 1942," English Hist Review (1/77).

Fry, Varian. "The Massacre of the Jews," New Republic (12/21/42).

--. "Our Consuls at Work," Nation (5/2/42).

Genizi, Haim. "American Interfaith Cooperation on Behalf of Refugees from Nazism, 1933-1945," Am J Hist (3/81).

--. "The Attitude of American Catholics toward Catholic Refugees from Nazism: 1933-1945," in Proceedings of the Seventh World Congress of Jewish Studies Holocaust Research (1980).

--. "James McDonald and the Roosevelt Administration," Bar-Ilan Studies in History (1978).

Greenberg, Hayim. "Bankrupt," Midstream (3/64).

Grossmann, Kurt R "Refugees, DP's, and Migrants," in Institute of Jewish Affairs, The Institute Anniversary Volume (1962).

Gutman, Yisrael, & Efraim Zuroff (eds). Rescue Attempts during the Holocaust (1977). This book contains several relevant articles.

Hirschmann, Ira A. "Palestine-as a Refuge from Fascism," Survey Graphic (5/45).

Huff, Earl. "A Study of a Successful Interest Group," Western Political Qtrly (3/72).

Jacoby, Gerhard. "The Jewish Catastrophe and Its Aftermath," in Institute of Jewish Affairs, The Institute Anniversary Volume (1962).

Kimball, Warren F. "Lend-Lease and the Open Door," Political Science Qtrly (6/71).

Koestler, Arthur. "The Nightmare That Is a Reality," NY Times, 1/9/44, VI, 5.

Lester, Elenore, & Frederick E. Werbell. "The Lost Hero of the Holocaust," NY Times Magazine, 3/30/80.

Lewin, Isaac. "Attempts at Rescuing European Jews with the Help of Polish Diplomatic Missions during World War II," parts I, II, & III, Polish Review, v 22, #4 (1977), v 24, #1 (1979), v 27, #1-2 (1982).

--. "Telegrams from Hell," Poiityka (Warsaw) (8/9/75).

Ludlow, Peter W. "The International Protestant Community in the Second World War," Jour a/Ecclesiastical Hist (7/78).

Mervis, Leonard. "The Social Justice Movement and the American Reform Rabbi," Am J Archives (6/55).

Morgenstern, Aryeh. "The United Rescue Committee of the Jewish Agency and Its Activities during the Years 1943-1945," Yalkut Moreshet (6/71). (In Hebrew.)

Morgenthau, Henry, Jr. "The Refugee Run-Around," Collier's (11/1/47).

Perkins, Bradford. "Reluctant Midwife: America and the Birth of Israel," Reviews in Am Hist (3/81).

Rothkirchen, Livia. "The 'Final Solution' in Its Last Stages," YVS, v 8 (1970).

---. "Hungary-an Asylum for the Refugees of Europe," YVS, v 7 (1968).

Shafir, Shlomo. "Taylor and McDonald: Two Diverging Views on Zionism and the Emerging Jewish State," J Sodal Studies (fall 1977).

Syrkin, Marie. Letter, Midstream (5/68).

--. "What American Jews Did During the Holocaust," Midstream (10/82).

Szajkowski, Zosa. "The Attitude of American Jews to Refugees from Germany in the 1930s," AJHQ (12/71).

Tenenbaum, Joseph. "The Contribution of American Jewry towards Rescue in the Hitler Period," Yad Vashem Bulletin (4/57).

"Testimony of Herman F. Graebe, Given in Israel," YVS, v 6 (1967).

Urofsky, Melvin I. (ed). Essays in American Zionism 1917-1948 (1978). This book includes several relevant articles.

---. "Rifts in the Movement: Zionist Fissures, 1942-1945," in Urofsky (ed), Essays in American Zionism 1917-1948 (1978).

Vago, Bela. "The British Government and the Fate of Hungarian Jewry in 1944," in Gutman & Zuroff (eds), Rescue Attempts during the Holocaust (1977).

Voss, Carl Hermann. "The American Christian Palestine Committee," in Urofsky (ed), Essays in American Zionism 1917-1948 (1978).

Willson, John P. "Carlton J. H. Hayes, Spain, and the Refugee Crisis, 1942-1945," AJHQ (12/72).

Yahil, Leni. "Scandinavian Countries to the Rescue of Concentration Camp Prisoners," YVS, v 6 (1967).

Unpublished Works

Berman, Aaron. "The Hebrew Committee of National Liberation and the Rescue of the European Jews." Thesis, Hampshire Col (1975).

Dexter, Elisabeth A. "Last Port of Freedom." Manuscript (1942).

Grobman, Alex. "Reaction of American Jewry through the American and Jewish Press, 1939-1942." MA thesis, Hebrew Univ of Jerusalem (1978).

Mainzer, Edward. "The Ohio Jewish Chronicle 1941-1943." Manuscript (1980).

Matzozky, Eliyho. "American Jewish Press Reaction to the Mass Killing, November 24, 1942, to March 4, 1943." Manuscript (1978).

---. "The Response of American Jewry and Its Representative Organizations between November 24, 1942, and April 19, 1943, to Mass Killing of Jews in Europe."

MA thesis, Yeshiva Univ (1979).

Musy, Jean-Marie. "Rapport au Comite Suisse de l'Union of Orthodox Rabbis." Manuscript (1945).

Neustadt-Noy, Isaac. "The Unending Task: Efforts to Unite American Jewry from the American Jewish Congress to the American Jewish Conference." PhD dissertation, Brandeis Univ (1976).

US Foreign Economic Administration. "A Survey of Greek Relief, April 1941 to December 1943." Mimeographed (1944).

