Trading With the Enemy, by Charles Higham

"Science," the Greek word for knowledge, when appended to the word "political," creates what seems like an oxymoron. For who could claim to know politics? More complicated than any game, most people who play it become addicts and die without understanding what they were addicted to. The rest of us suffer under their malpractice as our "leaders." A truer case of the blind leading the blind could not be found. Plumb the depths of confusion here.

Re: Trading With the Enemy, by Charles Higham

Postby admin » Wed Nov 27, 2013 3:13 am

Chapter 12: The Fraternity Runs for Cover

The Nuremberg Trials successfully buried the truth of The Fraternity connections. Schacht, who was more privy to the financial connections than most German leaders, gave an extraordinary performance, mocking, hectoring, and pouring contempt upon his chief prosecutor -- Biddle's predecessor, Robert H. Jackson. Charged with engineering the war when he had only wanted to serve the neutralist policies of Fraternity associates, he was understandably acquitted. Had he chosen to do so, he could have stripped bare the details of the conspiracy, but only once in his entire cross-examination, when he admitted to complicity in the shipment to Berlin of the Austrian gold,* did he indicate any knowledge of such matters. Never in those days on the witness stand was he asked about the Bank for International Settlements or Thomas H. McKittrick. Not even in his memoirs was there an inkling of what he knew.

Conveniently for The Fraternity, Goring and Himmler committed suicide, carrying with them the secrets that Charles Bedaux, William Rhodes Davis, William Weiss of Sterling, and William S. Farish had carried to their graves. James V. Forrestal also ended his life by suicide. In 1949 he hanged himself from the window of the Bethesda Naval Hospital in Washington, D.C., where he was suffering from advanced paranoid schizophrenia. Newspapers reported him screaming that the Jews and the communists were crawling on the floor of his room seeking to destroy him.

The rest of the conspirators lived out full life-spans.

When Germany fell, Hermann Schmitz fled from Frankfurt to a hiding place in a small house near Heidelberg. Shuffled around between the lines in a railroad carriage, this powerful man cowered in terror as bombs exploded about him. But he was softly handled when the U .S. Army moved in. He was imprisoned, but well treated, thanks to the influence of his great and powerful friends. Despite the fact that he and his colleagues had been responsible for the deaths of four million Jews at Auschwitz, they were not tried for mass murder as war criminals. Instead, they were tried for preparing and planning aggressive war, and other related counts. Since they had intended to form a world fascist state without war if possible, and since their whole purpose was simply to render Germany equal in a United States of Fascism, they were acquitted on the first charge. The lesser charges resulted in insignificant sentences.

Thinner now and equipped with a distinguished Vandyke beard, Schmitz cleverly decided not to give evidence at the trial. He claimed illness but in fact was seldom absent. His only statement came at the end of the hearings when he had the audacity to quote St. Augustine and, for good measure, Abraham Lincoln, to the judges. He spent only eight more months in prison.

Max Ilgner was equally cunning. He told the prosecutors he would become a priest after he left prison. He did.

Espionage was not an issue in the case; no summoning of transatlantic figures was considered. Dietrich Schmitz, now on a chicken farm in Connecticut, and Rudolph Ilgner went unpunished. In various court hearings of the 1940s, Schmitz and Ilgner had been indicted but the cases against them were never prosecuted.

On September 8, 1944, Roosevelt had sent a letter to Cordell Hull that was front page in many newspapers. It included the bold statement, "The history of the use of the I.G. Farben trust by the Nazis reads like a detective story. Defeat of the Nazi army will have to be followed by the eradication of those weapons of economic warfare."

The powers of the Allied Military Government who favored The Fraternity disagreed and insisted upon I.G. Farben being retained after light punishment for its leaders. Morgenthau protested to Roosevelt, who summoned him to a discussion at the Quebec Conference in September 1944.

Morgenthau laid out his idealistic and impractical Morgenthau Plan -- actually the creation of Harry Dexter White. Based upon his profound knowledge of collusion, White wanted a total elimination not only of I.G. Farben but of all German armaments and chemical and metallurgical industries. He wanted Germany to become a strictly agrarian economy; Roosevelt seemed to agree. In December 1944, Roosevelt, taking his cue from Morgenthau, made a statement via John G. Winant in which he called for an abolition of the Nazi industrial war machine. But already there were some compromises in the plan. Morgenthau came under a storm of abuse from the right wing, and the ailing President was now yielding to some minor pressures and starting to back away. In February 1945, at the Yalta Conference, Roosevelt, by now grievously ill, strove to follow Morgenthau's reasoning by making the much criticized arrangements to divide Germany down the middle into eastern and western zones.

When Truman became President, Eisenhower, as commander in chief of European forces, continued to follow Morgenthau's attitude with severe edicts, calling for disruption of any Nazi source of a possible World War III. But Truman disagreed. He was convinced that to render Germany agrarian was to leave an open path for Bolshevist conquest. General George S. Patton agreed with him and began to put Nazis back in office in Germany after the war.

Those who, with ideals held high, arrived in Germany from the United States to try to disrupt the cartels were severely handicapped from the start. One of these was a promising young lawyer, Russell A. Nixon, a liberal member of the U.S. Military Government Cartel Unit. He was handicapped from the start. He came directly under Brigadier General William H. Draper, who was, along with James V. Forrestal, a vice-president of Dillon, Read, bankers who had financed Germany after World War I. Nixon quickly realized that Draper, director of the economics division, and Robert Murphy, who had moved from North Africa to become ambassador to the new Germany, were going to block his every move.

When he arrived in Germany in July 1945, Nixon found his position was virtually untenable. He had been asked to explore a tunnel that had already been bricked up.

He asked Colonel E. S. Pillsbury, Special Control Officer in charge of I.G. Farben, what had been done these several months after V-E day to carry out Eisenhower's directives on dismantling Farben. Pillsbury failed to give any information and seriously questioned whether Nixon had any jurisdiction to investigate the cartel. Nixon turned in desperation to several members of Draper's staff, only to discover that Draper had failed to give them written directives to close I.G. plants.

One man, Joseph Dodge, told Nixon he had instructed his team to dismantle an I.G. poison gas plant but that Draper had canceled the order. Again, Dodge tried to wreck the I.G. underground plant at Mannheim and again Draper intervened. Soon afterward, Dodge told Nixon, Draper arranged for both plants to obtain added business.

Frustrated, Nixon went over Draper's head. He reported to General Lucius D. Clay on December 17, 1945, that Eisenhower's orders had been deliberately violated. He charged that, contrary to Draper's statements in the press that every I.G. plant had been bombed or dismantled, none had been. He said that General Henry H. Arnold of the Army Air Force had protected I.G. and he added that despite the pleas of the Jewish councils the installations and communications systems of Auschwitz had not been destroyed.

Clay listened to Nixon's charges but did nothing about them. Nixon found that scientific and mechanical equipment in I.G. plants had been saved from removal on specific orders from Washington. Searching through files on January 15, 1946, Nixon found a letter written by Max Ilgner that gave the game away. Dated May 15, 1944, and addressed to the I.G. Central Finance Department, the letter instructed the staff to keep "in constant touch" in defeated Germany since the American authorities "would surely permit resumption of I.G. operations." Thus, the head of the N.W.7. I.G. espionage unit looked forward confidently to the future. He of all people knew the Americans he was dealing with.

Nixon was handicapped not only by the American military government, but by the British. The Labour government in England was in severe financial difficulties and wanted to make sure it had good industrial connections in Germany. Like the American government, it was busy reconstituting I.G. When Russell A. Nixon pleaded with Sir Percy Mills at meetings of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to use his influence with Clay and Draper, Mills simply held matters up further. As a result, scarcely any Nazi industrial leader was in custody by 1946.

Nixon did manage to have a few people brought in. These included Paul Denker, I.G.'s chief accountant in the poison gas division; Carl von Heider, sales director of inorganic chemicals; Hans Kugler, director of dyestuff sales; Gunther Frank-Fahle and Kurt Kreuger of Ilgner's espionage group; and Gustave Kupper, head of the dyestuffs, legal division. None of these spent any time in custody. Nixon also wanted to bring in directors of the banks that had been deeply involved with I.G., including the Deutsche Bank, the Deutsche Landersbank, the Reichsbank, and the Dresdnerbank. He wanted to ask them about the whereabouts of German looted gold and cash including the Austrian and Czech gold transferred through the BIS. Again he was blocked: Draper told Counter-Intelligence not to make the arrests. Nixon pleaded directly to Washington, and after a considerable delay Draper was overruled. But no sooner had the bank officials been taken to Army headquarters than a Major General Adcock, representing Draper, brought orders for their release. Nixon was told he had been insubordinate in going over Draper's head and should be court-martialed as a radical.

Nixon later reported to the Senator Owen Brewster War Committee in Washington that by the spring of 1946 only 85,000 of 200,000 industrial and Gestapo leaders had been arrested. He was particularly annoyed by the exemption accorded to the major Nazi industrialist Richard Freudenberg, who had worked with Goring and Carl Krauch on the Four Year Plan and had been on the board of the Schroder Bank. When Nixon took the bold step of ordering Freudenberg arrested under mandatory arrest provision JCF 1067, the denazification board in Frankfurt voted four to one to exempt him from the provision, and Ambassador to Germany Robert Murphy ordered his release. Murphy made a statement that proved to be significant: "It is not in conformity with American standards to cut away the basis of private property." Apparently it was in conformity with American standards to restore high-ranking Nazis to their previous positions. With unconscious humor a member of the Industry Division of the Occupying Forces confirmed Murphy's position by saying, "This man Freudenberg is an extremely capable industrialist: a kind of Henry Ford." No one could quarrel with that.

Draper sent an official to take charge of Nixon's operation in the winter of 1946. Carl Peters was in charge of Foreign Economic Administration under Leo Crowley. He was also a director of the Advanced Solvents Corporation, a subsidiary of General Aniline and Film. He had been indicted for dealing with the enemy but had pleaded nolle prosequi and had been awarded the position of colonel in the Pentagon. No sooner was he in charge of Nixon than he began securing the release of German industrialists and set up the old Norwegian plant Noramco as an I.G. subsidiary once more.

Nixon had had enough. He returned to the United States and condemned the entire protection of Nazis to Senator Kilgore's investigative committee. He charged that elements in the United States, British, and French foreign offices had consciously maneuvered to prevent the Allies from being involved in the search for Nazi assets in neutral countries, because that search would lay bare the fascist regimes in Spain, Portugal, Switzerland, Sweden, and Argentina "and would reveal all the elements of collaboration of certain industrialists in the Allied countries with these regimes."

The young, very sharp lawyer James Stewart Martin of the Department of Justice's investigative team came to Europe from Washington. He arrived at U.S. Military Command at Bushy Park, London, only to find that Graeme K. Howard of General Motors was colonel over him. Martin protested to G-2 about the General Motors-Nazi connection, and nothing was done. But he managed to find a copy of Howard's book America and a New World Order. Fearful of a public outcry, the Army shipped Howard home.

Martin investigated the whereabouts of Gerhardt Westrick. In the last year of the war Westrick had played an increasingly difficult and dangerous role in Germany. After Generals Fellgiebel and Thiele were hanged for treason, Westrick managed to hang on almost to the end of the conflict. He fled when Berlin was bombed and his home was destroyed. He hid out in a castle in southwest Germany. Behn, clearly afraid of the consequences if his association with Westrick became known, refused to answer his old friend's pleading letters. Instead, he arranged for Westrick to be brought by his Army associates to Paris to give a full report to ITT's Colonel Alexander Sanders at the Hotel Claridge on the status of the ITT companies in Germany.

Westrick was given a light prison sentence and released -- deeply embittered that Behn had let him be punished at all.

Martin found out that Leo T. Crowley and Ernest K. Halbach, those custodians of General Aniline and Film, when asked to supply the truth of GAF's actual ownership through I.G. Chemie, had simply referred the matter to Allen Dulles. The head of the OSS had failed to supply the required information.

At the I.G. headquarters in Frankfurt, Martin discovered files that confirmed earlier beliefs that Schmitz had laid out plans for a conquered world in which America would join in triumph. He began to understand why Schmitz and the others of I.G. had turned against Hitler. It was clear that Hitler wanted to attack the United States with Goring's bombers when sufficiently long-distance aircraft were developed. But Schmitz was loyal to his American colleagues, preferring to maintain the alliances in perpetuity. These alliances could be sustained if Himmler and/or the German generals ran the Third Reich. They would be content with Schmitz 's dream of a negotiated peace.

Further evidence came to light showing the continuing connection between Schmitz and the United States during the war. In 1943 a magazine article by R.T. Haslam of Standard Oil appeared in The Petroleum Times. It stated that the relationship with I.G. Farben had proved to be advantageous to the United States government. A special report of I.G. Farben emphatically denied this, pointing out the innumerable benefits that Germany had obtained from her American friends, including the use of tetraethyl, without which the war effort would have been impossible, and the supply of which had been approved by the U.S. War Department. The report said, "At the outbreak of war we were completely prepared from a technical point of view. We obtained standards not only from our own experiences but also from those of General Motors and other big manufacturers of automobiles." The report also revealed that Standard had sold $20 million worth of mineral oil products including airplane benzene to I.G. The report concluded: "The fact that we actually succeeded ... in buying these quantities demanded by the German government from Standard Oil Co. and the Royal Dutch Shell group and importing them into Germany was only because of the support of Standard Oil Company." Even more damning, Martin found that I.G. had placed a 50 million mark credit to Karl Lindemann's Standard subsidiary in Germany in the Deutsch Landersbank, wholly owned by I.G. with Hermann Schmitz as chairman, in 1944.

Thus, it was clear that Standard's business in Nazi Germany was open as usual and that its German subsidiary was being paid handsomely for prewar agreements.

Martin and his team were hampered at every turn. He wrote in his book All Honorable Men:

We had not been stopped in Germany by German business. We had been stopped in Germany by American business. The forces that stopped us had operated from the United States but had not operated in the open. We were not stopped by a law of Congress, by an Executive Order of the President, or even by a change of policy approved by the President ... in short, whatever it was that had stopped us was not "the government." But it clearly had command of channels through which the government normally operates. The relative powerlessness of governments in the growing economic power is of course not new ... national governments stood on the sidelines while bigger operators arranged the world's affairs.

These operators were among the obstacles faced by James Stewart Martin and his team as they began work in the fall of 1945. A year after they began rummaging through documents, many of the Nazis in Schmitz's and Hitler's immediate circle were untouched by defeat. Schmitz's fellow director of the Deutsche Bank, Hermann Abs, was now financial advisor in the British zone. Heinrich Dinkelbach, also a partner of Schmitz, was in charge of the administration of all iron and steel industries in the British zone. Yet another director of the Steel Union, Werner Carp, the closest friend of Baron von Schroder's, was released from detention and became Dinkelbach's partner.

