The Occult Establishment, by James Webb

"Science," the Greek word for knowledge, when appended to the word "political," creates what seems like an oxymoron. For who could claim to know politics? More complicated than any game, most people who play it become addicts and die without understanding what they were addicted to. The rest of us suffer under their malpractice as our "leaders." A truer case of the blind leading the blind could not be found. Plumb the depths of confusion here.

Re: The Occult Establishment, by James Webb

Postby admin » Mon May 28, 2018 5:20 am

Part 2 of 2

J. W. Campbell and A. E. van Vogt both became involved in the cult founded by their fellow science fiction writer L. Ron Hubbard. Hubbard (born 1911) wrote Westerns and sea stories before he published his first piece of science fiction in 1938 -- interestingly enough, the year in which he claims that he began his search for truth. This search culminated in an article, "Dianetics, the Evolution of a Science, " in the May 1950 number of Astounding Science Fiction. The magazine was edited by Campbell, who had been treated for sinus trouble by Hubbard according to the new system of mental healing he claimed to have discovered. The same year there appeared Hubbard's book Dianetics, which had an instant popular success. Dianetics expanded quickly among science fiction enthusiasts. Even the medical man who wrote the preface of Hubbard's book -- and whose sister Campbell later married -- had written science fiction. A. E. van Vogt became the head of Hubbard's Californian organization and in 1955 still believed in the value of the system. Campbell himself resigned after less th&n a year's allegiance. After a period of schism, Hubbard's dianetics evolved into a new system called Scientology, of which dianetics is now regarded as a preliminary formulation. Of this first stage of Scientology, Professor S. I. Hayakawa wrote: "It appears to me inevitable that anyone writing several million words of fantasy and science fiction should ultimately begin to internalize the assumptions underlying that verbiage. This appears to be what happened to Hubbard." [21] It is not recorded what A. E. van Vogt thought of this semantic analysis.

Scientology has proved no less popular than dianetics and has attracted support among fashionable rock groups and film stars. The cult possesses a headquarters at East Grinstead in Surrey. It has branches throughout the world and a fleet of three ships. On Hubbard's flagship (formerly the Glasgow-Belfast ferry) is based the "Sea Org, " the "most valuable and dedicated group of beings on this planet." The basic assumptions of Scientology are that an "auditor" (therapist), using a machine called an "E-meter" which is something like a lie detector, can clear away various blocks that prevent the "pre-clear" (patient) from achieving fun control of his abilities. The beginnings of this idea were incorporated in Hubbard's dianetics and are similar to the Freudian therapist's object of removing repressions through discovering traumatic experiences. Hubbard went further. In his "processing" he went back and back, first discovering that the most damaging experiences occurred in the womb before a child was born, and soon concluding that his patients had experienced previous incarnations. From recovering records of Scientologists' past lives, it was but a short step to declaring that the constant particle of this series of incarnations -- the so-called Theta being -- was trapped in a universe to which its nature was intrinsically superior. Hubbard's aim is to liberate these Thetans. There are lurid accounts of how Thetans have fought against the bodies in which they are entrapped with an assortment of weapons straight from the pages of a space opera. Hubbard apparently expects a battle to break out when ordinary humans discover the existence of a number of "liberated Thetans" and has warned his troops that they "need reinforcements" before they can "get spectacular." [22]

Hubbard's science-fictional Gnosticism has exactly suited the temper of the times. The scandals that have accumulated around Scientology [23] are less important than the pedigree of the cult. In an expanded version of his original article on dianetics, Hubbard has related his search through various paths of mysticism before evolving his own theories.

In a lifetime of wandering around many strange things had been observed. The medicine man of the Goldi people of Manchuria, the shamans of North Borneo, Sioux medicine men, the cults of Los Angeles and modern psychology. Amongst the people questioned about existence were a magician whose ancestors served in the court of Kublai Khan and a Hindu who could hypnotize cats. Dabbles had been made in mysticism, data had been studied from mythology to spiritualism. Odds and ends like these, countless odds and ends. [24]


Presumably it was one of the "dabbles" which led to Hubbard's association with Jack Parsons. Parsons was a chemist who was one of the founders of the California Institute of Technology, and he had been a follower of Crowley since 1939. In 1946 Parsons and Hubbard attempted to conduct a magical operation on Crowleyan principles. The aim was to persuade a spirit to incarnate itself in a child, which Parsons was to father. Hubbard was to act during the operation as a clairvoyant reporter of proceedings. Parsons thought the experiment had been successful, but his friendship with Hubbard was shattered in the summer of the same year when Hubbard withdrew the bulk of the money from their joint account and bought a yacht. Parsons eventually secured the boat when Hubbard was forced to put into Miami by a storm, and (according to Francis King) this is the last recorded association of Hubbard with magic; and Hubbard claims that he entered an association with Parsons on the orders of the FBI. [25] If Hubbard's mystical adventures led him through such esoteric paths, it is unsurprising that the doctrine with which he emerged was, in essence, an amalgam of psychoanalysis and occult tradition packaged in a box complete with a novel machine like those so much in vogue among pseudoscientists and the fringes of the science fiction world.

Scientology was not the only example of old ideas in modern dress. A widely diffused belief, which had more than a little to do with occultism and science fiction and was certainly inspired by the same conditions of anxiety, concerned the sighting of flying saucers, which began in 1947 and continued through the mid-1950s. Because of their assumed nature, saucers were naturally allied to science fiction (although it is rare to find a story written about the sightings, as the writers of science fiction had moved on to greater marvels some considerable time before). Yet this vision in the skies attracted the most eminent irrationalists. Wilhelm Reich began to communicate with flying saucers through his "cloud-busting" machine and believed that he had taken part in "the first battle of the universe" in association with his celestial visitors. C. G. Jung made a brilliant comparison of the saucer epidemic with the visions of the Mons Angels and the apparitions of Fatima and argued that the cause of the rumors was "a situation of collective distress." At least one supporter of the saucers has since argued that the Fatima apparitions were saucer people. Whereas Jung's interest was critical and detached, Gerald Heard -- who has also written on the religious significance of science fiction -- became a saucerite who believed that the saucers were powered by some way of harnessing magnetic forces and were manipulated by tiny bee-like creatures from Mars. Heard specifically connected the arrival of the saucers with atomic explosions: "we put out a finger to beckon attention on any watching fellow-planet that we were out for trouble and able to give it!" [26]

Flying saucers were taken up immediately by adepts of various cults, particularly in California. The most celebrated is probably George Adamski, who claimed to have traveled in a spaceship. Adamski made a world tour in which he was granted an audience by Queen Juliana of the Netherlands. His books inveigh against the appropriation of his saucers by mystics; yet he himself runs very true to type. Adamski's anxiety about the human condition was evident as early as 1937 when he published a pamphlet called Satan, Man of the Hour, which declared that "the first perversion of the cosmic principle took place in Lemuria." In 1940 he established a colony near the Mount Palomar observatory, and one of the "witnesses" -- one is reminded of Joseph Smith and the angels -- to Adamski's meeting with the saucer people was a member of his cult. [27] A British equivalent that has transferred its activities to California is George King's Aetherius Society. King (born 1919) took up Yoga exercises in 1944, but it was not until ten years later that his mission began. The prophet was told by a voice: "Prepare yourself! You are to become the voice of Interplanetary Parliament." King's activities include the "charging" of mountains with power -- these include the magician-haunted Mount Shasta in California. His chief task is to act as a channel of communication for extraterrestrial intelligence. He visits the planets in his astral body -- an opportunity for several near-illiterate attempts at science fiction -- and his followers seem to have adopted millennarian expectations which would earlier have been couched in religious terms. Their hope is that they will be removed from earth by spaceship in the event of a nuclear catastrophe. [28]

Every conceivable occult theory has accumulated round the saucer cults. Thus a writer in the Flying Saucer Review in 1961 suggested: "Is it not plausible to suggest that Count St. Germain was a missionary from space, an avatar from Venus with remarkable powers ... ?" As recently as 1970 an article in the same magazine has declared that the Cabala can provide useful insights for saucer devotees. [29] Of course there are saucer theorists who disagree with all the claptrap talked by such occult sections of the saucer movement:

In certain mystical and pseudo-mystical circles, both in the USA and Canada, to a lesser extent in Great Britain, there is being foolishly propagated an illusion that all the mysterious and elusive entities of the flying saucers are benevolent superbeings, radiating an unearthly love and understanding ....

There is a dangerous illusion! a Californian pipe or opium dream!