Wood, Louise H. "Italy Program: 1940-1941, 1944-1962." Mimeographed by American Friends Service Committee (1970).  
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Re: The Abandonment of the Jews: American and the Holocaust,

Postby admin » Sat Apr 21, 2018 5:19 am

INDEX

Key to Abbreviations


AJCf: Am Jewish Cf
Am: American
Ber CF: Bermuda Cf
Cf: conference
Com: committee
Decln: declaration
Dptn: deportation
Extmn: extermination
ICR: Intergovernmental Com on Refs
Imgn: immigration
JEC: Joint Emergency Com
JLC: Jewish Labor Com
Mtg: meeting
PAC: President's Advisory Com
Ref: refugee
Resol: resolution
Rpt: report
WRB: War Ref Board


Acheson, Dean, 47, 55
Ackermann, Leonard E., 228, 261
Agudath Israel: & AJCf, 162; &
Bergsonites, 384; & bombing issue,
290-1; described, 68, 329; &
emergence of WRB, 204; & Ist rpts
of extmn, 45-6; illegal use of Polish
code, 46, 290; & JEC, 93
Akzin, Benjamin, 295, 296
Alexander, Robert c., 99, 113
Alfange, Dean, 146, 148, 194, 312, 317,
384
America, 319, 323
American Christian Com for Refugees,
274, 315, 318
American Federation of Labor: & free
ports, 263; & JLC, 68, 329; & mass
mtgs, 87-9, 93-4; protests extmn,
63; record, 320; & rescue, 150, 230;
& Rescue Resol, 199
American Friends Service Com: &
dptns from France, 33, 36; & free
ports, 263; & ICR, 140; & imgn, 127,
128-9, 132, 135; & Oswego camp,
271; & Spain, 222; summary, 317; &
WRB, 224, 232
American Jewish Com: & AJCf, 161,
166; & Bergsonites, 346; & Day of
Compassion, 102; described, 67, 329;
& emergence of WRB, 204; & 1st
rpts of extmn, 24; & JEC, 93, 168-9;
& Long, 198; & mass mtgs, 94; &
rescue, 166n
American Jewish Conference: actions,
166-70, 174, 252; assessed, 174-j;
8/43 sessions, 162-5; & Bergsonites,
200-1, 202, 345; & emergence of
WRB, 204; & JEC, 168-9; & Long,
198; & Palestine issue, 163-4, 170;
plans for, 160-2; & rescue, 162, 165-
6, 167-70; & Rescue Resol, 168, 198-
201, 199n, 202, 384
American Jewish Congress: & AJCf,
167; & "Christmas Decln, " 64;
described, 67; & emergence of WRB,
204; & films, 322; & JEC, 93, 168-9
& n; & mass mtgs, 87-9, 87n, 90-2,
93; & rescue, 77-8, 79-80, 169; &
rpts of extmn, 24, 81-2; & US
Congress, 94-5
American Jewish Joint Distribution
Com: & AJCf, 169n; & Christian ref
agencies, 318-19; & dptns from
France, 33; & Emergency Cf, 144; &
ICR, 140, 141; & imgn, 132, 134,
135-6; & JEC, 368; & PAC, 315; &
rescue, 169n, 187, 330, 393; & Va ad
Hahatzala, 250, 251; & WRB, 213-
14, 217-18, 222, 224, 226, 231, 232,
330
American League for a Free Palestine,
253-4, 328, 346
American Mercury, 63, 322
American Palestine Com, 171n, 380
American Zionist Emergency Council,
93, 167, 170-4 passim, 345
Anti-Semitism: & Am Jews, 330n; in
Congress, 14, 57, 116, 276n; opinion
polls on, 14-15, 359; organized, 9-
10; & Oswego camp, 267, 275-6;
"passive" anti-Semitism, 12, 327; in
State Dept, 190 & n; in US armed
forces, 13-14, 324-5n; in US in
1930s & 40s, 9-15, 275-6; & US ref
policy, 9, 12, 107, 327, 337
Associated Press, 23, 321
Atherton, Ray, 81, 191
Atkinson, Henry A., 64-5, 171n
Auschwitz: bombing issue, xi, 206,
324n, 334, & ch 15; as killing center,
4, 39, 52, 53, 103, 235-7, 241, 247,
289, 298, 301, 307, 326n
Auschwitz report (Vrba-Wetzler
report), 238, 288-9, 290, 295, 297,
301-2, 314, 315, 324-5, 326n, 392,
407, 415-6
Backer, George, 113, 119n, 341-3
Baldwin, Joseph c., 155, 194, 396
Barkley, Alben W., 94-95
Baruch, Bernard M., 316
Bergson, Peter H., 85, 148, 150, 194-5,
346, 384
Bergsonites: animosity toward, 85, 87,
90-2, 144, 153, 168, 173, 194-5, 198-
201, 202, 253-4, 321, 345-7, 384; &
Palestine Resol, 173; pre-1943, 84-6;
summary, 329. See also Com for a
Jewish Army; Emergency Com;
Emergency Conference; Irgun group
Berle, Adolf A., Jr., 74, 80, 111, 145,
190-1
Berlin, Meyer, 94-5, 200
Bermuda Conference, ch 6, appendix
A, 124, 226, 339; & ICR, 138, 196;
& Jewish orgzns, 93, 96, 100, 176; &
ref camps, 260; & Senate, 143-4
Biddle, Francis, 150, 271
Blickenstaff, David, 222, 223-4, 226,
280
Bloom, Sol: assessed, 202, 317;
attacked, 201-2; attacks Bergsonites,
194-5, 346; & Ber Cf, 108-17
passim, 121, 341; & Palestine camps
plan, 253; & rabbis' march, 153n; &
Rescue Resol, 194-7, 201-3, 204
B'nai B'rith, 24, 68, 93, 161, 166, 329
Bombing of gas chambers & railroads,
xi, 206, 324n, 334, 408-9, 410, & ch
15
Brand, Joel, affair, 243-5, 251
British blockade authorities, 115, 139,
