The Russian Roots of Nazism, by Michael Kellogg

"Science," the Greek word for knowledge, when appended to the word "political," creates what seems like an oxymoron. For who could claim to know politics? More complicated than any game, most people who play it become addicts and die without understanding what they were addicted to. The rest of us suffer under their malpractice as our "leaders." A truer case of the blind leading the blind could not be found. Plumb the depths of confusion here.

Re: The Russian Roots of Nazism, by Michael Kellogg

Postby admin » Tue Apr 23, 2019 4:31 am

Part 1 of 2

CHAPTER 9: Aufbau's legacy to National Socialism

While Aufbau clearly played a formative role in shaping early anti-Bolshevik, anti-Semitic National Socialist ideology, the historian Walter Laqueur has minimized the heritage that Aufbau left to National Socialism after 1923. In his work Russia and Germany, Laqueur asserts that National Socialism did not need White emigre support after it had become a mass movement in the course of the 1920s.1 While National Socialist-White emigre collaboration did decrease markedly in the aftermath of the failed Hitler/Ludendorff Putsch of November 1923, Aufbau nonetheless bequeathed a powerful political, financial, military, and ideological legacy to National Socialism.

Aufbau's legacy to National Socialism took several forms. The death of First Lieutenant Max von Scheubner-Richter, Aufbau's de facto leader and Hitler's closest political advisor, in the Hitler/Ludendorff Putsch served as an example of heroic sacrifice for the National Socialist cause. White emigres continued to raise significant funds for the NSDAP after 1923. In the vein of Aufbau, Hitler continued to use White emigres, especially Ukrainian nationalists, to destabilize Soviet rule after the failure of the Hitler/Ludendorff Putsch. Hitler's preoccupation with winning the Ukraine for Germany along the lines of Aufbau policy led him to divert powerful armed forces away from Moscow in 1941, thereby diminishing German chances of victory in World War II.

Early anti-Bolshevik and anti-Semitic National Socialist ideology, which relied greatly on Aufbau thought, found pronounced expression in the Third Reich's final years. In addition to his wish to gain Lebensraum (living space) in the East, Hitler's intense anti-Bolshevism that he had developed during his period of collaboration with Aufbau led him to launch a hazardous military crusade against the Soviet Union. Aufbau views of the "Jewish Bolshevik" peril, which had greatly influenced National Socialist ideology in the early 1920s, helped to motivate the National Socialist attempt to annihilate European Jewry in what was euphemistically termed the Final Solution.

Former Aufbau members served the post-1923 National Socialist cause. Alfred Rosenberg's Baltic German colleague Arno Schickedanz, Aufbau's former deputy director, acted as the number two man in the Aussenpolitisches Amt (Foreign Policy Office) of the NSDAP. The former 1919 Latvian Intervention commander Colonel Pavel Bermondt-Avalov and his associate General Konstantin Sakharov played leading roles in a Russian emigre National Socialist organization known for its initials ROND. Beginning in 1936, Aufbau's former vice president, General Vladimir Biskupskii, directed the Russische Vertrauensstelle (Russian Trust Authority) that oversaw White emigres in Germany within the framework of the NSDAP. The former head of Aufbau's Ukrainian section, the Cossack leader Colonel Ivan Poltavets-Ostranitsa, worked closely with Hitler and Rosenberg to strengthen a Ukrainian National Socialist movement that helped Germany in its conflicts with Poland and the Soviet Union.

After Scheubner-Richter's death, Rosenberg served as the linchpin connecting Hitler to key White emigres and their views. He shaped National Socialist ideology and policy in a variety of official capacities. He edited the National Socialist newspaper the Volkischer Beobachter (Volkisch Observer), led the Foreign Policy Office of the NSDAP, acted as the Representative of the Fuhrer for the Supervision of the Entire Intellectual and Ideological Political Instruction and Education of the NSDAP, assisted Hitler as the Representative of the Fuhrer for the Central Treating of Questions of the East European Area, and ultimately served as the State Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories during World War II. In this last post, he coordinated White emigre operations to organize pro-National Socialist Soviet citizens for the German war effort, and he helped to implement the atrocities of the Final Solution.

THE MEMORY OF SCHEUBNER-RICHTER

The most intense period of National Socialist-White emigre collaboration ended with the disastrous November 8/9, 1923 Hitler/Ludendorff Putsch in which Aufbau's guiding figure and Hitler's closest advisor, Scheubner-Richter, was killed. Yet Scheubner-Richter's memory was preserved in the National Socialist Party. Hitler honored his fallen comrade by giving his widow Mathilde the task of creating the National Socialist Party Archives in August 1926. In this endeavor, Mathilde collaborated with Heinrich Himmler, who went on to become the leader of the SS.2 Hitler spoke respectfully of Mathilde in January 1942 when he reminisced about Scheubner-Richter's "sacrifice" for the National Socialist cause. He enthused: "What dignity his wife displayed!"3

After he came to power in January 1933, Hitler regularly commemorated the events of November 8/9, 1923, in which Scheubner-Richter had participated, with great pomp and reverence as a heroic undertaking that had inspired nationalist resurgence. He placed a laurel wreath at the memorial to his fallen comrades, most notably Scheubner-Richter, with the inscription, "And you have triumphed after all!"4 He spoke annually along the lines of his November 1935 oration commemorating the 1923 Putsch:

This brave action was not in vain. For in the end the great national movement came out of it ... While our enemies believed to have destroyed us, in reality, the seeds of the movement were flung over all of Germany at a stroke ... And for us [these martyrs] are not dead. These temples are no tombs, but an eternal sentry. Here they stand for Germany and keep watch for our people. Here they lie as faithful witnesses of our movement.5


In National Socialist ideology, which emphasized the theme of heroic death, Scheubner-Richter assumed a place of honor.

Scheubner-Richter's Aufbau activities eventually helped to pave the way for friendly relations between Hitler's Germany and Hungary. Soon after Hitler became the German Chancellor in January 1933, the right-wing Hungarian Minister-President Gyula Gombos ordered his ambassador in Berlin to visit the Fuhrer as soon as possible: "On my behalf, pass my best regards and wishes ... Recall that ten years ago, on the basis of our common principles and ideology, we were in contact via Mr. Scheubner-Richter... Tell Hitler my firm belief that the two countries have to cooperate In foreign and domestic policy.'" Scheubner-Richter, Hitler's "irreplaceable" advisor, proved to have been a good National Socialist representative.

THE PRO-NAZI CAREERS OF FORMER AUFBAU MEMBERS

Scheubner-Richter's former indispensable assistant in Aufbau, General Vladimir Biskupskii, continued to play the leading role in the circle around the Tsarist throne claimants Kirill and Viktoria Romanov after the failure of the Hitler/Ludendorff Putsch. Biskupskii officially served as the minister of war in Kirill's exile government? He developed into the leading White emigre personality in Europe.8 In a December 1924 interview with the State Commissioner for the Supervision of Public Order, Biskupskii described himself as Kirill's representative in Germany. He stressed that he sought to win as many White emigres as possible for Kirill's cause, and he propagated German-Russian rapprochement in the vein of the nineteenth-century German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. Biskupskii claimed that as soon as the Weimar Republic stopped supporting the Soviet regime, Bolshevism would collapse.9

As of the late 1920s, Biskupskii collaborated with conspiratorial pro-Kirill monarchists headquartered in Moscow itself who sought to overthrow the Bolsheviks and to institute an alliance between nationalist Russian and German states. With the assistance of Major Josef Bischoff, the former commander of the Iron Division in the 1919 Latvian Intervention who currently operated in the vicinity of Vienna, Biskupskii supplied Russian nationalists inside the Soviet Union with significant amounts of weapons purchased outside of Germany.10

Biskupskii's patrons Kirill and Viktoria suffered financial ruin in the aftermath of the November 1923 Hitler/Ludendorff Putsch. Along with other considerable funds that the couple had placed at Aufbau's disposal, the 500,000 gold marks that Kirill and Viktoria had lent General Erich von Ludendorff to further the "German-Russian national cause" had disappeared when Hitler and Ludendorff's undertaking had collapsed. n Nonetheless, Biskupskii channeled considerable funds to aid Hitler's rise to power in the early 1930s." He likely received much of this money from Kirill and, more importantly, from Viktoria, with whom he maintained a rather indiscreet affair.13

The sources of Kirill and Viktoria's post-1923 funding are not entirely clear. It is known that Colonel Boris Brazol, a former Aufbau member who had aided Scheubner-Richter by writing anti-Semitic literature, the president of the Russian Monarchical Club in New York, and the White emigre contact man with Henry Ford, the wealthy anti-Semitic American industrialist and politician, managed to gather large sums of money for Kirill in 1924 when Viktoria visited America.14 Brazol likely continued to act as a conduit between Ford and Kirill in the 1930s who transferred money from the former to the latter.

Hitler's National Socialist regime granted Brazol organizational prerogatives on German soil. In the summer of 1938, Brazol, who was by this time an American citizen, helped to organize a clandestine anti-Comintern congress in Germany with the approval of Hitler's secret police, the Gestapo, and Himmler's SS. The assembly included representatives from America, Canada, France, England, and Switzerland. Himmler himself took an interest in Brazol in August 1938, and he commissioned a certain Muller of the SS to write a report on the White emigre's earlier activities.15

Besides Biskupskii and Brazol, other White emigres who had belonged to Aufbau and who supported the National Socialist movement continued to back Kirill's claim to the Tsarist throne after 1923, most notably Aufbau's last leader, the Baltic German Otto von Kursell, and Biskupskii's comrade General Konstantin Salthatov. Kursell, the National Socialist whose greatest fame came when he was commissioned to draw portraits of Hitler, maintained good relations with Kirill and visited him frequently in the years following the Hitler/Ludendorff Putsch.16 Sakhatov, who corresponded regularly with Hitler during the latter's imprisonment for his November 1923 putsch attempt, coordinated relations between Kirill's supporters in Germany and abroad, including in the Soviet Union.17

The former 1919 Latvian Intervention commander Colonel Bermondt-Avalov, who, like Sakharov, had supported Kirill's bid for the Tsarist throne and had collaborated with Aufbau, led two National Socialist Russian emigre organizations in the early 1930s. In the course of 1932, he directed the formation of the Russkoe Osvoboditelnoe Natsionalnoe Dvizhenie (Russian National Liberation Movement, better known for its initials ROND).18 Soon after he came to power in January 1933, Hitler, who knew Bermondt-Avalov personally, granted him the right to lead ROND along National Socialist lines.19 Hitler also ordered the creation of a political science school within ROND. The Kirill supporter and former Aufbau member General Sakharov led the institution's military section.20

ROND, a militaristic organization, enjoyed a great degree of sympathy among the German population.21 The White emigre association possessed paramilitary groups patterned on the NSDAP's Sturmabteilung (Storm Section, SA). ROND used the SA's Horst Wessel Song as its hymn. ROND members also attacked political opponents and Jews along the lines of the SA. The official uniform of the White emigre organization displayed a pronounced National Socialist character. ROND dress included a black shirt with a green and white swastika.22

ROND only existed for a short time. The largely autonomous German Foreign Office opposed pro-Kirill activities in Germany and pressured Hitler to ban ROND.23 Hitler dissolved ROND in October 1933.24 ROND was reconstituted as the Deutsch-Russische Standarte (German-Russian Standard) with Bermondt-Avalov in the leading role.25 The German-Russian Standard had approximately 6,000 members.26 Former citizens of the Russian Empire, whether ethnic Russians or not, could join the organization, with the explicit exception of Jews and Freemasons. "Aryans" from other countries could also be granted membership. Members absolutely had to exhibit a "National Socialist Weltanschauung."27 Bermondt-Avalov damaged the Standard's cause when he was arrested for embezzling 50,000 marks in August 1934, imprisoned for three months, and then expelled from Germany. He resurfaced in Rome, where he sought to lead a group of White emigre fascists under Benito Mussolini's Fascist regime, but with little success.28

Bermondt-Avalov's former collaborator/rival in the 1919 Latvian Intervention, General Biskupskii, experienced difficulties with the National Socialist leadership in the early 1930s before he attained a position of influence in the Third Reich in 1936. The NSDAP's Eastern expert Rosenberg in particular maintained a reserved attitude towards Biskupskii despite all of the general's former financial and political assistance to the National Socialist cause. Rosenberg and Biskupskii had a bit of a falling out. Correspondence from the early 1930s indicates that while he had actively worked to establish an autonomous Ukraine in the context of Aufbau in the early 1920s, Biskupskii now opposed Rosenberg's increasingly aggressive plans to smash the Soviet Union and to replace it with several weak states without a uniting Tsar.29

Biskupskii wrote Rosenberg in December 1931 and warned him against advocating a policy of allying Germany with England against Russia. He called such a strategy "the greatest aberration." The White emigre general stressed that he had nothing against Rosenberg personally, but it was "painful" for him to see such views in the Party whose "entire ethos and ideology" accorded with his own. He stressed that he and the NSDAP had shared the "same understanding and the same sympathy up until the year 1923," but now the Party seemed to be "among the most bitter enemies of Russia" with its idea of the "carving up of Russia." Biskupskii ended his letter by emphasizing that while he opposed Rosenberg politically, he had always had "sympathy" with him personally and treasured "the best memories of our earlier common work."30

Rosenberg was polite in his reply to Biskupskii, but he nevertheless emphasized his differences of opinion with the general. He stressed: "I certainly have gotten to know many splendid people in Russia so that I think back to them and to much in Russian life with only the greatest sympathy." He noted, however, that the chances that an internal revolt would overthrow Bolshevism appeared slim to none. He stressed that "Bolshevized Russia" could only be defeated through an "at least economically-politically united coalition" of powers. Moreover, he argued that Germany could not direct its foreign policy in accordance with the "hopes and wishes of national Russiandom, for the Russian Empire as a political power that national Russiandom longs for does not exist, and no one can say today if it will arise again."

In his reply to Biskupskii, Rosenberg further stressed that the White emigre general's ideas did not address "Germany's necessities of life with regard to the question of space." Rosenberg accused Biskupskii of "marked naivety" in thinking that Germany should deal with its "population surplus" simply by putting its "capable engineers and inventors" at the disposal of the "coming Russia."31 Here Rosenberg clearly informed Biskupskii that the German need for Lebensraum (living space) in the East overruled the wishes of the White emigres whom Biskupskii represented. This correspondence reflects Rosenberg's sense of acceptance in Germany as an ethnic (Baltic) German, whereas Biskupskii, with his Russian (more properly Ukrainian) roots, remained more of an outsider.

After Hitler came to power in January 1933, Biskupskii vainly sought to gain more influence in Eastern matters. On March 31, 1933, Hitler named Rosenberg the leader of the Aussenpolitisches Amt (Foreign Policy Office) of the NSDAP with the former Aufbau deputy director Arno Schickedanz as his chief of staff. Hitler used the Foreign Policy Office to circumvent the German Foreign Office, which he viewed as a "society of conspirators" directed against National Socialism." Sensing opportunity, Biskupskii congratulated Rosenberg on his appointment. He then suggested that as a "basic principle," Rosenberg's bureau should "receive some similarity in its structure with the organization of the III International, with a plan of work for the long term." He noted that the Foreign Policy Office would likely receive a Russian Section soon, and he proposed himself for a leading role in this department. Along the lines of his earlier Aufbau endeavors, he wished to organize this Russian Section as a "strictly conspiratorial cell."33

Biskupskii suffered hardship during the first year of Hitler's Germany. Rosenberg did not respond to his repeated offers to lead a Russian Section of the NSDAP Foreign Policy Office. Rosenberg's colleague Schickedanz sought to spare the pride of Biskupskii, his former chief in Aufbau.34 Worse for Biskupskii, the Gestapo, briefly imprisoned him in October 1933 as part of its efforts to curtail the legitimist movement behind Kirill. After his release, Gestapo authorities told the White emigre leader that they would contact him if they needed his assistance, but that he and the pro-Kirill movement he represented should lay low for the time being. Biskupskii then advised Kirill to suspend his political activities until a more favorable climate developed in Germany.35

Biskupskii finally achieved recognition from the National Socialist government in May 1936, when he was named the head of the newly created Russische Vertrauensstelle (Russian Trust Authority).36 Biskupskii won out over General Sakharov, who was also considered to be a suitable leader for the pro-National Socialist White emigre community in Germany.37 Biskupskii's Russian Trust Authority was to unite all White emigres on German soil and to alleviate internecine power struggles.38 Biskupskii's organization incorporated the remnants of Bermondt-Avalov's German-Russian Standard and oversaw the approximately 125,000 White emigres living in Germany.39

Hitler personally named all of the personnel for Biskupskii's agency, including the women employed as secretaries. He insisted that Lieutenant Sergei Taboritskii serve as the Russian Trust Authority's deputy director. Taboritskii was one of the former Aufbau members who had attempted to assassinate the Constitutional Democratic leader Pavel Miliukov in March 1922. Taboritskii had joined the National Socialist cause openly in 1927 upon his release from prison.40 Soon after Hitler's ascension to power, Taboritskii had been rumored to possess a paid position within NSDAP Headquarters in Munich.41 Taboritskii increasingly overshadowed Biskupskii in the Russian Trust Authority.42 Lieutenant Piotr Shabelskii-Bork, Taboritskii's accomplice in the attempted assassination of Miliukov and the White emigre who had brought The Protocols of the Elders of Zion from the Ukraine to Germany, also assisted Biskupskii's organization.43 He regarded the Russian Trust Authority as a means of opposing "world Jewry, Freemasonry, and Communism."44

In his capacity of leader of the Russian Trust Authority, Biskupskii officially served under the somewhat hostile NSDAP Eastern specialist, Rosenberg, but he had supporters in high places.45 The Gestapo, though it had once imprisoned him, had helped Biskupskii to become the head of the Russian Trust Authority in the first place.46 In return, Biskupskii sent intelligence reports to the Gestapo.47 Biskupskii also enjoyed the patronage of Propaganda Minister Josef Goebbels.48 In April 1938, Goebbels ordered Biskupskii to establish a course in Berlin to train police units composed of Germans, Russians, and Ukrainians for eventual service in the Ukraine.49

In the tradition of Aufbau, Biskupskii's Russian Trust Authority improved Kirill's standing in Germany. Biskupskii's longstanding personal relationships with Hitler, Rosenberg, and other National Socialist leaders in particular helped the pro-Kirill movement to expand its German base.50 The White emigre community in Germany under Biskupskii's leadership generally hoped that Hitler's armed forces would attack the Soviet Union, topple the Bolsheviks, and place Kirill atop a new Russian monarchy. Since Biskupskii remained a convinced supporter of Kirill, French intelligence viewed his placement at the head of the Russian emigre community in Germany as evidence that Hitler wished to install Kirill as the leader of a nationalist Russian state after the overthrow of Bolshevism.51 After Kirill died in October 1938, the White emigre community in Germany under Biskupskii's direction generally supported Kirill's son Vladimir as the future head of a nationalist Russia.52

While Biskupskii ultimately attained a position of authority over White emigre matters in the Third Reich, Hitler and Rosenberg paid far more attention to the former leader of Aufbau's Ukrainian section, Colonel Ivan Poltavets-Ostranitsa. In his work Russia and Germany, the historian Walter Laqueur noted that National Socialist Eastern policy continued to support Ukrainian separatists after 1923.53 Biskupskii resented the attention that Hitler and Rosenberg gave Poltavets-Ostranitsa. 54 Unlike Biskupskii, Poltavets-Ostranitsa maintained very close relations with both Hitler and Rosenberg after 1923. From Munich, he continued to lead his National Ukrainian Cossack Organization, which collaborated with Hitler's National Socialist Party. The secret police of the Weimar Republic described the Organization as the "national Ukrainian volkisch movement."55 Poltavets-Ostranitsa used a Ukrainian coat of arms and a swastika as the symbol of his union." The National Ukrainian Cossack Organization received subsidies from the NSDAP, and the Volkisch Observer printed propaganda on its behalf.57

Rosenberg had high hopes for fruitful collaboration with Poltavets-Ostranitsa, who assumed the title of Ukrainian Hetman, or leader, in 1926. Rosenberg desired assistance from an autonomous, allied Ukraine along the lines that Poltavets-Ostranitsa advocated. In 1927, Rosenberg wrote a book, Der Zukunftsweg einer deutschen Aussenpolitik (The Future Path of a German Foreign Policy). This work aroused the special interest of the Sztab Glowny Oddzial drugi (Main Headquarters Second Section), the primary Polish intelligence agency, for its assertion that "an alliance between Kiev and Berlin and the creation of a common border" served as a "volkisch and state necessity for future German policy."58

In his foreign policy work, Rosenberg further stressed the need to use ethnic separatism in the Soviet Union, particularly in the Ukraine and the Caucasus, to overthrow Bolshevism and to limit the power of the subsequent Russian state. He emphasized the Ukraine's importance as a valuable source of raw materials as well as a market for German industrial goods. He thereby presented views that he had adopted during his time of activity in Aufbau in tandem with Poltavets-Ostranitsa in the early 1920s.59

Soon after Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany on January 30, 1933, Poltavets-Ostranitsa wrote him a congratulatory letter. He assured Hitler: "The Ukrainian Cossacks congratulate you and your movement on your achieved victory." He noted that the Ukrainian Cossacks under his leadership had collaborated with nationalist German circles since the Bolshevik Revolution. He further emphasized that National Socialists had long known that

Germany's freedom and space in the East are bound together with the freedom of the Ukraine and the Caucasus as the factors that alone are in a position to weaken the Russian pan-Slavic and pan-Communist danger for Europe, since they strive for a true alliance and friendship with national strength against Russia, against Poland, and against France. I have also adopted this idea, which Your Excellency has written on your standards, with Ukrainian Cossacks in the Ukraine and in the emigration, and I am firmly determined to go with [you] hand in hand, foot by foot, step by step through all difficulties, in complete belief in your victory.


Then Poltavets-Ostranitsa made an even stronger plea for increased collaboration between the Ukrainian Cossacks he represented and Hitler's Germany. He emphasized, "We hope not only for your help, but also for your patronage, just as Hetman Ivan Masepa hoped for from the King of Sweden Karl XII in the year 1709." Poltavets-Ostranitsa further noted that he had included a memorandum that presumably dealt with detailed plans for closer military, political, and economic cooperation between Hitler's government and Ukrainian Cossacks. Poltavets-Ostranitsa closed his letter with the rousing words: "Heil Hitler, and your standard from the Rhine to the Caucasus!"60 Poltavets-Ostranitsa thus wished for National Socialism to spread far to the East.

Poltavets-Ostranitsa considerably influenced the early National Socialist regime, which sought to use his Ukrainian independence movement to undermine the Soviet Union.61 Polish intelligence in May 1933 attributed great influence to Poltavets-Ostranitsa in the new Hitler government.62 In the summer of 1933, the French military intelligence agency the Second Section reported that National Socialist leadership wished to establish a Ukrainian satellite state that would replace the overseas colonies that Germany had lost as a result of World War I.63 Rosenberg planned the creation of a marginally independent pro-German Ukraine composed of territory currently part of the Soviet Union and Poland. He granted Poltavets-Ostranitsa considerable powers to organize Ukrainian emigres who worked towards this goal. Hitler personally invited the Ukrainian Cossack leader to relocate from Munich to Berlin.64 Poltavets-Ostranitsa acted as the NSDAP's expert on Ukrainian matters. He periodically provided reports on Ukrainian issues to Rosenberg's Foreign Policy Office.65

Rosenberg intensified his support of Poltavets-Ostranitsa's Ukrainian independence movement in the spring and summer of 1934. In April 1934, Poltavets-Ostranitsasent a representative of his National Ukrainian Cossack Organization to the Japanese Embassy in Berlin with the permission of Rosenberg's Foreign Policy Office. This envoy presented a plan of action in case of a war against the Soviet Union that called for primarily Ukrainian Cossacks within the USSR to support a Japanese attack.66 Rosenberg gave the welcoming address at a conference of Ukrainian emigres held in Berlin in the summer of 1934 that dealt with the military training of Ukrainian exiles for use in a war against the Soviet Union. Representatives of Hermann Goring's Luftwaffe (Air Force) along with leading Army officers attended. The military training of Ukrainian emigres subsequently took place in Berlin, in Hungary, and in the Balkans.67

A letter Poltavets-Ostranitsa wrote Hitler in May 1935 indicates close military coordination between the National Socialist regime and the National Ukrainian Cossack Union. Poltavets-Ostranitsa offered the armed support of his Cossacks now that Hitler had reinstated conscription and had begun building a large standing army in defiance of the Treaty of Versailles. Poltavets-Ostranitsa stressed: 'The Ukrainian Cossacks have fought in conjunction with the NSDAP against the enemies of the National Socialist Weltanschauung." He pledged, "If Germany should be attacked from one side or another," then "the Ukrainian Cossacks are ready to fight immediately in the ranks of the German army. I hereby place all able-bodied members of the Ukrainian Cossacks fit for action in Germany and abroad at the disposal of Your Excellency."68 Poltavets-Ostranitsa regarded national Ukrainian interests as concurrent with those of Hitler's Germany.

Poltavets-Ostranitsa experienced serious difficulties soon after he had written Hitler to promise the armed support of his Ukrainian Cossacks. Largely because of his reputation as a swindler, he could not raise large numbers of followers in Germany and in the Ukraine.69 He further damaged his cause in late 1935 when he was discovered to have forged a letter from Rosenberg and to have passed information to Soviet agents.70 Rosenberg's Foreign Policy Office stopped financing him, and he was even briefly imprisoned in a concentration camp.71 Poltavets-Ostranitsa suddenly found himself to be a pariah.