So much for Eisenhower's orders to denazify industry. Schmitz in his prison could afford to smile. "The Nazi chieftains," Raymond Daniell wrote in The New York Times on September 20, 1945, "[are] in positions where they can continue to control to a large degree the machinery whereby Germany made war." Daniell continued,

The effect of the breakdown of the denazification program ... preserves the power of men whose nationalistic and militaristic ideas were the very antithesis of democracy ... in industry, in the fields of transportation and communication, the flouting of General Eisenhower's order is particularly flagrant ... in avoiding compliance with [that] order, Army and Military government officials have shown considerable versatility. Where they have not ignored the order completely, they have got around it by reclassifying important jobs under other names and leaving the Nazi incumbent alone.

Daniell continued:

Nor has there been any known development on the plan for the disposition of the property of active Nazis, as must have been contemplated when their accounts were blocked. At present a proposal is being circulated to provide for the payment of their old salaries to executives who have been arrested and who are giving evidence to the Occupation authorities. In other words, it is proposed that those who helped the Nazis be treated as employees whose services are worth to us approximately what the Nazis paid them.

Martin made a serious discovery in October 1945. He reported that General Patton literally had sabotaged the Potsdam Agreement calling for a destruction of I.G. and that in fact it was simply being split into components and allowed to continue with several of Schmitz's minor executives continuing in higher positions. Simultaneously, the Kilgore Committee reported in Washington on November 15, 1945, that the Swiss banks led by the BIS and its member bank, the Swiss National Bank (which shared directors and staff members), had violated agreements made at the end of the war not to permit financial transactions that would help the Nazis dispose of their loot. Senator Harley Kilgore stated, "Despite ... the assurances of the Swiss government that German accounts would be blocked, the Germans maneuvered themselves back into a position where they could utilize their assets in Switzerland, could acquire desperately needed foreign exchange by the sale of looted gold and could conceal economic reserves for another war. These moves were made possible by the willingness of the Swiss government and banking officials, in violation of their agreement with the Allied Powers, to make a secret deal with the Nazis." Martin's team, working with a special Treasury group of T-men, unraveled much of this information for Kilgore. They found a letter from Emil Puhl to Dr. Walther Funk dated March 30, 1945, which said: "Above all I have insisted [to the National Bank] on our receiving Swiss francs in return for Reichsmarks which the Reichsbank might release for any reason. That is important as it will enable us to use these francs to transfer funds into a third country."

It was agreed by the mission to Switzerland headed by U.S. economics advisor Lauchlin Currie in 1945 that gold might be used for embassy expenses. Puhl made the Swiss buy the German gold. A further letter, dated April 6, 1945, from Puhl to Funk read: "All in all, I believe that we can be satisfied that we have succeeded in obtaining ... arrangements for German-Swiss payments. Whatever form events will take, such connections will always exist between our countries, and the fact that there exists a contract agreement may be of considerable importance in the future. Anyway, the contrary, the breaking off of the innumerable connections, would have been a rubble pile which would have presented immense difficulties."

The day after the Kilgore Committee made these disclosures, the Treasury team along with Martin's was drastically restricted from further activities. Raymond Daniell wrote in The New York Times on November 16 that the experts who came to hunt down the Reich's hidden assets were suddenly relegated to obscure roles. "As a result," Daniell wrote, "140 Treasury employees are wondering tonight whether they are going to be recalled or ordered to stay on here compiling reports and making recommendations that other departments can use or ignore as they choose. Many of them feel that their usefulness here has been ended."

All through those difficult weeks Martin, his team, and the T-men clashed with Brigadier General Draper and Charles Fahey of Draper's legal division, both of whom flagrantly ignored Eisenhower's policy and the mandatory terms of the Potsdam Agreement. Russell Nixon sympathized with their largely hopeless efforts to smash Nazi economic power in Germany and overseas. He said, "Treasury experts are in the doghouse at the office of Military government." Most devastating of all, he stated that Draper had flatly refused to denazify any financial institution in Germany.

In Washington, Colonel Bernard Bernstein of the Treasury squad was delivering a powerful series of blows to I.G. before the Kilgore Committee. He denounced Standard's synthetic rubber agreements, its $20 million contract for aviation gasoline, its $1 million supply of tetraethyl. He named Ernest K. Halbach and Hugh Williamson of GAP as organizers of direct deliveries to I.G.'s South American subsidiaries after Pearl Harbor. He charged that Du Pont owned 6 percent of I.G.'s common stock throughout World War II and that Swiss banks had uniformly refused to yield up details of I.G. Chemie. Kilgore, commenting on these statements, said, "I am profoundly disturbed by a number of recent events pointing to an attitude on the part of some of our key officials which countenances and even bolsters Nazism in the economic and political life of Germany." He said that Draper had ignored directives of six months earlier to destroy I.G.'s plants. He added that the State Department blatantly supported Draper's policy. Kilgore made clear that State Department policy did not have President Truman's concurrence.

A U.S. Military Government spokesman, who was not named, denied Kilgore's charges in The New York Times on Christmas Day 1945. He said it was untrue that the I.G. organization had not been broken up: that in fact "the entire I.G. question has been placed on a four-power level." He was pointing to the fact that the United States, Britain, France, and Russia all had parts of Farben because of its diffuse character; he neglected to point out that only Russia of the four powers had tried to shatter I.G.'s structure.

In July 1946, James Stewart Martin was still struggling to expose the full truth of Nazi-American business arrangements. He was not helped by the fact that Brigadier General Draper hired the adventurous Alexander Kreuter, Charles Bedaux's partner in the Worms Bank, as his economic aide.

Gordon Kern of ITT also turned up on the scene. Kern, ostensibly there to be in an advisory capacity, spent most of his time transferring the Focke Wulf factories from the Russian to the American zone. He also arranged for ITT's Nazi factory to be used by the Army Signal Corps, which prevented its dissolution, and had Westrick brought to Switzerland to disentangle ITT's Nazi patents held in Swiss banks.

In October 1946, Senator Kilgore arrived in Germany with the Senate War Investigating Committee to try to determine why attempts to decartelize the Nazis were being obstructed at every turn. George Meader, counsel for the committee, prepared a thousand pages of testimony from scores of U.S. Army officers. A few weeks later, when the investigations were continuing, Averell Harriman (of Brown Brothers, Harriman), Jesse Jones's successor as Secretary of Commerce, sent Philip D. Reed, head of General Electric, which had suppressed tungsten carbide in favor of Krupp and financed Hitler, on an urgent mission to Berlin to confer with Draper. Simultaneously, General Lucius Clay was questioned for two hours secretly by Kilgore in Washington. The results of the questionnaire were never disclosed.

In December, Clay was back in Germany, smarting at criticisms of his activities. He arranged a meeting between Draper and Philip D. Reed at the office of his finance chief, Jack Bennett. At the meeting Richard Spencer of Clay's legal division attacked President Truman's policy on denazification and breaking up I.G. Reed reported to Harriman that the investigation of I.G. and the Americans, which was still struggling feebly along under Martin's guidance, was a symptom of Martin's "extremism" and should be brought to an immediate end.

Meader's detailed report, damning in detail and forceful in execution, was too strong even for Kilgore. He said, inter alia, "I will put it this way: that men, some men, if the Germans had ever invaded this country and conquered us, would have been the first to collaborate with the conquerors, and have been influential in decisions being made in Germany."

Secretary of War Robert B. Patterson said that he was of the opinion that Meader's statement "gave a distorted and frequently erroneous picture of the American Zone." Lieutenant General Dan I. Sultan, Inspector General of the Army, also denounced Meader, saying his charges were "unverified." Yet Meader had based his report on thoroughly reliable sources. Military officer after officer was disclosed as corrupt, unsavory, and in collusion with the Nazis.

Among the testimonies was that of Colonel Francis P. Miller who had been executive officer of Army Intelligence under Clay and had formerly been with the OSS. He charged that "Officials selected for influential economic positions in the military government had business connections at home that might influence their outlook and acts." He called for an intensified use of Army Intelligence to expose malfeasances in high office.

That December the Kilgore Committee uncovered more and more scandals. Meader introduced documents showing how Draper had told a visiting party of newspaper editors that the program of purging Nazis was holding back economic development.

There were efforts made to obtain a reversal of Truman's policy of removing patents from German hands. The leader of this attempted reversal was an executive of the U.S. Steel Corporation, who remained unnamed because of the connections to the Schmitz and Krupp steel empire. This personage called for a reopening of the German Patent Office immediately and charged that the President had jeopardized it by his policy declarations. The steel executive also wanted an outright prohibition of inspections of German plants. Phillips Hawkins pointed out that the reestablishment of patent systems and prohibition of search would be disastrous for decartelization.

General Clay had, the committee revealed, sent a stern memorandum to Draper telling him that denazification was beneficial and that the failure to denazify industry would have created major labor-management problems. He rebuked Draper loudly and clearly for opposing the removal of Nazis.

Several letters were read from James Stewart Martin showing how he had been forced into retreat. He named -- but the name was not made public -- an American industrialist who was trying to obtain a penicillin monopoly in Germany by buying up one American corporation after another with Nazi links, including I.G. He also charged that lobbying in Washington was allowing ITT, National Cash Register, and Singer sewing machine company to enter Germany on special licenses in defiance of presidential orders.

Kilgore was infuriated by Meader's charges and denounced him to the press.

James Stewart Martin resigned his position in frustration. His replacement, Phillips Hawkins, married General Draper's daughter.

In February 1947, Richardson Bronson, formerly Martin's deputy control officer, fired one quarter of his staff and announced that there would no longer be any decartelization of I.G. or any other heavy industry in Germany. Only small consumer-goods firms would be affected. The decision was approved by former President Herbert Hoover, who had received Hermann Schmitz at the White House in 1931. Hoover's report at the end of an investigative trip urged that I.G. and Krupp should be enabled to rebuild Germany.

Those few who raised voices against such goings-on were dismissed by the military arm as "commies." Draper still had some critics. Alexander Sacks, formerly of James Stewart Martin's staff, charged before the Ferguson Commission on decartelization in 1948 that in every way "the policies of the Roosevelt and Truman administrations have been flagrantly disregarded by the very individuals who were charged with the highest responsibility for carrying them out." Sacks was dismissed.

As for General Aniline and Film, that indestructible organ of The Fraternity, all efforts against it by Morgenthau and his successors in the Treasury proved futile. Robert F. Kennedy as Attorney General protected the company from dissolution -- in his father's tradition. On March 9, 1965, GAF was sold in the largest competitive auction in Wall Street history. The buyer, offering $340 million, was an affiliate of I.G. Farben in Germany.

Those who had opposed The Fraternity were not so fortunate. In 1948 the House Un-American Activities Committee, in one of its unbridled smear campaigns, named Morgenthau's trusted associates Harry Dexter White and Lauchlin Currie as communist agents. Based on the uncorroborated testimony of one Elizabeth Bentley, a self-confessed Soviet spy who was turning state's evidence, the Morgenthau Treasury administration was smeared in the eyes of the public. White and Currie, those deeply loyal enemies of fascism, those investigators of the Bank for International Settlements, of Standard, the Chase, the National City Bank, the Morgans, William Rhodes Davis, the Texas Company, ITT, RCA, SKF, GAF, Ford, and General Motors, were effectively destroyed by the hearings. Currie disappeared into Colombia, his U.S. citizenship canceled in 1956, and White died of a heart attack on August 16, 1948, aged fifty-six, after returning home from an investigative session. While the surviving Fraternity figures flourished again, helping to form the texture of postwar technology, those who had dared to expose them were finished. The Fraternity leaders who had died could sleep comfortably in their graves -- their dark purpose accomplished.



* But not the Czech, Belgian, or Dutch.
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Re: Trading With the Enemy, by Charles Higham

Postby admin » Wed Nov 27, 2013 3:16 am

Selective Bibliography

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"Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals Under Control Council Law No. 10," Volume VIII, I.G. Farben case, Nuremberg, October 1946-April 1949. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1953.
United States Army Air Force, Aiming point report No.1. E. 2 of May 29, 1943.
United States Congress. House of Representatives. Special Committee on Un-American Activities and Investigation of Certain Other Propaganda Activities. 73rd Congress, 2nd Session, Hearings No. 73-DC-4. Washington: U.S. Government Printing office, 1934.
United States Congress. House of Representatives. Special Committee on Un-American Activities (1934). Investigation of Nazi and Other Propaganda Activities. 74th Congress, 1st Session, Report No.153. Washington: U.S. Government Printing office, 1934.
United States Congress. Senate. Hearings before the Committee on Finance. Sale of Foreign Bonds or Securities in the United States. 72nd Congress, 1st Session, S. Res. 19, Part 1, December 18,19, and 21,1931. Washington: U.S. Government Printing office, 1931.
United States Congress. Senate. Hearings before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Military Affairs. Scientific and Technical Mobilization. 78th Congress, 2nd Session, S. Res. 107, Part 16, August 29 and September 7, 8, 12, and 13, 1944. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1944.
United States Congress. Senate. Hearings before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Military Affairs. Scientific and Technical Mobilization. 78th Congress, 1st Session, S. 702, Part 16, Washington: U.S. Government Printing office, 1944.
United States Congress. Senate. Hearings before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Military Affairs. Elimination of German Resources of War. Report pursuant to S. Res. 107 and 146, July 2, 1945, Part 7. 78thCongress and 79th Congress. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1945.
United States Group Control Council (Germany), office of the Director of Intelligence, Field Information Agency. Technical Intelligence Report No. EF/ME/1. September 4, 1945.
United States Congress. Senate. Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act, Committee on the Judiciary. Morgenthau Diary (Germany). Volume 1, 90th Congress, 1st Session, November 20, 1967. Washington: U.S. Government Printing office, 1967.
United States Strategic Bombing Survey. Aeg-Ostlandwerke GmbR, by Whitworth Ferguson. May 31, 1945.
United States Strategic Bombing Survey, Plant Report of A .E ,G , (Allgemeine Elektrizitats Gesellschaft). Nuremberg, Germany: June 1945.
United States Strategic Bombing Survey. German Electrical Equipment In dustry Report. Equipment Division, January 1947.
Wall, Bennett H., and Gibb, George S, Teagle of Jersey Standard, New Orleans: Tulane University, 1974.

