The Third Reich in the Ivory Tower: Complicity and Conflict

"Science," the Greek word for knowledge, when appended to the word "political," creates what seems like an oxymoron. For who could claim to know politics? More complicated than any game, most people who play it become addicts and die without understanding what they were addicted to. The rest of us suffer under their malpractice as our "leaders." A truer case of the blind leading the blind could not be found. Plumb the depths of confusion here.

Re: The Third Reich in the Ivory Tower: Complicity and Confl

Postby admin » Mon Sep 17, 2018 3:42 am

Part 1 of 3

Notes

1. Germany Reverts to the Dark Ages: Nazi Clarity and Grassroots American Protest, 1933-1934


1. Jewish Advocate, March 7, 1933.

2. New York Times, March 13, 1933.

3. Ibid., March 20, 1933.

4. Manchester Guardian, March 10, 1933.

5. New York Times, March 21, 1933.

6. Ibid., March 20, 1933.

7. Jewish Chronicle [London], May 19, 1933.

8. Manchester Guardian, March 25, 1933. American journalists reporting from Germany "who understood the true nature of Nazism and its fanatical hatred of Jews" included H. R. Knickerbocker of the New York Evening Post, Edgar Ansel Mowrer of the Chicago Daily News, Sigrid Schultz of the Chicago Tribune, Otto Tolischus of the New York Times, Ralph Barnes of the New York Herald Tribune, Pierre van Paassen of the New York World, and William Shirer of CBS radio. Deborah Lipstadt, Beyond Belief: The American Press and the Coming of the Holocaust, 1933-1945 (New York: Free Press, 1986), 28. The Manchester Guardian from Britain provided extensive coverage of  Nazi atrocities.

9. Manchester Guardian, March 27 and April 4, 1933.

10. Ibid., April 8, 1933.

11. New York Evening Post, April 1, 1933.

12. John Haynes Holmes to H. R. Knickerbocker, April 6, 1933, box I, H. R. Knickerbocker Papers, Columbia University Rare Book and Manuscript Library [hereafter CURBML], Butler Library, New York, N.Y.

13. New York Evening Post, April I, 1933, and Manchester Guardian, April I, 1933.

14. Richard Breitman, Barbara McDonald Stewart, and Severin Hochberg, eds., Advocate for the Doomed: The Diaries and Papers of James G. McDonald, 1932-1935 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2007), 33.

15. New York Times, April 2, 1933.

16. Richard J. Evans, The Third Reich in Power (New York: Penguin, 2005), 14-15.

17. Martha Dodd, Through Embassy Eyes (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1939), 294-97.

18. New York Times, April 24, 1933.

19. Ibid., May 12, 1933.

20. Ibid., May 8 and September 23, 1933.

21. Ibid., March 16, 1933; Manchester Guardian, April 1 and 12, 1933.

22. Manchester Guardian, April 12, 1933.

23. Breitman, Stewart, and Hochberg, eds., Advocate for the Doomed, 30, 38.

24. Ibid., 48, 65.

25. Manchester Guardian, May 17, 1933.

26. New York Times, September 22, 1933.

27. Ibid.

28. Ibid., June 14, 1933; Ismar Elbogen, A Century of Jewish Life (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1944), 645.

29. New York Times, June 19, 1933.

30. Gulie Ne'eman Arad, America, Its Jews, and the Rise of Nazism (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2000), 111, 113.

31. Boston Herald, October 9, 1933.

32. New York Times, September 10, 1933.

33. Ibid., March 28 and April 6, 1933.

34. Ibid., March 17, April 2, and November 21, 1933; Fritz Stern, Einstein's German World (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1999), 153- 54; John Stachel, "Albert Einstein" in Stephen H. Norwood and Eunice G. Pollack, eds., Encyclopedia of American Jewish History (Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2008), vol. 2, 744.

35. Stachel, "Einstein" in Norwood and Pollack, eds., Encyclopedia of American Jewish History, vol. 2,744; Jamie Sayen, Einstein in America: The Scientist's Conscience in the Age of Hitler and Hiroshima (New York: Crown Publishers, 1985), 10.

36. Sayen, Einstein in America, 7,57-59, 61; New York Times, June 8, 1930, and October 6, 1940.

37. New York Times, October 27, 28, and 30 and November 2, 1933; Washington Post, October 30, 1933.

38. New York Times, October 28 and 30, November 2, 3, and 6, 1933; Washington Post, October 30, 1933; London Times, October 27, 1933.

39. New York Times, December 24, 1933.

40. Ibid.

41. Boston Herald, October 9, 1933.

42. Pierre van Paassen, "Silence Is Criminal," Opinion, November 1933, 8-9.

43. Dorothy Thompson, "Germany Is a Prison," Opinion, March 1934, 16; New York Evening Post, May 6, 1933.

44. Pierre van Paassen and James Waterman Wise, eds., Nazism: An Assault on Civilization (New York: Harrison Smith & Robert Haas, 1934), 310.

45. Robert Dell, Germany Unmasked (London: Martin Hopkinson, 1934), 13.

46. Los Angeles Times, April 27, 1934; London Times, May 2, 10, and 11, 1934.

47. London Times, May 10, 1934.

48. Ibid., May 11, 1934.

49. London Times, May 11, 1934; New York Times, May 12, 1934.

50. "Report from Nuremberg," Easter 1934, folder H2, James G. McDonald Papers, Herbert Lehman Suite, CURBML.

51. New York Times, May 20, 1934.

52. London Times, May 22, 1934; New York Times, May 29, 1934.

53. New York Times, March 20, 1933.

54. Boston Herald, March 22, 1933.

55. New York Evening Post, March 22, 1933.

56. New York Times, March 24, 1933.

57. Boston Herald, March 27, 1933.

58. Hitlerism and the American Jewish Congress: A Confidential Report of Activities (New York: American Jewish Congress, 1934), 2-3, container 43, William E. Dodd Papers, Library of Congress [hereafter LC], Washington, D.C.; Christian Science Monitor, March 28, 1933; New York Times, March 28, 1933; Chicago Tribune, March 28, 1933.

59. New York Times, March 28, 1933.

60. New York Evening Post, March 28, 1933.

61. New York Times, March 29 and 30, 1933.

62. Baltimore Sun, March 31, 1933.

63. Edgar E. Siskin to President James Rowland Angell, March 24, 1933, and James Rowland Angell to Rabbi Edgar E. Siskin, March 25, 1933, box 116, President's Office: James Rowland Angell Papers, Sterling Library, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.

64. Tech, March 31, 1933; Boston Herald, March 31, 1933.

65. Boston Herald, April 4, 1933; Jewish Advocate, April 4, 1933.

66. Boston Herald, April 5, 1933; Boston Globe, April 7, 1933.

67. Boston Globe, April 6, 1933.

68. New York Evening Post, April 15, 1933.

69. Ibid., April 15, 1933.

70. New York Times, May 8,15, and 16, 1933; Richard A. Hawkins, "Hitler's Bitterest Foe: Samuel Untermyer and the Boycott of Nazi Germany, 1933- 1938," American Jewish History 93 (March 2007): 23, 26.

71. Non-Sectarian Anti- Nazi League to Champion Human Rights, "Visit Germany This Year and See," n.d., Addenda I, box 108, Robert Maynard Hutchins Papers, Special Collections Research Center [hereafter SCRC], Regenstein Library [hereafter RL], University of Chicago [hereafter UC], Chicago, Ill.

72. Hawkins, "Hitler's Bitterest Foe," 41; New York Times, March 30, April 7, and July 14, 1934.

73. G. E. Harriman, "Anti- Nazi Boycott Circular Letter," 1933 in Robert H. Abzug, ed., America Views the Holocaust, 1933-1945: A Brief Documentary History (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 1999), 34.

74. New York Times, May 16, 1933.

75. Ibid., May 13, 1933; Leo F. Wormser to Hon. William E. Dodd, April 27, 1934, container 45, Dodd Papers, LC.

76. New York Times, July 7, 1934; Chicago Tribune, August 29, 1937.

77. Harvard Crimson, May 22, 1935.

78. Daily Maroon, March 12, 1936. For a similar advertisement, see Yale Daily News, April 23, 1938.

79. Hitlerism and the American Jewish Congress, 3, container 43, Dodd Papers, LC; New York Times, May 10-11, 1933; New York Evening Post, May 10, 1933; "Items of Interest," The Jewish Veteran, 22, May 1933, Julius Klein Archives of the National Museum of American Jewish Military History, Washington, D.C.

80. Chicago Tribune, May 11, 1933; Philadelphia Inquirer, May 11, 1933.

81. Richard E. Gurstadt, circular letter, June 8, 1933, reel 35, Franz Boas Papers, microfilm edition, LC.

82. New York Evening Post, March 24, 1933; New York Times, June 6 and 8, 1933; "American Hebrew Medal to Toscanini," American Hebrew, February 4, 1938, 5, 24.

83. "Hail Toscanini!," American Hebrew, August 7, 1936, n.p.; "Toscanini's Artistic Integrity Calls Attention to Nazi 'Gleichschaltung,'" American Hebrew, January 8, 1937,746; "American Hebrew Medal," 5, 24.

84. New York Times, June 11, 1933.

85. Everett R. Clinchy to President Marion Edwards Park, and attached untitled statement, June 8, 1933, Marion Edwards Park Papers, Bryn Mawr College Archives, Bryn Mawr, Pa.; New York Times, July 5, 1933.

86. Chicago Tribune, July 2 and 4, 1933; New York Times, July 2 and September 10 and 11, 1933.

87. Chicago Tribune, July 2,4, and 6, 1933; New York Times, September 10, 1933.

88. New York Times, September II, 14, and 16 and October 4, 17, and 19, 1933.

89. Philadelphia Public Ledger, February 20, 1934.

90. New York Times, March 6, 1934.

91. Ibid., September 2 and 8, 1934.

92. Ibid., July 21, 1933; London Times, July 21, 1933.

93. New York Times, August 14, 1933.

94. Chicago Tribune, August 12, 1933.

95. San Francisco Chronicle, September 28, 1933.

96. New York Times, October 14 and 22, 1933.

97. Ibid., December 14, 1933.

98. Boston Evening Transcript, November 23, 1933; Boston Globe, April 3, 1944.

99. New York Times, October 25, 1933.

100. Frank W. Buxton to Ambassador William E. Dodd, July 6, 1933, container 40, Dodd Papers, LC.

101. Boston Herald, November 27, 1933; Boston Globe, November 27, 1933; Boston Post, November 27, 1933.

102. Boston Herald, November 27, 1933; Boston Globe, November 27, 1933; Boston Post, November 27, 1933.

103. Boston Herald, November 27, 1933; Boston Post, November 27, 1933, Boston Globe, November 27, 1933; New York Times, November 27, 1933.

104. American Committee Against Fascist Oppression in Germany, "International Inquiry into Hitler Oppression," Addenda I, box 5, Hutchins Papers, SCRC, RL, UC; New York Times, July 3 and 4, 1934; Washington Post, July 3, 1934.

105. Lewis S. Feuer, "The Stages in the Social History of Jewish Professors in American Colleges and Universities," American Jewish History 71 (June 1982): 455, 462; Leonard Dinnerstein, Anti-Semitism in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), 88.

106. R. M. Hutchins to Mr. (Alvin] Johnson, May 25, 1933, Addenda I, box 105, Hutchins Papers, SCRC, RL, UC; Chicago Tribune, May 28, 1933.

107. Peter M. Rutkoff and William B. Scott, New School: A History of the New School for Social Research (New York: Free Press, 1986), 84, 92; Claus- Dieter Krohn, Intellectuals in Exile: Refugee Scholars and the New School for Social Research (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1993), 62, 69; New York Times, May 13, 1933.

108. Alvin Johnson to President Hutchins, May 27, 1933, Addenda I, box 105, Hutchins Papers, SCRC, RL, UC.

109. New York Times, August 19, 1933.

110. Krohn, Intellectuals in Exile, 69, 71.

111. New York Times, September 2, 1933.

112. Dan A. Oren, Joining the Club: A History of Jews and Yale (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1985), 125.

113. Statement by Isaiah Bowman concerning his correspondence with Alvin Johnson, n.d. Series 2, box 2.23, Isaiah Bowman Papers, Records of Office of the President [hereafter ROP], Milton S. Eisenhower Library, Johns Hopkins University [hereafter JHU], Baltimore, Md.

114. Alvin Johnson to President Isaiah Bowman, November 18, 1935, Bowman Papers, Series 2, box 2.23, ROP, JHU.

115. Marjorie Lamberti, "The Reception of Refugee Scholars from Nazi Germany in America: Philanthropy and Social Change in Higher Education," Jewish Social Studies 12 (Spring/Summer 2006): 164-66; Krohn, Intellectuals in Exile, 27-28. The EC's major donors were the New York Foundation, the Nathan Hofheimer Foundation, the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, Jewish philanthropist Felix Warburg, financier Henry Ittleson, and the family of Jewish philanthropist Julius Rosenwald. Lamberti, "Reception of Refugee Scholars," 167.

116. Lamberti, "Reception of Refugee Scholars," 167; Krohn, Intellectuals in Exile, 29; Rutkoff and Scott, New School, 94.

117. James M. Stifler to Alexander Brin, December 31, 1934, Addenda I, box 59, Hutchins Papers, SCRC, UC.

118. Stifler to Morton M. Berman, January 29, 1938, Addenda I, box 59, Hutchins Papers, SCRC, UC.

119. Oren, joining the Club, 124.

120. Brooks Mather Kelley, Yale: A History (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1974), 416.

121. Stephen Duggan to Felix Frankfurter, July 18, 1933, and Harlow Shapley to E. R. Murrow, August 7, 1933, box 113, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars Papers [hereafter ECADFS Papers], Manuscripts and Archives Division [hereafter MAD], New York Public Library [hereafter NYPL], New York, N. Y.; Morton Keller and Phyllis Keller, Making Harvard Modern: The Rise of America's University (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), 153-54.

122. Breitman, Stewart, and Hochberg, eds., Advocate for the Doomed, 327.

123. Keller and Keller, Making Harvard Modern, 154; New York Times, January 30, 1934.

124. President Conant to E. R. Murrow, February 12, 1934, box 113, ECADFS Papers, MAD, YPL.

125. James Waterman Wise, Swastika: The Nazi Terror (New York: Harrison Smith and Robert Haas, 1933), 114.

2. Legitimating Nazism: Harvard University and the Hitler Regime, 1933-1937

An earlier version of this chapter was published as Stephen H. Norwood, "Legitimating Nazism: Harvard University and the Hitler Regime, 1933- 1937," American Jewish History 92 (June 2004): 189-223.

1. William M. Tuttle Jr., "American Higher Education and the Nazis: The Case of James B. Conant and Harvard University's 'Diplomatic Relations' with Germany," American Studies 20 (Spring 1979): 54, 61, 66; Morton Keller and Phyllis Keller, Making Harvard Modern: The Rise of America's University (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), 49, 153-55. Claus- Dieter Krohn noted that the New School for Social Research, which hired many anti-fascist refugee scholars, served as an excuse for many American universities' "inaction," and that that was "especially true of Harvard." Claus-Dieter Krohn, Intellectuals in Exile: Refugee Scholars and the New School for Social Research (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1993), 76.

2. James G. Hershberg, James B. Conant: Harvard to Hiroshima and the Making of the Nuclear Age (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993), 86.

3. Ibid., 96-97.

4. Washington Post, August 22, 1936; New York Times, December 20, 1937.

5. New York Times, June 17, 1922.

6. Hershberg, James B. Conant, 58; Marcia Graham Synnott, The Half- Opened Door: Discrimination and Admissions at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton, 1900-1970 (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1979), 202; Jerome Karabel, The Chosen: The Hidden History of Admission and Exclusion at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2005), 168-73. Karabel notes that "[e]ven at the height of a war against a fanatically racist, anti-Semitic enemy, it seemed that nothing - not even the reports of the extermination of European Jews already making their way into the newspapers - could dislodge Harvard's policy of restricting Jewish enrollment." Karabel, The Chosen, 18o.

7. Harriet Zuckerman points to chemistry's "longstanding inhospitality to Jews." Harvard chemistry professor Albert Sprague Coolidge testified to a Massachusetts legislative committee in 1945 that his department did not award scholarships to Jews because "there were no jobs for Jews in chemistry." Harriet Zuckerman, Scientific Elite: Nobel Laureates in the United States (New York: Free Press, 1977), 76. Dan A. Oren, Joining the Club: A History of Jews and Yale (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1985), 357; Alan D. Beyerchen, Scientists Under Hitler: Politics and the Physics Community in the Third Reich (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1977), 49. Harvard's chemistry department had no "self-identified Jewish professors" during Conant's presidency, which lasted until 1953. Keller and Keller, Making Harvard Modern, 97.

8. E. K. Bolton to Dr. James B. Conant, September 8, 1933, and James B. Conant to Dr. E. K. Bolton, September 13, 1933, box 31, James B. Conant Presidential Papers [hereafter JBCPP), Harvard University Archives [hereafter HUA), Pusey Library, Cambridge.

9. Obituary of Max Bergmann, New York Times, November 8, 1944.

10. Sir William J. Pope to President Conant, October 2, 1933, and Conant to Pope, October 18, 1933, box 31, JBCPP, HUA. Fritz Haber had converted to Christianity more than forty years before, in 1892. Fritz Stern, Einstein's German World (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1999), 73.

11. Jewish Advocate, November 10 and 14, 1933.

12. New York Times, January 9, 1934; Washington Post, February 7, 1934; "Speech of Senator Millard E. Tydings," March 7, 1934, Series II, box 2, Millard E. Tydings Papers, Archives and Manuscripts Department, Hornbake Library, University of Maryland, College Park.

13. Tuttle, "American Higher Education," 66-67; New York Times, May 15, October 14 and 22, 1933; Jewish Advocate, November 14, 1933.

14. Harvard Crimson, October 25, 1934; William L. Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1960), 222-23; Karl Dietrich Bracher, The German Dictatorship (New York: Praeger, 1970), 239. Shirer notes that at the 1957 Munich trial of individuals accused of carrying out executions in the June 30 "Blood Purge" a figure of more than a thousand slain was presented. Former Social Democratic Reichstag deputy Gerhart Seger, who had escaped from the Oranienburg concentration camp in December 1933 and lectured in the United States about conditions inside Nazi Germany, charged in November 1934 that in excess of one thousand had been slaughtered in the June 30 Blood Purge. Chicago Tribune, November 22, 1934.

15. New York Times, March 7, 8, and 9, 1934; Harvard Crimson, October 11, 1934.

16. Harvard Crimson, March 11, 1936.

17. Boston Herald, May 12 and 13, 1934.

18. Ibid., May 12 and 13, 1934; Boston Post, May 12, 1934.

19. Boston Herald, May 12., 1934; Jewish Advocate, December 29, 1933.

20. Boston Herald, May 12, 1934. The Women's International League for Peace and Freedom also protested against the official celebration of the Karlsruhe's visit. Boston Evening Transcript, May 15, 1934.

21. Boston Herald, May 12 and 13, 1934; Boston Post, May 17 and 20, 1934.

22. Ferris Greenslet to Felix Frankfurter, November 10, 1933, reel 102, Felix Frankfurter Papers, Library of Congress [hereafter LC], Washington, D.C.; Boston Post, May 17 and 19, 1934; Harvard Crimson, November 26, 1934, and April 28, 1936.

23. Boston Evening Transcript, May 15, 1934; Harvard Crimson, June 6, 1934; Boston Herald, May 18, 1934.

24. Boston Post, May 18, 1934; Christian Science Monitor, May 18, 1934; Tech, May 18, 1934.

25. Boston Post, May 18, 1934.

26. Boston Post, May 18, 1934; Boston Globe, May 18, 1934; Boston Herald, May 18, 1934; Harvard Crimson, May 18, 1934.

27. Boston Post, May 21, 1934; Harvard Crimson, May 21, 1934. Several of those arrested charged that the police had severely beaten them after booking them at the station. Boston Post, May 25, 1934; Harvard Crimson, May 22, 1934.

28. Harvard Crimson, May 24 and June 11, 1934, and May 8, 1936. The MIT student newspaper agreed that a demonstration "aimed ... at the discomfort" of the Karlsruhe's crew was "out of place." Tech, May 18, 1934. Dartmouth College hosted a contingent of Karlsruhe officers and cadets, who journeyed to the Hanover, New Hampshire, campus at the invitation of the German Department. New York Times, May 20, 1934.

29. Boston Herald, May 30, 1934; Tech, June 5, 1934; Alfred H. Hirsch to James B. Conant, November 13, 1934, box 32, JBCPP, HUA.

30. James A. Wechsler, Revolt on the Campus (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1973 [1935]),341; Tech, May 18, 1934.

31. Boston Post, May 18, 1934; Harvard Crimson, May 18 and 19, 1934. Boston College administrators invited the Karlsruhe crewmen to a track meet and baseball games on their campus. Boston Post, May 12., 1934.

32. Jewish Advocate, May 18, 1934; Boston Post, May 18, 1934; Boston Globe, May 18, 1934; obituaries of John Walz in New York Times, April 17, 1954, and Harvard Crimson, April 20, 1954.

33. Boston Post, May T7 and 20, 1934; Boston Evening Transcript, May 19, 1934.

34. Boston Evening Transcript, May 21, 1934; Harvard Crimson, May 22, 1934; Boston Globe, May 22, 1934.

35. New York Times, June 19, 1934.

36. Boston Post, May 23, 1934; New York Post, March 5, 1936.

37. Los Angeles Times, June 24, 1937, and April 11, 1940; New York Times, December 31, 1936, June 24, 1937, and April 13, 1940; Chicago Tribune, April 15, 1940; William L. Shirer, Berlin Diary: The Journal of a Foreign Correspondent (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1941), 315; "Ships of the German Navy: Karlsruhe (Light Cruiser, 1929-1940)," Department of the Navy - Naval Historical Center, http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/shfornv/ germany/gersh-k/karlsru3.htm.

38. Morton Keller and Phyllis Keller state that Harvard Treasurer Henry L. Shattuck, "a Brahmin of Brahmins," was the most influential member of the Harvard Corporation, the university's major governing board, during the I930s, and that all of its members besides Conant himself "were part of or ... had close ties to the Boston Brahmin elite." Keller and Keller, Making Harvard Modern, 18.

39. Gerhard L. Weinberg, The Foreign Policy of Hitler's Germany: Diplomatic Revolution in Europe, 1933-1936 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970), 11; Erika Mann and Klaus Mann, Escape to Life (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1939), 119. Ron Rosenbaum notes that Hanfstaengl "may have been as close to [Hitler) as anyone in the I920S." Ron Rosenbaum, Explaining Hitler (New York: HarperCollins, 1998), 125.

40. Bracher, German Dictatorship, 117; Peter Conradi, Hitler's Piano Player: The Rise and Fall of Ernst Hanfstaengl, Confidant of Hitler, Ally of FDR (New York: Carroll & Graf, 2004), 45, 63,

41. Conradi, Hitler's Piano Player, 44; Harvard Crimson, December 12, 1978; William E. Dodd and Martha Dodd, Ambassador Dodd's Diary, 1933-1938 (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1941), 360.

42. Richard Breitman, Barbara McDonald Stewart, and Severin Hochberg, eds., Advocate for the Doomed: The Diaries and Papers of James G. McDonald, 1932-1935 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2007), 27-28, 69; New York Times, April 22, 2004. Edgar Ansel Mowrer, Berlin correspondent for the Chicago Daily News and a non-Jew, recalled that Hanfstaengl tried to discredit his reports of antisemitic outrages in the early months of Nazi rule by accusing him of being a "secret Jew." Edgar Ansel Mowrer, Triumph and Turmoil: A Personal History of Our Time (New York: Weybright and Talley, 1968), 219. James G. McDonald noted in his diary on April 3, 1933, that Hanfstaengl insisted to him that both Mowrer and H. R. Knickerbocker of the New York Evening Post, another American journalist in Berlin critical of the Nazis, were Jewish. Breitman, Stewart, and Hochberg, eds., Advocate for the Doomed, 28.

43. Harvard College 25th Anniversary Class Report, Class of 1909, 277-78, HUA.

44. New York Times, September 11, 1933; February 4, March 29, and May 28, 1934; Conradi, Hitler's Piano Player, 135; Erika Mann, School for Barbarians: Education Under the Nazis (New York: Modern Age Books, 1938), 65; Boston Evening Transcript, March 30, 1934; Jewish Advocate, March 30, 1934. Because of the Jews' lack of familiarity with the Communist salute, the bent arm and clenched fist, the parade scene had to be rehearsed repeatedly. New York Times, September 11, 1933.

45. Conradi, Hitler's Piano Player, 144-45; Harvard College 25th Anniversary Class Report, Class of 1909, n.p., HUA; Jewish Advocate, April 6, 1934.

46. Boston Evening Transcript, March 30, 1934; Conradi, Hitler's Piano Player, 145. Halpern's protest deeply impressed Golda Meyerson [Meir], who proposed that he be appointed secretary general of Hechalutz, "the world organization of Jewish youth for pioneering work in Palestine." Marie Syrkin, "Ben: A Personal Appreciation," in Frances Malino and Phyllis Cohen Albert, eds., Essays in Modern Jewish History (Rutherford, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1982), 10-11.

47. William Leland Holt to Dr. James B. Conant, March 30, 1934, box 32, JBCPP, HUA.

48. Secretary to Dr. William L. Holt, April 3, 1934, box 32, JBCPP, HUA; Boston Post, June 12, 1934.

49. Harvard Crimson, May 8, 1934; Conradi, Hitler's Piano Player, 145; Boston Evening Transcript, March 30, 1934.

50. Harvard Crimson, June 13, 1934; New York Times, June 13, 1934; Conradi, Hitler's Piano Player, 149. Morton and Phyllis Keller describe the Harvard Crimson as "fashionably antisemitic in its recruitment until after" World War II. Keller and Keller, Making Harvard Modern, 300.