There are saucers, not manned by "little men" or captained by women, but by entities no one knows or has ever seen, whose irresponsible behavior takes the form of arson on quite a large and dangerous scale. They seem to have heat-ray projectors recalling those of H. G. Wells' "Men from Mars, " all brain and no bowels. [30]


The universe in which flying saucers are real is not very far from the private worlds of some science-fiction enthusiasts. Hugo Gernsback (born 1884), the coiner of the word "scientifiction, " seems to have been profoundly influenced by an experience that occurred at the age of nine, when he developed a fever after reading a translation of Mars as the Abode of Life by Percival Lowell. Staggered by the implications, Gernsback became delirious and is described as "raving about strange creatures, fantastic cities and masterly engineered canals of Mars for two full days and nights." [31] It is worth remembering that one of the most famous cases of turn-of-the-century psychical research involved a reincarnation of the subject on Mars. Whereas Gernsback's dissociation from ordinary reality was an involuntary process, the editor of Amazing Stories, Raymond Palmer, used the susceptibility of some of his readers to build up a large circulation among the "lunatic fringe" in the period of anxiety just after the war. In 1944 Palmer received a letter entitled "A warning to Future Man" from Richard Shaver, a Pennsylvania welder. Palmer rewrote the letter under the title "I remember Lemuria" and collaborated with Shaver in a series of stories based on his correspondent's imaginings. Shaver accepted his fantasies as reality, and for a time Palmer cooperated with this belief. The editor even claimed to go in fear of the sinister beings called "deros, " who in Shaver's cosmology implanted evil thoughts in the mind of man. After the collapse of the hoax, Shaver took to writing straightforward science fiction. [32]

The hard-core followers of science fiction present several characteristics that remind the observer of a religious cult proper. They organize themselves in enthusiastic groups of "fans" and describe themselves as "addicts." C. S. Lewis suggested that the experience of reading Rider Haggard could provide a substitute for religion, and Gerald Heard has claimed that science fiction represents an extension of consciousness. [33] There are facets of fantasy and science fiction that go some way toward providing an explanation of the problems of an "illuminated viewpoint."

The Search for Otherness was the title which science fiction writer Henry Kuttner once gave to a collection of his stories. It is in the nature of "otherness" that the solution may lie. Fantastic fiction provides the most explicit rendering of "other realities." But because there are substantial grounds for believing that there is a correspondence between the science fiction world and that of the occultists whom we have used as an index of the "illuminated" attitude, it is possible to use the explicit creation of other realities to interpret private worlds whose "otherness" remains implicit.

The "search for otherness" necessarily applies also to social reformers. There is a particular genre of Utopian fantasy that is the natural vehicle of expression for plans for social reform. From Bacon's New Atlantis and More's Utopia itself, the pedigree of the imagined society is directly traceable down to modern science fiction. The Progressive Underground has frequently used fantasy as a means of communicating its ideas. For example, Edward Bellamy's Looking Backward (1888) and Richard Jefferies's After London (1885) were powerful influences on the Progressive Underground of the l890s. Progressive causes, mysticism, and fantasy could be combined in the same person. For example, E. H. Visiak (E. H. Physick), the author of the fantastic novel Medusa (1929), once precipitated a mystical experience by dwelling obsessively on the evils of vivisection. Among modern inhabitants of the progressive Underground science fiction is immensely popular, as it embodies the aspirations both of the Utopian illuminates and of those concerned with an "expansion of consciousness." Ken Kesey was influenced both by Arthur Clarke's Childhood's End and by Robert Heinlein's Stranger in a Strange Land. It is from this latter book that the expression "grokking" comes. It probably transferred itself into the hippie world through Kesey and was at one time widely used in Underground circles to express a state of empathy or harmony with a person or a situation. Kesey's own use of the word "fantasy" to describe each latest far-fetched project is paralleled by Abbie Hoffman's proclamation about the exorcism of the Pentagon: "Fantasy is freedom!" The cult of J. R. R. Tolkien's Lord a/the Rings is too well-known to need any emphasis. There has even been published an Iowa underground newspaper called Middle Earth. whose political comments plunged its readers into the fantasy world of its presiding spirit.

The skirmish on Madison, on the edge of Mirkwood led to a temporary setback and numerous after-the-fact strategy sessions, but larger lessons were learned by the expedition to the Pentagon (magic figure of black sorcerers) which lies in Mordor, realm of the Dark Lord, whose name is unspeakable.  [34]


The popularity of Tolkien -- and to a lesser extent, of his friends Charles Williams and C. S. Lewis -- emphasizes once more the religious or occult connections of fantasy. All three writers subscribe to a form of Christianity: Catholicism for Tolkien, for Williams an interesting personal mysticism which probably owed a lot to his early occult studies, and for Lewis a Neo-Platonic form of Christianity that was not above accepting some of Williams's unorthodox theories. The three formed a group they called "the Inklings, " which met regularly and included a leading Anthroposophist, Owen Barfield.  [35] It is no coincidence that a circle of fantasy writers, which has associations both with mysticism and the attitudes of the English illuminated politicians, has become popular as part of the search for otherness conducted by today's idealistic revolutionaries.

Whether such would-be revolutionaries find inspiration in the symbols of the generally spiritual journeys portrayed by Tolkien or Lewis, or in the more obvious moral lessons in Stranger in a Strange Land, it is essentially the otherness that they seek. This argues that fantasy is not merely an unhealthy escape, that the otherness is in some fashion fruitful. The capacity to appreciate otherness -- and, more powerfully, to fashion for oneself an otherness -- is the process of imagination. Without such imagination, the capacity to envisage a state of affairs other than that obtaining, no change is possible. There is a distinct relationship between the private worlds that are constructed simply to exclude the abhorred present and those that are rooted in the wish to change the present altogether. Both subscribe to the wish to abolish that which is, to replace the old by a new reality. The problem is to know how to evaluate alternatives.

It is difficult to conceive that the universe of agreed discourse could have imposed upon it a supplementary vision that demands the existence of flying saucers. But it must be insisted that this is not at all impossible, and that in Nazi Germany ideas just as strange attained wide currency. The reality of Nazism is as much the result of the ability to imagine something other as the best intentioned Utopias of the most charitable social reformers. A tortured imagination may produce visions of great power. A case in point is that of the fantasy writer M. P. Shiel, who never quite recovered from being crowned "King of Redonda" on his fifteenth birthday in 1880. Redonda was an atoll covered in guano. But despite the small size of his childhood kingdom, Shiel admits that "the notion that I am somehow the King, King of kings and the Kaiser of imperial Caesar, was so inveterately suggested to me that I became incapable of expelling it." [36] Shiel's megalomaniac novels are remarkably successful in impressing their obsessive worlds on the reader; yet they are also riddled with an unpleasant anti-Semitism and authoritarian propaganda. His late novel, The Young Men are Coming (1937), contains a prophecy of the victory of a British neo-Fascist movement based on the Divine Law as revealed by an extraterrestrial Egg.

There may be able but perverse adepts of the imagination. The Theosophist Hubbe-Schleiden -- who was concerned with German expansionist propaganda -- also translated Brigadier Chesney's pioneer piece of science fiction The Battle of Dorking (1871) under the gloating title Englands Ende in der Schlacht bei Dorking. Hitler himself was an avid reader of imaginative literature. Like Madame Blavatsky he was enthusiastic about Fenimore Cooper, but after reading The Last of the Mohicans. he took up the German writer of Indian stories, Karl May. He read all of Karl May and recommended others to try Jules Verne. Symptoms of a search for "other realities" are completely in accordance with what we know of Hitler.

On the one hand, the attempt to make a private world part of ordinary reality may produce the nightmare of the concentration camps; on the other perhaps a garden of earthly delights. It may be wondered if the difference between such heavens and hells is not the same as that between "good" and "bad" art: a disparity in the quality of the creative imagination. Hitler wanted to become an architect; and, although his watercolors show some talent, his patronage of Albert Speer gives the lie to Hitler's estimate of himself as an artistic genius. Possibly this fact has something to do with the sort of political universe he created. Although he was a man of extraordinary abilities, his particular imagination played Germany false.

If there is truth in the idea that illuminates -- whether occultists or politicians -- have a special relationship with the imagination in their pursuit of other realities, we might expect to find an extraordinary amount of creative work accomplished by such people. This is in fact the case, not only with reference to the illuminated artists and psychologists we have already discussed but even in the realms of mechanical invention. Hugo Gernsback was an inventor (he coined the word "television"), Horbiger made his fortune with an invention, Arthur Kitson and Lanz von Liebenfels filed numerous patents, and Alfred William Lawson -- who has only appeared in this book peripherally -- built the world's first passenger airliner. Rudolf von Sebottendorff was concerned (like the 19th-century occultist J. M. Hoene-Wronski) in the development of a tank; and John Hargrave patented in 1938 the navigating device that forms part of the Concorde airplane. What can be said of such creative and imaginative capacities without straying too far into the province of the philosopher?

The occult has been used throughout this book as the index to "a certain type of man"; and there seems to be some evidence that this type of man has sometimes privy access to the springs of inspiration. Esotericists make much play with the phrase "creative imagination, " as originating in Paracelsus. The implications can best be described in the words of John Hargrave, an artist, an authority on Paracelsus, and -- according to the classification of this book -- an illuminated politician.