Magazines and Newspapers Consulted

The Nation; The New Republic; The Hour; Friday; In Fact; The Protestant; The New York Times; The Washington Post; The Washington Times-Herald; PM; The (London) Times; The New Statesman and Nation; Time and Tide; The Wall Street Journal.
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Re: Trading With the Enemy, by Charles Higham

Postby admin » Wed Nov 27, 2013 3:19 am

Select Documentary Sources

Bank for International Settlements [1]

Telegrams from Merle Cochran to Henry Morgenthau, Jr.: February 14, March 14, May 9, 1939.
Memoranda from Merle Cochran to Henry Morgenthau, Jr.: April 27, May 9, May 15, 1940.
Reports on meetings of the Bank for International Settlements. 1940-1945. U.S. Consulate, Basle, Switzerland.
Resolution. H. Res. 188. 78th Congress. March 26, 1943.
Bretton Woods Conference, New Hampshire. Minutes of meetings of the U.S. delegates. July 10, July 17, July 18, July 19, July 20, 1944.
Memorandum from Orvis A. Schmidt to Henry Morgenthau, Jr. March 23, 1945.
Reports on Currie Mission to Switzerland. Minutes of meetings, memoranda to the President. April 12, May 2, May 21, 1945.

Bedaux, Charles [2]

Embassy of the United States of America. Confidential Report. Vichy, May 4, 1942.
Interview with Charles E. Bedaux. Report by American Consulate, Algiers. October 30, 1942.
War Department Message. Secret. January 4, 1943.
War Department. Military Intelligence Service. Washington. Report. January 15, 1943.
Headquarters North African Theater of Operations. U.S. Army Inquiry. September 5, 1944.
Allied Force Headquarters. U.S. Army. G2. Report. February 14, 1945.

The Chase Bank-Paris [3]

Morgenthau Minutes. Meeting with Dr. Benjamin Anderson. April 28, 1937.
Department of State Memoranda. June 19, 1940.
Minutes of Treasury Meetings. August 26, 27, 1940.
Correspondence between Chase Bank, Paris and Chateauneuf, France, Au gust 5, October 15, October 24, November 17, 1940.
Memoranda from Winthrop W. Aldrich to Henry Morgenthau, Jr. May 12, May 25, 1941.
Correspondence between Chase Bank, Paris, German banks, Vichy Head- quarters and New York, December 30, 1941, January 3, 10, 15, 23, and 30, 1942; February 2, March 3, March 6, March 24, March 25, March 30, 1942; April 16, May 7, May 23, June 1, June 4, June 18, June 22, July 20, August 3, September 18, October 9, October 28, and December 31, 1942.
Accounts of Chase Bank, Paris, 1941-1942.
Memorandum from Randolph Paul to Henry Morgenthau, Jr. January 13, 1943.
Accounts, Transactions, German Military Government Orders. Nazi Embassy, Paris. 1943.
Minutes of Meetings. Treasury, January 4, 13, 1944.
Report. Treasury Investigative Team, Paris, 1944.
Memoranda from Randolph Paul to Henry Morgenthau, Jr. February 3, 4, 1944.
Correspondence, Transaction List, Accounts, Memoranda between Nazi Embassy, Paris, and Chase Bank, May 22, May 30, June 8, June 29, July 3, August 10, August 16, 1944.
Memorandum from J. J. O'Connell, Jr., and Harry Dexter White to Henry Morgenthau, Jr. September 12, 1944.
Various memoranda, J. J. O'Connell, Jr., and Harry Dexter White to Henry Morgenthau, Jr. October 20, 27, 1944.
Henry Saxon to Henry Morgenthau, Jr. Memoranda. December 20, 1944.
Treasury Investigative Reports. December 30, 1944.
Harry Dexter White to Henry Morgenthau, Jr. February 12, 1945.

William Rhodes Davis [4]

Chapter drawn in its entirety from Davis Main File, FBI, 1937-1941, Washington, D.C.

Ford Motor Company [5]

Letters from Maurice Dollfus to Edsel B. Ford, September 19, October 31, November 27, 1940. October 13, 1941. January 28, February 11, August 15, 1942.
Report by Felix Cole, American Consulate, Algiers, July 11, 1942.
Telegram from John G. Winant, U.S. Embassy, London, to Cordell Hull, October 20, 1942.
Telegrams from Leland Harrison, U.S. Minister in Berne, Switzerland, to Cordell Hull, October 29, December 4, 1942.
Reports by John J. Lawler to Henry Morgenthau, Jr., December 9, 10, 11, 1942 (includes transcripts of Edsel Ford's letters to Maurice Dollfus in Occupied France).
Accounts reports and details of transactions, Ford Motor Company, Dear- born and Poissy, December 11-12, 1942.
Report by Randolph Paul to Henry Morgenthau, Jr., May 25, 1943.
Report by Leland Harrison to Cordell Hull, December 13, 1943.
Report by John G. Winant to Cordell Hull, April 3, 1944.

General Motors [6]

Report by James D. Mooney to Adolf Hitler, n.d. (presumably January 1940).
Letter from James D. Mooney to Adolf Hitler, February 16, 1940.
Summarized statement of Hitler's conversation with James D. Mooney, March 4, 1940.
Notes covering James D. Mooney's visit to Goring, March 7, 1940.
Letters from James D. Mooney to Franklin D. Roosevelt, Rome, Italy, March 11, 15, 1940.
Letter from Franklin D. Roosevelt to James D. Mooney, April 2, 1940.
Detailed program of meetings in Berlin and London in 1939 by James D. Mooney, January 24, 1941.
Letter from James D. Mooney to Franklin D. Roosevelt, February 21, 1941.
Report by J. Edgar Hoover to Adolf A. Berle, Jr., May 1, 1941.
FBI Reports, Various, 1942.
Report by Leland Harrison t6 Cordell Hull, March 21, 1942.
Report of U.S. Embassy, Panama, June 26, 1942.
Report by U.S. Embassy, Buenos Aires, July 20, 1942.
Reports by John A. Winant to Cordell Hull, October 20, 1942.
Report by Jacques Reinstein to General Motors, April 2, 1943.
Telegram from U.S. Embassy, London, to Cordell Hull, May 18, 1944.
Report from U.S. Embassy, La Paz, Bolivia, to Cordell Hull, February 10, 1944.
Report from John A. Winant to Cordell Hull, April 11, 1944.

Princess Stefanie Hohenlohe, Fritz Wiedemann, and Sir William Wiseman [7]

Chapter drawn in its entirety from FBI Main Files on these individuals, Washington, D.C., 1940-1945.

ITT and Radio Corporation of America [8]

Telegram from American Legation, Bucharest, Rumania, to the Treasury, January 3, 1941.
Notes and Memoranda by E. H. Foley, Jr. and Herbert Feis to Sumner Welles, March 24, 25,26, 1941, and October 9, 1941.
Undated draft on unification of Mexican telephone systems. Treasury files. 1941.
Censored conversation intercept. Hans Sturzenegger and Hugh Williamson, Basle and New York, June 24, July 3, 1941.
Memorandum from E. H. Foley, Jr., to Henry Morgenthau, Jr., September 8, 1941.
Memoranda from Breckinridge Long to Harry Hopkins, January 5, January 12, 1942.
Seized records, January-March 1942. ITT, South America.
Detailed reports of TTP, South America, State Department File, 1941-1942.
Staff memorandum for members of the interdepartmental advisory committee on hemisphere communications, Allen W. Sayler, January 13, 1942.
Intercepted conversation. Cia Radio International of Brazil, February 11, 1942.
FBI report. February 14, 1942.
Memo to Thurman Arnold from Robert Wohlforth, February 20, 1942.
Memo from R. T. Yingling to Breckinridge Long, February 26, 1942.
Censorship reports, January-May 1942.
Memoranda to Sumner Welles, from Breckinridge Long, April 2l, 1942.
Memoranda of Breckinridge Long on meetings on ITT and RCN Consortium, June 26, July 13, July 14, July 20, August 10, August 11, 1942. Also August 25 and September 21, 1942.
Censorship reports May-December 1942.
Special report on Mexican telephone merger, State Department, 1942.
Special report, State Department, August 20, 1942.
Minutes of meetings of the IHCAC, September-December 1942.
Intercepted communications, 1942-1943.
Report on leakage of shipping information. Office of Censorship. July 24, 1942.
Report on evasions of communications regulations and cable communications with the Axis. December 7, 11, 14, and 15, 1942.
Report on Axis pressure on ITT. November 18, 1942 (no source given).
Questionnaire, responses, and reports. U.S. Commercial Company to Henry A. Wallace, 1942-1943.
Breckinridge Long memoranda to the State Department, 1943.
FBI reports. ITT. Main File, 1943.
Censorship intercepts. ITT. April 14, 1943.
Minutes of meeting between W. A. Winterbottom and Breckinridge Long, August 16, 1943.
ITT. Intelligence report. Bartholomew Higgens to Wendell Berge, September 20, 1943.
Memorandum to Secret Intelligence Service, Berlin, FBI. September 12, 1945.
Interrogations of Baron Kurt von Schroder, November 20-25, 1945.
Interrogatory reports: numerous. Gerhardt Westrick. 1945 (no day or month).

SKF [9]

Memorandum re SKF. Heinrich Kronstein. March 6, 1942.
Secret memorandum. Foreign Economic Administration. Lauchlin Currie to Oscar Cox, February 4, 1944.
Memorandum for Foreign Economic Administration. Control groups in Sweden and their German tie-ups, 1944.
Memorandum from Captain W. D. Puleston to Lauchlin Currie. Foreign Economic Administration, March 15, 1944.
SKF Industries, Inc. report, 1944.
Jean Pajus draft report. Swedish ball-bearing business, May 1944.
Foreign Economic Administration. Memorandum for the files of the Economics Intelligence Division, May 1, 1944.
Miscellaneous telegrams from Ambassador Herschel Johnson in Stockholm to the Department of State. Encoded, May 1944.
Memorandum by Franklin S. Judson. Foreign Economic Administration, May 11, 1944.
Telegram. Stockholm Legation to Foreign Economic Administration and Secretary of State, May 13, 1944.
Securities and Exchange Commission. Memorandum covering interviews with E. Austin and Ernest Wooler. Foreign Economic Administration file, May 19, 1944.
Memorandum of interview with J. W. Tawresey. Franklin S. Judson. June 7, 1944.
SKF. Introduction and summary. Jean Pajus, Foreign Economic Administration, September 15, 1944.
Telegrams received. American Legation, Stockholm, to Secretary of State, Washington, D.C., October 9, 1944.
Memorandum by Jean Pajus to Lauchlin Currie and Frank Coe, Foreign Economic Administration, November 2, 1944.
Complete summary of SKF wartime activities. Jean Pajus, 1945.

Standard Oil of New Jersey [10]

Report to Sumner Welles by Herbert Feis, March 31, 1941.
Report by John J. Muccio, Charge d'Affaires, U.S. Consulate, Panama, to Cordell Hull, May 5, 1941.
Report by H. E. Linam, Standard Oil, Caracas, Venezuela, to Nelson Rockefeller, July 9, 1941.
Report by Major Charles A. Burroughs, G-2, Columbus, Ohio, to Head- quarters, July 15, 1941.
Report from American Legation, Bucharest, Hungary, to State Department, August 5,1941.
Report from E. H. Foley, Jr., Acting Secretary of the Treasury, to Cordell Hull, October 30, 1941.
Report by E. H. Foley, Jr., to the Senate Special Committee on Defense, April 30, 1942.
Letter from H. E. Linam, Standard Oil, to Dr. Frank P. Corrigan, U.S. Embassy, Caracas, Venezuela, June 8, 1942.
Report from Samuel F. Gilbert to Donald Hiss, State Department Foreign Funds Control, July 14, 1942.
Letter from John J. Muccio, U.S. Embassy, Panama, to Cordell Hull, Au- gust 24, 1942.
Report by Leland Harrison, U!S. Embassy, Berne, to Cordell Hull, October 3, 1942.
Report by Daniel J. Reagan, Commercial Attache, Beme, November 6, 1942.
Telegram in code from Leland Harrison to Cordell Hull, December 8, 1942.
Report by Jacques Reinstein to John N. Bohannon, Standard Oil, December 26, 1942.
Report from U.S. Embassy, London, to Cordell Hull, December 29, 1942.
Cable in code from Jacques Reinstein to U.S. Legation, Berne, January 20, 1943.
Telegrams from Leland Harrison, U .S. Legation, Berne, to Cordell Hull, January 28, 1943.
Report from Adolf Berle to U.S. Legation, Berne, February 27, 1943.
Telegrams from Leland Harrison, U.S. Legation, Berne, April 15, 21, 1943.
Telegrams from John A. Winant to Cordell Hull, May 5, 15, 17, and 18, 1943.
Reports from C. F. Sabourin to F. P. Corrigan, U.S. Embassy, Caracas, Venezuela, June 9, 1943.
Report from Frank P. Corrigan to A. T. Proudfit, Standard Oil of Venezuela, June 24, 1943.
Licenses permitting trading with enemy nationals. Various. 1943.

Sterling Products, Inc./General Aniline and Film [11]

Reports. Foreign Economic Administration, 1942, 1943.
Memorandum. Charles Henry Lee to John E. Lockwood. Foreign Economic Administration. July 19, 1941.
Memorandum. Dean Acheson to Jefferson Caffrey. n.d. [1942]
Memorandum. J. Edgar Hoover to Adolf Berle. Alleged German agents in Brazil. May 26, 1942.
Memorandum. E. Schellnebergger. Chief, Commercial Intelligence. Department of Commerce. June 9, 1942.
Memorandum. Dean Acheson to the American Ambassador, Paraguay. June 29, 1942.
Memorandum. George Messersmith to Cordell Hull. July 14, 1942.
Memorandum. J. Edgar Hoover to Adolf Berle. July 28, 1942.
State Department Memorandum to the Charge d'Affaires, Buenos Aires. September 11,1942.
Memorandum. Frederick B. Lyon for Adolf Berle to J. Edgar Hoover. September 16, 1942.
Memorandum. Robert A. Scot ten to State Department. September 21, 1942.
Memorandum. J. Edgar Hoover to Adolf Berle. September 28, 1942.
Memorandum. J. Edgar Hoover to Adolf Berle. October 3, 1942.
Memorandum. Frederick B. Lyon to J. Tannenwald. January 12, 1943.
Correspondence. Philip W. Thayer to State Department. August 1943.
Memorandum. Flemming T. Liggett, FBI, to J. Edgar Hoover. December 30, 1943.

Texas Company [12]

Enclosure to Dispatch No. 10008 of February 12, 1940, from U.S. Embassy, Mexico City, to State Department.
Memorandum from U. S .Embassy, Montevideo, Uruguay, to Lawrence Duggan, State Department, June 5, 1940.
Report of the U.S. Legation, Costa Rica, to Cordell Hull, June 13, 1941.
Military Intelligence Division Report, October 9, 1940.
Memorandum from J. Edgar Hoover to Adolf Berle. February 10, 1942.
Report by A. R. Randolph, Acting Commercial Attache, Guatemala. December 8, 1942.
Division of the American Republics Report. December 28, 1942.
Miscellaneous authorizations. A. R. Randolph. 1943.
Memorandum from Leland Harrison, U.S. Legation, Berne, Switzerland, to State Department. January 27, 1944.
Memorandum from Leland Harrison, U.S. Legation, Berne, Switzerland, to State Department. January 30, 1944.