51. Baltimore Sun, June 18, 1934.

52. Conradi, Hitler's Piano Player, 145; New York World-Telegram, June 15 and 16, 1934.

53. Boston Globe, June 18 and 19, 1934; Boston Herald, June 18 and 19, 1934.

54. Boston Globe, June 19, 1934; Boston Herald, June 19, 1934; Boston Post, June 19, 1934; James B. Conant, My Several Lives: Memoirs of a Social Inventor (New York: Harper and Row, 1970), 141.

55. Boston Globe, June 20, 1934; Boston Post, June 19, 1934.

56. Boston Post, June 20, 1934.

57. Boston Herald, June 20, 1934; obituary of Frederick H. Prince, New York Times, February 3, 1953.

58. Boston Evening Transcript, June 18, 1934; Boston Evening Globe, June 18, 1934; The Day, June 24, 1934.

59. Boston Globe, June 19 and 20, 1934.

60. Ibid., June 19, 1934; Boston Post, June 19, 1934.

61. Boston Herald, June 22, 1934; Boston Globe, June 22, 1934; Boston Post, June 22, 1934.

62. The Day, June 24, 1934.

63. Boston Herald, June 22, 1934; Boston Post, June 22, 1934; Boston Globe, June 22, 1934. One demonstrator chained to the fence, Alice Stearns Ansara, narrowly escaped arrest. Merri Ansara, her daughter, noted, "In the family story the demonstration covered all of Harvard Square, with people perched even atop the Out of Town News Kiosk." When the police "ran to get blowtorches to cur [my mother] down ... her comrades rushed to her side with the key and bustled her away across the street to their apartment ... where they watched the continuing melee." Ansara emphasized that her "mother and father always considered this demonstration a success in helping to bring attention to ... the Nazi threat." Merri Ansara to Stephen Norwood, November 14, 2004.

64. Eugene D. Bronstein, et al., "An Open Letter to President Conant," n.d., James B. Conant to Professor H. M. Sheffer, November 7, 1934, and Mrs. Joseph Dauber to Dr. James B. Conant, November 14, 1934, box 32,JBCPP, HUA; Harvard Crimson, October 24, 1934.

65. H. M. Sheffer to President James B. Conant, November 6, 1934, and James B. Conant to Professor H. M. Sheffer, November 7, 1934, box 32, JBCPP, HUA.

66. Mrs. Dauber to Conant, November 14, 1934, box 32, JBCPP, HUA; Conant, My Several Lives, 142. The seven demonstrators were released after they had served thirty-six days of their sentences. Boston Evening Transcript, November 28, 1934.

67. Washington Post, September 5, 1934.

68. New York Times, September 18 and October 4, 1934; Conant, My Several Lives, 141, 144.

69. H. B. Peirce to President James B. Conant, October 15, 1934, box 12, Translation from Berliner Boersen Zeitung, October 13, 1934, box 32, Dr. K. O. Bertling to President James B. Conant, October 9, 1934, box 32, and J. C White to Hon. Secretary of State, October 12, 1934, box 32, JBCPP, HUA; New York Times, October 13, 1934; Chicago Tribune, October 13, 1934.

70. Translation from Deutsches Nachrichtenburo, October 9, 1934, box 32, JBCPP, HUA.

71. Dallas Morning News, October 9, 1934. Roscoe Pound, Diary, Part II, entry for September 17, 1934, reel 41, Roscoe Pound Papers, microfilm edition, LC; Boston Evening Transcript, September 17, 1934.

72. "Memorandum of Conversation with Pound and President Conant regarding an invitation from Pound," September 14, 1934, reel 55, Felix Frankfurter Papers, LC.

73. Roscoe Pound, Diary, Part II, entry for July 11, 1934, reel 41, Roscoe Pound Papers, microfilm edition, LC.

74. Paris Herald, August 4, 1934, clipping, reel 55, Frankfurter Papers, LC.

75. "Memorandum of Conversation," reel 55, Frankfurter Papers, LC.

76. Ibid.

77. Ibid.; Invitation from the German Ambassador to Professor Felix Frankfurter, reel 55, Frankfurter Papers, LC.

78. Harvard Crimson, October 1 and 6, 1934. President Angell was delighted to welcome the Italian delegation to Yale and to "salute the young Fascisti," as he put it. James R. Angell to Mr. Lohmann, September 25, 1934, box 116, James R. Angell Presidential Papers [hereafter JRAPP], Sterling Library [hereafter SLj, Yale University [hereafter YU], New Haven, Conn. After the welcome, the Italian students gave President Angell the Fascist salute and shouted, "Viva Mussolini!" Yale Daily News, October I1, 1934. The Yale administration invited the Fascist students to be its guests at the Yale- Columbia football game, and to parade in their college uniforms into and around the stadium, giving the Fascist salute. The Yale band serenaded the Italian Fascist students with "a tumultuous rendition of the Fascisti anthem Giovinezza." C. Lohmann to Mr. President, September 15, 1934, and David L. Clendenin to Dr. James R. Angell, October 8, 1934, box 116, JRAPP, SL, YU; Yale Daily News, October 6, 1934; New Haven Evening Register, October 7, 1934.

79. Harvard Crimson, October 1, 1934; Boston Herald, October 6, 1934.

80. Harvard Crimson, October 1 and 3, 1934; Tech, October 5, 1934.

81. Boston Post, March 18, 1935; Harvard Crimson, March 19, 1935. When Harvard built the chapel in 1931, it had not included the names of its alumni killed fighting for Germany on a plaque honoring the university's war dead. The Harvard Crimson led a campaign to add the names of the Germans to the plaque. As a compromise, the university placed a separate tablet for the German soldiers in the chapel. There was no such controversy after World War II. The name of the Harvard Divinity student killed fighting in the Nazi army was included on the plaque honoring Harvard men slain during World War II. It remains there today. Harvard Crimson, November 23, 1951, and November 6, 2003.

82. Harvard Crimson, May 1, 1935.

83. Boston Globe, May 1, 1936; Stephen Duggan to Professor Walter F. Willcox, September 24, 1937, box 1 L8, Records of the Office of the President [hereafter ROP], Milton S. Eisenhower Library [hereafter MSEL], Johns Hopkins University [hereafter JHU], Baltimore.

84. New York Times, April 25, 1936, and August 27, 1937; "Nazis: Exchange Students End Training for Foreign Service," Newsweek, September 6, 1937, clipping in box 118, ROP, MSEL, JHU.

85. Duggan to Willcox, September 24, 1937, box 118, Rap, MSEL, JHU.

86. New York Times, July 24, 1935; Weinberg, Foreign Policy of Hitler's Germany, 239-40, 253-61.

87. Stephen H. Stackpole to Walter M. Hinkle, April 6, 1936, box 59, JBCPP, HUA; James R. Angell to James E. G. Fravell, March 7, 1936, JRAPP, box 100, SL, YU.

88. Nicholas Murray Butler to President James R. Angell, April 9, 1936, box 100, JRAPP, SL; Keller and Keller, Making Harvard Modem, 106, 156.

89. Steven P. Remy, The Heidelberg Myth: The Nazification and Denazification of a German University (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2002), 1, 3; Max Weinreich, Hitler's Professors: The Part of Scholarship in Germany's Crimes Agdinst the Jewish People (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999 [1946]), 9.

90. Michael Stephen Steinberg, Sabers and Brown Shirts: The German Students' Path to National Socialism, 1918-1935 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977), 138-40; New York Times, May 11 and 19, 1933.

91. Beyerchen, Scientists Under Hitler, 15; Saul Friedlander, Nazi Germany and the Jews, vol. 1: The Years of Persecution, 1933-1939 (New York: Harper- Collins, 1997), 30; New York Times, April 26 and October 8, 1933, and February 11, 1934; Memorandum on Official Discrimination Against Jews in Germany, box 153, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars Papers [hereafter ECADFS Papers], Manuscripts and Archives Division [hereafter MAD], New York Public Library [hereafter NYPL].

92. Remy, Heidelberg Myth, 15; Charles Singer to President Conant, May 27, 1936, box 59, JBCPP, HUA. After the U.S. army occupied Heidelberg in 1945 "American investigators dismissed 70 percent of the faculty [of the university] for having Nazi ties, and kept a close watch on those who remained there." Victor Zarnowitz, Fleeing the Nazis, Surviving the Gulag, and Arriving in the Free World: My Life and Times (Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2008), 91-92.

93. Friedlander, Nazi Germany and the Jews, vol. I, 51; Singer to Conant, March 24, 1936, box 59, JBCPP, HUA; Charles Grant Robertson, "University of Heidelberg - Dismissal of Staff" in Heidelberg and the Universities of America (New York: Viking Press, 1936), 23.

94. Remy, Heidelberg Myth, 50; New York Times, June 28, 1936; Tuttle, "American Higher Education," 61.

95. New York Times, January 20, 1935; Weinreich, Hitler's Professors, 67- 68; Remy, Heidelberg Myth, 25, 34; L. G. Montefiore, "The Spirit of the German Universities" (London, n.d.), 5, enclosure in Singer to Conant, May 27, 1936, box 59, JBCPP, HUA.

96. Weinreich, Hitler's Professors, 17, 38-39; Remy, Heidelberg Myth, 25, 34; Richard J. Evans, The Third Reich in Power (New York: Penguin, 2005), 293, 315.

97. "Philipp-Lenard-Institut at Heidelberg," in Heidelberg and the Universities of America, 47; Weinreich, Hitler's Professors, II; Tech, March 3, 1936.

98. "Philipp-Lenard-Institut at Heidelberg," in Heidelberg and the Universities of America, 48-49; Montefiore, "Spirit," enclosure in Singer to Conant, May 27, 1936.

99. Montefiore, "Spirit," enclosure in Singer to Conant, May 27, 1936.

100. Correspondent, "Heidelberg, Spinoza and Academic Freedom," in Heidelberg and the Universities of America, 52.

101. Montefiore, "Spirit," enclosure in Singer to Conant, May 27, 1936.

102. Remy, Heidelberg Myth, 45, 72.

103. New York Times, February 23 and 28 and March 3, 1936; "U.S. Colleges Arouse Protests by Accepting Nazi Bid," The Anti- Nazi Economic Bulletin, March 1936, box 114, ECADFS Papers, MAD, NYPL; M. Gardiner, "Heidelberg, Spinoza, and Academic Freedom," in Heidelberg and the Universities of America, 53.

104. Singer to Conant, March 24, 1936. Amsterdam University almost immediately afterward announced it would not participate in the anniversary ceremony. The Universities of Stockholm and Oslo also refused their invitations. New York Times clipping, March 25, 1936, in box 114, ECADFS Papers, NYPL; Columbia Spectator, March 24, 1936; Tuttle, "American Higher Education," 6r. In Switzerland, the Basel canton government forbade students at Basel University from sending a delegation to Heidelberg. Manchester Guardian, June 8, 1936.

105. Ronald D. Hoffman and Arnold Hoffman to Dr. James B. Conant, March 3, 1936, box 59, JBCPP, HUA.

106. New York World-Telegram, February 26, 1936; New York Times, February 5, 1936.

107. Shirer, Berlin Diary, 46-47; Richard D. Mandell, The Nazi Olympics (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987 [1971]), 104-05; New Republic, March 18, 1936, 152.

108. G. E. Harriman to Frank E. Robbins, March 12, 1936, box 134, Non- Sectarian Anti-Nazi League Papers [hereafter SANL] Papers, Columbia University Rare Book and Manuscript Library [hereafter CURBML], New York.

109. James B. Conant, press release, March 3, 1936, box 59, JBCPP, HUA.

110. See, for example, Stephen H. Stackpole to Roger Baldwin, April 6, 1936, Stackpole to Hinkle, April 6, 1936, and Stackpole to Lewis Eldridge, April 6, 1936, box 59, JBCPP, HUA; Harvard Crimson, March 3, 1936. The Yale Daily News agreed with the Harvard Crimson in an editorial: "To refuse stiffly such a well-meant gesture of international friendship might easily place Yale in an indefensible position of bigoted hostility to a friendly nation." Yale Daily News, March 5, 1936.

111. Alvin Johnson to G. E. Harriman, March 9, 1936, box 134, NSANL Papers, CURBML.

112. New York Times, May 27, 1936, and April 1, 1949; Dr. Friedrich Bergius to Professor Dr. James Bryant Conant, October 23, 1936, box 96, JBCPP, HUA.

113. Charles Singer to President Conant, May 27, 1936, and Conant to Singer, June 23, 1936, box 59, JBCPP, HUA.

114. Nicholas Murray Butler to Hubert Park Beck, May 29, 1936, Central Files [hereafter CF], Columbia University Archives - Columbiana Library, Low Library [hereafter CUACL].

115. Tuttle, "American Higher Education," 64; Jamie Sayen, Einstein in America: The Scientist's Conscience in the Age of Hitler and Hiroshima (New York: Crown Publishers, 1985), 101-02.

116. John D. Lynch to President and Fellows, Harvard College, April 24, 1936, and Jerome D. Greene to Hon. John D. Lynch, April 28, 1936, box 70, JBCPP, HUA. In 1915, President Lowell had brushed aside Jewish objections when Harvard scheduled its entrance examinations on Yom Kippur. Complaints about Harvard's scheduling of important events on the Jewish High Holidays continued into the I950s. Synnott, Half-Opened Door, 45-46.

117. Nicholas Murray Butler to President James R. Angell, April 9, 1936, Butler to Conant, April 24 and 28, and May 11 and 14, 1936; Conant to Butler, April 27, May 4, 7, and 12, 1936; "Proposed Form of Statement in re Heidelberg," box 59, JBCPP, HUA; "Suggested Revision of Proposed Form of Statement in re Heidelberg To be Revised if Thought Necessary About June 30," CF, CUACL. The congratulatory greeting that Columbia sent to the University of Heidelberg praised "the notable achievements of Bunsen in the field of chemistry, of Kirchhoff in physics, of Helmholtz in physiology ... of Gervinus in literature, of Schlosser and Hausser in history, of Bluntschli in international law, of Rothe in theology, of Zeller and Fischer in philosophy." "Report of the President of Columbia University for the Year Ending June 30, 1936" in Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1936, CUACL.

118. G. D. Birkhoff to James B. Conant, July I, 1936, box 59, JBCPP, HUA; Arthur F. J. Remy, "A Report of the Celebration of the 550th Anniversary of Heidelberg University, June 27th to July 1st, 1936," CF, CUACL; New York Times, June 28 and 29, 1936; Keller and Keller, Making Harvard Modern, 65, 106, 238. Yale University was represented at Heidelberg by Dr. Hans Oertel, formerly dean of Yale Graduate School, who was then a professor at the University of Munich. James Rowland Angell to James Fravell, March 7, 1936, box 100, JRAPP, SL, YU.

119. Remy, "Report"; New York Times, June 29, 1936; Chicago Tribune, June 29, 1936; Columbia Spectator, April 29, 1936.

120. Remy, Heidelberg Myth, 58, 79; New York Times, June 30 and July 1 and 5, 1936.

121. James R. Angell to President James B. Conant, August 13, 1936; Conant to Angell, August 17, 1936, box 59, JBCPP, HUA.

122. Chicago Tribune, February 5, 1936.

123. New York Times, December 2, 1935.

124. Maxwell Steinhardt, letter to editor, Harvard Alumni Bulletin, September 27, 1935, 22; Chicago Tribune, November 6, 1935.

125. Mandell, The Nazi Olympics, 73.

126. Harvard Crimson, September 26 and November 26, 1935.

127. Ibid., October 24 and November 5, 1935.

128. Mandell, The Nazi Olympics, 73.

129. Yale Daily News, February 11 and 12, 1936.

130. New York Times, November 4 and 5, 1935.

131. Daily Princetonian, December 7, 1935.

132. Mandell, The Nazi Olympics, 280.

133. Stephen H. Stackpole to H. U. Brandenstein, April 21, 1937, box 83, JBCPP, HUA; New York Times, April 19, 1937; Beyerchen, Scientists Under Hitler, 15; Friedlander, Nazi Germany and the Jews, vol. I, 50; "Renowned Scientist Against the Enslavement of the Spiritual Life of Fascist Germany," Bulletin No. 6, November 1933, box 153, ECADFS Papers, NYPL; "American Scholars and Gottingen," New Republic, April 28, 1937, 346.

134. Non-Sectarian Anti- Nazi League to Champion Human Rights, "American Universities Snub Hitler," press release, March 30, 1937, Addenda I, box 108, Robert M. Hutchins Papers, Special Collections Research Center, Regenstein Library, University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill.

135. Harlow Shapley to Conant, April 16, 1937, box 83, JBCPP, HUA.

136. Ernest L. Meyer, "As the Crow Flies," box 83, JBCPP, HUA; New York Times, April 19 and 20, 1937; Chicago Tribune, April 2, 1937. The University of Durham decided not to participate at the last moment, leaving Glasgow the only British participant. New York Times, June 26, 1937.

137. New York Times, May 4, 1937; Tech, April 23 and 30, 1937.

138. Arthur Held to James B. Conant, May 5, 1937, box 83, JBCPP, HUA; Boston Evening Globe, May 5, 1937; Boston Globe, May 8, 1937; Dallas Morning News, May 5, 1937. See also The Day, April 30, 1937.

139. Boston Evening Transcript, May 14, 1937; Harvard Crimson, May 8, 1937.

140. Jerome D. Greene to John D. Merrill, May 18, 1937, box 83, JBCPP, HUA.

141. Greene to James B. Conant, June 1, 1937, box 83, JBCPP, HUA.

142. Greene to Conant, May 24, 1937, box 83, JBCPP, HUA.

143. New York Times, June 26, 27, and 28, 1937. The American schools represented included MIT, Haverford College, Temple University, University of Idaho, Wittenberg College, and the University of Alabama. New York Times, June 26, 1937. Clara Evans, representing Temple University, was the first American delegate at the ceremonies to return the Nazi salute. "Germany: The Goettingen Celebration," American Hebrew, July 2, 1937, 22.

144. New York Times, June 27 and 29, 1937.

145. Conant, My Several Lives, 209, 214, 222. On May 31, 1940, a Harvard Crimson editorial declared that "sober analysis throws much doubt" on President Conant's comment that the United States could not "live at peace with a victorious Germany." It asserted that U.S. entry into the European conflict "offers nothing but disaster for us." Harvard Crimson, May 31, 1940. A Harvard senior, John F. Kennedy, took sharp issue with the Crimson in a letter to the editor. He asserted that Britain's failure to build up armaments might well prove disastrous and concluded: "Are we in America to let that lesson go unlearned?" Harvard Crimson, June 9, 1940.

146. New York Times, July 24, 1935.
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Re: The Third Reich in the Ivory Tower: Complicity and Confl

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Part 2 of 3

3. Complicity and Conflict: Columbia University's Response to Fascism, 1933-1937

An earlier version of this chapter was published as Stephen H. Norwood, "Complicity and Conflict: Columbia University's Response to Fascism, 1933-1937," Modern Judaism 27 (October 2007): 253-83.

1. New York Evening Post, May 11, 1933; Chicago Tribune, May 11, 1933; New York Times, May 10 and 11, 1933; Christian Science Monitor, May 12, 1933; Richard J. Evans, The Coming of the Third Reich (New York: Penguin, 2003), 427, 429-30.

2. New York Evening Post, May 11, 1933; Evans, Coming of the Third Reich, 430-31.

3. Columbia Spectator, May 10, 1933; New York Evening Post, May 5, 1933.

4. Columbia Spectator, March 24 and 27 and April 21, 1933.

5. New York Times, November 20, 1933; Columbia Spectator, November 23 and 24, 1933.

6. Columbia Spectator, November 20, 1933; James A. Wechsler, The Age of Suspicion (New York: Random House, 1953), 54-55.

7. "Mr. Gerhart Seger Lectures," n.d., box 24, Papers of on-Sectarian Anti-  Nazi League, Columbia University Rare Book and Manuscript Library [hereafter CURBML], New York, N.Y.; Columbia Spectator, November 15 and 19, 1934; New York Times, October 31, 1934, and March 31, 1935.

8. Columbia Spectator, March 9, 1934.

9. New York Times, July 17, 1934, and March 20, 1935; San Francisco Chronicle, March 10, 1936.

10. Fritz Stern, Five Germanys I Have Known (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2006), 162.

11. Robert A. McCaughey, Stand, Columbia: A History of Columbia University in the City of New York, I754-Z004 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003), 266; Upton Sinclair, The Goose-Step (Pasadena, Calif.: privately published, 1923), 356.

12. McCaughey, Stand, Columbia, 268; Michael Rosenthal, Nicholas Miraculous: The Amazing Career of the Redoubtable Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2006), 332-43; Jerome Karabel, The Chosen: The Hidden History of Admission and Exclusion at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2005), 129-130; E. Digby Baltzell, The Protestant Establishment: Aristocracy and Caste in America (New York: Vintage Books, 1964), 211. In 1914, President Butler had proposed that Columbia give significant attention in evaluating students to their "character, personality, and general bearing," which he believed would put Jews at a disadvantage. Karabel, The Chosen, 584.

13. McCaughey, Stand, Columbia, 257; Karabel, The Chosen, 87.

14. Roger Chase, "Academic Napoleons No. III: Nicholas Murray Butler," The Student Advocate, April 1936, 20-21.

15. New York Times, May 8 and 23, 1933.

16. Ibid., July 27 and 28, 1933.

17. New York Times, July 16 and 17, 1934, February 8 and July 15, 1935, July 16, 1936, and July 16, 1937. Representative Dickstein reported that the Hamburg-American liner New York, for example, "had been organized as a floating unit of the Nazi party." New York Times, November 1, 1933.

18. Columbia Spectator, October 27, 1933.

19. Barnard Bulletin, January 15 and December 10, 1937.

20. Baltzell, Protestant Establishment, 211.

21. Columbia Spectator, May 18, 1933; New York Times, June 24, 1934, and May 19, 1935.

22. Columbia Spectator, January 10, 11, and 16, 1934.

23. Wechsler, Age of Suspicion, 54-55; Barnard Bulletin, November 14, 1933; Columbia Spectator, December 12, 1933.

24. Columbia Spectator, November 29, 1933.

25. Ibid., December 12, 1933.

26. Ruth Rubin, "I Heckled Luther," Student Review, January 1934, 8; New York Herald Tribune, December 13, 1933; Columbia Spectator, December 13, 1933.

27. Rubin, "I Heckled Luther," 8; New York Evening Post, December 13, 1933; Columbia Spectator, December 13, 1933.

28. Wechsler, Age of Suspicion, 55; Columbia Spectator, December 13 and 15, 1933.

29. Columbia Spectator, January 10 and 16, 1934; New York Times, December 13, 1933; New York Herald Tribune, December 13, 1933.

30. K[atherine] Perry to Robert M. Hutchins, January 25, 1934, and attached statement of American Committee Against Fascist Oppression in Germany, Addenda I, box 5, Robert M. Hutchins Papers, Special Collections Research Center, Regenstein Library, University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill.

31. George Klein to Stephen H. Norwood, November 10, 2006.

32. Klein to Norwood; Columbia Spectator, April 30 and May 2, 1934; Barnard Bulletin, May 15, 1934.

33. Columbia Spectator, April 27 and 30, May 4, and May 15, 1934.

34. William Bell Dinsmoor to President Nicholas Murray Butler, October 20, 1934, box 375, Central Files [hereafter CF], Columbia University Archives- Columbiana Library, Low Library [hereafter CUACL], Columbia University, New York, N.Y.

35. Columbia Spectator, May 18, 1934; "Dictated by the President," May 16, 1934, box 487, CF, CUACL; Klein to Norwood, November 10, 2006.

36. Columbia University Committee, "The Proposed Library for Louvain," and Corey Ford, "The Drama of Lou vain," World War I Collection, CF, CUACL; Larry Zuckerman, The Rape of Belgium: The Untold Story of World War I (New York: New York University Press, 2004), 30; New York Times, October 2, 1919, and April 5, 1922.

37. "The Columbia Committee for Participation in the Restoration of the Library of the University of Louvain, Destroyed by the Germans in 1914," March 4, 1924, John Hassinger to Chairman Student Organization, n.d., World War I Collection, CF, CUACL; New York Times, April 5, 1922.

38. Columbia Spectator, October 6, 7, and 9, 1919; New York Times, October 8, 1919; Zuckerman, Rape of Belgium, 128.

39. Ford, "Drama of Louvain," and Carlos Contreras, "The Architecture and Symbolism of the Louvain Library," World War I Collection, CF, CUACL; New York Times, June 26, 1921.

40. "Library of Banned Books Inaugurated Here," American Hebrew, December 28, 1934, 139; London Times, March 27 and May 11, 1934; New York Times, March 27 and May 11, 1934. Heinrich Mann was president of the Paris library, and Lion Feuchtwanger, Andre Gide, and Romain Roland were honorary presidents.

41. "Library of Banned Books," American Hebrew, 139; New York Times, December 23, 1934.

42. Giuseppe Prezzolini to Philip M. Hayden, October 1, 1934, Prezzolini to Nicholas Murray Butler, September 20, 1933, and Butler to Prezzolini, September 26, 1933, box 357, and Prezzolini to President Butler, October 31, 1933, box 551, CF, CUACL. John Diggins states that the Italian department "functioned as something of an overseas branch of Italy's Ministry of Culture and Propaganda." Diggins, Mussolini and Fascism: The View from America (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1972), 255.

43. Wechsler, Age of Suspicion, 16.

44. Rosenthal, Nicholas Miraculous, 381.

45. Nicholas Murray Butler to Joseph Paterno, January 3, 1938, box 551, CF, CUACL; New York Times, April 11, 1930, and March 15, 1934.

46. Michele Sarfatti, The Jews in Mussolini's Italy: From Equality to Persecution (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2006), 43, 45-46, 48, 53, 65; Columbia Spectator, February 11, 1935.

