House of Bush, House of Saud, by Craig Unger

"Science," the Greek word for knowledge, when appended to the word "political," creates what seems like an oxymoron. For who could claim to know politics? More complicated than any game, most people who play it become addicts and die without understanding what they were addicted to. The rest of us suffer under their malpractice as our "leaders." A truer case of the blind leading the blind could not be found. Plumb the depths of confusion here.

Re: House of Bush, House of Saud, by Craig Unger

Postby admin » Wed Nov 27, 2013 5:32 am

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Re: House of Bush, House of Saud, by Craig Unger

Postby admin » Wed Nov 27, 2013 5:35 am

INDEX

Abdel Rahman, Sheikh Omar, 57n, 102,
105, 147-48, 150
Abdul Aziz, king of Saudi Arabia, 3,
21-22, 26n, 31, 59, 83, 89, 100
Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz, Crown
Prince, 87, 158, 176, 189, 219,
235-36, 241-45, 261, 279
Abdulrahman bin Abdul Aziz, Prince,
89n
Abedi, Agha Hasan, 30-32, 77-78, 120
Abouhalima, Mahmoud, 150
Abrams, Elliott, 211n, 275-76
Abramson, Jill, 120-21
Abu-Hamad, Aziz, 137-38
Aburish, Said K., 83n, 86, 166n
Adham, Sheikh Kamal, 52, 78, 101,
125
Afghanistan War, 97-112
Arab fighters in, 16, 99-105, 143-44,
147, 149, 177, 181, 255
arms sales in, 64-65, 104, 105, 107,
109, 112
bin Laden's role in, 100, 101-6, 110,
143-44, 255, 278
Carter's policy in, 97-98
CIA operations in, 97, 98, 103-4,
105, 106, 107, 108, 110, 147
Cold War and, 97-98, 99, 104, 110,
278
drug trade and, 107-8
mujahideen in, 97-112, 147
Reagan-Bush policy in, 97, 98-99,
101-2, 104, 110-11
Saudi Arabian involvement in,
98-100
Soviet forces in, 95, 97-98, 100, 102,
103-4, 106-7, 110, 143-44, 149,
278
U.S. covert aid in, 15, 58, 77, 83,
97-112
Vietnam War compared with, 98,
108, 109
Age of Sacred Terror; The (Benjamin
and Simon), 174-75, 185, 219,
239
Aguirre, Michael, 124
Ahmed bin Salman bin Abdul Aziz,
Prince, 7, 10, 255-56, 258, 265-68
Aimone, Eugene, 218
Alamoudi, Abdurahman, 205-6
Al-Arian, Abdullah, 206
Al-Arian, Nahla, 206
Al-Arian, Sami, 206-8, 210, 214, 216, 232
Albosta Report, 50
Alexiev, Alex, 204
Al Gama'a al-Islamiya, 104
Alhazmi, Nawaf, 180, 233, 239, 247
Alhazmi, Salem, 231, 248
Alhaznawi, Ahmed, 230
Aljazeera Television, 91, 230, 234, 279
AlJihad movement, 57, 104
Al-Kifah Refugee Center, 147, 150, 204
Allison, Lew, 136
Almidhar, Khalid, 180, 231, 233, 239,
247, 248
Al-Nahyan family, 30n-31n
Al-Najjar, Mazen, 210, 215
Alomari, Abdulaziz, 230, 231, 247
Al Qaeda:
bin Laden as head of, 13, 103, 111,
148-51, 173-74, 178-79, 229-30,
264, 278
Al Qaeda (cont.)
cells operated by, 220, 227, 236
chemical weapons of, 185-87, 210
formation of, 58, 110-11, 205-6
funding of, 13, 111-12, 149, 175,
177-83, 204, 220, 260, 261,
272-74
international network of, 149,
173-74, 221, 227-28
investigation of, 15, 263-69
Saudi connections of, 111, 178-79,
181-82, 200, 233, 247, 263-69,
272-74
September 11 attacks executed by,
227-41, 247-51
terrorist program of, 148-51,
183-86, 207, 213-14, 278-79
training camps of, 16, 150, 171, 173,
219-22, 228, 229, 240-41
U .S. countermeasures against,
219-22, 244
U.S. embassies bombed by ( 1998),
183-86, 188, 198, 201, 228, 239n,
263
Al-Waleed bin Talal, Prince, 166, 200
America I Have Seen, The (Qutb), 93
American Jihad (Emerson), 207
American Muslim Alliance (AMA),
209, 213n, 215
American Muslim Council (AMC),
202, 203, 204, 205, 207, 213n, 214
American Muslim Political Coordina
tion Council (AMPCC), 213,
214-15, 216
Anderson, Frank, 108, 110
Alldreotti, Giulio, 83
Arab American Institute, 202
Arab Americans, 202-3, 209, 252-53
Arabia, the Gulf and the West (Kelly),
90
Arabian American Oil Company
(Aramco), 25-26, 90
Arab-Israeli War (1973), 26, 59
Arafat, Yasir, 234, 242, 244
Arbusto Energy, 70, 101, 115-18, 222
Armey, Dick, 193n, 202
Armstrong, Scott, 60, 61
Ashcroft,John, 13, 233, 240n-41n,
256
Atwan, Abd-al-Bari, 105
Auerbach, Gerry, 55
Aziz, Tariq, 68, 81, 132n
Azzam, Sheikh Abdullah, 93, 94, 102,
103, 105, 106, 147