181-2, 281-3, 284, 333, 405
British Broadcasting Corporation, 21-
2, 237-8
Bulkley, Robert J., 129-30, 131
Canterbury, archbishop of, 48, 88, 105,
108
Catholic Com for Refugees, 263, 274,
315, 318-19
Catholic press, 317, 319, 413
Celler, Emanuel: & Ber Cf, 121; &
Bloom, 110, 121, 202; efforts for
action, 121, 317; & FDR, 100, 313,
337; & JEC, 100; & Long, 198;
rescue legislation, 55-6, 94, 151, 201,
202; & State Dept, 121, 198
Chicago Tribune, 26, 57, 197
Children: attempts to save, 36-7, 133,
179, 224, 333, 391; dptns from
France, 31-5, 38; saved from
Transnistria, 218
Christian Century, 65-7, 65n, 150, 263,
318
Christian churches, 28, 317-20; Day of
Intercession, 151-2; & food
programs, 282; & Hungary, 252-3;
& mass mtgs, 93-4; near silence of,
101-3, 205, 317-19, 412-13; protest
massacres, 25-6; & Rescue Resol,
201; & WRB, 286n. See also Day of
Compassion
Christian Council on Palestine, 171n,
380
Christian Front, 9, 11
Churchill, Winston, 24, 138, 239, 245,
282-3, 306, 334-5
Church Peace Union, 25, 64-5, 87-9,
150, 263, 317
Cohen, Benjamin, 204n, 385
Com for a Jewish Army: & Ber Cf, 111,
120, 143-4; early history, 85-6; &
Emergency Cf, 144-7; &JEC, 93;
rescue drive, 77, 86-7, 111, 146, 204,
339-40; & Rumanian proposal, 84,
86-7; & "We Will Never Die, " 90-2
Commonweal, 64, 263, 319, 323n
Communists, 144, 320, 396
Concentration camps, liberation of,
324-6
Congress, US: anti-Semitism in, 14, 57,
116, 276n; & Ber Cf, 111, 143-4;
elections (1942), 55, 56; evaluation
of, 316-17; & food proposals, 282;
& free ports, 262, 263, 264; Jewish
members, 100& n, 109, 153n, 317,
365; legislation re refs & rescue, 8,
55-6, 94-5, 151, 253, 263, 282, 396;
& liberated German camps, 325; &
Oswego camp, 265-76 passim; &
Palestine issue, 171, 172-4, 252, 396;
& rescue, 55-8, 103; restrictionism
in, 7-8, 56-8, 151, 276n; & State
Dept, 316; & 3rd War Powers Bill,
56-7; war relief funds, 214n, 284; &
WRB, 213. See also Rescue
Resolution.
--- House Com on Imgn, 14, 55-6,
273-4, 275-6; House Foreign Affairs
Com, 172, 194-9, 201, 202-3, 237;
House Ways & Means Com, 57;
Senate Foreign Relations Com, 173,
201, 237, 282
Congress of Industrial Organizations:
assessed, 320; & extmn, 63; & free
ports, 263; & mass mtgs, 87-9, 93-
4; & rescue, 150, 230; & Rescue
Resol, 199
Congress Weekly, 63, 70, 101, 109
Connally, Tom, 201, 253
Coughlin, Charles E., 9
Cox, Oscar, 183, 186-7, 202-3, 214n,
313, 385, 387
Cretzianu, Alexander, 219-20, 220n
Culbertson, Paul T., 43, 278
Curran, Edward L., 9
Cyrenaica. See Libya
Daughters of the American Revolution,
7
Davis, Elmer, 77-8, 315
Day of Compassion, 65, 102-3, 318
Day of Mourning, 71
Dewey, Thomas E., 88, 172, 173
Dexter, Robert c., 227
Dickstein, Samuel, 55-6, 110n, 121,
151, 198, 273-4, 275-6, 317
Dodds, Harold W., 108, 112-17
passim, 120, 341-2
DuBois, Josiah E., Jr., 182, 186, 187,
190n, 203n, 239, 258, 287
Dulles, Allen W., 314
Dunn, James c., 81, 145, 191
Durbrow, Elbridge, 44, 81
Eaker, Ira c., 299, 303n
Early, Stephen, 90, 149
Edelstein, M. Michael, 14
Eden, Anthony, 96-8, 239
Eichmann, Adolf, 4, 228, 235, 243, 244-
5, 247
Einstein, Albert, 158-9, 273
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 117, 257, 293,
325
Elting, Howard, Jr., 43, 44
Emergency camps plan, 261-8, 400
Emergency Com to Save the Jewish
People of Europe: attacks on, 168,
194-5, 200-1, 202; & bombing
l~sue, 295; 1st actions, 147-56;
formed, 146-7; & free ports, 263; &
Hebrew Com, 254; & Hungary, 252-
3; & intellectuals, 320; & Palestine
camps, 253; & poison gas, 295n; &
Rescue Resol, 155-6, 316-17, & ch
11; summary, 328
Emergency Conference to Save the
Jewish People of Europe, 144-7, 150
Emergency Refugee Shelter. See
Oswego camp
Emerson, Herbert, 111-12, 138, 139&
n, 214
Exchanges, civilian, 276-7
Excuses for non-rescue, 66, 76, 98-9,
105, 107, 111-12, 113, 114-15, 121,
135n, 182, 189, 197, 266-7, 291-3,
293, 298, 307, 335-9, 342-3, 418
Extermination, knowledge of: among
AmJews, 327, 362, 416; 1st rpts of
extmn, 19-24, 30, 42-53, 58, 61-6,
71, 75-6, 79, 80, 96, 167; problem of
dissemination of information, 26-8,
61-6, 79, 86, 91-2, 93-4, 95, 102,
146-7, 204, 252, 311, 321-2, 326-7,
330, 334; question of credibility, 26-
7, 29-30, 51, 53, 65-6, 79, 189, 322-
7, 415; rpts of dptns, 30, 38, 39, 45,
48, 50, 55, 80, 235-7
Fedala camp. See North Africa camp
Federal Bureau of Investigation, 129,
132, 149n, 346, 367