47. Dino Bigongiari to President Nicholas Murray Butler, October 31, 1934, box 375, and Prezzolini to Butler, March 14, 1935, box 357, CF, CUACL; New York Times, March 21, 1923; Diggins, Mussolini and Fascism, 255.

48. Howard R. Marraro, Nationalism in Italian Education (New York: Italian Digest & News Service, 1927), ix, 94-96; William Leonard, "Italy's Second Embassy," The Student Review, December 1934, 14.

49. Special Investigator, "Fascism at Columbia University," The Nation, November 7, 1934, 531.

50. Gustavus T. Kirby to Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler, August 7, 1934, box 14, Peter M. Riccio Papers, CURBML.

51. Kirby to Butler, August 7, 1934; "Exchange Visit of Italian University Students to American Universities," September 26, 1934, box 14, Riccio Papers, CURBML; New York Times, September 26, 1934; Special Investigator, "Fascism at Columbia," 530.

52. New York Times, September 21, 1934.

53. "Unity Against Fascism," The Student Outlook, October 1934, 4.

54. Clippings from Johnstown, Pa., Evening Tribune, October 13, 1933; New York American, October 21, 1934; and Ii Progresso Italo-Americano, October 25, 1934, in box 10, Riccio Papers; Columbia Spectator, October 24, 1934.

55. Special Investigator, "Fascism at Columbia," 530-31; Columbia Spectator, November 1 and 8, 1934.

56. "President Butler and Fascism," The Nation, November 14, 1934, 550; Butler to Prezzolini, March 22, 1935, box 357, CF, CUACL. Butler also told Bigongiari not to pay any attention to the charges. Butler to Bigongiari, April 15, 1935, box 375, CF, CUACL.

57. New York Times, April 13, 1934.

58. "The Case of the Casa," n.d., box 10, Riccio Papers; New York Times, October 13, 1931.

59. "Correspondence: Salvemini and the Casa," The Nation, January 30, 1935, 129-30; "The Case of the Casa." Gaetano Salvemini was professor of history at the Universities of Messina, Pisa, and Florence from 1901 to 1925. Fleeing Fascist Italy in 1925, he taught at several British and American universities from 1925 until 1933. In 1933, Harvard appointed him to give the Lauro De Bosis lectures on the history of Italian civilization, a position established under the provisions of an anonymous gift to honor a recently deceased young anti-fascist Italian poet who had taught at Harvard in 1926. Salvemini was renewed in this low-paying lectureship many times, holding it until after World War II. H. Stuart Hughes noted that Saivemini's courses at Harvard "avoided the contemporary topics that might have tempted him into controversy." Boston Herald, December 20, 1933; Harvard Crimson, September 23, 1935; H. Stuart Hughes, The Sea Change: The Migration of Social Thought, 1930-1965 (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975), 94-95.

60. Prezzolini to Butler, March 14, 1935, box 357, CF, CUACL; Rosenthal, Nicholas Miraculous, 388.

61. Columbia Spectator, November 1-2, 5, 8, 12, 14-15, 1934.

62. Ibid., February 11-12, 1935; Nation, February 27, 1935, 234.

63. Prezzolini to Butler, March 14, 1935.

64. New York Times, July 16 and September 11, 1935.

65. Frank D. Fackenthal, "Memorandum for Mr. Coykendall, Mr. Douglas, and Dean McBain," March 4, 1936, and "Memorandum for the President," March 7, 1936, box 481, CF, CUACL.

66. F. D. F., "Memorandum for the President," March 7, 1936, box 481, CF, CUACL.

67. Ibid.; F. D. F., "Memorandum for the President," March 26, 1936, CF, CUACL.

68. Columbia Spectator, March 27, 30, and 31 and May 5, 1936; Harvard Crimson, March 3, 1936; Yale Daily News, March 5, 1936.

69. Columbia Spectator, March 30 and 31 and April 29, 1936.

70. Ibid., April 29, 1936.

71. New York Times, December 2 and 7, 1933.

72. Columbia Spectator, May 5 and 8, 1936.

73. Ibid., May 11 and 12, 1936.

74. Ibid., May 12 and 13, 1936.

75. Nicholas Murray Butler to Hubert Park Beck, May 29, 1936, box 549, CF, CUACL.

76. New York Times, June 28, 1936; Arthur F. J. Remy, "A Report of the Celebration of the 5 50th Anniversary of Heidelberg University, June 27th to July 1st, 1936," box 549, CF, CUACL.

77. New York Times, June 29, 1936; Arthur F. J. Remy, "A Report."

78. Columbia Spectator, October 7, 1936.

79. Arthur F. J. Remy, "A Report."

80. New York Times, July 5, 1936.

81. Supreme Court: NY County. Robert Burke, Plaintiff, against the Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York, Defendant. Answer. ... ([submitted by] John Godfrey Saxe, attorney for the defendant), box 668, CF, CUACL.

82. Columbia Spectator, May 4, 1937.

83. Ibid.

84. New York World-Telegram, March 10, 1936; James A. Wechsler, "The Education of Bob Burke," The Student Advocate, October-November 1936, 12.

85. Wechsler, "Education of Bob Burke," 12.

86. Nicholas Murray Butler to John Godfrey Saxe, September 16, 1936, box 668, CF, CUACL.

87. Washington Post, June 30, 1936; James T. Farrell, "An 'International Showcase,'" The Student Advocate, December 1936, 23.

88. Butler to Saxe, September 16, 1936, and J. G. S., Memorandum for Committee on Legal Affairs, March 10, 1937. Subject: Robert Burke v. University, box 668, CF, CUACL. Nancy Wechsler quoted in Jewish Press, April 4, 2008 [Brooklyn, N.Y.]

89. Robert Cohen, When the Old Left Was Young (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), 104.

90. New York Times, May 12, 1935.

91. Cohen, When the Old Left Was Young, 105, 107.

92. Washington Square College Bulletin, October 5 and 8, 1936; New York Times, October 6, 8, 9, 13, and 21, 1936; Washington Post, October 22, 1936.

93. Columbia Spectator, May 5 and October 5, 1937.

94. New York Times, February 22 and 26, March 2, 1938; Columbia Spectator, February 18, 21, 24, and 25, March 1,2, and 4, 1938.

95. Columbia Spectator, March 15, 1937.

96. "Centenary of the University of Gottingen," Nature 139 (April 24, 1937): 703; Franz Boas to President Nicholas Murray Butler, May 3, 1933, box 318, CF, CUACL.

97. Columbia Spectator, March 30, April 29 and 30, 1937.

98. Ibid., May 7 and October 5, 1937.

99. "Report of the President of Columbia University for the Year Ending June 30, 1937," 39-41, CF, CUACL.

100. Columbia Spectator, September 23, 1937; New York Times, September 23, 1937.

101. Barnard Bulletin, November 22, 1938; New York Times, November 19, 22, and 28, 1938; Los Angeles Times, November 23, 1938.

102. Murrow quoted by Marjorie Lamberti, "The Reception of Refugee Scholars from Nazi Germany in America: Philanthropy and Social Change in Higher Education," Jewish Social Studies 12 (Spring/Summer 2006): 167.

4. The Seven Sisters Colleges and the Third Reich: Promoting Fellowship Through Student Exchange

1. Toni Sender, The Autobiography of a German Rebel (New York: Vanguard Press, 1939); New Leader, January 12, 1935; Stephen H. Norwood, "Toni Sender" in Stephen H. Norwood and Eunice G. Pollack, eds., Encyclopedia of American Jewish History (Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO, 2008), vol. I, 388-90.

2. Chicago Tribune, November 22, 1934; Los Angeles Times, December 22, 1934; and Daily Californian, January 31, 1935.

3. New York Times, September 11, 1935; Upton Sinclair, The Goose-Step (Pasadena, Calif.: privately published, 1923), 360.

4. Wellesley College News, January 27, 1938.

5. Grace M. Bacon, "German Department Report to President," June 1, 1938, Series B, folder I, LD 7°92.6, German Language and Literature Department [hereafter GLLD] Papers, Mount Holyoke College Archives [hereafter MHCA].

6. Elaine Kendall, "Peculiar Institutions": An Informal History of the Seven Sisters Colleges (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1976), 29; Henry Noble MacCracken, The Hickory Limb (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1950), 43, 143; Arthur C. Cole, A Hundred Years of Mount Holyoke College: The Evolution of an Educational Ideal (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1940), 319-20; Margaret Farrand Thorp, Neilson of Smith (New York: Oxford University Press, 1956), 149; Liva Baker, I'm Radcliffe! Fly Me!: The Seven Sisters and the Failure of Women's Education (New York: Macmillan, 1976), 2, 6.

7. Rosalind Rosenberg, Changing the Subject: How the Women of Columbia Shaped the Way We Think About Sex and Politics (New York: Columbia University Press, 2004), 140. In 1947, Wellesley's president Mildred McAfee Horton and the college's board of trustees opposed a Massachusetts Fair Educational Practices Act that would have prohibited colleges and universities from requiring information on religion and race on application forms. Bruce Bliven, "For 'Nordics' Only," New Republic, December 8, 1947, 18. Bliven listed Bryn Mawr and Mount Holyoke as examples of "well known American colleges [that] have enrolled conspicuously small proportions of Jews."

8. Morton Keller and Phyllis Keller, Making Harvard Modern: The Rise of America's University (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), 53; Marian Churchill White, A History of Barnard College (New York: Columbia University Press, 1954), 128; Alice Duer Miller and Susan Myers, Barnard College: The First Fifty Years (New York: Columbia University Press, 1939), 138-39; New York Times, January 13, 1935.

9. "The junior Year Abroad," February 27, 1933, Foreign Study [hereafter FS] 1933, Walter Hullihen Papers, University of Delaware Archives [hereafter UDA], Newark, Del.; Laura Marden, "The First junior Year in Italy," Smith Alumnae Quarterly, November 1932, 23, 25; William Allan Neilson, "The juniors Abroad," Smith Alumnae Quarterly, May 1937, 241.

10. "The junior Year Abroad," Foreign Study Records [hereafter FSR], UDA.

11. "1933-34 German Foreign Study Group," Hullihen Papers, FS 1933, UDA.

12. "Announcement of junior Year in Munich," December 1936, and "Announcement of the junior Year in Munich, 1938-39," box 32, Records of the Foreign Study Plan, UDA.

13. Grace M. Bacon, "Data for the Archives," GLLD Series A, folder I, MHCA.

14. New York Times, April 30, 1933.

15. Ibid., June 1, 1933.

16. Vassar Miscellany News, October 28, 1933.

17. Radcliffe News, December 15, 1933.

18. Henry Noble MacCracken to Nobile Comm. Antonio Grossardi, May 10, 1933, and MacCracken to Director [Giuseppe Prezzolini], April 28, 1933, folder 94.8, Henry Noble MacCracken Papers, Vassar College Archives [hereafter VCA], Poughkeepsie, N.Y.; Vassar Miscellany News, May 13, 1933.

19. Vassar Miscellany News, October 3, 1934.

20. Smith College Weekly, May 1, 1935.

21. Ibid.

22. Stephen P. Duggan to Marion Edwards Park, June 12, 1933, and Marion Edwards Park to Dr. Stephen P. Duggan, June 15, 1933, Marion Edwards Park Papers, Bryn Mawr College Archives [hereafter BMCA], Bryn Mawr, Pa.

23. Marion Edwards Park to Mrs. Eisenhart, October 11, 1933, and Secretary to the President to Richard Hertz, December 26, 1939, Park Papers, BMCA; Bryn Mawr College News, October 11, 1933. Noether's hiring was made possible by a joint grant from the Institute of International Education and the Rockefeller Foundation.

24. Everett R. Clinchy to President Marion Edwards Park, June 8, 1933, and Marion Edwards Park to Everett R. Clinchy, June 17, 1933, Park Papers, BMCA.

25. "Announcement of the Junior Year in Munich, Eighth Year, 1938-39," box 32, Records of Foreign Study Plan, UDA.

26. Marion Edwards Park to His Excellency, Prince Gaetano Caetani, January 29, 1934, and Italian Ambassador to Park, February 2, 1924, Park Papers, BMCA.

27. Bryn Mawr College News, April 28, 1937.

28. New York Times, June 15, 1934.

29. Vassar Miscellany News, October 11, 1933.

30. Agnes Reynolds '38, "We Went to Germany," 6, 16-17, Vassar Review, Freshman 1935, VCA.

31. Catherine Elliott '36, "We Went to Germany," 7, 20, Vassar Review, Freshman 1935.

32. Vassar Miscellany News, October 9, 1935.

33. Wellesley College News, October 4, 1934.

34. Smith College Weekly, October 31, 1934.

35. Vassar Miscellany News, October 14, 1933.

36. Wellesley College News, May 4, 1933.

37. Mount Holyoke College News, November 4, 1933.

38. Vassar Miscellany News, March 3, 1934.

39. Ibid., November 3, 1934.

40. Christian Science Monitor, June 7, 1933.

41. New York Times, September 10, 1933; Washington Post, January 26, 1934.

42. Alice Hamilton, "Woman's Place in Nazi Germany," Advance, February 1934, 20.

43. Chicago Tribune, February 14, 1935.

44. Vassar Miscellany News, May 15, 1937.

45. Los Angeles Times, February 25, 1934.

46. New York Times, September 10, 1933; Washington Post, February 17, 1934.

47. Vassar Miscellany News, May 15, 1937.

48. Ibid., April 14, 1934.

49. Bryn Mawr College News, January 17, 1934.

50. Wellesley College News, November 2, 1933.

51. Ibid., May 24, 1934.

52. Barnard Bulletin, October 27, 1933.

53. Ibid., December 12 and 15, 1933.

54. Radcliffe News, May 4, 1934.

55. Walter Hullihen, "Suggested Protest by American College Students," Hullihen Papers, FS 1933, UDA; New York Times, May 21, 1933.

56. Hullihen, "Suggested Protest."

57. Notre Dame Scholastic, May 12, 1933.

58. President MacCracken to Professor Schaffter, April 4, 1934, and Dorothy Schaffter to President MacCracken, April 6, 1934, folder 72.28, MacCracken Papers; New York Times, May 29 and August 18, 1934.

59. New York Times, May 29, 1934; Arizona Daily Star [Tucson], July 25, 1934.

60. Harriet [Trowbridge] to Mr. MacCracken, July 11, 1934, folder 72.28, Mac- Cracken Papers, VCA.

61. Arizona Daily Star, August 25, 1934.

62. "Arizona Plagued by Nazi Apologist," American Hebrew, March 29, 1935, 402.

63. Stuart M. Stoke, "Germany in the Summer of 1934," Mount Holyoke Alumnae Quarterly, November 1934, 157-58.

64. Ibid., 158-60.

65. Robert Edwin Herzstein, Roosevelt and Hitler: Prelude to War (New York: Paragon House, 1989), 133; Der Prasident, Vereinigung Carl Schurz E.V., Berlin to Mr. President, Vassar College, December 15, 1934, and Vice- President, Vereinigung Carl Schurz E.V. to Mr. President, December 22, 1934, folder 72.28, MacCracken Papers, VCA.

66. Dorothy Schaffter to President MacCracken, December 27, 1934, Mac- Cracken to Miss Schaffter, January 3, 1935, and MacCracken to President, Yereinigung Carl Schurz, January 9, 1935, folder 72.28, MacCracken Papers, VCA.

67. "Bulletin of the University of Delaware, Foreign Study Plan, Junior Year in Germany, Financial Arrangements and Registration for 1934-1935," box C, FSR, UDA; Saul S. Friedman, The Oberammergau Passion Play: A Lance Against Civilization (Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press, 1984), 114.

68. Friedman, Oberammergau Passion Play, 86-88, 122; James S. Shapiro, Oberammergau: The Troubling Story of the World's Most Famous Passion Play (New York: Pantheon, 2000), 88; New York Times, May 19, 1930, and March 8, 1960. Performances of the play lasted from 8 A.M. until 6 P.M., with a two-hour intermission. Barbara E. Scott Fisher, "Notes of a Cosmopolitan," The North American Review, March 1934, xi.

69. New York Times, May 19, 1930.

70. Ibid., March 23, 1923, May 19, 1930, and December 25, 1933; Friedman, Oberammergau Passion Play, 119-20.

71. Bryn Mawr College News, February 26, 1930.

72. Mount Holyoke College News, December 9, 1933.

73. Walter Hullihen to S. A. Nock, March 27, 1934, Hullihen Papers, FS 1934, UDA.

74. Hullihen to Professor Camillo von Klenze, April 16, 1934, Hullihen Papers, FS 1934, UDA.

75. Hullihen to Madeleine Rowe, July 26, 1934, and Hullihen to Mrs. Richard Y. FitzGerald, August 6, 1934, Hullihen Papers, FS 1934; Wilmington [Del.] Evening Journal, August 9, 1934, UDA.

76. Hullihen to FitzGerald, August 6, 1934, and Hullihen to Adam Bernhard, November 13, 1934, Hullihen Papers, FS 1934, UDA.

77. Hullihen to Rowe, July 26, 1934, Hullihen Papers, FS 1934; Chicago Tribune, July 6, 1934, clipping in Hullihen Papers, FS 1934, UDA.

78. Akademische Aulandsstelle e.V. Munschen, August 16, 1934, and Hullihen to Dr. Bert E. Young, October 5, 1934, Hullihen Papers, FS 1934, UDA; Review, May 22, 1935.

79. The German Junior Year, Inc., "Binding the Cultural Ties Closer," n.d., box 51, William Allan Neilson Papers, Smith College Archives [hereafter SCA], Northampton, Mass.; Jessie Douglass, "Report for the Junior Year Committee," February 9, 1935, and "Announcement of the Junior Year in Munich," December 1936, UDA.

80. "Binding the Cultural Ties," n.d., box 51, Neilson Papers, SCA.

81. William Allan Neilson, "The Juniors Abroad," 241; David M. Oshinsky, Richard P. McCormick, and Daniel Horn, The Case of the Nazi Professor (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1989), 144.

82. Vassar Miscellany News, October 26 and November 2, 1935; New York Times, May 14, 1935.

83. New York Times, November 9 and 10, 1935.

84. Bryn Mawr College News, January 15, 1936.

85. Mary-Anne Greenough, "The Celebrations on the Ninth of November," Junior Year Newsletter, November 18, 1937, box 51, Neilson Papers, SCA.

86. John W. Richards (Springfield College), "November 9th," Junior Year Newsletter, November 18, 1937, box 51, Neilson Papers, SCA.

87. Vassar Miscellany News, March 4 and 7, 1936.

88. Ibid., March 7, 1936.

89. Ibid., March 14, 1936.

90. Bryn Mawr College News, February 10, 1937; Miller to Neilson, August 1, 1937, box 51, Neilson Papers, SCA.

91. Grace M. Bacon, "Report to the President. Department of German, 1936- 1937," Series A, folder I, GLLD Papers, MHCA.

92. William A. Neilson to Al Magnifico Rettore, University of Florence, July 22, 1939, box 51, Neilson Papers, SCA.

93. Max Ascoli, "The Press and the Universities in Italy," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 200 (November 1938): 251; Gaetano Salvemini, "Such Things Happen" in Frances Keene, ed., Neither Liberty nor Bread: The Meaning and Tragedy of Italian Fascism (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1940), 123.

94. Smith College Weekly, January 15, 1936.

95. Marden, "First Junior Year in Italy," 25.

96. Emma Netti to President William A. Neilson, November 15, 1937, Neilson to Netti, November 29, 1937, and Netti to Neilson, December 30, 1937, box 51, Neilson Papers, SCA; "The Juniors Abroad," Smith Alumnae Quarterly, May 1931, 302; Neilson, "The Juniors Abroad," 241.

97. M. H. Nicholson to President W. A. Neilson, n.d., box 51, Neilson Papers, SCA; David I. Kertzer, The Popes Against the Jews: The Vatican's Role in the Rise of Modern Anti-Semitism (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2001), 282.

98. Nicholson to Neilson, n.d, box 5I, Neilson Papers, SCA.

99. Lucy S. Dawidowicz, The War Against the Jews, 1933-1945 (New York: Bantam, 1975), 100-02, 196; Martin Gilbert, Kristallnacht: Prelude to Destruction (New York: HarperCollins, 2006), 13.

100. Miller to Max Diez, November 27, 1938, and Miller, "Report to the National Advisory Committee, Junior Year in Munich," February 21, 1939, box 51, Neilson Papers, SCA.

101. Henry Hemmendinger to President William Allan Neilson, December 4, 1938, box 51, Neilson Papers, SCA.

102. William A. Neilson to Frau Lili Eidam, April 28, 1939, box 51, Neilson Papers, SCA.

103. Camillo von Klenze to President W. A. Neilson, March 11, 1939, box 51, Neilson papers, SCA; Bacon, "Report to the President; 1938-1939," Series A, folder T, GLLD Papers, MHCA.

104. Miller to Executive Council, March 12 and April 10, 1939, and Max Diez to President William A. Neilson, December 5, 1938, box 51, Neilson Papers, SCA.

105. Bryn Mawr College News, February 15, 1939.

106. Radcliffe News, November 18, 23, and 25, 1938; Barnard Bulletin, December 6, 1938; Vassar Miscellany News, November 16, 1938; Mount Holyoke College News, November 18, 1938; Bryn Mawr College News, November 16 and 30, 1938; WellesleyCollege News, November 23, 1938.

107. Margaret C. Halsey to President Henry N. MacCracken, October 11, 1939, and Henry N. MacCracken to Mrs. Halsey, October 14, 1939, folder 45.22, MacCracken Papers, VCA.

108. Mount Holyoke College News, September 29, 1939.

109. Grace M. Bacon, "Report to the President," June 1940, GLLD Papers, Series A, folder I, MHCA.

110. Virginia C. Gildersleeve, Many a Good Crusade (New York: Macmillan, 1954),182-86, 406-12.

111. New York Times, June 28, 1933.

112. Frances Adams '39, "Junior Year in Munich," Mount Holyoke Alumnae Quarterly, May 1938, 21, MHCA.

5. A Respectful Hearing for Nazi Germany's Apologists: The University of Virginia Institute of Public Affairs Roundtables, 1933-1941

1. Harvard Crimson, April 18, 1933.

2. Robert Edwin Herzstein, Roosevelt and Hitler: Prelude to War (New York: Paragon House, 1989), 73.

3. Smith College Weekly, June 19, 1935; Harvard Crimson, April 9, 1926; New York Times, May 27, 1926.

4. Harvard Crimson, December 1, 1926.

5. Ibid., April 18, 1933.

6. Vassar Miscellany News, January 19, 1935.

7. Radcliffe News, November 18, 1938.

8. Sidney Fay, "The German Character," box 2, Sidney Fay Papers, Harvard University Archives [hereafter HUA], Pusey Library, Cambridge, Mass.

9. Ibid.

10. Lester Markel to Professor Sidney Fay, May 30, 1940, box 2, Fay Papers, HUA.

11. Sidney Fay to Lester Markel, June 6, 1940, box 2, Fay Papers, HUA.

12. Washington Sunday Star, clipping, [1938] in personnel file of Charles Tansill, American University Archives [hereafter AUA], American University; Washington Post, August 19, 1934, and November 13, 1964; New York Times, December 29, 1935; Charles C. Tansill to Joseph M. M. Gray, December 8, 1936, Tansill personnel file, AUA.

13. Washington Post, November 17, 1936; Charles C. Tansill to Ernest S. Griffith, September 7, 1936, Tansill personnel file, AUA.

14. William E. Dodd to Frederick W. Wile, December 11, 1936, container 50, William E. Dodd Papers, Library of Congress [hereafter LC], Washington, D.C.

15. William E. Dodd to Howard K. Beale, March 19, 1937, container 50, Dodd Papers, LC.

16. Tansill to Griffith, September 7, 1936, Tansill personnel file, AUA; Washington Post, September 21, 1936.

17. Ernest S. Griffith to Charles C. Tansill, September 21,1936, Tansill personnel file, AUA.

18. Washington Post, November 17, 1936.

19. Ibid., March 9, 1937.

20. Joseph M. M. Gray to the Rev. G. Dumas, S.J., May I, 1939, Tansill personnel file, AUA.

21. Howard K. Beale to William E. Dodd, March 3, 1937, container 50, Dodd Papers, LC.

22. New York Times, July 31 and August 8, 1927.

23. R. K. Gooch to Hans Thomsen, June 18, 1938, box 100, Institute of Public Affairs [hereafter IPA], Office Administrative Files [hereafter OAF], Accession RG-2/4/1.891, Manuscript Department, Alderman Library, University of Virginia [hereafter UV A], Charlottesville, Va.

24. Charles G. Maphis to Dr. [Karl F.] Geiser, December 21, 1934, box 78, IPA, OAF, UVA.

25. New York Times, July 8, 1934.

26. Karl F. Geiser, "The German Nazi State," July 3, 1934, box 32, IPA, OAF, UVA.

27. Ibid.; New York Times, July 4, 1934.

28. Karl F. Geiser to Dr. Charles G. Maphis, October 11, 1934, box 78, IPA, OAF, UVA.

29. New York Times, July 4, 1934.

30. Dr. Beniamino de Ritis, untitled address, July 3, 1934, box 32, IPA, OAF, UVA; New York Times, July 4, 1934.

31. Harry Elmer Barnes, "The Critical Period of Democracy and Capitalism," July 2, 1934, box 32, IPA, OAF, UVA; New York Times, July 4, 1934.

32. "Secretary's Summary, Round Table - American-German Relations," July 8, 1935, box 37, IPA, OAF, UVA.

33. "Secretary's Summary," July 12, 1935, box 37, IPA, OAF, UVA.

34. "Secretary's Summary," July 9, 1935, box 37, IPA, OAF, UVA.

35. New York Times, December 9, 1934.

36. Frederick K. Krueger, "Present and Future Political and Diplomatic Relations Between the United States and Germany," July 13, 1935, box 37, IPA, OAF, UVA.