Ba'arma, Sami, 168
Baer, Robert, 112, 182, 261
Baffert, Bob, 268
Baker, James A., 1, 44-45
Baker, James A., II, 45, 53n
Baker, James A., III:
background of, 33, 44-45, 53
as Carlyle partner, 156, 157, 158n,
161, 162, 163-64, 166, 167, 172,
189, 224
as G. H. W. Bush's campaign man
ager, 46-47, 164, 217
G. H. W. Bush's relationship with,
33, 43, 48, 117, 130, 163, 188, 217
Gulf War strategy and, 133, 135,
141, 145, 163
G. W. Bush's relationship with,
42-47, 77n, 117, 191, 217, 219, 273
Iran-contra affair and, 64
Iraqi restructuring overseen by, 280
Kuwait visited by (1993 ), 163-64
law firm of, 25, 43, 124, 164, 179n,
188, 191n, 199, 200n, 224, 261-62
political tactics of, 45-46, 51, 116
Saddam Hussein as viewed by, 66,
67, 81, 129, 130, 131, 274
Saudi connections of, 5-6, 15,
53-54, 101, 165, 172, 188, 189,
199, 217, 255, 262-63
September 11 attacks and, 247, 249,
255
Texas attorney general race lost by
(1978), 45-46
as White House chief of staff, 51, 57,
99
Baker, James A., IV, 262
Baker Botts, 25, 43, 124, 164, 179n, 188,
191n, 199, 200n, 224, 261-62
Bakhsh, Abdullah Taha, 121, 122, 125,
209
Baldrige, Malcolm, 51
Ball, George, 116
Balz, Dan, 52-53
Bandar bin Sultan bin Abdul Aziz,
Prince;
Afghanistan War and, 98-99
AWACS sale arranged by, 59-61
background of, 3, 4, 59-60, 87
as Carlyle investor, 168
charitable donations by, 178-79,
200, 233, 247, 273-74
Clinton's relationship with,
175n-76n, 219
Freeh's meetings with, 176-77
G. H. W. Bush's relationship with,
7-8, 9, 130-31, 145, 152-53, 188,
217-19, 224, 274
Gulf War and, 133, 134, 139
G. W. Bush's relationship with, 8,
14-17, 234, 241-45, 254-55
high-level contacts of, 7-8, 24,
130-31, 134, 139, 218, 219, 234,
244, 255
hunting trip hosted by, 217-19, 242
intelligence information of, 7, 75-76
Iran-contra affair and, 63-65
Iran-Iraq War and, 71, 75-76
as political strategist, 61-62, 76
Saudi evacuation and, 10-11, 14-16,
256-57
September 11 attacks and, 4-5, 245,
251-55
Westernized lifestyle of, 2-3, 4, 87,
89-90, 152n-53n
Bani-Sadr, Abolhassan, 65n
Bank of Credit and Commerce Inter
national (BCCI), 30-32, 33, 34,
77-79, 80, 108, 109, 118-28, 187,
200
Barak, Ehud, 234
Barnes, Ben, 114-15
Barr, William P., 126
Bartlett, Dan, 248
Basnan, Osama, 179-80, 233
Bath, James R., 19-20, 23-24, 32-34,
65, 101, 114, 116, 118, 198
Bayoumi, Omar al-, 179-80, 233
Baz, Abdul-Aziz bin, 85n
BDM, 162, 168, 172, 200
Bechtel Corp., 22, 166, 167
Becker, Jean, 189
Benevolence International Foundation,
111, 204n
Benjamin, Daniel, 174-75, 176, 185,
186, 219, 239
Bennett, Terry, 23
Bentsen, Lan, 32-33
Bentsen, Lloyd, 32-33, 41
Bergen, Peter, 147-48
Berger, Sandy, 176, 183, 220, 221, 239,
240
Beshi, Muhammad Sa ad al-, 86n
Bhutto, Benazir, 111, 173
bin Laden, Abdullah, 6, 94, 105, 178-79
bin Laden, Bakr, 150
bin Laden, Carmen, 178
bin Laden, Kameron, 6
bin Laden, Mahrous, 14, 94-96
bin Laden, Mohammed, 6, 90-91, 100,
101, 229-30
bin Laden, Mohammed Awad, 20,
21-22
bin Laden, Nawaf, 6
bin Laden, Omar, 178-79
bin Laden, Osama;
in Afghanistan, 92n, 100, 101-6, 110,
143-44, 175, 183, 185, 188, 207,
219-22, 228, 229-30, 240-41,
255, 278
assassination attempt against, 151
education of, 91-93
family connections of, 2, 5, 13-14,
20n, 90-93, 178-79, 188-89,
229-30, 253-59, 260
intelligence on, 237-41
as Islamic militant, 55, 77, 88,
90-93, 94, 100, 110, 143-46,
149, 184-85
personality of, 91-92, 105-6,
148n, 149
Saddam Hussein compared with,
251, 277, 280
as Saudi national, 5, 143-44, 149,
150-51, 174-75, 180-83, 188,
252, 279
September 11 attacks planned by, 5,
13-14, 227-41
in Sudan, 149, 174-75, 207
terrorist activities of, 13, 103, 111,
148-51, 171-75, 178-79, 183-86,
189, 229-30, 264, 278
U.S. countermeasures against,
185-86, 214, 219-22, 239-41,
251, 277, 280
wealth of, 13, 103, 149, 151, 173-74
bin Laden, Salem, 20-21, 23-24, 26,
32-34, 52n, 55, 65n, 92, 101, 122
bin Laden, Sana, 6
bin Laden, Shafig, 247, 249
bin Laden, Wafah, 6
bin Laden family;
airline interests of, 23, 34, 52n,
54-55, 61
bin Laden family (cont.)
Bush family and, 5-6, 101-2
charitable organizations of, 178-79
construction business of, 2, 5,
21-22, 96, 173n
House of Saud's relationship with,
2, 5, 6, 21-22, 94-96, 100-101,
171-72, 175
Islamic fundamentalists in, 94-96
rise to power of, 21-24
U.S. evacuation of, 2, 8-16, 253-59,
260, 269
wealth of, 5-6, 96, 167, 178-79
Bin Laden (Robinson), 92
Bin Laden: The Man Who Declared
War on America (Bodansky), 182
Binladin, Khalil, 6, 10, 14, 258
bin Mahfouz, Abdulrahman, 168, 178
bin Mahfouz, Khalid, 20-21, 23-24,
26, 31, 32-35, 53-54, 78, 101,
112, 118, 119-22, 126-27, 128,
168, 177-78, 183, 187, 189,
198-99
bin Mahfouz, Salem, 21, 22-23
bin Mahfouz, Sultan, 168
Bodansky, Yossef, 182, 275
Bond, Rich, 46
Boren, David, 250
Breeden, Richard, 124
Brender, Mark, 140
Breslin, Jimmy, 268
Brown, Elizabeth Lee, 9
Brown, Laura, 248n
Brzezinski, Zbigniew, 97-98, 110
Buckingham, Virginia, 12
Bucklev, WilJiam, 71
Burkett, Bi1l, 115n
Burson-Marsteller, 4-5, 252
Bush, Barbara, 37, 40n, 43, 145, 188,
200, 274
Bush, Dorothy, 145
Bush, Dorothy Walker, 40n, 11, 39-40
Bush, George H. W., 39-40
Afghanistan War and, 101-2, 106,
110-11, 278
ambition of, 42, 45, 47-48, 69-70,
72-73, 76-77
anticommunism of, 106-7
campaign finances of, 42, 43n, 120,
123n
as Carlyle senior adviser, 156, 157,
158n, 164-65, 166, 167, 189
charities supported by, 199-200
as China chief liaison officer, 33, 41,
49
as CIA director, 33, 41, 42, 43, 49,
50, 64, 74, 235
as congressman, 40-41, 45
as conservative, 69, 113, 192-93
Gulf War strategy of, 16, 132-42,
212, 217
G. W. Bush compared with, 113-14,
254
G. W. Bush's presidential election
and, 217-19, 223
G. W. Bush's relationship with, 116,
117-18, 122, 124-25, 128, 191,
242, 273, 274
high-level contacts of, 33, 35-36,
42-43, 47-50, 52, 69-70, 71,
72-75
on hunting trip, 217-19, 242
Iran-contra affair and, 64, 72-76
Israel as viewed by, 202
Kuwait visited by, 163-64
media coverage of, 40, 41n, 42n, 44,
45, 46-48, 74, 76, 130, 145,
209-10, 236
Middle East visited by, 74-76
Muslim-American support for, 202,
206n
as Nixon loyalist, 33, 35, 36, 40-41,
160
as oil executive, 16, 35-40, 42-43,
48, 132-33, 139, 222
Pakistan visited by, 106
patrician background of, 35-38, 48,
73, 113
political career of, 40-51, 69-70,
72-73, 76-77
in presidential campaign of 1980,
46-47, 123n, 164
in presidential campaign of 1988,
76-77, 106-7, 120, 123n, 160,
192-93, 210
in presidential campaign of 1992,
125, 151-52, 175n-76n, 217
Prince Bandar's relationship with,
7-8, 9, 130-31, 145, 152-53, 188,
217-19, 224, 274
Reagan's relationship with, 46-47,
69, 76-77, 120
as RNC chairman, 33, 41, 42, 49,
160
Saddam Hussein as viewed by,
15-16, 66, 67, 69, 70, 74, 81-82,
129-35, 140-42, 194, 195, 274
Saudi connections of, 5-8, 9, 16, 53,
59, 101-2, 130-31, 145, 152-53,
165, 167, 172, 175, 176-77,
188-89, 198, 217-19, 224,
235-36, 255, 274
as UN ambassador, 33, 41, 49, 70
as vice president, 15, 51, 57, 69-70,
101-2, 116, 117, 120, 130
in vice presidential campaign of
1980, 47-51, 58
in vice presidential campaign of
1984, 70, 210
wealth of, 39, 40
Yeltsin meeting of, 14
Bush, George W., 113-15, 192-98,
209
as Baker Botts employee, 43
BCCI scandal and, 118-28
bin Laden as viewed by, 277
as born-again Christian, 113,
192-94, 198, 237
campaign finances of, 188, 191, 210,
218, 222-23
on Carlyle board of directors, 156,
157, 160
congressional race lost by, 45, 116
as conservative, 113-14, 115,
192-95, 198, 237
counterterrorism measures of,
227-41
Crawford, Tex., ranch of, 113-14,
236-37
diary of, 251
education of, 113, 114, 115
energy policy of, 218, 222-23,
225-26, 237, 280-81
foreign policy of, 211-12, 235,
237-39
G. H. w. Bush compared with,
113-14, 254
G. H. W. Bush's relationship with,
116, 117-18, 122, 124-25, 128,
191, 242, 273, 274
as governor of Texas, 165n, 188, 197
gubernatorial campaign of, 127,
161n
insider trading charge against,
123-24, 225, 262
Iraq War strategy of, 79, 274-77
media coverage of, 120-21, 127-28,
196-98, 205, 236-37, 260
Middle East policy of, 223, 234-36,
237, 241-45
Muslim-American support for,
201-16, 223, 233
as oil executive, 16, 36, 70, 112,
115-28, 160, 198, 199, 200, 202,
222, 225, 262
as president, 211n, 218, 221-22,
234-38, 273-77
in presidential campaign of 2000,
188, 191-98, 201-19, 220, 222-23
in presidential campaign of 2004,
281
Prince Bandar's relationship with, 8,
14-17, 234, 241-45, 254-55,
273-74
Saddam Hussein as viewed by, 212,
226, 274-77
Saudi connections of, 8, 14-17, 101,
112, 118-28, 198-201, 241-45,
254-55, 263, 273-74, 279-81
September 11 attacks and, 247-51,
254-55
in Texas Air National Guard, 33,
114-15, 198
transition team of, 218, 221-22
in war on terrorism, 11, 214, 219-22,
256, 260, 262, 277
Bush, Jeb, 165n, 194
Bush, Jonathan, 116
Bush, Laura, 206, 273-74
Bush, Marvin, 163-64, 249
Bush, Neil Mallon, 38, 163-64, 262n
Bush, Prescott, Sr., 37, 38, 39-40, 42, 45
Bush family, 15, 165n
bin Laden family and, 5-6, 101-2
charities supported by, 199-200
House of Saud's relationship with,
15-17, 19, 35-36, 53, 118-28,
165-66, 188-89, 198-201, 209,
222-23, 234-36, 247-51, 261-63,
272-73, 280-81
oil interests of, 115-28