It is obvious to anyone (or ought to be) that, but for the few freaks, cranks, originals, and odd-men-out, mankind in the mass would still be without fire, without the lever, the wheel, the club, throwing-stick, bow, bolas, cat's cradle, net, plait, loom, dug-out, paddle, spade, and all the other discoveries, inventions and devices that have enabled man to enslave metals, plants, animals, and finally -- himself. This final enslavement he calls "civilization" and today it is a worldwide, semi-mechanized serfdom dominated by the fear of atomic catastrophe on the one hand and the fear of manmade poverty on the other.

We stand on the threshold of an Age of Abundance and Leisure, and the failure to pass through the doorway into the New Solar Civilization, the coming Sun-Power Age, is a failure of man's imaginative faculty.

This bears directly upon our subject, for the entire structure of the Paracelsian teaching and practice is founded upon one reason-shattering statement: that by his god-like faculty of imagination, and by means of Resolute Imagination, man can accomplish all things. [37]


From this point of view, it is clear that the exercise of the creative imagination is different from the operation of its admittedly close relative, escapist fantasy. The creative mind makes forays out of the universe of accepted reality into private worlds of the imagination with the object of bringing back a portion of what is discovered there and using the treasure-trove to enlarge an established vision. The escapists -- of whom the anxiety-driven occult extremists form the best examples -- become trapped in their imagined worlds, even assuming that they once wished to return and fructify the commerce of their fellow-beings. According to Henry Corbin -- who, although he has written a book called Creative Imagination in the Sufism of Ibn Arabi, seems also to rely on Paracelsus for his treatment of the doctrine -- imagination "induces knowledge." [38] It would follow that a wrong imagination induces wrong knowledge. The observation of history appears to bear this out.

In 1924 the Surrealists proclaimed that the imagination had been enslaved; and in 1968 Situationist slogans echoed them. Has our creative imagination been as stultified as irrationalists of all kinds tell us? It may be necessary to the dynamics of our inspiration that the heavenly city is kept perpetually before us. They have been ringing in the age of Aquarius since the last century. It may never come, but it is essential to keep ringing; for without that distant angelus life would be a sad and dreary place. The hope for something better, something different; the prodding, nudging, shoving force that irritates man to change by inducing visions of a reality other than that of the present: this might -- in the imagination of this writer at least -- be the explanation of all art, all religion, all philosophy. In the same way that the occult provides an indicator to illuminated politics, it may provide an index to the mechanics of inspiration. But if a temporary departure from the universe of agreed discourse is necessary for change, for progress, for the fertilization of life with new possibilities, the departure should be temporary only. Let anyone try as he likes to attain a more objective consciousness, a mystical synthesis, a union with God. But let it be a personal striving for achievement -- as in the artist's search for inspiration -- rather than an attempt to define the truth for all men. If this book demonstrates anything, it shows that the mechanics of political inspiration can go horrifyingly wrong, and that it is possible to end up in the universe peopled with the demons of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion as easily as in the realm of freedom after the withering away of the state.

This is no place to pronounce on the personal quests of the occultists. The impression remains that most become trapped in their private worlds and produce sadly little evidence of the power of imagination. There are too many attempts to destroy reason rather than to extend it. The historical development with which this book has been concerned contains the most inspiring and the most dangerous of visions. The flight from reason, by departing from certain fixed categories and opening the floodgates of the imagination, may contain within itself the potential for expanding the limits of human existence. It is more than likely that it will, instead -- as has happened in the past -- shipwreck man on a desert island separated from all that is humanly satisifying by an ocean of illusion. Unreason exists to be made reasonable, and reason to be extended by the discovery of possibilities initially outside its comprehension.

There may exist theories of the creative act that would throw light on the process of social imagination. There is one implied in the Book of Ecclasiasticus, where we are admonished to praise those who have found out musical tunes. Let us go consciously but cautiously in search of new possibilities. For every musical tune discovered, there are a hundred potential cacophanies. After all, it was the blast of trumpets that brought down the walls of Jericho.

_______________

Notes:

*Jane Gaskell has issued a trilogy of Atlantis novels based on Horbigerian premises.

1. See The Occult Underground for development of idea of crisis.

2. Wolfgang Treher, Hitler, Steiner, Schreber (Emmendingen-in-Breisgau, 1966). This is almost the only detailed discussion of the psychology of an occultist. I would not accept it all, but there is much of great interest (e.g., the passage on pp. 21 ff. on the significance of belief in the Cosmic Ice Theory).

3. Rees, Hess, p. 32.

4. Information from a former disciple of Crowley, based on a letter of Crowley. Note by Crowley in the front flyleaf of his copy of Hermann Rauschning, Hitler Speaks -- annotations reproduced in the copy in the Warburg Institute Library.

5. From letter of Marthe Kunzel to Aleister Crowley, copied In the above.

6. Crowley, Liber L vel Legis, in The Equinox. vol. I, no. 10, pp. II ff. and commentary in no. 7, pp. 384 ff.

7. Crowley's copy of Rauschning, pp. 141, 166, 209.

8. See Edith Birkhead, The Tale of Terror (London, 1921); Dorothy Scarborough, The Supernatural in Modern English Fiction (New York and London, 1917), especially pp. 199 ff., 280-83. See pp. 251-52 for a perceptive comment on the birth of science fiction; despite its irritating style, this is a useful study; Anton (Antal) Szerb, Die Suche nach dem Wunder (Amsterdam and Leipzig, 1938), pp. 37 ff.

9. On Esquiros and Peladan, see The Occult Underground; for Machen's mystical experiences, see his Autobiography (London, 1952), pp. 269-74 and Aidan Reynolds and William Charlton, Arthur Machen (London, 1963), pp. 78-79.

10. Eddison deserves a better critical press. His present popularity will no doubt produce some commentary. See Eddison's letters prefacing A Fish Dinner in Memison (New York, paperback ed., 1968) and The Mezentian Gate (London, 1965), pp. 127 ff. and "The Prose of E. R. Eddison" in English Studies (1949).

11. See Jane Harrison, Reminiscences of a Student's Life (London, 1925), Alpha and Omega (London, 1915), Themis (reprinted London, 1963).

12. Hope Mirrlees has remained elusive, and the American publisher of Lud-in-the-Mist was unable to trace her.

13. L. Sprague de Camp, Science Fiction Handbook (New York, 1953), p. 66. Even the improbable Dr. Hanish wrote an "Atlantean" fantasy -- see his illiterate Aetalonia. the Land of Lords (n.p., 1937).

14. See The Occult Underground, pp. 83-84 and notes; De Camp, S.F. Handbook, p. 50. Ballard's publications are elusive in Europe; see Kohler for an account of the I AM doctrine in France.

15. Patrick Moore, Science and Fiction (London, 1957), pp. 168-70; de Camp, S. F. Handbook, pp. 15 ff. for the effect of the Welles broadcast on science fiction.

16. De Camp, S. F. Handbook, pp. 17-19.

17. Elizabeth Donvan and Stephen Willey, "Some Attitudinal Consequences of Atomic Energy, " in Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (November 1953), pp. 108 ff. A useful summary: Sylvia Eberhart, "How the American People feel about the Atomic Bomb, " in Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (June 1947), pp. 146 ff.

18. See de Camp, S. F. Handbook, p. 129; John W. Campbell, "The Place of Science in Fiction, " in Reginald Bretnor (ed.), Modern Science Fiction (New York, 1953), pp. 212 ff. and Kingsley Amis, New Maps of Hell (paperback ed., London, 1963), pp. 50-51.

19. See the foreword to A. E. van Vogt, The World of Null-A (London, 1970).

20. James Harvey Young, "Device Quackery in America, " in Bulletin of the History of Medicine (March-April 1965), p. 159; Martin Gardner, Fads and Fallacies, pp. 346-47; on the Dean device, see Campbell's articles in Analog (British edition), October 1960, January and April 1961, and February 1962.

21. On the origins of Scientology, see de Camp, S. F. Handbook, pp. 93 ff. and Gardner, Fads and Fallacies, pp. 263 ff.; S. I. Hayakawa, "From Science Fiction to Fiction Science, " in ETC (1951), p. 280.

22. L. Ron Hubbard, Scientology, a History of Man (London, 1954). There is a booklet describing the gadget, The Book Introducing the E-Meter (East Grinstead, 1966).

23. The primary "inside source" for Scientological activities is Cyril Vosper, The Mind Benders (London, 1971), which was recently the subject of a prolonged action in the British High Court. See also Hansard (6 March 1967) for a Parliamentary debate on the cult, and Donovan Bess, "Total Freedom and Beyond" in The Nation (29 September 1969).