Federal Council of Churches, 25, 65,
93, 101-3, 151, 263, 317, 318
Feeding proposals & programs: at Ber
Cf, 115; & British blockade, 281-3;
debate on in US, 280-3; at
Emergency Cf, 146; & Greece, 281,
336, 338, 404; & State Dept, 47, 76,
88-9, 281; summary, 333; WRB,
280, 283-4
Feis, Herbert, 180, 185
Ferguson, Homer, 194, 203, 396
Film industry, 322, 325, 415
Fort Ontario refugee shelter. See
Oswego camp
Frankfurter, Felix, 45, 54-5, 316
Free ports plan, 261-8, 400
Gerhardt, Harrison A., 293-7 passim
Gillette, Guy M., 146, 155, 193-4, 200-
4 passim, 282, 396
Goldmann, Nahum, 110, 162, 176, 179,
187-8, 199
Goldmann plan, 187-8
Goldstein, Israel, 101, 122, 167, 365
Grafton, Samuel, 263, 264
Great Britain: & Ber Cf, ch 6; & Brand
affair, 244-5; & camps in North
Africa, 260-1, 335; & civilian
exchanges, 276-7; fear of rescue, 97-
9, 105, 114-15, 120, 159, 182& n,
239, 244-5, 331, 337, 342; & food
proposals, 281-4 passim, 333, 336,
338, 405; & French children, 233; &
Goldmann plan, 188; & Horthy
offer, 239 & n; & ICR, 119, 138-9,
239; & non-Jewish refs, 227-8, 335,
338-9; Palestine policy, 98, 115, 157-
9, 172, 180, 239; public response to
extmn, 23-4, 104-5, 323n; record
assessed, xi, 334; rescue policy, x, 98,
105, 114-19, 122, 123, 182; &
Riegner plan, 181-3; & Riegner rpt,
44; & Rumanian proposal, 82-4,
366; & UN decln (1942), 73-5; &
war crimes issue, 257, 258; &
Warsaw uprising (1944), 305-6; &
WRB, 212-13, 216, 219, 220, 291,
334. See also British blockade
authorities
Greek feeding program, 281
Greek refugees, 159, 305, 338-9, 343n
Green, William, 24, 63, 88, 146, 263
Gustav V (king of Sweden), 238
Hadassah, 169, 171 & n
Handler, Milton, 214n, 385
Harrison, Leland, 50, 179, 181, 184,
186
Hayes, Carlton J. H., 136, 211, 222,
223-6, 224n, 280
Hearst, William Randolph, 144, 146,
147-8, 194, 253, 263, 317
Heathcote-Smith, Clifford, 140, 229
Hebrew Com of National Liberation,
253-4, 328, 346
Hebrew Sheltering & Immigrant Aid
Society, 128, 132, 271, 330
Hechaluz, 169n, 233, 393
Hecht, Ben, 63, 70, 86-7, 86n, 90, 147,
154-5
Held, Adolph, 72-3
Henderson, Leon, 154
Herlands Report, 10
HICEM, 132
Hickerson, John D., 81
HIJEFS, 247
Himmler, Heinrich, 28, 39, 52, 247,
298; & secret negotiations, 231, 243-
51 passim
Hinsley, Arthur, 23-4, 88, 104
Hirschmann, Ira A., 149-50, 215-20,
220n, 221, 239-40, 244
Hitler, Adolf, 53, 251
Holocaust. See Jews, Nazi extmn of
Hoover, Herbert, 144, 146, 148, 282,
317
Horthy, Miklos, 238-40, 241, 392
Horthy offer, 233, 238-40, 392
Hull, Cordell: & Ber Cf, 100; &
Bergsonites, 144-5, 149; & deptns
from France, 36; & free ports, 262;
& Hungary, 237; & Moscow Cf, 154
& n; & rescue, 97-8, 184-5, 185n,
190, 191, 313; & Riegner plan, 181-
2, 184-5; & Vinel affair, 278; &
WRB, 210
Hungary, ch 13; escape hopes, 228,
229, 233, 390, 393; help to Budapest
Jews, 225, 240-3, 285, 288-9, 290,
294, 300-1, 393
Ickes, Harold L., 47, 55, 146, 148, 271,
273, 274, 313, 317
Immigration into US, x, 5-6, 100, 124-
6, 136&n, 266, 274, 336
Intergovernmental Com on Refugees:
background, 107, 108, 371; & Ber
Cf, 106-7, 108, 118-19, 120, 124; &
Emerson, 111-12; Long &, 137-8,
196-7; record, 137-41, 156, 188,
190, 278, 337; & WRB, 214
Interior, Department of, 268, 313
International Red Cross, 212, 214n,
246; & feeding programs, 281, 283-
4, 333; & Hungary, 237, 238, 240,
242
Irgun group, 84-6, 85n, 149& n, 367
Jackson, Robert H., 259-60
"Jew Deal, " 15n, 107
Jewish Agency for Palestine, 82, 159,
169n, 176n, 217-18, 220, 226, 236-
7, 251, 290
Jewish Army plan, 84 & n
Jewish Frontier, 40, 48-9, 101, 120, 123
452
Jewish Labor Bund (Poland), 21, 40,
53, 58, 123
Jewish Labor Com: & AJCf, 161, 162,
166, 170; described, 68, 329; &
emergence of WRB, 204; & 1st rpts
of extmn, 24; & JEC, 93, 169; &
mass mtgs, 87
Jewish press, 24, 28, 47-9, 62-3, 71,
92, 120, 201, 254, 263, 327n. See
also Yiddish press
Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 20, 48, 62,
197
Jews, American: summary of disunity,
328-9, 347; summary of overall
response, xi, 327 -30
Jews, Nazi extermination of, 3-5, 5n,
19-24, 29-35, 38-40, 42-3, 45, 48-
53, 58, 75, 80, 96, 103, 167 &n, 221,
228, 235-6, 334, 406
Johnson, Edwin c., 87, Ill, 146, 194
Johnson, Herschel V., 229, 230-1
Joint Chiefs of Staff, US, 117, 282, 293,
295n
Joint Emergency Com on European
Jewish Affairs: & Ber Cf, 109-11,
120-1; & Congress, 94-5; & Day of
Compassion, 102-3; demise of, 168-