Poltavets-Ostranitsa was rehabilitated beginning in 1936. The NSDAP member and former Aufbau leader for a short period, Otto von Kursell, wrote Schickedanz of the Foreign Policy Office on Poltavets-Ostranitsa's behalf. Schickedanz responded that he would ensure that the Ukrainian Cossack again received financial assistance.72 Polish intelligence from 1937 reported that Rosenberg again strongly backed Poltavets-Ostranitsa,73 The Ukrainian Cossack leader continued to work for the National Socialist Party, as witnessed by his name in NSDAP payroll records from 1937 and 1938.74 French intelligence noted in December 1938 that Rosenberg, in collaboration with Poltavets-Ostranitsa, had been charged with aiding the Ukrainian independence movement based in the Ukraine that distributed anti-Bolshevik propaganda and carried out terrorist acts.75 While he had damaged his reputation through his deceit, Poltavets-Ostranitsa continued to play a significant role in prewar National Socialist foreign policy.

Hitler's shocking turn toward Josef Stalin's Soviet Union in 1939 placed White emigres in Germany such as Poltavets-Ostranitsa in a very difficult situation. The conclusion of the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, commonly known as the Hitler-Stalin Pact, on August 23, 1939 stunned Germany's White emigre community. The influence of Rosenberg and Schickedanz's Foreign Policy Office had declined significantly in 1939. Hitler had left Rosenberg and Schickedanz out of the loop with regard to his arrangements to divide Poland between Germany and the Soviet Union.76 The German-Soviet partition of Poland beginning in September 1939, which initiated World War II, occurred in a manner similar to what the Aufbau Generals Erich von Ludendorff and Vladimir Biskupskii had envisioned in 1923, with the significant difference that Aufbau had wished to divide Poland between National Socialist German and Russian states.77 With the National Socialist-Bolshevik alliance, Rosenberg, who had consistently upheld a vehement anti-Bolshevik Weltanschauung, found himself in an uncomfortable position. For a period of time, he was forbidden to hold public speeches, and some of his books, notably Plague in Russia!, were banned.78 Soon after the signing of the Hitler-Stalin Pact, Rosenberg wrote in his diary: "I have the feeling as if this Moscow-Pact will one day take revenge on National Socialism ... How can we still speak of Europe's deliverance and structuring when we must ask Europe's destroyers for help?"79 He detested National Socialist Germany's collaboration with the Soviet Union despite its expediency.80

When Biskupskii, the head of the Russian Trust Authority, learned of the Hitler-Stalin Pact, he rushed to three different German ministries to gain an overview of the situation. He was assured that the new treaty would not affect the position of White emigres in Germany. He further received the pledge that the agreement he had concluded with Ludendorff in 1923 still remained in effect. These assurances helped to mollify him.

In conversations with another White emigre, Biskupskii noted that Soviet leaders were following an imperialist, nationalist foreign policy, with little trace of Communism. He emphasized that he had long predicted a nationalist evolution in the Soviet Union. Biskupskii stressed that the internal situation in the Soviet Union was such that the Germans should find it relatively easy to place a "people's monarchy" in charge in place of Bolshevik leadership. He hoped to play a leading role in this Russian monarchical system, which would represent a Russian form of National Socialism.81

While Biskupskii sought to regard the Hitler-Stalin Pact in a positive light, the National Socialist-Soviet alliance shocked the White emigre community in Germany that he represented. White emigres in Germany generally believed that the treaty meant the end of Germany's support of the Russian monarchical cause.82 A Reichssichetheitshauptamt (State Security Main Office, RSHA) decree from October 25, 1939 curtailed White emigre freedoms. While the RSHA did not outlaw existing White emigre organizations and newspapers, "Russian, Ukrainian, Cossack, and Caucasian" emigre organizations in Germany were to limit their activities. For instance, White emigre groups could not propagate anti-Soviet propaganda, they could not hold open meetings, and they could not advertise for new members.83 National Socialist-White emigre collaboration reached a low point during National Socialist Germany's brief partnership with the Soviet Union.

The cooperation between Hitler and Stalin that so discomfited Germany's White emigre community did not last long. Hitler soon returned to his intense anti-Bolshevik roots, which he had largely developed during his close interaction with Aufbau in the early 1920s. Even while German armed forces were still engaged in the French Campaign in June 1940, Hitler expressed his intention "to take action against this menace of the Soviet Union the moment our military position makes it at all possible." He issued the first directive for the invasion of the Soviet Union in August 1940 under the telling name Aufbau Ost (Reconstruction East). In titling his planned Soviet campaign Aufbau Ost, Hitler demonstrated the lasting impression that Aufbau's warnings against "Jewish Bolshevism" had made on his thinking.84

Rosenberg in particular had vehemently urged Hitler to invade the Soviet Union, and he collaborated closely with Hitler in determining Eastern occupation policies.85 Rosenberg had a two-hour conference with Hitler on April 2, 1941 concerning the upcoming administration of conquered Soviet territories. In his notes, Rosenberg wrote of this meeting:

I discussed the racial and historical situation in the Baltic Sea provinces, the Ukraine and its battle against Moscow, the necessary economic link with the Caucasus, etc. The Fuhrer then developed in detail the projected move to the East ... The Fuhrer asked me about the likely response of the Russian, soldierly and humanly, under great pressure, about the present Jewish situation in the Soviet Union and other matters.


Hitler ended the conference by stressing: "Rosenberg, your great hour has arrived now. "86

Rosenberg gained greater influence over Hitler's Eastern planning in the course of April 1941. Early in the month, he submitted a detailed memorandum to Hitler outlining the planned administration of former Soviet territories. In accordance with basic Aufbau policy, the most economically important Soviet regions, the Ukraine, the Don area, and the Caucasus, were to be combined into a Black Sea Confederation that would oppose Great Russian expansion. The Baltic States were to be united. The Great Russian region was slated for the harshest treatment. On April 20, 1941, his birthday, Hitler appointed Rosenberg to serve as the Beauftragter des Fuhrers fur die zentrale Bearbeitung der Fragen des osteuropaischen Raumes (Representative of the Fuhrer for the Central Treating of Questions of the East European Area).87 In his new post, Rosenberg greatly influenced Hitler's plans for ruling former Soviet areas.

The German Wehrmacht (Armed Forces) attacked the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, beginning Hitler's anti-Bolshevik crusade that was known as Operation Barbarossa. Army Group Center, which contained 1.6 million of the 2.5 million German soldiers on the Eastern Front, captured approximately 330,000 prisoners and 3,332 tanks by July 3, 1941.88 Advance units of the powerful army group traversed the Dnepr River, the last important natural barrier before Moscow, on July 11, 1941. Army Group Center captured another 309,110 prisoners and destroyed or seized 3,205 tanks in the Smolensk pocket, only 200 miles from Moscow, by August 5.89 According to the military historian Albert Seaton, if Hitler had ordered Army Group Center to advance on Moscow in August, then "nothing could have saved the Soviet capital."90

On August 18, 1941, the Chief of the Army High Command General Colonel Walter Brauchitsch and his Chief of Staff General Franz Halder urged Hitler to order an immediate offensive against Moscow.91 Hitler refused. He asserted: "The most important objective to be achieved before the onset of winter is not the capture of Moscow but the seizure of the Crimea and of the coal-mining region on the Donets [in the Ukraine], and the cutting off of Russian oil-supplies from the Caucasus."92 Hitler accordingly sent powerful elements of Army Group Center south into the Ukraine.93 Hitler's emphasis on winning the Ukraine for Germany in the tradition of Aufbau, while leading to short-term gains, helped to bring about the ultimate military defeat of the Third Reich.

Hitler's drive southwards into the Ukraine, where the local population welcomed German troops as in 1918, led to a short-term stunning tactical victory and a long-term strategic disaster.94 The Wehrmacht captured 665,000 prisoners and 884 tanks in a pocket around Kiev, but the battle lasted until the end of September 1941. Army Group Center thus could not launch its offensive against Moscow until October 2, 1941. The Soviet High Command had been amazed when Army Group Center had not advanced against Moscow in August 1941. Fully aware of Moscow's key strategic, military, economic, and political importance, the Soviet High Command had used the two months that Hitler had afforded it on the Central Front to rest its troops, to build new defensive lines, and to bring up substantial reinforcements. On December 6, 1941, the Red Army launched a massive counter-attack in front of Moscow with over 100 divisions. Soviet forces hurled Army Group Center's exhausted, freezing, and dispirited troops far away from the Soviet capital. After the German attack on Moscow collapsed, Operation Barbarossa failed as well. Hitler's Third Reich never recovered from this military setback.95

While German armed forces still occupied Eastern territories, Rosenberg attained a high position of authority in administering conquered Soviet areas. He initially could not implement his ideas of treating Ukrainians and other Eastern peoples leniently, but he gained a belated measure of success in late 1944 when the National Socialist regime began using the captured General A. A. Vlassov's Russian Liberation Army against the Red Army. Hitler secretly named Rosenberg the Reichsminister fur die besetzten Ostgebiete (State Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories) on July 17, 1941. The public announcement of Rosenberg's appointment to this post came on November 18, 1941.96 In accordance with Aufbau's principles, Rosenberg did not group conquered peoples of the Soviet Union together as Russians. Instead, his State Ministry possessed subdivisions, most notably the Reichskommissariat Ostland (State Commissionership East Land), composed of the formerly independent Lithuanian, Latvian, and Estonian states with most of Belarus as well, and the Reichskommissariat Ukraine (State Commissionership Ukraine).97

Rosenberg advocated treating peripheral nationalities in conquered Soviet territories moderately, but he had difficulties putting his policies into practice. Rosenberg and his colleague Schickedanz (the latter of whom would have served as the State Commissioner of the Caucasus had the German drive to capture the region not failed in the aftermath of the disastrous 1942-1943 defeat at Stalingrad) did not possess the influence that they desired. Hitler tended to favor those who advocated a severe approach to peripheral Eastern groupings. Rosenberg and Schickedanz had to watch disapprovingly as their ideas of close collaboration with Ukrainians and a relatively lenient attitude towards other Eastern peoples frequently lost out to brutal policies against what were sometimes referred to as "subhumans."98

Rosenberg's May 19, 1943 meeting with Hitler demonstrated his inability to implement a moderate course of cooperation with Ukrainians. Rosenberg complained of the insubordination and brutal policies of his nominal subordinate, the Reichskommissar Ukraine (State Commissioner Ukraine) Erich Koch. Hitler defended Koch's ruthless actions. He stressed that the difficult circumstances of the time necessitated a merciless occupation of the Ukraine to extract economic resources and labor.99 Rosenberg was not allowed to turn the Ukraine into a quasi-autonomous protectorate under moderate occupation policies as he desired. In general, Rosenberg increasingly lost power-political struggles as World War II progressed.100 Largely because of the spectacle of his being "buffeted about hopelessly in the struggle for power in the Party" in the last years of the Third Reich, as the historian Alan Bullock has worded it, scholars have unjustly underestimated Rosenberg's overall importance to National Socialism.101

Rosenberg saw his ideas of making greater use of captured soldiers from the Soviet Union partially vindicated in late 1944. Rosenberg had supported using the forces of the captured Red Army General Vlassov, who despised Bolshevism, against the Soviets. In a May 1943 newspaper interview, Vlassov had lamented that his Russian Liberation Army existed virtually only on paper. He had regretted that his plans to create a powerful anti-Bolshevik army from captured Red Army soldiers had not been heeded, but he had stressed that sooner or later National Socialist leadership would recognize the need for such a force.102 The hour of Vlassov's Russian Liberation Army came late in 1944, when the Wehrmacht, Propaganda Minister Goebbels, and finally the SS partially adopted Rosenberg's thesis of the necessity of malting extensive use of the populations of the Soviet Union to overthrow Bolshevik rule. When Reichsfuhrer SS (State Leader SS) Himmler finally backed General Vlassov's Russian Liberation Army in October 1944, however, the tide had long since irrevocably turned against the Germans on the Eastern Front.103

During Germany's battle against the Soviet Union, Rosenberg's charge Colonel Ivan Poltavets-Ostranitsa supported National Socialism in an advisory capacity.104 In March 1942, the Ukrainian Cossack leader held personal talks with Field Marshall Wilhelm Keitel relating to matters on the Eastern Front. He proposed that Caucasian and Turkestani forces be given official standards with great pomp and ceremony in the near future. Keitel agreed with his suggestion.105 Moreover, on April 15, 1942, Hitler gave Poltavets-Ostranitsa a victory by granting Cossacks a special status and allowing them to perform combat duty for the National Socialist cause.106

As fortunes turned increasingly against the Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front, Poltavets-Ostranitsa continued to support the German war effort steadfastly. In a February 1943 letter to Rosenberg, he noted the exemplary service that Cossacks had already given the Wehrmacht. He urged his former Aufbau comrade to make greater use of this "warlike people," which could be mobilized into a fighting force of over one and half million soldiers for the "liberation of the Eastern territories from Bolshevism."107 In April 1943, Poltavets-Ostranitsa submitted an essay to Rosenberg's State Ministry in which he outlined the postwar Cossack state he envisioned. The official languages of this entity were to be German, Ukrainian, and Russian. Hitler himself would regulate the borders of the Cossack nation, which was to stretch roughly from what had been Eastern Poland to the Ural Mountains.108 As he had in his time of work in Aufbau, Poltavets-Ostranitsa sought to unite the interests of Cossacks with those of National Socialists.

Poltavets-Ostranitsa witnessed the Third Reich recognize the exemplary Cossack service for the National Socialist cause. On November 10, 1943, Rosenberg and Field Marshall Keitel made a proclamation to the Cossacks in which they praised Cossack courage in the fight against Bolshevism. Their declaration stressed: "The German Army has found honest and loyal allies in the Cossacks." The Cossacks who fought on Germany's side in the war were to be granted special privileges in the Third Reich and were to receive an autonomous Cossack state after the end of hostilities on the Eastern Front.109 The Wehrmacht, far from advancing, however, retreated from this time onwards. Poltavets-Ostranitsa ultimately ended his service for the Third Reich in the Rasse und Siedlungshauptamt - SS (SS Race and Settlement Main Office) based in Prague during the final stages of the war.110
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Re: The Russian Roots of Nazism, by Michael Kellogg

Postby admin » Tue Apr 23, 2019 4:34 am

Part 2 of 2

"THE STRUGGLE BETWEEN CHAOS AND FORM"

As a final sinister legacy to National Socialism, Aufbau ideology with its conspiratorial and apocalyptic views of the "Jewish Bolshevik" world menace helped to spur the National Socialist enslavement and annihilation of European Jewry. In particular, the former Aufbau member Rosenberg disseminated intense anti-Semitic notions that inspired German hatred of Jews. Rosenberg acted as the leading anti-Semitic ideologue in the NSDAP after Hitler himself. He edited the National Socialist periodical the Volkisch Observer. In 1934, Hitler recognized Rosenberg's substantial contributions to the National Socialist Weltanschauung by appointing him the Representative of the Fuhrer for the Supervision of the Entire Intellectual and Ideological Political Instruction and Education of the NSDAP.

In addition to propagating vitriolic anti-Semitic views himself, Rosenberg fostered the anti-Semitic careers of men who had either belonged to or been associated with Aufbau, most notably his Rubonia Fraternity comrade Schickedanz, Gregor Schwartz-Bostunich, and General Sakharov. Schickedanz, who had served as Aufbau's Deputy Director and Vice President Biskupskii's secretary, proved his anti-Semitic credentials though his 1927 work, Das Judentum: Eine Gegenrasse (Jewry: a Counter Race). Rosenberg invited Schickedanz to serve as the Berlin representative of the Volkisch Observer in February 1930.111

As for Schwartz-Bostunich, who had worked for Aufbau and the NSDAP under Scheubner-Richter's guidance, Rosenberg asked him to write for the Volkisch Observer in 1925.112 Schwartz-Bostunich also provided the ideological basis for the National Socialist leader Julius Streicher's notorious anti-Semitic publication, Der Sturmer (The Stormer).113 Hitler called upon Schwartz-Bostunich to hold an important speech along with Streicher in March 1926. The White emigre's anti-Semitic views increasingly received attention among National Socialist leadership.114

Rosenberg's charge Schwartz-Bostunich supported the National Socialist Party ideologically in the 1930s as well. In the early part of the decade before Hitler's ascension to power, he gave speeches on behalf of the NSDAP with titles such as "The Frenzy of Bolshevism" and "Jewish World Rule." He won over many Communists to the National Socialist cause,115 After Hitler became the German Chancellor in January 1933, Schwartz-Bostunich presented anti-Semitic and anti-Masonic reports to the State Security Main Office (RSHA).116 He also rose in Himmler's SS. He achieved the rank of SS Obersturmbannfuhrer in January 1937 before retiring from active duty.117

The former Aufbau member General Sakharov received support for his anti-Bolshevik, anti-Semitic views from Rosenberg's Foreign Policy Office of the NSDAP. Rosenberg's agency concluded that Sakharov's 1937 brochure, Judas Herrschaft im Wanken! Antisemitische Front in der Sowjetunion (Judas' Rule Tottering!: Anti-Semitic Front in the Soviet Union), presented a "very interesting" picture of "Jewish rule in Bolshevism" and admirably analyzed "the signs of a future Jewish pogrom in Russia as the world has never seen before." Rosenberg's Foreign Policy Office concluded that Sakharov's work was "perfectly suitable to convince simple-minded people of the role of Jewry in Bolshevism."118 Sakharov advanced a thesis that Aufbau had disseminated as one of its key ideological points, namely that Bolshevism represented a primarily Jewish undertaking.

Of all former Aufbau members, Rosenberg made the most important ideological contributions to the NSDAP in the post-Hitler/Ludendorff Putsch period. He proved second only to Hitler himself in formulating National Socialist ideology. As the editor of the Volkisch Observer, he collaborated closely with Hitler on ideological matters. Rosenberg also served as the first National Socialist to present Party views at a large international conference abroad. At the Volta Congress in Rome in November 1932, he asserted that the challenge of the age was to create and to consolidate a "people's socialism ... against the capitalist plutocrats as well as against Jewish Bolshevism."119 Here Rosenberg referred to his notion that the Jews manipulated both finance capitalism and Bolshevism.

Rosenberg received official status as Hitler's greatest ideological assistant in the Third Reich. In 1934, Hitler named him the Beauftragter des Fuhrers fur die Uberwachung der gesamten geistigen und weltanschaulichen Schulung und Erziehung der NSDAP (Representative of the Fuhrer for the Supervision of the Entire Intellectual and Ideological Political Instruction and Education of the NSDAP). In this post, Rosenberg greatly influenced cultural, church, and school affairs. Moreover, he played an important role in shaping SS courses.120 Hitler demonstrated his appreciation for Rosenberg's ideological contributions to National Socialism at the Reichsparteitag (State Party Day) in 1937. He granted Rosenberg the National Prize for Art and Science as the first living German for his contributions to the National Socialist Weltanschauung.121

It is worth noting that, as important as Rosenberg proved to the ideological development of National Socialism, Hitler did not always agree with his ideas. For instance, Hitler critiqued Rosenberg's 1930 magnum opus, Der Mythus des 20. Jahrhunderts: Eine Wertung der seelisch-geistigen Gestaltenkampfe unserer Zeit (The Myth of the Twentieth Century: An Evaluation of the Spiritual-Intellectual Formation Struggles of Our Time), which castigated the Christian Churches and advocated a religious German "blood" myth.122 In an April 1942 conversation, Hitler argued that the title of Rosenberg's work gave a false impression. As a National Socialist, one should not stress the myth of the twentieth century, but should instead juxtapose the belief and knowledge of the twentieth century against the myth of the nineteenth century.123 Despite Hitler's criticism, Rosenberg's Myth reached a distribution of roughly one million copies, second only to Hitler's Mein Kampf in the Third Reich.124

While they did not always see eye to eye ideologically, Hitler clearly agreed with Rosenberg's views of the dire threat posed by "Jewish Bolshevism." As we have seen, while he had belonged to Aufbau, Rosenberg had warned of a conspiratorial Jewish alliance between finance capitalism and Bolshevism. Hitler had espoused this idea since his period of close collaboration with Aufbau in the early 1920s. He demonstrated his belief in world Jewry as the driving force behind international finance capitalism and Bolshevism in his infamous speech before the Reichstag, by then a ceremonial parliament, on January 30, 1939. Hitler stressed: "If international finance Jewry in and outside Europe should succeed in plunging peoples into a world war again, then the result will not be the Bolshevization of the earth and with it the victory of Jewry, but the destruction of the Jewish race in Europe."125

In a May 30, 1942 speech that Hitler gave to a group of newly promoted officers, he demonstrated an apocalyptic anti-Semitism that Aufbau ideologues including Rosenberg had helped to instill in him. Hitler stressed the dangers that the Soviet Union, the "giant in the East," presented. There the "international Jew" as the "driving element" had long threatened Germany, for the "international Jew" had decided: "The time had come to erect its thousand-year empire with the help of another world that had been done out of its national intelligentsia."126 Hitler used apocalyptic anti-Semitism in the vein of Aufbau thought in general and Rosenberg's views in particular to justify his ruthless war in the East.

Hitler ordered the mass murder of Jews as a means of destroying the "Jewish Bolshevik" menace, and Rosenberg aided him in this mission. As an early measure of what became an ever-larger genocide, Hitler issued the notorious Commissar Decree on June 6, 1941. This directive commanded State Leader SS Himmler's special forces, the Einsatztruppen (Task Troops), to execute all captured Red Army political commissars, many of whom were Jewish, in the imminent war against the Soviet Union.117 The Historian Christopher Browning believes that Hitler decided to exterminate civilian Jews in the Soviet Union in mid-July 1941.128 If Browning is correct, then Hitler's resolution to implement this decisive phase of what became known as the Final Solution coincided with his appointment of Rosenberg as the State Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories.

Rosenberg viewed his genocidal anti-Semitic actions in the occupied East as retaliation for the depredations of "Jewish Bolshevism." The November 18, 1941 press release dealing with Rosenberg's public assumption of the State Minister post stressed that the White emigre had entered politics since "he wanted to protect the German people from the same fate that he had lived through in Moscow."129 A composition that Rosenberg himself most likely wrote in preparation for the November press release, "The Struggle Between Chaos and Form: On the Appointment of State Leader Alfred Rosenberg to State Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories," stressed his service in incorporating the "struggle against Jewish Bolshevism" into the" Weltanschauung struggle of the movement." The most belligerent section of this essay, which referred to the large-scale destruction of Jews, did not appear in the official press release:

Bolshevism is in essence the form of the Jewish world revolution, the enormously calculated "messianic" attempt to take revenge on the eternally foreign character of the Europeans and not just the Europeans. And destiny has decided against Jewry. The victorious battles of the German struggle for liberation have created a new basis for Europe. The German advance in the Bolshevik East will lead to the complete elimination of Jewish-Bolshevik rule in this area. That which Jewry once planned against Germany and all peoples of Europe, that must it itself suffer today, and responsibility before the history of European culture demands that we do not carry out this fateful separation with sentimentality and weakness, but with clear, rational awareness and firm determination.130


State Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories Rosenberg facilitated the mass slaughter of Jews behind the Eastern Front. In August 1941, he issued a decree specifying who was to be considered a Jew in the East, thereby providing guidelines for Germans and their auxiliaries to follow in deciding whom they would single out for slave labor or extermination.131 Rosenberg supported the creation of the anti-Semitic Deutsche Ukraine-Zeitung (German Ukraine-Newspaper) in January 1942. In an appeal in the paper's first edition, he hinted at the German-led mass murder of Jews in the Ukraine. He noted that Germany had taken over control of the Ukraine in order to assure that "Bolshevik conditions" and the "rule of Jewry" would never return.132 Rosenberg found numerous anti-Semitic collaborators in the Ukraine. Many Ukrainian auxiliary police units slaughtered Jews under German occupation.133

In his 1923 work, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion and Jewish World Politics, Rosenberg had asserted of the "Jewish Bolshevik" regime: "The terror that has sent waves upon waves of blood across the broad Russian plains from the Gulf of Finland to the mountains of the Caucasus ... is not a Russian flare up, but a methodical massacre of a great people."134 Beginning in the summer of 1942, Rosenberg possessed authority over roughly this same region. He worked in the framework of the Final Solution to facilitate another "methodical massacre" in order to eradicate what he perceived as the "Jewish Bolshevik" world menace. The postwar Nuremberg Tribunal stressed that, among his other crimes, Rosenberg had "helped to formulate the policies of ... extermination of Jews," and the court sentenced him to death by hanging.135

CONCLUSION

Aufbau bequeathed a substantial financial, political, military, and ideological legacy to National Socialism from 1924 to 1945. Hitler's NSDAP received considerable financial assistance from White emigre circles after 1923. Hitler used the tragic death of his most important early advisor, Aufbau's guiding figure Max von Scheubner-Richter, as an example of selfless sacrifice for the good of National Socialism. Alfred Rosenberg and his former Aufbau colleagues Depury Director Arno Schickedanz and Vice President General Vladimir Biskupskii held leading positions in the Third Reich. Both before and after the 1941 German invasion of the Soviet Union, Hitler used White emigres, notably Ukrainian Cossacks behind Colonel Ivan Poltavets-Ostranitsa, to undermine the Soviet Union. Hitler upheld Aufbau's emphasis on winning the Ukraine for Germany. He gave the region precedence over Moscow in 1941. He thereby undermined German prospects for victory in World War II.