1. Files available from Roosevelt Memorial Library, Hyde Park, New York.
2. Files available from Department of the Army. Fort Meade, Maryland.
3. Files available from the Department of the Treasury, Washington, D.C.
4. File available from Freedom of Information Office. FBI Headquarters, Washington. D.C.
5. Files available from Charles Higham Collection, Doheny Library, University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
6. Files available from Georgetown University Library, Washington, D.C., FBI, and National Archives Diplomatic Records Room.
7. Files available from FBI.
8. Files available from National Archives and Records Service: Social and Industrial Records Room, Washington, DC.
9. Records available from National Archives and Records Service, Suitland, Maryland.
10. Records available from National Archives and Records Service. Diplomatic Records Room
11. Records available from FBI and from National Archives Diplomatic Records Room and Records Service, Washington, D.C.
12. Records available from National Archives and Records Service, Diplomatic Records Room.
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Re: Trading With the Enemy, by Charles Higham

Postby admin » Wed Nov 27, 2013 3:23 am

Selected Documents

July 15, 1941
SUBJECT: Standard Oil Company of New Jersey Ships Under Panamanian Registry.
TO: A. C. of S., G-2,
War Department
Washington, D.C.

1. A report has been received from Cleveland, Ohio, in which it is stated that the source of this information is unquestionable, to the effect that the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey now ships under Panamanian registry, transporting oil (fuel) from Aruba, Dutch West Indies to Teneriffe, Canary Islands, and is apparently diverting about 20% of this fuel oil to the present German government.

2. About six of the ships operating on this route are reputed to be manned mainly by Nazi officers. Seamen have reported to the informant that they have seen submarines in the immediate vicinity of the Canary Islands and have learned that these submarines are refueling there. The informant also stated that the Standard Oil Company has not lost any ships to date by torpedoing as have other companies whose ships operate to other ports.

For the A. C. of S., G-2,
Major, Military Intelligence,
Asst. A. C. of S., G-2

Ernst Weber, Zurich -- Chairman

Dott. V. Azzolini, Rome
Y. Breart de Boisanger, Paris
Baron Brincard, Paris
Walther Funk, Berlin
Alexandre Galopin, Brussels
Prof. Francesco Giordani, Rome
Hisaakira Kano, Tokio
Sir Otto Niemeyer, London
Montagu Collet Norman, London
Ivar Rooth, Stockholm
Dr. Hermann Schmitz, Berlin
Kurt Freiherr Von Schroder, Cologne
Dr. L. J. A. Trip, The Hague
Marquis de Vogue, Paris
Yoneji Yamamoto, Berlin


Dott. Giovanni Acanfora
Dott. Mario Pennachio
Cameron F. Cobbold, London
Emir Puhl, Berlin


Thomas H. McKittrick, President
Roger Auboin, General Manager
Paul Hechler, Assistant General Manager
Dott. Raffaele Pilotti, Secretary General
Marcel van Zeeland, Manager

Dr. Per Jacobsson, Economic Adviser
Dr. Felix Weiser, Legal Adviser

16th June 1943.


Memorandum from R.T. Yingling, State Department attorney, to Assistant Secretary of State Breckinridge Long

February 26, 1942.

Mr. Long:

It seems that the International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation which has been handling traffic between Latin American countries and Axis controlled points with the encouragement or concurrence of the Department desires some assurance that it will not be prosecuted for such activities. It has been suggested that the matter be discussed informally with the Attorney General and if he agrees the Corporation can be advised that no prosecution is contemplated.

This office feels that no formal opinion of the Attorney General for its future guidance is necessary in view of Resolution XL on telecommunications adopted at the Consultative Meeting of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American Republics, held at Rio de Janeiro in January of this year. If the International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation feels that activities of the nature indicated above which it maybe carrying on at the present time in Latin America are within the purview of the Trading with the Enemy Act it should apply to the Treasury Department for a license to engage in such activities.

Le:RTYingling: LEY: SS


Memorandum of Conversation
DATE: September 9, 1942.
SUBJECT: Telecommunication Circuits With the Axis Maintained by Argentina and Chile.
PARTICIPANTS: The Secretary (later); Assistant Secretary Long; Mr. Hackworth, Legal Adviser (later); Mr. Bonsal, RA; Mr. Daniels, RA; Mr. Halle, RA; Mr. Reinstein, A.A.; Mr. Tannenwald, FF; Mr. deWolf, IN.

Memorandum of a Meeting in Mr. Long's Office (Later Adjourned to the Secretary's Office)

Mr. Long pointed out that after months of conversation the American interests in the Consortium Trust (Radio Corporation of America) had done nothing actually to bring about a closure of the circuits maintained with the Axis by the Consortium companies in Argentina and Chile. He said they had proved what degree of control they could exercise over these companies by what had been accomplished in the course of General Davis' visit to Buenos Aires and Santiago, and that consequently he had no doubt but what they could order the companies to suspend the operation of the undesirable circuits. He said that the RCA representatives were coming to see him at 3 p.m. today, and that he had in mind telling them to do what was necessary in order to shut down the circuits by midnight tomorrow (September 10).

Mr. Bonsal suggested the advisability of informing the Argentine and Chilean Governments in advance of the contemplated action, pointing out that the political consequences of doing otherwise might have wide ramifications involving the basic policy governing our relations with the two republics. Specifically, he said, action taken by the companies in response to an initiative from this Government to close the circuits might raise the whole question of control by national governments over public utilities operating within their own jurisdiction. He felt that one of the consequences might be that nationalistic interests would point out that the public services in these countries were controlled by Washington, rather than by the national governments which should properly have jurisdiction.

Mr. Long expressed the view that, should the Governments be notified of the proposed action in advance, they would immediately call in the Axis representatives and that then we would have a fight on our hands. Mr. Bonsal felt that, in any case, we should be much better informed than we were of what the legal and political consequences of such action would be before we embarked on it.

The suggestion was advanced by Messrs. Daniels and Halle that it might be sufficient to have the RCA representatives be prepared to issue the necessary orders immediately when the Department gives them word to go ahead. This suggestion was based especially on the possibility that the Chilean Government might cut the circuits in the near future on its own initiative, and that since such initiative would lead the country nearer to a complete diplomatic break with the Axis, it would be preferable to company initiative.

The meeting thereupon adjourned to the Secretary's Office, where Mr. Long placed the problem and various considerations that had been advanced before the Secretary. The Secretary, citing the vital economic assistance that we were extending to Argentina, especially in the way of iron and steel shipments, said that we had a right to expect a good deal more cooperation in return than we were getting. He said that, while he had not been in close touch with the situation in Argentina over the past few months, he felt the time had come when we should deal more severely with the Argentine Government. Consequently, he favored Mr. Long's proposal to ask RCA to have the circuits abandoned by midnight tomorrow. Mr. Bonsal expressed his view that we should have more information on the provisions of the franchises under which the companies were operating before proceeding further. The Secretary said that he felt the question of what the franchises provided concerned the Consortium and the Consortium companies rather than this Government. It was agreed that, because of indications that the Chilean Government would not oppose company initiative in this matter, the Chilean authorities should be notified in advance: In the case of Argentina, the Secretary expressed no objection to our having the company take the action forthwith.

RA: LHalle: MM


Memorandum of Conversation
DATE: May 24, 1943.
SUBJECT: Communications.
PARTICIPANTS: Colonel Sarnoff, RCA
Mr. Long.

I talked to Colonel Sarnoff on the telephone and explained to him that we had reason to believe that more messages than the agreed 700 code-groups a week were being sent from B.A. by the Axis powers to their Governments. I told him I could not disclose down there the source of our information. In an effort to obtain additional information our representatives down there had approached Hayes. Hayes had seemed to them noncooperative. There may have been very sound reasons why he refused to disclose the exact number of messages sent in code-groups by each of the Axis representatives to their Government. However, there didn't seem to be any reason why the managership should not request a report on all code-groups being sent over a period of time, day by day, and to include a report on all belligerents, and that if he would obtain that information through confidential channels we would be appreciative. I suggested it be not done by telegraph or telephone and suggested the mail, but offered to make the pouch available.

Colonel Sarnoff replied that he would talk to Mr. Winterbottom but he saw no reason why we should not do it and that he would communicate with us if they wanted to use the pouch.

After receipt of this information we will be in a better position to judge what our policy should be.

B. L.

A-L: BL: lag


May 25 1943

Secretary Morgenthau
Randolph Paul

A short time ago a brief investigation was made of the files of the Ford Motor Company of Dearborn, Michigan, in order to determine the extent of its relationship and its control over its French subsidiary. Since the investigative report is rather lengthy, I have attached hereto a summary thereof which discloses that from the fall of France to July 1942 -- the date of the last letter in the files from Ford of France to Ford of America: (1) the business of the Ford subsidiaries in France substantially increased; (2) their production was solely for the benefit of Germany and the countries under its occupation; (3) the Germans have "shown clearly their wish to protect the Ford interests" because of the attitude of strict neutrality maintained by Henry and Edsel Ford; and (4) the increased activity of the French Ford subsidiaries on behalf of the Germans received the commendation of the Ford family in America.

I am sure you will want to read the attached report. We propose to submit informally copies of the investigative report to Military Intelligence, Office of Naval Intelligence, Federal Bureau of Investigation and other similar investigative agencies.

If you are in agreement, please so indicate below.

(Initialed) H.E.P.


(Signed) H. Morgenthau, Jr.


RRShwartz: rhb 5/22/43


By Jean Pajus-June 1944

Memorandum by Jean Pajus. Foreign Economic Administration

June 1944.


In the current investigation on SKF the following points are important:

1. The important foreign files, including the correspondence between SKF in this country and SKF Sweden, and other foreign countries have been destroyed by order of the American SKF officials. According to an interview with Mr. William Batt it is the custom of the American SKF to destroy its files every seven years. It is extremely significant that Mr. Batt ordered the destruction of all foreign correspondence for the years prior to 1941 and 1942. Orders to destroy these files came down three days after Sweden was blocked by the United States Treasury in 1941.

2. Ever since the war began the Swedish company has been giving orders to its American affiliate with respect to volume of production, prices, and other matters of major policy. At one time it appears that the Swedish company deliberately withheld the shipment of necessary machinery to curtail production in this country for about eight months. All ball bearing machinery for SKF companies must be imported from Sweden and, consequently, the parent company can dictate changes in ball bearing production in foreign countries.

3. All of these orders from the Swedish parent company came through the Swedish Legation in Washington, thus escaping the normal channels of censorship.

4. There is a very considerable investment of German capital in the Swedish company. At the time of the merger of the German companies into the VKF Combine, under control of the Swedish SKF, a very substantial block of shares in the Swedish company was given to Germany. The shares received by the Germans were so-called B shares -- those without voting rights -- but the evidence is clear that the Germans have a very important position in the determination of all major matters of policy. In fact, the former manager of the German ball bearing is now manager of the Swedish company.

5. The largest share of SKF's production is located in Axis-controlled Europe, 52% in Germany and 64% in Germany and France.

6. There is considerable evidence of a direct German interest in the United States Company. Just prior to the last war the Hess-Bright Company, owned by the German Munitions Trust was purportedly sold to the Swedish SKF. The Investigation made by the Alien Property Custodian at that time indicated great doubt in the validity of the sale to the Swedes. A cash transaction of $2,800,000 reported paid to the Germans by the Swedish Company for the property was never traced. In fact the whole investigation was a fraud, since the final report submitted by the United States Secret Service was written by the vice president of SKF. Other evidence indicates that the Swedish company merely acted as a front for the German company and that that situation still exists.

7. Further evidence to show how the German and Swedish interests are inextricably linked is the fact that in 1912 SKF Sweden purchased 50% of the Norma Ball Bearing Company, Cannstadt, Germany. This purchase was necessary in order to secure access to German patents and to make sales in the German market from which it was previously excluded by the German Ball Bearing Cartel. In 1912 they joined the German cartel and became a licensee under the Conrad Patent. In 1929 the Norma Company was merged into VKF and a further German interest in the Swedish Company took place.

The Norma Company of America, a branch of the German Norma Company, was taken over by the Alien Property Custodian upon our entering into the war and, subsequently, was sold to American interests in 1919. At that time William Batt acted as an attorney in fact for the Norma Company. This indicates how closely knit Mr. Batt's interests with the Germans have been in the past.

8. Until 1940 Mr. Batt was a member of the board of directors of the American Bosch Company which has since been seized by the U.S. Alien Property Custodian. This company attempted to cloak its German ownership under a purported sale of the properties to Swedish interests affiliated with SKF just prior to our entrance into the present war. The Alien Property Custodian nevertheless seized the properties on the ground that the transfer was fraudulent. It is reported that, at the time of the American Bosch investigation, a memorandum was prepared by the Treasury Department on Mr. Batt's connections with German companies, which was sent to the White House. The memorandum raised the question of the desirability of allowing Mr. Batt to hold a prominent position in the War Production Board in the light of his business affiliations.

9. Numerous letters in the SKF files indicated that Mr. Batt was under orders from the Swedish company to supply the Latin American market, irrespective of current war orders in the United States; and that all sales in the United States should be based primarily on the long-term business interests of the company rather than the needs of the war effort.

At the present time an FEA representative is in Sweden attempting to purchase the SKF production in Sweden for $30,000,000. In the light of the above facts it would seem that action other than that of purchase could be effected to get the results desired.

The following steps are suggested:

a. Declare null and void the voting trust agreement now placed by Swedish SKF in the hands of Mr. Batt.

b. Seize the SKF properties in the United States, placing them under the Alien Property Custodian.

c. Place on the U.S. Proclaimed List all SKF companies in Sweden and Latin America.

d. Encourage American firms to export ball bearings to Latin America to compete with the SKF monopoly in those countries.

e. Place on the U.S. Proclaimed List all major Swedish companies affiliated with SKF., i.e., Asea, Atlas Diesel, Separator, Etc.

f. Block all transfers of funds from Latin American subsidiaries to Sweden.

g. Eliminate the Swedish cartel in ball bearings in Germany after the war.

h. Eliminate the Swedish monopoly in France and Japan.

i. Seize all patents belonging to SKF Sweden and SKF Germany and other patents held by SKF subsidiaries in Europe.


DATE FEB 12 1945
TO: Secretary Morgeuthau
FROM: Harry White HDW
Information re Case Bk activities in Paris.