9, 379; & Eden, 97-8; & emergence
of WRB, 204; & FDR, 100, 365;
formation of, 93; mass mtgs, 93-4; &
State Dept, 95-8, 100; summary,
328. See a/so Temporary Com
Joy, Charles R., 211, 267
Kalmanowitz, Abraham, 296
Karski, Jan, 322 & n, 329, 415
Kasztner, Rudolf, 245
Katzki, Herbert, 220
Keppel, Frederick P., 129-30, 131
Kershner, Howard, 282
Kersten, Felix, 231, 395, 405
Killing centers, 4-5, 21, 22, 23, 40, 52,
80, 322, 324, 325, 415. See a/so
Auschwitz
Kingdon, Frank, 121
Koestler, Arthur, 324
Kook, Hillel. See Bergson, Peter H.
Kopecky, Jaromir, 290, 295
Kubowitzki, A. Leon, 295-6, 323
Labor movement, 26, 63, 71, 93-4,
150, 199, 230, 282, 320. See a/so
American Federation of Labor;
Congress of Industrial Organizations
La Guardia, Fiorello, 24, 71, 88, 146,
148, 194, 317
Land, Emory S., 217, 387
Langer, William, 143-4, 146, 153, 382
Latin American documents, as rescue
device, 277-9
Laval, Pierre, 31, 35, 36, 37
Law, Richard, 113, 114, 120, 122
Lehman, Herbert H., 24, 316
Lerner, Max, 144-9 passim
Libya, 111, 116, 212, 260
Lichtheim, Richard, 80, 167n
Lidice massacre, 28-9, 326
Life 63, 267, 322, 415
Lippmann, Walter, 320
Long, Breckinridge: & Ber Cf, 106, 108-
9, 111, 117, 122; characterized, 190,
191 & n, 313; & Emergency Com,
149-50, 155, 156; fails to act, 80,
191; & Goldmann plan, 187-8; &
ICR, 137-8; & imgn, 100, 125, 137;
opposes rescue agency, 153 & n;
posts, 105 & n, 198; & Rescue Resol,
195-8, 203-4; & Riegner plan, 180-
1, 184-5; & shipping issue, 336; &
3rd War Powers Bill, 57
Los Angeles Times, 26, 38
Lowrie, Donald A., 32, 33, 36, 39
Lucas, Scott, 108, 112, 116, 143-4,
153, 316, 341-3, 343n
Lutz, Charles, 393
Luxford, Ansel, 183, 188
Malin, Patrick M., 138 & n, 139 & n,
197, 214
Mann, James H., 224, 225, 296-7
Mass media, xi, 27-8, 205; &
Auschwitz rpt, 289; & Ber Cf, 113,
119-20; & Day of Mourning, 71; &
dptns from France, 37-8; &
Emergency Cf, 147; & 1st rpts of
extmn, 19-20, 21-3, 61-4, 61n, 70,
73, 76, 80-1; & food programs, 282;
& free ports, 263-4; & Hungary,
236, 252; & mass mtgs, 26, 89, 91-2,
93-4; & Oswego camp, 267, 268,
274, 275-6; & rabbis' march, 153; &
Rescue Resol, 194, 197; summary on,
321-2, 323, 324-7, 330, 360, 363,
415, 416; & UN dedn (1942), 75
Mass meetings & demonstrations, 24-6,
53, 87-92, 93-4, 107, 110, 168, 169-
70, 172, 252, 327n
Mayer, Saly, 245-51 passim, 395
McClelland, Roswell, 36, 232-3, 237,
245-50 passim, 284, 285-6, 289,
294, 324
McCloy, John J., 210, 256, 267, 286,
291-7 passim, 305, 323
McDonald, James G., 45-6, 315
McIntyre, Marvin, 152
Meltzer, Bernard, 180, 185
Merlin, Samuel, 85, 86n
Miller, Irving, 199
Ministry of Economic Warfare. See
British blockade authorities
Monsky, Henry, 72-3, 161, 167, 329
Morgenthau, Henry, Jr.: & Brand
affair, 244; & emergence ofWRB,
183-7, 203-4, 205; & Emergency Cf,
145; & Emergency Com, 150; &
FDR, 214-15, 225, 228, 315; & food
programs, 284; & free ports, 262; &
Musy affair, 250; & Oswego camp,
264-5; & Riegner plan, 181-6; &
Rumanian proposal, 82-3; & Vinel
affair, 278; & WRB, 210-11, 239,
256, 286-7
Murphy, Frank, 320-1
Murray, James, 14, 194n, 396
Murray, Philip, 63, 121, 146
Murray, Wallace, 106n, 191
Musy affair, 248-51, 331
Nation, 28, 63, 89-9O, 197-8, 263, 320
National Catholic Welfare Conference,
286n, 319, 388
National Com Against Nazi Persecution
& Extermination of the Jews, 320-1
National Refugee Service, 127, 128,
271, 274
National War Fund, 318 & n, 319
Nativism, 7, 56-8, 190, 327
Nazi extermination of the Jews. See
Jews, Nazi extmn of
New Republic, 28, 63, 109, 150, 173,
197, 252, 263, 320
Newsweek, 57, 63, 415
New York Herald Tribune, 87, 89, 263,
321
New York Post, 89, 147n, 173, 194,
195, 197, 201, 263, 321
New York Times, 26, 38, 76, 82, 84, 86,
89, 95, 119, 137, 197, 198, 218, 236,
263, 299n; assessment of, 321 & n,
323; rpts on extmn, 20, 21, 22-3, 62,
73, 81-2; mentioned, 88, 102, 120,
143, 151
Niebuhr, Reinhold, 64, 121, 122, 150,
171n, 318, 320
Niles, David, 90, 264, 315
North Africa camp (Fedala), 117n, 188,
226, 260-1, 333, 335, 339; at Ber Cf,
116-17; & ICR, 141; plans for, 112;
& US visa policy, 127-8; & War
Dept, 293
O'Dwyer, William, 271 & n, 273, 284,
286-7, 406
Office of Strategic Services, 224n, 314
Office of War Information, 64, 90, 148,
224n, 237-8, 252, 257; & extmn
news, 77-8, 79; & impact of
atrocities information, 327; record of,
315
Olsen, Iver c., 229-31, 241, 243