Callaghan, James, 32
Cannistraro, Vincent, 14, 177-78, 261
Card, Andrew, 249
Carey, Caroline, 92
Carlucci, Frank, 156, 161-62, 163, 166,
168, 169, 224, 247
Carlyle Group, 6, 15, 16, 153, 155-69,
171, 189, 198, 199, 200, 224, 225,
247, 249, 273, 281
Carter, Billy, 50
Carter, Jimmy, 29, 32, 46, 47, 50-52, 58,
65n, 77, 83, 97-98, 120, 155, 157
Casey, William J.;
Afghanistan War and, 98, 104, 107,
108
BCCI connections of, 77-78
as CIA director, 7, 50, 51, 61, 64, 67,
69, 71, 98, 104, 107, 108
G. H. W. Bush's relationship with,
67, 69, 72-73, 74, 75
Caulkins, John E., 42
Cell, The (Miller, Stone and Mitchell),
148
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 34,
61, 95n, 185
Bush as director of, 33, 41, 42, 43,
49, 50, 64, 74, 235
Casey as director of, 7, 50, 51, 61,
64, 67, 69, 71, 98, 104, 107, 108
counterterrorism measures of, 173,
174, 229, 239, 240-41
inte1ligence assessments by, 132,
235, 237-38
Iraqi intelligence of, 65-66, 71,
75-76, 81, 275-77
Saudi cooperation with, 61, 71,
75-76
September 11 attacks and, 16, 227 ,
228-29, 239
Zubaydah interrogated by, 264-66
Chambers, John, 223n
Chancellor, Steven, 218, 222-23
Charen, Mona, 205
Charlie Wilson's War (Crile), 99
Cheney, Dick:
as Ha1Jiburton CEO, 38n, 191, 199,
200, 225-26
as PNAC member, 194, 211n
Prince Bandar's relationship with,
130, 134, 139, 218
Saddam Hussein as viewed by,
79-80, 212n
as secretary of defense, 132, 134,
139, 141
as vice president, 217, 218, 222,
225-26, 244, 251, 253, 260, 275
Cheney, Lynn, 217
Chevrette, Peggy, 229
China, 33, 41, 106, 221, 280
Churchill, Winston S., 106, 152
Citigroup, 5, 23, 166
Clark, Suzanne, 248n
Clarke, Richard, 174, 181, 183, 214,
219-22, 227, 228-29, 236, 238,
239-41, 244, 250, 251, 253-54,
260, 272-73, 276, 280
Clifford, Clark, 29, 32, 36, 52, 112, 120,
125
Clinton, Bill:
bin Laden's facilities attacked by,
185-86, 214
counterterrorism measures of,
172-77, 182-88, 189, 214,
219-22, 228, 229, 239
cruise missile attacks authorized by,
185-87
in Lewinsky affair, 186-88, 192
media coverage of, 186-88, 236
Middle East policy of, 234
Muslim-American support for, 202,
206n
as president, 4, 14-15, 120, 141,
151-52, 192
in presidential campaign of 1992,
151-52, 175n-76n
in presidential campaign of 1996,
202
Saddam Hussein as viewed by, 194,
195, 212, 227n
Saudi relationships of, 175n-76n,
219, 263
Clinton, Hillary Rodham, 14-15, 209
Clough, Susan, 50
Coats, Dan, 186
Cold War, 14, 57, 58-59, 97-98, 99, 104,
110, 204, 278
Cole, USS, attack on, 14, 213-14, 219,
220, 227 , 228, 229, 238, 239, 264,
273
Commanders, The (Woodward), 131
Conason, Joe, 198
Connally, John, 19, 33-35, 36, 53
Conway, William, 162-63
Cooper, Casey, 179n
Coordinating Subgroup (CSG), 174,
228-29
Cordesman, Tony, 276
Cortez, Brian, 1-2
Council on American-Islamic Relations
(CAIR), 201n, 203, 204, 213n
Cressey, Roger, 220, 227
Crile, George, 99
Custer, George, 41

D'Aneillo, Dan, 162-63
Dar es Salaam embassy bombing
(1998), 183-86, 188, 198, 201,
228, 239n, 263
Darman, Richard, 156, 162, 164, 166,
224
Davis, Tom, 216
Defense Department, U.S., 81, 131
defense industry, 15, 161-65, 223, 224
Defense Intelligence Agency, 66-67, 81,
265n
"Defense Planning Guidance" (Wol
fowitz and Libby), 141-42, 194
DeLay, Tom, 193n, 202
Democratic Party, 50-51, 114, 192,
209-13, 218
Diaz Serrano, Jorge, 48n
Didion,Joan, 193
Dolan, Charles, 223n
Doniger, David, 222n
Doty, James, 124, 262
Draper, William, 70, 115
Dukakis, Michael, 76-77, 106, 107
Dulles, Allen, 50

Eagleburger, Lawrence, 165n
Egan, Richard, 223n
Egypt, 58, 65, 74, 75, 173, 181
Egyptian embassy bombing (1995), 173
Ehrlichman, John, 41
Eldred, Ken, 223n
elections, U.S.:
of 1964, 45, 69n
of 1968, 40-41
of 1970, 41, 42, 45
of 1972, 41
of 1976, 46
of 1978, 45
of 1980, 35, 46-51, 58, 123n, 164
of 1984, 70, 210
of 1988, 32n, 76-77, 106-7 , 120,
123n, 160, 192-93, 210
of 1992, 125, 151-52, 175n-76n, 217
of 1996, 202
of 2000, 188, 191-98, 201-19, 220,
222-23
of 2004, 281
Elhussein, Mustafa, 205
El-Shifa pharmaceutical factory,
185-87, 210
Emerson, Steven, 207
Englehardt, Irl, 218, 222-23
Enroll Corp., 163-64, 188, 191n, 222
Esplnoza, Victor, 267
Export/Import Bank, 36, 70, 81-82, 116
ExxollMobil, 25, 43, 225, 261n, 263

Fadl, Jamal Ahmed al-, 185-86
Fadlallah, Sheikh, 71
Fahd, king of Saudi Arabia, 3, 7, 23, 24,
61, 64, 65n, 87, 89n, 98, 117,
130-31, 133-34, 144, 146, 152,
168, 176n, 182, 200, 219, 253,
255, 268
Fahd bin Turki bin Saud al-Kabir,
Prince, 266, 268-69
Faisal, king of Saudi Arabia, 89-90,
100, 101
Farish, Sarah, 43n
Farish, William, Jr., 43
Farmer, Dick, 223n
Fassi, Mohammed al-, 24
Federal Aviation Administration
(FAA), 8-9, 12, 229, 230, 248n,
257, 259
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI):
counterterrorism measures of, 12,
13, 147, 173, 176-77, 179,
232-33, 238-39, 240, 247-48,
253, 256
Muslim Americans investigated by,
205, 206
Saudi evacuation and, 8, 10-11, 12,
253-54, 256-57, 258, 259, 269
September 11 attacks and, 227-28,
238-39
First Son (Mi11utaglio), 40n, 41n
Fitzwater, Marlin, 125
Fleischer, Ari, 237-38, 249-50, 264, 275
Foley, Tom, 164-65
Ford, Gerald R., 33, 41, 45, 46, 47, 67
Freeh, Louis, 176-77
Freeman, Charles, 6
Friedman, Alan, 67
Friedman, Robert I., 146-47
Frum, David, 208
Fulbright & Jaworski, 25, 42n, 43
Fuller, Craig, 136
Fuller, Graham, 71-72
Fyfield-Shayler, Brian, 92n