Conspiratorial and apocalyptic Aufbau thought continued to influence anti-Bolshevik, anti-Semitic National Socialist views after 1923, primarily through the agency of Rosenberg. The fundamental Aufbau conception of a monstrous Jewish alliance between predatory finance capitalism and murderous Bolshevism, notably as interpreted by Rosenberg, significantly influenced the National Socialist Weltanschauung long after the Hitler/Ludendorff Putsch of 1923. Although he entered into a brief tactical alliance with the Soviet Union, Hitler's dread of the "Jewish Bolshevik" peril, which he had internalized during his years of cooperation with Aufbau, came to the fore in 1941. In that fateful year, Hitler sought to eradicate "Jewish Bolshevism" by launching a risky military crusade against the Soviet Union and inaugurating the mass murder of European Jews. As the State Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories, Rosenberg aided Hitler in both of these quintessentially National Socialist endeavors.

_______________

Notes:

1 Walter Laqueur, Russia and Germany: A Century of Conflict (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1965), 53.
 
2 Interview with Mathilde Scheubner-Richter on April 3, 1936, NSDAPHA. BAB, NS 26, number 1263,4.
 
3 Adolf Hitler, Hitler's Table Talk 1941-44: His Private Conversations, trans. Norman Cameron an R. H. Stevens, 2nd edn. (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1973), 173.
 
4 Hitler, Hitler: Reden und Proklamationen 1932-1945, vol. I, ed. Max Domarus (Munich: Suddeutscher Verlag, 1965), 222.
 
5 Hitler, speech on November 8, 1935, Hitler: Reden und Proklamationen, vol. 1, 552, 554.
 
6 Ivan Berend, Decades of Crisis: Central and Eastern Europe before World War II (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), 310.
 
7 RKUoO report from November 20, 1925, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 772, opis I, delo 100, 5.
 
8 PDM report to the BSMA from January 31,1929 in possession of the RKUoO, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 772, opis 3, delo 81a, 68.
 
9 RKUoO report from December 12, 1914, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond772, opis 3, delo 81a, 61.
 
10 PDM report to the BSMA from January 31, 1929 in possession of the RKUoO, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 772, opis 3, delo 81a, 69, 70.
 
11 Letter from Vladimir Biskupskii to Arno Schickedanz from October 21, 1939, APA, BAB, NS 43. number 35. 13; Biskupskii, subpoena from March 11, 1930, BAB, APA, NS 43. number 35, 129.
 
12 DB report from October 12, 1936. RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 7, opis 1, delo 386, reel 1, 30.

13 RKUoO report from July 1927, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond772, opis 1, delo 91, 51.
 
14 DGBer report to the AA from December 27. 1924, PAAA, 83584, 177.
 
15 Letters from Muller to Himmler from July 12 and August 29, 1938, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 500, opis 1, delo 677, 1, 3.
 
16 RKUoO report from May 7, 1925, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond772, opis 4, delo 52, 145.
 
17 SG report from March 11, 1924, RGVA (TKhIDK), fond 1, opis 18, delo 2381. 2.

18 DB report from May 22, 1936, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 7, opis 4, delo 168, reel 1, 2.
 
19 Report from Friedrich Mollenhof to the APA from June 26, 1934, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 519, opis 3, delo 11b, 69; The Liquidation of the Nansen Office and the Problem of Political Refugees," IIA report from January 23, 1938, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 284, opis 1, delo 69, 8.
 
22 DB report from July 24, 1933, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 7, opis 1, delo 386, reel 1, 72.
 
21 AA report from September 28, 1933. PAAA, 31666, 37.
 
22 "The Liquidation of the Nansen Office," IIA report from January 23, 1938, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 284, opis 1, delo 69, 8.
 
23 AA report from February 15, 1934, PAAA, 31667, E667445.
 
24 SG report to the Interior Ministry from December 13, 1933, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 1, opis 27, delo 12541, 101.
 
25 DB translation of a report from a "White emigre source from December 6, 1938, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 7, opis 1, delo 299, reel 1, 73.
 
26 SN report to the DB from June 2, 1934, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 7, opis 1, delo 922, reel 3, 248.
 
27 Memorandum from Pavel Bermondt-Avalov's Partei Russischer 'Oswoboshdenzy' included in a Gestapo report from July 6, 1934, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 1323, opis 2, delo 171, 335,336.
 
28 SN report from June 1935 included in an SN report to the DB from July 3,1935, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 7, opis 1, delo 922, reel 3, 238.
 
29 Letter from Biskupskii to Alfred Rosenberg from December 22, 1931, APA, BAB, NS 43, number 35,182 ob.
 
30 Letter from Biskupskii to Rosenberg from December 22, 1931, APA, BAB, NS 43, number 35, 182, 182 ob.

31 Letter from Rosenberg to Biskupskii from December 30, 1931, BAB, NS 43, number 35, 183, 184.
 
32 Robert Cecil, The Myth of the Master Race: Alfred Rosenberg and Nazi Ideology (London: B. T. Batsford Ltd., 1972), 173, 174.
 
33 Letter from Biskupskii to Rosenberg from April 6, 1933, KR, BAB, NS 43, number 35, 179, 179 ob.
 
34 Letters from Biskupskii to Arno Schickedanz from May 5 and 31, 1933, APA, BAB, NS 43, number 35, 113, 120.

35 Letter from Piotr Shabe1skii-Bork to Heinrich Lammers from November 4, 1933, forwarded to the AA, PMA, 31667, E667442.
 
36 DB report from May 22, 1936, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 7, opis 4, delo 168, reel 1, 1.
 
37 DGR report to the AA from April 24, 1936, PAAA, 31668, 255.
 
38 Gestapo report from July 7, 1936, BAB, 58, number 270, fiche 1, 37.
 
39 DB report from April 23, 1940, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 7, opis 1, delo 404, reel 2, 109; SN report to the DB from November 6, 1936, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 7, opis 1, delo 386, reel 1, 26.
 
40 DB reports from March 1930 and October 12, 1936, RGVA (TsKhIDK),fond7, opis 1, delo 390, reel 8, 602; delo 386, reel 1, 30.
 
41 DB report from June 19, 1933, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 7, opis 1, delo 386, reel 1, 83.
 
42 DB report from December 15, 1938, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 7, opis 1, delo 954, reel 7, 578.
 
43 DB report from April 23, 1940, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 7, opis 1, delo 404, reel 2, 109.

44 Letter from Shabelskii-Bork to Biskupskii from June 20, 1935 in possession of the Gestapo, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 501, opis 3, delo 496a, 6.
 
45 SN report to the DB from July 23, 1936, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 7, opis 1, delo 386, reel 1, 52.
 
46 Seppo Kuusisto, Alfred Rosenberg in der nazionalsozialistischen Aussenpolitik 1933-1939, trans. Chrisrian Krotzl (Helsinki: Finska Historiska Samfundet, 1984), 137.
 
47 APA report from December 1, 1938, BAS, NS 43. number 35, 68.
 
48 Kuusisto, Alfred Rosenberg in der nationalsozialistischen Aussenpolitik, 137.
 
49 SN report to the DB from April 4, 1938, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 7, opis 1, delo 954, reel 1, 7.
 
50 DB report from May 22, 1936, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 7, opis 4, delo 168, reel 1, 2.
 
51 SN report from August 5, 1936 included in an SN report to the DB from August 7, 1936, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 7, opis 1, delo 386, reel 1, 35.
 
52 Biskupskii's report included in a May 16, 1939 letter from Schickedanz to Lammers, BAE, NS 43, number 35, 2.
 
53 Laqueur, Russia and Germany, 112.
 
54 Letter from Biskupskii to Schickedanz from April 20, 1933, KR, BAB, NS 43, number 35, 112.
 
55 RKUoO report from May 28, 1925, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 772, opis 4, delo 52, 204.
 
56 DB report from January 19, 1925, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond7, opis 1, delo 953, reel 1, 48.
 
57 SGOD report from 1929, RGVA (TKhIDK), fond 308, opis 7, delo 265, 4.
 
58 SGOD report from December 22, 1928, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 308, opis 7, delo 265, 8.
 
59 Cecil, The Myth of the Master Race, 163; Kuusisto, Alfred Rosenberg in der nationalsozialistischen Aussenpolitik, 109.

60 Letter from Ivan Poltavets-Ostranitsa to Hitler from February 10, 1933, KR, BAB, NS 8, number 100, 55-57.
 
61 SN report a the DB from December 16, 1933, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 7, opis 1, delo 953, reel 1, 34.
 
62 SGOD report from May 15, 1933, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 308, opis 7, delo 265, 33.
 
63 DB report from August 11, 1933, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 7, opis 1, delo 954, reel 5, 357.

64 SG report to the DB from June 27, 1933, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 7, opis 1, delo 922, reel 4, 318, 319.
 
65 DB report from June 19, 1933, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 7, opis 1, delo 386, reel 1, 85.
 
66 SGOD report from November 1935, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 453, opis 1, delo 53, 4.
 
67 "The Liquidation of the Nansen Office," IIA report from January23, 1938, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 284, opis 1, delo 69, 9.
 
68 Letter from Poltavets-Ostranitsa to Hitler from May 23, 1935, PAAA, 31668, 56, 57.
 
69 SG report to the DB from June 27, 1933, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 7, opis 1, delo 922, reel 4, 319.
 
70 Letter from Harald Siewert to Reinhard Heydrich from November 22, 1935 in possession of the APA, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 1358, opis 2, delo 642, 122.
 
71 Kuusisto, Alfred Rosenberg in der nationalsozialistischen Aussenpolitik, 133; SGOD report from November 1935, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 453, opis 1, delo 53, 4.
 
72 Letter from Schickedanz to Otto von Kursell from April 29, 1936, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 519, opis 4, delo 26, 320.
 
73 SGOD report from January 20, 1937, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 308, opis 3, delo 405,4.
 
74 APA memorandum from December 7, 1937, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 519, opis 4, delo 26, 170; Schickedanz, APA memorandum from December 5, 1938, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 519, opis 3, delo 39, 345.
 
75 DB reports from December 6 and 15, 1938, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 7, opis 1, delo 299, reel 1, 81; delo 954, reel 7. 577.
 
76 Cecil, The Myth of the Master Race, 178, 181.
 
77 Translation of Biskupskii's September 7,1939 comments, APA, BAB, NS 43, number 35, 48.
 
78 Translated article from Goteburgs Handels- och Sjoforts-Tidning, Nr. 237 included in a Sonderbeilage zum SD-Pressebericht Nr. 39, October 13, 1939, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 500, opis 3, delo 129, reel 3, 369.
 
79 Rosenberg, entry in Das Politische Tagebuch Alfred Rosenbergs (Gottingen, Seraphim, 1956), cited from Hitler, Hitlers Tischgesprache im Fuhrerhauptquartier 1941-1942, 2nd edn. (Stuttgart: Seewald Verlag, 1965), 344.
 
80 DB report from October 25, 1941, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 7, opis 1, delo 404, reel 1, II.
 
81 Translation of Biskupskii's September 7, 1939 comments, BAB, NS 43, number 35, 48.
 
82 APA report [1940], BAS, NS 43, number 35, 7.
 
83 RSHA decree from October 25, 1939, BAB, 58, number 1031, fiche 1, 25, 25 ob.
 
84 Alan Clark, Barbarossa: The Russian-German Conflict, 1941-45 (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1995), 24.
 
85 DB report from October 25, 1941, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond7, opis 1, delo 404, reel 1, II.
 
86 Fritz Nova, Alfred Rosenberg: Nazi Theorist of the Holocaust (New York: Hippocrene Books, 1986), xviii.

87 Cecil, The Myth of the Master Race, 192, 193; Kuusisto, Alfred Rosenberg in der nationalsozialistischen Aussenpolitik,16.
 
88 Bryan Fugate, Operation Barbarossa: Strategy and Tactics on the Eastern Front, 1941 (Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1984), 95; Klaus Reinhardt, Moscow- The Turning Point: The Failure of Hitler's Strategy in the Winter of 1941-42, trans. Karl B. Keenan (Providence, RI: Berg, 1992), 24.
 
89 R. H. S. Stolfi, Hitler's Panzers East: World War Two Reinterpreted (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1991), 119; Albert Seaton, The Russo-German War 1941-45 (London: C. Tinling, 1971), 129, 130; Seaton, The Battle for Moscow: 1941-42 (New York: Stein and Day, 1971), 168.
 
90 Seaton, The Battle for Moscow: 1941-42, 168.
 
91 Seaton, The Russo-German War, 143.
 
92 Hitler, Hitler's war Directives 1939-1945. ed. and trans. H R. Trevor-Roper (London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1964), 95.
 
93 Seaton, The Russo-German War, 143, 145.
 
94 Cecil, The Myth of the Master Race, 193.
 
95 Seaton, The Russo-German War, 129, 145, 146; Reinhardt, Moscow - The Turning Point, 60, 71, 421; Fugate, Operation Barbarossa, 294.
 
96 Cecil, The Myth of the Master Race, 196.
 
97 Karlheinz Rudiger, "Reichsminister fur die besetzten Ostgebiete Alfred Rosenberg," [November 1941], KR, BAB, NS 8, number 8, 2.
 
98 Cecil, The Myth of the Master Race, 193, 204; Kuusisto, Alfred Rosenberg in der nazionalsozialistischen Aussenpolitik, 111; Max Hildebert Boehm, "Baltische Einflusse auf die Anfange des Nationalsozialismus," Jahrbuch des baltischen Deutschtums, 1967, 68.
 
99 Copy of a Martin Bormann report in possession of RSHA from June 10, 1943, BAB, 58, number 1005, fiche 1, 10-12 ob.
 
100 Christine Pajouh, "Die Ostpolitik Rosenbergs 1941-1944," Deutschbalten, Weimarer Republik und Drittes Reich, ed. Michael Garleff (Cologne: Bohau Verlag, 2001), 167.
 
101 Alan Bullock, Hitler: A Study in Tyranny (New York Harper and Row, 1962), 80.
 
102 Vladimir Despotuli's report of his conversation with A. A. Vlassov on May 24, 1943, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 1128, opis 1, delo I, 27.
 
103 Cecil, The Myth of the Master Race, 198.
 
104 DB report from October 25, 1941, RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 7, opis 1, delo 404, reel 1, II.
 
105 Letter from Poltavets-Ostranitsa to Rosenberg from February 3,1943, RGVA (TsKhIDK), RMbO, fond 1358, opis 3, delo 53, 3, 4.
 
106 RMbO report from January 10, 1943, BAB, 6, number 157, fiche I, page 6.
 
107 Letter from Poltavets-Ostranitsa to Rosenberg from February 3, 1943, RGVA (TsKhIDK), RMbO, fond 1358, opis 3, delo 53, 1.
 
108 RMbO memorandum on Poltavets-Ostranitsa's essay from April 16, 1943, BAB, 6, number 157, fiche 2, page 43 ob.
 
109 Memorandum from Cossack leaders to the RMbO from April 10, 1944, BAB, 6, number 158, fiche I, page 1.
 
110 Check receipt from the RuSHA-SS/VP sent to Poltavets-Ostranltsa on April 8, 1945. RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 1372, opis 3, delo 35, 32.
 
111 Kuusisto, Alfred Rosenberg in der nationalsozialistischen Aussenpolitik, 45.
 
112 Gregor Schwartz-Bostunich, SS-Personalakten, SS-OStubaf, IZG, Fa 74, I; Michael Hagemeister, Das Leben des Gregor Schwartz-Bostunich, Teil 2," Russische Emigration in Deutschland 1918 bis 1941: Leben im europaischen Burgerkrieg, ed. Karl Schlagel (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1995), 212.
 
113 Laqueur, Russia and Germany, 122.
 
114 Schwartz-Bostunich, SS-Personalakten, SS-OStubaf, IZG, Fa 74, I.
 
115 Letter from Schwartz-Bostunich to Rosenberg from January 8,1933, KR, BAB, NS 8, number 100, 141.
 
116 RSHA report from March 14, 1934, BAB, 58, number 7560, 7.
 
117 Dienstaltersliste der Schutzstaffel der NSDAP (SS-Obersturmbannfuhrer und SS- Sturmbannfuhrer): Stand vom I. Oktober 1944 (Berlin: Reichsdruckerei, 1944), RGVA (TKhIDK), fond 1372, opis 5, delo 89, 6; State Treasurer Franz Xaver Schwartz's report to Rosenberg from May 5. 1943, KR, BAB, NS 8, number 207, 29.
 
118 APA/AO report from October 21, 1937, RGVA (TKhIDK), fond 1358, opis 2, delo 643, 124.
 
119 [Alfred Rosenberg], "Der Kampf zwischen Chaos und Gestalt: Zur Ernennung des Reichsleiters Alfred Rosenberg zum Reichsminister fur die besetzten Ostgebiete," a draft used to create an official press release [November 1941], KR, BAB, NS 8, number 8, 19, 20.
 
120 Boehm, "Baltische Einflusse," 67; Nova, Alfred Rosenberg, 237.
 
121 "Der Kampfer Alfred Rosenberg: Zur Ernennung des Reichsleiters zum Reichsminister fur die besetzten Gebiete," Parteipresse-Sonderdienst, Nr. 368, November 17, 1941, KR, BAB, NS 8, number 8,7.
 
122 Cecil, The Myth of the Master Race, 82, 93.
 
123 Hitler, conversation on April 11, 1942, Hitler’s Tischgesprache, 269.
 
124 Nova, Alfred Rosenberg, 8.
 
125 Hitler, speech on January 30, 1939, Reden und Proklamationen, vol. 2, 1058.
 
126 Hitler, secret speech on May 30, 1942, Hitler’s Tischgesprache, 497.
 
127 Fugate, Operation Barbarossa, 43, 44.
 
128 Christopher Browning, Nazi Policy, Jewish Workers, German Killers (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 27.
 
129 "Der Kampfer Alfred Rosenberg," Parteipresse-Sonderdienst, Nr. 368, November 17, 1941, KR, BAB, NS 8, number 8, 7, 8.
 
130 [Rosenberg], "Der Kampfzwischen Chaos und Gestalt," [November 1941], KR, BAB, NS 8, number 8, 16, 18, 19.
 
131 Rosenberg, RMbO decree from August 1941, BAB, 6, number 74, fiche I, 32, 33.
 
132 "Deutsche Ukraine-Zeitung erschienen: Aufrufe Rosenbergs und Kochs an die Ukrainer," Krakauer Zeitung, January 25, 1942, 4.
 
133 Christopher Browning, "Ordinary Germans or Ordinary Men? A Reply to the Critics," The Holocaust and History: The Known, the Unknown, the Disputed, and the Reexamined, eds. Michael Berenbaum and Abraham J. Peck (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998), 257.
 
134 Rosenberg, Die Protokolle der weisen von Zion und die Judische weltpolitik (Munich: Deutscher Volks-Verlag, 1923), 43.
 
135 Nova, Alfred Rosenberg, 219.
 
 
 
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Re: The Russian Roots of Nazism, by Michael Kellogg

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Bibliography

PERSONAL INTERVIEW


Hass, Julia (Otto von Kursell's daughter). Personal interview, January 21, 2003.

UNPUBLISHED ARCHIVAL MATERIALS

BAB: BUNDESARCHIV (FEDERAL ARCHIVES IN BERLIN)


Alldeutscher Verband (Pan-German League). 8048, number 117.

APA: Aussenpolitisches Amt (Foreign Policy Office, specifically for the NSDAP). NS 43, number 35.

Baltenverband (Baltic League). 8012, numbers 2, 4, 7, 9, 11.

Baltischer Vertrauensrat (Baltic Trust Council). 8054, number 2.

Gestapo: Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police). 58, number 270.

Jaenicke, Franz. "Lebenslauf." Luckenwalde, July 1, 1923. RKUoO. 1507, number 329.

"Der Kampfer Alfred Rosenberg: Zur Ernennung des Reichsleiters zum Reichsminister fur die besetzten Gebiete." Parteipresse-Sonderdienst, Nr. 368, November 17, 1941. KR. NS 8, number 8.

KR: Kanzlei Rosenberg (Rosenberg Chancellery). NS 8, numbers 8, 20, 100, 207.

Kursell, Otto von. "Die Linie im Leben Max von Scheubner-Richters." Dr. Ing. M. E. von Scheubner-Richter gefallen am 9. November 1923. Munich: Muller und Sohn, November 1923. NSDAPHA. NS 26, number 1263, 4.

-- . "Die Trauerfeierlichkeiten: Einaschung auf dem Munchner Ostfriedhof am 17. November 10 Uhr fruh." Dr. Ing. M E. von Scheubner-Richter gefallen am 9. November 1923. Munich: Muller und Sohn, November 1923. NSDAPHA. NS 26, number 1263, 3.

Nemirovich-Danchenko, Georgii. "Ein schoner Tod." Dr. Ing. M. E. von Scheubner-Richter gefallen am 9. November 1923. Munich: Muller und Sohn, November 1923. NSDAPHA. NS 26, number , 263, 4.

NSDAPHA: NSDAP Hauptarchiv (NSDAP Main Archives). NS 26, numbers 1259, 1263.

"Reichszentrale fur Heimatdienst." RKUoO. 1507, number 23. RK: Reichskanzlei (State Chancellery). 43, number 2448/4.

RKUoO: Reichskommissar fur die Uberwachung der offentlichen Ordnung (State Commissioner for the Supervision of Public Order). 134, numbers 66, 68, 69, 76, 78, 170, 173; 1507, numbers 23, 208, 211, 214, 325. 327. 329, 339. 343-345, 388, 440-442, 557, 558, 568.

RMbO: Reichsministerium fur die besetzten Ostgebiete (State Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories), 6, numbers 74, 157, 158.

RMI: Reichsministerium des Innern (State Ministry of the Interior). 1501, number 14139.

[Rosenberg, Alfred.] "Der Kampf zwischen Chaos und Gestalt: Zur Ernennung des Reichsleiters Alfred Rosenberg zum Reichsminister fur die besetzten Ostgebiete." [November 1941.] KR, NS 8, number 8, 14-20.

--, Memoirs. KR, NS 8, number 20.

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Rudiger, Karlheinz. "Reichsminister fur die besetzten Ostgebiete Alfred Rosenberg." KR, [November 1941], NS 8, number 8, 2-5.

Scheubner-Richter, Mathilde von. Interview on April 3, 1936. NSDAPHA. NS 26, number 1263, 4-7.

Stahlhelm (Steel Helmet). 72, number 261.

Taube, Georg. "Der Esten Krieg." [1920.] 8025, number 15.

Weber, Friedrich. ''An die Herren Landes- und Kreisleiter!" September 26, 1923. RKUoO. 1507; number 343, 314.

BAK: BUNDESARCHIV KOBLENZ (FEDERAL ARCHIVES IN KOBLENZ)

Class, Heinrich. Essay fragment. 1936. Kleine Erwerbung 499.

-- . Wider den Strom, vol. II. Kleine Erwerbung 499.
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-- . Correspondence. Nachlass 309, numbers 7, 20.

-- . "Zur Vorgeschichte des Marz-Unternehmens." 1922. Nachlass 309, number 7.

BA/MF: BUNDESARCHIV, MILITARARCHIV FREIBURG (FEDERAL ARCHIVES, MILITARY ARCHIVES IN FREIBURG)

"Die Ereignisse im Baltikum vom Herbst 1918 bis Ende 1919." January 1920. RWM, Nachlass 247, number 91.

Goltz, Rudiger von der. "Erste Versuche." Nachlass 714, number 14.

--. Personal papers. Nachlass 714, number I.

Groener, Wilhelm. Correspondence, military reports, and personal papers. Nachlass 46, numbers 172, 173.

Hoffmann, Max. Correspondence. Nachlass 37, number 2.

Pabst, Waldemar. "Auszug aus meinem Lebenslauf." 1954. Nachlass 620, number I.

--. "Das Kapp-Unternehmen." 1952. Nachlass 620, number 3.

--. "Nachkriegserlebnisse als la und Stabschef der Garde-Kav.- (Schu) Division." Nachlass 620, number 2.

BHSAM: BAYERISCHES HAUPTSTAATSARCHIV MUNCHEN (BAVARIAN STATE ARCHIVES IN MUNICH)

BSMA.: Bayerisches Staatsministerium des Aussern (Bavarian Foreign Ministry). 33, number 97676; 36, numbers 103009, 103456, 103472, 103476/1, 103476/2.

BSMI: Bayerisches Staatsministerium des Innern (Bavarian Interior Ministry). 22, numbers 71525, 71624, 71625, 73675, 73685, 73694; 25, numbers 81592, 81594.

Ehrhardt, Hermann. Deutschlands Zukunft: Aufgaben und Ziele. Munich: J. F. Lehmanns Verlag, 1921. Sammlung Personen, number 3678.

"Verpflichtung." 22, number 73675, fiche 4, 89.

BHSAM/AK: BAYERISCHES HAUPTSTAATSARCHIV MUNCHEN, ABTEILUNG KRIEGSARCHIV (BAVARIAN STATE ARCHIVES IN MUNICH, MILITARY ARCHIVES DEPARTMENT)

Endres, Theodor. ''Aufzeichnungen uber den Hirlerpursch 1923." 1945. Handschriftensammlung, number 925.

Mend, Hans. "Protokoll aufgenommen am 22. Dezember 1939 mit Hans Mend, Reitlehrer und Verwalter auf Schloss Eltzholz Berg bei Starnberg a/See, ehemals Ulan im kgl. bayer. x. Ulanenregiment zugeteilt als Ordonnanzreiter im Oktober 1914 dem Inf. Rgt. 'List.' Seit Juni 1916 befordert zum Offizier-Stellvertreter und zugeteilt dem 4. bayer. Feldartillerieregiment, Munitionskolonne 143 (Tankabwehr). Bei der Truppe bekannt als der 'Schimmelreiter. '" Handschriftensammlung) number 3231.