You will recall that on September 12, 1944, we reported to you that a study of an exchange of correspondence in New York between Chase, Paris, and Chase, New York, from the date of the fall of France to May 1942 disclosed that (1) the Paris branch collaborated with the Germans; (2) Chase was held in "very special esteem" by the Germans; (3) the Paris manager was "very vigorous" in enforcing restrictions unnecessarily against Jewish property; and (4) the home office took no direct steps to remove the Paris manager as it might "react" against their interests. We were then aware that the Paris branch of Chase acceded to the demands of the Germans to continue normal operations, even though both the Guaranty and National City had refused and substantial liquidation ensued.

On the basis of this report, you agreed with our recommendation to investigate Chase in France. As of the present date our investigation of the Chase records in France confirms the above mentioned findings, and discloses the following additional information:

1. S. P. Bailey, an American citizen who was in charge of the Paris office in June 1940, felt that it was desirable to, and actually commenced to, liquidate the Paris office. Some time thereafter and certainly by June 1941 his powers were revoked when the home office conferred authority on Niedermann who thereafter successfully ran the Paris office during German occupation, and Bertrand who remained at Chateauneuf in then unoccupied France.

2. Although Chase in New York did not, so far as is presently known, send instructions for the Paris branch after February 4, 1942, there is thus far no evidence that Chase even attempted to veto any transactions of the Paris office or between the office in the Free Zone and the office in Paris even when such contemplated transactions were the subject of requests for instructions.

3. Between May 1942 and May 1943, deposits in the Paris office virtually doubled. Almost half of the increase in deposits took place in two German accounts.

4. About a month after United States' entry into the war, the Chase attorney in Paris advised that it was a matter of "the most elementary prudence" to block American accounts notwithstanding that no such instructions had been issued by the occupying authorities. We are awaiting further reports as to whether the suggested action was taken.

5. In May 1942 the Paris branch advised a Berlin bank that certain instructions of the latter had been carried out and that the Paris branch "are at your disposal to continue to undertake the execution of banking affairs in France for your friends as well as for yourselves ***."

I will keep you advised of further developments in the investigation of Chase and the other American banks in Paris. In this connection you might be interested in reading the attached cable received yesterday from Hoffman in Paris which describes a meeting he held with Mr. Larkin who was apparently sent to Paris by Aldrich to try to straighten up the Chase offices. Larkin reported that Aldrich and the New York board of Chase were very much concerned over the situation in the Paris office of Chase, and that it was Larkin's job "to get to the bottom of the situation and make the necessary adjustments in personnel." It is significant that Larkin emphasized the fact that Chase, New York, had been cut off from the Paris branch since the United States entered the war. This does not agree with our findings which disclose that between the date of the fall of France and May 1942, Chase, New York, was kept advised about activities in Chase, Paris.




Ref: 1634/21/43
No: 366

1943 JUN 1 PM 3.21


JUN 21 1943

His Majesty's Ambassador presents his compliments to the Secretary of State and has the honour to state that His Royal Highness, the Duke of Windsor, Governor of the Bahamas, has enquired whether the United States Government would be so good as to grant exemption from United States censorship to the correspondence of the Duchess of Windsor. Lord Halifax would be grateful for such sympathetic consideration as can properly be given to this enquiry.

31st May, 1943.



June 18, 1943


I believe that the Duchess of Windsor should emphatically be denied exemption from censorship.

Quite aside from the more shadowy reports about the activities of this family, it is to be recalled that both the Duke and Duchess of Windsor were in contact with Mr. James Mooney, of General Motors, who attempted to act as mediator of a negotiated peace in the early winter of 1940; that they have maintained correspondence with Bedaux, now in prison in North Africa and under charges of trading with the enemy, and possibly of treasonable correspondence with the enemy; that they have been in constant contact with Axel Wenner-Gren, presently on our Blacklist for suspicious activity; etc. The Duke of Windsor has been finding many excuses to attend to "private business" in the United States, which he is doing at present.

There are positive reasons, therefore, why this immunity should not be granted -- as well as the negative reason that we are not according this privilege to the wife of any American official.

A.A.B., Jr.
Site Admin
Posts: 31999
Joined: Thu Aug 01, 2013 5:21 am

Re: Trading With the Enemy, by Charles Higham

Postby admin » Wed Nov 27, 2013 3:25 am


Abetz, Otto, 11, 25-28, 183-184, 190
Abs, Hermann, 217
Acheson, Dean: at Bretton Woods, 12-15: Davis Oil and, 68; Ford Company and, 161: ITT and, 100: SKF and, 123, 125, 128: Standard Oil and, 40-41,55-57,60-61
Adam-Opel (GM subsidiary), 168,171, 175
Admiral Graf Spee (battleship), 149
Agfa company, 133-134
Agricultura1 Advisory Commission, 3
Aguirre, Ernesto, 108-109
Alba, Duke of, 94
Alba Pharmaceutical Company, 142
Albert, Dr. Heinrich, 95,142,154-160
Aldrich, Winthrop (of Chase National Bank), 20,22-23,25,28-31: BIS and, 12,18-19: SS and, 132
Algiers, BIS in, 10-11
Alien Property Custodian, Office of (see also Crowley, Leo T.): GAF and, 137-139: SKF and, 118,127, 140: Sterling and, 141-142, 151
All-American Cables Office, 104
All Honorable Men (Martin), 217
Allied Military Government, 211-,-212
Allied War Council, 182
Almazan, Juan, 77
Alpa (Nazi firm), 175
Ambruster, Howard, 144-145, 151 152
America and a New World Order (Howard), 166, 215
America First movement, 72, 157
American Agriculturist, The (journal), 3
American Chemical Society, 162
American Cyanamid, 140
American 1.G. Chemical Corp.: Edsel Ford and, 156;GAFand, 131, 133, 134; Standard Oil and, 33-34, 36; succeeded by General Aniline and Film, 36
American Liberty League, 162, 165
American Magazine, 35
American Nazi party, 165
American Red Cross, 18,125
American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T), 94
Anderson, Sir John, 15
Angell, Frank, 193
antiblack and ant-communist movements, Du Pont involvement in, 162,165
anti-Semitism (see also Auschwitz; Jews): at Ford Motor Company, 154-155, 157-158; among German-Americans, 192; at GM, 162, 165, 167-168; at SKF, 121; in U.S. State Department, 85
Antonescu, General Ion, 37
AO (Organization of Germans Abroad), 133,135,189-190
Arabian-American Oil Company (Aramco), 82-85,88-92
Arab Legion, 80
Arab world, Hitler and, 80-81
Aramco, see Arabian-American Oil Company
Armanda Capriles and Company, 104
Arnold, General Henry H. (.'Hap"), 122,213
Arnold, Thurman, 44-53, 152
Asea, 122
Asia and the Americas (journal), 84
Associated Bunds organization, 192
Associated Press, 6
AT&T, 94
Auboin, Roger, 5
Auer, Erhard, 155
Auschwitz: BIS and, 18; GAF and, 131; postwar treatment of, 211, 213
Austria National Bank, gold looted from, 4-5, 210n, 214
Austrian State Opera, 37
aviation fuel, wartime trade in, 34 -36, 52-53,220
Axis powers: Ford and, 159-161; 1TT and, 111-112, 113; Standard Oil and, 43
Azzolini, Vincenzo, 3

Backer, Mrs. Dorothy S. 89
Bahrein, Sheikh of, 84
Bailey, S. P. 28-29
ball bearings, international wartime trade in, 116-129
Banca Commerciale Italiana, 24
Banco Aleman Transatlantico, 26, 122, 150
Bank for International Settlements (BIS), 1-19; at Bretton Woods, 12-19; Bank of England and, 2, 5-9; Bank of France and, 2, 3, 5, 8, 6; Chase Bank and, 2, 12, 17, 18-19, 20; Davis Oil and, 63, 72; Farben and, 145; Ford Motor Company and, 159-160; GAP and, 131-132; GM and, 168-169; ITT and, 95, 96; postwar role of, 210, 214, 218; Standard Oil and, 18, 59
Bankhead, William, funeral of, 86
Bank of Belgium, gold looted from, 1, 8,16-17, 210n
Bank of England, BIS and, 2, 5-9; Czech gold transfer and, 6, 7; Standard Oil and, 59
Bank of France: BIS and, 2, 3, 5, 8, 16; Ford Motor Company and, 160; Hitler and, 183; Standard Oil and, 59; Windsor and, 183
Bank of Italy, 2, 3
Bank of Sweden, 9
Banque de Paris et des Pays-Bas, 22, 24, 184
Banque Francaise et Italienne pour l'Amerique du Sud, 24
Barco pipeline, 76
Barth, Alfred W., 23, 30
Baruch, Bernard, 51
Batt, William L, (of SKF), 116-122, 125-129
Bayer Company, 141-142, 145, 147, 149-152
Beacon Research Laboratory , 78
Beaverbook, Lord, 195, 197
Bedaux, Charles (systems inventor), 165-166, 177, 178-188, 220
Bedaux, Fern Lombard, 179-181,184
Beekrnan, Gustave, 88-89
Beer Business (Germany), control of, 67
Behn, Nando, 107
Behn, Sosthenes (of ITT), 93-96, 98,104,109, 111-115; AO and, 191; GAF and, 137; GM and, 167,171; National City Bank and, 20; post-war role of, 215-216; SKF and, 116-117,121-122; SS and, 132; Standard Oil and, 36
Bennett, Jack, 221
Bensmann, Nikolaus, 77-78, 178
Bentley, Elizabeth, 223
Berge, Wendell, 152
Berger, Bernard, 82
Berle, Adolf A. (of U.S. State Department): Davis Oil and, 68 70; Farben and, 148-149; GM and, 174, 177; Standard Oil and, 39; Windsors and, 183
Bernstein, Colonel Bernard, 219-220
Bertrand, Albert, 25-27, 31
Beyen, J. W., 5,6-7, 12, 13
Beyond Our Shores the World Shall Know Us (RCA), 112
Biddle, Francis (attorney general): AO and, 200-208; Bedaux and, 186-187; Chase Bank and, 28; GAP and, 137-139; Proclaimed List and, 40; Standard Oil and, 40, 45, 48; Sterling and, 151-153; Welles and, 87
BIS, see Bank for International Settlements
Black Legion, 165
Black Luftwaffe, 64
Blair, Frank A., 142
Blume, Hans, 105-106, 108-109
Blume, Kurt, 109
Board of Economic warfare, 43-44, 82, 101
Board of Trade for German-American Commerce, 134
Bofors munitions empire, 117
Bohle, Ernst-Wilhelm, 189n
Boisanger, Yves Breart de, 3, 10
Bone, Senator Homer T., 48-53, 151
Borchers, Dr. Hans, 200
Borchers, Heinrich, 172
Bormann, Martin, 189
Bosch, Carl, 142, 15'5
Bosch company, 118
Brady, William G., Jr., 53
Brasol, Boris, 155
Braun, Miguel, 54
Bretton Woods, 1nternational Monetary Conference at, 12-19
Bretton Woods Act, 15
Brewster, Senator Owen, 87, 89 -90, 214
British-American Chamber of Commerce, 7
British Cable and Wireless, 104-106, 108, 110-111
British 1ntelligence, 35
British Ministry of Economic Warfare, 123
British Purchasing Commission, 120,195, 196-197
Bronson, Richardson, 222
Broun, Heywood, 43
Brown, Edward E. (Ned), 12, 14-15
Brown Brothers, Harriman, 221
Buchman, Frank, 180
Bullitt, William C. (U.S. ambassador to France): Aramco and, 82-83, 85-87; BIS and, 4; GAP and, 138; Standard Oil and, 37; Welles and, 85-87; Windsors and, 180, 183
Burke, Thomas, 106-107
Burrows, Major Charles A., 40-41
Butler, General Smedley, 163-164

Caesar, Hans-Joachim: Bedaux and, 183; Chase Bank and, 20-21, 25-28; Davis and, 67; ITT and, 95
Cahill, John T., 30
California Standard, 76, 84
Caltex, 80-82, 85, 89-92
Canaris, Admiral Wilhelm, 189, 209
Capehart, Senator Homer, 115
Cardenas, Lazaro, 66 -67
Carillo, Alejandro, 66
Carp, Werner, 217
Chamberlain, Neville (British prime minister), 5-6, 181-182, 190
Chase Manhattan Bank (formerly Chase National Bank), 20
Chase National Bank. Bedaux and, 183; BIS and, 2, 12, 17, 18-19, 20; Ford Motor Company and, 160; GAP and, 20, 132, 134; Nazi account of, 20 -31; Rockefeller ownership of, 18-19,20; Standard Oil and, 32, 57; Sterling and, 20
Chemical Company (Farben subsidiary), 133
Chemie (I.G.) (Farben subsidiary), 34, 134, 216,220
Chemnyco (parben subsidiary), 54, 137
Chicago Tribune, Hitler interview in, 155
Churchill, Winston (British prime minister): BIS and, 6: Ibn Saud and, 83, 84; war policy of, 194; Windsor and, 181, 183
Cia Argentinia Comercial de Pesqueria, 54
CIDRA, 103
CIO, 66, 68-69,71-72, 74
Circle of Friends (financiers of the Gestapo), 20, 84, 94, 132
Clark, Bennett C , 88-89
Clark, Charles, 62
Clark, Edward Terry, 143
Clark, Thomas C. (Tom), 75
Clark's Crusaders, 162
Clauson, Pete, 77
Clay, General Lucius D., 213-214, 221-222
Clayton, Will, 98
Clemm, Karl von, 63-65, 67, 71-74
Clemm, Werner von, 63-65, 67, 71-72,74
Cochran, Merle, 4-9
Coffee, John M., 11-12, 168, 183
Cole, Felix, 159-160
Collier, Harry D. (of California Standard), 36, 44, 84 -85; Caltex and, 83; Davis Oil and, 74; Texas Company and, 79
Compagnie Generale, 104
Compania Veracruzana, 72
Condor airline, 39, 41
Coolidge, Calvin, 142-143
Corcoran, David, 146
Corcoran, Thomas (Tommy), 145-146, 151-152
Coudert, Frederic, 8
Council of Twelve, 132, 189
Crockett, Alice, 196
Crowley, Leo T. (alien property custodian): GAF and, 137-140, 215, 216; SKF and, 118; Sterling and, 143, 151
Cuba, GM in, 173
Cummings, Homer S. (attorney general), 79, 135
Currie, Lauchlin (of White House Economic Staff): at Bretton Woods, 18; denounced by HUAC, 223; Ford Motor Company and, 160-161; postwar mission of, 219; SKF and, 119-121, 123-125, 128-129
Curtis Wright Aviation Corporation, 120
Czech National Bank, gold looted from, 1,5-9, 16-17, 210n, 214