37. Ibid., New York Times, July 14, 1935.

38. H. F. Simon, "Cultural Relations between 1912-1932," July 9, 1935, box 37, IPA, OAF, UVA.

39. Ernst Schmidt, "Americans in Germany," July 12, 1935, box 37, IPA, OAF, UVA.

40. Ibid.

41. Henry G. Hodges, "American Opinion of the New Germany," July 10, 1935, box 37, IPA, OAF, UVA.

42. Virginius Dabney, "The Germany of Hitler Looks at the United States," July La, 1935, box 37, IPA, OAF, UVA.

43. Ibid.

44. Ibid.

45. Charles G. Maphis to Rabbi Morris S. Lazaron, July 20, 1935, box 83, IPA, OAF, UVA.

46. Marjorie McLachlan to Dr. John Lloyd Newcomb, April 9, 1937, box 7, subseries III, Accession RG 2/1/2.491, Institute of Public Affairs folder, President's Office papers, Manuscript Department, Alderman Library, UVA.

47. New York Times, March 13, 1936; Richmond Times-Dispatch, March 15, 1936.

48. New York Times, March 15, 1936; Richmond Times-Dispatch, March 15, 1936; "U.S. Colleges Arouse Protests by Accepting Nazi Bid," The Anti-Nazi Economic Bulletin, March 1936, box 114, Emergency Committee in Aid of Displaced Foreign Scholars Papers, Manuscripts and Archives Division, New York Public Library, New York, N.Y.

49. College Topics, March 24, 1936; Daily Progress [Charlottesville, Va.], March 16, 1936.

50. Gerold von Minden, "Education in Germany," July 16, 1936, box 41, IPA, OAF, UVA.

51. Ibid.

52. Ibid.

53. John Adams, "The Emergency in Italy II," July 16, 1936, box 41, IPA, OAF, UVA.

54. Maphis to Wilbur K. Thomas, April 19, 1937, box 7, subseries III, President's Office Papers, UVA; Washington Post, March 15, 1937.

55. Helen Kirkpatrick, "Additional Summary of an Address by Miss Helen Kirkpatrick," July 8, 1937, box 42, IPA, OFA, UVA.

56. Sir Herbert B. Ames, "Does German Rearmament Necessarily Mean War?" July 13, 1937, box 42, IPA, OAF, UVA.

57. Helgo W. Culemann, "Is Healthy Competitive Spirit of German People an International Felony?" July 13, 1937, and "Excerpts from an Interview With Dr. Helgo W. Culemann," July 13, 1937, box 42, IPA, OFA, UVA; New York Times, July 14, 1937.

58. Marjorie McLachlan to Herr Hans Thomsen, May 10, 1938, box 100, IPA, OAF, UVA; Washington Post, February 2, 1936.

59. New York Times, January 3, 1937, and February 25, 1938. Meyer stated that he was a member of the Lutheran church. He had "some Jewish blood" in his "paternal ancestry," but not enough to disqualify him from government service under the Nuremberg laws. New York Times, February 25, 1938.

60. R. K. Gooch to Hans Thomsen, June 18, 1938, box 100, IPA, OAF, UVA.

61. Marjorie McLachlan to W. J. Cameron, May 21, 1938, box 100, IPA, OAF, UVA; Neil Baldwin, Henry Ford and the Jews: The Mass Production of Hate (New York: Public Affairs, 2001), 265-67, 283-84, 307.

62. McLachlan to Cameron, May 16, 1938, box 100, IPA, OAF, UVA.

63. R. K. Gooch to W. J. Cameron, November 7, 1938, box 100, IPA, OAF, UVA.

64. Hardy C. Dillard to Dr. Frederick Auhagen, February 13, 1939, box 105, IPA, OAF, UVA.

65. Dillard to Auhagen, March 25, 1939, box 105, IPA, OAF, UVA.

66. Auhagen to Dillard, May 13, 1939, box 105, IPA, OAF, UVA; Washington Post, October 23, 1940.

67. Ibid., July 6, 1939, December 12, 1940, and October 14, 1963. Castle's New York Times obituary noted that he "pleaded for strict neutrality as World War II approached and was especially critical of the United States aid to Britain at the start of the war." New York Times, October 14, 1963.

68. Friedrich Auhagen, "America and Germany: Contrasts or Conflicts?" July 5, 1939, box 45, IPA, OAF, UVA.

69. Washington Post, July 9, 1939.

70. Samuel K. C. Kopper, "Plain Sanity or Vain Insanity in International Thought," July 6,1939, box 45, IPA, OAF, UVA.

71. Manfred Zapp, "The Position of the Individual in Germany," July 13, 1939, box 46, IPA, OAF, UVA.

72. Ibid.

73. Ibid.

74. F. Wilhelm Sollmann, "Germany's Drive to the East," July 7, 1939, box 46, IPA, OAF, UVA; Washington Post, July 6, 1939.

75. Washington Post, July 4, 1939.

76. Ibid., July 9, 1939.

77. Ibid., June 11, 1940; New York Times, June 11, 1940.

78. New York Times, June 18, 1940; Washington Post, October 23, 1940.

79. New York Times, June 19, 1940; Washington Post, June 19, 1940.

80. Washington Post, October 23 and November 21, 1940; Los Angeles Times, October 13 and November 22, 1940.

81. New York Times, November 22, 1940.

82. Washington Post, October 23, 1940; Chicago Tribune, March 4, 1941.

83. New York Times, March 12 and July 15, 1941, and April 16, 1945.

84. Washington Post, July 10, 1941, and New York Times, July 12, 1941.

85. Ibid., July 12, 1941, and June 4, 1947.

86. Nelle Swan to Ann C. Yates, June 5, 1941, and Hardy C. Dillard to Edgar Ansel Mowrer, July 10, 1941, box 115, IPA, OAF, UVA; New York Times, June 25, 1941.

87. New York Times, November 25, 1938; Chicago Tribune, November 25, 1938.
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Re: The Third Reich in the Ivory Tower: Complicity and Confl

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Part 3 of 3

6. Nazi Nests: German Departments in American Universities, 1933-1941

1. Philadelphia Jewish Exponent, May 31, 1935.

2. Dartmouth, May 17 and June 15, 1934.

3. Ibid., May 12 and 14 and June 15, 1934.

4. Ibid., May 15, 16, and 19, 1934.

5. Capital Times [Madison, Wis.], November 17, 1935; New York Times, November 17, 1935.

6. "Chicago Bars Film Showing Hitler Terror," Jewish Criterion, April 27, 1934, 4; New York Times, April 22 and 27 and May I, 1934; Chicago Tribune, April 24 and 27, 1934.

7. Capital Times, November 18, 1935; Chicago Tribune, November 18, 1935; New York Times, November 18, 1935.

8. Capital Times, November 18,1935; Chicago Tribune, November 18, 1935; New York Times, November 18, 1935; Daily Cardinal, November 19,1935. Earlier that year, Ambassador Luther had encountered trouble from student demonstrators when he visited the University of Texas campus as the luncheon guest of its president, H. Y. Benedict. Luther was then on a speaking tour of Texas. The Jewish Criterion of Pittsburgh, in an editorial entitled "They're Not All Cowpunchers," congratulated University of Texas anti- Nazi students for their vigorous protest against Luther's campus visit. Jewish Criterion, February 1, 1935. University of Texas German professor W. E. Metzenthin was listed as toastmaster at a banquet to honor Luther in Austin the evening before his campus visit, and associate professor of history R. L. Biesele greeted him there in German. Daily Texan, January 18 and 19, 1935.

9. Capital Times, November 18, 1935; Chicago Tribune, November 18, 1935.

10. John D. Hicks, My Life with History: An Autobiography (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1968), 204.

11. Capital Times, November 18, 1935.

12. Daily Cardinal, November 19, 1935.

13. Ibid., November 19, 1935.

14. Ibid., November 19, 1935.

15. Minneapolis Journal, November 18, 1935; Chicago Tribune, November 16, 1935.

16. Minneapolis Journal, November 18, 1935.

17. Ibid., November 19 and 20, 1935.

18. Minnesota Daily, November 20, 1935.

19. Ibid., November 20, 1935.

20. Radcliffe News, December 15, 1933; Smith College Weekly, October 16, 1935; Harvard Crimson, May 20, 1936, and May 12, 1939.

21. Yale Daily News, December 11, 1934; New York Times, December 12, 1934.

22. Vassar Miscellany News, December 19, 1934.

23. New York Times, October 28, 1934.

24. Hartford Courant, November 15, 1934.

25. Ibid., April 18, 1936.

26. W. D. Zinnecker to H. O. Voorhis, March 6,1936, box 46, Harry Woodburn Chase Papers, New York University Archives, Bobst Library, New York, N.Y.; Cornell Daily Sun, March 4, 1936; Michigan Daily, March 5, 1936. 27. New York Times, June 28, 1937.

28. Los Angeles Times, April 6, 1938.

29. New York Times, November 25, 1938; Washington Post, November 25, 1938.

30. "Nazi Propagandist at Hunter College," News from the Boston Chapter Non-Sectarian Anti-Nazi League, August 18, 1939, box 217, on-Sectarian Anti-Nazi League Papers, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, New York, N.Y.

31. New York Times, July 27, 1943; Washington Post, February 25, 1949.

32. New York Times, July 27, 1943; Washington Post, February 11, 16, 17, and 25, 1949.

33. New York Times, July 27, 1943, October 28, 1947, February I and March 26, 1949, July 11, 1961, and July 2,1988; Washington Post, February 25, 1949.

34. Washington Post, February 1, 1949.

35. Michael Greenberg and Seymour Zenchelsky, "Private Bias and Public Responsibility: Anti-Semitism at Rutgers in the 1920s and 1930s," History of Education Quarterly 33 (Fall 1993): 300-08; New Jersey State Board of Regents. In the Matter of Race Discrimination at Rutgers University. Brief for Complainants. Submitted June 22, 1931, by Joseph Siegler, William Newcom, Max J. Kohler, of Counsel, box 32, Robert C. Clothier Papers, RG/MC no. 04/A14, Special Collections and University Archives [hereafter SCUAI, Alexander Library [hereafter AL], Rutgers University [hereafter RU], New Brunswick, N.J.

36. Greenberg and Zenchelsky, "Private Bias," 300, 307, 318; Dan A. Oren, Joining the Club: A History of Jews and Yale (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1985): 42-45. Corwin, who served as executive secretary of the Yale University Graduate School for sixteen years before coming to NJC, was at Yale with her father for many years. New York Times, February 21, 1983.

37. New Jersey State Board of Regents. In the Matter of Race Discrimination at Rutgers University, box 32, Clothier Papers, SCUA, AL, RU; David M. Oshinsky, Richard P. McCormick, and Daniel Horn, The Case of the Nazi Professor (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1989), 34-35; Greenberg and Zenchelsky, "Private Bias," 312-14.

38. Targum, October 14 and 18, 1930; Testimony of Julius Kass, October 27, 1930, and clipping from Newark Evening News, March 26, 1932, in box 32, Clothier Papers, SCUA, AL, RU.

39. J. Edward Ashmead to New Jersey State Board of Regents, April 1931, box 7, Trustees, Personal Papers, J. Edward Ashmead, RG 3/B3/1, SCUA, AL, RU; Oshinsky, McCormick, and Horn, Case of the Nazi Professor, 35.

40. New York World-Telegram, May 22, 1935, clipping in box 5, Papers of the Board of Trustees Committee Investigation of the Charges of Lienhard Bergel, 1935 [hereafter BTCI], RG 3/CO/2, SCUA, AL, RU; New York Times, May 23, 1935; Greenberg and Zenchelsky, "Private Bias," 300; Oshinsky, McCormick, and Horn, Case of the Nazi Professor, 33, 35, 37. Oshinsky, McCormick, and Horn list the two German refugees in the Music Department as the only Jewish faculty members at NJC. Rutgers trustee Philip Brett claimed in 1935 that there were four Jews on the NJC faculty, all recently hired. New York Evening Journal, May 23, 1935, clipping in box 5, BTCI, SCUA, AL, RU.

41. Marion Siegel Friedman to Dr. [Richard P.] McCormick, October 9, 1986, box 19, Richard P. McCormick Papers, SCUA, AL, RU.

42. Campus News, March 31, 1933; Oshinsky, McCormick, and Horn, Case of the Nazi Professor, 15.

43. "Report of Investigators for the American Civil Liberties Union on Trustees' Investigation into Dismissal of Lienhard Bergel from the German Department at the New Jersey College for Women," 18, August 1935, box 6, Lienhard Bergel Papers, Columbia University Rare Book and Manuscript Library [hereafter CURBML], Butler Library [hereafter BL], New York, N.Y.; Michael Greenberg and Seymour Zenchelsky, "The Confrontation with Nazism at Rutgers: Academic Bureaucracy and Moral Failure," History of Education Quarterly 30 (Fall 1990): 335.

44. Jean M. Earle to J. Edward Ashmead, May 27, 1935, box I, BTCI, SCUA, AL, RU.

45. "In the Matter of the Investigation of the Charges of Lienhard Bergel, Report of Special Trustees' Committee," Rutgers University Bulletin, Series XII, No.l2B, August 1935, 33, box 7, Bergel Papers, CURBML, BL.

46. Targum, April 1, 1933.

47. Ibid.

48. Ibid., Oshinsky, McCormick, and Horn, Case of the Nazi Professor, 15-16.

49. Targum, May 3, 1933; Oshinsky, McCormick, and Horn, Case of the Nazi Professor, 17; New Brunswick Daily Home News, May 25, 1933, clipping in box 18, McCormick Papers, SCUA, AL, RU.

50. Campus News, October 10, 1933.

51. Ibid., September 26, 1934,

52. Lienhard Bergel, "Nazi Activities in American Colleges," Jewish Criterion, April 3, 1936, 73-74.

53. Campus News, December 8, 1934.

54. Ibid.; Greenberg and Zenchelsky, "Confrontation," 336.

55. Campus News, February 2, 1935.

56. Ibid., April 17, 1935.

57. Bergel, "Nazi Activities," 73.

58. Campus News, October 3 and T7, 1934; Oshinsky, McCormick, and Horn, Case of the Nazi Professor, 33.

59. Robert C. Clothier to Albert W. Holzmann, March 6 and 19, 1935, and Holzmann to Clothier, March 13, 1935, box 89, Clothier Papers; Roben Edwin Herzstein, Roosevelt and Hitler: Prelude to War (New York: Paragon House, 1989), 133.

60. Holzmann to Clothier, March 13,1935, box 89, SCUA, AL, RU.

61. Alvin Johnson to President Robert C. Clothier, December 10, 1935; Johnson to Clothier, December 3I, 1935, box 48, Clothier Papers, SCUA, AL, RU.

62. Oshinsky, McCormick, and Horn, Case of the Nazi Professor, 22, 26-28; Greenberg and Zenchelsky, "Confrontation," 326.

63. Oshinsky, McCormick, and Horn, Case of the Nazi Professor, 28; "In the Matter of the Investigation of the Charges of Lienhard Bergel, 7-8, box 7, Bergel Papers.

64. Sylvia C. Bergel, "Observations related to the Bergel-Hauptmann matter at Rutgers University in 1935," September 1991, box 5, Bergel Papers, CURBML, BL; Oshinsky, McCormick, and Horn, Case of the Nazi Professor, 12.

65. Sylvia C. Bergel to Michael Greenberg, October 20, 1990, and Sylvia C. Bergel to Michael Greenberg, August 18, 1987, box 5, Sylvia C. Bergel to Seymour Zenchelsky, August 24, 1994, and Sylvia C. Bergel to Elie Wiesel, June 18, 1985, box 6, Bergel Papers, CURBML, BL.

66. Sylvia C. Bergel, "Observations," box 5, Berge! Papers, CURBML, BL.

67. Ibid.; Sylvia C. Bergel to Michael Greenberg and Seymour Zenchelsky, May 21, 1992, box 5, Bergel Papers, CURBML, BL.

68. Sylvia Cook Bergel to Greenberg and Zenchelsky, May 21, 1992; Case of the Nazi Professor, 31.

69. Oshinsky, McCormick, and Horn, Case of the Nazi Professor, 31-33, 130.

70. Bergel, "Nazi Activities," 74.

71. "Miss Corwin's Statement. Report to the Trustees Committee," box 18, Richard P. McCormick Papers, R-MC 050, SCUA, AL, RU.

72. "Miss Corwin's Statement"; Targum, June 8, 1935; Oshinsky, McCormick, and Horn, Case of the Nazi Professor, 64.

73. "Miss Corwin's Statement."

74. "Miss Corwin's Statement"; Alan Silver, "The Bergel Case: Rutgers' Dreyfus Affair," box 19, McCormick Papers and Alan Silver, "The Economic and Administrative Considerations in the Bergel Case," draft of April 10, 1987, SCUA, AL, RU. Ms. Hauptmann began with a six-hour teaching load in 1929-30 and assumed a full fifteen-hour teaching load in 1930-31.

75. "Miss Corwin's Statement," box 18, McCormick Papers, SCUA, AL, RU.

76. "In the Matter of the Investigation," 40-41, box 7, Bergel Papers, CURBML, BL; Oshinsky, McCormick, and Horn, Case of the Nazi Professor, 44-45; Campus News, April 13 and 24, May 1, 1935.

77. New York Times, May 24, 1935.

78. Oshinsky, McCormick, and Horn, Case of the Nazi Professor, 51-53; "In the Matter of the Investigation," 46, box 7, Bergel Papers, CURBML, BL.

79. Sylvia C. Bergel to Michael Greenberg, March 13, 1988, box 5, Bergel Papers; Oshinsky, McCormick, and Horn, Case of the Nazi Professor, 57; New York Times, May 11, 1926, October 31, 1930, November 25, 1936, and July 3, 1960.

80. Sylvia C. Bergel to Alan Silver, September 9, 1986, box 19, McCormick Papers.

81. Oshinsky, McCormick, and Horn, Case of the Nazi Professor, 58-59; New York Times, May 22, 1935.

82. New York Times, May 26, 1935.

83. "In the Matter of the Investigation," 11; Newark News, June 7, 1935, clipping in box 5, Board of Trustees Committee. Investigation of the Charges.

84. New York Times, May 28, 1935.

85. Campus News, May 8, 1935; Committee Hearings: Notes Made by Miss Miriam L. E. Lippincott, Committee Member, May 23, 1935, box I, BTCI, SCUA, AL, RU; New York Times, May 24, 1935.

86. Oshinsky, McCormick, and Horn, Case of the Nazi Professor, 45-46.

87. Ibid., 60, 62; New York World-Telegram, May 23, 1935, box 5, BTCI, SCUA, AL, RU; "Report of Investigators for American Civil Liberties Union," 6.

88. New York World-Telegram, May 23, 1935, box 5, BTCI, SCUA, Al, RU.

89. Newark Star-Eagle, May 23, 1935; New Brunswick Home News, May 23, 1935, box 5, BTCI, SCUA, AL, RU.

90. Ibid.

91. New York Times, May 23, 1935.

92. Unidentified clipping, May 23, 1935, box 5, BTCI, SCUA, AL, RU.

93. Letter from "senior at N.J.C.," box I, BTCI, SCUA, AL, RU.

94. Testimony of Sylvia Silverman, May 21, 1935, box I, BTCI, SCUA, Al, RU.

95. Testimony of Adele Lubman, May 21, 1935, box I, BTCI, SCUA, AL, RU.

96. Testimony of Dorothy Venook, May 23, 1935, box I, BTCI, SCUA, AL, RU.

97. Friedman to McCormick, October 9, 1986, McCormick Papers, SCUA, Al, RU.

98. Testimony of Naomi Parness, May 24, 1935, and of Mary Atwood, recalled for further direct examination, box I, BTCI, SCUA, Al, RU; "In the Matter of the Investigation," 30, box 7, Bergel Papers, CURBML, BL; Greenberg and Zenchelsky, "Confrontation," 335.

99. Alan Silver, "Some Evidence of the Prejudicial Atmosphere of the Trustees Hearings of 1935," Alan Silver folder, Bergel/Hauptmann Case, SCUA, AL, RU.

100. Bartlett Cowdrey, "To the Committee Investigating the Dismissal of Dr. Bergel," May 26, 1935, box I, BTCI, SCUA, AL, RU.

101. Newark Star-Eagle, May 22, 1935.

102. Long Branch, N.J., Record, May 23, 1935, clipping in box 5, BTCI, SCUA, AL, RU.

103. Newark Star-Eagle, June 13, 1935.

104. New Brunswick Sunday Times clipping, June 16, 1935, box 18, McCormick Papers, SCUA, AL, RU; "Report of Investigators for American Civil Liberties Union," 7-8; Oshinsky, McCormick, and Horn, Case of the Nazi Professor, 66-67.

105. Newark Evening News clipping, August 20, 1935, box I, BTCI, SCUA, AL, RU.

106. New York Times, June 9, 1935.

107. "Report of Investigators for American Civil Liberties Union," 5, Bergel Papers.

108. "Administration-Trustee Shortcomings" [handwritten notes], n.d., box 18, McCormick Papers, SCUA, AL, RU.

109. Testimony of Naomi Parness, May 24, 1935, box I, BTCI, SCUA, AL, RU.

110. New York Times, May 31, 1935.

111. New York World-Telegram, May 22,1935, box 5, BTCI, SCUA, AL, RU.

112. "In the Matter of the Investigation," 29-31.

113. Ibid., 9, 11.

114. Ibid., 15, 20-21; Oshinsky, McCormick, and Horn, Case of the Nazi Professor, 71; Greenberg and Zenchelsky, "Confrontation," 338.

115. "In the Matter of the Investigation," 39.

116. Ibid.

117. Ibid., 41.

118. A. Heckscher to Dr. Robert C. Clothier, September 27, 1935, box 23, Rutgers University. Board of Trustees. Minutes and Enclosures 1935 [hereafter RUBTME], SCUA, AL, RU.

119. Clothier to Heckscher, September 28, 1935, box 23, RUBTME, SCUA, AL, RU.

120. Oshinsky, McCormick, and Horn, Case of the Nazi Professor, 80, 88-89.

121. Friedrich Hauptmann to President Clothier, November 12, 1940, and Margaret Corwin to President Clothier, November 16, 1940, box 88, Clothier Papers, SCUA, AL, RU.

122. Hauptmann to Clothier, November 12, 1940.

123. Margaret Corwin to President Clothier, November 20, 1940, box 88, Clothier Papers, SCUA, AL, RU; Oshinsky, McCormick, and Horn, Case of the Nazi Professor, 92-93.

124. Sylvia C. Bergel to Michael Greenberg, October 20, 1990, box 5, Bergel Papers, CURBML, BL.

125. Office Memorandum to Director, FBI from Guy Hottel. Subject: German Archives, Dr. Friedrich Johannes Hauptmann, May 15, 1946, box 7, Bergel Papers, CURBML, BL; Aaron Breitbart to Sylvia C. Bergel, November 19, 1985, and Sylvia C. Bergel to Simon Wiesenthal Center, September 11, 1985, box 6, Bergel Papers; Oshinsky, McCormick, and Horn, Case of the Nazi Professor, 93, 99, 104-07.

126. Newark Evening News, clipping, June 12, 1946, box 19, McCormick Papers, SCUA, AL, RU.

127. Alan Silver, "Some Evidence." Hauptmann became a U.S. citizen in order to keep his job on the NJC faculty. His wife chose not to become a U.S. citizen. Oshinsky, McCormick, and Horn, Case of the Nazi Professor, 89.

128. Newark Evening News clipping, June 12, 1946, box 19, McCormick Papers, SCUA, AL, RU; George Schmidt, Douglass College: A History (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1968), 98.

129. Memo from Richard McCormick, October 7, 1985, box 19, McCormick Papers, SCUA, AL, RU.

130. Newark Evening News clipping, June 28, 1935, box I, BTCI, SCUA, AL, RU.

131. See, for example, Philadelphia Jewish Exponent, March 13, 1936, and Jewish Criterion, April 3, 1936.

132. Jewish Criterion, April 3, 1936, 18; Stephen S. Wise to Robert C. Clothier, March 21, 1940, box 88, Clothier Papers, SCUA, AL, RU.

133. "Lienhard Bergel Career Information," box 6, Bergel Papers, CURBML, BL; Michael Greenberg and Seymour Zenchelsky, "Letter to the Editor," History of Education Quarterly 31 (Summer 1991): 318.

134. New York Times, June 9 and September 8, 1935.

135. Silver, "Economic and Administrative Considerations," draft of April 10, 1987, SCUA, AL, RU.

In the wake of President Reagan's visit to a cemetery in Bitburg, Germany, where members of the Waffen SS were buried in 1985, Alan Silver succeeded in reviving media interest in the Bergel-Hauptmann case. As a result of pressure from the media and Silver, President Edward Bloustein of Rutgers appointed a committee of three historians, chaired by David Oshinsky and including Richard P. McCormick and Daniel Horn, to conduct a new investigation. Some criticized the choice of three Rutgers professors on the grounds that they could not be impartial in conducting an investigation of the university that employed them. Richard P. McCormick had also published a history of Rutgers University in 1966 that endorsed the administration's interpretation of the affair and praised President Robert C. Clothier in glowing terms. The committee released an Interim report in December 1986 and published its analysis and view of the case in a book entitled The Case of the Nazi Professor (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1989). It found that the principal reasons for Bergel's termination were financial cutbacks suffered by Rutgers, declining enrollments in German courses, and the rule limiting instructors to three years. The committee concluded that under these conditions the university was able to retain only one of the two instructors, Bergel or Emil Jordan. It felt that Jordan was the logical choice because he had been hired a year before Bergel, participated in extracurricular activities, and was completing a textbook that was published in 1935. The committee did state that" [p]olitical considerations probably played a role in this decision." It also asserted that the conclusions of the Special Trustees Committee in 1935 "had been marred by their prejudices." Oshinsky, McCormick, and Horn, Case of the Nazi Professor, 74, 113-14. On McCormick's earlier assessment of the Bergel-Hauptmann case and of Clothier, see McCormick, Rutgers: A Bicentennial History (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1966), 225-26, 238-39.