BSAM: BAYERISCHES STAATSARCHIV MUNCHEN (BAVARIAN REGIONAL ARCHIVES IN MUNICH)

"An die Munchener Bevolkerung!" PDM, Number 6711, 5.

PDM: Polizeidirektion Munchen (Munich Police Headquarters). Numbers 6697, 6698, 6707-6709, 6711, 6803.

GARF: GOSUDARSTVENNYI ARKHIV ROSSIISKOI FEDERATSII (STATE ARCHIVES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION, MOSCOW)

ATsVO: Administretivnyi Tsentr vnepartinnogo obedineniia (Administrative Center of the Non-Party Association, a Russian emigre organization in Prague). Fond 5893, opis 1, delo 39, 46, 47, 70, 201.

Lampe, Aleksandr. Dnevnik (Diary). Fond 5853, opis 1, delo 3, 7-11, 13.

ROVS: Russkii obshii-voinskii soiuz (Russian Universal Military Union). Fond 5826, opis 1, delo 123.

Soiuz russkago naroda (Union of the Russian People). Fond 116, opis 1, delo 1, 6, 807.

Vsevelikoe Voisko Donskoe (Great Don Host). Fond 1261, opis 1, delo 40.

GSAPKB: GEHEIMES STAATSARCHIV PREUSSISCHER KULTURBESITZ (SECRET STATE ARCHIVES OF PRUSSIAN CULTURAL PROPERTY, BERLIN)

JM: Justizministerium (Department of Justice). Repositur 84a, number 14953.

Kapp. Wolfgang. Correspondence, personal papers, collected materials. Repositur 92, numbers 455, 460, 792, 801, 815, 839, 840/1.
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LGPO: Landesgrenzpolizei Ost (National Border Police East). Repositur 77, title 1809. number 9; title 1810, numbers I, 2, 4, 6; title 1813. numbers 2, 6, 8.

Schwarze, Elisabeth. "Einleitung." Nachlass Wolfgang Kapp. 1997.

Shabelskii-Bork, Piotr. Correspondence. Repositur 84a, number 14953.

--. "Uber Mein Leben." March 1926. Repositur 84a, number 14953, 91-110.

SKoO: Staarskommissar fur offentliche Ordnung (State Commissioner for Public Order). Repositur 77, title 1812, number 25.

Wagener. "Bericht uber die augenblickliche Lage in Mitau." Berlin, September 8, 1919. Repositur 92, number 815.

IZG: INSTITUT FiUR ZEITGESCHICHTE (INSTITUTE FOR MODERN HISTORY, MUNICH)

Hering, Johann. Interview on August 29, 1951. ZS 67.

Interrogation of Ambassador Herbert von Dirksen from October 1945, The National Archives, Records of the Department of State, Special Interrogation Mission to Germany, 1945-46. Number 679, roll 1.

Reicheneder, Walburga. Interview on January 11, 1952. ZS 119.

Rosenberg, Alfred. "Meine erste Begegnung mit dem Fuhrer." The National Archives, Records of the Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories, 1941-45. Number 454, roll 63.

Rossbach, Gerhard. Interview on December 13, 1951. ZS 128.

Schickedanz, Arno. [May] 1919 report to Max von Scheubner-Richter. ZS 2368.

Schwartz-Bostunich, Gregor. SS-Personalakten, SS-OStubaf Fa 74.

Skoropadskii, Pavel. Erinnerungen von Pavlo Skoropadsky aufgeschrieben in Berlin in der Zeit von Januar bis Mai 1918. Trans. Helene Ott-Skoropadskii. Berlin, 1918. Ms 584.

Weiss. Correspondence. Fa 88.

PAAA: POLITISCHES ARCHIV DES AUSWARTIGEN AMTES (POLITICAL ARCHIVES OF THE FOREIGN OFFICE, BERLIN)

AA: Auswartiges Amt (Foreign Office). Numbers 31490, 31665-31668, 83377, 83379, 83578-83582, 83584.

RGASPI: ROSSIISKII GOSUDARSTVENNYI ARKHIV SOTSIALNO-POLITICHESKOI ISTORII (RUSSIAN STATE ARCHIVES OF SOCIO-POLITICAL HISTORY, MOSCOW)

Dzerzhinskii, Feliks. Papers. Fond 76, opis 3, delo 400.

KI: Komintern (Communist International). Fond 495, Opis 33, delo 306.

RGVA: ROSSIISKII GOSUDARSTVENNYI VOENNYI ARKHIV (RUSSIAN STATE MILITARY ARCHIVES, MOSCOW)

Bermondt-Avalov, Pavel. Military papers. Fond 40147, opis 1, delo 18.

OKL: O. K. London (military organization). Military reports. Fond 40147, opis 1, delo 48.

RGVA (TSKHIDK): FORMER TSENTR KHRANENIIA ISTORIKO-DOKUMENTALNYCH KOLLEKTSII (CENTER FOR THE PRESERVATION OF HISTORICAL-DOCUMENTARY COLLECTIONS, NOW PART OF RGVA, MOSCOW)

AGM: Amtsgericht Munchen (Munich District Court). Fond 567, opis, delo 2496.

APA: Aussenpolitisches Amt (Foreign Policy Office, specifically for the National Socialist Party). Fond 519, opts 3, delo 11b, 39; opts 4, delo 26; fond 1358, opis 2, delo 642, 643.

Bermondt-Avalov, Pavel. Correspondence. Fond 603, opis 2, delo 30.

--. "Das Erbe der Revolution und des Bolschewismus." RKUoO. Fond 772, opis 3, delo 71, 22-30.

DB: Deuxieme Bureau (Second Section, French intelligence; the originals of these files are now back in Paris). Fond 7, opis 1, delo 299, 386, 390, 404, 876, 878, 922, 953, 954, 1255; opis 2, delo 2575; opis 4, delo 168; fond 198, opis 9, delo 4474; opis 17, delo 203.

Despotuli, Vladimir. Personal papers. Fond 1128, opis 1, delo 1.

Dienstaltersliste der Schutzstaffel der NSDAP (SS-Obersturmbannfuhrer und SS-Sturmbannfuhrer): Stand vom 1. Oktober 1944. Berlin: Reichsdruckerei, 1944. Fond 1372, opis 5, delo 89.

Foch, Ferdinand. Military reports (the original file is now back in Paris). Fond 198, opis 17, delo 406.

Gestapo: Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police). Fond 500, opis 1, delo 677; fond 501, opis 3, delo 496a; fond 1323, opis 2, delo 171.

Hausen, Ludwig Muller von. Correspondence, personal papers, collected materials. Fond 577, opis 1, delo 1, 2, 6, 27, 213, 218, 219, 221, 479, 541, 844, 853; opis 2, delo 9. 10, 130, 131.

Horbaniuk. "Zur ukrainischen Fuhrerfrage." 1926. RKUoO. Fond 772, opis 1, delo 105b.

IIA: International Information Agency, Paris. Fond 284, opis 1, delo 69. "The Liquidation of the Nansen Office and the Problem of Political Refugees." January 23, 1938. IIA. Fond 284, opis 1, delo 69.

MMFP: Mission Militaire Francaise en Pologne (French Military Mission in Poland; the originals of these files are now back in Paris), Fond 198, opis 2, delo 1031: fond 1703, opis 1, delo 350, 440.

Muller-Leibnitz. "II. Der Feldzug im Balrikum 1919." [1937?] Fond 1255, opis 2, delo 48.

--. "V. Der Ruckmarsch der 10. Armee im Winter 1918/19." [1937?] Fond 1424, opis 1, delo 13.

Nicolai, Walther. Tagebuch (Diary). Fond 1414, opis 1, delo 15, 16, 18-22.

PKAH: Privatkanzlei Adolf Hitler (Adolf Hitler Private Office). Fond 1355, opis 1, delo 3.

Poltavets-Ostranitsa, Ivan. Curriculum vitae. 1926. RK060. Fond 772, opis 1, delo 105b.

QB: Quatrieme Bureau (Fourth Section; the originals of these files are now back in Paris). Fond 198, opis 17, delo 484.

RKUoO: Reichskommissar fur die Oberwachung der offentlichen Ordnung (State Commissioner for the Supervision of Public Order). Fond 772, opis 1, delo 91, 96, 100, 101, 105b, 108; opis 2, delo 129b, 179, 189; opis 3, delo 71, 8ra, 539, 781, 927: opis 4, delo 13, 52.

RMbO: Reichsministerium fur die besetzten Ostgebiete (State Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories). Fond 1358, opis 3, delo 53.

RSHA: Reichssicherheitshauptamt (State Security Main Office). Fond 500, opis 1, delo 452, 504.

RuSHA-SS: Rasse und Siedlungshauptamt-SS (SS Race and Settlement Main Office) Fond 1372, opis 3, delo 35.

Scheubner-Richter, Max von. ''Abriss des Lebens- und Bildungsganges von Dr. Max Erwin von Scheubner-Richter." April 1923. Fond 1414, opis 1, delo 21.

SG: Surete Generale (General Security: the originals of these files are now back in Paris). Fond 1, opis 14, delo 3242: opis 18, delo 2381: opis 27, delo 12518, 12523, 12541.

SGOD: Szrab Glowny Oddzial drugi (Main Headquarters Second Section, Polish intelligence). Fond 308, opis 3, delo 405: opis 7, delo 265: fond 453, opis 1, delo 53.

"Tagebuchauszug von General der Infanterie a. D. Hasse." December 2, 1919. Fond 1255, opis 2, delo 42.

NEWSPAPERS

AUFBAU: ZEITSCHRIFT FUR WIRTSCHAFTS-POLITISCHE FRAGEN OST-EUROPAS


''Auszug aus den Satzungen." Number 2/3, August 1921. RKUoO. BAB, 43/1, number 131, 498.

"Der I. Kongress zum wirtschaftlichen Wiederaufbau Russlands in Reichenhall: Erster Tag, 29. Mai 1921." Number 2/3, August 1921, 5. RKUoO. BAB, 43/1, number 131, 503.

"Der I. Kongress zum wirtschaftlichen Wiederaufbau Russlands in Reichenhall: Sechster Tag, 3. Juni 1921." Number 2/3, August 1921, 14. RKUoO. BAB, 43/I, number 131, 514.

Nemirovich-Danchenko, Georgii. "Der wictschaftliche Aufbau Russlands." Number 2/3, August 1921, 2. RKUoO. BAB, 43/1, number 131, 500.

Scheubner-Richter, Max von. "Der russische Wiederaufbaukongress in Bad Reichenhall: Ein Ruckblick und Ausblick von Dr. M. E. von Scheubner-Richter." Number 2/3, August 1921, 1, 2. RKUoO. BAB, 43/1, number 131, 499, 500.

AUF GUT DEUTSCH: WOCHENSCHRIFT FUR ORDNUNG UND RECHT

Eckart Dietrich. "Der Baccalaureus." October 23, 1919.

-. "Das ist der jude! Laienpredigt uber juden- und Christentum von Dietrich Eckart." [August/September], 1920.

-. "Das fressende Feuer." August 22, 1919.

-. "Der Herr Rabbiner aus Bremen." November 11, 1919.

-, "In letzter Stunde." March 15, 1921.

-. "'Jewry uber alles.'" November 26, 1920.

-. "Das judentum in und ausser uns: Grundsatzliche Betrachtungen von Dietrich Eckart: I." January 10, 1919.

-. "Das judentum in und ausser uns: Grundsatzliche Betrachtungen von Dietrich Eckart: IV." January 31, 1919.

-. "Kapp." April 16, 1920.

-. "Das Karnickel." March 28, 1919.

-. "Die Midgardschlange." December 30, 1919.

-. "Die Schlacht auf den Katalaunischen Feldern." February 20, 1920.

-. "Tagebuch." October 10, 1919.

-. "Theorie und Praxis." September 12, 1919.

-. "Trotz alledem!" July 11, 1919.

-. "Wovor uns Kapp behuten wollte." April 16, 1920.

-. /Alfred Rosenberg. "Zwischen den Schachern." March 5, 1920.

Rosenberg, Alfred. "Hochverrat der deutschen Zionisten auf Grund ihrer eigenen Eingestandnisse erlautert, I." March 31, 1921.

-. "Hochverrat der deutschen Zionisten auf Grund ihrer eigenen Eingestandnisse erlautert, II." April 20, 1921.

-. "Russe und Deutscher." April 4, 1919.

-. "Die russische-judische Revolution." February 21, 1919.

- "Russische Stimmen." March 28, 1919.

-: "Das Verbrechen der Freimaurerei: judentum, Jesuitismus, deutsches Christentum. IV. Freimaurerei und judentum." January 15, 1921.

-."Das Verbrechen der Freimaurerei: judentum, Jesuitismus, deutsches Christentum: VIII. Deutsches Christentum." February 28, 1921.



BLAGOVEST: ZHURNAL RUSSKOI MONARKHICHESKOI NARODNO-GOSUDARSTVENNOI MYSLI

Ismailov, Nikolai. "Chudesnyi son." December 1919, 2, 3. GARF.

Purishkevich, Vladimir. "Bez zabrala." December 1919, 1-2. GARF.

BAYERISCHER KURIER

''Ausnahmezustand im Reich und in Bayern. Eine deutliche Absage." October 4, 1923. BSAM. PDM, number 6708, 151.

CHASOVOI

"Sionskie Prorokoly." January 23, 1919, I. GARF.

DEUTSCHES ABENDBLATT

Bermondt-Avalov, Pavel. "Offener Brief an die Englander." May 8, 1921. RKUoO. RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 772, opis 3, delo 71, 11-15.

GOTEBURGS HANDELS- OCH SJOFARTS-TIDNING

Translated article on Rosenberg. Nr. 237. Sonderbeilage zum SD-Pressebericht Nr. 39, October 13, 1939. RSHA. RGVA (TsKHIDK), fond 500, opis 3, delo 129, reel 3, 369.

HAMBURGER ILLUSTRIERTE

Frank, Wolfgang. "Professor Otto v. Kursell: Wie ich den Fuhrer zeichnete." March 6, 1934. BHSAM, Sammlung Personen, number 7440, 12.

KRAKAUER ZEITUNG

"Deutsche Ukraine-Zeitung erschienen: Aufrufe Rosenbergs und Kochs an die Ukrainer." January 25, 1942, 4.

NARODNYI TRIBUN: ORGAN PURISHKEVICHA

Edition of October 24, 1917.

Purishkevich, Vladimir. Editorial. September 5, 1917, I.

Vinberg, Fedor. "Kontrasty." October 22, 1917, 2.

--. "Voesposobnost." October 19, 1917, 2, 3.

DER NATIONALSOZIALIST

Alarich. "Dostojewskii (geb. 1821) und die judenfrage." July 14, 1921, 2, 3.

Rosenberg, Alfred. "Wesen, Grundsatze und Ziele der N.S.D.A.P." September 1, 1923, I.

PRIZYV

"Liubopytnyi Dokument." February 6, 1920. RGVA (TsKhIDK), fond 577, opis 1, delo 541, 2.

RUSSKOE ZNAMIA

Chernyi, Andrei. '''Mirnoe' zavoevanie Rossii." July 19, 1907, 1, 2.

"Istoriia ubiistva Iuschinskago." August 9, 1913, I.

Purishkevich, Vladimir. "Izbiratelnaia programma Soiuza Russkago Naroda, Russkomu Narodu." September 19, 1906, 2-3.

Soiuznik, U. "Russkim detiam." July 7, 1911, 2.

SVOBODA I PORIADOK

Bork, Aleksandr. Editorial. December 1, 1913, I.

VESTNIK RUSSKAGO MONARKHICHESKAGO OBEDINENIIA V BAVARII

Vinberg, Fedor. Editorial. April 7, 1923, 2, 3. GARF.

THULE-BOTE

Sebottendorff, Rudolf von. ''Aus der Geschichte der Thule Gesellschaft." Gilbhart (October) 31, 1933. BSAM. SAM, number 7716, 9, I, 2.

--. "Die Thule Gesellschaft." Gilbhart (October) 31. BSAM, SAM, number 7716, 10, 2, 3.

VOLKISCHER BEOBACHTER

''Adolf Hitlers Ehrentag." April 22/23, 1923, I.

"Das Attentat in Berlin." April 1, 1922, 2.

''Aufstand in der Ukraine." March 14, 1923, 3.

Chamberlain, Houston Stewart. "Gottwill es! Betrachtung uber den gegenwartigen Zustand Deutschlands." November 9, 1923, I.

"Deutsche Maifeier." May 3, 1923, I, 2.

"Dietrich Eckart." March 23, 1923, 5.

"Dostojewski als Politiker und Prophet." January 27, 1923, 3, 4-

Eckart, Dietrich. "Das bayerische Orakel von Genua." May 24, 1922, I.

--. "Ein neuer Weltkrieg in Sicht!" May 17, 1922, I.

-. "Das 'siegreiche' Proletariat unter Standrecht." October 26, 1921, I.

-. "Vor dem Glockenschlag zwolf." August 14, 1921, I.

"Erneuerung." May 4, 1923, 4.

"Freistaat oder Sklaventum? Rede des Pg. Adolf Hitler in der Versammlung der national-sozialistischen Deutschen Arbeiterpartei vom 28. Juti 1922 im grossen Saale des Burgerbraukellers in Munchen." August 16, 1922, 5-8.


"Die Geheimnisse dec Weisen von Zion." April 22, 1920, I.

"Die Geheimnisse der Weisen von Zion, " June 27, 1920, 2.

"Die 'Hetzer' der Wahrheit: Rede des Pg. Adolf Hitler in der Versammlung vom 12. April 1922 im Burgerbraukeller zu Munchen." April 22, 1922, 5-8.

Hitler, Adolf. "Ist die Errichtung einer die breiten Massen erfassenden Volkischen Zeitung eine nationale Notwendigkeit?" January 27, 30, 1921, 1-3.

--. "Staatsmanner oder Nationalverbrecher." March 15, 1921, I, 2.

--. "Die Urschuldigen am Weltkriege: Weltjude und Weltborse." April 15/16, 1923, I.

--, "Der volkische Gedanke und die Partei." January 1, 1921, I, 2.

"Ein judisches Geheimdokument." February 25, 1920, I.

"Die Kosaken und Grossfurst Kyrill." September 20, 1922, 4.

National Socialist Party leadership. "Grundsatzliches Programm der nationalsozialistischen Deutschen Arbeiterpartei." July 19, 1922, I.

"Die Pest in Russland." July 5, 1922, 2.

"Positiver Antisemitismus." November 4, 1922, I.

"Die Protokolle der Weisen von Zion und die judische Weltpolitik." August 21, 1923, 3.

Rodionov, Ivan. "Opfer des Wahnsinns." October 2-November 9, 1923.

Rosenberg, Alfred. ''Antisemitismus: Eine wirtschaftliche, politische, nationale, religiose und sittliche Notwendigkeit, (Schluss)." August 21, 1921, 3.

-. "Hochfinanz und Weltrevolution: Uberblick." August 4, 1921, I.

-. "Der judische Bolschewismus." November 26, 1921, I, 2.

-. "Die judische Canaille: Stephan Grossmanns Verhohnung des deutschen Volkes." April 14, 1923, I.

-. "Nationalsozialismus im Weltkampf." April 7, 1923, 2, 3.

-. "Der Pogrom am deutschen und am russischen Volke." August 4, 1921, 3.

-. "Schicksalswende in London!" March 6, 1921, 2, 3-

-. "Von Brest-Litowsk nach Versailles." May 8, 1921, 5.

Scheubner-Richter, Max von. "Deutschlands Bolschewisierung." September 21, 1923, I.

-. "Die Rote Armee." March 21-23, 1923.

"Die Ukraine und Russland." August 29, 1923, 3.

"Vaterlandische Feier." November 8, 1922, 4-

Vinberg, Fedor. "Der wackere Zentralverein." May 9, 1923, 3.

"Wer waren die Morder des Zaren?" September 9, 1920, 2.

WIENER MORGENZEITUNG

"Ein Morderkongress in Budapest." July 1, 1922. AA. PAAA, 83580, 32.

WIRTSCHAFTS-POLITISCHE AUFBAU-KORRESPONDENZ UBER OSTFRAGEN UND IHRE BEDEUTUNG FUR DEUTSCHLAND

''Aus der russisch-monarchistischen Bewegung." July 20, 1923, 2.

"In der Krim bei Wrangel." April 19, 1923, 4-

Kartsov, Iurii. "Existiert die Schuldfragc uberhaupt?" October 4, 1922, 3.

Nemirovich-Danchenko, Georgii. "Russland und Deutschland: Gedanken eines russischen Emigranten." May 24, 1923, 1-3.

Romanov, Kirill. ''An das russiche Volk!" Included in Max von Scheubner-Richter, "Zwei bedeutsame Deklarationen." August 16, 1922, 1-4.

"Die 'Russische Tribune' uber die Regierungsformen in Russland." August 25, 1923, 3, 4.

Scheubner-Richter, Max von. "Allgemeine Wirtschaft und Politik." October 11, 1922, 3.

--. "Bittere Betrachtungen." April 19, 1923, 1, 2.

--. "Dem Bolschewismus entgegen." September 9, 1921, 1.

--. "Der Bolschewismus sprungbereit!" September 29, 1923, I, 2.

--. "Deutsche Wirtschaftspolitik." October 13, 1921, I, 2.

--. "Die dritte Internationale an der Arbeit." June 7, 1923, I, 2.

--. "Die Faszisten als Herren in Italien." November 1, 1922, I, 2.

--. "Furst Lwow, der Expremier - als Defraudant." October 27, 1921, 4.

--. "Im Eilmarsch zum Abgrund!" July 26, 1922, 1-4.

--. "Interventionsabsichten gegen Sowjetrussland." June 14, 1923, I, 2.

--. "Judenverfolgungen in Sowjetrussland." October 25, 1922, 2.

--. "Der Katastrophe entgegen!" September 6, 1922, I, 2.

--. "Kirchenplunderung." April 14, 1922, 2.

--. "Klarheit." January 17, 1923, 1-2.

--. "Miljukow in Berlin." March 31, 1922, I.

--. "Nansen verteidigt den Bolschewismus." April 19, 1923, 3, 4.

--. "Die Rote Armee: Was wir von Sowjetrussland lernen konnen!" March 22, 1923, 1-3.

--. "Ruckblicke und Parallelen." July 19, 1922, 1-4.

--. "Russische Terroristen." April 14, 1922, I.

--. "Russland und England." May 17, 1923, I, 2.

--. "Der Umfall des Patriarchen Tichon." July 27, 1923, I, 2.

--. "Was wir von unseren Feinden lernen konnen!" January 14, 1922, I, 2.

--. "Weltpolitische Umschau." July 13, 1923, I, 2.

--. "Worum es sich handelt." September 17, 1921, I, 2.

--. "Zum funften Jahrestag der Revolution." November 9, 1923, I, 2.

--. "Zwei bedeutsame Deklarationen." August 16, 1922, 1-4.

"Ukraine und Nationalsozialismus." May 17, 1923, 3, 4.

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--. "Religion und Kunst." Gesammelte Schriften und Dichtungen, vol. X. Leipzig: C. F. W. Siegel, 1907.

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-. "Uber Staat und Religion." Gesammelte Schriften und Dichtungen, vol. VIII. Leipzig: C. F. W. Siegel, 1907.

-. Die Walkure. Gesammelte Schriften und Dichtungen, vol. III. Leipzig: C. F. W. Siegel, 1907.

-. "Was nutzt diese Erkenntniss?" Gesammelte Schriften und Dichtungen, vol. X. Leipzig: C. F. W. Siegel, 1907.

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Rogger, Hans. Russia in the Age of Modernization and Revolution 1881-19I7. New York: Longman, 1983.