Gaffney, Frank, 162, 205, 206
Galbraith, Peter W., 79-80
Galster, Steve, 108
Gause, F. Gregory, III, 88
George Bush: The Life of a Lone Star
Yankee (Parmet), 40
George H. W. Bush Presidential
Library and Museum, 199n, 200
Gingrich, Newt, 202
Girardet, Edward, 92n, 108
Giuliani, Rudy, 166n
Glaspie, April, 132
Gleason, Jack A., 42
Global Relief Foundation, 204n
Golden Chain, 111-12
Goldman Sachs, 5, 159, 163
Goldwater, Barry, 69n
Goolsby, George, 261n
Gorbachev, Mikhail, 106, 107, 157
Gore, Al, 2, 191 n, 192, 202, 209-13, 217
Graham, Bob, 277
Graham, Phil, 39
Gramm, Phil, 175
Gray, Robert, 136
Grossi, Dan, 8-10, 255
Gulf War, 16, 73n, 129-46, 169, 183,
212, 217
bin Laden's views on, 143-46
CIA assessments of, 132
Iraqi forces in, 139-40
Iraq War compared with, 140
Islamic fundamentalism and, 133-34
media coverage of, 135-40
oil as issue in, 132-33, 135
propaganda in, 137-39
satellite intelligence in, 134, 139-40
Saudi role in, 16, 89n, 132, 133-34,
139, 143-46, 167, 183, 200-201
UN role in, 133, 141
U.S. public opinion on, 135-39, 148

Haass, Richard, 134
Habiby, Armond, 99-100
Hadley, Stephen J ., 220, 228
Haifa bint Faisal, Princess, 145, 179-80,
233, 247, 273-74
Haig, Alexander, 63, 65n, 67
hajj, 21-22, 85, 92, 95, 145
Halabja chemical attack (1988), 79,
80n-81n
Halliburton Corp., 38n, 43, 191, 199,
200, 222, 225-26
Hamas, 58, 104, 183, 205-6
Hamdi, Tarik, 307
Hanjour, Hani, 229, 247-48
Harken Energy, 16, 112, 117-28, 160,
199, 200, 209, 222, 225, 262,
280
Hart, Gary, 227-28
Hart, Steve, 48n-49n
Hartung, William, 261
Hathout, Maher, 209
He1ler, Jean, 140
Hermann, Daniel, 218
Hersh, Seymour, 63, 87, 163, 276
Hezbollah, 14, 58, 71, 72, 205-6, 278
Hi1l, Charles, 70
Hill & Knowlton, 135-36, 157
Hiltermann, Joost R., 79n
Hines, Gerald, 27, 53
Hitchens, Christopher, 186
Holy Land Foundation for Relief and
Development, 183, 187n, 204n,
210n, 214
Holy War, Inc. (Berger), 147-48
House of Saud, The (Aburish), 83n,
166n
Howard, Dee, 23
Hughes, Karen, 127
Hunt, Nelson Bunker, 35
Hunt, Wi1liam Herbert, 35
Hussein, Saddam, 65-66, 77, 78-79,
129-42, 143, 211, 212
arms deals of, 65, 73-82
bin Laden compared with, 251 , 277 ,
280
biological weapons of, 15-16, 68-69,
81, 131, 143-44
capture of, 277, 278, 279
chemical weapons of, 15-16, 66-68,
70, 72, 79-81, 130-31, 134, 140,
143-44
genocide committed by, 79,
80n-81n, 129, 134, 136-39
Islamic fundamentalism and, 129,
132
Kuwait invaded by, 132-42
military intelligence provided to,
75-76, 131
nuclear weapons program of, 15-16,
67, 80, 81-82, 131, 276-77
September 11 attacks and, 251,
277
U.S. support for, 62, 65-70, 73-82,
83, 116n, 129-33, 134, 140-41,
226
Hussein I, king of Jordan, 43, 75, 100

Iannarelli, John, 10, 254
Ibrahim, Youssef, 278, 279, 280
Idriss, Saleh, 186-87, 210
Immigration and Naturalization Ser
vice (INS), 239, 259
"incubator story," 137-39
Institute of Islamic and Arabic Sci
ences, 205, 206n
International Derrick and Equipment
Company (IDECO), 38
International Islamic Relief Organiza
tion, 177-78, 179, 206n
Illvestcorp, 28, 121
Iran:
arms-for-hostages deal with, 72-76
Islamic revolution in, 49, 50-52, 58,
89-90, 280
oil industry of, 75, 225
Shiite fundamentalism in, 66, 71
trade sanctions against, 223, 225
U.S. relations with, 4, 58-59, 72, 76,
78-79, 223, 225
Iran-contra affair, 15, 34, 62-65, 72-76,
78-79, 161, 275
Iranian hostage crisis, 49, 50-52, 58,
65n
Iran-Iraq War, 58, 62-63, 65-82, 112
Iraq:
agricultural subsidies for, 129, 131
air force of, 73-74, 75
army of, 82, 134, 139-40
CIA intelligence on, 65-66, 71,
75-76, 81, 275-77
foreign debt of, 280
Kurdish population of, 79-80, 134
oil industry of, 66, 70, 132-33, 225,
277
trade sanctions against, 223, 225,
226
U.S. relations with, 4, 58, 65-82,
129-31, 223, 225, 226
weapons of mass destruction in,
15-16, 275, 276-77
Iraq War, 16, 79, 80n, 140, 251, 274-79
Isikoff, Michael, 179
Islam;
anti-Americanism in, 83, 93-94,
133-34, 135, 143-46, 205
anti-Semitism in, 151, 204, 209, 216,
263
basic tenets of, 4, 13, 21-22, 84-86,
88, 92, 95, 111, 145
clerics of, 85-86, 88, 90, 98, 134, 144,
253, 279
fundamentalism in, 2-3, 14, 24, 54,
57-58, 62, 66, 71, 72, 77, 82, 88,
94-96, 129, 132, 133-34, 143-46,
201-16
holy sites of, 3, 21-22, 91, 95, 96, 184
laws of, 85-86, 89
Shiite, 57, 58, 66, 71, 72, 82, 274
Sunni, 83, 84
U.S. followers of, 201-16
Wahhabi, 3, 54, 83-86, 88, 89, 90,
109, 152n, 171, 172, 203, 220,
252, 253
Westernization and, 88-90, 93
women in, 28, 85-86, 89, 93, 135
Islamic al-Shamal Bank, 149
Islamic Group, 148
Islamic Institute, 206, 209
Islamic Jihad, 206, 208, 21 On-11 n
Islamic Salvation Front, 104
Israel;
arms sales by, 62, 63, 65n, 72
Lebanon invaded by, 57-58
Muslim-American opposition to,
204, 206, 207, 209
Saddam Hussein as threat to, 67,
130-31
Saudi opposition to, 54, 59, 71,
183n, 241-45
U.S. support for, 3, 27, 54, 59, 62,
74, 129, 134, 146, 194, 202, 209,
234-36, 241-45, 252
Ivins, Molly, 48

Jackson, Jesse, 32
Jaworski, Leon, 42n
Jerusalem, 91, 146, 184, 234
jihad, 3, 88, 90, 94, 100, 104-5, 111,
143, 147, 149, 183, 207, 221,
278-79
Johnson, Lyndon B., 44
Johnson, Richard, 224
Jones, Jerry, 3, 152n-53n
Jordan, 27-28, 66, 74, 75
Jordan, Robert, 124, 224-25, 262-63
Journeys with George, 196
Jubeir, Nail al-, 180, 254-55, 269
Justice Department, U.S., 50-51, 126,
173, 233, 240n-41n, 259