24. Hubbard, Dianetics: the Evolution of a Science (Edinburgh, (968), pp. 16-17.

25. King, Ritual Magic, pp. 162-65.

26. The science fiction camp maintained its distance from the saucer cults. See the entertaining picture of saucer fanatics in Fritz Leiber, The Wanderer (London, 1964); I. O. Reich, Wi/helm Reich (London, 1969), pp. 119 ff., 151; C. G. Jung, Flying Saucers (London, 1959), and B. le Poer Trench, The Flying Saucer Story (London, 1968), pp. 75 ff.; Gerald Heard, The Riddle of the Flying Saucers (London, 1950), p. 143.

27. See Adamski and Leslie Adams, Flying Saucers have Landed (London, 1953) and Flying Saucer Farewell (New York and London, 1962), for "Satan, Man of the Hour, " pp. 175 ff.

28. See George King, You are Responsible (London, and L. A., 1961) and Life on the Planets (London, 1959); Patrick Moore, Science and Fiction, p. 132.

29. See W. R. Drake, "Count St. Germain, " in Flying Saucer Review (March-April 1961) and Ivor Mackay, UFOs and the Occult in vol. XVI, no. 5.

30. Harold T. Wilkins, Flying Saucers on the Moon (London, 1954), p. 69.

31. Sam Moskowitz, Explorers of the Infinite (New York, 1963), p. 229.

32. De Camp. S. F. Handbook, pp. 92-93.

33. C. S. Lewis "On Stories, " in Of Other Worlds (London, 1966), p. 16. Gerald Heard, "Science Fiction, Morals and Religion, " in Bretnor, S. F., pp. 244 ff.

34. See I. H. Visiak, Life's Morning Hour (London, 1968), pp. 211-12; Tom Wolfe, Acid Test, pp. 123, 147; Abbie Hoffman, Revolution for the Hell of It, p. 47; quote in Middle Earth (Iowa City, 2 October 1967), p. 2. 35. On the Inklings, see Jocelyn Gibb (ed.) Light on C. S. Lewis (London, 1965). On Charles Williams, see Mary Hadfield, A n Introduction to Charles Williams (London, 1959); Anne Ridler (ed.), Charles Williams, The Image of the City (London, (958). Barfield's approach is best seen in his Romanticism Comes of Age (London, 1944). Whereas the religious or occult attitude of the others is not in doubt, Tolkien's is less obvious. But see F. Leand, "L'Epopee religieuse de J. R. R. Tolkien" in Etudes Anglaises (July-September 1967).

36. Hitler, Table Talk, pp. 316-17.

37. Hargrave, The Life and Soul of Paracelsus (London, 1951), pp. 14-15.

38. Henri Corbin, Creative Imagination in the Sufism of Ibn Arabi (London, 1970), especially pp. 3, 179-82.
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Re: The Occult Establishment, by James Webb