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Re: The Russian Roots of Nazism, by Michael Kellogg

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Part 1 of 2

Index

Action Group of National Associations
formation of, 202
Hitler, co-leader of, 202
Ludendorff, co-leader of, 202
National Socialist Party, member of, 202
Scheubner-Richter, Max, secretary of, 202
Uplands League, member of, 202
Viking League. member of. W2
Ahasuerus (Wandering Jew)
Wagner. Richard, and, 22
alliance. nationalist German-Russian
Hausen, draft of. 89-90
All-Russian Dubrovin Union of the Russian
People
Dubrovin.leader of, 39
Amann. Max
Aufbau. second secretary of. 129
Hitler and, 129
Monarchical Congress at Bad Reichenhall.
financer of. 145
National Socialist Party, deputy leader of,
214-215, Secretary of. 129
Scheubner-Richter, Max, and, 129, 145
anti-Bolshevism
see the key figures, organizations. and works,
as virtually all were anti-Bolshevik after the
rise of Bolshevism. and note Jewish
Bolshevism and conspiracy, Jewish
capitalist-Bolshevik
anti-Semitism
Germany, less than abroad in on eve of World
War 1, 28
redemptive, 20
viilkisch-redemptive. World War I, flourishing
after, 28
see also the key figures, organizations, and
works, as virtually all were anti-Semitic,
and note Jewish Bolshevism and
conspiracy, Jewish capitalist-Bolshevik
Apocalypse of Our Times, The
see Rollin
Army, German
National Socialism, opposition to, 201,
support for, 201
Army Group Eichhorn
Hetmanate, Ukrainian, and. 54
Rada. opposition to, 51-52
Southern Army and, 56
Ukrainian National Cossack Organization
and, 53
Army High Command East VIII
Baltic Defense Force, establishment of, 82
Northern Army, establishment of, 83
Scheubner-Richter, Max, Press Office, deputy
leader of, 80, leader of, 84
Association against the Presumption of Jewry
Bormann, member of, 28
Hausen, founder of, 27
membership of, 28
statutes of, 27
Aufbau (Reconstruction), 109-110, 122-133,
134-135
299
alliance, German-Russian, National Socialist,
187-188
Amann, Second Secretary of, 129
Austria, Anschluss (incorporation) of, plans
for, 188
Awakening Hungary and. 204
Bauer, member of, 132, subsidies from, 179
Biskupskii, contact man for. 126, dictator,
Russian, plans for. 187, 188, vice president
of, 126, work. organizational, for, 128
Black Sea League, plans for, 184
Bolsheviks, alliance with. proposed, 163-164,
negotiations with. 162
Brazol, contributor to, anti-Semitic. 131, Ford,
contact man for, 203
conspiracy, Jewish capitalist-Bolshevik, 1,
2>8
Cossacks, Hungary, to. 153
Cramer-Klett, president of, 126
decline and termination of, 214
Aufbau (Reconstruction) (cont.)
Eckart, alliance, German-Russian,
anti~Semitic, influence on, 137-138,
ideology, influence on, 218, 238
Eugen Hoffmann & Co. Foreign Trade
Joint-Stock Company, subsidiary
organization of, 153
Evaldt, assessor in, 150, Russian Committee
for Refugee Welfare in Bavaria, placing at
head of, 150-151
Final Solution and, 17
finances of, 203
Ford, subsidies from, 203
Foreign Office, German, opposition from, 127
Freikorps Uplands and, 186
Glasenap and, 196
Glaser, member of, 132
goals of, 124
Habsburgs, restoration of, plans fur, 18I, 183
Hitler, alliance, German-Russian,
anti-Semitic, influence on, 15, 137-138, 141,
142, 165, 276, ideology; influence on,
217-218, 236, 238, Lebensraum (living
space), influence on, 184, Soviet Union,
reorganization of, plans fur, 15, 167, 180,
192, 277, Soviet Union, subversion against,
185, support of Aufbau: 14, 137, 276
Hitler.Ludendorff Putsch and, 15-16, 277-278
Hungary, relations, economic, with, 154
Jewish Bolshevism, 218, apocalyptic, 238
Kazem Bek, delegation [0, 154, 177
Keppen, subsides from, 131
Kommissarov, foundation of and, 36
Krasnovand, 187
Kursell, leader of, 213, 214, member of, 129
Lampe, suspicion from, 124
Ludendorff, approval from, 128, member of,
'27
Markov II, conflict with, 14
members of, 1-3, 14, 275
membership in, 123
Military Organization of Eastern Galicia,
support for, 189
Miliukov, assassination attempt on and, 169
Monarchical Congress at Bad Reichenhall,
triumph for, 149
National Socialism, contributions to, t, 6-7,
ideology to, 16, 216, 243-244, 278, legacy
to, 16-17, 244, 245-246, 270-271, 278-279
National Socialist Party, alliance with, 158,
192, intelligence, Ukrainian, to, 189,
subsidies to, 276
Nemirovich-Danchenko, Ukrainian expert in,
130, 188
Organization C and, 171
Pabst and, 212
Poland, opposition to, 187, partition of,
planned, 188
Poltavets-Ostranitsa, Ukrainian section,
leader of, 130
pre-history of, 13-14
Project S, intelligence from, 153
Red Army, alliance with, proposed, 161,
162-164
re-founding of. 152
Remmer, Bolsheviks, contact man for, 162
Renewal, joining by, 133
Romanov, Kirill, subsidies from, 203,
figurehead, Russian, plans for, 187. leader,
White emigres, plans for, 14, manifestos of,
printing of, 155-156, smuggling of, Soviet
Union, 156, smuggling of. Ukraine (Soviet),
188-189, support for, 156
Rosenberg, member of, 129
Russian Universal Military Union (ROYS),
conflict with, IF
Sakharov, member of, 131
Shabelskii-Bork, Piotr, member of, 130
Scheubner-Richter, Max, first secretary of,
125, leader, de focto, of, 125, organizer
of, 122-123, work, organizational, for,
'28
Schickedanz, deputy director of, 128, work,
organizational, for, 128
secrecy of, 123, 132
Soviet Union, intervention against, plans for,
15, 166-167, 180-183, 186-187, 192, 277,
intervention against, shelving of plans, 161,
reorganization of, plans for, 167, 180,
183-184, 186, 187-188, subversion against,
185, 187
statutes of. 123
Supreme Monarchical Council, conflict with,
149-15°, 159, 160-161, 163
Taboritskii. member of, 130
terrorism, engagement in, 15. 166, 167-170,
177-180, 191-192, 276-277
Ukraine (Soviet), National Socialist, plans for,
188, subversion in, 188-189
Union of the Faithful and, 144
Vinberg, ideologue of, 130
volkisch German-National Socialist and White
emigre collaboration in, 14
Yolkonskii and, 196
Vyshivannyi, agreement, economic, with, 181,
support for, 180-181
White emigres, call to arms, 195-196, failure
to unite, 136-137, 143, 165. 275-276
Wittelsbachs, restoration of, plans for, 183
Aufbau Correspondence (Economic-Political
Reconstruction Correspondence)
Kursell, editor of, 214
Index 301
National Socialist Archives, housing in,
129
Scheubner-Richter, Max, editor of, 128-129
Schickedanz, contributor to, 128-129
Awakening Hungary
Aufbau and, 204
Combat League, treaty with, 210
Gaal, leader in, 205
Hausen and. 204-205
Hitler and, 204-205
Hitler/Ludendorff Putsch and, 210
National Socialist Party and, 204-205
Ulain, leader of, 205
Baltic Defense Force
Army High Command East VIII, founder of,
82
composition of, 82-83
Fletcher, commander of, 82
Levin, commander in, 86
position of, 86
Riga, capture of, 90
Schickedanz, service in, 83
strength of, 83
Baltic League
Jewish Bolshevism, 129-130
Kursell, leader in, 129
numbers of, 129
Baltikumer (German Latvian Intervention
veterans)
Goltz, military colonies, placement in, 102
National Socialists, ethos, shared, 176
Barbarossa, Operation, 261-262
Bauer, Karl
agreement, German-Soviet, military;
negotiations for, 164
Aufbau, member of, 132, subsidies to, 179
Biskupskii and, 178
far right, German/White emigre, talks and,
6
Gaal and, 205
Glasenap and, 178
GUnther, adjutant of, 178
Habsburgs, restoration of, plans for, 183
Hitler/Ludendorff Putsch and, 212
Horthy, collaboration with, 18, subsidies
from, 167
Kapp Putsch and, 104
Kerenskii, contract, assassination, against,
, 67
National Union, leader in, 93
police protection of, III
Rathenau, assassination of and. 178-179
Scheidemann, assassination attempt on and,
'79
Trebitsch-Lincoln and, 105
Baur, Johannes
Russian Colony in Munich 1900-1945, The
White emigres, ideological contributions to
National Socialism, 9
White emigres and National Socialists,
interaction of, limited, 9
Bavaria
far right, German-White emigre, growth in,
109. 134, 274
Kapp Putsch, success in, 110, 274
Bavaria and Empire League
goals of, 190
Ukrainians, nationalist, instruction of,
military, 190
United Patriotic Associations, umbrella
organization of, 190
Bavarian government
National Socialism, opposition to, 201-202
Scheubner-Richter, Max, criticism from, 201
Berlin
White emigre community in, largest initially,
63
Bermondt-Avalov, Pavel
alliance, German-Russian, 96, 99-100,
, 82
anti-Semitism of, 96
background of, 56-57
Baltic, intervention force for, plans for, 182,
dissolution of plans, 183
Berlin, residency in, 112-113
Biskupskii. collaboration with, 182, rivalry
with, 94, 97, 113
Black Hundred movement and, 96
embezzlement and, 250-251.
Entente, defiance of, 93
far right, German-White emigre, talks and,
m
fascists, White emigre, leader of, 251
formations, military, German/Russian, 101
Freikorps Uplands and, 174
German-Russian Standard, leader of, 250
Germany, expulsion from, 251, trip to, 91
Goltz and, 92, 94
Hitler and, 250
Hoffmann, Max, and, 91-92
Iudenich and, 93
Kapp, German-Russian alliance, 99-100.
support, request for, 100-101
Kapp Putsch and, 106
Levin and, 93
Ludendorff and, 91-92
marginalizing of, 113
Monarchical Congress at Bad Reichenhall,
exclusion from, 145
Munich, trips to, 113
Noske and, 92
Bermondt-Avalov, Pavel, (cont.)
personality of, 182
Petliura's forces, incarceration by, 62
popularity of, 93
Prussia, exile from, 183
putsch preparations in Munich, 204
relations, German/Russian troops, 92-93
Remmer, foreign minister of, 97, personal
representative of, 96
Riga, assault on, plans for, 97
Romanov, Kirill and, 182
Russia, invasion of, plans for, 96
Russian National Liberation Movement
(ROND), leader of, 250, organizer of,
249-2 50
Russian National Political Committee,
authority, weakening of, 96, 97
Southern Army, leader in, 57
Index
Soviet Union, intervention against, plans for,
, 86
surname, dubiousness of, 95-96
Ukrainian Volunteer Army, service in, 60
unit, machine gun, commander of, 92, Latvia,
journey to, 92, strength of, 92
Western Volunteer Army, commander of, 94,
demotion in, 100, 101, remnants of, leader,
de facto, of, 101
see also Latvian Intervention, where he played
a key role
Bischoff, Josef
Biskupskii and, 248
far right, German/White emigre, talks and,
116
Iron Division, commander of, 86
Russians, pro, 95
Vrangel and, 122
weapons, smuggling of, 248
Biskupskii, Vladimir
Aufbau, contact man for, 116, vice president
of, 126, work, organizational, for, 128
background of, 55
Baltic, intervention force for, plans for, 182,
dissolution of plans, 183
Bauer and, 178
Bavaria, activities in, far right, 113
Berlin, activities in, far right, 113, residency in,
113, visit to, 59
Bermondt-Avalov, collaboration with, 182,
rivalry with, 94, 97, 113
Bischoff and, 248
career of, 2-3
dictator, Russian, plans for, 187, 188
Dubrovin, advisor for, claimed, 55
Eugen Hoffmann & Co. Foreign Trade
Joint-Stock Company, co-founder of, 153
Evaldt, Aufbau, winning for, 150
far right, German/White emigre, talks and,
116, 111
Foreign Office, German, and, 127
formations, military, German/Russian, 101
General-Inspector of the Russian Forces
Interned in Germany, 101
German Legion and, 94
Germany, pro, 94
Gestapo, activities, curtailing of by; 253, arrest
by, 253, collaboration with, 254
Glasenap and, 1]8
Glaser and, 204
Goebbels and, 254
Hitler and, 126, 158
Hitier/Ludendorff Putsch and, 214
Hitler-Stalin Pact and, 259
Horthy, collaboration with, 118, subsidies
from, 167
Iudenich and, 94
Kapp Putsch and, 106
Kerenskii, contract, assassination of, 167
League of the Defeated, organizer of, 180
Ludendorff, advisor for, 214, agreement with,
monetary (Romanovs), 203, pact with,
alliance, German-Russian, National
Socialist, 187-188, relationship with, close,
127-128
Miliukov, assassination attempt on and, 169
Monarchical Congress at Bad Reichenhall,
financer of, 145, participant at, 146
National Socialist Party, financer of, 158, 204,
'48
Nemirovich-Danchenko and, 188
Pan-Russian People's Military League, leader
of, 126
Patriotic Combat Associations, advisor of,
200-201
personality of, 116, 127, 150
Poltavets-Ostranitsa and, 255
Rathenau, assassination of and, 178
Remmer, collaboration with, 162, opposition
from, 97
Romanov, Kirill, advisor for, 253,
collaboration with, 162, support for, 152,
157, representative for, 248, minister of war
for, 248
Romanov, Nikolai Nikolaevich, denunciation
of, 161
Romanov, Viktoria, affair with, 157,
collaboration with, 157, subsidies from,
248- 249
Rosenberg, appeal to, 252, conflict with,
251-252, service under, 254, snubbing from,
'5'
Russian Committee for Refugee Welfare in
Bavaria and, 151
Russian National Political Committee,
president of, 96
Russians, pro-Krill, contact with, 248
Russian Trust Authority, leader of, 253
Scheubner-Richter. Max, and, 126
Schickedanz, personal secretary of. 128,
support from, 252
Soviet Union, intervention against. plans for,
186-187
Supreme Monarchical Council and, 150
Talberg and, 161
Ukrainian Volunteer Army, commander in.
S), 60
Union of the Faithful and. 144
Union of the Russian People. member
of, 55
Vrangel, representative for, bogus, 121-122
Vyshivannyi, army of, formation of, 181-182,
support for, 181
weapons, smuggling of, 248
Western Volunteer Army, remnants of,
control of. official, 101
White emigre, leading, 248
Black Hundred movement
Baltic Germans, pro, 41
Bermondt-Avalov and, 96
Bolsheviks, defeat by. 45
decline of, 38. 39
election results, 37
Germany. pro, 40
Provisional Government, suppression
by, 43
Black Hundreds
Union of the Russian People, parent
organization of. 36
violence of, 36
Bohdan, Hustevych
Hitler, speeches of, 190
instruction of, German military, 189-190
Military Organization of Eastern Galicia,
member of, 189
Bolsheviks
Aufbau, alliance with, proposed, 164,
negotiations with, 162
Black Hundred movement, defeat of, 45
counterrevolutionaries. trial of. 45-46
Jews as, 34, supporters of in the Ukraine,
49
Kornilov Putsch and, 44
People's Tribune. The, closure of, 45
Provisional Government, overthrow
of. 45
Riga, capture of, 84
Scheubner-Richter, Max, negotiations with,
84, incarceration and threatened execution
of, 84
Bork, Aleksandr
anti-Semitism, apocalyptic. of, 40
Dubrovin, support for, 40
Freedom and Order, co-publisher of, 40
Bormann, Martin
Association against the Presumption of Jewry.
member of, 28
National Socialist Parcy, Secretary of, 28
Borne, Ludwig
Wagner. Richard, and, 21
Brazol, Boris
anti-Comintern congress, organizer of, 249
Aufbau and, 131
Dearborn Independent. contributor to, 131
Ford and, 203
Himmler and, 249
Romanov, Kirill, subsidies to, 249, support
for, 130-131, 160
Scheubner-Richter. Max and, 131
Brest-Litovsk
negotiations at, 49, 81
Treaty of, effects of, 51
Call, The
Bolsheviks, black mass of, supposed, 64
closure of. 111
debts of, 111
Eckart and, 64
Germany, pro, 64
Hausen and, 64-65
Jewish Bolshevism. 64
mouthpiece of anti-Semitic, right-wing White
emigres, 64
Shabelskii-Bork, Piotr, writer for, 64
Taboritskii, technical editor of, 64
Vinberg, editor of, 64
Volkisch Observer and, 65
Zunder Document and, 65
Cartel of Nacional Newspapers in the State
activities of, 153
Nicolai, leader of, 153
Center for the Preservation of
Historical-Documentary Collections,
Moscow
access, problems with, Io-II
archival materials. plundered, 10, II
pre-history of, 10
Central Committee for the East Prussian Home
Service
Central Office for Home Service, founder
of, 85
Scheubner-Richter, Max, leader of, 85
Central Office for Home Service
Central Committee for the East Prussian
Home Service. subsidiary of, 85
goals of, 85
Chamberlain, Houston Stewart
Eckart, articles to, 71, influence on, 71
Foundations of the Nineteenth Century,
idealism, German, vs. materialism,
Jewish, 24-25
Hitler, meeting with, 206, praise for,
206-207, praise from, 207
Pan-German League, member of, 29
Rosenberg and, 206
Schopenhauer, influence from, 25
Wagner, Richard, ideas, summary of, 24,
influence from, 24, reverence for, 24
Cheka (Extraordinary Commission for the
Struggle with Counter-Revolution)
Kommissarov and, 114
Whites, arrest of, 62
Class, Heinrich
Chamberlain, influence from, 26
De Gobineau, influence from, 26
Hausen and, 27-28
Hitler and, 28
If I were the Kaiser, anti-Semitism of, 26-27,
success of, relative, 27
Kapp and, 29, 30
Ludendorff and, 30
Pan-German League, chairman of, 26
Coburg expedition, 158-159
Eckart and, 158
Hitler and, 158
In Plain German and, 158
Rosenberg and, 158
Storm Section (SA) and, 158
Cohn, Norman
Warrant for Genocide, Protocols of the
Elders of
Zion, The, origins of, erroneous, 8,
57, 58
Combat League
Awakening Hungary, treaty with, 210
formation of, 205
goals and spirit of, 208
Hitler, leader of, 205
Imperial Flag, member of, 205
Kahr, opposition to, 207, 208-209
Ludendorff. leader in, 205
Scheubner-Richter, Max, approval from,
205-206, plenipotentiary of, 205
Storm Section (SA), member of, 205
Uplands League, member of, 205
Viking League, conflict with, 207-208
Communists, German
Hitler, opposition from, 164
volkisch Germans, similarities with, 164
conservative revolutionaries, Imperial Russian
anti-Semitism, apocalyptic, of, 33-34
ideology of, 30-31
success of, moderate, 31
Western civilization, destruction of, 33
see also far right, Russian
Cossacks
Hitler and, 264
Hungary, move to, 1)3
Keitel and, 265
Rosenberg and, 265
Cossacks, Ukrainian
Poltavets-Ostranitsa, leader of, 52
Rada, opposition to, 52
see also Ukrainian National Cossack
Organization
Cramer-Klett, Theodor von
Aufbau, president of, 126
Ludendorff and, I26
Monarchical Congress at Bad Reichenhall,
financer of, 145, loan to participants, 172
Scheubner-Richter, Max, and, 126
Vyshivannyi and, 181
wealth of, 126
Wittelsbach and, 126
Crimean Peninsula
population of, Entente, anti, 120, Germany;
pro, I20
Vrangel, headquarters on, 120
Crime and Punishment
see Dostoevskii
Culture Struggle (Kulturkampf), 26
Dearborn Independent
Brazo!, contributor to, 131
Ford, owner of, 131
Diary of a Writer
see Dostoevskii
Dostoevskii, Fedor
Crime and Punishment, similarity to his life, 31
Diary of a Writer, altar and throne, 31-32,
anti-Semitism, 32, apocalyptic, 32-33,
Europe, destruction of, 32-33,
Slavophilism, apocalyptic, 32
ideology, development of, 31
popularity of in postwar Germany, 220
Dubrovin, Aleksandr
All-Russian Dubrovin Union of the Russian
People, leader of, 39
Markov II, conflict with, 39
Russian Banner, The, editor of, 38
Shabelskii-Bork, Elsa, and, 40
Union of the Russian People, leader of, 35
Dzerzhinskii, Feliks
People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs,
leader of, 156
Romanov, Kirill, manifestos of, opposition to,
156- 157
Index
East German Home Service
Scheubner-Richter, Max, leader of, 90-91,
removal from, 106
East Prussian Home League
goals of, 87
Kapp, founder of, 87
Eberhard (Major General)
Western Volunteer Army, command of, 100
Eckart, Dietrich
alliance, German-Russian, anti-Semitic,
139
Aufbau, alliance, German-Russian,
anti-Semitic, influence from, 137-138,
ideology, influence from, 218, 238
background of, 71
Call, The, and, 64
Chamberlain, articles from, 71, influence
from, 71
Coburg expedition and, 158
conspiracy, Jewish capitalist-Bolshevik,
224-225
Hausen and, 72
Hitler, discussions with, 72, influence on, 70,
71, 73, Jewish Bolshevism, intelligentsia,
annihilation of, citation by; 232, meeting
with, 72, mentor for, 220, praise for, 72,
praise from, 72
In Plain German, editor of, 71
Jewish Bolshevism, 228-229, apocalyptic,
241-242, Germany, threat to, 234-235,
Russia, intelligentsia of, annihilation of,
231-232, tortures of, 231-232
Jews, measures against, plans for, 236-237
Kapp, discussions with, 105, praise from, 88,
thanks for, 88
Kapp Putsch and, 105, disillusionment with,
105
Kursell, collaboration with, 89, 129, meeting
with, 89
National Socialism, ideology, contributions
to, 218
obscurity of in historical literature, 70
Protocols of the Elders of Zion, The, Hitler,
introduction of to, 73, influence on, 12-13,
49, spread of, 74, treatment of, 73-74,