Lienhard Bergel and Sylvia C. Bergel denounced the Oshinsky committee's conclusions as a whitewash of the Rutgers administration and trustees, as did Alan Silver. New Brunswick Home News, December 18, 1986 and Richard P. McCormick to Sylvia Bergel, March 13, 1988, box 5, Bergel Papers, CURBML, BL. Sylvia C. Bergel made sure after her husband died in 1987 that his papers went to Columbia University rather than to Rutgers.

In 1987, Arthur F. Burns, who had served as chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and as U.S. ambassador to West Germany and who was an associate professor of economics at Rutgers at the time of the Bergel-Hauptmann case, wrote to Alan Silver that although "the Oshinsky Committee went about its difficult task in a thoroughly professional manner," its report "does not analyze thoroughly the economic factors surrounding the Bergel dismissal." As a result, Burns stated: "I cannot ... accept the main conclusion of the Oshinsky Report." Burns in 1985 had told Silver, who had been his student, that "I do indeed recall the dismal events surrounding the Bergel case," and that it was to Silver's credit that he invited others "to remember the injustice." Arthur F. Burns to Alan Silver, June 10, 1985, and Burns to Silver, March 10, 1987, box 19, McCormick Papers, SCUA, AL, RU. The principal critique of the Oshinsky committee's findings is Greenberg and Zenchelsky, "Confrontation," 325-49.

136. Philadelphia Jewish Exponent, May 31, 1935.

137. Bergel, "Nazi Activities," 19.

7. American Catholic Universities' Flirtation with Fascism

1. Daniel Jonah Goldhagen, A Moral Reckoning: The Role of the Catholic Church in the Holocaust and Its Unfulfilled Duty of Repair (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002), 43, 77-78.

2. Richard Breitman, Barbara McDonald Stewart, and Severin Hochberg, eds., Advocate for the Doomed: The Diaries and Papers of James G. McDonald, 1932-1935 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2007), 90-91.

3. Goldhagen, Moral Reckoning, 43; Saul Friedlander, Nazi Germany and the Jews, vol. I: The Years of Persecution, 1933-1939 (New York: Harper- Collins, 1997),48-49.

4. New York Times, August 21,1933.

5. David I. Kertzer, The Popes Against the Jews: The Vatican's Role in the Rise of Modern Anti-Semitism (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2001), 135, 246, 250-51, 260, 273.

6. Breitman, Stewart, and Hochberg, eds., Advocate for the Doomed, 91.

7. Friedlander, Nazi Germany and the Jews, 47.

8. Richard J. Evans, The Third Reich in Power (New York: Penguin, 2005), 623-24.

9. New York Times, December 31, 1934.

10. Chicago Tribune, February 4, 1935; Evans, Third Reich in Power, 627.

11. New York Times, June 14, 1933.

12. Ibid., September 11, 1933, and March 8, 1934.

13. Notre Dame Scholastic, May 12, 1933.

14. Ibid., March 31, 1933.

15. Assistant General Secretary to Mr. [William F.] Montavon, February 9,1934, box 37, National Catholic Welfare Conference [hereafter NCWC] Papers, The American Catholic History Research Center and University Archives [hereafter ACUA], The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C.

16. William F. Montavon to Fr. Burke, Fr. Ready, Miss Regan, Mr. Caravati, D. J. Ryan, June 12, 1933, box 37, CWC Papers, ACUA.

17. Hoya, October 31, 1934.

18. Ibid., January 31, 1934.

19. Fordham Ram, March 15, 1934.

20. Ibid., February 16, 1934.

21. Notre Dame Scholastic, December 4, 1936, and April 9, 1937.

22. Heights, March 22, 1935.

23. New York Times, May 2, 1935; Washington Post, May 3, 1935. Crowley had been one of the Notre Dame football team's legendary Four Horsemen in the 1920s.

24. Los Angeles Times, May 19, 1938; New York Times, May 29, 1947.

25. James S. Shapiro, Oberammergau: The Troubling Story of the World's Most Famous Passion Play (New York: Pantheon, 2000), 26.

26. Hoya, November 17, 1937; Washington Post, March 13, 1939. Anton Lang Sr. was especially pleased to be entertained by Henry Ford, America's most prominent antisemite, when visiting Detroit in 1930. Hoya, November 17, 1937.

27. Fordham Ram, January 21, 1938.

28. Speech of Robert I. Gannon, S.J., at Re-Opening of the Church of the Nativity, New York City, October 9, 1938, box 15, Robert I. Gannon Papers, Fordham University Archives [hereafter FUA], New York, N.Y.

29. Notre Dame Scholastic, March 13, 1936.

30. Fordham Ram, October 8, 1937.

31. Bernard A. Grossman to Dr. [James H.] Ryan, March 20, 1936, box 36, Records of President/Rector, ACUA.

32. New York Times, February 13, 1937.

33. John P. Diggins, Mussolini and Fascism: The View from America (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1972), 183, 185-86.

34. Hoya, October 3,1934; Washington Post, September 24, 1934.

35. Notre Dame Scholastic, September 28 and October 5, 1934.

36. Heights, October 10, 1934.

37. Ibid., March 25, 1938.

38. Washington Post, July 21, 1935.

39. Notre Dame Scholastic, April 16, 1937.

40. Washington Post, February 18, 1937.

41. Robert I. Gannon, Up to the Present: The Story of Fordham (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1967), 213.

42. Hoya, December 15, 1937.

43. Gaetano Salvemini, "The Vatican and the Ethiopian War" in Frances Keene, ed., Neither Liberty nor Bread: The Making and Tragedy of Italian Fascism (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1940), 191-93; Richard A. Webster, The Cross and the Fasces: Christian Democracy and Fascism in Italy (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1960), 123.

44. Salvemini, "Mussolini's Empire in the United States" in Keene, ed., Neither Liberty nor Bread, 342.

45. Hoya, March 11, 1936.

46. Notre Dame Scholastic, March 6, 1936.

47. New York Times, February 13, 1937.

48. Fordham Ram, March 11, 1938.

49. Washington Post, December 5 and 6, 1936.

50. New York Times, March 24, 1938.

51. Donald F. Crosby, "Boston's Catholics and the Spanish Civil War: 1936- 1939," New England Quarterly 44 (March 1971): 84; Boston Globe, May 4, 1938.

52. Crosby, "Boston's Catholics," 87.

53. Robert Sklar, City Boys: Cagney, Bogart, Garfield (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1992), 107.

54. J. David Valaik, "In the Days Before Ecumenicism: American Catholicism, Anti-Semitism, and the Spanish Civil War," Journal of Church and State 13 (1971): 467-68.

55. Albert Prago, "Jews in the International Brigades in Spain," A Jewish Currents reprint, 1979, 4, 19.

56. Ibid., 3.

57. Washington Post, August 4, 1936.

58. "National Catholic Welfare Conference Annual Report 1936, Social Action Department," NCWC Papers, ACUA; Crosby, "Boston's Catholics," 85-86.

59. The Very Rev. Robert I. Gannon, S.J., "The Majesty of the Law," October 13, 1936, box 15, Gannon Papers, FUA.

60. John B. Snow to Right Rev. Mgr. Joseph M. Corrigan, October 18, 1937, box 66, Papers of Rector/President, ACUA.

61. Fr. A. Walsh to Rt. Rev. Mgr. Joseph Corrigan, October 12, 1936, and Mgr. Patrick J. McCormick to Mgr. Corrigan, October 17, 1936, box 66, Papers of Rector/President, ACUA.

62. New York Times, October 14, 1937; "Open Letter," Time, October 11, 1937, 27.

63. Fordham Ram, October 8, 1937.

64. Ibid., January 22, 1937.

65. New York Times, February 28, March 14 and 20, 1937.

66. Fordham Ram, January 21, 1938.

67. Washington Post, December 5 and 6, 1936.

68. New York Times, February 27, 1938.

69. Fordham Ram, April 8, 1938. A similar symposium featuring speakers from the same schools was held shortly before Fordham's, at St. Peter's College. Fordham Ram, April 1, 1938.

70. New York Times, July 22, 1937; Harvard Crimson, February 23, 1938; Washington Post, December 9, 1945. Jane Anderson's wartime broadcasts from Berlin earned her the nickname" Lady Haw Haw." After World War II, she was indicted for making treasonable broadcasts. She had made statements that the Nazis were fighting for "religious freedom and social justice" and that "Jews and not the Japanese had destroyed the Pearl Harbor [U.S. naval] vessels" on December 7, 1941. Washington Post, October 28 and December 9, 1947.

71. New York Times, February 26, 1938.

72. Fordham Ram, April 8, 1938.

73. Notre Dame Scholastic, October 8, 1937.

74. UCLA Daily Bruin, March 16, 17, and 20, 1939.

75. Ibid., March 16 and 17, 1939; Boston Globe, May 4, 1938.

76. UCLA Daily Bruin, March 20, 1939.

77. Los Angeles Times, March 8, 1939; UCLA Daily Bruin, March 17, 1939.

78. St. Louis Post-Dispatch, May 24-26, 1937, and January 26, 1939.

79. Ibid., May 24 and 25, 1937.

80. Ibid., January 26 and 27, 1939; "Academic Freedom and Tenure: St. Louis University" in Bulletin of the American Association of University Professors, vol. XXV, no. 5, December 1939, 521.

81. St. Louis Post-Dispatch, January 27, 1939.

82. Ibid., January 27, 1939; "Academic Freedom and Tenure," Bulletin, 531.

83. St. Louis Post-Dispatch, January 27, 1939.

84. Ibid., December 11, 1939; New York Times, December 11, 1939; "Academic Freedom and Tenure," Bulletin, 532-35.

85. St. Louis Post-Dispatch, December 11, 1939.

86. New York Times, January 28, 1939; Washington Post, January 28 and February 25, 1939.

87. Washington Post, March 7, 1939.

88. Chicago Tribune, March 30, 1939.

89. New York Times, June 12, 1939.

90. Robert I. Gannon to Hon. V. E. Verdades de Faria, February 16 and March 22, 1938; Jean R. Levis to Gannon, March 19, 1938; and Gannon to Joseph D. Fragoso, March 22, 1938, box 13, Gannon Papers, FDA.

91. Laurence K. Patterson, "Salazar, the Inspirer of Portugal's New State," America, December 18, 1937, 249-50.

92. Robert I. Gannon to Hon. V. E. Verdades de Faria, April 9, 1938, box 13, Gannon Papers, FUA.

93. Robert I. Gannon to Hon. V. E. Verdades de Faria, March 22, 1938, and Joao de Bianchi to Fr. Gannon, June 7, 1938, box 13, Gannon Papers, FUA.

94. Statement on Salazar, no title, n.d., box 13, Gannon Papers, FDA.

95. Robert I. Gannon to His Excellency, Joao de Bianchi, September 6, 1940, box 13, Gannon Papers, FUA.

96. "Address by the Reverend Robert I. Gannon, S.J.," February 1, 1941, box 9, Gannon Papers, FUA.

97. Robert I. Gannon to Edmund A. Walsh, January 19 and February 9, 1938; Ambassador Dieckhoff to Walsh, February 4, 1938, and Gannon to Constantin Fotitch, January 11, 1938, box 3, Gannon Papers, FUA.

98. Walsh to Gannon, February 15, J 938, and Gannon to Walsh, February 17, 1938, box 3, Gannon Papers, FDA.

99. Dr. Gabor de Bessenyey, "A Statement on the Forthcoming Danubian Conference," Fordham University News Bulletin, February 20, 1938, box 3, Gannon Papers, FUA.

100. New York Times, May 8, 1938. Exiled German novelist Thomas Mann did speak briefly to the conference on the need to preserve "the genius of the Danubian peoples." New York Times, May 9, 1938.

101. Ibid., May 9, 1938.

102. New York Herald Tribune, April 24, 1938.

103. On the German Church's cooperation in providing such records to the Nazi government, see Daniel Jonah Goldhagen, Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996), 110-11.

8. 1938, Year of the Kristallnacht: The Limits of Campus Protest

1. Joel Cang, "The Academic Ghetto," American Hebrew, January 3, 1936, 239, folder H29, James G. McDonald Papers [hereafter JGMP], Herbert Lehman Suite and Papers [hereafter HLSP], Rare Book and Manuscript Library [hereafter RBML], Columbia University [hereafter CUI, New York, N.Y.; Chicago Tribune, December 15, 1935.

2. New York Times, February 7,1937; William Zukerman, "Jews and the Fate of Poland," Nation, April 2, 1938, 381.

3. Cang, "Academic Ghetto," 239, JGMP, HLSP, RBML, CU; New York Times, November 10 and 18, 1937.

4. Ibid., October 16 and 20, 1937.

5. New York Times, November 30, December 8 and 14, 1933, and December 20, 1937; Washington Post, November 20 and 21, 1935.

6. New York Times, December 20, 1937.

7. Isaiah Bowman to Stephen Duggan, November 23, 1937, and Bowman to Duggan, January 28, 1938, box 118, Records of the Office of the President [hereafter ROP], Special Collections [hereafter SC], Milton S. Eisenhower Library, Johns Hopkins University [hereafter JHU], Baltimore, Md.

8. Duggan to Bowman, January 27, 1938, box 118, Rap, SC, JHU.

9. Bowman to Duggan, January 28, 1938, box 118, Rap, SC, JHU. President Bowman, a geographer, had received an honorary diploma from the Nazis' Verein fur Geographie und Statistik in Frankfurt in December 1936. George A. Makinson to Dr. Isaiah Bowman, December 16, 1936, box 158, Rap, SC, JHU.

10. New York Times, April 1 and June 18, 1934, and obituary, May 23, 1939; London Times, August 26, 1933; Flushing Journal, April 6, 1938, Queens College Archives [hereafter QCA], New York, N.Y.; Washington Post obituary of Ernst Toller, May 23, 1939.

11. Flushing Journal, clipping, n.d., QCA; New York Times, April 5, 1938.

12. New York Post, April 5, 1938; New York Times, April 5, 1938; Crown, April 8, 1938, QCA.

13. New York Times, April 5 and 6,1938; unidentified clipping, n.d., QCA.

14. Daily Worker, April 6, 1938, clipping in QCA.

15. New York Times, April 7, 19:; 8; Washington Post, April 7, 1938; unidentified clipping, n.d., QCA.

16. New York Post, April 7, 1938, and Long Island Star, April 8, 1938, clippings in QCA; Crown, April 8, 1938.

17. New York Post, April 9, 1938, and unidentified clippings, n.d., QCA.

18. Crown, April 8, 1938, QCA.

19. New York Times obituary, May 23, 1939.

20. Ibid., April 24 and 27, 1938; New York Herald Tribune, April 24, 1938; Chicago Tribune, April 24, 1938.

21. Daily Princetonian, April 25, 1938; Christian Science Monitor, April 26, 1938; New York Times, April 26, 1938; Jew York Herald Tribune, April 26, 1938.

22. Yale Daily News, April 26, 1938; Christian Science Monitor, April 26, 1938.

23. New York Times, April 26, 1938; New York Herald Tribune, April 26, 1938.

24. Yale Daily News, April 27, 1938.

25. Ibid., April 11 and 12, 1938.

26. Boston Globe, April 26, 1938; Christian Science Monitor, April 26, 1938; Harvard Crimson, April 27, 1938.

27. Williams Record, April 30, 1938.

28. New York Times, April 27 and July 13,1938; Washington Post, April 27, 1938.

29. Marguerite Kehr, "Comments on the World Youth Congress Held at Vassar College, August 16-24, 1938," subject file 27. 59, Henry Noble MacCracken Papers, Vassar College Archives [hereafter VCA], Poughkeepsie, N.Y.; New York Times, July 3 and August 18, 1938.

30. Washington Post, July 16, 1938.

31. "Second World Youth Congress. Report by President Henry Noble Mac- Cracken to the Board of Trustees," August 23, 1938, subject folder 76.4, MacCracken Papers, VCA.

32. Eleanor Finney, "The World Youth Congress: Impressions of an A.A.U.W. Observer," Journal of the American Association of University Women, October 1938, 31, in subject folder 27.59, MacCracken Papers, VCA.

33. Poughkeepsie Star-Enterprise, August 15, T93 8, clipping in subject folder 27.61, MacCracken Papers, VCA; New York Times, August 16, 1938.

34. Joseph Cadden to Archbishop Michael J. Curley, June 25, 1938, subject folder 76.8, MacCracken Papers, VCA.

35. New York Times, July 2 and August 16, 1938.

36. Albany Knickerbocker News, October 10, 1938, clipping in subject folder 27.59, MacCracken Papers, VCA.

37. Kehr, "Comments," MacCrackcn Papers, VCA.

38. Martin Gilbert, Kristallnacht: Prelude to Destruction (New York: Harper- Collins, 2006), 23-26.

39. Ibid., 13; Daniel Jonah Goldhagen, Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996), 99-103; William L. Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1960),430-34.

40. Shirer, Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, 433. Deborah Lipstadt notes that the American press was nearly unanimous in denouncing the Kristallnacht atrocities. Beyond Belief: The American Press and the Coming of the Holocaust, 1933-1945 (New York: Free Press, 1986), 104.

41. New York Times, November 16, 1938.

42. Los Angeles Times, November 12, 1938; Washington Post, November 17, 1938.

43. Christian Science Monitor, November 14, 1938.

44. New York Times, November 19, 1938.

45. Washington Post, November 15, 1938.

46. New York Times, November 18, 1938.

47. Ibid., November 22, 1938.

48. Ibid., November 24, 1938.

49. Gerhard Sonnert and Gerald Holton, "'The Grand Wake for Harvard Indifference': How Harvard and Radcliffe Students Aided Young Refugees from the Nazis," Harvard Magazine, September-October 2006, 50-51; Mount Holyoke Faculty. "Committee on Refugee Students Survey," December 9, 1938, LD 7092.2 MHC, Mount Holyoke College Archives.

50. Harvard Crimson, November 18, 1938.

51. Sonnert and Holton, "Grand Wake," 51; New York Times, November 30, 1938; Harvard Crimson, November 30,1938.

52. Harvard Crimson, November 30, 1938.

53. Christian Science Monitor, December 5, 1938; Harvard Crimson, December 5, 1938.

54. Christian Science Monitor, December 5, 1938; New York Times, December 7, 1938.

55. Marion Edwards Park to Miss [Caroline] Newton, December 3,1938, Marion Edwards Park Papers, Bryn Mawr College Archives [hereafter BMCA], Bryn Mawr, Pa.; Bryn Mawr College News, November 30, 1938; New York Times, December 2, 1938.

56. Yale Daily News, November 17 and 23 and December 2, 1938.

57. Ibid., December 2, 7, and 14, 1938.

58. Ibid., December 14, 1938.

59. Ibid., November 23, 1938.

60. Ibid., January 20, 1939.

61. Typed note, November 15, 1938, Robert Maynard Hutchins to Charles Easton, November 22, 1938, penciled note, November 21, 1938, and typed note, November 25, 1938, Addenda I, box 76, and Hutchins to Dr. Boris E. Nelson, May 17, 1937, Addenda I, box 108, Robert Maynard Hutchins Papers, Regenstein Library, University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill.

62. Barnard Bulletin, December 13, 1938.

63. "Minutes of Committee for Giving Aid to Refugees from Germany," January 4, 1939, Series B Minutes, folder I, LD7092.2, Mount Holyoke Faculty Papers, Mount Holyoke College Archives, South Hadley, Mass.

64. J. Ludlum to Dr. Robert C. Clothier, n.d., Robert C. Clothier to John H. Ludlum, March 23, 1939, Statement by President Clothier to Board of Trustees, n.d., box 56, Robert C. Clothier Papers, Special Collections and University Archives [hereafter SCUA], Alexander Library [hereafter AL], Rutgers University [hereafter RU], New Brunswick, N.J.

65. Clothier to Ludlum, April 6, 1939, box 56, Clothier Papers, SCUA, AL, RU.

66. Clothier to Board of Trustees, n.d., note attached to Walter Sokol to President Robert C. Clothier, May 22, 1941, and Clothier to Louis Bamberger, June 23, 1939, box 56, Clothier Papers, SCUA, AL, RU.

67. Note attached to Walter Sokel to President Robert C. Clothier, May 22, 1941, box 56, Clothier Papers, SCUA, AL, RU.

68. International Committee to Aid Student Refugees. "Summary of Progress, January to June 1939," folder 94.7, MacCracken Papers, VCA.

69. Ibid., MacCracken Papers, VCA; Michael Zylberman, "Concern from Afar: The Participation of 'Yeshiva' Students and Faculty in World War II Service and Holocaust Relief and Rescue Efforts, 1936-1947," Chronos, 2000.

70. Vassar Miscellany News, January 11, 1939.

71. Washington Post, November 18, 1938.

72. Tech, November 22, 1938.

73. Wellesley College News, November 23, 1938.

74. Vassar Miscellany News, December 3, 1938.

75. Catherine Deeny to MacCracken, January 6, 1939, Intercollegiate Committee to Aid Student Refugees. Report of Activity, January to June, 1939, "Intercollegiate Committee to Aid Student Refugees," n.d., folder 94.7, Mac- Cracken Papers, VCA; Sonnen and Holton, "Grand Wake," 52-53.

76. Harvard Crimson, December 14, 1938.

77. Marion Edwards Park to James B. Conant, January 9, 1939, and Conant to Park, February 20, 1939, Park Papers, BMCA.

78. D. W. MacCormack to Dr. Isador Lubin, August 23, 1933, container 41, William E. Dodd Papers, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.

79. Park to Conant, January 9, 1939, Park Papers, BMCA.

80. Conant to Park, February 20, 1939, Park Papers, BMCA.

81. Ibid.

82. Sonnen and Holton, "Grand Wake," 53-54; Harvard Crimson, February 6, 1939.

83. Peter Gay, My German Question: Growing Up in Nazi Berlin (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1998), 140.

84. Vassar Miscellany News, November 16, 1938.

Epilogue

1. Harvard Crimson, November 16, [957; Norbert Frei, Adenauer's Germany and the Nazi Past: The Politics of Amnesty and Integration (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002 [1997]), 150-51; Washington Post, April 14-15, 1949.

2. John Cornwell, Hitler's Scientists: Science, War, and the Devil's Pact (New York: Penguin, 2003), 397-98, 400-01, 405.

3. Frei, Adenauer's Germany, 226-27.

4. Marie Allen to Stephen H. Norwood, April 27, 2008.

5. New York Times, November 22, 1953.

6. Ibid., January 13, 1955.

7. Walter Dowling to Ridgway B. Knight, June 23, 1955, and James B. Conant to Joseph Cardinal Frings, July 29, 1955, box 164, Security-Segregated General Records, 1953-1955, Records of Foreign Service Posts of the Department of State [hereafter FSPDS], Record Group [hereafter RG] 466, National Archives [hereafter A], College Park, Md.

8. Los Angeles Times, November 8,1954; Chicago Tribune, November 7, 1954.

9. Los Angeles Times, November 8, 1954.

10. New York Times, March 10, 13, 14, and 25 and May 20, 1954; Chicago Tribune, May 20, 1954.

11. New York Times, July 15, 1952.

12. New York Times, May 20, 1954; Chicago Tribune, May 20, 1954.

13. Washington Post, May 6, 1955; New York Times, June 19, 1954, and October 11, 1957.

14. New York Times, January 5, 1956.

15. Memorandum of Pertinent Data on Case of Sepp Dietrich (Josef), Estes Kefauver to John Foster Dulles, November 8, 1955, and John Foster Dulles to Estes Kefauver, November 17, 1955, box 165, FSPDS, RG 466, NA; New York Times, January 5, 1956.

16. Chicago Tribune, May 16, 1946; New York Times, July 17, 1946; London Times, October 25, 1955, and July 29, 1957, and obituary of Sepp Dietrich, London Times, April 25, 1966.

17. William L. Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1960), 222.

18. T. H. Tetens, The New Germany and the Old Nazis (London: Seeker & Warburg, 1962), 103.

19. Conant to Livie (Livingston T. Merchant), December 20, 1955, box 164, FSPDS, RG 466, NA.

20. Los Angeles Times, October 25, 1955.

21. Estes Kefauver to Hon. John Foster Dulles, November 8, 1955, box 165, FSPDS, RG 466, NA.

22. Conant to Merchant, telegram, November 30, 1955, and Conant to Livie, December 20, 1955, box 164, FSPDS, RG 466, NA.

23. Ibid.

24. London Times, May 7, 11, and 15 and August 3, 1959.

25. New York Times, July 17, 1946; Washington Post, December 23, 1956; and April 28, 1985.

26. Ibid., December 28, 1955.

27. Tetens, The New Germany, 19-20.

28. James Bryant Conant, Germany and Freedom (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1958), 10, 12-13, 17-19, 30.

29. Tetens, The New Germany, 37-38; New York Times, February 13, 1957.

30. New York Times, January 8, 1961; Washington Post, March 9, 1958.

31. Ibid., January 5, 1960.

32. Ibid., February 20, 1960.

33. Ibid., April 8, 1960.

34. Harvard Crimson, October 2, 1961.

35. Marta Petreu, An Infamous Past: E. M. Cioran and the Rise of Fascism in Romania (Chicago: Ivan Dee, 2005), 71.

36. Ibid., 32-33.

37. Leon Volovici, Nationalist Ideology and Antisemitism: The Case of Romanian Intellectuals in the 1930s (Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1991), 66; Adriana Berger, "Fascism and Religion in Romania," Annals of Scholarship 6 (1989): 458.

38. Volovici, Nationalist Ideology, 66.

39. Radu Ioanid, "Mircea Eliade and Fascism - Myth and Reality" (unpublished manuscript), n.d., 3; Mircea Eliade, Autobiography, vol. 2: 1937- 1960, Exile's Odyssey (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988), 6.