Kahane, Meir, 146-48, 150
Kahn, Marty, 115
Kaiser, Robert G., 243
Kalmbach, Herbert W., 42
Kamel, Saleh, 112
Keel, Alton, 165n
Kelly, Brenna, 9
Kelly, J. B., 90
Kendrick, Phil, 118
Kennedy, John F., 32n, 35, 59n, 264n
Kerrick, Donald, 228
Khalid bin Sultan, Prince, 172
Khalifa, Mohammed Jamal, 14, 178
Khalifa, Sheikh Khalifa bin Salman al-,
122
Khalilzad, Zalmay, 211n
Khani, Abbas, 80n
Khashoggi, Adnan, 24, 31, 100-101
Khobar Towers bombing (1996),
173-74, 176-77, 182, 201
Khomeini, Ayatollah Ruholla, 57, 62,
66, 135
Kinton, Tom, 12
Kissinger, Henry, 70, 99, 125n, 163,
164
Knight, Bobby, 217-18
Koran, 4, 22, 85, 88, 111
Krugman, Paul, 118
Kurtz, Bill, 233
Kuwait, 62, 65, 66, 81, 132-42, 143,
146, 163-64, 168

LaHaye, Tim, 193-94
Lake, Anthony, 239
Lake, James A., 125
Lance, Bert, 29-32, 36, 112, 120
Lantos, Tom, 134, 137
Lay, Kenneth, 223n
Lebanon, 57-58, 72
Lehrer, Jim, 212
Lehrman, Lewis, 116
Leverett, Flynt, 275, 276
Levitt, Arthur, 164-65
Lewin, Daniel, 248n
Lewillsky, Monica, 186-88, 192
Lewis, Charles, 273
Lewis, Michael, 157n
Libby, I. Lewis, 141-42, 194, 222
Lieberman, Joe, 202
Liedtke, Hugh, 38, 40, 42, 43
Liedtke, William, 42
Limbaugh, Rush, 186
Loewer, Deborah, 249
Loftus, John, 102
Looking Forward (G. H. W. Bush), 38
Lugar, Richard, 75

MacArthur, John R., 136, 138-39
Macomber, John, 116
Mahfouz, Naguib, 93
Main Bank of Houston, 34-35, 53
Major, John, 156, 157, 164, 167
Maktab al-Khidamat (MAK), 102, 105,
106
Malek, Fred, 160, 161, 165n, 166
Mallon, Neil, 38
Mankiewicz, Frank, 136
Mann, Hillary, 275, 276
Man to See, The (Thomas), 29
Marenches, Alexandre de, 49n, 73
Martin, David, 251
Martin, John, 138
Martin, John L., 259, 269
Massoud, Rihab, 10
Matar, Mohammed, 138
McCain, John, 195-96
McFarlane, Robert "Bud," 62, 63-64,
76
McHugh, R. Kevin, 210n-11n
McHugh, Suzanne, 49n
McMahon, John N., 104, 109
Mecca, 3, 14, 21-22, 85-86, 91, 95-96,
144, 146, 184
Mecca Affair, 95-96, 99, 162n, 171
Medina, 3, 21-22, 91, 144, 146, 184
Megally, Hanny, 86
Meyer, Eugene, 39
Middle East:
Cold War and, 14, 57, 58-59, 97-98,
99, 104, 110, 204, 278
peace process in, 129, 241-45, 254,
274-75
Soviet influence in, 65-66
U.S. policies on, 3-4, 7-8, 57-59, 61,
62-63, 70, 74, 76, 77, 125, 129,
193-95, 211-12, 223, 234-36,
241-45, 274
see also specific countries
Miles, Steven, 262
Miller, Ben, 275-76
Miller, John, 148
Minutaglio, Bill, 40n, 41n
Mir, Mushaf Ali, 269n
Mitchell, Chris, 148
Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, shah of Iran,
89-90
Mondale, Walter, 47, 51
Moqed, Majed, 247
Morgenthau, Robert, 126-27
Moro Liberation Front, 104-5
Mosbacher, Robert, 42, 43, 131
Moynihan, Daniel Patrick, 135
Mubarak, Hosni, 75, 150, 178
Mueller, Robert, 126, 256
Murawiec, Laurent, 274
Murchinson, Clint, 35
Muslim Americans, 201-16
Muslim Brotherhood, 14, 58, 88, 94-96,
149, 183
Muslim Public Affairs Council
(MPAC), 203, 209, 213n
Muwafaq (Blessed Relief) Foundation,
178, 183
Myers, Richard, 240, 241, 251

Nader, Ralph, 215
Nahayan, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan al-,
34
Nairobi embassy bombing (1998),
183-86, 188, 198, 201, 228, 239n,
263
Najam, Adil, 22
Najim, Ismail, 150
Nasser, Gamal Abdel, 59n
National Bank of Georgia (NBG),
29-32
National Commercial Bank of Saudi
Arabia (NCB ), 20, 22-23, 112,
120, 127, 177-78, 181, 183, 187,
188
National Security Agency (NSA), 230,
250
National Security Council (NSC), 51,
62, 63-64, 72, 173, 174, 219-22,
226, 227, 228-29, 275-76
Nayef bin Abdul Aziz, Prince, 87, 89n,
182-83, 263, 279
Nayirah (Kuwaiti witness), 137-39
neoconservatives, 194-95, 198, 242, 275
Newsweek, 4, 95n, 139, 179, 207, 233,
273, 274
New Yorker, 59-60, 62n, 87, 145, 163,
177, 186, 230, 234, 274, 276
New York Times, 44, 45, 53, 63, 74, 89,
118, 137, 166, 186, 235, 256, 267,
279
Nir, Amiram, 74
Nixon, Richard M., 33, 34, 35, 36,
40-42, 160
Noonan, Peggy, 44
Noriega, Manuel, 49
Norquist, Grover, 201-2, 204, 205, 206,
208, 215
Norris, Edward, 148
Norris, Stephen, 165n
North, Oliver, 34, 62, 76, 193n
Northern Alliance, 221, 240
Nosair, El Sayed, 147, 148, 150
Numeiry, Jaafar, 71

Obaid, Nawaf, 28, 121, 180
oil industry, 11, 15, 25-27, 38-39,
122-23, 132-33, 202, 225-26
government regulation and, 39, 43,
121-22
price of, 3-4, 11, 27-28, 59, 66, 77 ,
79, 116-19
U.S.-Saudi relations and, 3-4, 26, 59,
62, 83, 242-45, 262-64
O'Neill, Paul, 125n, 226, 240, 260
Operation Townhouse, 42, 49
Organization of Petroleum Exporting
Countries (OPEC), 26, 59, 262
Othman, Talat, 125, 208-9
Ottaway, David B., 243

Pakistan, 30n-31n, 100, 106, 149, 171,
173, 263-64, 269n
Palestinians, 91, 94, 146, 166n, 183n,
208, 209, 210n-11n, 234-36,
241-45
Parmet, Herbert S., 40
Parry, Robert, 65n
Pelosi, Alexandra, 196, 197
Percy, Charles, 51-52
Perez, Manuel, 8, 9, 255
Perforaciones Marinas del Golfo (Per
margo), 48n-49n
Perle, Richard, 129-30, 194-95, 274
Petzinger, Thomas, 120-21
Pharaon, Ghaith, 31, 34, 35, 53, 78
Philby, Jack, 26n
Philippines, 14, 104-5, 220
Politics of Diplomacy, The (Baker), 47n,
129
Pollack, Kenneth, 276
Popular Committee for Assisting the
Palestinian Mujahideen, 183n
Posner, Gerald, 264-69
Powell, Colin:
Prince Bandar's relationship with, 7,
130, 134, 218, 234, 244, 255
Saddam Hussein as viewed by,
79-80, 226
as secretary of state, 231, 234, 244,
251, 253, 254n, 255, 260
Predator aerial vehicle, 229, 240, 241
Project for a New American Century
(PNAC), 194-95, 211, 212, 226,
251