veracity of, 74
Rosenberg, collaboration with, 71-72,
meeting with, 71, praise for, 72
Scheubner-Richter, Max, friendship with, 132,
meeting with, 89
Schopenhauer, influence from, 71
Thule Society, guest of, 70
Trotskii, opposition to, 73
volkisch ideology, world-affirmation, Jewish,
negation of, 71
Volkisch Observer. editor of, 228-229
Wagner, Richard, influence from, 71
Zunder Document and, 232
Ehrhardt Brigade
background of, 103-104
Berlin, stationing near, 104
Ehrhardt, commander of, 103
Goring, leader in, 104
Kapp Putsch and, 104
Noske, dissolution of, order for, 104
Ehrhardt, Hermann
Ehrhardt Brigade, commander of, 103
Hitler, collaboration with, 172, conflict with,
108
Hitler/Ludendorff Putsch, opposition to,
210-211
Kahr and, 207
Kapp, letter to on behalf of Guderian, 104
Ludendorff, conflict with, 208
monarchy, support for, 111
Organization C, leader of, 171
Pabst and, 104
police protection of, III
Scheubner-Richter, Max, conflict with, 208
Entente
Bermondt-Avalov, defiance from, 93
Germany, harshness towards, 94, leniency
towards, 84-85
Latvian Intervention, opposition to, 94
Eugen Hoffmann & Co. Foreign Trade
Joint-Stock Company
Aufbau, parent organization of, 1)3
Biskupskii, co-founder of. 153
Hungary, investment in, 153, 154
Keppen, financer of, 154
Ludendorff, co-founder of, 153
Romanov, Viktoria, financer of, 154
Eulogius (Archbishop)
Monarchical Congress at Bad Reichenhall
and, 146
Evaldt, Fedor
Aufbau, assessor in, 150, Biskupskii, winning
E. for, 150, Russian Committee for Refugee
Welfare in Bavaria, placing at head of,
150--151
embezzlement and, 62
Kiev, military commander of, 62
Monarchical Bloc, member of, 56
Monarchical Congress at Bad Reichenhall,
Organizational Committee, member of,
145
Munich, move to, 150
Russian Committee for Refugee Welfare in
Bavaria, leader of, 150-151
Union of the Faithful, leader in, 144
far right, German/White emigre
Bavaria, growth in, 109, 134, 274
Protocols of the Elders of Zion, The, influence
of, 70, 116
rise of after Bolshevik Revolution and World
War I, 19
talks of, including Vrangel, 116, 121~122
fur right, Imperial German
development of, 18
failures of, 3, 12, 25-26, 28, 272-273
ideology of, 11-12
see also volkisch Germans and volkisch
ideology
far right, Russian
Bolshevik Revolution, spur from, 19, 47
development of, 18-19
failures of, 3, 12, 19, 46-47, 273
ideology of, II, 12, 46, 273
see also Black Hundred movement and
conservative revolutionaries
Fermor, N. N.
Ludendorff and, 103
People's State Party, vice president of, 103
Final Solution, 279
Aufbau and, 17
Hitler and, 269
Rosenberg, reference to, 269, 270, role in, 2,
17, 269-270
Ukrainians, police units and, 270
fleet, English
Western Volunteer Army, firing upon, 98
Fletcher, Alfred
Baltic Defense Force, commander of, 82
Kapp, collaboration with, 82, report to,
Latvian Intervention, 87
Ford, Henry
Aufbau, subsidies to, 203
Brawl, contact man of, 203
Dearborn Independent, owner of, 131
Hitler, praise from, 203
National Socialist Party, subsidies to, 203
Romanov, Kirill, subsidies to, 203
Foreign Office, German
Aufbau, opposition to, 127
Biskupskii and, 127
Foreign Policy Office, National Socialist,
opposition to, 252
Hitler, opposition from, 252
Russian National Liberation Movement
(ROND), opposition to, 250
Scheubner-Richter, Max, opposition to, 127
Foreign Policy Office, National Socialist
decline of, 258
Foreign Office, German, opposition to, 252
Poltavets-Ostranitsa, funding for, cutting of,
2, 8
Rosenberg, leader of, 252
Sakharov and, 266-267
Schickedanz, chief of staff of, 252
Foundation of the Nineteenth Century
see Chamberlain
four writers of the apocalypse, the
ideology of, 16, 218-219, 243, 278
Jews, measures against, plans for, 243
National Socialist ideology, influence on,
243
Freedom and Order
Bork, co-publisher of, 40
Shabelskii-Bork, Elsa, co-publisher of, 40
Tsar Romanov II, reader of, 40
Freikorps (volunteer corps)
anti-Semitism of, 176
German Legion, collection of all in Latvia,
94
Goltz, commander of all in Latvia, 85
National Socialist Party, influence on, 176
Weimar German government, dissolution by,
'02
Freikorps Uplands
Aufbau and, 186
Bermondt-Avalov and, 174
Hitler and, 174
ideology of, 174
Organization C and, 174
Poles, opposition to, 174
Soviet Union, intervention against, plans for,
, 86
Thule Society; creator of, 174
Uplands League, successor of, 200
From the Double-Headed Eagle to the Red Banner
see Krasnov
Future Path of a German Foreign Policy, The
see Rosenberg
Gaal, Josef
Awakening Hungary, leader in, 205
Bauer and, 205
Hitler and, 205
German Fatherland Party
Goltz and, 29
Hausen and, 29, 30
Kaiser Hohenzollern II, opposition to, 28-29
Kapp, chairman of, 29
Ludendorff and, 30
Tirpitz, leader of Germany; plans for, 29
German Legion
Biskupskii and, 94
Freikorps, collection of all in Latvia, 94
German Order
goal of, 67
Hausen, leader in, 67
Thule Society; extension of, 67
Index
German-Russian Standard
Bermondt-Avalov, leader of, 250
membership of, 250
German Worker's Party
Hitler, agitator for, 72
National Socialist German Worker's Party,
successor of, 72
Rosenberg, member of, 72
Thule Society, parent organization of, 72
Germany; Imperial
unification of, late and incomplete, 19
Gestapo
Biskupskii, activities, curtailing of, 253, arrest
of, 253, collaboration with, 254
Hitler, secret police of, 249
Glasenap, Piotr
Aufbau and. 196
Baltic, intervention force for, plans for, 182,
dissolution of plans, 183
Bauer and, 178
Biskupskii and, 178
East Prussia, combat units, White emigre, in,
196
Hungary, formation, White emigre, in, 196
Rathenau, assassination of and, 178
Romanov, Kirill, and, 157-158
Volkonskii and, 196
Glaser, A.
Aufbau, member of, 132
Biskupskii and, 204
National Socialist Party, financer of with
Biskupskii, 204
Goebbels, Josef
Biskupskii and, 254
Propaganda Minister, 254
Russian Liberation Army and, 264
Goldhagen, Daniel
Hitler's Willing Executioners, anti-Semitism,
German, eliminationist, sui generis, 5
Golitsyn, D. P.
Romanov, KirHI, and, 159
Russian Assembly, leader of, 34
Supreme Monarchical Council, representative
of , 159
Goltz, Rudiger von der
anti-Bolshevism of, 85-86
background of, 85
Baltikumer, military colonies, placement in,
112
Bermondt-Avalov and, 92, 94
Biskupskii and, 101
far right, German/White emigre, talks and,
121, 122
Freikorps, commander of in Latvia, 85
German Fatherland Party and, 29
Guilt, The, anti-Bolshevism, missionary, 86
Horchy and, 119
Kapp and, 87
Latvia, departure from, 94
National Socialist Party and, 202
Ostpolitik (Eastern policy) of, 86
Vrangel and, 122
Weimar German government, stab in the
back from, 100
Western Volunteer Army and. 94-95
Gombos, Gyula
Hungarian Minister President, 151
Scheubner-Richter, Max, legacy of, 247, talks
with, 151
Goring, Hermann
Air Force, commander of, 257
Ehrhardt Brigade, leader in, 104
hiding of, 212
Kapp Putsch and, 104-105
Organization C, leader in, 173
Storm Section (SA), leader of, 173
Great Britain
Imperial Russia, rivalry with, 40
Great Don Host
Germans, support from, 57
Germany, Imperial, trade agreement with,
19
Krasnov, leader of, 57
Leuchtenbergskii, member of, 58-59
People's State Party, protection of, 102
Rodionov, member of, 57
Sentinel, The, newspaper of, 57
Southern Army and, 57
Great in the Small and the Anti-Christ as an
Imminent Political Possibility, The
see Nilus
Guderian, Heinz
Latvian Intervention and, 104
Guilt, The
see Goltz
Gunther, Alfred
Bauer, adjutant for, 178, 179
Hitler and, 179
Klintzsch and, 179
Ludendorff and, 178-179
National Socialist Party and, 179
Organization C, leader in, 179
Rathenau, assassination of and, 179
Scheidernann, assassination attempt on and,
'79
Hagemeister, Michael
Protocols of the Elders of Zion, The, Cohn's
theory, rejection of, 8, 57-58
Hamann, Brigitte
Hitler's Vienna, Hitler, anti-Semitism, lack of
early, 4
Hausen, Ludwig Muller von
alliance, nationalist German-Russian, draft
of, 89-90
Index
Association against the Presumption of Jewry,
founder of, 27
Awakening Hungary and, 204-205
Call, The, and, 64-65
Class and, 27-28
Eckart and, 72
German Fatherland Parry and, 29, 30
German Order, leader in, 67
Kapp and, 89
Ludendorff. advisor for, 30
Nilus, report on from Kartsov, 67
On Outpost Duty, editor of, 65
Protocols 0/ the Elders of Zion, The, Kurlov,
information on from, 66, publication
of, 11, 65, Volkisch Observer, sending to, 68
Rosenberg and, 72
Schopenhauer, influence from, 27
Vinberg and, 64
World War I, service in, 29-30
Zunder Document and, 65
Heines, Edmund
National Socialists, Baltikumer, ethos,
common, 176
Rossbach Corps, leader in, 176
Hetmanate, Ukrainian
Army Group Eichhorn and, 54
Himmler, Heinrich
Brazol and, 249
Protocols of the Elders of Zion, The, influence
on, 76
Russian Liberation Army and, 264
Scheubner-Richter, Mathilde, and, 247
SS, head of, 76
Historikerstreit (Historians' Debate)
National Socialism, singularity of, 5
Nolte, ideas, rejection of, 5
Hitler, Adolf
Action Group of National Associations,
co-leader of, 202
alliance, German-Russian, anti-Semitic,
141-143
Amann, colleague of, 129, National Socialist
Parry, grant of deputy leadership to, 214-215
anti-Semitism, lack of early on, 4
Aufbau, alliance, German-Russian,
anti-Semitic, influence from, 15, 137-138,
141, 142, 165> 276, ideology, influence from,
217-218, 236, 238, Lebensraum (living
space), influence from. 184, Soviet Union,
reorganization of. plans for, 15. 167, 180,
192, 277, Soviet Union. subversion against,
185. support for Aufbau, 14, 137. 276
Aufbau Ost (Reconstruction East), Soviet
Union, invasion of. plans for, 260
Awakening Hungary and, 204-205
Bermondt-Avalovand, 250
Biskupskii and, 126, 158
Chamberlain, meeting with, 206, praise from,
206-207, praise for, 207
Chancellor of Germany, 247
Class and, 28
Coburg expedition and, 158
Combat League, leader of, 205
Commissar Decree and, 269
Communists, opposition to, 164
conspiracy; Jewish capitalist-Bolshevik, 124,
225-226, 227, 268
Cossacks and, 264
Eckart, discussions with, 72, influence from,
70, 71, 73. Jewish Bolshevism, Russia,
intelligentsia of, annihilation of, citation of,
232, meeting with, 72, mentor of, 220,
praise for, 72, praise from, 72
Ehrhardt. collaboration with, 172, conflict
with, 208
Final Solution and, 269
Ford and, 203
Foreign Office, German, opposition to,
'5'
Freikorps Uplands and, 174
Gaal and, 205
German Worker's Parry, agitator for, 72
Gestapo, secret police of, 249
GUnther and, 179
Hitler/Ludendorff Putsch and, 209, 211,
assessment of, 211-212
Hoffmann, Alfred, and, 172
ideology, development, late, of, 4, 16,
219-220, mixture of volkisch German and
White emigre ideas, 4, 16
imprisonment of, 212
Jewish Bolshevism, 17, 124, 229-230,
apocalyptic, 242, 268, deaths because of,
232, 233, Germany, intelligentsia, threat to,
235-236, intelligentsias, all, threat to, 236,
Russia, intelligentsia of, annihilation of,
232- 233
Kahr, opposition to, 208
Kapp and, 105
Kapp Putsch and, 105, disillusionment with,
105
Koch and, 263
Kursell, portraits from, 249
Lebensraum (living space), 184-185
Ludendorff, coordination with by
Scheubner-Richter, Max, 194, meeting
With, 128
Mein Kampf, conspiracy, Jewish
capitalist-Bolshevik, 226, ideology, early
development of, claimed, 219, Jewish
Bolshevism, apocalyptic, 242-243, deaths
because of, 233, intelligentsia, Russian,
annihilation of, 232-233, Protocols of the
Elders of Zion, The, 76
National Socialist Party, dictator of, 110
Nicolai and, 194
Patriotic Combat Asociations, leader of,
200-201
Poltavets-Ostranitsa, collaboration with,
256-257, relationship with, close, 255,
support from, 204, 255-256, 257
Protocols of the Elders of Zion, The, influence
on, 13, 49, 76, introduction to by Eckart,
73, treatment of. 75-76
Romanov, Kirill, and, 137
Rosenberg, influence from, 70, 73,
collaboration with, 267, meeting with, 72,
mentor of, 220, National Socialist Party,
grant of leadership to, 214, praise for,
72-730 thanks for, 224
Rossbach, collaboration with, 175-176,
meeting with, 175
Russian National Liberation Movement
(ROND), dissolution of, 250
Sakharovand, 249
Scheubner-Richter, Mathilde, relationship
with, close, 197, praise for, 247
Scheubner-Richter, Max, admiration from,
124, collaboration with, 124, counselor and
foreign policy advisor of, 7, 183, eulogizing
of, 247, influence from, 196, meeting with,
124, praise for, 213-214, praise from, 206,
putsch, talks of, 209, representative
of, 209
Schwanz-Bostunich and, 266
socialism, leaning towards, 4, 219-220
Taboritskii and, 2)3
Trebitsch-Lincoln, disgust at, 105
Ukraine, precedence over Moscow, 261-262
Ukrainian National Cossack Organization
and, 190
United Patriotic Associations of Bavaria,
leader of, 194
Vinberg, discussions with, 2, 130, 230, Jewish
Bolshevism, citation of, 230
viilkisch ideology, use of, 236
Wagner, Richard, influence from, 207
war Leadership and Politics, praise for,
128
Hitler/Ludendorff Putsch, 209-212, 215
appeal to the public, 209
Aufbau and, 15-16, 277
Awakening Hungary and, 210
Bauer and, 212
Biskupskii and, 214
consequences of, 215
Ehrhardt, opposition from, 210-211
Hitler and, 209, 211, assessment of, 211-212
Kahr and, 209, 211
Kapp Putsch, similarities with, 212
Ludendorff and, 209-210, 211
Pabst and, 212
preparations for, 194, 195, 197, 200-209
Rosenberg and, 209, 211
Rossbach and, 210
Scheubner-Richter, Max, and, 209-210,
m
Schickedanz and, 211, 214
Ulain and, 210
Uplands League and, 210
Hitler-Stalin Pact, 258-260
Biskupskii, reaction to, 259
Rosenberg, opposition from, 259
White emigres, reaction to, 258, 259
Hitler's Vienna
see Hamann
Hitler's Willing Executioners
see Goldhagen
Hoffmann, Alfred
Hitler and, 172
Organi2ation C, leader in, 173
Hoffmann, Max
Bermondt-Avalov and, 91-92
Biskupskii and, 101
Brest-Litovsk, negotiator in, 49
far right, German/White emigre, talks and,
111
Kapp and, 88
Ukraine, Bolshevik, opposition to, 49-50
Horthy. Nicholas
Bauer, collaboration with, 118, subsidies to,
, 67
Biskupskii, collaboration with, 118, subsidies
to, 167
Goltz and, 119
Habsburg Dynasty, regent for, 118-119
Ludendorff and, 119
Romanov, Kirill, and, 159
Scheubner-Richter, Max, and, 119, 196
Hungary
Aufbau, relations, economic, with, 154
If I were the Kaiser
see Class
Imperial Flag
Combat League, umbrella organization for,
'05
Imperial Flag (cont.)
numbers of, 200
Rahm, leader in, 189
United Patriotic Associations of Bavaria,
umbrella organization for, 200 .
In Plain German
circulation of, 71, 88
Coburg expedition and, 158
Eckart, editor of, 71
Kapp, subsidies from, 88, subscriber to, 88
Kursell, artist fOf, 89
Rosenberg, director of, temporary, 71-72
Thule Society, support from, 71
Iron Division
Baltic Sea, position near, 86
Bischoff, commander of, 86
Storm Section Rossbach, absorption of, 99
Iudenich, Nikolai
Bermondt-Avalov, disobedience from, 93
Biskupskii and, 94
Entente, pro, 92
Estonia, based in, 92
j, , ",
Bolsheviks as, 34, support of B. in Ukraine, 49
population in Imperial Russia, 34
revolution, support of in Imperial Russia, 34
segregation of in Imperial Russia, 34
violence against in Imperial Russia, 34, 36
"judaism in Music, "
see Wagner, Richard
Kahr, Gustav Ritter von
Combat League, opposition to, 207, 208-209
Ehrhardt and, 207
General State Commissioner, 207
HitleriLudendorff Putsch and, 209, 2Il
Hitler, opposition from, 208
Minister President of Bavaria, no
National Socialist Party, meetings of, banning
of, 207
Scheubner-Richter, Max, opposition to, 207
Kaiser Wilhelm Hohenzollern II
German Fatherland Party, opposition from,
28-29
Leuchtenbergskii and, 58-59
Pan-German League, opposition from, 28-29
putsch, rightist, escape from, 28-29, 30
Skoropadskii and, 59
Kapp Putsch, 13, 79, 104-1O6, I07-108, 274
Bauer and, 104
Bavaria, success in, no, 274
Bermondt-Avalovand, 106
Biskupskii and, 106
collapse of, 106
Eckart and, 105, disillusionment with, 105
Ehrhardt Brigade and, 104
Goring and, 104
Hitler and, 105, disillusionment with, 105
Kapp and, 104, assessment of, 107
Latvian Intervention, support from, 79
legacy of, 79, 108
Ludendorff and, 102, 104
Pabst and, 104
preparations for, 87-88, 89-9°, 93-94, 97,
101-104
Scheubner-Richter, Max, and, 106, assessment
of, 106-107
Shabelskii-Bork, Piotr, and, 106
support, popular, lack of, 104, 106
Taboritskii and, 106
Trebitsch-Lincoln and, 105
Vinberg and, 106
Weimar German government, flight in, 104
Western Volunteer Army, remnants of, and,
'06
Kapp, Wolfgang
Bavaria, approval for, HI
Bermondt-Avalov, German-Russian alliance,
99-100, support, request for, 100-101
Class and, 29, 30
East Prussian Home League, founder of, 87
Eckart, discussions with, 105, praise for, 88,
thanks from, 88
Ehrhardt, letter from on behalf of Guderian,
'04
Fletcher, collaboration with, 82, report from
on Latvian Intervention, 87
German Fatherland Party, chairman of, 29
Goltz and, 87
Hausen and, 89
Hitler and, 105
Hoffmann, Max, and, 88
In Plain German, subsidies to, 88, subscriber
to, 88
Kapp Putsch and, 104, assessment of, 107
Munich, outpost of support for, 88
National Union, founder of, 93
Northern Army and, 83
Tirpitz, advisor for, plans for, 29
Kartsov, Iurii
background of, 66-67
Nilus, report on to Hausen, 67
Kautter, Eberhard
Monarchical Congress at Bad Reichenhall
and, 171-172
Organization C, leader in, 171
Kazem Bek, Mirza
Aufuau, collaboration with, 154> delegation
from, 1)4, 177
Rathenau, denunciation of, 177
Russian Monarchical Club, president of, 154
Index 3II
Keitel, Wilhelm
Cossacks and, 265
Poltavets-Ostranitsa and, 264
Keller, P.
Monarchical Bloc, member of, 56
PetHura's forces, execution by, 62,
incarceration by, 62
Petiiura, struggle against, 60
Southern Army, commander of, 56
Ukrainian Volunteer Army, commander of, 60
Keppen, Vladimir
Aufbau, financer of, 131
Eugen Hoffmann & Co. Foreign Trade
Joint-Stock Company, financer of, 154
Vyshivannyi and, 181
Kerenskii, Aleksandr
Bauer, contract, assassination, from, 167
Biskupskii. contract, assassination, from, 167
Provisional Government, head of, 43
Scheubner-Richter, Max, hatred from, 168
Kiev, capture of
Germans, Imperial, 50
Petliura's forces, 62
Red Army, 49
Wehrmacht (Armed Forces), 262
Killinger, Manfred
Organization C, leader in, 174
Klintzsch, Hans
Gunther and, 179
Organization C, member of, 173
Storm Section (SA), leader of, 173
Koch, Erich
Hitler and, 263
Rosenberg, dispute with, 263
State Commissioner Ukraine, 263
Kommissarov, Mikhail
Aufbau. foundation of and, 36
background of, 113-114
Bolsheviks and, 114, 119
Cheka and, 114
far right, German/White emigre, talks and, 116
Kurlov and, 114
Ludendorff and, 1I4
Pelikan, animosity from, 119, collaboration
with, II5
personality of, 114
pogrom literature and, 36
Rasputin and, II4
Scheglovitov and, I15
Society for Ukrainian-Bavarian Import and
Export and, 115
Union of the Faithful, member of, 115
Union of the Russian People and, 36
Vrangel, ban from, I19, mission to,
absconding from, 119, mission to, member
of, 118, representative for (bogus), 115, 119
Kornilov, Lavr
Kornilov Putsch and, 43
Kornilov Putsch
consequences of, 44
Kornilovand, 43
Officer's Duty and, 43
Shabelskii-Bork, Piotr, and, 44
Taboritskii and, 44
Vinberg and, 43
Krasnov, Piotr
Aufuau and, 187
From the Double-Headed Eagle to the Red
Banner, Jewish Bolsheviks eradicate
Gentiles, 147
Great Don Host. leader of, 57
Markov II and, 147
Monarchical Congress at Bad Reichenhall,
White emigre military forces, leader of, 147
Soviet Union, intervention against, plans for,
186-187
Union of the Faithful, leader in, 147
Kurlov (General)
background of, 66
Kommissarov and, 114
Protocols of the Elders of Zion, The,
information on to Hausen, 66
Kursell, Otto von
and-Bolshevism of, 89
Aufbau, leader of, 213, 214, member of, 129
Aufbau Correspondence, editor of, 214
background of, 41, 82
Baltic League, leader in, 129
Bolsheviks, life under, 82
Eckart, collaboration with, 89, 129, meeting
with, 89
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Re: The Russian Roots of Nazism, by Michael Kellogg