Oswego camp, 261, 266, 339; & anti-
Semitism, 275-6, 276n; efforts for
release of internees, 269-72, 272-4;
genesis of, 228, 264-6; life at, 268-
73 & nn, 274 & n, 275; public
response to, 267-8; reactions of
townspeople to, 269, 275 & n; &
subversion, 337; Truman &, 273-5
Palestine: British imgn restraints, 157-
9, 172; receives early rpts of extmn,
52; as haven, 116, 157, 172, 180, 328;
ICR &, 139n; & non-Jewish refs, 339
& n; refugee ships to, 158-9
Palestine camps (shelters) plan, 253
Palestine Resolution, 172-4, 252, 396
"Passive anti-Semitism, " 12, 327
Paul, Randolph, 183, 184, 191, 203
Pearson, Drew, 279
Pegler, Westbrook, 267, 275
Pehle, John W.: assessment of WRB,
287; & bombing issue, 291, 294, 295,
297, 304, 324n; & emergence of
WRB, 203, 205; & food programs,
283; & free ports, 263; & illegal use
of Polish code, 250; & Oswego
camp, 264-5; & Riegner plan, 183,
184; & Rosenman, 256; & State
Dept, 189; & WRB, 210-11, 213-
14, 214, 224, 225, 244, 258, 286-7,
386
Pell, Herbert C., 257-60
Peli, Robert T., 137
Philippeville camp, 228, 261, 339, 399
Pius XII, Pope, 34n, 47, 75, 229, 238,
334-5, 392. See also Vatican
PM, 11, 147, 217n, 320, 321, 414
Polish government-in-exile: & bombing
issue, 296-7; & 1st rpts of extmn,
22, 50, 52; helps Orthodox Jewish
orgzns, 46, 248 & n, 250, 290; &
Warsaw ghetto, 40; & Warsaw
uprising (1944), 305-6
Polish refugees, 98, 159, 188n, 293,
305, 335, 338-9, 343n
President's Advisory Com on Political
Refugees: & Ber Cf, 111; & children,
37, 133, 133-4; & free ports, 263; &
Long, 198; record of, 315, 411; &
Riegner rpt, 54; & visa policies, 125,
129, 134; & Wise, 47
Prisoners of war, 338 & n
Proskauer, Joseph M., 94, 96-7, 109-
10, 112, 163
Protestant press, 101, 317-18, 412-13.
See also Christian Century
Public opinion polls: Americans' main
interests, 327n; anti-Semitism, 14-15,
359; atrocities, 326, 327, 416; extmn,
79, 326; free ports, 264, 400; food
programs, 282, 405; ref imgn, 8-9
Public response to extermination,
factors involved, x-xi, 62, 78, 205,
317-27, 327n, 330
Rabbis' pilgrimage, 152-3, 153n
Rab Island, 293, 294n, 407
Radio broadcasts, 322, 324
Randall, Mercedes M., 317-18
Rankin, John, 14
Ransom proposals, 82-4, 233, 243-51,
251, 331, 395
Reams, R. Borden, 73-5, 76, 99, 112-
13, 115, 145, 180, 181, 189, 191
Refugee aid agencies: & children, 36-7,
133-4; & Congress, 316; & dptns
from France, 30-9 passim; & ICR,
141; & Oswego camp, 269, 271, 273,
274; & rescue, 330; resist imgn cuts,
8; & visa policy, 126-9, 135-6, 316;
& WRB, 211-15 passim
Rescue, proposals for, 15, 21, 25, 29,
49, 76-8, 86, 88-9, 96-7, 101, 111,
113, 146, 331-5, 339-40, 384
Rescue Resolution, 155-6, 168, 186,
192, 384, & ch 11
Restrictionism: in Congress, 7-8, 56-7,
151, 276n; & Oswego camp, 267-8,
275; & US ref policy, 6-8, 56-8,
197
Reynolds, Robert R., 7, 268
Riegner, Gerhart: & bombing issue,
290, 295; extmn rpts, 42-3, 50, 58,
80, 167n, 178-9, 184, 236, 362
Riegner plan, 178, 179-84, 410
Riegner report, 42-7, 49-51, 53-5, 74,
178-9, 362
Rogers, Will, Jr., 148, 155, 194, 199
Roosevelt, Eleanor: & Bergsonites, 91-
2, 145-6, 148-9, 156, 376; &
children, 37, 133, 134; & early rpts
of extmn, 46; & food programs,
282n; & Hayes, 225; & Oswego
camp, 271-2, 273; & Struma, 159,
339; summary, 315
Roosevelt, Franklin D., x, xi, 58, 97-8,
103, 148, 153, 154, 172, 191, 294; &
Am Jews, 204n, 410-11; avoids 400
rabbis, 152-3; aware of extmn, 72,
322n; & Ber Cf, 108-9, 109n, 122; &
Bergsonites, 144-5, 147, 149; &
bombing issue, 295, 307n, 410; &
Brand affair, 244; & Congress, 55, 56-
7, 57-8; considers action (1943),
156; & early rpts of extmn, 45-6, 62;
& emergence of WRB, 184, 187, 203,
204; & food programs, 282-3, 284,
405; & free ports, 261-8; & Hayes,
225; & H. Pell, 257, 258-9; &
Hungary, 237, 396; & ICR, 138; &
imgn policy, 100, 124, 125, 136-7; &
JEC, 168; & mass mtgs, 89, 90; mtg
with Jewish congressmen, 100, 365,
410; mtgs with Jewish leaders, 71-3,
173, 180, 365; & North Mrica camp,
117; & Oswego camp, 264-6, 269,
271; & PAC, 315; & Palestine issue,
173-4; & poison gas, 295n; & press
cfs, 62, 323, 364; & refs to Italy, 228;
refuses to see Jewish leaders, 100,
365, 410; & Rescue Resol, 193, 194;
& Riegner plan, 180; & Rosenman,
316; & Rumanian proposal, 82; &
shipping, 336; summary &
evaluation, 311-13, 334-5, 337, 364;
& Virgin Islands plan, 47; & war
crimes, 24, 29, 72-3, 237, 255-7,