Qaddafi, Muammar, 206n
Qalamnevis, Hadi, 80n
Qasim, Abd al-Karim, 65
Quasha, Alan, 118
Quayle, Dan, 32n, 137, 210
Qutb, Sayyid, 93-94, 179

racial profiling, 210, 212-13, 214, 233
Rafiqdust, Mohsen, 80n
Rather, Dan, 186
Reagan, Nancy, 51
Reagan, Ronald, 4, 7, 16, 52, 57, 98
anticommunism of, 107
counterterrorism policy of, 72, 76
G. H. W. Bush's relationship with,
46-47, 69, 76-77, 120
in Iran-contra affair, 64, 161
Middle East policies of, 62-63, 70
in presidential campaign of 1980,
46-47, 48, 51, 58
in presidential campaign of 1984, 70,
210
Saddam Hussein and, 80, 82, 133, 134
Saudi connections of, 59
Reno, Janet, 211n
Republican National Committee
(RNC), 33, 41, 42, 46, 49, 160
Republican Party, 15, 33, 36, 39, 41, 42,
43n, 46, 47, 49, 50-51, 113, 160,
175, 191, 201-2, 208-13, 215-16,
217, 218, 221, 223
Revell, Oliver "Buck," 207
Reynolds, Russe1l, 116
Rice, Condoleezza, 7, 191, 199, 220-22,
227, 228, 238, 240-41, 242, 243,
244, 251, 253, 274
Rice, Wi1liam Marsh, 45
Richards, Ann, 114, 127
Richardson, Sid, 35
Rintawi, Ureib Al-, 80n-81n
Rise, Corruption and Coming Fall of
the House ofSaud, The (Abur-
ish), 86
Riyadh, 25, 86, 168, 171-73, 175-76,
181, 182, 228, 279
bombings of, 171-73, 175-76, 181,
182, 228, 279
Robertson, James, 180
Robinson, Adam (pseud.), 92-93
Rockefeller, Nelson, 43, 69n
Rogers, Ed, 125
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 3
Rove, Karl, 41n, 188, 192, 197-98, 209,
222, 248
Rubenstein, David, 155-60, 161,
162-63, 165, 167
Rubin, Robert, 239
Rudman, Warren, 227-28
Rumsfeld, Donald, 161, 218, 253
Iraq War and, 251, 276
as PNAC member, 194, 211n
Saddam Hussein's meeting with,
67-68, 226
as secretary of defense, 67-68, 191,
194, 222, 240, 251, 264, 276
Rupp, Heinrich, 52n

Sabah, Mishal al-, 249n
Sabah, Saud Nasir al-, 138-39
Sabah family, al-, 135, 164, 249n
Sadat, Allwar, 57, 147
Saeed, Agha, 214-15, 216
Saffuri, Khaled, 202, 209
Saghiya, Hazem, 81n
Salameh, Mohammed, 150
Salem, George, 187n, 210, 213
Salman bin Abdul Aziz, Prince, 103,
1 S2, 1 S3n, 255
Salter, Wayne, 197
Saud, House of, 83-96, 144
Afghanistan War and, 98-100
Al Qaeda connections of, 111,
17S-79, 181-S2, 200, 233, 247,
263-69, 272-74
BCCI scandal and, 78-79
bin Laden family's relationship
with, 2, 5, 6, 21-22, 94-96,
100-101, 171-72, 175
Bush family's relationship with,
15-17, 19, 35-36, 53, 118-28,
165-66, 188-89, 198-201, 209,
222-23, 234-36, 247-51, 261-63,
272-73, 280-81
Carlyle Fund used by, 166-69, 171,
200
charitable donations by, 102, 105,
111-12, 125n, 177-81, 183,
187, 198n, 200, 204n, 214, 233,
247
civil lawsuit against, 177-78, 180-81,
272
corruption in, 78-79, 86-88, 95-96
descendants of, 83n, 87, 89n
fundamentalist threat to, 14, 66, 82,
88, 89, 94-96, 99, 133-34,
143-46, 150-51, 171-72, 180-83,
184, 201, 266, 272, 278-80
Gulf War and, 133-34, 139, 143-46,
167
horse racing as pastime of, 7, 10,
252, 255-56, 265, 266-68
Iran-contra affair and, 73-76, 78-79
Iran-Iraq War and, 71, 77-79
military programs of, 27-28, 66,
166-69
oil interests of, 26-27, 42-43, 54, 61,
86-87, 120
Palestinian cause supported by,
234-36
political influence of, 29-36, 52-55,
59, 61-62, 84-87, 122
religious legitimacy of, 3, 24, 27-28,
54, 83, 84-87, 89-90, 95-96,
133-34, 171, 201, 251-52
Saddam Hussein and, 15-16, 77-78,
80, 82, 133-34
September 11 attacks and, 2, 26-27 ,
54, 61, 86-88, 120, 151, 166n,
177-78, 180-81, 263-69, 272-74,
277, 280-81
tribal origins of, 84-87
U.S. evacuation of, 2, 8-16, 253-59,
260, 269
wealth of, 2, 26-29, 54, 61, 86-88,
120, 151, 166-69, 171, 200,
280-81
Western culture and, 2-3, 4, 7, 10,
87, 88-90, 95, 152n-53n, 252,
255-56, 265, 266-68
see also specific family members
Saud, king of Saudi Arabia, 59n, 86,
100n
Saud al-Faisal, Prince, 261
Saudi Arabia:
arms deals of, 4, 24n, 27-28, 59-61,
64-65, 73-74, 166-69
banking interests of, 20, 22-23,
29-32, 34, 52, 119-20
covert operations of, 61, 63-64, 71,
75-76
economy of, 90, 151
holy sites in, 3, 21-22, 91, 95, 96,
184
as Islamic theocracy, 3, 24, 27-28,
54, 84-87, 89, 134, 201, 252
modernization of, 89-90
Muslim-American communities
supported by, 203-4, 216
oil industry of, 2, 3, 11, 15, 25-27,
42-43, 54, 61, 86-87, 90, 120,
225, 226, 242-45, 262-64, 274,
279-80
public beheadings in, 28, 86, 96, 265
terrorist attacks in, 11, 171-73,
175-76, 181, 182, 228, 261,
279-80
tribal allegiances in, 22, 274
U.S. relations with, see U.S.-Saudi
relations
U.S. troops stationed in, 133-34,
143-46, 183, 274, 279-80
Saudi Arabian National Guard
(SANG), 95-96, 162, 168, 171,
181-82 .
Saudi Binladin Group (SBG), 5-6, 20,
21, 61, 91, 96, 101, 103, 112, 149,
150, 173n, 188
Scheer, Robert, 231
Schlesinger, Alvin, 147n
Schwartz, Stephen, 84, 203-4
Schwarzkopf, Norman, 164n, 217, 218
Scowcroft, Brent, 130, 140-41, 217,
218, 219, 235
Second Front (MacArthur), 136
Secord, Richard, 60n
Securities and Exchange Commission
(SEC), 36, 49n, 124, 225, 262
Sedky, Cherif, 53, 121, 168, 178n, 187n,
198n
September 11 attacks, 247-51
aircraft grounded after, 1-2, 8-14,
253-55, 256, 257
September 11 attacks (cont.)
Bush-Saudi connection in, 16-17,
19, 247-51
casualties from, 177-78, 180-81,
250, 252, 272
execution of, 227-41247-251
funding of, 180-81
G. W. Bush's response to, 247-51,
254-55
hijacked planes used in, 1-2, 11-12,
180, 206n, 229, 233, 238, 239
intelligence on, 179, 219-22, 227-41,
247-48, 253
media coverage of, 4-5, 9, 12
official narrative of, 271-81
preparations for, 229-33, 237-39
Saudi evacuation after, 2, 8-16,
253-59, 260, 269
Saudi nationals as terrorists in, 4-5,
7, 12, 15, 180, 231, 247-48, 2, 52,
263
security failures in, 11-12, 22?-41
warnings of, 227-41
Shallah, Ramadan Abdullah, 206-7
Sharon, Ariel, 234, 235, 242, 243
Shelton, Henry, 251
Shultz, George, 62, 64, 68, 70, 72, 76
Siblani, Usama, 213
Signposts Along the Road (Qutb), 94
Simon, Steven, 173, 174-75, 176, 185,
186, 219, 239
Sleeping with the Devil (Baer), 112,
182, 261
Soghanalian, Sarkis, 80
Solarz, Stephen J., 134
Somalia, 149, 150
Soros, George, 117
Soviet Union, 57, 58, 65-66, 139-40, 204
Spectrum 7, 117
Spider's Web (Friedman), 67
Springman, Michael, 109-10
Stanford, Jason, 127
State Department, U.S., 12, 41n, 67,
79n, 81, 109-10, 130, 131, 173,
253-54, 255, 259, 276, 279
Steele, Kathy, 9
Stephens, Jackson, 120
Stockman, David, 164
Stone, Michael, 148
Stone, Robert, Jr., 123n
Strain, Charles, 122
Sudairi, Hassa bint Ahmed al-, 59, 89n
Sudan, 27, 71, 149, 171, 174-75, 185-87,
207
Sultan bin Faisal bin Turki al-Saud,
Prince, 266, 268
Sultan bin Salman bin Abdul Aziz al
Saud, Prince, 3, 59-60, 85n, 89,
143-44, 146, 179, 180-81, 182
Supreme Court, U.S., 215, 217, 220
Suqama, Satam al-, 248n
Sutherland, Thomas, 72