Postby admin » Thu May 02, 2019 5:56 am

Part 2 of 2

Hitler, portraits for, 249
In Plain German, artist for, 89
Munich, residency in, 111-112
National Socialist Parry, joining of, 129
Poltavets-Ostranitsa and, 258
Romanov, Kirill, and, 249
Rosenberg and, 129
Rubonia and, 42
Scheubner-Richter, Max, collaboration with,
82, 129, eulogy for, 213, Rubonia and,
41-42
White emigres and National Socialists,
mediator between, 9
Larnpe, Aleksandr von
Aufbau, suspicion of, 124
Russian Universal Military Union (ROVS).
representative of, 151
Scheubner-Richter, Max, break with, 1)2,
talks with, failed, 151-152
Vinberg, opposition to, 124
Laqueur, Walter
Russia and Germany, White emigre
contributions to National Socialism
overlooked, 7-8
Latvian Intervention, 13, 77, 78-79, 84--87,
90-93, 94-101, 107, 274
Entente, opposition from, 94
Kapp Putsch, support to, 79
legacy of, 108
Ukrainian Intervention and, 78
League of the Defeated
Biskupskii, organizer of, 180
Lenin, Vladimir
illness of, 163
Soviet Union, leader of, 163
Leuchtenbergskii, Georgii
agreement, trade, with Imperial Germany,
59
Great Don Host, member of, 58
Kaiser Hohenzollern II and, 58
Ludendorff and, 58
Levin, Anawl
Baltic Defense Force, commander in, 86
Bermondt-Avalov, disobedience from, 93
Ludendorff, Erich von
Action Group of Nacional Associations,
co-leader of, 202
anti-Bolshevism of, 51, 54
Aufbau, approval for, 128, member of, 127
Bermondt-Avalovand, 91-92
Biskupskii, advisor of, 214, agreement with,
monetary, Romanovs, 203, pact with,
alliance, German-Russian, National
Socialist, 187-188, relationship with, close,
127-128
Class and, 30
Combat League, leader in, 205
Cramer~Klett and, 126
Ehrhardt, conflict with, 208
Eugen Hoffmann & Co. Foreign Trade
Joint~Stock Company, co~founder of,
153
far right, German/White emigre, talks and,
116, 121
Fermae and, 103
German Fatherland Party and, 30
Gunther and, 178-179
Hitler, coordination with by
Scheubner-Richter, Max, 194, meeting
with, 128
Hitler/Ludendorff Putsch and, 209-210,
211
Horthy and, 119
Kapp Putsch and, 102, 104
Kommissarov and, 114
Index
Leuchtenbergskii and, 59
National Socialist Party and, 195
National Union, dictator, plans for, 97, leader
in, 93
Nicolai and, 152, 153
Pan~German League and, 30
Patriotic Combat Associations, leader in,
200-201
People's State Party and, 102, 103
Pohner and, 110-111
Poland, opposition to, 187
Rathenau, assassination of and, 178-179
roles of, 30
Romanov, Kirill, subsidies from, 203, support
for, 152, 157
Rossbach and, 99
Scheubner-Richter, Max, advisor of, 194,
patronage to, 80, 128
Schickedanz, agreement with, monetary,
Romanovs, 203
Skoropadskii and, 59
Ukraine, Bolshevik, opposition to, 49, 50
United Patriotic Associations of Bavaria and,
194, leader in, 195
Vyshivannyi and, 181
War Leadership and Politics, anti-Semitism of,
128, Hitler, praise from. 128, militarism of,
128
Whites and. 54-55
Markov II, Nikolai
Aufbau, conflict with, 14
Dubrovin, conflict with. 39
Entente, pro. 143
Germany, pro, 40, anti, 143
Krasnov and, 147
Monarchical Congress at Bad Reichenhall.
Organizational Committee, leader of, 145,
speech, anti~ Treaty of Versailles, 147,
welcoming address, 146
murder, Jewish ritual in Kiev, supposed. and,
39
Purishkevich and, 39
Romanov, Nikolai Nikolaevich, and, 160
Soviet Union, invasion of, plans for, 155
Supreme Monarchical Council, leader of,
'47
Union of the Faithful, in Germany, leader of,
144, in Russia, leader of, 55
Union of the Russian People faction, leader
of, 40
Union of the Russian People. leader in, 39
unpopularity of, 161
White emigres, leadership pretensions for,
143, 144
Index 313
Mein Kampf (My Struggle}
see Hitler
Michael the Archangel Russian People's Union
foundation of, 38
People's State Party, successor of, 102
Purishkevich, leader of, 38
Shabeiskii~Bork, Piotr, member of, 44
statutes of, 38
Vinberg, member of, 43
Military Organization of Eastern Galicia
Aufbau and, 189
Bohdan, member of, 189
goals of, 189
Romanov, Kirill, and, 189
Miliukov, Pavel
assassination attempt on, Aufbau and, 169,
Biskupskii and, 169, Scheubner-Richter,
Max, and, 170, Shabelskii~Bork, Piotr, and
Taboritskii, perpetrators of, 168, Union of
the faithful and, 169, Vinberg and, 169,
Volkisch Observer and, 170-171
Constitutional Democrats, leader of, 168
Scheubner-Richter, Max. denunciation from,
'70
Tsaritsa Romanov, denunciation of, 169
Vinberg, hatred from, 169
Monarchical Bloc
Evaldt, member of, 56
goals of, 55-56
Keller, member of, 56
Pelikan, member of, 56
Scheglovitov, member of, 56
Southern Army and, 56
Union of the Faithful, founder of, 55
Monarchical Congress at Bad Reichenhall,
145-148
Amann, financer of, 145
Aufbau, triumph for, 149
Bermondt~Avalov, exclusion from, 145
Biskupskii, financer of, 145. participant
at, 146
Cramer~Klett, financer of, 145, loan to
participants, 172
Eulogius and. 146
Evaldt, Organizational Committee, member
of, 145
Kautter and, 171-172
Krasnov, White emigre military forces, leader
of, 147
Markov II, Organizational Committee, leader
of, 145, speech, anti~Treaty of Versailles,
147, welcoming address. 146
membership of, 145-146
Nemirovich~Danchenko, German-Russian
alliance, 148
Poltavets~Ostranitsa, exclusion from, 145
preparations for, 144-145
Sakharov and, 146
Scheubner-Richter, Max, assessment of, 14.8.
149, financer of, 145, organizer of, 145,
originator of idea for, 144-145, speech,
alliance, German-Russian, 146-147
Shabelskii~Bork, Piotr, Propaganda
Committee, secretary of, 148
Supreme Monarchical Council, creation of at,
147
Talberg. Organizational Committee, member
of, 145
Vinberg, Propaganda Committee, assistant to,
148
Munich
Kapp, outpost for, 88
White emigre community, composition of,
112, numbers of, 112, shrinking of, 212
murder, Jewish ritual in Kiev, supposed
Markov II and, 39
Purishkevich and, 39
Union of the Russian People and, 39
Mussolini, Benito
Scheubner-Richter and, 195
Myth of the Twentieth Century, The
see Rosenberg
Nabokov, Vladimir
assassination of, Shabelskii~Bork, Piotr, and
Taboritskii, 168
Constitutional Democrats, a leader of, 168
novelist, father of, 168
National Socialism
Army, German, opposition from, 201, support
from. 201
Aufbau, contributions from. I, 6-7, ideology
from, 16, 216, 243-244, 278, legacy from,
16-17, 244.245-246.270-271, 278-279
Bavarian government, opposition from,
201-202
ideology of, conspiracy, Jewish
capitalist-Bolshevik, 9, 18. Eckart and, 218,
four writers of the apocalypse, the, and,
243, Protocols of the Elders of Zion, The, and,
76, volkisch German and White emigre, I,
46, 278
Poltavets-Ostranitsa and, 190--191
roots of, volkisch German/White emigre, I, 6,
II, 17, 18, 272
Ukrainian Cossack, The, and, 190-191
White emigres, contributions from, 17,
279-280
National Socialism and Bolshevism
see Nolte
National Socialist, The
Dostoevskii, use of, anti~Semitic, 222
National Socialist Archives
Aufbau Correspondence, housing of, 129
Scheubner-Richter, Mathilde, creator
of, 247
National Socialist German Worker's Party
(NSDAP)
Action Group of National Associations,
umbrella organization for, 202
Amann, deputy leader of, 214-215, secretary
of, 129
Aufbau, alliance with, 158, 192, intelligence,
Ukrainian, from, 189, subsidies from,
276
Awakening Hungary and, 204~205
Biskupskii, financer of, 158, 204. 248
Brawl, Ford, contact man for, 203
Ford, subsidies from, 203
foundation of, 72
Freikorps, influence from, 176
German Worker's Parry, parent organization
of, 72
Glaser, financer of with Biskupskii, 204
Goltz and, 202
Gunther and, 179
Hitler, dictator of, 110
Kahr, meetings of, banning of, 207
Kursell, joining of, 129
Ludendorff and, 195
Organization C, collaboration with, 1]1, 173,
influence from, 173
Pohner and, no
Poltavets-Ostranitsa, expert, Ukrainian, 2)7,
work for, 258
Project S, intelligence from, 153
rise of, 110
Romanov, Kirill, subsidies from, 14, 158,
203
Rosenberg, ideologue, leading, for, 129, 265,
267, leader of, 214
Rossbach, joining of, 175
Scheubner-Richter, Max, financer of, 204,
joining of, 124
Schickedanz, member of, n8
Schwartz-Bostunich and, 266
Storm Section Rossbach, uniforms from,
202
Taboritskii and, 253
Thyssen, subsidies from, 204
Ukrainian National Cossack Organization
and, 25), similarities with, 190
United Patriotic Associations of Bavaria,
umbrella organization for, 195
Werber and, 172-1]3
National Socialist regime
Poltavets-Ostranitsa, influence in, 256
Ukraine, satellite state, plans for, 256
National Socialists
Baltikumer, ethos, shared, 116
conspiracy, Jewish capitalist-Bolshevik, 9
White emigres, collaboration with, 9,
differences with, 9
National Union
activities of, 93
Bauer, leader in, 93
goals of, 93
Kapp, founder of, 93
Ludendorff, dictator, plans for, 97, leader in,
93
Pabst, secretary of, 93
putsch, plans for, 97
Scheubner-Richter, Max, and, 94
Winnig and, 93-94
Nemirovich-Danchenko, Georgii
Aufbau, Ukrainian expert in, 130, 188
Biskupskii and, 188
career of, 111-118
conspiracy, Jewish capitalist-Bolshevik,
148
Monarchical Congress at Bad Reichenhall,
German-Russian alliance, 148
Renewal, Ukrainian expert in, 188
Scheubner-Richter, Max, collaboration with,
118, 188, eulogy for, 213
Vrangel, anti-Semitism, disagreement about,
118, press chief for, 118
Nicolai. Walther
anti-Bolshevism of, 51
Cartel of National Newspapers in the State.
leader of, 153
Hitler and, 194
intelligence to Aufbau and the National
Socialist Party, 11
leader of intelligence in World War I, 51
Ludendorff and, 152, 153
Project S, leader of, 153
Scheubner-Richter, Max, collaboration with,
153, suspicion of, 196-197
United Patriotic Associations of Bavaria and,
194
Nilus, Sergei
Anti-Christ, help from Jews, 33
Great in the Small and the Anti-Christ as an
Imminent Political Possibility, The, Protocols
of the Elders of Zion, The, inclusion in, 58,
Tsaritsa Romanov, possession of, 60
"Short Tale of the Anti-Christ, A, ~ influence
from, 33
Western civilization, destruction of, 33
Index 315
Nolte, Ernst
National Socialism and Bolshevism, Bolshevism
causal agent of National Socialism, 5, 6
Northern Army
Army High Command East VIII, founder of,
83
goals of, 83
Kapp and, 83
Red Army, defeat by, 84
Noske, Gustav
Bermondt~Avalov and, 92
Ehrhardt Brigade, dissolution of, order for,
004
War Minister, 92
Western Volunteer Army and, 95
Officer's Duty
Kornilov Putsch and, 43
Vinberg, founder of. 43
On Outpost Duty
Hausen, editor of, 65
Zunder Document, printing of, 65
Organization C, 171
anti-Bolshevism of, 174
Aufbau and, 111
Bolshevism, overthrow of, plans for, 174-175
Communist Party, tactics of, similarity to, 173
Ehrhardt, leader of, 171
extent of, 171
Freikorps Uplands and, 174
Goring, leader in, 173
GUnther, leader in, 179
Hoffmann, Alfred, leader in, 173
Kautter, leader in, 171
Killinger, leader in, 174
Klintzsch, member of, 173
National Socialist Party, collaboration with,
171, 173, influence over, 173
Rathenau, assassination of and, 1]6
Rossbach and, 175
Scheubner-Richter, Max, and, 172
Shabelskii-Bork, Piotr, and, 171
Soviet representatives, assassination of, plans
for, 1]6-177
Taboritskii and, III
Viking League, successor of, 202
Vinberg and, 171
White emigres and, 173
Pabst, Waldemar
Aufbau and, 212
Ehrhardt and, 104
Hitler/Ludendorff Putsch and, 212
Kapp Putsch and, 104
National Union, secretary of, 93
police protection of, III
Russian National Political Committee,
establisher of, 96
Pan-German League
Chamberlain, member of, 29
Class, chairman of, 26
Kaiser Hohenzollern II, opposition to, 28-29
Ludendorff and, 30
membership of, 29
United Patriotic Associations of Bavaria,
umbrella organization for, 195
Pan-Russian People's Military League
Biskupskii, leader of, 116
goals of, 126-127
Party of the Ukrainian People's Union
anti-Semitism of, 53
Poltavets-Ostranitsa and, 53
Skoropadskii, leader of, 53
Patriotic Combat Associations
Biskupskii, advisor of, 200-201
Hitler, leader of, 200-201
insubordination of, 200-201
Ludendorff. leader in, 200-201
Scheubner-Richter, Max, advisor of,
200-201
United Patriotic Associations of Bavaria,
parent organization of, 200
Pelikan, Boris
background of, 115
far right. German/White emigre, talks and,
116
Kommissarov, animosity towards, 119,
collaboration with, 115
Monarchical Bloc, member of, 56
Russian Assembly, member of, 56
Scheglovitov and, 115
Society for Ukrainian-Bavarian Import and
Export and, 115
Ukraine, independence of, pro, 115
Union of the Faithful, member of, 115
Vrangel, mission to, member of, 118
People's State Party
decline of, 103
Fermor, Vice President of, 103
Great Don Host, protection from, 102
Ludendorff and, 102, 103
Michael the Archangel Russian People's
Union, parent organization of, 102
Party Program, anti-Semitic, 103
Protocols of the Elders of Zion, The, 103
Purishkevich, leader of, 102
People's Tribune, The
Bolsheviks, closure of, 45
Purishkevich, editor of, 44
Vinberg, contributor to, 44
Petliura, Simon
Hetmanate, Ukrainian, struggle against,
60
Plague in Russia!
see Rosenberg
Pohner, Ernst
Ludendorff and, 110-111
National Socialist Party and, no
Police Chief of Bavaria, no
Scheubner-Richter, Max, and, 151
Poland
partition of, German-Soviet, similarity to
plans of Aufbau, 258-259
Poltavets-Ostranitsa, Ivan
Aufbau, Ukrainian faction, leader of, 130
background of, 52
Biskupskii, resentment from, 255
Black Sea League, leader of, plans for, 184
career of, 2
Central Powers and, 52
Cossack Chancellor of the Ukraine, chosen as,
53
Cossack state, envisioned, 264-265
Cossacks, Ukrainian, leader of, 52
duplicity of, 257-258
followers, lack of, 257
Foreign Policy Office, National Socialist,
funding from, cutting of 258
Germany, pro, 61
Hetman, Ukrainian, 255
Hitler, collaboration with, 256-257,
relationship with, close, 255, support for,
204, 255-256, 257
imprisonment of, 258
Keitel and, 264
Kursell and, 258
Monarchical Congress at Bad Reichenhall,
exclusion from, 145
National Socialism and, 190-191
National Socialist Party, expert, Ukrainian,
257, work for, 258
National Socialist regime, influence in, 256
Party of the Ukrainian People's Union and, 53
Rada, collaboration with, 52, opposition to,
52-53
Rathenau, assassination of and, 178
Rosenberg, collaboration with, Ukraine, 256,
257, 258, Cossacks, use of, 264, relations
with, dose, 255, support from, 258
Schickedanz and, 258
Skoropadskii, arrest orders from, 61, conflict
with, 54
SS and, 265
Ukrainian National Cossack Assembly, leader,
de focto, of, 53
Ukrainian National Cossack Organization,
leader of, 130, leader, de facto, of, 53
Vyshivannyi, 181
Project S
Aufbau, intelligence to, 153
National Socialist Party, intelligence to, 153
Nicolai, leader of, 153
preparations for, 152
Romanov, Kirill, subsidies from, 153
Protocols of the Elders of Zion, The, 57
Cohn, origins of, erroneous, 8, 57, 58
dissemination of, 57, 76
Eckart, influence on, 12-13, 49, spread of, 74,
treatment of, 73-74, veracity of, 74
fabrication of in Imperial Russia, 58
far right, German/White emigre, influence
on, 70, n6, 273-274
Hausen, publication of, 11, 65, Volkisch
Observer, sending to, 68
Himmler, influence on, 76
Hitler, Eckart, introduction to by, 73,
influence on, 13, 49, 76, Mein Kampf and,
76
Kurlov, information on for Hausen, 66
National Socialist ideology, influence on, 76
Nilus, Great in the Small and the Anti-Christ as
an Imminent Political PossibilifDI, The,
inclusion in, 58
People's State Party, belief in, 103
Rodionov, publication of, 57
Rosenberg, influence on, 12-13, Moscow,
acquirement in, myth, 74, Protocols of the
Elders of Zion and Jewish World Politics,
The, relevance of, 75, suspicion of, 75, Trail
0/ the Jew through the Ages, The, no mention
of, 74-75
Sentinel, The, publication o£ 57
Shabelskii-Bork, Piotr, transfer of to
Germany, 2, 63, 65
Solevov, "Short Tale of the Anti-Christ, A, "
influence from, 58
treatment of, 75-76
Tsaritsa Romanov, possession of, 60
Vinberg, veracity of, 66, Russia s Via Dolorosa
and, 65-66
VOlkisch Observer, defense of, 69-7°,
publication of, 68-69
Protocols of the Elders of Zion and Jewish World
Politics, The
see Rosenberg
Provisional Government
Black Hundred movement, suppression of, 43
Bolsheviks, overthrow by, 45
Kerenskii, leader of, 43
Romanov, Kirill, homage from, 148
Index 317
Purishkevich, Vladimir
anti-Semitism of, 103
background of, 35
Bolsheviks, trial by, 45-46
death of, 103
Duma (Parliament), service in, 37
Germany, pro, 102
Markov II and, 39
Michael the Archangel Russian People's
Union, leader of, 38
murder, Jewish ritual in Kiev, supposed, and,
39
People's State Party, leader of, 102
PeopleS Tribune, The, editor of, 44
Ringing of the Church Bells, The, editor of,
103
Russian Assembly, member of, 34
Shabelskii-Bork, Piotr, and, 45
Union of the Russian People, election
platform, anti-Semtrism, 37, member of, 35
Vinberg and, 44
Rachkovskii, Piotr
Union of the Russian People and, 36
Rada (Ukrainian government)
Army Group Eichhorn, opposition from,
51-52
Central Powers, invitation of, 50
Cossads, Ukrainian, opposition from, 52
overthrow of, 53
Poltavets-Ostranitsa, collaboration with, 52,
opposition from, 52-53
weakness of, 51
Rapallo, Treaty of
Rathenau and, 176
Rasputin
Kommissarov and, 114
Rathenau, Walther
assassination of, Bauer and, 178-179,
Biskupskii and, 178, Glasenap and, 178,
Gunther and, 179, Ludendorff and,
178-179, Organization C, responsibility for,
176, Poltavets-Ostranitsa and, 178,
Scheubner-Richter, Max, and, 178
Foreign Minister, German, 176
Kazem Bek, denunciation from, 177
Rapallo, Treaty of and, 176
Scheubner-Richter, Max, hatred from, 177
Ray of Light, A
anti-Semitism of, 112
Shabelskii-Bork, Piotr, writer for, 112
Vinberg, editor of, 112
Recomtruction (Aufbau)
Scheubner-Richter, Max, editor of, 128
Schickedanz, contributor to, 128
Red Army
Aufbau, alliance with, proposed, 161, 162-164
Kiev, capture of, 49
Moscow, defense of, 262
Northern Army, defeat of, 84
Southern Russian Armed Forces, defeat of, 125
Remmer, Andreas
Aufbau, Bolsheviks, connection with, 162
background of, 96-97
Bermondt-Avalov, foreign minister for, 97,
personal representative for, 96
Biskupskii, collaboration with, 162,
opposition to, 97
Munich Police, arrest by, 162
Romanov, Kirill, and, 162
Soviet Union, invasion of, French-led,
opposition to, 162-163, reorganization of,
plans for, 186, subversion against, 185
Western Volunteer Army, embezzlement
from, 97
Renewal
Aufbau, joining with, 133
Jewish Bolshevism, 188
membership of, 133
Nemirovich-Danchenko, Ukrainian expert in,
188
Romanov, Viktoria, honorary president of,
133
statutes of, 133
Vdlkisch Observer, advertisement in, 133
Revolution, 1905
Scheubner-Richter, Max, struggle against, 42
Revolution, Bolshevik, 45
Revolution, German
Baltic area, undermining of support in, 83-84
Ukraine, undermining of support in, 61
Riga, capture of
Baltic Defense Force, 90
Bolsheviks, 84
Imperial Germans, 79-80
Ringing of the Church Bells, The
Dostoevskii, use of, anti-Semitic, 103
Purishkevich, editor of, 103
Ring of the Nibelung
see Wagner, Richard
Rodionov, Ivan
Great Don Host, member of, 57
Protocols of the Elders of Zion, The, publication
of, 57
Volkisch Observer, contributor to, 121
Vrangel and, 121
Rohm, Ernst
Imperial Flag, leader in, 189
Ukrainians, nationalist, instruction of,
military, 189
Rollin, Henri
Apocalypse of Our Times, White emigres,
Bolshevism, learning from, 118, plot,
Jewish-Masonic-Bolshevik, to National
Socialists, 7
Romanov, Kirill
Aufbau, subsidies to, 203, support from, 156
Bavaria, move to, 157
Bermondt-Avalov and, 182
Biskupskii, advisor of, 253, collaboration with,
162, support from, 152, 157, minister of war
of, 248, representative of, 248
Brawl, Ford, connection with, 203, support
from, 130-131, 160, subsidies from, 249
death of, 254
figurehead, Russian, plans for, 187
Ford, subsidies from, 203
Germany, pro, 133
Glasenap and, 157-158
Golitsyn and, 159
Hitler and, 137
Horthyand, 159
Kursell and, 249
Ludendorff, support from, 152, 157, subsidies
to, 203
manifestos of, 155-156
Military Organization of Eastern Galicia,
support from, 189
National Socialist Party, subsidies to, 14, 158,
203
personality of, 133
popularity of, 161
Project S, subsidies to, 153
Provisional Government, homage to, 148
Remmer and, 162
ruin, financial, 248
Russian Committee for Refugee Welfare in
Bavaria and, 159-160
Russian Trust Authority and, 254
Sakharov, intelligence from, 158, Ludendorff,
connection with, 158, support from,
157-158, 249
Scheubner-Richter, Max, and, 152, 157
Soviet Union, intervention against, plans for,
18,
Tsar claimant, 133
unpopularity of, 148
Vinberg and, 163
Volkisch Observer and, 158
Volkonskii and, 159
wealth of, 157
Romanov, Nikolai Nikolaevich
Biskupskii, denunciation from, 161
Markov II and, 160
Munich, move to, 155
Russian Universal Military Union (ROVS)
and, 151
Soviet Union, intervention against, plans for,
175, invasion of, French-led, uneasiness
about, 161
Supreme Monarchical Council and, 1~5
Tsarist candidate, 155
unpopularity of, 161
Romanov, Viktoria
Bavaria, move to, 157
Biskupskii, affair with, 157, collaboration
with, 157, subsidies to, 248-249
Eugen Hoffmann & Co. Foreign Trade
Joint-Stock Company, financer of, 154
lineage of, 133
National Socialist Party, subsidies to, 158
personality of, 133
Renewal, honorary president of, 133
Scheubner-Richter, Max, and, 157
wealth of, 157
Romanticism, German
volkisch ideology and, 19
Rosenberg, Alfred
alliance, German-Russian, anti-Semitic,
138- 139
Aufbau, member of, 129
background of, 42
Biskupskii, appeal from, 252, conflict with,
251-252, oversight of, 254, snubbing of, 252
Bolsheviks, desire to overthrow, 1918, 81, life
under, 81-82
career of, 2-3
Chamberlain, influence from, 42, meeting
with, 206
Christianity, pro, 240
Coburg expedition and, 158
conspiracy, Jewish capitalist-Bolshevik, 2, 223,
224, 267
Cossacks and, 265
Dostoevskii, influence from, 42, 138-139, 223,
praise for, 221
Eckart, collaboration with, 71-72, meeting
with, 71, praise from, 72
England, anti, 98
Entente, anti, 125
far right, German/White emigre, talks and,
116
Final Solution, reference to, 269, 270, role in,
2, 17, 269-270
Foreign Policy Office, National Socialist,
leader of, 252
Future Path of a German Foreign Policy, The,
Soviet Union, separatism, ethnic, in, 255
German Worker's Party, member of, 72
Hausen and, 72
Hitler, influence on, 70, 73, collaboration
with, 267, meeting with, 72, mentor
for, 220, respect for, 72, thanks from, 22,
Hitler/Ludendorff Putsch and, 209, 211
Hitler-Stalin Pact, opposition to, 259
In Plain German, director of, temporary,
71~72
Jewish Bolshevism, 82, 125, 227-228, 269,
deaths because of, 230, Germany,
intelligentsia of, threat to, 234, learning
from, 238, 243, Russia, intelligentsia of,
annihilation of, 231, tortures of, 231
Jews, measures against, plans for, 237
Koch, dispute with, 263
Kursell and, 129
marginalizing of, 263
Munich, residency in, 111-112
muzzling of, 259
Myth of the Twentieth Century, The,
distribution of, 268, Hitler, criticism from,
268, myth, anti-Christian, German blood,
267-268
National Prize fur Art and Science, 267
National Socialist Party, ideologue, leading,
for. 129, 265, 267, leader of, 214
Plague in Russia! conspiracy, Jewish
capitalist-Bolshevik, 223, Dostoevskii,
praise for, 221, Jewish Bolshevism,
apocalyptic, 240-241, Germany,
intelligentsia of, threat to, 234, Russia,
intelligentsia of, annihilation of, 231
Poltavets-Ostranitsa, collaboration with,
Ukraine, 256, 257, 258, Cossacks, use of,
264, relationship with, close, 255, support
for, 258
Protocols of the Elders of Zion, The, influence
from, 12-13, Moscow, acquirement in,
myth, 74
Protocols of the Elders of Zion and Jewish World
Politics, The, conspiracy, Jewish
capitalist-Bolshevik, 223-224, Jewish
Bolshevism, apocalyptic, 241, massacre of
Russians by, 270, Protocols of the Elders of
Zion, The, relevance of, 75, suspicion of, 75
Representative of the Fuhrer fur the Central
Treating of Questions of the East European
Area, 261
Representative of the Fuhrer for the
Supervision of the Entire Intellectual and
Ideological Political Instruction and
Education of the NSDAP, 267
Rubonia and, 42
Sakharov and, 266
Scheubner-Richter, Max, and, 82, 89
Schickedanz, Rubonia and, 42, support fur,
266
Schopenhauer, influence from, 42
Schwartz-Bostunich and, 266
Soviet Union, administration of conquered
territories, plans for, 260-261, desire to
attack, 260
SS, influence on, 267
State Minister for the Occupied Eastern
Territories, Eastern peoples, administration
of, 263, leniency towards, desired, 263,
naming to post, 262
teacher, German, 82
Thule Society, guest of, 70
Trail of the Jew through the Ages, The, alliance,
German-Russian, anti-Semitic, 138,
anti-Semitism, apocalyptic, 240,
Christianity, Germanic, pro, 240,
Dostoevskii, use of, anti-Semitic, 221,
Jewish Bolshevism, 228, Protocols of the
Elders of Zion, The, no mention of,
74-75
Ukrainian Cossack, The, and, 191
Ukrainians, emigres, Soviet Union, use
against, 257
Vlassov and, 262, 263-264
Volkisch Observer, editor of, 267
Volta Congress, Rome, and, 267
White emigres and National Socialists,
mediator between, 9
White forces, support for, 89
Rossbach, Gerhard
hiding of, 212
Hitler, collaboration with, 175-176, meeting
with, 175
Hitler/Ludendorff Putsch and, 210
Ludendorff and, 99
National Socialist Party, joining of, 175
Organization C and, 175
Rossbach Corps, commander of, 175
Soviet Union, intervention against, plans for,
17'