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Index

Aberhart, William, 123, 125
Ackerman, Robert, 60
Adam, Juliette, 239, 244-46, 249
Adamski, George, 507
Adler, Victor, 45, 47, 350
Adyar (Theosophical center), 29, 36, 65,
180, 183, 263
Ahnenerbe, 313, 321-25
Aiken, John and Luisa, 447
Aksakov, Count Alexander, 159-60
Alioshin, Dmitri, 202-3
Alpert, Richard, 443, 445, 455, 456
A Modern Utopia (Wells), 92
Anderson, Margaret, 180, 429
Anesthetic revelation, 437-38
Anthroposophy: definition and origin,
66-70; examples of application, 71,
103; headway in Russian Symbolist
circles, 164-66; schools sponsored,
404; storms of controversy, 71-72; unsuccessful
overtures to German
spiritual politics, 285-90
Antichrist, coming of: a main focus of
late 19th century Russian mysticism,
153-154, 157; as Bolshevism, 197, 202-
3; ties to Russian anti-Semitism, 238,
257-58, 260
Anti-Semitism, English, 128-34, 219-20,
226-33
Anti-Semitism, French, 214-19
Anti-Semitism, Russian: Glinka, 217,
222-25, 233-38; influence of Alfred
Rosenberg in Germany, 293-96; part
of religious revival, 260; use of
swastika as racist symbol, 262-64
Anti-vivisection, 25
Apocalypse, 18, 41, 154, 157, 202-3, 260
Apostolic Congregation, 29
Aquarius, Age of, 48, 281, 453-55, 513-
14
Ariosophy, 281
Arndt, Arthur, 424
Arlamanen Bund, 318-19
Artaud, Antonin, 428, 431, 459, 467-68,
478
Arthur, Gavin (Chester Alan Arthur
111), 454-55
Artman, Charles (pseud. Charlie
Brown), 447-48
Aryan hero, 281
Aryanism, 32-33, 52, 69, 191, 195, 231,
262, ch. 5
Ashby, Thaddeus and Rita, 440
Ashebee, C. R., 105-6
Astrology, 15, 296-98, 311, 406-7
Atlantis fiction, 315-16, 327, 499, 500
Automatic writing, 392, 427-28
Baba, Sri Meher, 24, 104
Bachofen, J. J., 48, 49-50, 51, 52, 282-83,
285, 498
Back-to-the-1and movements, 54-61, 83-
103
Baden-Powell, Robert S. S.: Scouting
for Boys, 88; 84, 86-88, 89
Badmaev, Shamzaran, 171, 173-74
Baha'i, 85
Bahr, Hermann, 45, 47, 57, 62, 422
Bai, Radda. See Blavatsky, Madame
H. P.
Bailey, Alice, 396
Baker, Richard St. Barbe, 101-2, 117
Ball, Hugo, 58, 425-26
Balmont, Konstantin, 156, 165
Barrett, Francis: The Magus, 496
Bauhaus, 423-26, 429
Bayreuth, 44, 45, 46, 59
Beamish, Henry Hamilton, 130, 253,
290-91
Beat Underground: Age of Aquarius,
454-55; American phenomenon, 432-
33; focuses of liberation, spiritual
evolution, expanded consciousness,
456-58; hippies, 457-62; influence of
Watts, 435; Krishna Consciousness,
452-53; messianic phase, 447-51;
mysticism based economically on
drugs, 436, 442; shifts in headquarter
locations, 435-36; Yippies, 462-68
Beillis, Mendel, 258
Bellamy, Edward: Looking Backward,
103, 508
Belloc, Hillaire, 108, 115-16, 132
Bely, Andrei, 153, 155, 156, 164, 165,
166
Bennett, Allan (Bikkhu Ananda
Metteya), 434, 448
Berdyaev, Nicholas, 156, 158, 164, 165,
177-78, 196, 358
Bergier, Jacques and Pauwels, Louis
(The Dawn of Magic), 313
Bergmann, Emil, 31
Bergson, Henri, 17-18
Bernfeld, Siegfried, 350 .
Bernheim, Hippo1yte, 353, 354-55
Bertine, Eleanor, 389
Besant, Mrs. Annie, 25, 36, 38, 40, 43,
67, 116, 183, 228, 281
Besobrasova, Olga, 247, 248
Bey, Omar al Raschid, 285-86
Bhagavad Gita, 43, 400
Bhaktivedanta, Swami, 452
Biogenetic law, 83-84, 104, 118, 404
Bisexuality, 361-62
Black Hundreds, the, 256-59
Black Ignatiev salon, 167, 171, 259
Blatter fur die Kunst (George), 48, 49
Blavatsky, Madame H. P.: Atlantis
speculation, 315, 499; anti-Semitism,
226-27, 229-33; application of ideas in
Germany, 30, 277, 281-82, 317; hatred
of Jesuits, 227-29; Isis Unveiled, 52,
160, 187, 227, 279; pen name "Radda
Bai, " 160; plagiarism of Jacolliot's
works, 306; relationship with Glinka,
222-25, 244; scholarly leaning, 24; The
Key to Theosophy, 160; The Secret
Doctrine, 62, 227, 230, 233, 278, 281-
82, 499; ties to Central European
mysticism, 43, 46, 60, 66; ties to
pseudohistory, 69, 499; ties to Russian
mysticism, 159, 160-63, 171, 186. See
also Theosophical Society,
Theosophy
Blok, Alexander, 155, 163
Blood, Benjamin Paul, 437-38
Boadicea Clubs, 192
Bohlau, Helen, 285
Bohme, Jacob, 32, 152, 332
Bolshevism-as-Antichrist, 197, 201-2
Boltwood, Charles, 123-24
Bombastus Works, 31-32
Bormann, Martin, 334
Bostunitch, Grigori (pseud. Schwartz-
Bostunitch), 166, 266-67, 295-96
Brandler- Pracht, Karl, 289
Branford, Victor, 104
Braun, Philipp, 56
Breton, Andre, 427-28, 431, 468, 470
Breuer, Joseph, 356, 359, 375
Britons, The, 130-31
Brown, Norman 0., 475-76
Bruckmann, Hugo and Elsa, 302
Bruckner, Anton, 46
Brunton, Paul, 38
Bryussov, Valery, 155, 159, 163-64
Buber, Martin, 58, 277, 399
Buchman, Frank, 25-26, 336
Buchner, Eberhard, 29
Bull, Father Paul, 113
Buddhist Lodge, 435
Bund der Kampfer fur Glaube und
Wahrheil, 31-32, 311
Burroughs, Edgar Rice, 499
Burroughs, William, 442
Butmi, G., 217, 253-54, 255, 256
Cabala, 219, 227, 247, 280, 372, 378,
460, 507
Caen, Herb, 451
Cafe Griensteidl (Megalomania Cafe),
45, 47, 62
Campbell, John W., 503-4
Caractacus Clubs, 192
Carpenter, Edward, 82, 106, 455
521
Carrere, Jean, 252-53
Cassaday, Neal, 445
Catholic Apostolic Church, 29, 73-74
Cayce, Edgar, 464
Celtic Nationalism, 95
Central European irrationalism: in
Ascona, 57-61; in Dornach, 72; in
Munich, 47-55; in Prague, 36-41; in
Vienna, 41-47, 75-76
Chamberlain, Houston Stewart, 182,
294, 314, 317
Change-through-anxiety, 15-16
Charcot, Jean-Martin, 352-56
Cherep-Spiridovitch, General A., 295
Chesterbelloc, 115
Chesterton, Cecil, 132
Chesterton, G. K., 108, 115-16, 132, 133
Christ-as-rural-redeemer, 103
Christian fantasy literature, 510
Christian sectarianism, 15, 29, 31-34
Christian socialism, 105, 112-17, 119-28
Church Socialist League, 113
Ciurlionis, M. K., 425
Clarke, Arthur C., 502
Cohn, Norman, 133, 214, 217, 218, 238,
241, 245, 436
Cole, G. D. H., 109, 111-12
Colonies, German, 54-61
Conrad, Michael Georg, 48
Coomaraswamy, Ananda, 116
Cooper, David, 476-78
Cooper, Fenimore, 499, 511
Cosmic Circle of Munich, 47-55, 282
Cosmic Ice Theory, 326-31 .
Cosmobiology, 406-7
Cottingley, Yorkshire dale of, 24
Crane, Walter, 105
Crisis of Consciousness, 8-19
Crowley, Aleister: activities with drugs,
438-39; analyst of Hitler Speaks, 494-
96; developer of magical anti-
Semitism, 220; The Book of the Law,
494-96; theoretician of the magical
powers of sex, 61; type of Symbolist
magus, 25, 127
Cycles of time, 18, 20
Dabritz, Max, 31
Dacque, Edgar, 331-32, 406
Dada, 421-27
Daim, Wilfried, 301-2,
Das, Bhagavan, 116
Darre, Walther, 102
Davenport, Charles, 87
Davidson, Thomas, 103
Dean, Norman L., 503
Decadence. See Symbolism
Demant, Father, 124
Denson, Ed, 464
Derleth, Ludwig: Rosenburg, 54-55; 48,
52-55, 395-96
Deunov, Petr, 186-87, 267
Deutsches Ahnenerbe. See Ahnenerbe
Die Brucke, 422
Diederichs, Eugen, 277, 315, 358, 399
Diggers, the, 457-61
Dinter, Arthur: relationship with Nazis,
311; Sin against the Blood, 310-11,
318; Sin against the Spirit, 311
Dissident Christians, 29
Distributist League, 115-16
Dobrolyubov, Alexander, 158-59
Dods, John Bovee, 353, 354, 355
Doesburg, Theo van, 424
Doinel, Jules, 216, 220-21, 237, 243, 268
Dornach, 61, 72, 166
Doukhobors, 149, 174-75
Dostoievsky, Fedor, 152, 153, 157, 174
Douglas, Major C. H., 112, 117, 119-21,
123, 131, 133-34, 193, 291
Douglasites, 112
Dowie, John Alexander, 29, 73, 74
Doyle, Arthur Conan, 24, 365-66, 405
Dream telepathy, 372-76
Drexler, Anton, 283, 298-99, 303
Driesch, Hans, 17
Dreyfus case, 132, 217-19, 262
Drumont, Edouard, 215-16, 221-22
Dubrovin, A., 256
Eastern cults: as manifestations of occultism,
15, 24-25; Bhagavad Gita, 43,
400; Emerald Tablet of Hermes
Trismegistus, 152, 235; English
Buddhist Society, 434-35; Freud's
phallic religion, 380-82; Jung's ambivalence
toward, 402; Kerouac's Zen-and-
rosewater, 433-34; Krishna
Consciousness, 452-53; Suzuki, 435;
The Great Mother, 397; Theosophist
promotion of Krishnamurti and
Buddhism in general, 25, 67, 73, 348,
435; Ungern-Sternberg's Central