Taliban, 110, 175, 183, 188, 220-21, 228,
231, 240, 261, 266
Teicher, Howard, 62, 67, 69
Tenet, George, 4, 227-28, 236, 240, 241,
250, 251, 253
terrorists, Islamic:
as Afghanistan War combatants,
99-102, 147
charities linked to, 102, 105, 111-12,
125n, 177-81, 183, 187, 198n,
204n, 214, 233
finances of, 78, 128, 173, 188, 201,
220
international networks of, 3,
146-50, 173-74
Muslim-American links to, 201-16
origins of, 57-58, 108-11
Saudi Arabia as target of, 11 ,
171-73, 175-76, 181, 182, 228,
261, 279-80
U.S. as target of, 3, 184-89, 201,
210, 212-13, 219-22, 227-41,
278-81
visas for, 109-10, 231, 247, 248,
260-61
war on, 11, 214, 219-22, 256, 260,
262, 277
see also specific terrorist groups
Texas Commerce Bank, 27, 53
Thomas, Evan, 29
Timmerman, Kenneth, 205, 207
Torricelli, Robert G., 134
Treasury Department, U.S., 173, 178,
204n
Truell, Peter, 120-21
Truman, Harry S., 59n
Tuite, James, 69
Turabi, Hassan al-, 149, 207
Turki bin Faisal al-Saud, Prince, 28-29,
78, 89n, 98, 100, 101, 103, 175n,
180-81, 182
Turner, Stansfield, 50
Turnipseed, William, 115
Two Faces of Islam, The (Schwartz), 84

Ullman, Chris, 162n-63n
Union Bank of Switzerland (UBS),
120-21
United Defense, 159, 162, 169, 224
United Nations, 33, 41, 49, 66, 70, 79n,
106, 133, 149, 189, 227n, 275
United States:
Arab investment in, 28-29, 166-69,
!71, 200
civil liberties in, 13, 210, 212-13,
214, 233
democratic ideals of, 3, 85, 252
economy of, 4, 77, 88, 132-33,
192
as "Great Satan," 83, 93-94, 133-34,
135, 143-46, 205
intelligence assets of, 7, 65-66, 71,
75-76, 81, 104, 131, 132, 134,
139-40, 179, 219-22, 227-41,
247-48, 253, 275-77
Muslim-American population of,
201-16
national security of, 13-14, 109-10,
179, 187, 201, 219-22
oil consumption of, 4, 25, 26-27,
38-39, 90, 132-33, 242-45, 262,
280
oil production of, 25-26, 225-26
in post-Cold War era, 141-42, 161,
224
secular culture of, 93-94
terrorist threat to, 3, 184-89, 201,
210, 212-13, 219-22, 227-41,
278-81
U.S.-Saudi relations;
Cold War and, 58-59, 97-98, 99
economic aspect of, 88, 90, 198-200,
261-63
Gulf War and, 133-34, 143-46,
200-201
Houston-Jeddah connection in,
19-27, 52-53
Iran-contra affair and, 62-65
Iran-Iraq War and, 66
Iraq War and, 274-75, 278-79
Islamic fundamentalism as threat to,
94-96, 143-46, 20!
lobbying in, 52, 59-60, 261-63
Middle East situation and, 129,
241-45, 254, 274-75
military aspect of, 4, 24n, 27-28,
58-62, 64-65, 66, 73-74, 133-34,
166-69
Muslim-American community and,
201-16
oil interests and, 3-4, 26, 59, 62, 83,
242-45, 262-64
political aspect of, 52, 59-60,
130-31, 200-201, 222-23, 261-63
terrorism and, 2, 4-5, 8-17,
171-77, 182-88, 251-69
see also Bush family; Saud,
House of
Uzielli, Philip, 116, 117

Vaughan, Jessica, 231
Veil (Woodward), 71, 108-9
Vickers, Eric, 205
Vietnam War, 33, 41, 63, 77, 95n, 98,
108, 109, 114, 115 .
Vinnell Corporation, 95, 162, 168, 171,
172, 200
Vinson, Elkins and Connolly, 25, 36,
191n
Visa Express, 231, 247, 248, 260-61
Vought Aircraft, 159, 162, 169

Wag the Dog, 186
Wahhab, Ibn Abd al-, 84, 85
Walker, Herbert, 39
Walker, Ray, 45
Wall Street Journal, 6, 33, 42, 120-21,
123n, 127--28, 205, 206n, 225
Walsh, Elsa, 177
Washington Post, 39, 41n, 49n, 52-53,
60, 76, 114, 116, 126, 156-57,
168, 186-87, 224, 228, 236, 237,
238, 243, 244
Watergate scandal, 33, 41-42, 49, 160
Wead, Doug, 192-93
Webster, Wi1liam, 107
Wechsler, Wi1l, 174, 180-81
Weinberger, Caspar, 62, 64, 71, 72, 76,
130
Weir, Benjamin, 72
Weymouth, Lally, 49n
White, Chris, 9
White, Mark, 45-46
White, Thomas, 222
Why America Slept (Posner), 264-69
Wihbey, Paul Michael, 13-14
Williams, Earle, 162
Williams, Edward Bennett, 29, 32
Williams, Kenneth, 232-33
Wilson, Charlie, 98-99
Wolffe, Richard, 196
Wolfowitz, Paul, 129, 134, 141-42,
194-95, 211n, 240
Woodward, Bob, 71, 108-9, 131
Woolsey, James, 20n
World and Islam Enterprise (WISE),
206-7, 210n-21In
World Assembly of Muslim Youth
(WAMY), 94, 178-79
World Trade Center attacks (2001), see
September 11 attacks
World Trade Center bombing (1993),
14, 57n, 102, 148, 149-50, 173,
204, 207
World Transformed, A (G. H. W. Bush
and Scowcroft), 140-41

Yarborough, Ralph, 33
Yeltsin, Boris, 14
Yemen, 21, 22, 27-28, 149, 150, 220
Yeutter, Clayton, 81
Yousef, Ramzi Ahmed, 149-50, 173
Youssef, Fayeza, 138

Zahn, Paula, 172, 269
Zapata Off-Shore Company, 39, 40, 43,
48, 133, 139, 249n
Zapata Petroleum, 38-39, 40, 43
Zawahiri, Ayman al-, 57n, 94, 173
Zia, Mukahil ul-Islam, 103
Zimmerman, Peter, 139, 140
Zoellick, Robert, 222
Zogby, James, 202
Zubaydah, Abu, 238-39, 263-69

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Craig Unger served as the deputy editor of the New York Observer and the editor of Boston Magazine. He has written about the two George Bushes for the New Yorker, Esquire, and Vanity Fair. He lives in New York City.
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Re: House of Bush, House of Saud, by Craig Unger

Postby admin » Wed Nov 27, 2013 5:51 am

PHOTOS

Image
The bin Laden family on a 1971 visit to Falun, Sweden, where the family did business with Volvo. Osama, second from the right, was then about fourteen years old.

Image
The magnificent Grand Mosque in Mecca, which is visited by 2 million Muslim pilgrims during the hajj each year. Renovated by the Saudi Binladin Group, it was also the site of a violent siege by Islamic militants in 1979 that involved Mahrous bin Laden.

Image
In the mid-seventies, Houston businessman James R. Bath represented the interests of Salem bin Laden and Khalid bin Mahfouz. Bath was also friendly with George W. Bush, his father, James Baker, and other prominent Texas politicians.

Image
Shown here during George H. W. Bush's failed 1980 presidential campaign, James Baker and George H. W. Bush had complementary strengths that made them a potent duo. "They're these big, tall, lanky, hot-as-a-pistol guys with ambition so strong it's like a steel rod sticking out of their heads," said speech writer Peggy Noonan. "But they always make a point not to show it. Steel with an overlay of tennis."