Daniell, Raymond, 217-218, 219
DAPG (Standard Oil German subsidiary), 56
Darlan, Jean, 183
Davis, General Robert C., 18, 104, 107-110
Davis, William Rhodes (of Davis Oil Company), 63 74
Davis Oil Company, 63 74; Acheson and, 68; Berle and, 68 70; BIS and, 63,72; Farben and, 63, 65; GM and, 63; ITT and, 95; Texas Company and, 77
Day, Stephen A., 136
Dearborn, Richard J., 51-52,77
Dearborn Independent (Ford news paper), 155
Death's Head Brigade, 132
de Gaulle, General Charles A., 113, 172
Denker, Paul, 214
Deterding, Sir Henri, 33, 65
Deutsche Bank, 214
Deutsche Obersseeische Bank, 26
Deutsche Landersbank, 214,217
De Wolf, Francis, 102-103 diamond trade: Chase Bank and, 24, 28, 30; von Clemms and, 63-65, 67, 71-74
Dickson, George, 97
Dicto (cargo ship), 124
Diesel company, 122
Dillon, Read (bankers), Hitler and, 135, 212
Dinkelbach, Heinrich, 217
Dodd, Thomas E., 17
Dodd, William E., 167
Dodge, Joseph, 213
Dollfuss, Maurice, 157-161
Donovan, William, 98
Draper, Brigadier General William H., 129, 212-215, 219-223
Dresdnerbank, 132, 175, 214
Dulles, Allen (of Sullivan and Cromwell law firm): Chase Bank and, 22; Farben and, 143: Ford and, 154; ITT and, 112-113; postwar role of, 216
Dulles, John Foster (secretary of state; member of Sullivan and Cromwell law firm): Belgian Bank and, 8; Chase Bank and, 22; Farben and, 8, 143; Ford and, 154; GAP and, 139 -140; ITT and, 95; SKF and, 118
Dunnington, Walter G., 79
du Pont, Irenee, 162-163, 165-166
du Pont, Lammot, 142, 162, 165, 179
du Pont, Pierre, 162
Du Pont family: Farben and, 220; FDR overthrow plotted by, 163-165; GAF and, 131; GM and, 162-66; Hitler and, 171, 174; Standard Oil and, 34
Durr, C. J., 102-103, 110
Duvoisin, David, 55, 58
Dwyre, Dudley G., 150

Eastman Kodak. GAP and, 140; ITT and, 98
Eden, Anthony, 12
Edward VIII of England, see Windsor, Duke of
Einzig, Paul, 5 7; In the Center of Things, 7
Eisenhower, General Dwight D.: Bedaux and, 186; North African invasion planned by, 10; postwar policies of, 212-213, 217, 218, 219
Electrolux: Goring and, 67; SKF cand, 117,122
Emanuel, Victor, 139 -140
Epoca (journal), 39
Erca (Nazi firm), 175
Erhardt, Ludwig, 200
Erickson, P. E., 104
Ericsson Company, 102
Esso 4 (Standard Oil's Rhine barge), 56
Ethyl company, 34 -35
European Standard Corporation (ITT in
Eurotank, 63,65, 66, 70, 72, 73
Export-Import Bank, 104

Fahey, Charles, 219
Farben (I.G.) industrial trust (see also Ilgner, Max; Schmitz, Hermann), 130-153; AO and, 189, 193, 196; Auschwitz and, 131; Bedaux and, 178; Berle and, 148-149; B1S and, 145; Chamberlain and, 6; Davis Oil
and, 63,65; Dulles and, 8, 143;
Ford Motor Company and, 33, 142-143, 159; GAP and, 130-141,142,148, 149; GM and, 162, 176, 216; Hitler overthrow plotted by, 194; intelligence network, see N.W.7; ITT and, 96, 113; postwar treatment of, 211-223; Roosevelt letter on, 211; SKF and, 118; Standard Oil and, 33-38, 46-50, 52, 54,56,58,61-62, 216-217,220; 'Statistical Branch', of, 133; Sterling Products and, 135, 141-153; systems of, 178; Texas Company and, 76, 78
Farish, William S., 32, 35-39, 42-53, 55
Farish family, 52-53
Fath, Creekmore, 21-22, 52
FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation; see also Hoover, J. Edgar): AO and, 189, 193-209; Aramco and, 88-1; Bedeaux and, 186-187; Chase Bank and, 24-25; Davis Oil and, 65, 67, 69, 70, 74; GAP and, 134; GM and, 172-174, 176; ITT and, 108,109, 112; sexual deviants pursued by, 86-89
Federal Communications Commission, 102-130, 108-110
Federal Reserve Bank. B1S and, 1-2, 10,11; Belgian gold and, 8; Chase Bank and 31; New York Post financed by, 89; Standard Oil and, 59
Fellgiebel, General Erich, 112-113, 215
Ferguson Commission, 223
Fezandie and Sperrle, 136
Fifth Column, 82, 89
Financial News, 5
First National Bank of Boston, 63
First National Bank of New York, 2
Flack, Joseph, 59
Flynn, Errol, 180
Focke Wulf company: ITT and, 93, 95; postwar disposition of, 220; SKF and, 116
Foley, Edward H., Jr., 41
Ford, Edsel, 154, 156-161; American I.G. and, 156; Farben and, 33; GAP and, 131, 135; ITT and, 97-98; Sterling Products and, 142; trucks sold to enemy by, 55, 159 -60
Ford, Henry, 154-157, 159, 161; AO and, 191,196; BIS and, 159-160;
Farben and, 142-143; Hitler and, 154 -156, 168, 172; International Jew, The, 155; ITT and, 97-98; Standard Oil and, 33
Ford Motor Company, 154-161; Acheson and, 161; anti-Semitism at, 154-155; 157-158; Bank of France and, 160; Bedaux and, 183; Chase Bank and, 160; Farben and, 159; ITT and, 95,97-98; SKF and, 116; systems of, 178
Foreign Economic Administration: GAF and, 139; postwar operation of, 215; SKF and, 121, 127-128
Forrestal, James V.: GAF and, 135; ITT and, 114; postwar policies of, 212: Standard Oil and, 39; suicide of, 210 -211; Texas Company and, 78, 80,83, 85
Fortune magazine, 118
Foxworth, Percy, 198, 201
Franco, Generalissimo Francisco: Chase Bank and, 21; ITT and, 94, 95, 100; Standard Oil and, 59-61; Texas Company and, 76
Frank-Fahle, Gunther, 214
Fraser, Ingram, 195, 196-197
Fraser, Leon, 2, 11, 12, 13
Fraternity, The, defined, xiii-xiv
Freon, GM and, 176
Freudenberg, Richard, 214-215
Friends of New Germany, 191
Funk, Dr. Walther (Reichsbank president): BIS and, 1-2, 4-5, 14, 17, 18; Chase Bank and, 22, 25; Ibn Saud and, 80; ITT and, 96; postwar findings on, 219

GAF, see General Aniline and Film
Gallagher, Ralph W., 53, 58, 59, 61-62
Galopin, Alexandre, 3,8
Gantt, Robert A., 101
General Aniline and Film (GAF); American I.G. and, 36-38, 131, 133, 134; AO and, 192, 196; Auschwitz and, 131; BIS and, 131-132; Chase Bank and, 132, 134; Farben and, 130-141, 142, 148, 149; Ford Motor Company and, 131,135,154,156; GM and, 131, 162; ITT and, 137; postwar status of, 215,216,220, 223; SKF and, 118; Standard Oil and, 139-140; Texas Company and, 78
General Dyestuffs, 137, 139
General Electric, 221
General Motors (see also Mooney, James D.), 162-177; anti-Semitism at, 162, 165, 167-168; Berle and, 174, 177; BIS and, 168-169; in Cuba, 173; Davis Oil and, 63; Farben and, 162, 176, 216; GAF and, 131, 162; ITT and, 95, 97, 167, 170, 171; Standard Oil and, 34; systems of, 178
Georgetown University, Mooney diaries at, 170
Gerard, James W., 58
German-American Bund, 165
German-American Business League, 192
German-American Commerce Association Bulletin, The, 25, 174
German Americans, anti-Semitism among, 192
German Economics Ministry, 130
German Import-Export Corporation, 67
German Secret Service, 135
German TransOcean News Agency, 84
Germany (see also Nazi Germany), postwar reconstruction of, 15-16, 212
Gestapo (see also Himmler, Heinrich; Schellenberg, Walter): AO and, 194, 198, 201;"Bedaux and, 184; BIS and, 2, 7, 17; financing of, 20, 84, 94, 132; Chase Bank and, 20, 23, 27; Davis Oil and, 63; GM and, 174- 75; ITT and, 93, 98-99; postwar treatment of, 214; Schroder (of GAF) and, 132; Texas Company and, 78, 84
GM, see General Motors
Goddard (Theodore) and Company, 204
Goebbels, Dr. Joseph, 38, 190 gold: financiers' emphasis on, 178; Nazi looting of, 1-19, 210, 214, 218-219 good neighbor policy, Standard Oil violation of, 47
Goring, Hermann: art collection of, 27; BIS policy opposed by, 10; Davis
Goring, Herman (Cont.) Oil and, 63-64, 67 72; Ford and, 156; Four-Year Plan of, 131,137;
GM and, 162-163,170-171, 174; ITT and, 94 -95; quoted, 144; SKF and, 116,117, 126; Standard Oil and 33, 37-38: Texas Company and, 76; Windsors and, 181
Gorman, Francis J., 181
Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, 80-82, 84
Grasselli company, 142
Gray, William Steele, Jr., 79
Great Britain and the World (journal), 84
Griffis, Stanton, 125-126, 129
Grobba, Dr. Fritz, 84
Grube, Colonel Wilhelm, 101
Guernsey, diamond smuggling in, 24
Guffey, Senator Joseph F., 66,72
Gunther, Christian E., 123
Gyssling, George, 200

Hackworth, Green H., 41-42
Hague Memorandum, 36-37
Halbach, Ernest K., 136-141, 216, 220
Halifax, Lord, 177,190, 194-195, 197
Hallauer, Martin, 110
Hamberg, Harald, 125-126
Hamilton, Duke of, 180
Hardy Bank, 71
Harriman, Averell, 221
Hams, Henry Upham, 79
Hamson, Earl G., 152
Harrison, Leland (U.S. minister to Switzerland): Davis Oil and, 74; GM and, 176; Standard Oil and, 55, 57-58
Haslam, R. T., 61, 216
Havero Trading Company, 104
Hawkins, Phillips, 222
Hayes, Carlton J. H., 59-60, 100
Hayes, George W., 109-111
Healey, James E, Jr., 30-31
Hefferich, Emil, 20
Heider, Carl von, 214
Hemisphere Communications Committee, 101-102
Henggler, Henri, 55
Hertslet, Joachim G. A., 67-70
Hess, Rudolf, 180, 198-199
Hill, James J., 79, 147-148
Himmler, Heinrich (Gestapo chief): AO and, 189, 194, 196, 198, 201; Bedaux and, 179-180; BIS and, 17; Chase Bank and, 20; Davis Oil and, 63,65,68,69: GAP and, 132: GM and, 168, 175: ITT and, 98-99,113
Hitler, Adolf. AO and, 189-91, 194, 196, 198-199; B1S and, 2, 10; Chase Bank and, 21,25; Davis Oil and, 65, 68-69; Du Ponts and, 171, 174; Farben and, 194; Ford and, 154-156, 168, 172; France and, 181, 183: GAP and, 132; GE and, 221; GM and, 162,166,170-171, 173; Hohenlohe and, 200-201; Ibn Saud and, 80- 3, 85; ITT and, 94-95, 98-99, 112-113; Jewish financial aid to, 135: Jewish power as viewed by, 80-81; Lindbergh and, 157: Mein Kampf, 155; plots against, 9-10, 113, 189, 194; Standard Oil and, 34-35; Windsors and, 178, 180,182
Hoagland, Warren E., 41-42
Hoefken-Hempel, Anny, 180
Hohenlohe, Princess Mabel, 193
Hohenlohe, Princess Stefanie, 189 208: husband of, 191
Holland National Bank, gold looted from, 1, 16-17, 210n
Holt, Senator Rush D., 73, 136 homosexuality, public officials charged with, 86-89
Hoover, Herbert: AO and, 197; Farben and, 142, 143; GAF and, 131; postwar report of, 222-223
Hoover, J. Edgar (See also FBI): AO and, 193-195, 198-209; Aramco and, 86-89: Bedaux and, 186; Chase and, 24-25; Davis Oil and, 68 70; Farben and, 148-149; GM and, 172-174; homosexuality imputed to, 86; ITT and, 97, 112; Windsor and, 181-182
Hopkins, Harry L, 81, 138
hops, German franchise in, 67
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), 223
Howard, Frank A., 36-38,45, 47, 52, 53, 54, 61
Howard, Graeme K., 166, 174,215
Hubbard, Father Bernard R., 133-134
Hudek, Karel, 96-97
Hull, Cordell (secretary of state): Bedaux and, 186; BIS and, 4,8,14; Chase and, 29; Davis Oil and, 69; Farben and, 211; GM and, 172, 176-177; ITT and, 96, 98, 109; Standard Oil and, 38, 39, 41, 43, 54, 57-61; Welles and, 87
Hull, Lyttle, 195, 199
Hungary, BIS loans to, 9

lbn Saud, Abdul-Aziz, 80-85, 90
Ickes, Harold L. (secretary of the interior): Aramco and, 83-85;GM and, 172; Standard Oil and, 42-49, 53- 54, 60-61; Texas Company and, 78; Windsors and, 183
I.G., See American I.G. Chemical Corp.; Chemie (I.G.); Farben
(I.G.) industrial trust
llgner, Max (of Farben): AO and, 189, 192; GAF and, 131, 133, 141, 143-144; postwar role of, 211, 213; Texas Company and, 77-78
Ilgner, Rudolf, 133-134, 136, 137, 211
Immigration and Naturalization Service, 187-188, 195-197, 199, 203-207
Imperial Chemical Industries, 6
Industria Electre-Ace Palngt, 103
In Fact (newsletter), 168
1ngles, Major General Harry C., 115
Inglessi, Jean, 56-58
International Jew, The (Henry Ford), 155
International Monetary Conference (Bretton Woods, 1944), 12-19
International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation (ITT; see also Behn, Sosthenes; Westrick, Gerhardt), 93- 95; Acheson and, 100; B1S and 95, 96; Chase Bank and, 20; Davis Oil Company and, 95; Farben and, 96, 113; Ford Motor Company and, 95, 97-98; GAP and, 137; GM and, 95,97, 167, 170, 171; Nazi arrangement with, 98; postwar role of, 216, 220, 222; SKF and, 116, 122; SS and, 132; Standard Oil and, 36, 95, 113; Sterling and, 95, 97; systems of, 178; U.S. arrangement with, 100
International Trading Company, 24
In the Center of Things (Einzig), 7
Inverforth, Lord, 65
Iran, Hitler and, 81
Iraq, Hitler and, 81-85
Italcable, 104, 107
ITT, see International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation Jackson, Robert H. (attorney general): AO and, 198, 200, 202; Davis Oil and, 69; GAP and, 137; at Nuremberg,210