40. Obituary of Mircea Eliade, New York Times, April 23, 1986; Berger, "Fascism and Religion," 456.

41. Berger, "Fascism and Religion," 457; Ioanid, "Mircea Eliade and Fascism," 8.

42. Norman Manea, "Happy Guilt: Mircea Eliade, Fascism, and the Unhappy Fate of Romania," New Republic, August 5, 1991, 33.

43. Berger, "Fascism and Religion," 457.

44. Petreu, Infamous Past, 208.

45. Hans Rogger and Eugen Weber, eds., The European Right: A Historical Profile (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1966), 52I, 527, 549; Eliade, Autobiography, vol. 2,65 (translator's note).

46. Petreu, Infamous Past, 47.

47. Ioanid, "Mircea Eliade and Fascism," 4-5.

48. Petreu, Infamous Past, 70.

49. Eliade, Autobiography, vol. 2, 4, 63-64, 66.

50. Berger, "Fascism and Religion," 459-60.

51. Ibid., 460; Ioanid, "Mircea Eliade and Fascism," 10.

52. Seymour Cain, "Mircea Eliade, the Iron Guard, and Romanian Anti- Semitism," Midstream 35 (November 1989): 29; Manea, "Happy Guilt," 30.

53. Emil Dorian, The Quality of Witness: A Romanian Diary, 1937-1944 (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Sociery of America, 1982), 139.

54. Lucy S. Dawidowicz, The War Against the Jews, 1933-1945 (New York: Bantam, 1975), 385.

55. Robert S. Ellwood Jr., review of Mircea Eliade, Autobiography, vol. I: 1907- 1937, New York Times Sunday book review, November 22, 1981.

56. Berger, "Fascism and Religion," 460.

57. Robert M. Strozier to Professor Mircea Eliade, December 12, 1955, box 26, Mircea Eliade Papers, Special Collections Research Center [hereafter SCRCJ, Regenstein Library [hereafter RL], University of Chicago [hereafter UC], Chicago, Ill.; Chicago Tribune, July 11, [957, and April 23, 1986; Washington Post, May 12, [961; New York Times, April 23, 1986; Jerald C. Brauer, "Mircea Eliade and the Divinity School," Criterion, Autumn 1985, 26.

58. Brauer, "Eliade and the Divinity School," 25.

59. Chicago Tribune, September 27, 1962; Brauer, "Eliade and the Divinity School," 23, 26.

60. Joseph M. Kitagawa to John T. Wilson, July 14, 1970, box 1 and Edward H. Levi to Professor Mircea Eliade, August 26, 1974, box 2, Eliade Papers, SCRC, RL, UC.

61. Mac Linscott Ricketts, translator's preface, Eliade, Autobiography, vol. 2, xi; Hanna Holborn Gray to Mircea Eliade, December 18, 1981, box 2, Eliade Papers, SCRC, RL, UC.

62. Eliade, Autobiography, vol. 2, 65-66.

63. Mircea Eliade, Fragments d'un Journal II, 1970-1978 (Paris: Gallimard, 1981), 92-93; Vasile Posteuca to Mircea Eliade, March 3 and April 11, 1957, box 26, Eliade Papers, SCRC, RL, UC. Posteuca signed one of these letters to Eliade "with great love."

64. Report by G. Maylon Miller, November 15, 1954, and Report by Paul E. Bowser Jr., May 10, 1955, Classification 105, Foreign Counterintelligence [hereafter FC], box 187, Federal Bureau of Investigation [hereafter FBI] Records, Record Group [hereafter RG] 65, NA, College Park, Md.

65. Report by Bowser.

66. Dean Milhovan to Federal Bureau of Investigation, January 8, 1990, Classification 105, FC, box 187, FBI Records, RG 65, NA; obituary of Posteuca, New York Times, December 7, 1972.

67. Obituary of Eliade, New York Times, April 23, 1986; Brauer, "Mircea Eliade and the Divinity School," 23.

68. Martin E. Marty, "That Nice Man," May 14, 1986, box 76, Eliade Papers, SCRC, RL, UC.

69. Hanna Holborn Gray to Mrs. Mircea Eliade, April 24, 1986, box 79, Eliade Papers, SCRC, RL, UC.

70. Honorary degrees, box 68, Eliade Papers, SCRC, RL, UC.

71. Chicago Tribune, April 14, 1968.

72. "Yale University Commencement," June 13, 1966, box 64, Kingman Brewster Jr. Records. Office of the President. Sterling Library, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.

73. Jaroslav Pelikan to Mircea Eliade, November 10, 1964, box 2, Eliade Papers, SCRC, RL, UC.

74. Saul Bellow, Ravelstein (New York: Penguin, 2000), 105-06, 124-28.
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Bibliography

Manuscript Collections


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St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 1937, 1939
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Oren, Dan A. Joining the Club: A History of Jews and Yale. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1985.

Oshinsky, Daniel M., Richard P. McCormick, and Daniel Horn. The Case of the Nazi Professor. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1989.

Petreu, Marta. An Infamous Past: E. M. Ciordan and the Rise of Fascism in Romania. Chicago: Ivan Dee, 2005.

Remy, Steven P. The Heidelberg Myth: The Nazification and Denazification of a German University. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2002.

Rogger, Hans, and Eugen Weber, eds., The European Right: A Historical Profile. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1966.

Rosenbaum, Ron. Explaining Hitler. New York: HarperCollins, 1998.

Rosenberg, Rosalind. Changing the Subject: How the Women of Columbia Shaped the Way We Think About Sex and Politics. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004.

Rosenthal, Michael. Nicholas Miraculous: The Amazing Career of the Redoubtable Dr. Nicholas Murray Butler. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2006.

Rutkoff, Peter M., and William B. Scott, New School: A History of the New School for Social Research. New York: Free Press, 1986.

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Stern, Fritz. Einstein's German World. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1999.
Five Germanys I Have Known. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2006.

Synnott, Marcia Graham. The Half-Opened Door: Discrimination and Admissions at Harvard, Yale, and Princeton, 1900-1970. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1979.

Tetens, T. H. The New Germany and the Old Nazis. London: Secker & Warburg, 1962.

Thorp, Margaret Farrand. Neilson of Smith. New York: Oxford University Press, 1956.

Van Paassen, Pierre, and James Waterman Wise, eds., Nazism: An Assault on Civilization. New York: Harrison Smith & Robert Haas, 1934.

Volovici, Leon. Nationalist Ideology and Antisemitism: The Case of Romanian Intellectuals in the J 930S. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1991.

Webster, Richard A. The Cross and the Fasces: Christian Democracy and Fascism in Italy. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1960.

Wechsler, James A. The Age of Suspicion. New York: Random House, 1953. Revolt on Campus. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1973 [1935].

Weinberg, Gerhard L. The Foreign Policy of Hitler's Germany: Diplomatic Revolution in Europe, 1933-1936. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970.

Weinreich, Max. Hitler's Professors: The Part of Scholarship in Germany's Crimes Against the Jewish People. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, [999 [1946].

White, Marian Churchill. A History of Barnard College. New York: Columbia University Press, 1954.

Wise, James Waterman. Swastika: The Nazi Terror. New York: Harrison Smith and Robert Haas, 1933.

Zarnowitz, Victor. Fleeing the Nazis, Surviving the Gulag, and Arriving in the Free World: My Life and Times. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2008.

Zuckerman, Harriet. Scientific Elite: Nobel Laureates in the United States. New York: Free Press, 1977.

Zuckerman, Larry. The Rape of Belgium: The Untold Story of World War I. New York: New York University Press, 2004.

Journal Articles

Ascoli, Max. "The Press and the Universities in Italy." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 200 (November 1938): 235-53.

Berger, Adriana. "Fascism and Religion in Romania." Annals of Scholarship 6 (1989): 455-65.

Cain, Seymour. "Mircea Eliade, the Iron Guard, and Romanian Anti-Semitism." Midstream 35 (November 1989): 27-31.

"Centenary of the University of Gottingen." Nature 139 (April 24, 1937): 701- 03.

Crosby, Donald F. "Boston's Catholics and the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939." New England Quarterly 44 (March 1971): 82-100.

Feuer, Lewis S. "The Stages in the Social History of Jewish Professors in American Colleges and Universities." American Jewish History 71 (June 1982): 432- 65.

Greenberg, Michael, and Seymour Zenchelsky. "The Confrontation with Nazism at Rutgers: Academic Bureaucracy and Moral Failure." History of Education Quarterly 30 (Fall 1990): 325-49.

"Letter to the Editor." History of Education Quarterly 31 (Summer 1991): 318.

"Private Bias and Public Responsibility: Anti-Semitism at Rutgers in the 1920S and 1930s." History of Education Quarterly 33 (Fall 1993): 295-319.

Hawkins, Richard A. "Hitler's Bitterest Foe: Samuel Untermyer and the Boycott of Nazi Germany, 1933-1938." American Jewish History 93 (March 2007): 21-50.

Lamberti, Marjorie. "The Reception of Refugee Scholars from Nazi Germany in America: Philanthropy and Social Change in Higher Education." Jewish Social Studies 12 (Spring/Summer 2006): 157-92.

Norwood, Stephen H. "Complicity and Conflict: Columbia University's Response to Fascism, 1933-1937." Modern Judaism 27 (October 2007): 253-83.

"Legitimating Nazism: Harvard University and the Hitler Regime, 1933- 1937." American Jewish History 92 (June 2004): 189-223.

Tuttle, William M., Jr., "American Higher Education and the Nazis: The Case of James B. Conant and Harvard University's 'Diplomatic Relations' with Germany." American Studies 20 (Spring 1979): 49-70.

Valaik, J. David. "In the Days Before Ecumenicism: American Catholicism, Anti- Semitism, and the Spanish Civil War." Journal of Church and State 13 (1971): 465-77.

Magazine Articles (Signed)

Adams, Frances. "Junior Year in Munich." Mount Holyoke Alumnae Quarterly, May 1938.

Bergel, Lienhard. "Nazi Activities in American Colleges." Jewish Criterion, April 3, 1936.

Bliven, Bruce. "For 'Nordics' Only." New Republic, December 8, 1947.

Brauer, Jerald C. "Mircea Eliade and the Divinity School." Criterion, Autumn 1985.

Chase, Roger. "Academic Napoleons No. Ill: Nicholas Murray Butler." Student Advocate, April 1936.

Farrell, James T. "An 'International Showcase.'" Student Advocate, December 1936.

Fisher, Barbara E. Scott. "Notes of a Cosmopolitan." North American Review, March 1934.

Hamilton, Alice. "Woman's Place in Nazi Germany." Advance, February 1934.

Leonard, William. "Italy's Second Embassy." Student Review, December 1934.

Manea, Norman. "Happy Guilt: Mircea Eliade, Fascism, and the Unhappy Fate of Romania." New Republic, August 5, 1991.

Marden, Laura. "The First Junior Year in Italy." Smith Alumnae Quarterly, November 1932.

Neilson, William Allan. "The Juniors Abroad." Smith Alumnae Quarterly, May 1937.

Patterson, Laurence K. "Salazar, the Inspirer of Portugal's New State." America, December 18, 1937.

Reynolds, Agnes, Florence J. Cole, Ruth Robinson, and Catherine Elliott, "We Went to Germany." Vassar Review, Freshman 1935.

Rubin, Ruth. "I Heckled Luther." Student Review, January 1934.

Sonnert, Gerhard, and Gerald Holton. '''The Grand Wake for Harvard Indifference': How Harvard and Radcliffe Students Aided Young Refugees from the Nazis." Harvard Magazine, September-October 2006.

Special Investigator. "Fascism at Columbia University." Nation, November 7, 1934.

Stoke, Stuart M. "Germany in the Summer of 1934." Mount Holyoke Alumnae Quarterly, November 1934.

Thompson, Dorothy. "Germany Is a Prison." Opinion, March 1934.

Van Paassen, Pierre. "Silence Is Criminal." Opinion, November 1933.

Wechsler, James A. "The Education of Bob Burke." Student Advocate, October-November 1936.

Zukerman, William. "Jews and the Fate of Poland." Nation, April 2, 1938.

Zylberman, Michael. "Concern from Afar: The Participation of 'Yeshiva' Students and Faculty in World War II Service and Holocaust Relief and Rescue Efforts, 1936-1947." Chronos, 2000.

Magazine Articles (Unsigned)

"American Hebrew Medal to Toscanini." American Hebrew, February 4, 1938.

"American Scholars and Gottingen." New Republic, April 28, 1937.

"Arizona Plagued by Nazi Apologist." American Hebrew, March 29, 1935.

"Chicago Bars Film Showing Hitler Terror." Jewish Criterion, April 27, 1934.

"Correspondence: Salvemini and the Casa." Nation, January 30, 1935.

"Germany: The Goettingen Celebration." American Hebrew, July 2, 1937.

"Hail Toscanini!" American Hebrew, August 7, 1936.

"Items of Interest." Jewish Veteran, May 1933.

"The Juniors Abroad." Smith Alumnae Quarterly, May 1931.

"Library of Banned Books Inaugurated Here." American Hebrew, December 28, 1934.

Nation, February 27, 1935.

New Republic, March 18, 1936.

"President Butler and Fascism." Nation, November 14, 1934.

"Toscanini's Artistic Integrity Calls Attention to Nazi 'Gleischschaltung.''' American Hebrew, January 8, 1937.

"They're Not All Cowpunchers." Jewish Criterion, February 1, 1935.

"Unity Against Fascism." Student Outlook, October 1934.

Unpublished Manuscript

Ioanid, Radu. "Mircea Eliade and Fascism - Myth and Reality," n.d.

Class Report

Entry for Ernst Hanfstaengl, Harvard College, 25th Anniversary Report, Class of 1909, Harvard University Archives, Pusey Library, Cambridge, Mass.

Pamphlet

Prago, Albert. "Jews in the International Brigades in Spain." A Jewish Currents reprint, 1979.

Reports

"Academic Freedom and Tenure: St. Louis University" in Bulletin of the American Association of University Professors, vol. XXV, no. 5, December 1939.

"Report of the President of Columbia University for the Year Ending June 30, 1936" in Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1936. Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library, Low Library, New York, N.Y.

"Report of the President of Columbia University for the Year Ending June 30, 1937" in Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1937. Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library, Low Library, New York, N.Y.
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Re: The Third Reich in the Ivory Tower: Complicity and Confl