Asian political mysticism, 198-201;
Watts's central prominence in U. S.
Buddhism, 434-35
Eckart, Dietrich, 132, 283-93, 296, 298,
301, 304, 309, 333, 334-35
Eckstein, Friedrich, 41-47, 60, 62, 75-76,
146, 350-52
Eddison, E. R., 497-98
Effront, Akim, 241
Ehrenfels, Christian von, 351
Elan vital, 17
Eliade, Mircea, 397
Eliot, T. S., 117, 124
Ellis, Havelock, 438
Emerald Tablet of Hermes Trismegistus,
152, 235
Empedocles, 45, 352
Encausse, Dr. Gerard (pseud. Papus), 53,
167-69, 170-71, 199, 220, 243, 244,
246, 248-55, 350
English Array, 134
English Buddhist Society, 434-35
English Mistery, 134
Ensor, Beatrice, 405-6
Eranos Conferences, 395-97
Erdsegen, 60
Ernst Ludwig, Grand Duke of Hesse,
184
Eugenics, American and British, 87-88,
193
Eunicke, Anna (Anna Steiner), 64-65
Eunicke, Emmy, 64-65
Eva C, 38, 367
Evans-Wentz, W. E., 18, 24, 398, 403
Evola, Giulio, 336, 421
Fabian Society, 103, 106-7
Fahey, Mgr. Denis, 134
Fairy lore, 18-19, 405
Fascism, 126-28, 335-36, 420
Fauth, Philipp, 326, 328
Fechner, Gustave, 357, 366
Feder, Gottfried, 283, 284, 291-93, 296,
298, 299, 304, 305-7, 309-10, 333
Ferenczi, Sandor, 369-70, 373
Ferriere, Adolphe, 406-7
Fertility research, 103
Figgis, Father J. N., 113
Filosofov, Dmitri, 155, 156
Fischer, Hanns, 329
Fleischauer, Ulrich, 130
Fliess, Wilhelm, 352, 356-61
Flight from reason, 20th century: as
category of thought, 7-10; as outgrowth
of crisis of consciousness, 10-
19; as a response in Central Europe,
ch. I; as a response in Eastern Europe,
ch. 3; as a response in England, ch. 2;
as a response in German-speaking
Europe, ch. 5; as a response of certain
European scholars and early psychic
researchers, ch. 6; as the reincarnation
of esoteric Gnosticism, as the response
of modern European art, as a response
in American society, and as the
widespread attempt to escape from
matter, ch. 7; as third great historic
outbreak of irrationalism in the West,
as the construction of private worlds of
reality in illuminated politics and fantastic
literature, and as a potentially
subhuman force, ch. 8; in the form of
conspiracy-theory responses, ch. 4
Florensky, Pavel Alexandrovic, 159
Flying saucers, 506-8
Folk movement, German. See Volkisch
occultism
Fordham, Montague: Mother Earth,
101; 104, 105, 108, 113, 116, 127, 193
Fourier, Charles, 327
Frank, Jacob, 146
Franz-Willing, Georg, 303
Freemasonry: as alleged agent of
Judaism in a world conspiracy, 213-
17, 241-42; as alleged co-conspirator,
with Jesuits, against Bismarck, 33; as
continuator of occult teachings, 29; as
secular religion, 12; attributed "accomplishments, "
236-37; connection
to Gothic novel, 496
Friedenstadt, 55-56
Frere, W. H., 113
Freud, Anna, 373
Freud, Sigmund: association with Eckstein,
350-52; association with Fliess
and biology-based theory of life, 357-
61; association with the occultist
Ferenczi, 369-70; constructor of a
phallic religion, 380-81; conversion to
belief in telepathic dreams, 373-74;
disagreement with Jung, 384-85; essential
elements of theoretical system,
374; in favor of alliance between psychoanalysis
and occultism, 371-72;
secularizer of rejected occult
traditions, 382; studies of hypnosis,
354-56; The Interpretation of Dreams,
349, 350; theory of religion as
delusional, 378; unsuccessful
proselytizer of Jung to his sexual
dogma, 363; Viennese associates and
ideological sources, 350-52
Friedenberg, Raphael, 58
Fritsch, Theodore, 278
Froebe-Kapteyn, Olga, 395-96
Fuller, Major General, 127, 193, 220
Gahr, Karoline, 330-31, 332
Gahr, Otto, 331
Hackel, Ernst, 65, 83-84
Haight-Ashbury, 435-36, 440, 444, 446,
447, 451, 454, 456-58
Hain, Friedrich (Vater Hain), 31, 35
Hall, G. Stanley, 83, 404
Hanisch, Otto (Ottoman Zar-adusht
Ha'nish), 32, 55
Ha 'nish, Ottoman Zar-adusht. See
Hanisch, Otto
Harbottle (Hargrave), 91
Hare Krishna, 452
Hargrave, John: art work for Everyman,
104; change in emphasis of Kibbo Kift,
119, 121-22, 134, 135; enthusiasm for
Seton's woodcraft and scouting ideals,
86-87, 117; formation and development
of the Green Shirt Movement for
Social Credit, 122-25, 127-28; formation
and organization of the Kindred
of the Kibbo Kift, 89-94, 102; German
admiration for Hargrave's ideas, 100;
Harbottle, 91; interest in eugenics, 87-
88; Lonecraft, 87; offshoots of the
Kift, 94-99; Summertime Ends, 122-
23; The Confession of the Kibbo Kift,
93, 122; The Great War Brings It
Home, 87, 90; thoughts of an illuminated
politician, 512-13; Young
Winkle, 91
Harmonious Development of Man,
Institute for the, 180-81
Green Shirt movement, 122-23, 127
Greiner, Joseph, 299-302
Grith Fyrd camps, 118-19, 193
Grogan, Emmett, 459-60
Gropius, Walter, 423, 424
Guaita, Stanislas de, 168, 176, 437
Guenon, Rene, 470
Guild of Handicraft, 105-6
Guild socialism, English, 105-7, 113-19.
See also Progressive Underground
Gurdjieff, Georgei Ivanovich, 25, 108,
121, 179-81, 267, 429, 431, 450
Gurus, 24-25
Galouye, Daniel, 501
Galton, Francis, 87
Gapon, Father, 148, 259
Gardiner, Rolf, 95-103, 118-19, 127, 128,
403
Geddes, Patrick, 104, 139, 405
George, Henry, 103, 113
George, Stefan, 48-51, 58
Germanen Order, 296-98
German folk movement. See V6lkisch
occultism
German Union for the Abolition of
Interest Slavery, 292
Gernet, Madame Nina de, 163
Gernsback, Hugo, 501, 508, 512
Gill, Eric, 116, 424
Ginsberg, Allen, 433, 442, 445-46, 452,
466
Ginungagapp, 21
Gladstone, William Ewart, 228-29
Glinka, Yuliana, 217, 222-25, 233, 238-
39, 241-46, 248, 255, 265, 269
Gnosticism: alleged as one front for a
Jewish conspiracy, 242-43; definition
of, 418; influence on Jung, 386-87,
413; Jung's ambivalence toward, 402;
principles found in Stranger in a
Strange Land, 502; recurring secular
expressions in 20th century, chap. 7
Godwin, William, 496
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 62-63
Goetsch, George, 96
Goldberg, Oscar, 426
Goldschmid, Abraham, 232
Gold standard, 121
Goodman, Irene, 102
Gore, Bishop Charles, 113
Gorsleben, Rudolf John, 282
Gottesbund Tanatra, 32-33, 35, 311
Gatze, Carl, 403
Graalhohe, 56
Graham, Bill, 446
Graser, Karl, 58, 59
Great Mother, the, 397
Great Universal League, 253-54
Harrer, Karl, 298, 303
Harris, Thomas Lake, 190
Harrison, Jane, 498-99
Harte, Richard, 230-32, 354-55
Hartmann, Eduard von, 62, 349, 352,
378
Hartmann, Franz, 30-31, 36, 41, 46, 59-
60, 66-67, 187, 279, 358, 377
Hauer, Jacob Wilhelm, 398-400
Hayakawa, S. I., 504
Heap, Jane, 180, 429
Heard, Gerald, 193, 443, 506, 509
Heimkehr, 40
Heinlein, Robert: Stranger in a Strange
Land, 502
Heise, Karl, 318
Hellenbach, Baron, 42, 360
Hennings, Emmy, 58, 426
Herrmann, Albert, 316
Hess, Rudolf, 99, 307-8, 311, 319, 325,
493-94
Hesse, Hermann: The Journey to the
East, 27; 27-28, 55, 58, 431, 443, 497
Heyer, Gustav, 395, 397, 398
Hielscher, Friedrich, 322, 323
Himalayan Masters, 25, 164
Himmler, Heinrich: believer in nature
cures and reincarnation, 319; financier
and publisher of "Germanic"
researches by SS, 322; molder of SS
training as blend of Social
Darwinianism and the manipulation of
religious symbols, using Catholic and
Masonic organizational models, 320;
official backer of the Cosmic Ice
theory, 325; organizer of SS meetings
at isolated sanctuaries with exotic
guest lecturers, 320-21; theory of SS as
spearhead of the Nordic bloodline
throughout world, 320; wide reader in
occult works, 318
Hippius, Zenaida, 155, 156, 165, 175,
196-97
Hitchcock, Ethan Allen, 390, 391
Hitler, Adolf: alleged by Joseph Greiner
525
to be interested in Yoga and Indian
fakirs, 300; arrival in Munich volkisch
circles, 298-99; attitude toward
religion, 334-35; backer of Cosmic Ice
theory, 330-33; connections between
Crowley's Thelema and Hitler's New
Order, 493-96; denigrator of impractical
aspects of volkisch movement,
303, 310; occult remarks, 312-13;
private realities compared with those
of Steiner, 493-94; probable influence
of Schuler's mystic lectures, 302; ties