Jacobs, John R., Jr., 50.52
Japan: American and British wartime trade with, 11-12, 34-35; BIS in, 11, 96; ITT in, 113; RCA in, 113; Standard Oil in 34-35, 47
Jews (see also anti-Semitism; Auschwitz); Arab and German hatred for, 80-81; Chase Bank and, 25, 27; gold looted from, 1, 16- 18; Hitler's financial aid from, 135; Hitler view on power of, 80-85
Johnson, Herschel, 123, 125, 128-129
Jones, Jesse H. (secretary of commerce): Davis Oil and, 74,81, 90-92; ITT and, 101c-Roosevelt and, 81; SKF and, 120; Standard Oil and, 40, 43, 44, 46, 47
Jones, Walter A., 66
Judson, Franklin S., 121
Junkers propulsion systems, GM and, 175
Justiano, Mario, 149-150

Kaufman, Samuel H., 91-92
Keilhau, Wilhelm, 12
Kennedy, Joseph J. (U. S .ambassador to England). GM and, 168-170; Standard Oil and, 36; Windsors and, 181
Kennedy, Robert F., 223
Keppler, William, 84, 94, 132
Kern, Gordon, 220
Keynes, John Maynard, 12, 14-15
Keynes, Lydia Lopokova, 12, 14
Khalid Al-Hud Al Qarqarni, 80
Kilgore, Senator Harley, 215, 218-222
Killinger, Baron Manfred von, 167-168
Kimball, Harry M., 201
Kirby, John Henry, 166
Knapp, Lawrence, 103
Knieren, August von, 61
Knowlton, Hugh, 102-103, 109-110
Knox, Franklin (secretary of the navy), 45-46
Knudsen, William S (GM president), 163,165-166
Kohn, Charles, 143
Krauch, Carl (of Farben), 130; Ford and, 155-158; GM and, 162
Kreuger, Kurt, 214
Kreuter, Alexander, 220
Krupp Works: early Nazi financing by, 162; GE and, 221; Goring's Four Year Plan and, 131; postwar influence of, 222, 223; Standard Oil and, 56
Kugler, Hans, 214
Ku Klux Klan, 165
Kupper, Gustave, 214

Ladd, D. M., 202-203
La Follete, Senator Robert M. , Jr., 49-50
Lamont, Thomas, 164
Landon, Alfred M., 165
Langer, Senator William, 90
Lapham, John H., 79
Larkin, Joseph J. , 20-31
L.A.T.I. airline, 38-39, 52, 71, 201
Laval, Pierre, 185-186
La Varre, William, 38-39, 140
Lee, Higginson and Co., 7
Lee, Ivy, 33-34
Lee, Senator Josh, 72-73
Leibowitz, Samuel, 88-89
Lend-Lease program, 47, 73, 81
Leopoldskron Castle, 191
Lerner, Max, 188
Lesto, George, 158-159
Les Trois Rois, 9
Levinson, Charles, 175-176, 177
Lewis, John L., 66, 68-69, 71-72, 74
Liberty magazine, 178
Life magazine, 77
Lilienfeld company, 161
Lindbergh, Charles, 72, 157, 196, 200
Lindemann, Karl, 20, 93, 113, 217
Lindsay, Sir Ronald, 1 81
Link, The, 179, 182
Lionel (cargo ship), 124
Lipkowitz, Irving, 49 -50
Littell, Norman, 45, 146, 151-153
Little, John, 207-208
London bombing, Standard Oil and, 34 -35
London New Chronicle, 122
Long, Breckinridge ( assistant secretary of state): AO and, 203; Ford Motor Company and, 158, 160; ITT and, 99-100, 106-111
Lublin company, 18
Luer, Carl, 175
Luftwaffe: SKF and, 116; Standard Oil and, 34-36
Lundeen, Ernest, 136

MacArthur, General Douglas, 164
MacGuire, Gerald, 163-164
Mack, John E., 138
Maloney, William Power, 91-92
Man Called Intrepid, A (Stevenson), 73-74, 193-194
Manchester Guardian, The, 157
Mann, Henry, 94
Mann, Rudolf, 144, 146
Mann, Wilhelm, 141
Markham, James E., 140
Marks, U.S. wartime sale of, 23, 30
Marshall, Verne, 72
Martin, James Stewart, 215-223; All Honorable Men. 217
McClintock, Earl, 141-142, 145-146, 148, 150
McGarrah, Gates W., 2
McGohey, John F. X., 30
McGowan, Sir Harry, 182
McGuire, Matthew F., 198-202
Mc1ntyre, Marvin, 87
McKittrick, Thomas H., 1-2, 7-20, 210; family of, 7, 13
McLarin, H. M., 54
Meader, George, 220-222
Meili, E. H., 23
Mein Kampf (Hitler), 155
Messersmith, George S., 70,166-167, 173 methanol, wartime restrictions on, 52
Mexican Telephone and Telegraph, 101-102
Mexico, Davis Oil Company of, 63-75
Meyer, Emil, 7
Meyer, Julius P., 134
Middle East Supply center, 82
Milch, General Erhard, 190
Miles, Sherman, 194
Miller, Colonel Francis P., 221
Mills, Sir Percy, 214
Mitchell, Charles E., 131
Moffett, James, 79 -81, 89 -92
Moll, Alfredo E., 136, 139, 143
Moll, Jose O., 161
Monckton, Sir Walter, 183
money world community, Schacht's concept of, 130
Montgomery, General Bernard, 54
Mooney, James D. (GM European head), 97, 166-177, 194
Moral Rearmament Movement, 180
Morgan, Grenfell, 168
Morgan, J.P., 94
Morgan Bank, 27, 163-164, 168, 183
Morgan family, 2
Morgenthau, Elinor, 3, 14
Morgenthau, Henry (secretary of the treasury): BIS and, 3-8, 11; at Bretton Woods, 13-15; Chase Bank and, 24-25, 28-30; Davis Oil and, 68, 71, 74; Farben and, 147-149; Ford Motor Company and, 160-161; GAF and, 137
Morgenthau, Henry (Cant.) 139; GM and, 176; ITT and, 99, 101; postwar work of, 212, 223; SKF and, 119- 21, 128; Standard Oil and, 36, 40, 41, 42, 55, 57; Windsors and, 183
Morgenthau Plan, 212
Mouvement Synarchique Revolutionnaire, 27
Muccio, John J., 39, 54
Munn, Gurnee, 193
Murphy, Robert D., 10, 186, 212, 214-215
Mussolini, Benito, 69, 80

Nation, The, 89,139,187, 188
National Cash Register, 222
National City Bank of New York (NCB). Chase and, 20, 25: Davis Oil and, 63; Farben and, 141, 146-147; GAF and, 131,134,137, 139; ITT and, 20,94, 106, 110; SKF and, 121
National Council of Clergymen and Laymen, 166
National War Labor Board, 48
Nazi Germany (See also Germany): American and British wartime trade with, 11-12; Chase Bank and, 20- 31; ITT and, 98, 110-113: marks sold in U.S. by, 22-24; RCA in, 113
Nazi Winter Help Fund, 104
NBC, 104-105
NCB, see National City Bank of New York
Nelson, Donald, 118
Neutrality Act, 69
Newcomer, Dr. Mabel, 13
Newsom, Earl, 53
New York Daily News, 97
New York Evening Mail, 142
New York Guaranty Trust Bank, 27
New York Post, 88-89
New York Sun, 198
New York Times, The, 31,47, 59,60, 61, 96-97, 111, 151, 161
New York World, 2
Niedermann, Carlos, 25-29
Niemeyer, Sir Otto, 7-9
Nippon Electric Company, 102
Nixon, Russell A., 212-215, 219
No Foreign Wars Committee, 72-73
Noramco, 215
Norman, Montagu, 5-8, 182
North African invasion, B1S and, 10-11
Norway: at Bretton Woods, 12, 18; SKF strike in, 128
Nuremberg trials, 17-18, 153, 209, 210
N.W.7. (Farben spy network), 39, 133-131, 141, 213
Nye, Gerald P., 88

Oberg, Major General Karl, 185
O'Dwyer, William, 88
Office of Economic Programs, 120
Office of Strategic Services (OSS), 22, 125, 216
O Globo (Brazilian newspaper), 201
Ohnesorge, Wilhelm, 98-99, 112-113, 175,184
oil, international wartime trade in. by Davis Oil Company, 73; by Standard Oil, 37-38, 52-62; by Texas Company, 77-85
OKW (Nazi armed forces high command), 112
Opel works (GM subsidiary), 162, 167-168, 171, 175
Oppenheimer, Waldemar, Baron von, 84
Organization of Germans Abroad, See AO
Orient Gruppe, 190
O'Rourke, Joseph, 206
OSS, see Office of Strategic Services
Oursler, Fulton, 178
Ozalid company, 133

Pajus, Jean, 120,122,128-129
Panama: Chase Bank in, 24, 30-31; SKF vessels registered in, 121-122; Standard Oil German ships registered in, 39
Pan American Airways, 71, 76-77
Papen, Franz von, 84,132
Paramount Studios, 125
Patents for Hitler (Reimann), 21
Patterson, Robert P., 124, 127-128, 221
Patton, General George S., 212, 218
Paul, Randolph, 11
peanut oil, North African pipeline for, 184
Pearson, Drew, 97, 198-199
Pease, H. M., 104
Pell, Hamilton, 74
penicillin, trading of, 222
Perkins, Milo R., 40
Petain, Marshal Henri, 85, 183-184
Peters, Carl, 215
Petrola (Swiss syndicate), 56
Petroleum Times, The, 216
Phillips Milk of Magnesia, Farben and, 141
Pico I and Pico II (Danube barges), 56
Pieper, N.J.L., 194, 199
Pillsbury, Colonel E. I., 213
Pincemin, Henri, 108
Pinkerton Agency, 166
pipeline, North African, 184
PM, 13,126-127,139, 188
Poland, BIS loans to, 9
police power, financiers' emphasis on, 178-179
Poole, Charles, 165
Portugal, wartime trading in, 25
Poteat, Douglas, 125-126
Potsdam Agreement, sabotage of, 218-219
Pratt-Whitney, SKF and, 121
Probst, Otto, 66-67
Proclaimed List: ITT and, 103-104; SKF and, 116, 119, 126, 128; Standard Oil and, 40, 59; Sterling and,149- 152
Pucheu, Pierre, 10, 159-160
Puhl, Emil (of BIS), 1-2,4-5,7,8,11, 16-19; Chase.:Ind, 20-22,25-26, 29; Davis Oil and, 67; GM and, 168- 169; Ibn Saud and, 80-81; ITT and, 94, 95; postwar findings on, 219 Puleston, Lieutenant James, 124-125
PYL (Chile radio station), 105-106

Quebec Conference, 212

Rachid Ali El-Kilani, 84
Radiobras, 106, 110
Raeder, Admiral Erich, 67
Raskob, John Jacob, 162
RCA (Radio Corporation of America), 101, 104-105, 107-115; Beyond Our Shores the World Shall Know Us, 112
Reagan, Daniel, 55-57
Redman, Joseph R., 114-115
Reed, Philip D., 221
Reichsbank: BIS and, 1-2, 4, 7, 8-9, 11, 16-17; Chase Bank and, 20-23, 25, 29; Davis Oil and, 65; Ibn Saud and, 80; ITT and, 96; postwar treatment of, 214, 219; SKF and, 117
Reimann, Gunther, Patents for Hitler, 21
Reinhardt, Max, 191
Remington company, 165
Ribbentrop, Joachim von (Nazi foreign minister): AO and, 191; Arab world and, 80; Davis Oil and, 63; GAF and, 135-136; GM and, 168, 172; ITT and, 95-96
Richter, George, 108
Riddleberger, John, 174
Rieber, Torkild "Cap" (of Texas Company), 76-79; GM and, 171; 1TT and, 95-97; as Nazi-English go between, 194
Riefter, Winfield, 123
Ringer, Fritz, 36-37
Rio Conference, 107
Rios, Fernando de los, 21
Rockefeller, Avery, 22
Rockefeller, John D., 20,32
Rockefeller, John D. II, 48-49, 53
Rockefeller, Nelson, 39-40, 59n, 101
Rockefeller family: BIS and, 2; Chase National Bank and, 18-20; corporations owned by, 20; Nazi government and, 20-31; Standard Oil and, 32, 45,49
Rodd, Francis, 16&-169
Rodgers, William Starling Sullivant, 79-80, 83-85, 91-92
Rogers, Edward S., 143
Rogge, O. John, 74 75
Rommel, General Erwin (German commander in Africa), 81; Ford trucks used by, 159-160; pipeline for use of, 184
Roosevelt, Eleanor, 3, 181,208
Roosevelt, Franklin D.: AO and, 197, 203-204, 208; Aramco and, 78, 81, 83, 84, 86-87, 88, 90-91; Baruch and, 51; Davis Oil and, 66, 68-72; Farben and, 211; GAF and, 135, 137-138, 140; GM and, 163-164, 169- 72; Ickes and, 42-44; 47-48; ITT and, 101, 113: Morgenthau and, 3; Nazi consulates and, 199; plots against, 71-72,163-165; postwar plans of, 211-212, 223; SKF and, 121; Sterling and, 152-153; Welles and, 86-87; Windsors and, 181-182
Rooth, Ivar, 9
Rosen, Hugo von (Goring cousin), 116-122, 126, 128-129
Rothermere, Lord, 190-192, 199, 206
Royal Air Force (RAF). Ford Motor Company bombed by, 158-160; royalties paid to Nazi Germany by, 35
Royal Dutch Shell Group, 33, 216
Royalist party, Hitler overthrow planned by, 194
Ruark, Robert, 208
rubber, international wartime trade in, 36, 51-52, 220
Rubber Reserve Company, 51-52
Rubinstein, Serge, 72, 74
Riickwanderer scheme, 23, 30
Rumanian Iron Guard, Farben and, 37
Rumely, Edward A., 142