Storm Section (SA) Hundred named after, 202
Storm Section Rossbach, commander of, 99
Rossbach Corps
Heines, leader in, 176
Rossbach, commander of, 175
Rubonia Fraternity
home of four (Russian) Baltic German
Aufbau members and National Socialists,
Kursell, Rosenberg, Scheubner-Richter,
Max, and Schickedanz, 41
Ruhr Basin
occupation of, 195, effects of occupation, 193,
19'
Russia and Germany
see Laqueur
Russia, Imperial
Great Britain, rivalry with, 40
Russian Assembly
exclusivity of, 35
foundation of, 34
goals of, 34
Golitsyn, leader of, 34
members of, 34
Pelikan, member of, 56
Purishkevich, leader in, 34
statutes of, 34-35
Tsar Romanov II and, 35
Vo1konskii, leader in, 34
Russian Banner, The
Dubrovin, editor of, 38
readership of, 38
Union of the Russian People, newspaper
of, 38
Russian Colony in Munich 1900-1945, The,
see Baur
Russian Committee for Refugee Welfare in
Bavaria
Biskupskii and, 151
Evaldt, leader of, 150-151
immigration and expulsion of emigres,
responsibility for, 151, 159-160
Romanov, Kirill, and, 159-160
Scheubner-Richter, Max, and, 151
Russian Liberation Army
Goebbels and, 264
Himmler and, 264
Vlassov, commander of, 264
weakness of, 264
Russian National Liberation Movement
(ROND)
Bermondt~Avalov, leader of, 250, organizer of,
249-250
Foreign Office, German, opposition from, 250
Hitler, dissolution of, 250
popularity of, 250
Sakharov, leader in, 250
Storm Section (SA), similarity to, 250
Russian National Political Committee
Bermondt-Avalov, body's authority,
weakening of, 96, 97
Biskupskii, president of, 96
Pabst, establisher of, 96
Russian Trust Authority
Biskupskii, leader of, 253
goals of, 253
Romanov, Kirill, and, 254
Sakharov, leadership of, candidate for, 253
Shabeiskii~Bork, Piotr, and, 253-254
Taboritskii, deputy director of, 253,
predominance in, 253
Russian Universal Military Union (ROVS)
Aufbau, conflict with, 152
Lampe, representative of, lSI
Romanov, Nikolai Nikolaevich, and, 151
Vrangel, leader of, 151
Russia, Via Dolorosa
see Vinberg
Sakharov, Konstantin
Aufbau, member of, 131
background of, 131
Foreign Policy Office, National Socialist, and,
266-267
Hitler and, 249
Jewish Bolshevism, 266-267
Monarchical Congress at Bad Reichenhall
and, 146
Romanov, Kirill, intelligence for, 158,
Ludendorff. connection with, 158, support
for, 157-158, 249
Rosenberg and, 266
Russian National Liberation Movement
(ROND), leader in, 250
Russian Trust Authority, leadership of,
candidate for, 253
Scheglovitov, Konstantin
background of, 115
Kommissarov and, 115
Monarchical Bloc, member of, 56
Pelikan and, 115
putsch preparations in Munich, 204
Society for Ukrainian-Bavarian Import and
Export and, 115
Ukraine, independence of, pro, 115
Union of the Russian People, member
of, 56
Scheidemann, Phillip
assassination attempt on, Bauer and, 179,
Gunther and, 179
Schellendorf, Bromart von
White officers, release of from Petliura's
forces, 62
Scheubner-Richter, Mathilde von
Himmler and, 247
Hitler, praise from, 247, relationship with,
close, 197
National Socialist Archives, creator of, 247
Scheubner-Richter, Max, and, 41
Scheubner-Richter, Max von
Action Group of National Associations,
secretary of, 202
alliance, German-Russian, anti-Semitic, 140
Amann and, 129, 145
Index
Army High Command East VIII Press Office,
deputy leader of, 80, leader of, 84
Aufbau, First Secretary of, 125, leader. de facto,
of, 125, organizer of, 122-123, work,
organizational, for, 128
Aufbau Correspondence, editor of, 128-129
background of, 80
Baltic area, advance in, Imperial German,
and, 80-81
Baltic German, feeling as, 42
Bavaria, action. call to, 193
Bavarian government, criticism of, 201
Biskupskii and, 126
Bolsheviks, desire to overthrow, 1918, 81,
frustration at failure to overthrow, 1918, 81,
incarceration and threatened execution by,
84, negotiations with, 84
Bolshevism, learning from, 193, 197, 198-200, 215
Brazol and, 131
career of. 2
Central Committee for the East Prussian
Home Service, leader of, 85
Combat League, approval for, 205-206, goals
and spirit of, perceived, 208,
plenipotentiary of, 205
conspiracy, Jewish capitalist-Bolshevik, 225
Constitutional Democrats, attack on, 170
convictions, courage of, 212-213
Cramer-Klett and, 126
death of, 211, blow to National
Socialist-White emigre collaboration, 212
East German Home Service, leader of, 90-91,
removal from, 106
Eckart, friendship with, 132, meeting with, 89
Ehrhardt, conflict with, 208
embassy, Riga, acting head of, 84
far right, German/White emigre, talks and,
116
Fascism and, 194-195
Foreign Office, German, relations with, poor,
H?
Gombos, remembrance from, 247, talks with,
Hitler, admiration for, 124, collaboration
with, 124, counselor and foreign policy
advisor for, 7, 183, eulogizing from, 247,
influence on, 196, Ludendorff.
coordination with, 194, meeting with, 124,
praise for, 206. praise from, 213-214,
putsch, talks of, 209, representative for,
209
Hitler/Ludendorff Putsch and. 209-210,
211
Horthy and, 119, 196
321
Jewish Bolshevism. 227. apocalyptic, 240,
deaths because of, 230, Germany. threat to,
233-234, Russia, intelligentsia of,
annihilation of, 230-231
Jews, measures against, none, 1-37
Kahr, opposition to, 207
Kapp Putsch and, 106, assessment of,
106-107
Kerenskii, hatred of, 168
Kursell, collaboration wirh, 82, 129. eulogy
from, 213, Rubonia and, 41-42
Lampe. break with, 152, talks with, failed,
151- 152
Ludendorff, advisor for, 194, Hitler,
coordination with, 194. patronage from,
80, 128
Miliukov, assassination attempt on and, 170,
denundation of, 170
Monarchical Congress at Bad Reichenhall.
assessment of, 148, 149, financer of, 145,
organizer of, 145, originator of idea for,
144-145, speech, alliance. German-Russian,
146- 147
Munich. move to, III
Mussolini and, 195
National Socialist Party; financer of, 204,
joining of, 124
National Union and, 94
Nemirovich-Danchenko, collaboration with,
n8. 188, eulogy from. 213
Nicolai, collaboration with, 153, suspicion
frOID, 196-197
Organization C and, 172
Patriotic Combat Associations, advisor of,
200-201
Pohner and, 151
popularity of, 80
putsch, plans for in Bavaria, 193-194, 215,
results of, catastrophic, 194
Rathenau, assassination of and, 178, hatred of,
m
Recomtruction (Aufbau), editor of, 128
Revolution, 1905, struggle against, 42
Romanov, Kirill, and, 152, 157. manifestos of,
assessment of, 156
Romanov, Viktoria, and, 157
Rosenberg and, 82, 89
Rubonia and. 42
Russian Committee for Refugee Welfare in
Bavaria and, 151
Scheubner-Richter, Mathilde, and, 41
Schickedanz, collaboration with. 128, eulogy
from, 213, report from, Riga under
Bolshevism, 90-91
Schwartz-Bostunich and, 117
Scheubner-Richter, Max von (cont.)
Soviet Union, collapse of, expected, 154-155,
intervention against, plans for, 185, 186,
invasion of, French-led, plans for,
opposition to, 161-162, 163, subversion
against, 187
surname, history of, 41
Trotskii, admiration for, 198, 215, learning
from, 198-199
Ukrainian Cossack, The, and, 191
United Patriotic Associations of Bavaria and,
194, leader in, 195
Vrangel, mission to, leader of,118, talks with,
120-121, results of talks, 121, 122
Vyshivannyi and, 181
wealth of, 125-126, 203-204
Weimar Constitution, Bolshevik influence
on, anti-Semitic, 197
Weimar German government, anti-Semitism
towards, 98
Weimar Republic, Bolshevik influence on, 198
Werber and, 172
White emigres and National Socialists,
mediator between, 9
Winnig and, 84
Wittelsbach, Kaiser, future, plans for, 126
Schickedanz, Arno
anti~Semitism of, 266
Aufbau, deputy director of, 128, work,
organizational. for. 128
Aujbau Correspondence. contributor to.
128-129
background of, 42
Baltic Defense Force. member of, 83
Biskupskii, personal secretary for, 128, support
for, 252
Bolsheviks, life under, 83
Foreign Policy Office, National Socialist, chief
of staff of, 252
Hitler/Ludendorff Putsch and, 211, 214
Ludendorff. agreement with, monetary,
Romanovs, 203
Munich, residency in, 111-112
National Socialist Party, member of, 128
Poltavets~Ostranitsa and, 258
Reconstruction (Aufbau), contributor to, 128
Rosenberg, Rubonia and, 42, support from,
266
Rubonia and, 42
Scheubner-Richter, Max, collaboration with,
128, eulogy for, 213, report to, Riga under
Bolshevism, 90-91
State Commissioner of the Caucasus, plans
for, 263, Eastern peoples, leniency towards,
desired, 263
volkisch Observer, Berlin representative of, 266
White emigres and National Socialists,
mediator between, 9
Schopenhauer, Arthur
Parerga, Jews, materialism of, 20-21
World as Will and Idea, The, denial of the will
to live, salvation, 20, Jews, materialism of,
20
Schwartz~Bostunich, Gregor
career of, 117
Hitler and, 266
National Socialist Parry and, 266
Rosenberg and, 266
Scheubner-Richter, Max, and, 117
SS, service in, 266
State Security Main Office (RSHA) and, 266
Streicher and, 266
VOikisch Observer, contributor to, 266
Vrangel and, 117
Sentinel, The
Great Don Host, newspaper of, 57
Protocols of the Elders of Zion, The, publication
in, 57
Shabelskii~Bork, Elsa
Dubrovin, support for, 40
Freedom and Order, co~publisher of, 40
Shabelskii~Bork, Piotr
alliance, German-Russian, 45
Aufbau, member of, 130
background of, 44
Bolsheviks, trial by, 45-46
Call, The, writer for, 64
Cheka, brush with, 61-62
Entente, anti, 45
Kapp Putsch and, 106
Kornilov Putsch and, 44
Michael the Archangel Russian People's
Union, member of, 44
Miliukov, assassination of, attempted, 168
Monarchical Congress at Bad Reichenhall,
Propaganda Committee, secretary of, 148
Munich, move to, III
Nabokov, assassination of, 168, imprisonment
for, 168
Organization C and, 171
Pediura's forces, execution by, plans for, 62,
incarceration by, 62
poverty of, 112
Protocols of the Elders of Zion, The, transfer of
to Germany, 2, 63, 65
Purishkevich and, 45
Ray of Light, A, writer for. 112
Russian Trust Authority and, 253-254
Taboritskii and, 44, 63
terrorism, plotting for, 168-169
Index 323
Shabeiskii~Bork, Piotr (cont.)
Tsarist family, assistance to, intended, 59,
murder of, investigation of, 59-60, report
on murder of, Jews responsible, 60
Ukrainian Volunteer Army, service in,
intended, 62
Union of the Russian People, member
of, 44
Vinberg and, 46, 62-63
"Short Tale of the Anti~Christ, A"
see Solevov
Skoropadskii, Pavel
anti~Bolshevism of, 50-51
background of, 50
Entente, pro, 54, 61
Imperial German advance and, 50-51
Germany, transport to, 62
Hetman of the Ukraine, 53
Kaiser Hohenzollern II and, 59
Ludendorff and, 59
Parry of the Ukrainian People's Union, leader
of, 53
Poltavets~Ostranitsa, arrest orders for, 61,
conflict with, 54
Ukrainian National Cossack Assembly, leader,
de jure, of, 53
Society for Ukrainian-Bavarian Import and
Export
goals and means of, 115-116
Kommissarovand, 115
Pelikan and, U5
Scheglovitov and, 115
Wagner (officer) and, 115
Solevov, Vladimir
"Short Tale of the Anti~Christ, A, "
Anti~Christ, help from Freemasons and
Jews, 33, Protocols of the Elders of Zion, The,
influence on, 58
Sonderweg (special path) thesis
refutation of, 272
weakness of bourgeois Germans led to Third
Reich, 4-5
Southern Army
Army Group Eichhorn and, 56
Bermondt~Avalov, leader in, 57
formation of, 56
Great Don Host and, 57
Keller, commander of, 56
Monarchical Bloc, assistance from, 56
strength of, 56
Southern Russian Armed Forces
Entente, anti, 120
Germany, pro, 120
Red Army, defeat by, 125
Vrangel, commander of, 114-115
Soviet Union
ss
see key players and organizations for schemes
against
Commissar Decree and, 269
Himmler, head of, 76
Poltavets~Ostranitsa and, 265
Rosenberg, influence from, 267
Schwartz-Bostunich, service in, 266
State Security Main Office (RSHA)
Schwartz~Bostunich and, 266
White emigres. curtailing of activities,
259-260
Storm Section (SA)
Coburg expedition and, 158
Combat League, umbrella organization for,
205
Goring, leader of, 173
Klintzsch, leader of, 173
numbers of, 200
Rossbach, Hundred named after,
202
Russian National Liberation Movement
(ROND), similarity to, 250
United Patriotic Associations of Bavaria,
umbrella organization for, 200
Storm Section Rossbach
Iron Division, merging into, 99
National Socialist Party, adoption of uniforms
by, 202
Rossbach, commander of, 99
Western Volunteer Army, march to, 99
Streicher, Julius
Schwartz, Bostunich and, 266
succession, Tsarist
controversy over, 148
Supreme Monarchical Council
Aufbau, conflict with, 149-150, 159, 160-161,
163
Biskupskii, conflict with, 150
congress, Paris, leadership of, 160
France, pro, 155
Golitsyn, representative of, 159
Markov II, leader of, 147
Monarchical Congress at Bad Reichenhall,
creation of at, 147
Munich, move to, plans for, 155
Munich Police, opposition from, 160
Romanov, Nikolai Nikolaevich, and,
155
Soviet Union, invasion of, French~led, plans
for, 161
Talberg, secretary and intelligence leader of,
147
Wiesbaden, move to, 164
Taboritskii, Sergei
Aufbau, member of, 130
Baltic area, organization of troops for, 61
Call, The, technical editor of, 64
Germany, pro, 61
Hitler and, 253
Kapp Putsch and, 106
Kornilov Putsch and, 44
Latvian Intervention and, 86-87
Miliukov, assassination of, attempted, 168
Nabokov, assassination of, 168, imprisonment
for, 168
National Socialist Party and, 253
Organization C and, 171
Pediura's forces, execution by, plans for, 62,
incarceration by, 62
poverty of, 112
Russian Trust Authority, deputy director of,
253, predominance in, 253
Shabeiskii~Bork, Piotr, and. 44, 63
terrorism, plotting for, 168-169
Ukrainian Volunteer Army, service in, 61
Vinberg and, 61
Talberg, Nikolai
Biskupskii, denunciation of, 161
Monarchical Congress at Bad Reichenhall,
Organizational Committee, member of, 145
Police Department, Kiev, head of, 144
Supreme Monarchical Council, secretary and
intelligence leader of, 147
Union of the Faithful, leader in, 144
Thule Society, 67
Eckart, guest of, 70
Freikorps Uplands, creation of, 174
German Order, parent organization of, 67
German Worker's Party, subsidiary of, 72
In Plain German and, 71
Rosenberg. guest of, 70
Volkisch Observer, newspaper of, 67-68
Thyssen, August
National Socialist Party, subsidies to, 204
Tirpitz, Alfred von
German Fatherland Party, leader of Germany,
plans for. 29
Kapp, advisor of, plans for, 29
Tivoli Program
success, moderate, for German far right, 26
Trail of the Jew through the Ages, The
see Rosenberg
Trebitsch~Lincoln, Ignatz
background of, 105
Bauer and, 105
French intelligence and, 105-106
Hitler, scorn from, 105
Kapp Putsch and, 105
Trotskii, Lev
Brest~Litovsk, negotiator in, 49
Scheubner-Richter, Max, admiration from,
198, 215. lessons to. 198-199
Soviet Commissar for War, 198
Tsaritsa Aleksandra Romanov
Great in the Small and the Anti~Christ as an
Imminent Political Possibility, The,
possession of, including Protocols of the
Elders of Zion. The, 60
Miliukov, denunciation from, 169
Vinberg and, 169
Tsar Nikolai Romanov II
Freedom and Order, reader of, 40
Russian Assembly and, 35
Union of the Russian People and, 36
Vinberg and, 46
Ukrainian Cossack, The
National Socialism and, 190--191
Rosenberg and, 191
Scheubner-Richter, Max, and, 191
Ukrainian National Cossack Organization,
newspaper of, 190
Volkisch Observer and, 191
Ukrainian Intervention, 50--57, 58-59. 60--63,
173
collaboration, German-White, 12, 47, 48,
77
ideology, White emigre. transfer from, 12, 77
Latvian Intervention and, 77, 78
White officers to Germany in wake of, 48
Ukrainian National Cossack Assembly
Poltavets~Ostranitsa, leader, de facto, of, 53
Skoropadskii, leader, de jure, of, 53
Ukrainian National Cossack Organization
Army Group Eichhorn and, 53
goals of, 53, 54
Hitler and. 190
Japanese and, 257
National Socialist Party and, 255, similarities
with, 190
Poltavets~Ostranitsa, leader of, 130, leader, de
facto, of, 53
Skoropadskii's regime and, 53-54
Ukrainian Cossack, The, newspaper of, 190
VOlkisch Observer and, 255
Ukrainians, nationalist
German troops, welcome of in World War II,
262,
Hitler, speeches of, 190
instruction of, German military, 189-190.
Bavaria and Empire League and, 190,
Rohm and, 189
police units, Final Solution and, 270
Ukrainian Volunteer Army
Bermondt~Avalov, service in, 60
Biskupskii. commander in. 55, 60
foundation of, 54
Germany, aid from, 61, pro, 55
Keller, commander of, 60
Pediura's forces, defeat by, 62, struggle
against, 60
Shabeiskii~Bork, service in, intended, 62
Tabotitskii, service in, 61
Vinberg, service in, 60
weakness of, 60--61
Ulain
Awakening Hungary, leader of, 205
Hitler/Ludendorff Putsch and, 210
Ulman is, Karlis
land promise, non~fulfillment of, 95
Minister President, Latvian, 84
Winnig, agreement with, 84
Union of the Faithful
agents of, [44
Aufbau and, 144
Biskupskii and, 144
Evaldt, leader in, 144
goals and means of, 55, 144
Kommissarov. member of, 115
Krasnov, leader in, 147
Markov II, leader of, Russia, 55, leader of,
Germany, 144
Miliukov, assassination attempt on and, 169
Monarchical Bloc, formation of, 55
Pelikan. member of, 115
Talberg, member of, 144
Union of the Russian People
anti~Semitism of, 37, 38
Biskupskii, member of, 55
Black Hundreds, creation of, 36
Dubrovin, leader of, 35
foundation of, 35
growth of, 38
ideology of. 35, 36-37
Kommissarov and, 36
Markov II, leader in, 39
murder, Jewish ritual in Kiev, supposed, and.
39
Purishkevich. member of, 35
Rachkovskii and, 36
Russian Banner, The, newspaper of, 38
Scheglovitov, member of, 56
Shabeiskii~Bork, Piotr, member of, 44
split of, 39-40
Statutes of, 35
Tsar Romanov II and, 36
United Patriotic associations of Bavaria
appearance of, 195
Bavaria and Empire League, member of, 190
exercises, military, 200
formation of, 194
Hitler, leader of, 194
Imperial Flag, member of, 200
Ludendorff and, 194, leader in, 195
National Socialist Party, member of, 195
Nicolai and, 194
Pan~German League, member of, 195
Patriotic Combat associations, contingent of,
200
Ruhr Basin, occupation of and, 195
Scheubner-Richter, Max, and, 194, leader in,
195
Storm Section (SA), member of, 200
Uplands League, member of, 200
Uplands League
Action Group of National Associations,
umbrella organization for, 202
Combat League, umbrella organization for,
205
Freikorps Uplands, parent formation of, 200
Hitler/Ludendorff Putsch and, 210
numbers of, 200
United Patriotic Associations of Bavaria,
umbrella organization for, 200
Viking League
Action Group of National Associations,
umbrella organization for, 202
Combat League, conflict with, 207-208
Organization C, parent organization of, 202
Vinberg, Fedor
alliance, German-Russian, anti~Semitic,
140--141
Aufbau, ideologue of, 130
background of, 42-43
Berlin. role in right~wing circles of, 64
Bolsheviks, trial by, 45-46
Call, The, editor of, 64
Hausen and, 64
Hitler, discussions with, 2, 130, 230. Jewish
Bolshevism, citation by, 230
Jewish Bolshevism, 45
Kapp Putsch and, 106
Kornilov Putsch and, 43
Lampe, opposition from. 124
Michael the Archangel Russian People's
Union, member of, 43
Miliukov, assassination attempt on and, 169,
212, hatred of, 169
Monarchical Congress at Bad Reichenhall,
Propaganda Committee, assistant to, 148
Munich, move to, 111
Officer's Duty, founder of. 43
Vinberg, Fedor (cont.)
Organization C and, 171
Paris, move to, 212
People's Tribune, The, contributor to, 44
Petliura's forces, execution by, plans for, 62,
incarceration by, 62
poverty of, 112
Protocols of the Elders of Zion, The, veracity of,
66
Pucishkevich and, 43, 44
Ray of Light, A, editor of, 111
religiosity of, 238-239
Romanov, Kirill, and, 163
Russia, Imperial, dissolution of and, 44-45
Russia's Via Dolorosa, alliance,
German-Russian, anti-Semitic, 140-141,
anti-Semitism, apocalyptic, 239, conspiracy,
Jewish-Capitalist Bolshevik, 225,
Dostoevskii, use of, anti-Semitic, 220-221,
Jewish Bolshevism, 227, apocalyptic,
239-240, Germany, threat to, 233, Jews,
threats against, 237, Protocols of the Elders of
Zion, The, 66, 239
Shabelskii-Bork, Piotr, and, 46, 62-63
Taboritskii and, 61
terrorism, plotting for, 168-169
Tsaritsa Romanov and, 169
Tsar Romanov II and, 46
Ukrainian Volunteer Army, service in, 60
Volkisch Observer and, 239
Vlassov, A. A.
Rosenberg and, 262, 263-264
Russian Liberation Army, commander of, 264
volkisch Germans
Communists, German, similarities with, 164
failures of, 18, 19, 46, 47
Jews, blamed for defeats, 12
see also tar right, Imperial German
volkisch ideology
1, 5, 19-20, 25, 30-31, 46, 272
Eckart, world~affirmation, Jewish, negation
of, 71
Hitler, use of, 236
Romanticism, German, and, 19
Volkisch Observer (Volkischer Beobachter)
Call, The, and, 65
circulation of, 68
Dostoevskii, use of, anti~Semitic, 222
Eckart, editor of, 228-229
Jewish Bolshevism, 217
Miliukov, assassination attempt on and,
170-171
Protocols of the Elders of Zion, The. defense of,
69-70, publication of, 68-69
Renewal, advertisement for, 133
Romanov, Kirill, and, 158
Rosenberg, editor of, 267
Schwartz-Bostunich, contributor to, 266
Thule Society, newspaper of, 67-68
Tsarist family, murder of, Jews responsible, 60
Ukraine, independent, support for, 188
Ukrainian Cossack, The, and, 191
Ukrainian, National Cossack Organization,
propaganda for, 255
Vinberg and, 239
Zunder Document and, 65
Volkonskii, Mikhail
Aufbau and, 196
Glasenap and, 196
Provisional Senate, leader of, 196
Romanov, Kirill, and, 159
Russian Assembly, member of, 34
Russian Delegation in Hungary, leader of, 159
Vrangel, Piotr
anti-Semitism, curbing of, 117
Bischoff and, 122
Biskupskii, representative of, bogus, 121-122
Crimean Peninsula, headquarters on, 120
Germany, pro, initially, 116-117
Goltz and, 122
Kommissarov, representative of, bogus, 115,
ban towards, 119
mission to, 109, 116, 118-122, 134, 274-275,
arrest of, 122, Germany, return to, 122,
Kommissarov, member of, 118, Pelikan,
member of, 118, Scheubner-Richter, Max,
leader of, 118, Wagner (officer), member of,
118
Nemirovich-Danchenko, anti~Semitism,
disagreement about, u8, press chief of, 118
Rodionovand, 121
Russian Universal Military Union (ROVS),
leader of, 15I
Scheubner-Richter, Max, talks with, 120-121,
results of talks, 121, 122
Schwartz-Bostunich and, 117
Southern Russian Armed Forces,
commandeer of, 115
Soviet Union, invasion of, plans for, 155, 175
Vyshivannyi, Vasily
army of, formation of, 181-182, weakness of,
182-183
Aufbau, agreement, economic, with, 181,
support from, 180-181
background of, 181
Biskupskii and, rib
Cramer-Klett and, 181
Habsburgs, restoration of, plans for, 181
Keppen and, 181
Ludendorff and, 181
Poltavets-Ostranitsa and, 181
Scheubner-Richter, Max, and, 181
Index 327
Wagner (officer)
tar right, German/White emigre, talks and,
116
Society for Ukrainian-Bavarian Import and
Export and, 115
Vrangel, mission to, participation in, 118, 120
Wagner, Richard
Ahasuerus (Wandering Jew) and, 22
De Gobineau, influence from, 23
Jews, ejection of, 23-24, materialism of, 23
"judaism in Music, " Jews, ejection of, 23-24,
must cease being Jews, 21-22
Ring of the Nibelung, materialism, Jewish,
22-23, redemption, Germanic, 22
Schopenhauer, influence from, 21, 23
true religion, 23
war Leadership and Politics
sec Ludendorff
Warrant for Genocide
see Cohn
Weimar German government
Freikorps, dissolution of, 102
Kapp Putsch, Bight in, 104
Scheubner-Richter, attack from, 98
Western Volunteer Army, actions against, 98,
rescue of, 100
Weimar Republic
explanation of term, 93
Scheubner-Richter, attack from, 198
Werber, Paul
National Socialist Party and, 172-173
Scheubner-Richter. Max, and, 172
Western Volunteer Army
anti-Semitism of, 100
Bermondt-Avalov, commander of, 94,
demotion in, 100, 101
defeat of, 99
Eberhard, commander of, 100
fleet, English, fire from, 98
goals of, 94
Goltz and, 94
growth of, 95
Noske and, 94-95
Remmer, embezzlement by, 97
remnants of, Bermondt-Avalov, leader,
de facto, of, 101, Biskupskii, leader, official,
of, 101, Kapp Putsch and, 106
retreat of, 100
Riga, assault on, failure of, 98
Storm Section Rossbach, support from, 99
strength and composition of, 95
Weimar German government, actions against
by, 98, rescue by, 100
White formations of, disarmament and
internment of, 101
White emigres
Aufbau, call to arms from, 196, failure to
unite under, 136-137, 143, 165, 275-276,
volkisch Germans, collaboration with
in, 14
Berlin, community in, largest initially, 63
Bolshevism, admiration of, grudging, 6
conspiracy. Jewish capitalist-Bolshevik, 8-9,
70
definition of term and history behind it, 3-4
failures of, 3
Germany, destabilization of from, 177, 217,
numbers of in, 63, transportation to, 62
Hitler-Stalin Pact and, 258, 259
Jews, blamed for defeats, 12
Markov II, leadership pretensions of, 143,
144
Munich, community in, composition of, 112,
numbers of, 112, shrinking of, 212
National Socialism, contributions to, 17,
279-280
National Socialists, collaboration with, 9,
differences with, 9
numbers of worldwide, 63
Organization C and, 173
putsch preparations in Bavaria and, 204
Romanov, Kirill, leader of, plans for, 14
Schellendorf, release of many from Petliura's
forces, 62
State Security Main Office (RSHA),
curtailment of activities by, 259-260
volkisch Germans, including National
Socialists, collaboration with, 3
White forces
Rosenberg and, 89
Winnig, August
National Union and, 93-94
Scheubner-Richter, Max, and, 84
Ulman is, agreement with, 84
Wittelsbach, Ruprecht von
Cramer-Klett and, 126
Scheubner-Richter, Max, desire for Kaiser,
future, 126
World as Will and Idea, The
see Schopenhauer
Zunder Document
Call, The, and, 65
Eckart and, 232
Hausen and, 65
Volkisch Observer and, 65
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