258-9, 261; & Warsaw uprising
(1944), 306, 307n, 410; Wise &, 69,
365, 410; & WRB, 210-11, 211n,
214, 285, 287. See also "Jew Deal"
Rosenheim, Jacob, 45-6, 67, 120-1,
290-2, 294
Rosenman, Samuel I., 153, 156, 256,
259-60, 316
Rumanian proposal (to release 70, 000
Jews), 82-4
Russia: & Brand affair, 245; & Polish
refs, 338; record of, xi, 118, 211,
220, 257, 326n, 334, 415; &
Wallenberg, 243
Sagalowitz, Benjamin, 42-3
Schellenberg, Walter, 248-9
Schwarzbart, Ignacy, 21, 24, 27, 52
Shipping issue, 98, 113-14, 114n, 115-
16, 128, 134, 197, 217 & n, 227-8,
267, 293, 332, 335-6, 339, 342-3,
418
Shulman, Herman, 110, 168, 199
Sikorski, Wladyslaw, 29
Silver, Abba Hillel: & AJCf, 163-4,
170, 176; & Am Zionist Emergency
Council, 171; on Ber Cf, 122; conflict
with Wise, 173-4; described, 163,
171, 329, 378; & FDR, 171, 173-4,
365; & Palestine Resol, 173-4, 252;
& Rescue Resol, 199
Silverman, Samuel S., 44, 54
Smart, Joseph, 271, 273
Smith, Alfred E., 194, 237, 263, 317
Smith, Gerald 1. K., 9-10
Somers, Andrew, 149, 396
Spain: & Ber Cf, 115-19; ref problem
in, 112, 133, 221-7, 388; &
Sephardic Jews, 225, 280
Spellman, Francis J., 168, 237
Squire, Paul c., 50
State Department: anti-alien attitudes
in, 127, 190; anti-Semitism in, 190&
n; & Ber Cf, 89, 124, ch 6, appendix
A; & Bergson, 346; causes for its
policy, 189-91; & children, 36-7,
133-4, 233, 391; & civilian
exchanges, 276, 277; & Congress,
151, 316; consulates, 134-6; deceit
of, 106-7, 116, 133, 186, 205; &
dptns from France, 36-7; &
Emergency Cf, 144-5; failure to act,
79-80, 89, 156, ch 10 (esp 187-91),
205, 333; fear of rescue, 99, 107, 114-
15, 120, 180, 189 & n, 266-7, 331,
342-3; & feeding proposals, 47, 281-
3; & 1st rpts of extmn, 22, 24, 43-5,
46, 49-51, 54, 65-6, 65n, 73-5, 79,
179; & free ports, 262, 266; & ICR,
137-9, 141, 149, 153n, 156, 181, 183-
4, 187-8, 189, 190, 205; imgn policy,
x, 5-6, 34, 39, 100, 113-14, 124-37,
190, 266; indicted by Treasury, 187;
& JEC, 95-8, 100; & Latin Am
documents, 277-80; & North Africa
camp, 260-1; opposes rescue agency,
183, 195-7, 204; & Palestine issue,
159, 172, 172-3, 173, 190, 253; &
poison gas, 295n; policy toward Jews,
x, 6, 103, 113-19, 122, 123; &
Riegner plan, 179-86; & Rumania,
82-4, 219, 366; & shipping, 335-6;
summary on, 313-14; suppression of
information by, 44, 45, 65, 80-1,
179, 186; Visa Division, 125-8
passim, 134-7 passim, 373; & war
State Department (cont.)
crimes issue, 73-5, 258-60; & WRB,
210, 211, 212, 222-3, 224, 285, 314
Steinhardt, Laurence A., 216, 217 & n,
219, 239-40, 244
Sternbuch, Isaac, 45-6, 46, 247-8,
248n, 248-51, 289-91, 301, 331, 395
Stettinius, Edward R., Jr., 156 & n,
191, 210, 212, 256, 258, 259, 293-4,
398
Stimson, Henry L., 203, 210, 262, 305,
314, 399, 410
Stone, 1. F., 217n, 266, 396
Struma, 158-9, 339
Subversion issue, 114, 116, 125, 126&
n, 127, 129-33, 158n, 159, 216 & n,
218, 223, 224, 260, 269, 336-7, 418
Sweden, 153-4, 231n, 237-42 passim,
266
Synagogue Council of America, 25, 68,
93, 122
Taft, Robert A., 194, 203, 282, 396
Taylor, Myron c.: & Ber Cf, 108, 138
& n; & deptns from Italy, 229; &
Emergency Cf, 144; & Hayes, 224n;
& ICR, 137, 138; & JEC, 96-7, 100;
& Riegner rpt, 47, 51, 55; & WRB,
214
Temple, William, 48, 88, 105, 108
Temporary Com, 47, 51, 54, 67-73, 93,
328
Thackrey, Ted 0., 195
Third War Powers Bill, 56-7, 268
Thomas, Elbert, 146, 153, 194, 201,
282, 396
Thompson, Dorothy, 63-4, 172, 263,
320
Time 63, 152, 153, 322
Transnistria concentration camps, 80,
82-3, 86, 179, 180, 218, 219-20, 285
Transportation issue. See Shipping issue
Travers, Howard K., 135, 191, 262
Treasury Department: & emergence of
WRB, 183-7, 203, 204, 205; & food
programs, 283; & illegal use of Polish
code, 250; & Rescue Resol, 202-3; &
Riegner plan, 180-6; & subversion
issue, 132-3; & WRB, 210-11, 222,
228, 313
Truman, Harry S, 143, 174, 259-60,
273, 273-5
Tuck, Pinkney, 36, 37
UN Declaration on War Crimes (1942),
66, 73-6
Unemployment issue, 6-7
Union of Orthodox Rabbis of US &
Canada: & Agudath Israel, 68-9; &
AJCf, 162; & Bergsonites, 384; &
bombing issue, 289-92; &
emergence of WRB, 204; & JEC, 93;
protests massacres, 25; & rabbis'
march, 152; & Vaad Hahatzala, 247;
& Vittel affair, 278-9
Unitarian Service Com, 39, 131, 224n,
263, 317, 388
United Jewish Appeal, 213-14, 347,
386
United Press, 22, 23, 38, 236, 321
UNRRA, 139, 140n, 213n, 228, 338
UN War Crimes Commission, 257-60