Sacks, Alexander, 223
Sahara, plans for development of, 184-185
Sanders, Alexander, 216
Sandstede, Gottfried, 201
Sarnoff, Colonel David, 105, 107-110
Saudi Arabia, oil deals with, 80-85, 90
Savourin, C. F., 59
Schacht, Hjalmar Horace Greeley (Nazi minister of economics; Reichsbank president). B1S and, 1-2; Davis Oil and, 65; GAF and, 130; GM and, 167; Hitler overthrow plotted by, 9-10; at Nuremberg, 210; policies and beliefs of, 10, 13-14; world money community concept of, 130
Schecklin, Commander George, 108
Schellenberg, Walter (SD head): AO and, 189; GAP and, 132-133; Hitler overthrow plotted by, 194; Ibn Saud and, 84; ITT and, 93,98-99,112-113; Windsors and, 183
Schmidt, Orvis A., 15-18
Schmitz, Dietrich, 97, 131, 133-134, 137, 211
Schmitz, Hermann (Farben joint chairman), 141-142, 145-146; AO and, 189, 191; Bedaux and, 179; BIS and, 2, 4, 5, 11; Davis Oil and, 63, 65; Ford and, 157; GAP and, 130-134, 136-137; GM and, 162-163; Hitler and, 216; postwar status of, 211, 217-218, 222;
Standard Oil and, 33-35, 37-38; Texas Company and, 77
Schofield, Major Lemuel, 188, 195-208
Schroder, Baron Bruno von, 20, 22
Schroder, Baron Kurt von: Arab oil and, 84; Bedaux and, 180, 186; BIS and, 2, 4, 7, 10-11, 16; Chase Bank and, 22; Davis Oil and, 65; Farben and, 145; Ford and, 155; GAF and, 131-132; GM and, 163; ITT and, 93-95, 98-99
Schroder, Rockefeller and Company, Investment Bankers: Bedaux and, 180; Chase and, 22-24; Davis Oil and, 63; Ford Motor Company and, 159; Standard Oil and, 49
Schroder (1. Henry) Bank: Chase Bank and, 22-24; Davis Oil and, 63; Farben and, 145; GAF and, 139-140
SD (Gestapo counterintelligence service; See also Schellenberg, Walter), 132-133, 190
Sears, Roebuck, 118
Securities and Exchange Commission
(SEC), 34-35, 121, 145
(SECC) Securities and Exchange Control Commission, 149-150
Selbourne, Lord, 123-124
Seldes, George, 168
Separator company, 122
SFI (Farben subsidiary), 147
SGE, see Standard Gas and Electric
Shell Oil Company, 33, 65
Siemens company, 104, 108, 122
Siering, Werner, 148-149
Siling, Phillip, 108
Simon, Sir John, 5-6, 10
Singer sewing machine company, 222
SKF (Swedish Enskilda Bank), 116, 129; Acheson and, 123, 125, 128; anti-Semitism at, 121; Chase Bank and, 20; Farben and, 118; Ford and, 116; GAP and, 118; ITT and, 116, 122
Sloan, Alfred P., 53, 162, 166, 174
Smit, Leonard J., 24, 28-30
Smith, Congressman Al (of Wisconsin), 152-153
Smith, Ben, 181
Smith, Gerald L. K., 166
Smith, Lawrence, 102
Social Justice magazine, 179n
Sorenson, Charles E., 159, 161
South America, international wartime trade in: by ITT, 101-111; by SKF, 121-122; by Standard Oil, 39-54; by Sterling Products, 142; Welles's knowledge of, 85
Spaatz, General Carl, 122-123
Spain, Chase Bank in, 21, 25
Spencer, Richard, 221
SS, 18, 132, 168
Standard Electrica, 100
Standard Gas and Electric (SGE), 139, 140
Standard Oil, 32-63 Acheson and, 40-41, 55-57, 60-61; American
Standard Oil (Cont.) I.G. and, 33-34,36: Bank of England and, 59; Bank of France and, 59: Berie and, 39: B1S and, 18, 34, 59; Chase Bank and, 32, 57: Farben and, 33-38, 46-50, 52, 54, 56, 58, 61-62, 216-217, 220: GAF and, 139-140; Hitler plot and, 113: ITT and, 36, 95, 113; SS and, 132: systems of, 178
Standard Oil of California, 76, 131
Standard Oil of New Jersey, 20, 22, 25, 131
Starnes, C R., 51
Stein (J. H.) Bank of Cologne, 2, 63, 131-132, 145
Stephenson, Sir William, A Man Called Intrepid, 73-74, 193
Sterling Dyestuffs, 142
Sterling Products. Chase Bank and, 20: Farben and, 135, 141-153: Ford family and, 142: ITT and, 95, 97: systems of, 178
Stewart, James B., 172-173
Stimson, Henry L. (secretary of war), 124, 134, 145-146
Stockholm Enskilda, 117
Stockton, Kenneth, 113
Stone, I.F., 58, 139-140, 151, 188
Strakosch, Sir Henry, 6
Strauss, George, 5-6, 10
Strezlin, Harvey, 88
Stuart, Sir Campbell, 108-109
Stulpnagel, General Otto von, 184
Sullivan and Cromwell law firm, 8, 22, 154
Sulton, Lt. General Dan 1,221
Sweden: GM in, 176; SKF and government of, 116-117
Swedish Enski1da Bank, See SKF
Swint, Wendell R., 162
Swiss National Bank, 13, 16-18, 218-220
Swiss Standard, 54-59
Swope, Herbert Bayard, 195, 197 synthetic rubber agreements, postwar findings on, 220

Talmade, Eugene D., 166
Tamm, Edward A., 199-201, 207
Tawresey, J S., 121
Teagle, Walter C. (Standard Oil chairman), 32-35, 37, 43-45, 47-50, 53, 59: AO and, 191; Bedaux and, 179- 180: family of, 52-53; Farben and 142: GAF and, 131, 135: Schacht and, 65; ship named for, 36; SS and, 132
Telefunken, 104
Telegrafica y Telefonica del Plata
(TTP), 104-105
Telephone and Radio (ITT Swiss and Spanish subsidiary), 100-101
tetraethyl lead, international trading in, 34-35, 216, 220
Texas Company, 76 79, 84, 95, 97, 178
Texas Oil of Arizona, 77
Thayer, Phillip W., 149
Thiele, General Fritz, 99, 113, 215
Thomsen, Hans, 97, 135, 172, 195
Thornburg, Max, 44
time and motion study, effects of, 178
Time magazine, 22
Tippleskirsch, Baron von, 167-168
Titanic, Sarnoff and, 105
T-men (U .S. Treasury agents), 218-220
Tobey, Charles W., 13
Toledano, Vincente Lombardo, 66
Trading with the Enemy Act, 30, 42., 100, 158
Transradio Consortium, 18, 104-110
Trans-Saharan Railway, 184
Truman, Harry S: Aramco and, 90: Farben and, 146: postwar policies of, 212, 220, 221, 222, 223; Standard Oil and, 46-49, 53; Welles and, 87; Wheeler and, 75
TTP, See Telegrafica y Telefonica del Plata
Tuck, S. Pinkney, 185
Tungsten, international trade in, 60-61, 221
Tyler, L. L., 173-174

U-boats, SKF and, 116
Underwood company, 98
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(USSR): Farben postwar status in, 220; Hitler and, 80-81
United River Plate Telephone Company, 103
U.S. Army Signal Corps, 220
U.S. Censorship Office, 120
U.S. Coast Guard, 204-205
U.S. Commerce Department (see also Jones, Jesse H.): GAF and, 140; Standard Oil and, 40
U.S. Commercial Company, 98, 101, 103,109-110
U.S. House of Representatives: GAF and, 135-136; Un-American Ac tivities Committee of, 223
U.S. Interior Department (see also Ickes, Harold L.), 42-49, 53-54, 60-61
U.S. Justice Department (see also Ar- nold, Thurman; Biddle, Francis; Cummings, Homer S.): AO and, 197- 198; Chase Bank and, 28; Standard Oil and, 44-49; Texas Company and, 90
U.S. Military Government Cartel Unit (.5ee also Nixon, Russell), 212, 220
U.S. Military Intelligence: FBI and, 186; GAP and, 132;ITTand, 112; Standard Oil and, 39
U.S. Naval Intelligence, homosexual brothel raided by, 88
U.S. Navy Department (see also Knox, Franklin): SKF and, 127; Texas Company and, 90
U.S. Senate, 135-136; Antitrust Committee, 49-50; Defense Committee, 146; Military Affairs Committee, 18; Patents Committee, 48-53, 151; War Investigation Committee, see Kilgore, Harley
U.S. State Department (see also Acheson, Dean; Berle, Adolf; Dulles, John Foster; Hull, Cordell; Welles, Sumner): anti-Semitism in, 85; GAP and, 134; postwar role of, 220; SKF and, 127; Standard Oil and,41-42
U.S. Steel Corporation, postwar influence of, 222
U.S. Treasury Department (see alsoMorgenthau, Henry): BIS and, 18; Chase Bank and, 28; GAP and, 137- 38; postwar activities of, 218-220, 223; SKF and, 127; Standard Oil and, 40-41
U.S. War Department (see also Stimson, Henry L.): SKF and, 127; Standard Oil and, 40-41

Valtin, Jean, 198
Vanderbilt, Harold S., 2
Vatican: North African invasion and, 11; Roosevelt and, 170
Vichy Algiers, Ford plant in, 159 160
Vichy France, Hitler and, 181
Vodka-Cola (Levinson), 175-176
Volkswagen, GM and, 168
Voorhis, Congressman Jerry: BIS and, 11; Sterling and, 152-153; Windsors and, 183

Wachter, W. B., 176
Waldman, Henry, 60
Wallace, Henry, 44,82-83, 101
Wallenberg, Jacob, 102, 117, 122, 124-125, 129
Wallenheim, Baroness Ingrid von, 96
Wall Street Journal, The, 118
Walsh, David I, 82-83, 88-89
War Petroleum Board, 43, 48, 49, 55
War Production Board, 116, 118-121
Warren, Fletcher, 172-173
Washington Post, The, 126
Washington Times Herald, 201
Watson, Major General Edwin M. ("Pa"), 68, 87, 181-182
Weber, Ernst, 13, 16
Webster, Edwin S. , 157
Wehrle, Erna, 67-68, 70, 74
Weiss, William E., 33, 97, 135, 141, 148
Weizsucker, Baron Ernst von, 182
Welles, Sumner (of State Department) GM and, 171,174; policies of, 85; at Rio Conference, 107; sex problems of, 86-87; Standard Oil and, 39,60
Wenner-Gren, Axel (of Electrolux): Goring and, 67, 74; 1TT and, 102; as Nazi-English go-between, 194; SKF and, 117, 122; Windsors and, 177
Western Electric, 114
West India Oil Company, 54
Westrick, Gerhardt (ITT chief in Germany), 93-99, 103, 113, 115; Ford and, 154-156, 158; GM and, 171- 172; postwar activities of, 215-216, 220; Texas Company and, 79
Weygand, Maxime, 184
Wheeler, Senator Burton K.: GM and, 168; isolationism of, 88-90; ITT and, 113-115; Nazi sympathies of, 71-73, 75 ,200
White, Harry Dexter (assistant secretary of the treasury): B1S and, 4, 12, 13, 15; Chase Bank and, 25-26, 28, 30; HUAC and, 223; 1TT and, 101; Morgenthau Plan and, 212; Standard Oil and, 42
White, William Allen, 136
Wiedemann, Fritz (Nazi diplomat): AO and, 189-202, 206, 209; Bedaux and, 178,180; GAP and, 133; ITT and, 96
Wilkinson, H. A., 82
Williamson, Hugh, 137, 220
Willkie, Wendell, 2, 72
Winant, John G. (U.S. ambassador to England): BIS and, 8; Ford Motor Company, 161; GM and 176; ITT and, 100-101; postwar role of, 212; SKF and, 122-123; Standard Oil and, 57
Winchell, Walter, 97, 197, 202
Windsor, Duke and Duchess of, 117, 177, 178-183, 191
Wingquist, Sven, 117, 122
Winter, Eduard, 172, 174-175
Winterbottom, W. A., 108-111
Winthrop Chemical, 140, 141-142
Wiseman, Sir William, 193-197, 203
Witty, Fred C., 31
Wohlthat, Helmuth, 67, 70, 168-171
Wojahn, Max, 143-144, 147
wolfram, international trade in, 60 61
Wolverine Republican League, 165
Wood, Sir Kingsley, 10, 57
Worms Bank: Bedaux and, 180, 183; BIS and, 10; Chase and, 22; Ford and, 157, 159-160; postwar activities of, 220
Wyzanski, Charles E., 61-62

Yalta Conference, 212
Yingling, R.T., 99-100
Young, Owen D., 2

Zech-Burkersroda, Count, 182
Zingg, Gustav, 40, 59
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Re: Trading With the Enemy, by Charles Higham

Postby admin » Wed Nov 27, 2013 3:26 am

In 1932, Schmitz joined forces with Kurt von Schroder, director of the BIS and the enormously wealthy private bank, J.H. Stein, of Cologne, Germany. Schroder was a fanatical Nazi. On the surface he was suave, elegant, impeccably dressed, with a clean-cut face. In private he was a dedicated leader of the Death's Head Brigade. During the war he could be seen driving from his office in his sober pinstripe, changing into a black and silver uniform covered in decorations, and continuing to a meeting by torchlight of his personal storm troopers. It was this SS man who was most closely linked to Winthrop Aldrich of the Chase Bank, Walter Teagle of Standard Oil, Sosthenes Behn of ITT, and the other American members of The Fraternity. In 1933, at his handsome villa in Munich, Schroder arranged the meeting between Hitler and von Papen that helped lead to Hitler's accession to power in the Reichstag.

Also in 1932, Hitler's special economic advisor Wilhelm Keppler joined Schroder in forming a group of high-ranking associates of The Fraternity who could be guaranteed to supply money to the Gestapo. They agreed to contribute an average of one million marks a year to Himmler's personally marked "S" account at the J. H. Stein Bank, transferable to the secret "R" Gestapo account at the Dresdnerbank in Berlin.


Librarian's Comment:

Dr. Strangelove Or: How I Learned To Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb, directed by Stanley Kubrick
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Re: Trading With the Enemy, by Charles Higham

Postby admin » Wed Nov 27, 2013 3:26 am

On March 29, 1933, Farben's Max Ilgner -- by now a Nazi officer in Gestapo uniform -- sent a message to Max Wojahn, Sterling export manager for South America, which read, in part: "You are asked to refrain from objecting to 'indecencies' committed by our [Nazi] government. ... Immediately upon receipt of this letter, you are to contribute to the spread of information best adapted to the conditions of your country and to the editors of influential papers, or by circulars to physicians and customers; and particularly to that part of our letter which states that in all the lying tales of horror [about Germany] there is not one word of truth."
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Re: Trading With the Enemy, by Charles Higham

Postby admin » Wed Nov 27, 2013 3:27 am

"A clique of U.S. industrialists is hell-bent to bring a fascist state to supplant our democratic government and is working closely with the fascist regime in Germany and Italy. I have had plenty of opportunity in my post in Berlin to witness how close some of our American ruling families are to the Nazi regime. On [the ship] a fellow passenger, who is a prominent executive of one of the largest financial corporations, told me point blank that he would be ready to take definite action to bring fascism into America if President Roosevelt continued his progressive policies." -- U.S. Ambassador to Germany William E. Dodd
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