with yolkisch racism of Liebenfels and
Eckart, 282-84, 301; reader of the occult
periodical Ostara, 302;
vegetarianism, 312
Hitler Speaks (Rauschning), 312-13,
494-96
Hitler, Steiner, Schreber (Treher), 493
Hobson, John A., 120-21
Hobson, S. G., 108-9, 110, 126, 193
Hofman, Dr. Albert, 439, 443-44
Hoffman, Abbie, 462-63, 465, 466, 467
Hoffman, Ida, 57-59, 60, 61
Holingshead, Michael, 442
Home, Daniel Dunglas, 159
Horbiger, Hanns, 313, 325-33, 358
Horbiger, Hanns Robert, 329
Howard, Ebeneezer, 103-4
Howard, Robert E., 499
Howe, Ellie, 297, 407
Howe, Eric Graham, 476
Hubbard, AI, 444
Hubbard, L. Ron, 504-6
Hubbe-Schleiden, Wilhelm, 30, 36, 66-
67, 511
Hudson, Thomson Jay: The Law of
Psychic Phenomena, 375, 377
Hulme, T. E., 108-9
Hulsenbeck, Richard, 425
Humphreys, Christmas, 435
Huxley, Aldous, 22, 439, 440, 441-42,
444
Huxley, Julian, 88-89
Huxley, T. H., 85, 347
Hypnosis, 352-56
Hypnotism, 353-54
Iliodor. See Trufanov, Sergei
Mikhailovitch
Illuminated politics: anti-Semitic thread,
128-35; definition of, 13; Hitler's
application, 493-96; in Britain, 82,
105-28; in Russia, 173-74; in some
sorts of fascism, 420
Illuminati, 242-43
Imagination, 511-14
Imago, 374, 380
Integral life, 152-59
International Buddhist Society, 434
Irrationalism, collective. See Flight from
reason, 20th century
Irrationalist literature of 20th century,
496-514
Irving, Edward, 29
Issacs, Rufus, 132
Isidore, Metropolitan of Kiev, 163
Isis Unveiled (Blavatsky), 52, 160, 187,
227, 279
Itten, Johannes, 423-24, 425-26
Ivanov, Michael, 186
Ivanov, Vyacheslav, 154, 155, 156, 164,
165, .177, 196
Jackson, Holbrook, 107, 119
Jacolliot, Louis, 306
James, William: anesthetic revelation
and, 437, 441; correspondence with
Lutoslawski, 189; The Varieties of
Religious Experience, 438
Jeans, Sir James: The Mysterious
Universe, 346
Jelikovsky, Vera, 161, 162, 163, 222
Jennings, Hargrave, 380-81, 391, 399
Jesuits, 33, 227-29, 280
Jewish Galicians, 146
Joachim of Flora, 95, 294
John of Kronstadt. See Sergiev, Father
John
Joly, Maurice, 217, 248
Jones, Ernest, 350, 369, 373, 382
Judge, William Quan, 66, 278
Jung, Carl Gustav: admirer of Gustav
Meyrink, 40; analysis of Freud's sexual
theory, 379-80; analyst of interwar
mood, 348; Biogenetic law, acceptance
of, 404; comprehensive reader of
occult literature, 38; connection with
alchemy, 397-98; connection with
Hauer, 398-400; contributor to the
"Great Mother" Eranos Conference
of 1938, 397; conversion to astrology,
414; culminating point of occult
revival, 382; disagreement with Freud,
384-85; explanation of flying saucers,
Mons Angels, Fatima, 506; ideas as
seedbed for Nazi racism, 400-401; influenced
by Gnostic illumination, 386-
87, 394, 402, 413; influence on Hog
Farm, 450; Psychology and Alchemy,
394; Psychology of the Unconscious,
385; racial aspects of his psychology,
400-401; VII Sermones ad Mortuos,
386; subject to paranormal experiences,
384; theoretician of man
liberated from social restraints, 476;
user of Freudian methods and occult
sources, 385
Jungborn, 56
Kafka, Franz, 497
Kammerling, Brother, 29
Kandinsky, Vasili: friend of Mitrinovic,
191; modern artist, 421-22, 424, 425;
On the Spiritual in Art, 422
Karma, 68, 90, 280, 319, 405
Kassner, Rudolf, 182
Kellner, Karl, 31, 60, 61
Kemmerich, Max, 324, 358
Kemnitz, Mathilde von, 305-7, 309, 367
Kerning, J. B. (born Johann Baptist
Krebs), 36-37, 41, 52
Kerouac, Jack, 433-34, 442
Kesey, Ken, 444-46, 450, 455, 471, 482-
83, 509-10
Race-betterment. See Eugenics
Ramsay, Professor William, 437
Raskolniki. See Old Believers
Rasputin, Grigory, 162, 171-73, 199,
259-61, 264-65, 294
Rasputin, Matriona, 263-65
Ratchkovsky, Pyotr Alexandrovich, 239-
42, 245, 248-50, 253-54
Rationalism, 8, 490
Rauschning, Hermann: Hitler Speaks,
312-13, 494-96
Rayleigh, Lord, 42
Realpolitik, 12, 276, 430, 457
Reckitt, Maurice, 109, 112, 115
Reich, Wilhelm, 472-74, 475, 506
Reichenbach, Baron, 15, 279, 472
Rejected knowledge: as definition of occultism,
15; influx to West via post-
1917 Russian emigres, 178-85; U. S.
versions of, 429; See also Flight from
reason, 20th century
Relativity, Einstein's general theory of,
346-47
Religion and Art (Wagner), 44
Remizov, Alexey, 164
Renaissance/Reformation outbreak of
irrationalism, 490. See also Flight
from reason, 20th century
Reuss, Theodore, 59-61, 67
Reventlow, Countess Fanny von, 48, 54,
58
Rhine, Dr. J. B., 365-66
Richet, Charles, 161, 244, 364, 367
Richter, Hans, 421, 425, 426, 427
Rienzi (Lytton), 44
Ringbom, Sixten, 421-22
Rittelmeyer, Friedrich, 69, 70
Rivers, Elfrieda, 449
Robsjohn-Gibbings, T. H., 420
Roe, Sir A. V., 127
Rohl, Fritz, 58
Rohm, Captain Ernst, 303, 317
Romney, Hugh, 450
Rosenberg, Alfred: Atlantis speculation,
315-16; Baltic refugee from
Bolshevists who brought anti-Semitic
ideas to Munich, 283, 284, 293-96;
condemnation of Roman Catholicism,
283, 316; definition of German mystic
as supreme hero, 317; definition of Jew
as creature of the world, 347; intervention
with SS for Johannes Muller, 57;
survivor of transition of Nazis from
underground to establishment, as Russian
"expert" and ideologist, 304, 309,
313-18, 333; The Myth of the 20th
Century, an occult racial history, 314-
15; the Weltdienst, 130
Rosicrucianism, 68-70, 93, 167, 242-43,
497
Rosenburg (Derleth), 54-55
Rothschild, Nathan Meyer, 231-32
Rozanov, Vasily, 155, 157-58, 159, 172,
204, 214, 258, 379
Rubin, Jerry, 461-63, 466
Rural Organization Council, 100
Rural Reconstruction, 98-100
Ruskin, John, 105-6
Russian Orthodox Church, 147-54, 157,
176, 257
Ruttinger, Julius, 310
Sainte-Marie, Buffy, 448
Saint- Yves d' Alveydre, Joseph-
Alexandre, 168, 200, 236, 238, 243,
287
Sandoz Corporation, 439, 444
Sanderson, William, 134
Savinkov, Boris: life as terrorist, 196-98;
The Black Horse, 197; The Pale
Horse, 197
Scheubner-Richter, Max Erwin von,
283, 296, 309
Schloss Elmau, 56-57
Schloss Mainberg, 56
Schmidt, Anna, 153
Schmitz, Oskar, 54, 397
Schneiderfranken, Joseph. See Ra, Bo
Yin
Schoenmaekers, M. H. J., 424
School of Wisdom, 184-85
Schrenk-Notzing, Albert Freiherr von,
38, 306, 366-68, 395
Schroer, Karl Julius, 62
Schuler, Alfred, 48-52, 53, 54, 282, 302-
3, 332
Schure, Edouard, 244
Schutz, Hermann, 59
Schwabing, 47-48, 53, 54, 282, 283-84
Science fiction, 496-513
Scientology, 502-6
Scouting for Boys (Baden-Powell), 88
Scultetus, Hans Robert, 328-30
Search for otherness, 509-11
Sebottendorff, Rudolph Freiherr von,
38, 283, 296-97, 310, 512
Sectarianism. See Christian sectarianism
Secular religion, 10-12
Seiling, Max, 166, 288-89
Self-realization, 184
Seligman, Kurt, 431
Sergiev, Father John (John of
Kronstadt), 147-48, 167, 170, 172, 199,
247, 257
Servile state, 115
Seton, Ernest Thompson, 83-85, 86, 87
VII Sermones ad Mortuos (Jung), 386
Sexual basis of neuroses. See Freud
Shapira, Sam, 447
Sharp, Cecil, 95, 114
Shaver, Richard, 508
Shaw, George Bernard, 108
Shestov, Leo (born L. I. Schwarzmann),
178-79
Shiel, M. P., 511
Shirley, Ralph, 220
Shivananda, Swami, 452
Sievers, Wolfram, 322-23
Silberer, Herbert, 380, 391
Silesius, Angelus, 30, 41, 285, 317
Simony, Oscar, 42
Sin Against the Blood (Dinter), 310-11,
318
Sin Against the Spirit (Dinter), 311
Sinnett, A. P., 43, 62, 187
Situationist International, 468-70
Sivers, Marie von, 65, 67, 164-65
Skoptsy, 150
Slade, Henry, 42, 160, 360, 366
Slav mysticism, 145-54, 171, 181, 185
Slavophilism, 153, 168, 186, 283
Snyder, Gary, 433-34, 442, 452, 466
Social Credit: as part of Christian wing
of the progressive underground in
England, 105; connection to Kibbo
Kift, 119-23; connection to fascist and
other leading figures, 124-28; connection
to Gurdjieff, 180-81; continuation
into the 1930s, 117; expression of illuminated
politics, 420; proposed by
Major C. H. Douglas in New Age, 112
Social Darwinianism, 16, 18, 83, 320
Socialism, 12
Social relevance, 117-19, 121-23
Sociological Society, 104
Soddy, Frederick, 121
Sokolov, Nicholas, 264