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In 1983 and 1984, Donald Rumsfeld served as presidential envoy to Saddam Hussein's Iraq. He privately assured Iraqi leaders that even though the United States was publicly protesting Iraq's use of chemical weapons, America's goal of improving relations with Iraq remained undiminished.

Image
Bin Laden, shown here training in Afghanistan in 2001, in a still taken from a videotape. He was backed by both Saudi Arabia and the United States to lead the "Afghan Arabs" against the Soviets during the eighties.

Image
Prince Bandar was at home in full Arab dress but was also so close to George H. W. Bush that he thought of him as "a buddy." Here he meets with President Bush in 1991 after their Gulf War victory.

Image
A devotee of the Dallas Cowboys, Bandar stirred up controversy with his visits to Texas Stadium to see his friend team owner Jerry Jones, shown here with quarterback Troy Aikman in 1993.

Image
Former prime minister John Major of Great Britain and former president Bush both served the Carlyle Group, the giant private equity firm, in Saudi Arabia. In late January 2000, they met with Saudi businessman Khaled al-Ibrahim, a nephew of King Fahd's, at his palace in Riyadh.

Image
Campaigning in Tampa, Florida, in March 2000, George W. Bush made an aggressive push to win the Muslim-American vote, courting Islamic militants such as Sami Al-Arian, to the right of Bush. Al-Arian, who was allegedly a member of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad, was later arrested on dozens of charges, among them conspiracy to finance terrorist attacks that killed more than a hundred people -- including two Americans.

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Prince Bandar, shown here at the president's ranch in Crawford, Texas, in August 2002. Bandar was not as close with the younger Bush as he was with Bush senior, yet the prince remained very much a friend of the family.

Image
Counterterrorism czar Richard Clarke drew up plans to retaliate for Al Qaeda's October 2000 bombing of the USS Cole, which killed seventeen American sailors, but the Bush administration never acted on them.

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After working for George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush, Richard Clarke resigned as counterterrorism czar in February 2003. "I already don't miss it," he said later. "You know that great feeling you get when you stop banging your head against a wall?"

Image
The attack on New York City's World Trade Center, September 11, 2001.

Image
The passenger list drawn up by the Saudi embassy for the flight out of Lexington, Kentucky, en route to London showed Prince Ahmed bin Salman at the top of the list, which included other high-ranking Saudis.

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Flight attendants remember Prince Ahmed bin Salman boarding the lavishly customized Boeing 727 in Lexington during the White House-sanctioned evacuation of Saudis that began just after 9/11. In May 2002, his racehorse War Emblem won the Kentucky Derby. During a controversial interrogation, an Al Qaeda operative said Ahmed served as an intermediary between Al Qaeda and the House of Saud and knew in advance that Al Qaeda would attack on 9/11. Not long afterward, the prince died mysteriously in Saudi Arabia of a heart attack at the age of forty-three.

Image
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Re: House of Bush, House of Saud, by Craig Unger

Postby admin » Wed Nov 27, 2013 5:54 am

"There is [sic] other forms of racial profiling that goes on in America. Arab Americans are racially profiled in what's called secret evidence. People are stopped, and we got to do something about that."
-- George W. Bush, Oct. 2000
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Re: House of Bush, House of Saud, by Craig Unger

Postby admin » Wed Nov 27, 2013 5:54 am

Specifically, as vice president in the mid-eighties, Bush supported aiding the mujahideen in Afghanistan through the Maktab al-Khidamat (MAK) or Services Offices, which sent money and fighters to the Afghan resistance in Peshawar. "Bush was in charge of the covert operations that supported the MAK," says John Loftus, a Justice Department official in the eighties. "They were essentially hiring a terrorist to fight terrorism." [19]

Cofounded by Osama bin Laden and Abdullah Azzam, the MAK was the precursor to bin Laden's global terrorist network, Al Qaeda. It sent money and fighters to the Afghan resistance in Peshawar, Pakistan, and set up recruitment centers in over fifty countries including Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, and even the United States to bring thousands of warriors to Afghanistan to fight the Soviet Union. [20]The MAK was later linked to the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center in New York through an office in Brooklyn known as the Al-Kifah Refugee Center.
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Re: House of Bush, House of Saud, by Craig Unger

Postby admin » Wed Nov 27, 2013 5:55 am

And so, the United States escalated. By 1987, well into the second term of the Reagan-Bush administration, the United States began to provide the rebels with nearly $700 million in military assistance a year. In addition, the CIA began supplying the mujahideen with intelligence, training, and equipment that allowed them to make scattered strikes against factories, military installations, and storage depots that were actually inside the Soviet Union. They gave the Islamic rebels satellite reconnaissance data, intercepted Soviet intelligence, and provided sniper rifles, timing devices for tons of C-4 explosives for urban sabotage, antitank missiles, and other sophisticated equipment. [32]

Most coveted of all were the Stinger missiles, portable, shoulder-fired antiaircraft guided missiles with infrared seekers for downing low-flying helicopters and planes, [33] missiles so sophisticated that, as one CIA officer put it, "a nearsighted, illiterate Afghan could bring down a few million dollars' worth of Soviet aircraft." [34] With a hit rate of 89 percent, the Stingers downed an average of one plane every day. Soon, the Afghan air force was depleted, and for the Soviets, the cost of the war soared. [35]

Meanwhile, bin Laden built a major arms storage depot, training facility, and medical center for the mujahideen at Khost in eastern Afghanistan. Peshawar became the center of a burgeoning pan Islamic movement. More than twenty-five thousand Islamic militants, from the Palestinians' Hamas, from Egypt's Al Gama'a al-Islamiya and Al Jihad, from Algeria's Islamic Salvation Front, from the Philippines' Moro Liberation Front, from countries all over the world, made the pilgrimage through Peshawar to the jihad. [36]

"You can sit at the Khyber Pass and see every color, every creed, every nationality, pass," a Western diplomat said. "These groups, in their wildest imagination, never would have met if there had been no jihad. For a Moro [iv] to get a Stinger missile! To make contacts with Islamists from North Africa! The United States created a Moscow Central in Peshawar for these groups, and the consequences for all of us are astronomical." [37]

A new network of charities grew into a formidable infrastructure to support the growing pan-Islamic movement. Money flowed into the Services Offices in Peshawar. A new leadership emerged that included Sheikh Azzam and his best friend, the rotund, blind Sheikh Omar from Egypt. CIA forces in Peshawar saw him as a valuable asset, letting pass his militant anti Western sentiments because he was such a powerful force in uniting the mujahideen. [38]
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Re: House of Bush, House of Saud, by Craig Unger

Postby admin » Wed Nov 27, 2013 5:56 am

"The Iron Curtain still stretches from Stettin to Trieste. But it's a rusting curtain. Shafts of light from the Western side, from our side, the free and prosperous side, are piercing the gloom of failure and despair on the other side. The truth is being sought as never before, and the peoples of Eastern Europe, the peoples of the Soviet Union itself, are demanding more freedom, demanding their place in the sun." -- George W. Bush
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Re: House of Bush, House of Saud, by Craig Unger

Postby admin » Wed Nov 27, 2013 5:56 am

"We set up the very system [of Islamist terrorism] we are now trying to dismantle," says a senior investigator who participated in the Senate probe into BCCI.
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Re: House of Bush, House of Saud, by Craig Unger

Postby admin » Wed Nov 27, 2013 5:57 am

Even a decade later one of the principal architects of the policy, Zbigniew Brzezinski, evinced few regrets. "What is most important to the history of the world?" he asked the French weekly the Nouvel Observateur. "The Taliban or the collapse of the Soviet empire? Some stirred-up Moslems or the liberation of Central Europe and the end of the Cold War?" [56]
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Re: House of Bush, House of Saud, by Craig Unger

Postby admin » Wed Nov 27, 2013 5:57 am

Not long after he took office in 1989, President Bush was warned about exactly this possibility by someone in a position to know. Displeased that the president continued to support extremist radical Muslims, Pakistani prime minister Benazir Bhutto let him know about the dangers. Arming the mujahideen might initially have been the right thing, she told Bush. But, she explained, "The extremists so emboldened by the United States during the eighties are now exporting their terrorism to other parts of the world to the extent that they use heroin trafficking to pay for their exploits."

It had gone too far, she said. By aligning the United States with the most extremist mujahideen groups, she told him, "You are creating a veritable Frankenstein." [57]
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