Vaad Hahatzala, 46, 202, 214, 248-52
passim, 296, 330
Valentin-Smith, Victor, 140-1
Van Nuys, Frederick, 194n, 203
van Paassen, Pierre, 86 & n, 147
Vatican, 29, 49, 75, 237, 238, 279. See
also Pius XII
Visser 't Hooft, Willem A., 337
Vittel camp, 277-9
Vrba, Rudolf, 288-9, 335
Vrba-Wetzler report. See Auschwitz
report
Wagner, Robert F., 94-5
Wallace, Henry A., 47, 55, 152, 315,
321
Wallenberg, Raoul, 240-3 passim, 334,
393
War crimes issue, 21, 29; & Congress,
95; UN decln (1942), 73-6, 104; UN
War Crimes Commission, 257-60;
warnings, 23, 24, 72-3, 154, 237,
238, 243, 255-7, 261, 331, 397;
WRB &, 255-9
War Department: & bombing issue, xi,
334, ch 15; & North Africa camp,
117, 293; Operations Division, 291-
3, 294, 297-8, 307; & Oswego camp,
265; & Palestine Resol, 172, 173;
rescue policy, 291-4, 307, 314, 334;
& shipping, 336; & UNRRA, 407; &
war crimes issue, 257, 259; &
Warsaw uprising (1944), 306; &
WRB, 210, 212, 222, 284, 291-301
passim, 304, 305, 307, 407.Seea&o
Joint Chiefs of Staff
War Refugee Board: assessment of, x,
285-7, 331, 335; & "assimilation, "
283-4, 405; & Auschwitz rpt, 324-5,
324n, 325n; & bombing issue, 290,
291, 294-5, 296-8, 324n; & ci~ilian
exchanges, 276-7; emergence of, 183-
7, 203-5, 330; ending of, 406; &
food programs, 280, 283-4, 405; &
free ports, 261-8; funding problem,
213-14, 285, 330, 386; & Hungary,
236-52; & Italy, 227-9, 264; &
Latin Am documents, 277-9, 404;
number of people it helped to save,
285, 405-6; operations from Turkey,
215-21; & Oswego camp, 264-7,
269, 271, 273; & Palestine issue, 253;
& poison gas, 295n; & Portugal, 227;
& ransom negotiations, 244-51; &
Rosenman, 316; search for havens,
256, 260-7; & Sephardic Jews, 280;
setting up of, 210-15; & Spain, 221-
7; & Sweden, 229-31; & Switzerland,
231-4; & war crimes warnings,
255-9; weaknesses of, 209-15, 285-
7
War Relocation Authority, 268, 270,
271, 273
Warren, George 1., 126n, 315; & Ber
Cf, 110, 112, 342n; & free ports, 262;
& PAC, 315; & visa policies, 126-7;
& WRB, 210, 249
Warsaw ghetto, 40, 45, 48, 50, 51, 123,
169, 337n
Warsaw uprising (1944), 305-7
War Shipping Administration, 217,
261, 313, 336
Washington Post, 70n, 73, 111, 151,
153, 321
Weizmann, Chaim, 88, 160
Welles, Sumner: & Ber Cf, 109-11,
112; & child refs, 133, 134; & dptns
from France, 36; & early rpts of
extmn, 44-5, 46, 49-51, 54, 362; &
Emergency Cf, 144; fails to act, 80,
190-1, 339; & ICR, 141; &JEC,
96-8, 100, 109-11, 168; & Rumanian
proposal, 82-3; & suppression
of information issue, 80-1,
179
Wetzler, Alfred, 288-9
"We Will Never Die" pageant, 90-2
White Paper (1939), 157-8, 160, 172,
180, 339; opposition to by Am Jewry,
159-60, 162-3, 170, 172, 175, 328,
378
Willkie, Wendell, 88, 145, 172, 194,
210-11, 225, 317, 321, 332
Winant, John G., 182, 184, 239 & n
Wise, Stephen S.: & AJCf, 161, 162,
167, 174; & Ber Cf, 100, 120; &
Bergsonites, 144, 346, 384; & Bloom,
121; & Celler, 121; & Christian
Century, 65-7; conflict with Silver,
173-4; & Congress, 94-5; described,
69-70, 70n, 329; early efforts for
action, 46-7, 49, 67, 77; & early rpts
of extmn, 43, 44-6, 50-1, 53-5, 362;
& Eden, 96-7; & Hungary, 252; &
JEC, 93, 96-7, 100, 169; & Madison
Square Garden mtg, 87-9; mtgs with
FDR, 71-3, 173, 180, 365, 410; &
Palestine Resol, 173-4, 252; press cfs
on extmn, 51, 61, 70; protests
massacres, 24, 25; & Rescue Resol,
168, 199 & n, 384; & Riegner plan,
179-80; & Temporary Com, 47, 51,
54, 67, 70-3, 93; trust in FDR, 69,
171, 173, 410; & UN decln (1942),
73, 74, 76
Women's International League for
Peace & Freedom, 317-18
World Jewish Congress: & AJCf, 167;
& Bergsonites, 144; & bombing
issue, 295; British section of, 22, 23,
458
World Jewish Congress (cont.)
44, 45, 54, 73; described, 68; &
emergence of WRB, 204; Geneva
office of, 42, 238; & Hungary, 252;
& Long, 198; & ransom issue, 251;
& rescue, 77-8, 169 & n, 226, 293,
330; & Riegner plan, 179-80; &
WRB, 214, 216
Yiddish press, 20, 28, 47-8, 55-6, 62,
71, 92, 165-6, 195, 327n
Yugoslav refugees, 159, 206, 227-8,
264, 267, 293, 305, 335, 338-9, 343n
Zionism: Am Zionist leadership, xi, 77-
8, ch 9 (esp 175-7), 198-201, 202,
252, 253, 328, 384; Biltmore
Program, 160, 163, 164, 170, 172,
175; as a divisive issue in Am Jewry,
160, 161-2, 166-7, 169, 170, 175,
328; Palestine statehood campaign,
ch 9
Zygielbojm, Szmul, 21-2, 27, 123
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