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Index

Aaronson, David, 163
Abrams, Samuel, 43, 117
Adams, Frances, 131
Adams, John, 147
Adams, Marta, 45
Adenauer, Konrad, 245, 247, 248,
249, 250
Albert I, King, 88
Albert Shaw lectures, T37
Alden, Rudolf, 224
Alexander, Thomas, 83, 85
Alexandria, Egypt, torching of library,
75
Allied Dental Council, 27
Alsace-Lorraine, 135
America First Committee, 69, 150
American academic tour of Nazi
Germany (1934), 119-21, 176
American Association of University
Professors (AAUP), 214, 215
American Civil Liberties Union
(ACLU), 85, 99, 191
and Lienhard Bergel case, 181, 187
American Committee Against Fascist
Oppression in Germany, 85
American Federation of Labor (AFL),
10, 26, 40, 41, 231
American Federation of Teachers, 26
American Historical Association, 4,
137
American Historical Review, 134
American Jewish Committee (AJC), 6,
94
American Jewish Congress
(AJCongress), 7, 12, 14, 17, 20,
21, 32, 39, 40, 41, 43, 76, 81,
121
and Lienhard Bergel case, 193
American Legion, 193
condemns paroling of Sepp
Dietrich, 247
American Library of Nazi Banned
Books, 87, 88
American Society for Race Tolerance,
225
American Spanish Relief Fund,
212
American Student Union (ASU), 98,
233
American University, 38, T37, 138,
146
Ames, Herbert Brown, 147, 148
Amherst College, 147
Anderson, Jane, 212
Anderson, Maxwell, 99
Angell, James Rowland, 24
and Berlin Olympics, 68, 69
disinterest in refugee scholars, 32
refuses to speak at anti-Nazi
meeting, 15
Angell, James Rowland (cant.)
and University of Heidelberg
controversy, 60, 66, 68, 70
welcomes Italian Fascist student
delegation, 57, 58
Anglo-Saxon Federation, 149
Anschluss, 220, 226, 241
Anti-Defamation League (ADL), 22
Antonescu, Ion, 252, 253
Arcand, Adrian, 154
Arctowsky, Henryk, 129, 130
Armao, Ermanne, 59
Aryan physics, 62, 63
Ashmead, J. Edward, 169, 182, 188
atomic bomb, Nazi Germany's effort
to build, 65, 243, 244
Atwood, Mary, 186
Auhagen, Friedrich, 142, 148, 150,
151, 153, 154, 156, T65
arrest and conviction of, 155, 156
deportation of, 156
Auschwitz, 243
Austria, 144, 174, 192, 233
Anschluss, 226
Salzburg Festival, 23
Austria-Hungary, 218
Austrian National Library, 220,
226-28, 241
Avukah, 233
Axis Sally, 167, 168
Aydelotte, Frank, 24
Bacon, Grace M., 106, 108, 126,
128
Baldwin, Roger, 181
Bamberger, Louis, 8, 237
Bamberger's department store, 18
Barbour, Clarence A., 24
Barnard Bulletin, 82, 117
Barnard Club, 108
Barnard College, 86, 90, 91, 93, 104,
105, 106, 117, 130, 178, 236
anti-Nazi protest at, 84, 117, 234
discrimination against Jewish
applicants, 105
proportion of Jews in student body,
106
student exchanges with Nazi
Germany, 60, 82
and University of Heidelberg
controversy, 95
Barnard, Chester I., 237
Barnes, Harry Elmer, 134, 135
at University of Virginia Institute of
Public Affairs symposium, 141,
154
Barron, Jennie Loitman, 43
Battle of the Bulge, 246, 248
Beale, Howard K., 138, T39
Beck, Fritz, 123
Becker, Joan, 112
Beer Hall Putsch, 48, 124, 246
Beichman, Arnold, 80
Belgium, 87, 88
German conquest of, 135
Belloc, Hillaire, 211
Bellow, Saul, 255
Benedict, Ruth, 100
Benes, Edward, 148
Bennington College, 159
Bensinger, Noel, 27
Benson, Adolph Bennett, 165
Bergel, Lienhard, 168, 169, 171, 172,
174, 175, 177, 178, 179, 180,
181, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187,
188, 189, 190, 192, 193, 194
in Breslau, 178
career after NJC, 193
praised by Jewish community, 192,
193
testimony before Special Trustees
Committee, 182
Bergel, Sylvia Cook, 177, 178, 179,
180, 181, 182, 189, 191
Bergius, Friedrich, 65
Bergmann, Max, 38, 39
Berlin, Germany, 2, 5, 7, 10, 11, 15,
26, 27, 78, 109, 119, 124, 137,
138, 142, 150, 151, 168, 173,
194, 200, 231
American newspaper reports from,
3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 27, 75
anti-Jewish boycott in, 3, 4
Catholic bishop of, 197
Catholic youth of, 197
Harvard Club of, 55
International Prison Congress in, 65
Jane Anderson broadcasts from, 212
July 1935 antisemitic riots, 60, 73
Kristallnacht in, 241
Olympics, 20, 68, 69, 70, 98, 202
Bessarabia, 251
Bigongiari, Dino, 90
Bingham, William J., 69
Birchall, Frederick T., 4, 73, 124
Birkhoff, George D., 60, 67
Black Death, 2
Blackwell, Alice Stone, 16, 17
Blanc, Giuseppe, 205
Blitz, Anna, 164
Blomberg, Werner von, 46
blood libel and ritual murder
accusations against Jews, 10, 11,
12, 171, 197
Boas, Franz, 70, 76, 82, 84, 88, 94,
95, 100, 211
Bodansky, Arthur, 22
Boesche, A. W., 166
Bohr, Niels, 100
book burnings, Nazi, 18, 61, 75, 83,
84, 85, 88, 94, 95, 112, 118, 173,
227
Austrian National Library and, 227,
228
Borchardt, Selma M., 26
Born, Max, 61, 70
Bosporus, 135
Boston College, 58, 202, 205
welcomes Italian Fascist student
delegation, 205
Boston University, 17, 58, 68, 222
anti-Nazi protest rally at (1933), 17
Bowman, Isaiah, 31, 223, 241
boycott of German goods and services,
12, 14, 15, 18, 19, 26, 27, 32, 34,
40, 45, 81, 114, 131, 142, 144,
159, 187, 199, 231, 232
denounced by Henry Cadbury, 111
impact on German shipping, 81, 82
violation by university presidents,
19, 20, 34, 81, 82, 93
boycott of Jewish businesses by Nazis,
3, 4, 16, 22, 37, 48, 197
Brauer, Jerald C., 254
Braun, William A., 178
Braunstein, Baruch, 117
Bremen, 20
Bremen, Germany, 201
Breslau, Germany, 178
Breslauer Neueste Nachrichten, 179
Brest-Litovsk, Treaty of, 153
Brett, Philip M., 182
Brewster, Kingman, Jr., 255
Brin, Alexander, 7, 9
Britain, 8, 39, 72, 73, 79, 93, 135,
136, 143, 147, 151, 152, 153,
178, 206, 208, 229, 239, 244
anti-Nazi protest in, 25, 26, 115
and Berlin Olympics, 70
Conservative Party in, 229
and Nazi war criminals, 244
ritual murder accusation in, 171
and University of Heidelberg
controversy, 63, 64
British Israelite movement, 149
British Museum, 64
Brooklyn College, 237
Brooklyn Jewish Center, 88
Brooklyn Public Library, 227
Brooklyn Tablet, 209
Broun, Heywood, 50
Browder, Earl, 151
Brown House, 5
Brown University, 24, 58, 116, 117,
118, 215, 222
Brunauer, Esther Caukin, 115
Brundage, Avery, 69
Bryn Mawr College, 105, 106, 110,
111, 116, 222, 238, 239
Fascist Italy's ambassador speaks at,
111
Kristallnacht protest, 234
and Oberammergau Passion Play,
122
refugee scholars at, 111
student exchanges with Nazi
Germany, 60, 111, 124, 125,
126, 129
Bucharest, Romania, 251
slaughter of Jews in, 252, 256
Treaty of, 15 2
Bulgaria, 217
Bundestag, 245
Burger, Lilli, 105
Burke, Robert, 97, 98, 99, 100, 102
Burns, James MacGregor, 227
Butler, Nicholas Murray, 35, 77, 78,
81, 82, 87, 89, 102, 161, 241
antisemitism of, 79, 80, 81, 102
and Berlin Olympics, 68
and Casa Italiana, 89, 90, 91, 92
comments on Fascist Italy, 93, 101
comments on Nazi Germany, 78,
93, 101
denounced by American Committee
Against Fascist Oppression in
Gcrmany, 85
and expulsion of Robert Burke, 98,
99, 100
and Harvard tercentenary, 66
and Kristallnacht, 101
and Louvain Library campaign, 87,
88
relationship with Mussolini, 79, 89,
90, 91, 92, 93
sails on German liners, 19, 82
termination of Jerome Klein, 86, 87
and University of Goettingen
controversy, 100, 101
and University of Heidelberg
controversy, 60, 66, 67, 68, 70,
93, 94, 95, 96, 97
and University of Virginia Institute
of Public Affairs, 139
welcomes Nazi Germany's
ambassador to campus, 76, 77,
83, 84, 85
Buxton, Frank W., 27
Cadbury, Henry, 111
Caetani, Gaetano, 111
Cagney, James, 208
California Institute of Technology,
222
Cambridge city council, 66
Cameron, William J., 149, 150
Canada, 255
Iron Guard exiles in, 254
Cantor, Eddie, 234
Cantwell, John J., 213
Carmody, Martin H., 210
Carnegie Foundation for International
Peace, 19, 78
Carol II, King, 252, 254
Carroll, Paul Vincent, 225
Cassirer, Ernst, 61
Castiello, Jaime, 211
Castle, William, 150, 151
Catholic University of America, 137,
215, 229
rector meets with Mussolini, 206
rector supports Franco, 210
and University of Heidelberg
controversy, 204
welcomes Hans Luther, 202
welcomes Italian Fascist student
delegation, 205
Catholic University of Milan, 206
Catt, Carrie Chapman, 26
Center party (Germany), 198
Central Conference of American
Rabbis, 111
Century of Progress exposition
Hitler sends an emissary to, 22
Romance of a People, The, at, 24
threatened boycott of, 26
Chalmers, Thomas, 17
Chamberlain, Neville, 128, 151, 152
Chaplin, W. W., 207
Chase, Harry Woodburn, 41, 139,
185, 222
Chase, Roger, 81, 95
chemistry, 38, 94
antisemitism in, 38, 39
Chemnitz, Germany, 3
City College of New York (CCNY),
99, 237
City University of New York,
Graduate Center, 193
Civilta cattolica, 198, 207
Clark, Evalyn, 171, 184, 188
Clark, William, 245, 246
Clothier, Robert c., 169, 176, 177,
181, 190, 191, 192, 193, 236
Codreanu, Corneliu, 250, 251
Coker, Francis W., 140
Colby College, 164
Colorado State College of Education,
155
Columbia University (CU), 34, 35, 66,
129, 139, 160, 167, 193, 210,
211, 218, 241
and Berlin Olympics, 68
Casa Italiana, 79, 91-93, 109
controversy over expulsion of
Robert Burke, 97-100
Deutsches Haus, 83, 93
discrimination against Jewish
applicants, 79, 80, 169
disinterest in refugee scholars, 76
Fine Arts Department, 85, 86, 87
ignores boycott of German goods
and services, 19
Jewish Students Society, 76
League for Industrial Democracy,
77
Menorah Society, 117
New College, 83
Seth Low College, 142
Social Problems Club, 76
Spectator, 35, 76, 78, 80, 81, 83,
84, 87, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 98,
100, 101
student exchanges with Nazi
Germany, 59, 82, 201
and University of Goettingen
controversy, 100-01
and University of Heidelberg
controversy, 60, 66, 67, 93-98,
166
welcomes Nazi ambassador, 76, 77,
85, 117
Zoology Department, 83
Committee for Industrial
Organization (CIO), 99, 100
Communism, 39, 100, 110, 117, 120,
138, 140, 143, 151, 153, 196,
200, 201, 206, 209, 211, 212,
225
Catholic association of Spanish
Loyalists with, 208, 209, 211, 212
Meyer Schapiro accused of, 87
Nazi association of Jews with, 49,
109, 114, 173
and World Youth Congress, 229,
230
Community Church, 3
Compton, Karl, 16, 238
and University of Goettingen
controversy, 71
Comstock, Ada, 109, 164, 191
Conant, James Bryant, 31, 34, 36, 37,
38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 44, 53, 54, 55,
57, 59, 73, 241, 245
antisemitism of, 36, 37, 38, 39, 66
and Berlin Olympics, 68
disinterest in refugee scholars, 33,
36
encourages parole of Nazi war
criminals, 35, 243, 244, 245,
246, 247, 248, 249
and Harvard tercentenary, 66, 68
and Kristallnacht, 232, 233
on postwar Germany, 248, 250
and refugee policy, 239, 240
sails on German liner, 19
silence on Karlsruhe visit, 37, 42
and University of Goettingen
controversy, 37, 70, 71, 72
and University of Heidelberg
controversy, 37, 60, 64, 65, 66,
67, 68, 70, 71, 94
welcomes Italian Fascists to
Harvard, 58, 59
welcomes Nazi leaders to Harvard,
37, 49, 50, 53, 57, 58
concentration camps, S, 29, 34, 41,
42, 84, 112
Friedrich Schoenemann on, 27, 28
Gerhart Seger on, 78
and Kristallnacht, 101, 127, 231
Kurt Rosenfeld on, 29
Oranienburg, 78, 103
in Spanish Morocco, 209
Congress for Health and Hygiene, 65
Connecticut College for Women, 119
322 Index
Conservative Party (Britain), 229
Cook, Sylvia. See Bergel, Sylvia Cook
Cooper, William Alpha, 166
Copeland, Royal, 15
Cornell University, 73, 222, 237
and University of Goettingen
controversy, 166
and University of Heidelberg
controversy, 94, 166
Corrigan, Joseph
meets with Mussolini, 206
supports Franco, 210
Corwin, Margaret T., 169, 177, 179,
180, 181, 182, 190, 191, 192
antisemitism of, 169
Corwin, Robert N., 169
Costigan, Edward P., 29
Counts, George, 211
Courant, Richard, 61, 70
Cowdrey, Bartlett, 186
Coykendall, Frederick, 93
Crimmins, Harry B., 214, 215
Croce, Benedetto, 193
Crowley, Jim, 202
Crown, The, 224, 226
Cuba, 241
Culemann, Helgo W., 147, 148
Cumberland, W. W., 140, 141
Curley, James Michael, 16, 17
Curley, Michael J., 229
Curts, Paul H., 165
Cutler, Addison, 87
Cutler, Elliott Carr, 49, 50
Cuvantul (The Word), 251
Czechoslovakia, 136, 148, 217
Gerhart Seger's escape to, 78
Toni Sender's escape to, 103
Dabney, Virginius, 144, 145
Daily Cardinal, 162
Daily Princetonian
and Austrian ational Library, 227
and Berlin Olympics, 69, 70
Daly, Reginald Aldworth, 67
Danube Valley, 217
Danubian Congress at Fordham, 216,
217, 218, 221
Dark Ages, Nazi rule compared to,
21, 76, 131
Darrow, Clarence, 29
Dartmouth College, 24
German Club, 159, 164
and Karlsruhe visit to Boston, 44,
159
Davis, James J., 27
Davis, Philip H., 238
Dawidowicz, Lucy S., 253
D-Day, 168
Deak, Francis, 218
Dearborn Independent, 149
de Bessenyey, Gabor, 217, 218
de Bianchi, Joao, 216
de Llano, Queipo, 209
Dell, Robert, 10, 231
Denmark, 135
Dennett, Tyler, 59, 68
Dennis, Lawrence, 153
Der Angriff, 2
Der Sturmer, 11
ritual murder edition, 10, I I, 124
Deutsch, Bernard, 12, 14
Deutsche Akademie (German
Academy), 191
Dewey, John, 211
Dewey, Thomas E., 231
Dexter, Robert C., 116
Dickinson College, 146
Dickstein, Samuel, 82, 140, 160
Dieckhoff, Hans, 231
Dies, Martin, 154
Dies Committee. See House
Committee on Un-American
Activities
Dietrich, Josef "Sepp," 246, 247, 248
Diez, Max, 111, 126, 129
Dillard, Hardy C., 150, 156
Dinsmoor, William B., 85, 86, 87
Dobeneck, Henning von, 114
Dodd, Martha, 4, 310
Dodd, William E., 4, 27, 125, 137,
138, 306
Dorchester (Boston, Massachusetts),
39, 40
Doty, William, 212
Index 323
Douglas, Archibald, 93, 94
Douglas, Helen, 238
Douglas, James H., 253
Douglass, Mabel, 169, 177
antisemitism of, 169, 171
Drew University, 27
du Pont, Mrs. Alfred 1., 129
du Pont, Pierre S., 107
Du Pont corporation, 38, 39
Duggan, Stephen, 59, 60, 122, 123,
222, 223
Dulles, John Foster, 244, 247
Dunst, lIse, 82
Durling, Dwight, 224
Earle, Jean M., 172
Edmond, Olga, 113
Einsatzgruppen, 252
Einstein, Albert, 8, 61, 75, 93, 204
attends The Romance of a People,
25
confiscation of property by Nazis, 7
decision not to attend Harvard
tercentenary, 66
denounced by Friedrich
Schoenemann, 109
exile of, 7, 188
and Library of Nazi Banned Books,
88
property confiscated by Nazis, 28
resignation from Prussian Academy
of Sciences, 7
Eliade, Mircea, 35, 250-56
Elliot, Charles, 5
Elliott, Catherine, 112, 113
Ellwangen, Germany, 11
Ely, Joseph, 42
Emeny, Brooks, 154
Emergency Committee in Aid of
Displaced German Scholars (EC),
31, 32, 33
England. See Britain
Engle, Evelyn, 183
Engler, Ursula, 116
Estonia, annihilation of Jews in, 244
Ethiopia, Italy's invasion of, 148, 196,
204, 207, 208, 219
Europa, 19, 20
Evans, Elizabeth Glendower, 234
Evans, Richard, 62
expulsion of Jewish faculty in
Germany, 2, 4, 16, 29, 30, 61,
62, 63, 70, 76, 84, 100, 110, 135,
197
expulsion of Polish-born Jews from
Germany, 230
expulsion of the Jews from Spain
(1492), 117
Fackenthal, Frank D., 93, 94
Faneuil Hall, 16
Farrand, Livingston, 166, 222
Farrell, James T., 98
Fascist League of North America, 90
Faulkner, Harold U., 134
Faust, A. B., 73, 166
Fay, Sidney Bradshaw, 133, 134, 135,
136
Fellowship of Reconciliation, 122
Feuchtwanger, Lion, 2, 274
Fischer, Louis, 153
Fleisher, Moyer Springer, 213, 214,
215
Flexner, Abraham, 7
Florence, Italy, 89, 206
Ford, Henry, 149
Ford Hall Forum
Friedrich Schoenemann at, 27, 28
William L. Shirer at, 250
Fordham University, 137, 139, 202,
203, 204, 208
awards honorary degree to Fascist
Italy's ambassador, 207
Danubian Congress, 216-18, 221
forum on Hitler, 201
German Club, 203
honors Antonio de Oliveira Salazar,
216
Italian Department, 206, 207
and Spanish Civil War, 209, 210,
211, 212, 213, 215
Foreign Alien and Registration Act,
155, 156
Fourteen Points, 136
France, 62, 79, 93, 116, 134, 135,
143, 147, 168, 206, 217
and Berlin Olympics, 70
German invasion of, 135, 136
Nazi deportations of Jews to
Auschwitz, 243
and Nazi war criminals, 244
refugees in, 5, 7
and Saar, 198
Smith junior year program in, 107
Franck, James, 61, 70
Franco, Francisco, 35, 153, 199, 208,
209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 215,
216, 219, 251
Franconia, Germany, 10, 11
Frank, Glenn, 139, 160, 161, 162
Frankfurter, Felix, 57
Frankfurter Rundschau, 245
Freud, Sigmund, 75
Fricke, Marjorie, 183, 188
Friedman, Marion Siegel, 171, 185
Frisch, L. H., 163
Fuld, Caroline Bamberger, 8
Gaiss, Aloysius G., 166
Gannon, Robert I., 206, 211, 217
as admirer of Antonio de Oliveira
Salazar, 2 16
antisemitism of, 203
and Fordham Danubian Congress,
217
and Spanish Civil War, 209, 210,
212, 215
Gassner, John W., 225
Gaudin, Harold, 210
Gay, Peter, 241
Geiser, Karl F., 140, 141, 157
Gemelli, Augusto, 206
Genesis of the World War, The, 134
Gentile, Giovanni, 90
Genzeloff, Leo, 16o, 161
Georgetown University, 137, 153,
200, 202, 206, 207, 215, 217
and Spanish fascism, 208, 211
welcomes Italian Fascist student
delegation, 205
George Washington University, 125
awards honorary degree to Mircea
Eliade, 255
Gerard, James W., 131
German-American Bund, 187
German Day celebrations
in New York, 95
in San Francisco, 26
German House
at New Jersey College for Women,
168, 172, 177, 180, 183, 185,
186, 187, 188, 189, 193
at University of Wisconsin, 161, 162
Germanic Museum, Harvard
University, 33, 45
German Library of Information, 156
German Railroads Company, 144
German Railroads Information Office,
156
Gestapo, 192
Gildersleeve, Virginia C., 91, 93, 104,
105, 108, 236
anti-Zionism of, 130
reduces Jewish admissions to
Barnard, 105
Gillars, Mildred E. See Axis Sally
Globke, Hans, 248, 249
Goebbels, Josef, I, 2, 60, 67, 120,
149, 150, 154
and book burnings, 75
at University of Heidelberg 550th
anniversary celebration, 95, 97
Goering, Hermann, 1
Golden, Collette, 212
Goldsborough, Phillips Lee, 15
Gooch, R. K., 148, 149, 150
Gottheil, Richard, 94
Gottschalk, Emilie, 114
Gourley, William B., 170
Graduate Faculty of Political and
Social Science, 31, 65, 88, 177
Graham, Frank P., 24, 222
Grandi, Dino, 92
Grand Service Cross of the Supreme
Order of the German Eagle, 149
Gratwick, Lisa, 125
Gray, Hanna Holborn, 254, 255
Gray, Joseph M. M., 38, 138, 139
Green, William, 26, 40, 231
and Nazi labor policies, 10
Greene, Jerome D., 72
Greenough, Mary Anne, 125
Griffith, Ernest, 137, 138
Groh, Wilhelm, 61, 97
Grossman, Bernard A., 204
Grynszpan, Herschel, 230
Dorothy Thompson's appeal for,
232, 233
Guernica, bombing of, 211
Guilday, Peter, 210
Halle, Hiram, 30
Halpern, Benjamin, 49
Halsey, Margaret C., 129, 130
Ham, Roswell, 106, 128, 236
Haman, 1
Hamburg, Germany, 115, 165
Hamburg-American line, 20, 81,
82
Hamilton, Alice, 10
Hammarskjold, Dag, 245
Hanfstaengl, Ernst, 37
antisemitism of, 48, 49, 55
Cambridge, Mass. protests against,
52, 54
challenged by Rabbi Shubow, 52
contribution to Nazi party, 48
denounced by Baltimore Sun, 50
family background, 48
financial assistance to Nazi party,
48
friendship with Hitler, 48, 49
and Hans Westmar, 49
New York protest against, 50
opens Nuremberg convention, 55
praised by Harvard Crimson, 50
rejection of scholarship offer, 55,
56, 59, 65
at University of Heidelberg 550th
anniversary celebration, 67
welcomed to Harvard, 37, 47, 48,
49, 50, 51, 52, 57, 58, 73
Hans Westmar, 49
Harlow, Dick, 202
Harriman, G. E., 65
Harvard Committee to Aid German
Student Refugees, 233, 234, 240
Harvard Lampoon, 44
Harvard University, 19, 31, 34, 35,
80, 92, 202, 241, 243, 246
and Austrian National Library, 227,
228, 241
and Berlin Olympics, 68, 69
Carl Friedrich von Weizsaecker at,
243, 244
Crimson, 20, 35, 41, 42, 44, 45, 47,
50, 55, 56, 58, 59, 65, 69, 72, 73,
95, 135, 228, 233, 239
debate on Hitler, 40
discrimination against Jews in
student admissions and faculty
hiring, 36, 38, 169
disinterest in refugee scholars, 32,
33, 36
Friedrich Schoenemann at, 27
German Club, 164
James Bryant Conant lectures on
postwar Germany at, 248
and Karlsruhe visit, 37, 42, 43, 44,
45, 46, 159
and Kristallnacht, 232, 233
Law School, 56, 57
receives Italian Fascist diplomats, 59
and refugee students, 233, 234,
238, 240
student band performs on German
vessel, 20
student exchanges with Nazi
Germany, 37, 59, 82
swastika wreath ceremony, 58, 59
tercentenary celebration, 37, 65, 66,
68, 72
and University of Goettingen
controversy, 37, 39, 70, 71, 72
and University of Heidelberg
controversy, 37, 39, 60, 63, 64,
65, 66, 67, 68, 94
welcomes Ernst Hanfstaengl, 37,
47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 57,
58, 73
welcomes Italian Fascist student
delegation, 58
Harvard University (cont.)
welcomes Nazi ambassador, 45
World War I revisionism at, 133,
134
Hatfield, Blanche, 130
Hatfield, Henry, 200
Hauptmann, Friedrich J., 168, 172,
173, 177, 179, 180, 181, 182,
183, 184, , 85, 187, 188, 189,
190, 191, 192, 193
Hauptmann, Marie, 177, 180, 183,
184, 186, 187, 190, 194
Hawkes, Herbert E.
and expulsion of Robert Burke, 97,
98
officially greets Italian Fascist
student delegation at Columbia,
91
Hayes, Carlton J. H., 210
Hayes, Marian, 122
Hayes, Patrick, 204, 208, 209, 211
Hays, Arthur Garfield
on American Inquiry Commission,
29
as attorney for Robert Burke, 98, 99
Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid
Society, 17
Heckscher, August, 190
Heine, Heinrich, 67, 75
Heisenberg, Werner, 65, 243
Hemmendinger, Henry, , 28
Hessler, P. C., 159
Hickman, Emily, 176
Hicks, John D., 161, 162
Higgins, Thomas J., 200, 210
Hill, Claude, 192
Hillel
assists refugee students, 237, 242
protest against Hans Luther visit to
University of Wisconsin, 160
Himmler, Heinrich, 67
Hitler, Adolf, 1, 8, 16, 17, 22, 24, 27,
28, 29, 41, 44, 56, 62, 64, 67, 73,
75, 76, 78, 79, 81, 82, 83, 100,
101, 102, 103, 105, 107, 108,
109, 111, 112, 113, 114, 118,
130, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137,
138, 143, 144, 145, 147, 149,
151, 152, 153, 154, 156, 157,
160, 161, 163, 164, 167, 168,
171, 172, 174, 175, 178, 187,
189, 194, 197, 200, 201, 202,
203, 204, 212, 221, 227, 232,
241, 243, 245, 248, 250
antisemitism of, 15, 48, 50, 135,
148, 183, 197
attends and endorses
Oberammergau Passion Play,
121, 131
conversation with James G.
McDonald, 5, 6
friendship with Ernst Hanfstaengl,
47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 55, 58
friendship with Ion Antonescu,
252
Harvard debate on, 40
honors American professors, 166
militarism of, 41, 198
and Munich Conference, 128
and Night of the Long Knives, 122
and 9th of November ceremony,
124, 125
occupation of Rhineland, 41, 42,
60, 126
praised by Karlsruhe's officers and
crewmen, 42
Sepp Dietrich and, 246, 247
Hitler regime, 4, 9, 65, 79, 105, 106,
109, 110, 111, 115, 131, 132,
133, 136, 142, 145, 155, 166,
167, 176, 190, 191, 194, 196,
199, 203, 204, 218, 227, 248
American protests against, 10, 15,
16, 17, 19, 21, 22, 23, 30, 33, 40,
41, 45, 50, 53, 82, 83, 118, 131,
160, 161, 163, 164, 192, 228,
232, 238, 241
anti-intellectualism of, 7, 22, 85
antisemitism of, 6, 7, 9, 15, 16, 17,
21, 22, 23, 33, 34, 42, 60, 61, 68,
76, 78, 103, 114, 120, 161, 188,
192, 197, 218, 238
arrest and expulsion of Noel Panter,
8
Arturo Toscanini's protest against,
22, 23
boycott of Jewish businesses, 3
closing of Jewish businesses, 8
Concordat with Vatican, 196, 197
condemned by Albert Einstein, 7
condemned by Ernst Toller, 225
defended at Ford Hall Forum,
27-28
defended on American campus, 16,
22, 38, 41, 57, 82, 105, 108, 109,
110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 116,
117, 118, 119, 120, 131, 137,
138, 140, 142, 143, 144, 145,
147, 148, 152, 157, 158, 159,
160, 164, 165, 168, 169, 171,
172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 182,
183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 189,
190, 192, 193, 194, 195, 199,
200, 201, 202, 218, 226, 235
discharges Jews from civil service, 4
expulsion of Dorothy Thompson,
114, 232
Friedrich Hauptmann's service to,
191, 192
Kristallnacht, 230, 231, 232, 238
militarism of, 8, 103
and Olympics, 64, 68, 69
persecution of Albert Einstein, 8,
188
praised by Karlsruhe's officers and
crewmen, 42
and University of Goettingen
bicentennial celebration, 73
and University of Heidelberg 550th
anniversary celebration, 60, 64,
67
university quota for women, 103,
104, 105
use of Oberammergau Passion Play,
11, 121
wartime atomic bomb project, 244
World Youth Congress and, 220,
229
Hitler Youth, 146, 147, 220, 229, 230
Hodges, Henry G., 144
Hoffman, Harold G., 187
Hoffman, Milton J., 173
Hohlfeld, A. R., 160, 161, 162
Hollis, Christopher, 207
Hollmann, Werner, 190, 191, 194
Holmes, John Haynes, 3, 10
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr., 57
Holt, William Leland, 49
Holzmann, Albert, 172, 173, 176, 192
Hook, Sidney, 181
Hopkins, Ernest M., 24
Horst Wessel song, 45, 62, 73, 186,
188
House, Edward, 137
House Committee on Un-American
Activities, 154, 155
Howe, Quincy, 156
Hullihen, Walter, 118, 122, 123
Hungary, 217
antisemitism in, 221, 222
and Fordham Danubian Congress,
217, 218
Hunter College, 166, 167, 168
Hurley, Charles F., 231
Hutchins, Robert Maynard, 29, 30,
235, 236
sails on German liners, 19, 20
Hyde, Charles, 84
Immigration and Naturalization
Service, 239
Ingersoll, Raymond V., 88, 227
Institute for Advanced Study,
Princeton, New Jersey, 7, 61, 93
Institute of International Education,
59, 122, 123, 222
Intercollegiate Committee to Aid
Student Refugees (ICASR), 238,
239
International Brigades, 209
International Federation of University
Women, 105
International Labor Defense, 233
International League for the Rights of
Man, 245
International Prison Congress, 65
Interscholastic Federation of German
Clubs, 159
Ionescu, Nae, 251, 252, 255
Iron Guard, 252, 254
antisemitism of, 250, 251, 252
atrocities against Jews, 252, 253,
256
exiles, 254
Mircea Eliade and, 35, 250, 212,
255, 256
and Spanish Civil War, 251
isolationism, 153