Solar Men, 124
Soloviev, Boris, 263-65
Soloviev, Mikhail, 156
Soloviev, Vladimir Sergeivitch, 151-54,
159, 161, 177, 260
Soloviev, Vsevolod, 161-62, 223-26, 238,
243, 244-46
Sorel, Georges, 463
Soupault, Philippe, 428
Spaulding ("Dr. Spaulding"), 444
Spengler, Oswald, 18-19, 315, 423
Spiritual development, 15, 17-19, 55
Spiritualism, 14-15, 17, 23-24, 30, 159-
64, 347
Springhead, 97-98, 100, 403
Spirit drawing, 392-93
SS, 319-25
Stanley, Augustus Owsley, III. See
Owsley
Stapledon, Sir George: The Land, Now
and Tomorrow, 102
Star in the East, 25, 67, 73
Steicher, Julius, 311
Steindamm, Frau, 59
Steiner, Rudolf: Anthroposophy and
Rosicrucianism as preached by, 41;
Atlantis literature, 315, 499;
Bostunitch and, 267; eclecticism of
ideas, 68-72, 193; emergence of
"Monism and Theosophy" as basic
spiritual science lecture, 66; esoteric
farming, 103, 146; influence of Goethe
on, 62-63, 68, 72; influence on Kandinsky,
422; influence on Russian
Symbolist circles, 164-66; leading exponent
of occult ideas of education,
404; objective of making the unconscious
conscious, 349; origin and
personal life, 61-65; political efforts,
286-90, 298; private realities compared
to those of Hitler, 493-94; split with
Theosophists, 67; transformation from
liberal academic to mystical lecturer,
61-65. See also Anthroposophy
Stekel, Wilhelm, 368, 372-76, 405
Stepanov, Filip, 239, 241, 242, 254
Stoddart, Miss C. M., 219-20, 236
Storrington Document, 109
Stranger in a Strange Land (Heinlein),
502
Stranniki, 149
Stromer von Reichenbach, Freiherr,
324-25, 358
Struvit (Ulex), 39
Suggestion, 353
Sukhotin, Alexei, 239, 241, 242, 254
Summertime Ends (Hargrave), 122-23
Sun-Wheel, 315, 399
Surrealism, 427-28, 468, 513
Suzuki, D. T., 398, 435
Swastika, 261-64, 280, 282, 297
Swedenborgian New Church, 28-29, 277,
388-94
Swoboda, Dr. Herrmann, 361-63
Symbolic Serpent, 249
Symbolism, 150, 154-59, 164, 421
Symonds, John Addington, 437
533
Tarnhari, the exalted, 280
Tawney, R. H., 109, 112
Taxil, Leo, 216
Taylor, G. Stirling, 107, 111, 131
Tao, 27
Tchelitchev, Pavel, 431
Templeton, Herbert 0., 473
The Book of the Law (Crowley), 494-96
The Confession of the Kibbo Kift
(Hargrave), 93, 122
The Dawn of Magic (Pauwels and
Bergier), 313
The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test
(Wolfe), 482-83
The Golem (Meyrink), 39, 146
The Great War Brings It Home
(Hargrave), 87, 90
The Guildsman, 110, 111, 121
The Hebrew Talisman, 230-33
The Interpretation of Dreams (Freud),
349, 350
The Journey to the East (Hesse), 27
The Key to Theosophy (Blavatsky), 160
The Land. Now and Tomorrow (Stapledon),
102
The Law of Psychic Pheonomena (Hudson),
375
The Lord of the Rings (Tolkien), 510
Thelema, Law of, 495
The Magic Mirror, 37
The Magus (Barrett), 496
The Monist, 187
The Mysterious Universe (Jeans), 346
The Myth of the 20th Century
(Rosenberg), 314-15
The New Age, 107-8, 112, 116, 119, 122,
191
The New Era, 405
Theosophical Lodge of the Blue Star, 36-
38, 40-41, 43
Theosophical Society: anti-Semitism,
226-27, 229-33, 248; as pillar of 19th-century
revival of the occult, 25, 73;
establishment in Germany, 30; influence
in America, 429; influence in
Germany, 29-31; influence in Holland,
424; influence in New Education
movement, 404-6; influence in Prague,
36; influence in Russia, 160-65;
propaganda agent in England for
Buddhism, 435. See also Theosophy;
Blavatsky, Madame H. P.
Theosophical Society of Vienna, 37, 41,
43-47
Theosophy: as manifestation of occultism,
15, 17; definition of, 66; doctrine
of spiritual development, 17; influence
on Eranos Conferences, 396;
links to English guild socialism, 108,
113, 116, 180; links to hypnotism, 353-
54; links to volkisch movement, 277-
78; predicted future, 183; promoter of
Hindu messiah, 25, 73; transmitter of
The Protocols of the Learned Elders of
Zion to Russia, 219. See also
Theosophical Society; Blavatsky, H.
P.
The Patriot, 129
The Philosophy of Freedom (Steiner), 64
The Philosophy of Mysticism (Prel),
349-50
The Protocols of the Learned Elders of
Zion (anonymous): background,
character, growth in influence, 213-18;
European transmission and influence
on imperial Russia, 238-42, 244-45,
247-57, 260; example of liberated imagination
gone wrong, 514; read by
Rosenberg, 294; use as propaganda in
Russian military, 265-66. See also
Anti-Semitism (English, French,
Russian); The Secret of the Jews
The Rise of the West (Macready), 317-
18
The Secret of the Jews, 233-39, 247-48
The Secret Doctrine, 62, 227, 230, 233,
278, 281-82, 499
The Servile State (Belloc), 115
The Third Reich (Moeller van den
Bruck): 293-94
The Tibetan Book of the Dead, 25
The Varieties of Religious Experience
(W. James), 438
The War of the Worlds (Wells), 500
"The White Negro" (Mailer), 432, 434
Thousand Year Reich, 18, 33, 454
Thule Bund, 296-98, 307, 310
Time, 16-20
Tolkien, J. R. R.: The Lord of the Rings,
510
Tolstoy, Count Leo, 157, 174-75
Tolstoy, Sophie, 152
Town planning, 103-4
Toynbee, Arnold, 190
Treher, Wolfgang: Hitler, Steiner,
Schreber, 493-94
Trocchi, Alexander, 469
Trufanov, Sergei Mikhailovitch (pseud.
IIiodor), 148-49, 257-58, 259
Trevelyan, Katherine, 95
Triitzschler, Fritz von, 310
Turgenev, Asya, 165, 166
Tzara, Tristan, 425, 427
Ulex. See Struvit
Unconscious, 347-53, 374
Unger, Carl, 71, 288
Unger, Erich, 426
Ungern-Sternberg, Roman Feodorovich
von, 198-204
Union of the Russian People, 254, 256-
59
Usury, 115-16
Van Vogt, A. E., 502, 503-4
Vaughan Williams, Ralph, 95
Vedanta, 192
Vegetarianism, 25, 29, 44, 55, 82, 299,
312, 422
Vegetarian socialism, 57-61
Verdin, George, 176
Vienna, 41-47, 75-76
View, 430-32
Villiers, Viscount Serge d'Hotman de,
176
Vitalism, 17-19
Vladimir, Metropolitan of Moscow, 257
Vogl, Pastor Carl, 221
Vogile, Count Melchior de, 152, 174
Voigt, Heinz, 327, 328
Volkisch occultism: academic respectability
from the Jung-endorsed Hauer
study of the Bhagavad Gita, 400; drift
to racial purity and pagan idealism,
51-57, 278; ground-breaker for Nazi
rise to power in Germany, 32-35; influence
on Weininger, 361-62; leading
figures in pre-Nazi Germany, 276-82;
snuffed out after Nazi rise to power,
310-11. See also Nazi German regime
Volkischer Beobachter, 280, 291
Volynsky, A. L. (born A. L. Flekser),
155
Vyrubova, Anna, 173-74, 263, 265
Wagner, Richard: master of German
idealistic Underground, 43-44;
Religion and Art, 44
Walden, Sophia, 216
Watts, Alan, 434-35, 442-43, 444, 447,
466-67, 476
Watts, L. W., 435
Webster, Nesta, 92, 129, 131-33
Weinfurter, Karel, 37
Weininger, Otto, 361-62
Weissenberger, 33-35, 311
Weissenberg, Joseph, 33-34, 56
Wells, H. G.: A Modern Utopia, 92;
links with Kibo Kift, as author of utopian
literature, 89, 92; The War o/the
Worlds, 500
Welles, Orson, 500
Welwyn, 104, 110
Westlake, Aubrey, 85, 87, 103, 118, 124
Westlake, Ernest, 85-86, 87
Wewelsburg, 320-21
Wheeler, Howard, 452-53
Wilhelm, Richard, 397, 406
Wilkinson, John Garth, 391-93
Williams, Charles, 510
535
Williamson, Henry, 121
Wilson, Edward Alexander, 193
Winstanley, Gerard, 459
Wirth, Hermann, 316, 321-22, 327, 358
Witte, Count Sergei Yulievich, 159, 238,
239-40, 245, 248, 250, 254, 256, 259
Wolf, Hugo, 45-46
Wolfe, Tom: description of Kesey, 445;
The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, 482-
83
Wolfskehl, Karl, 48-50, 58
Wolkonsky, Princess Olga, 152, 244
Woodcraft Chivalry, Order of. See
Order of Woodcraft Chivalry
Woodcraft Folk, 94
World's Parliament of Religions, 187
Wotan, 400
Wunderapostel Hauser, 39
Wilst, Walter, 322, 323, 324
Yarker, John 59-60
Yeats, William Butler, 18
Yippie movement, 462-67
Young, George, 111, 131-32
Young Winkle (Hargrave), 91
Youth movements, English, 83-99, 117-
19, 121-23, 135
Yussupov, Prince Felix, 260-61, 265
Zen, 433-35, 481
Zenithism, 192
Zero A. D. Crisis, the, 490
Zollner, Professor, 42, 366
Zossimova Hermitage, 149
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