denounced by Edgar Ansel Mowrer,
156
denounced by Franklin D.
Roosevelt, I 53
and Glenn Frank, 161
James B. Conant and, 73
at University of Virginia Institute of
Public Affairs symposium, 153,
156
and World War I revisionism,
134
and World Youth Congress, 229
Italian Fascist student delegation
participates in track meet with New
England colleges, 58
welcomed by Catholic universities,
205
welcomed by Columbia, 90, 91
welcomed by Harvard, 58
welcomed by Vassar, 109
welcomed by Yale, 57
Italy's racial (antisemitic) legislation,
127
Jaeger, R. L., 160, 162
Japan, 70, 93, 101, 155, 229
Jaszi, Oscar, 153
Javits, Jacob, 245
Jefferson, Thomas, 145, 146
Jewish fraternities and sororities,
assistance to refugee students,
237, 242
Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA), 9,
209
Jewish War Veterans of the United
States of America (JWV), 12, 14,
18, 81
Johns Hopkins University (JHU), 31,
137, 223, 241
Johnson, Alvin, 30, 31, 32, 65, 88,
177
Jones, R. W., 159
Jordan, Emil Leopold, 171, 172, 177,
182, 183, 188, 192, 194
Junior Year in Munich, Inc., 105, 106,
111, 122, 124, 126, 127, 128,
129, 131
Kallen, Horace, 181
Kaplan, Mordecai, 1
Kaplan, Sidney, 187
Karlsruhe, 42-47
cadets welcomed by Wellesley, 117
role in Spanish Civil War and
World War II, 46
welcomed by Boston/Cambridge,
37, 46
welcomed by college German clubs,
158, 159
Kass, Julius, 170
Kefauver, Estes, 247, 248
Keller, Nathaniel, 173
Kelly, Edward J., 160
Keppel, Frederick, 129
Kharkov, Ukraine, annihilation of
Jewish population, 246
Kingdon, Frank, 154
Kirkpatrick, Helen, 147, 148
Klapper, Paul, 220, 223, 224, 225,
226, 241
Klein, Jerome, 85, 86, 87, 102
Klenze, Camillo von, 123, 128
Knickerbocker, H. R., 3, 75, 257,
305
Knights of Columbus, 210
Koischwitz, Max Otto, 166, 167, 168
Kopper, Samuel K. C., 151, 152
Krieck, Ernst, 67, 68
Kristallnacht, 128, 135, 166, 218,
220, 241
impact on student exchanges, 127,
128
response to, 15, 35, 37, 101, 130,
135, 220, 230-40, 241, 297
Krueger, Frederick K., 142, 143, 157,
165
Kunst, Theresa, 186
labor camp service in Nazi Germany,
115, 116, 147, 160, 176
La Guardia, Fiorello H., 29, 40, 130
at 1934 Madison Square Garden
anti-Nazi rally, 41
sponsors The Romance of a People,
25
Lake, Kirsopp, 67
Landsberg prison, 243, 245, 246
Lang, Anton, Jr., 202
Lang, Anton, Sr., 202
Lang, Daniel, 160, 161
Langer, William L., 41, 42
Lansing, Robert, 137
Lasker, Albert D., 29, 30
Latvia, 221
Lazaron, Morris, 142
League of American Writers, 225
League of Nations, 3, 6, 8, 26, 134,
147, 198
League of Nations Association, 116
League of Women Voters, 171, 172,
186
LeBuffe, Francis P., 212
Legion of the Archangel Michael, 250,
251, 252, 254
Lehman, Herbert, 24
Lenard, Philipp, 62, 63, 64
Lewis, Sinclair, 114
on Nazi book burnings, 75
Lewisohn, Ludwig, 10
Liebknecht, Karl, 28
Lindbergh, Charles, 150
Lips, Julius, 94
Lisbon, Portugal, 252, 255
Lithuania, 221
Little Hugh of Lincoln, 171
Livingston, Arthur, 91
Lobdell, Harold, 45
Locker, Em Bowles, 113
London, England, 39, 152, 224, 239
anti-Nazi demonstration in, 25, 26
Mircea Eliade in, 252, 255
London, Jack, 75
Lowell, A. Lawrence, 33
antisemitism of, 38
disinterest in refugee scholars, 33
meets with Ernst Hanfstaengl, 50
Loyola University of Chicago
awards honorary degree to Mircea
Eliade, 255
Loyola University of New Orleans,
210
Lubman, Adele, 185
Ludlum, John H., 236
Ludwig, Emil, 224
Lunn, Arnold, 213
Luther, Hans, 41, 82, 85, 95, 286
and Karlsruhe reception, 45
presents honorary degree to Roscoe
Pound, 56, 57
protests against appearance in Twin
Cities, 163
visits Harvard, 45
welcomed by Catholic University,
202
welcomed by Columbia
administration, 76, 77, 83, 84,
85, 87, 99, 117
welcomed by University of
Minnesota, 158, 162, 163, 164
welcomed by University of
Wisconsin, 158, 160, 161, 162
Luxembourg, 135
Lynd, Robert, 100
MacCracken, Henry N., 24, 129,
130
assists in organizing tour of Nazi
Germany, 119
and Germany Today (film), 120,
121
honored by Italian Fascist
government, 109
hosts Friedrich Schoenemann, 109
and University of Heidelberg
controversy, 125
welcomes Italian Fascist student
delegation to Vassar, 109
and World Youth Congress, 229
MacGowan, Gault, 212
Mack, Julian, 7
Madison Square Garden, 12, 13, 14,
32, 41, 101, 185, 199, 201, 232,
233
Magoun, Francis P., 44
Mahoney, Jeremiah, 69
Mallon, Paul, 56
Malmedy Massacre, 246, 247
Manchester Guardian, 2, 3, 5, 10,
231, 257
Mankato State University, 254
Mann, Erika, 115
Mann, Thomas, 7, 75, 115, 193, 297
Mansfield, Frederick, 42
Maphis, Charles G., 139, 140, 141,
145, 147, 148
Marcantonio, Vito, 233
Marden, Laura, 127
Margoshes, Samuel, 53
Marin, Vasile, 251, 252
Markel, Lester, 135, 136
Marquette University, 210
Marraro, Howard, 90
Marsh, Daniel, 17, 68, 222
Marry, Marrin E., 255
Marx, Fritz Marstein, 116
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
(MIT)
anti-Nazi protest meeting at (1933),
16
and Karlsruhe visit, 44, 45
and University of Goettingen
controversy, 71, 72, 100
Mattapan (Boston, Massachusetts),
39, 40
McAfee, Mildred H., 105, 222
McBain, Howard, 93, 94
McCarthy, Raphael, 210
McCormack, John, 40
McCormick, P. J., 204
McDonald, James G., 3, 5, 6, 33, 48,
196, 198, 265, 305
McNulty, George, 155
Meder, Albert, 177, 181, 192
Medieval antisemitism, 2, 3, 6, 10, 18,
27, 34, 121, 171, 223
Mein Kampf, 44, 152, 178
Mendelssohn, Felix, 188
Menorah Society, 16, 117
Merker, Paul, 178
Mettler, John Wycoff, 182
Metz, Eugene, 235
Metzger, Fraser, 170, 236
Mexico, 200, 218
Meyer, Ernst, 149
Middlebury College, 159
Miller, Edmund E., 124, 126, 127,
128
Millikan, R. A., 222
Minden, Gerold von, 146, 147
Minneapolis, Minnesota
Hans Luther visit, 162, 163
Misciattelli, Piero, 92
Modern Language Association, 45
Mohme, Erwin T., 166
Moley, Raymond, 100, 160
Molotov-von Ribbentrop Pact, 151
Mond, Jane, 162
Morsback, Adolph, 123
Mota, Ion, 251, 252
Moulton, Mildred, T84
Mount Holyoke Alumnae Bulletin,
120
Mount Holyoke College, 24, 68, 105,
106, 119, 222, 236
German Department, 106, 126, 128
and Oberammergau Passion Play,
122
student exchanges with Nazi
Germany, 60, 108, 114, 126,
128, 130, 131
Mount Sf. Mary's College, 215
Mowrer, Edgar Ansel, 5, 156, 257
Mullen, Robert, 201
Mulligan, Francis J., 205
Munich, Germany, 48, 49, 51, 55,
112, 119, 129
Night of the Long Knives in, 246
9th of November ceremony in, 124,
125
Munich Conference, 128, 136, 232
Murphree, A. A., 139
Murphy, J. F. X., 205
Murphy, Timothy, 247
Murrow, Edward R., 101
Mussolini, Benito, 35, 44, 58, 59, 90,
91, 92, 102, 141, 147, 151, 196,
199, 204, 205, 206, 207, 215,
219
Columbia's Casa Italiana and, 79,
89, 90, 91, 92, 93
Ernst Hanfstaengl and, 49
Henry N. MacCracken and, 109
inspires Mircea Eliade, 251
Joseph Corrigan meets with, 206
Nicholas Murray Butler and, 79,
89, 91, 92, 93
Smith College and, 127
and Spanish Civil War, 215
Nagel, Ernest, 100
National Catholic Welfare Conference
(NCWC), 200
National Committee of the United
States for the Restoration of the
University of Louvain, 87
National Conference of Christians and
Jews (NCCJ), 23, 111
National Socialist Academy for
Political Sciences, 142
National Socialist Women's
Federation, 4
National Student League (NSL), 16,
44, 160, 165
Nazi labor policies, 10, 26, 29, 82,
102
Nazi sterilization program, 83, 113
University of Heidelberg
involvement in, 63
Nazi war criminals, 35, 243-50
Nazi women's policies, 10, 103, 104,
105, 114, 115, 116, 120, 132,
160, 185
Neilson, William A., 108, 126, 127,
128, 164, 222
Netherlands
German conquest of, 135
refugees in, 5
universities in, 64
Netti, Emma, 127
Neurath, Konstantin von, 245
Newark, New Jersey, 181, 237
anti-Nazi protest in, 14, 192
boycott of German goods in, 18, 19
New Brunswick Theological
Seminary, 173
Newcomb, John Lloyd, 145, 146,
150, 222
New Jersey College for Women
(NJC), Bergel-Hauptmann case,
158, 168-94
New Jersey legislature, 181, 190
Newman Club, 160, 213
New School for Social Research, 30,
31, 65, 88, 95, 177
New Theatre League, 225
New York Civil Liberties Committee,
225
New York College Teachers Union,
225
New York University (NYU), 41, 166,
185, 193, 222, 225
Niebuhr, Reinhold, 78, 99
Night of the Long Knives, 113, 122,
123, 145, 165
Sepp Dietrich's role in, 246, 247
9th of November ceremony, 124, 125
Nixdorf, Heinz, 201
Nock, Samuel A., 122, 123
Noether, Emmy, 111
Non-Sectarian Anti-Nazi League to
Champion Human Rights
(NSANL), 18, 19, 65, 81, 100,
166, 187, 231, 236
Norlin, George, 222
North American Medical Bureau to
Aid Spanish Democracy, 214
North German Lloyd line, 19, 20, 82,
159, 201
Northwestern University, 142, 143,
161
Norway, 46, 47, 135
Notre Dame College of Staten Island,
212
Notre Dame Scholastic, 199, 201
and University of Heidelberg
controversy, 203
Nuremberg, Germany, 11
Nuremberg Laws, 60, 161, 163, 198,
249
Nuremberg party rallies, 55, 64, 137
Nuremberg trials, 243, 244, 245
Oberammergau Passion Play, 11, 121,
122, 124, 202, 203
Adolf Hitler and, 121
Bryn Mawr College and, 122
denounced by Jews, 121
Fordham University and, 203
Mount Holyoke College and, 122
promoted by Nazi government,
121, 122
Roscoe Pound's admiration of, 57
Seven Sisters colleges and, 121, 131
Oberlaender, Theodor, 249
Oberlin College, 140
awards honorary degree to Mircea
Eliade, 255
O'Brien, Aileen, 213
O'Brien, John P., 12, 20, 25, 95
O'Connell, William, 204, 208
O'Flanagan, Michael, 214
O'Hara, John F., 205
Olympics
summer 1936, 20, 68-70, 202
winter 1936, 64
Oncken, William, 184
Origins of the World War, The, 134,
136
Orth, Hans, 109, 110
Pacelli, Eugenio, 196, 204
Palestine
Arturo Toscanini's 1936 visit to, 23
settling of Jews in, 9, 24
and Virginia Gildersleeve's
anti-Zionism, T30
Pamantul stramosesc (Land of Our
Fathers), 250
Panter, Noel, 8
Park, Marion Edwards, 110, 111,
239, 240
as early protestor against Nazism,
110, 111
and Kristallnacht, 234
supports student exchanges with
Nazi Germany, 111
welcomes Fascist Italy's ambassador
to Bryn Mawr, 111
Parness, Naomi, 185, 188
Passover, 10, 171, 197
Pegler, Westbrook, 64
Peiper, Joachim, 247, 248
P.E.N. Club, 224
Pendleton, Ellen F., 24
Pennsylvania State University, 237
Pesin, Samuel, 185
Pfeiffer, Peter, 245
Philipp-Lenard-Institut, 62, 63
Pilot, The, 208, 209
Pinchot, Gifford, 40
Pius Xl, Pope (Achille Ratti), 196
antisemitism of, 197, 198
bestows blessing on Italy's conquest
of Ethiopia, 207
Concordat with Hitler, 196, 197,
198
and Hitler, 204
indifference to plight of Germany's
Jews, 198
and post-World War I pogroms,
197
Pius XII, Pope (Pacelli), 215, 216
Plettl, Martin, 29
pogroms
academic (United States), 79
cold (Nazi), 10
dry (Nazi), 17
Kristallnacht, 127, 135, 136, 220,
230, 231, 238, 241
Nazi, 1, 2, 11, 26, 52
in Poland, 197, 221, 223
in Romania, 252
in Spain, 209
Poland, 129, 165, 178, 198, 202, 217,
221
German invasion and conquest of,
129, 150
ghetto benches in, 38, 221, 222, 223
pogroms 111, 197, 223
refugees in, 5
Pope, William, 39
Portugal, 216, 217
Posteuca, Vasile, 254
Potter, Russell, 85
Pound, Roscoe, 56-57
accepts honorary degree from Nazi
ambassador, 56
Prague, Czechoslovakia, 148
Presbyterian Ministers Association,
138
Prezzolini, Giuseppe, 89, 90, 91, 92,
93, 109
Prince, Frederick H., 51
Princeton University, 80, 128
and Austrian National Library, 226,
241
and Berlin Olympics, 69, 70
student exchanges with Nazi
Germany, 59, 82
and University of Goettingen
controversy, 72
and University of Heidelberg
controversy, 60
Proske, Edeltraut, 114
Protocols of the Elders of Zion,
251
Providence College, 212
Purim, 1, 10
Queens College
Ernst Toller affair, 220, 223-26,
241
Lienhard Bergel and, 193
Radcliffe College, 105, 106, 133, 134,
191, 222
anto-Nazi protest at, 234
German Club, 109, 164
mass rally after Kristallnacht, 135
organizational meeting after
Kristallnacht, 233
proportion of Jews in student body,
106
sponsors student debate on
Hitlerism, 117, 118
student exchanges with Nazi
Germany, 60
students attend Dartmouth
reception for Karlsruhe cadets,
159
Ravelstein, 256
refugees, 2, 3, 23, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33,
61, 77, 79, 93, 111, 115, 129,
177, 192, 226, 229, 230, 233,
234, 235, 236, 237, 239, 240,
241, 242, 262
Reichstag, 77, 103, 104, 115, 118,
152
Reichswehr, 8
Remarque, Erich Maria, 75
Remy, Arthur F. J., 67, 95, 96, 97,
166
Reynolds, Agnes, 112
Rhineland, Hitler's occupation of, 41,
42, 60, 126, 165
Ribbentrop, Joachim von, 168
Riccio, Peter M., 90, 91
Ridder, Mary, 112
Ripon College, 255
Robinson, Joseph, 23
Rocco, Alfredo, 90
Rockefeller Foundation, 32, 33
Rockne, Knute, 208
Roehm, Ernst, 8, 123
Romance of a People, The, 24, 25
Romania, 35, 152, 217, 221, 250,
251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256
Rome, Italy, 89, 93, 196, 198, 206,
207, 214, 215
pope's reception for Fascist soldiers
in, 216
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 15, 40, 57,
100, 120, 141, 151, 153, 160,
168, 215, 237, 238
on Kristallnacht, 231
recalls U.S. ambassador to
Germany, 231
University of Virginia
commencement address (1940),
153, 154
Roosevelt, James, 237
Rose, Ernst, 166
Rosenberg, Alfred, 67
Rosenfeld, Kurt, 29, 89
Rosh Hashonah
scheduling of Harvard tercentenary
celebration on, 37, 66
Ross, Albion, 3
Rosso, Augusto, 59, 92, 205
Roxbury (Boston, Massachusetts), 12
Runge, Hans, 63
Ruoff, Herman, 129
Ruoff, Madeleine du Pont, 129
Rust, Bernhard, 62, 67, 68, 73
Rutgers University and New Jersey
College for Women
discrimination against Jews in
student admissions and faculty
hiring, 169-71
Ruthven, Alexander G., 222
Ryan, James H., 202, 204
Saar
plebiscite, 135, 198
refugees to, 5
Salazar, Antonio de Oliveira, 216,
252, 255
Sallet, Richard, 164, 165
Saltonstall, Leverett, 234
Salvemini, Gaetano, 92, 93, 207, 275
Sancho, Sylvester, 212
Sandberger, Martin, 244
Sarfatti, Margherita, 92
Satz, Ludwig, 15
Saxe, John G., 99
Saxony, Germany, 3
Sayre, Woodrow W., 227
Schaffter, Dorothy, 119, 120
Schapiro, Meyer, 87
Scheffer, Paul, 149
Scherer, Henry, 163
Schleicher, Kurt von, 41, 122
Schlenk, Wilhelm, 39
Schlimbach, Alice, 177, 192
in classroom, 185, 188
as director of NJC German House,
172, 177, 183, 185
Schlossmacher, Stephen, 159
Schmidt, Ernst, 144
Schmitz, Matthias, 124, 128
Schneider, Carl, 63
Schoenemann, Friedrich, 119
at Drew University, 27
at Ford Hall Forum, 27-28
as Harvard instructor, 27
U.S. speaking tour of, 27
Scholtz, Herbert, 164
Schreiner, Ralph, 204
Schultz, Sigrid, 257
Schwarzschild, Martin, 71
Second Temple, destruction of, 117
Seger, Gerhart, 77, 78, 103
Sender, Toni, 103
Shackell, Isabelle, 186, 187
Shantz, Homer LeRoy, 119, 120
Shapley, Harlow, 71
Shattuck, Henry, 246
Shaw, Louis Agassiz, 50
Shields-Collins, Elizabeth, 229
Shirer, William L., 64, 246, 250, 257
Short, Marion, 181
Shubow, Joseph Solomon, 52, 53
Sigel, Vivien, 183
Sigmar, Julian P., 200
Silverman, Sylvia, 184
Sima, Horia, 254
Simon, H. F., 142, 143
Simon Wiesenthal Center, 191
Singer, Charles, 64, 66
Sinn Fein, 214
Siskin, Edgar E., 15
Slovakia, 191
Smith, Shirley, 184
Smith College, 105, 106, 107, 108,
109, 110, 113, 134, 222
and Italy's racial (antisemitic)
legislation, 127
junior year program in Fascist Italy,
107, 111, 126, 127
junior year program in France, 107
reception for Nazi Germany's
consul general, 164
student exchanges with Nazi
Germany, 60, 108, 124, 126, 128
students attend Dartmouth
reception for Karlsruhe cadets,
159
and World War I revisionism, 134
Smith, Al, 10, 199
attends The Romance of a People,
25
expresses outrage at Kristallnacht,
231
at 1933 Madison Square Garden
anti-Nazi rally, 13
at 1934 Madison Square Garden
anti-Nazi rally, 41, 185, 199
sponsors The Romance of a People,
25
Social Democratic Parry (SPD), 3, 29,
77, 89, 103, 113, 173, 174, 200
Sokel, Walter, 237
Sollman, F. Wilhelm, 152
Soviet Union (USSR), 151, 200, 216,
217, 218
German invasion of, 252
Spandau prison, 245
Spanish Civil War, 38, 46, 148
Catholic Church and, 153, 196,
208-16, 219
Romanian Iron Guard and, 251,
252
Spanish Inquisition, 7, 75
Spannhake, Ernst, 16
Spannhake, Wilhelm, 16
Special Trustees Committee, Rutgers
University, 169, 172, 180, 181,
182, 187, 188, 190, 192, 193,
194
Sproul, Robert G., 24
Staatsexamen, 178
Stackpole, Stephen H., 70
Stadelheim prison, 246
Stanford University, 24, 123, 166, 232
Steinmann, Vicar General, 197
Sr. Elizabeth's College, New Jersey,
212
Stern, Fritz, 79
Steuben Society of America, 95
Stifler, James M., 32
Sr. Joseph's College (Philadelphia),
200, 210
Sr. Joseph's College for Women, 215
Sr. Louis University, 213, 214, 215,
219, 315
Sr. Mary's College, California,
210
Stoke, Stuart M., 119, 120
Stone, Elihu, 16
storm troopers. See Sturmabteilung
(SA)
Sr. Paul, Minnesota
Hans Luther visit, 163
St. Peter's College, Jersey City, New
jersey, 212
Strakhovsky, Leonid I., 206
Strecher, Liselott, 116
Streicher, Julius, 11, 124
Stresemann, Gustav, 202
Stroebe, Lilian, 124, 125
Student Opinion Surveys of America,
239
Sturmabteilung (SA), 2, 3, 5, 8, 48,
49, 61, 67, 73, 78, 112, 113, 123,
125, 186, 188, 231, 246, 247
Sudetenland, 136, 232, 233
Suvich, Fulvio, 207
Swarthmore College, 24, 234
Switzerland, 128, 174, 224
Syracuse University, 101
Tansill, Charles C, 137, 138, 139
broadcasts from Nazi Germany,
138
at Nuremberg Congress, 137, 138
Thomas, Wilbur K., 147
Thompson, Dorothy, 150, 153, 154
appeal for Herschel Grynszpan,
232, 233
on conditions of German Jews, 4, 9,
10
on Nazi policies toward women,
114
Thomsen, Hans, 149, 154, 155
Thorning, Joseph, 200, 201, 215
Tillich, Paul, 253
Tippelskirch, Kurt von, 28, 45, 56,
58, 109, 159, 164
Tolischus, Otto, 6, 221, 257
Toller, Ernst, 220, 223, 224, 225,
226, 241
Tonn, Guenther, 155
torture of Jews and political
opponents by Nazis, 5, 34, 50,
145, 246
Toscanini, Arturo, 22, 23, 126
Transnistria, 253
Transocean News Service, 150, 154,
155
Tucci, Nika, 151, 153
Tumulty, Joseph, 137
Turkey, 135
Tydings, Millard, 15, 40, 41, 185,
200
Union Theological Seminary, 78, 232
United Nations (UN), 130, 245
University in Exile, 30, 31, 32, 177
University of Arizona, 119
University of Bebrecen, 222
University of Berlin, 27, 39, 105, 109,
126, 131, 167, 173, 174
awards honorary degree to Roscoe
Pound, 56
book burning at, 61, 75
University of Birmingham, 63
University of Breslau, 177, 178
University of Bucharest, 250, 251
University of Budapest, 222
University of California at Berkeley,
24, 103
University of California at Los
Angeles (UCLA), 213
University of Cambridge, 63, 71
University of Chicago (UC), 19, 20,
29, 32, 235
Mircea Eliade and, 35, 253, 254,
255
University of Cincinnati, 109, 118,
144, 178
University of Cluj, 251
University of Cologne, 94
University of Colorado, 222
University of Delaware, 118, 122, 124
junior year program in Germany,
107, 108, 112, ITS, 122, 123,
124, 131, 159
University of Dublin, 63
University of Florence, 127
Smith junior year program at, 107,
111, 126, 127
University of Florida, 139
University of Freiburg, 114
University of Goettingen, 71
bicentennial celebration, 37, 70, 71,
72, 73, 100, 101
discharge of Jewish faculty
members, 37, 70, 100, 111
Nazification of, 37, 70
University of Groeningen, 64
University of Hamburg, 61, 116
University of Heidelberg, 166
American exchange students at,
105, 113, 124, 131, 201
book burning at, 61
discharge of Jewish faculty
members, 37, 62, 63
550th anniversary celebration, 37,
60, 61, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 71,
93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 100, 125, 145,
146, 158, 166, 203, 204
Nazification of, 37, 62, 63, 64, 203,
204
University of Illinois, 237
University of Kiel, 76
University of Leipzig, 4
University of Leyden, 64
University of Liverpool, 63
University of London, 63, 64
University of Louvain Library,
campaign to rebuild, 87, 88
University of Manchester, 63
University of Marburg, 179, 180
University of Michigan, 166, 222
University of Minnesota
welcomes Hans Luther, 158, 160,
162, 163, 164
University of Munich, 106, 107, 108,
111, ITS, 122, 124, 125, 126,
127, 128, 129, 136, 159, 246,
263, 271, 314
American exchange students at, 59,
105, 112, 118, 123, 124, 125,
126, 128, 129, 130, 131
German exchange students from,
114
University of Newark, 154
University of North Carolina, 24, 138,
139, 222, 232
University of Notre Dame, 200, 206,
207, 208, 213
student exchanges with Nazi
Germany, 201
welcomes Italian Fascist student
delegation, 205
University of Oxford, 63
University of Perugia, 107
University of Rochester, 232
University of Rome, 111
University of Southern California,
166, 237
University of Szegeg, 222
University of Texas, 237, 286
University of Utrecht, 64
University of Virginia (UVA)
Roosevelt's commencement address,
153
and University of Heidelberg
controversy, 145-46
University of Windsor, 255
University of Wisconsin, 139
and Kristallnacht, 232
welcomes Hans Luther, 158, 160,
161, 162, 163
University of Zurich, German junior
year at, 128, 129
Universum-Film Aktiengesellschaft
(UFA), 120, 176
Untermyer, Samuel, 18, 19, 24, 81,
187, 199
and Lienhard Bergel case, 193
Urey, Harold, 94
U.S. Department of Justice, 156
U.S. Department of Labor, 239, 240
U.S. Department of State, 16, 42,
155
and Mircea Eliade, 253
and Nazi war criminals, 245, 247
refugee policy, 239, 240
U.S. Senate, 23, 137, 200
Armed Services Committee, 247
Foreign Relations Committee, 40,
137, 245, 247
Vanderbilt, Cornelius, Jr., 160
van Paassen, Pierre, 9, 257
Varga, Margarethe, 173, 174, 186,
187, 188
Vassar College, 24, 105, 106, 109,
113, 114, 129, 130, 135
German Club, 121, 164, 165
hosts Friedrich Schoenemann, 109
and Kristallnacht, 234, 238
student exchanges with Nazi
Germany, 60, 112, 116, 124, 125
and tour of Nazi Germany, 119,
120, 121
and University of Heidelberg
controversy, 94, 125
welcomes Italian Fascist student
delegation, 109
World Youth Congress and, 220,
228, 229, 230
Vassar Miscellany News, 112, 114,
241
Vassar Review, 112
Vatican, 196, 197, 199, 204, 206,
215, 216, 218, 243
Venook, Dorothy, 185
Versailles Treaty, 79, 113, 120, 133,
134, 136, 138, 140, 143, 144,
145, 146, 147, 148, 151, 152,
156, 157, 173, 185, 198
Veterans of Foreign Wars (VFW), 247
Volkische Beobachter, 112
Vorys, John M., 156
Vremea (The Times), 251, 252
Waffen SS, 246, 247, 248
Wagner, Richard, 22, 96
Wagner, Robert, 13, 15, 23, 24
Walsh, Edmund A., 153, 205, 208,
217
Walters, Raymond, 118
Walz, John, 45
Warburg, Ingrid, 239
Warburg, James, 6
Warburg, Paul, 6
War Crimes Modification Board, 246
Ward, Harry F., 232
Warsaw, Poland, 221, 222
Washington, George, 17, 153, 209,
212
Wechsler, James A., 80, 87, 98, 99
Wechsler, Nancy, 99
Wehrmacht, 135, 136, 153, 165
Weimar Republic, 113, 114, 116, 140,
147, 152, 189, 194, 200, 220,
224
Weinreich, Max, 62
Weizsaecker, Carl Friedrich von, 243,
244
Weizsaecker, Ernst von, 243
Wellesley College, 24, 114, 116, 222
adds German Nazi to faculty, 105
dance for Karlsruhe cadets, 117
student exchanges with Nazi
Germany, 60, 113, 124
Wellesley College News, 117, 238
Wesleyan University, 165
Wessel, Horst, 49
West, George Saltonstall, 50
West, Hazel Chase, 206
West, Miriam, 184
Wheeler-Bennett, John, 153
Wiegand, Ilse, 82
Wiener, Norbert, 16
Wilbur, Ray Lyman, 24
Wilhelm II, Kaiser, 152
Wilkinson, Ignatius, 210, 215
Williams, Frances, 181
Williams, Michael, 6, 199, 210
Williamsburg, Brooklyn, New York,
14, 15
Williams College, 68
and Austrian National Library, 226,
227, 228, 241
termination of student exchanges
with Nazi Germany, 59
Wilson, Hugh R., 231
Wilson, Woodrow, 227
Wise, James Waterman, 33
Wise, Stephen S., 7, 9, 10, 13, 41,
121, 185
and Lienhard Bergel case, 193
Wittenberg College, 142, 272
Woll, Matthew
denounces Kristallnacht, 231
at 1934 Madison Square Garden
anti-Nazi rally, 41
as spokesperson for boycott of
German goods, 199
Woltman, Frederick E., 181, 184
Woolley, Mary E., 24, 68, 126
World Jewish Congress, 244
World War 1, 27, 41, 48, 67, 106,
107, 114, 115
burning of University of Louvain
Library during, 88
Harvard honors its men who fought
for Germany during, 58
revisionist scholars and, 133-39,
140, 141, 151, 156
veterans in anti-Nazi
demonstration, 20
William L. Langer and, 41
World War II, 22, 32, 37, 65, 124,
131, 139, 150, 156, 168, 191,
192, 196, 205, 212, 217, 244,
245, 246, 248, 250, 252, 254
Nazi atomic bomb project during,
243
World Youth Congress (WYC), 220,
228-30
Worms, Germany, 3
Wormser, Leo F., 20
Wriston, Henry Merritt, 215
Yale Daily News, 227
and Austrian National Library, 227,
228
and Kristallnacht, 235
on "ominous aspects" of anti-Nazi
feeling, 235
opposes boycott of Berlin Olympics,
69, 70
and refugee students, 234, 235
supports Yale's welcoming Italian
Fascist student delegation, 57
and University of Heidelberg
controversy, 95
Yale University (YU), 15, 24, 69, 80,
140
and Austrian National Library, 226,
227, 241
Index 339
and Berlin Olympics, 68, 69
discrimination against Jewish
applicants, 169
disinterest in refugee scholars, 32,
33
Germanic Club, 164, 165
honors Mircea Eliade, 255
and Kristallnacht, 232, 234, 235
National Student League, 165
and refugee students, 235
student exchanges with Nazi
Germany, 59, 82
and University of Goettingen
controversy, 72
and University of Heidelberg
controversy, 60, 66, 94
welcomes Italian Fascist student
delegation, 57, 58
Yeshiva University, 237
Young, Ezra, 162
Young Communist League, 99
Young Women's Christian
Association (YWCA), 160, 162
Yugoslavia, 217
Zapp, Manfred, 150, 152, 154, 155
Zinnecker, W. D., 166
Zionists, participation in anti-Nazi
protests, 16, 20, 54, 233
Zischkau, Elaine, 174, 175
Zola, Emile, 75
Zurich, Switzerland, 128
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